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Sample records for heart rate patterns

  1. Fetal heart rate pattern recognition by the method of auscultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, F C; Pearse, K E; Paul, R H

    1984-09-01

    The thesis that obstetric health care personnel can discriminate characteristics of baseline fetal heart rate (FHR) and FHR patterns by auscultation needs to be tested. For this study, audiotones of the FHR signals were recorded for eight representative FHR patterns. Each recording was for three minutes and included one uterine contraction. Physicians and nurses who use continuous electronic FHR monitoring on a regular basis listened to the eight recordings and attempted to identify the baseline rate, variability, and periodic patterns, and then matched their perceptions with the eight corresponding FHR tracings (not in order). Baseline FHR and FHR without periodic patterns were most frequently identified correctly. Late decelerations with and without good baseline variability were misdiagnosed 18.4 and 33% of the time, respectively. Although the FHR characteristics and periodic patterns were correctly identified most of the time, failure to recognize significant periodic patterns by as many as one-third of the participants is unacceptable in modern obstetrics.

  2. Antepartum sinusoidal and decelerative heart-rate patterns in rh disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.

    1982-01-01

    A review was made of the data on 42 cases of Rh disease that resulted in the birth of a liver infant after 33 weeks' gestation. On 12 occasions, antepartum monitoring of fetal heart rate (FHR) showed a sinusoidal and/or decelerative heart rate pattern. All 12 infants were anemic at birth; only one

  3. Maternal heart rate patterns in the first and second stages of labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, Teelkien R.; Belfort, Michael A.; Kofford, Shalece

    Objective. To analyze typical maternal heart rate (MHR) patterns in the first and second stages of labor. Design. Observational study. Setting. Tertiary care community hospital. Population. Normal term parturients with epidural anesthesia. Methods. Confirmed MHR and uterine activity were

  4. Fetal Heart Rate Pattern Notification Guidelines and Suggested Management Algorithm for Intrapartum Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, Thomas; Zlomke, Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    Context: Numerous randomized controlled trials have demonstrated limited efficacy of intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring in improving fetal outcome. A potential reason is the wide variability in clinical decision making seen with its use. Standardizing management of variant intrapartum fetal heart rate tracings may reduce this variability and lead to improvement in fetal outcome.

  5. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and heart rate in the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, M; Martínez-González, M A; Basterra-Gortari, F J; Barrio-López, M T; Gea, A; Beunza, J J

    2014-04-01

    A higher heart rate has been related to an increase of total and cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and heart rate. The SUN project is an ongoing multipurpose cohort study based on university graduates from Spain. This cross-sectional study included 15,863 participants of the SUN project. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern was assessed through a validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire and calculated according to the 9-point score proposed by Trichopoulou. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and heart rate and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The multivariable-adjusted models revealed that participants with a high adherence (7--9 points) to the Mediterranean dietary pattern had a heart rate 2.2 bpm (95% CI 1.4-3.1) lower than participants with a low adherence (0--2 points). Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern seems to be related to a lower heart rate.

  6. Change of Diurnal Heart Rate Patterns During Pregnancy and Lactation in Dogs (Canis familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häggström J

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and lactation involve great demands on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the heart rate and diurnal heart rate pattern change when dogs become pregnant or lactate. Five clinically healthy female beagle dogs were mated, and delivered three to seven healthy puppies. The heart rate was investigated with 24-h ECG (Holter once during anoestrus, at 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks of pregnancy, and at week 4 postpartum (lactation. However, at 9 weeks, the ECG could not be recorded for the fully 24 h in 4 of 5 dogs, because labour started and the dogs then appeared disturbed by the recordings. The results at this date are not included in the statistical comparison. The heart rate increased progressively during pregnancy and was still elevated at 4 weeks of lactation. During late pregnancy the difference in heart rates between daytime and nighttime became smaller, but the heart rate was significantly higher in daytime in all periods. In conclusion, the increased heart rates during pregnancy and lactation reflect increased demands on the cardiovascular system and may be important to consider in clinical practice.

  7. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A.J. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  8. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  9. HEART RATE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN PERSONS WITH PROFOUND INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, Aly; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Stewart, Roy E.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Wijck, Ruud; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  10. Prolonged saltatory fetal heart rate pattern leading to newborn metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, I; Ayres-de-Campos, D; Kwee, A; Rosén, K G

    2014-01-01

    The saltatory pattern, characterized by wide and rapid oscillations of the fetal heart rate (FHR), remains a controversial entity. The authors sought to evaluate whether it could be associated with an adverse fetal outcome. The authors report a case series of four saltatory patterns occurring in the last 30 minutes before birth in association with cord artery metabolic acidosis, obtained from three large databases of internally acquired FHR tracings. The distinctive characteristics of this pattern were evaluated with the aid of a computer system. All cases were recorded in uneventful pregnancies, with normal birthweight singletons, born vaginally at term. The saltatory pattern lasted between 23 and 44 minutes, exhibited a mean oscillatory amplitude of 45.9 to 80.0 beats per minute (bpm) and a frequency between four and eight cycles per minute. A saltatory pattern exceeding 20 minutes can be associated with the occurrence of fetal metabolic acidosis.

  11. Fetal heart rate patterns at 20 to 24 weeks gestation as recorded by fetal electrocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, F; Groenewald, CA; Nel, DG; Myers, MM; Fifer, WP; Signore, C; Hankins, GDV; Odendaal, HJ

    2014-01-01

    Introduction With advancing technology it has become possible to accurately record and assess fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns from gestations as early as 20 weeks. The aim of our study was to describe early patterns of FHR, as recorded by transabdominal fetal electrocardiogram according to the Dawes-Redman criteria. Accordingly, short-term variability, basal heart rate, accelerations and decelerations were quantified at 20-24 weeks gestation among women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Methods This study was conducted in a subset of participants enrolled in a large prospective pregnancy cohort study. Our final data set consisted of 281 recordings of women with good perinatal outcomes that had undergone fetal electrocardiographic assessment as part of the Safe Passage Study. Results The success rate of the recordings was 95.4%. The mean frequency of small and large accelerations was 0.5 and 0.1 per 10 minutes respectively and that of small and large decelerations 0.3 and 0.008 per 10 minutes respectively. The mean and basal heart rates were both equal to 148.0 bpm at a median gestation of 161 days. The mean short term variation was 6.2 (SD 1.4) milliseconds and mean minute range 35.1 (SD 7.1) milliseconds. Conclusion The 20 to 24 week fetus demonstrates FHR patterns with more accelerations and decelerations, as well as higher baseline variability than was anticipated. Information from this study provides an important foundation for further, more detailed, studies of early FHR patterns. PMID:23991757

  12. [Effect of Music Intervention on Maternal Anxiety and Fetal Heart Rate Pattern During Non-Stress Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myung Ok; Kim, Young Jeoum; Baek, Cho Hee; Kim, Ju Hee; Park, No Mi; Yu, Mi Jeong; Song, Han Sol

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this cross-over experimental study was to examine effects of music intervention on maternal anxiety, fetal heart rate pattern and testing time during non-stress tests (NST) for antenatal fetal assessment. Sixty pregnant women within 28 to 40 gestational weeks were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n=30) or control group (n=30). Music intervention was provided to pregnant women in the experimental group during NST. Degree of maternal anxiety and fetal heart rate pattern were our primary outcomes. State-trait anxiety inventory, blood pressure, pulse rate, and changes in peripheral skin temperature were assessed to determine the degree of maternal anxiety. Baseline fetal heart rate, frequency of acceleration in fetal heart rate, fetal movement test and testing time for reactive NST were assessed to measure the fetal heart rate pattern. The experimental group showed significantly lower scores in state anxiety than the control group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure and pulse rate between the two groups. Baseline fetal heart rate was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. Frequency of acceleration in fetal heart rate was significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. There were no significant differences in fetal movement and testing time for reactive NST between the two groups. Present results suggest that music intervention could be an effective nursing intervention for alel viating anxiety during non-stress test.

  13. Description, evaluation and clinical decision making according to various fetal heart rate patterns. Inter-observer and regional variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Bøttcher, L M; Weber, Tom

    1992-01-01

    At 10 Danish obstetrical departments, 116 residents (42 senior and 74 junior) participated in a study to assess inter-observer and regional variability in the description and evaluation of and clinical decision regarding 11 fetal heart rate patterns. The 11 traces included normal as well as patho......At 10 Danish obstetrical departments, 116 residents (42 senior and 74 junior) participated in a study to assess inter-observer and regional variability in the description and evaluation of and clinical decision regarding 11 fetal heart rate patterns. The 11 traces included normal as well...... and the presence of silent or sinusoidal pattern (87-94% on an arbitrary 0-100% scale), and low regarding the assessment of variability and type of deceleration (50-72%). The degree of agreement in interpreting heart rate patterns was 59% (on an arbitrary 0-100% scale). Senior residents generally interpreted...

  14. Description, evaluation and clinical decision making according to various fetal heart rate patterns. Inter-observer and regional variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Bøttcher, L M; Weber, Tom

    1992-01-01

    departments, especially between departments far apart. It is concluded that we still need a scientific clarification of which specific heart rate changes are the best predictors of fetal stress. Artificial intelligence programs for interpreting fetal cardiotocograms and ECG signals constitute one promising......At 10 Danish obstetrical departments, 116 residents (42 senior and 74 junior) participated in a study to assess inter-observer and regional variability in the description and evaluation of and clinical decision regarding 11 fetal heart rate patterns. The 11 traces included normal as well...... as pathological patterns, and normal as well as clinically asphyxiated babies. Five antepartum and six intrapartum patterns were included. A total of 1,276 descriptions and evaluations were obtained. The degree of agreement in description of fetal heart rate changes was high regarding the baseline...

  15. Description, evaluation and clinical decision making according to various fetal heart rate patterns. Inter-observer and regional variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Bøttcher, L M; Weber, Tom

    1992-01-01

    as pathological patterns, and normal as well as clinically asphyxiated babies. Five antepartum and six intrapartum patterns were included. A total of 1,276 descriptions and evaluations were obtained. The degree of agreement in description of fetal heart rate changes was high regarding the baseline...... departments, especially between departments far apart. It is concluded that we still need a scientific clarification of which specific heart rate changes are the best predictors of fetal stress. Artificial intelligence programs for interpreting fetal cardiotocograms and ECG signals constitute one promising......At 10 Danish obstetrical departments, 116 residents (42 senior and 74 junior) participated in a study to assess inter-observer and regional variability in the description and evaluation of and clinical decision regarding 11 fetal heart rate patterns. The 11 traces included normal as well...

  16. Biotic patterns of heart rate variation in depressed and psychotic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelli, H; Messer, J; Kovacevic, L; Walthall, K

    2011-01-01

    This article presents novel quantitative methods to study R to R interval (RRI) series that identify their characteristic pattern of organization, Bios, and their variation in psychiatric illness. In this study twenty-four hour series of RRI were extracted from Holter recordings of healthy subjects (N = 74) and small groups of patients with affective depression or psychosis. These data were analyzed with recurrence and statistical methods. In all subjects, RRI series showed complexes (clusters of recurrences), such as those observed with mathematically-generated biotic series but not in chaotic or random series. RRI series from healthy persons showed diversification (increase in variance with the duration of the series analyzed), novelty (less recurrence isometry than copies randomized by shuffling), causal order (more consecutive isometry than shuffled copies), and asymmetric statistical distribution. These imprints of creative processes are characteristic of mathematical Bios, and are absent in chaos. Bios can be distinguished from random walk series by the nonrandom pattern of the series of differences between heartbeats, as well as by measures of consecutive isometry and of partial autocorrelation. These defining characteristics of Bios are significant signs of health. In comparison with healthy controls, psychiatric patient groups showed more isometry and more consecutive isometry than healthy subjects. Psychiatric patients also showed no diversification. This study highlights the process that produces heart rate variation as being non-stationary and creative (bios, not equilibrium or chaos) and causal (not stochastically generated by the coexistence of multiple factors). These results thus are significant regarding psychiatric health.

  17. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  18. Patterns of Interspecific Variation in the Heart Rates of Embryonic Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei-Guo; Ye, Hua; Zhao, Bo; Pizzatto, Ligia; Ji, Xiang; Shine, Richard

    2011-01-01

    New non-invasive technologies allow direct measurement of heart rates (and thus, developmental rates) of embryos. We applied these methods to a diverse array of oviparous reptiles (24 species of lizards, 18 snakes, 11 turtles, 1 crocodilian), to identify general influences on cardiac rates during embryogenesis. Heart rates increased with ambient temperature in all lineages, but (at the same temperature) were faster in lizards and turtles than in snakes and crocodilians. We analysed these data within a phylogenetic framework. Embryonic heart rates were faster in species with smaller adult sizes, smaller egg sizes, and shorter incubation periods. Phylogenetic changes in heart rates were negatively correlated with concurrent changes in adult body mass and residual incubation period among the lizards, snakes (especially within pythons) and crocodilians. The total number of embryonic heart beats between oviposition and hatching was lower in squamates than in turtles or the crocodilian. Within squamates, embryonic iguanians and gekkonids required more heartbeats to complete development than did embryos of the other squamate families that we tested. These differences plausibly reflect phylogenetic divergence in the proportion of embryogenesis completed before versus after laying. PMID:22174948

  19. [Abnormal fetal heart rate patterns associated with different labour managements and intrauterine resuscitation techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspyck, E; Sentilhes, L

    2008-02-01

    To determine labour management procedures associated with an increased risk of fetal heart rate anomalies and to assess the effectiveness of various intrauterine resuscitation techniques for fetal distress. The literature search was carried out systematically on Medline and Cochrane database between 1980 and June 2007 was performed. Early amniotomy and/or active management of labour reduce the duration of the first stage of labour without affecting the rate of caesarean section (level of evidence 1). Early amniotomy increases the frequency of severe variable fetal heart rate decelerations (level of evidence 1). High doses of oxytocin and decrease in the oxytocin-dosing interval for augmentation of labour both induce uterine hyperstimulation (level of evidence 1). Increased uterine activity is associated with a higher incidence of fetal heart rate abnormalities and neonatal acidosis (level of evidence 3). Fetal heart rate decelerations in supine position may disappear in the lateral position (level of evidence 3). In prophylactic maternal oxygenation administration abnormal cord blood pH values (less than 7.2) are more frequent in the oxygenation group than in the control group (level of evidence 2) and its efficacy in fetal distress is not evaluated until now. Amnioinfusion in the presence of thick meconium staining does not reduce the risk of perinatal death or meconium aspiration syndrome (level of evidence 1). Transcervical saline amnioinfusion might relieve variable decelerations during labour (level of evidence 3). Prophylactic amnioinfusion for intrapartum oligohydramnios reduces fetal heart rate abnormalities and overall rates of caesarean deliveries (level of evidence 2). Acute tocolysis may be helpful in cases of intrapartum fetal distress related to uterine hyperactivity (level of evidence 2). Early amniotomy and high doses of oxytocin may both increase the risk of fetal heart rate anomalies, but are both useful for avoiding prolonged labour. More

  20. Effect of magnesium sulfate on fetal heart rate patterns in the second stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Cassandra R; Odibo, Anthony O; Roehl, Kimberly A; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2012-06-01

    To estimate the effect of maternal exposure to magnesium sulfate on fetal heart rate characteristics during active labor. Within a 4-year retrospective cohort study of consecutive term deliveries reaching the second stage of labor, we compared women exposed to magnesium for severe preeclampsia to all women not exposed. Primary outcome was the electronic fetal monitoring tracing in the 30 minutes preceding delivery. Secondary outcomes were fetal acidemia and nursery disposition. Attributable risk estimates and multivariable logistic regression were used to estimate the association between magnesium exposure and fetal heart rate characteristics. Unadjusted risk estimates for the association between fetal heart rate characteristics and neonatal outcomes were generated stratified by group. Of 5,387 women, 248 (4.6%) were exposed to magnesium. Magnesium exposure was associated with lower fetal heart rate baseline (136.9 ± 12.3 beats per minute compared with 139.0 ± 13.5 beats per minute; P=.02), increased risk of baseline less than 120 beats per minute (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-2.56), and increased risk of absent or minimal variability (adjusted OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.78-3.27). More than 20% increased frequency of ever absent or minimal variability was attributable to magnesium (attributable risk 0.21, 95% CI 0.15-0.27). There were no significant differences in presence or number of accelerations or decelerations; however, magnesium was associated with fewer prolonged decelerations (adjusted OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.49-0.84). After excluding women with adverse neonatal outcomes, these associations remained. Maternal exposure to magnesium is associated with lower fetal heart rate baseline within the accepted normal range, decreased variability, and fewer prolonged decelerations without evidence of adverse effect on neonatal outcome. II.

  1. Fetal heart rate patterns in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: relationship with early cerebral activity and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Deirdre M

    2012-01-31

    Despite widespread use of fetal heart rate monitoring, the timing of injury in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains unclear. Our aim was to examine fetal heart rate patterns during labor in infants with clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence of HIE and to relate these findings to neurodevelopmental outcome. Timing of onset of pathological cardiotocographs (CTGs) was determined in each case by two blinded reviewers and related to EEG grade at birth and neurological outcome at 24 months. CTGs were available in 35 infants with HIE (17 mild, 12 moderate, 6 severe on EEG). Admission CTGs were normal in 24\\/35 (69%), suspicious in 8\\/35 (23%), and pathological in 3\\/35 (8%). All CTGs developed nonreassuring features prior to delivery. Three patterns of fetal heart rate abnormalities were seen: group 1, abnormal CTGs on admission in 11\\/35 (31%); group 2, normal CTGs on admission with gradual deterioration to pathological in 20\\/35 cases (57%); and group 3, normal CTGs on admission with acute sentinel events in 4\\/35 (11.5%). The median (interquartile range) duration between the development of pathological CTGs and delivery was 145 (81, 221) minutes in group 2 and 22 (12, 28) minutes in group 3. There was no correlation between duration of pathological CTG trace and grade of encephalopathy (R = 0.09, P = 0.63) or neurological outcome (P = 0.75). However, the grade of encephalopathy was significantly worse in group 3 (P = 0.001), with a trend to worse outcomes. The majority of infants with HIE have normal CTG traces on admission but develop pathological CTG patterns within hours of delivery. More severe encephalopathy was associated with normal admission CTG and acute sentinel events shortly before delivery.

  2. Fetal heart rate patterns in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: relationship with early cerebral activity and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Deirdre M

    2009-09-01

    Despite widespread use of fetal heart rate monitoring, the timing of injury in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains unclear. Our aim was to examine fetal heart rate patterns during labor in infants with clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence of HIE and to relate these findings to neurodevelopmental outcome. Timing of onset of pathological cardiotocographs (CTGs) was determined in each case by two blinded reviewers and related to EEG grade at birth and neurological outcome at 24 months. CTGs were available in 35 infants with HIE (17 mild, 12 moderate, 6 severe on EEG). Admission CTGs were normal in 24\\/35 (69%), suspicious in 8\\/35 (23%), and pathological in 3\\/35 (8%). All CTGs developed nonreassuring features prior to delivery. Three patterns of fetal heart rate abnormalities were seen: group 1, abnormal CTGs on admission in 11\\/35 (31%); group 2, normal CTGs on admission with gradual deterioration to pathological in 20\\/35 cases (57%); and group 3, normal CTGs on admission with acute sentinel events in 4\\/35 (11.5%). The median (interquartile range) duration between the development of pathological CTGs and delivery was 145 (81, 221) minutes in group 2 and 22 (12, 28) minutes in group 3. There was no correlation between duration of pathological CTG trace and grade of encephalopathy (R = 0.09, P = 0.63) or neurological outcome (P = 0.75). However, the grade of encephalopathy was significantly worse in group 3 (P = 0.001), with a trend to worse outcomes. The majority of infants with HIE have normal CTG traces on admission but develop pathological CTG patterns within hours of delivery. More severe encephalopathy was associated with normal admission CTG and acute sentinel events shortly before delivery.

  3. Cerebral Blood Flow, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure Patterns during the Tilt Test in Common Orthostatic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Novak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The head-up tilt test is widely used for evaluation of orthostatic intolerance. Although orthostatic symptoms usually reflect cerebral hypoperfusion, the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv profile in orthostatic syndromes is not well described. This study evaluated CBFv and cardiovascular patterns associated with the tilt test in common orthostatic syndromes. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the tilt test of patients with history of orthostatic intolerance. The following signals were recorded: ECG, blood pressure, CBFv using transcranial Doppler, respiratory signals, and end tidal CO2. Results. Data from 744 patients were analyzed. Characteristic pattern associated with a particular orthostatic syndrome can be grouped into abnormalities predominantly affecting blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension, orthostatic hypertension syndrome, vasomotor oscillations, and neurally mediated syncope—cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed, cerebral blood flow (orthostatic hypoperfusion syndrome, primary cerebral autoregulatory failure, and heart rate (tachycardia syndromes: postural tachycardia syndrome, paroxysmal sinus tachycardia, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. Psychogenic pseudosyncope is associated with stable CBFv. Conclusions. The tilt test is useful add-on in diagnosis of several orthostatic syndromes. However diagnostic criteria for several syndromes had to be modified to allow unambiguous pattern classification. CBFv monitoring in addition to blood pressure and heart rate may increase diagnostic yield of the tilt test.

  4. Heart rate turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death. © 2013.

  5. Effect of maternal anxiety and music on fetal movements and fetal heart rate patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafali, Hasan; Derbent, Aysel; Keskin, Esra; Simavli, Serap; Gözdemir, Elif

    2011-03-01

    Aimed to investigate (a) the effect of non-stress test (NST) and music on maternal anxiety (b) the effect of maternal anxiety and music on fetal heart rate (FHR) changes. The two hundred and one pregnant women coming for routine prenatal care were randomized to receive either music (n=96) or no music (n=105) during NST. Before and after the test, these women were asked to complete the Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory on two interviews; primary outcome was considered as a maternal state anxiety score before and after NST. Secondary outcome was the baseline FHR, the number of fetal movement, large accelerations, dubious NST, variable decelerations, and the minimum procedure time. Before NST, the mean state anxiety score of the music and control groups was found as 38.1 +/- 8.8 and 38.08 +/-8.2, respectively (p>0.05). On the other hand, after NST, the mean state anxiety score of the music and control groups was found as 35.5 +/- 8.2 and 40.2 +/- 9.2, respectively (pmusic during NST resulted in decrease in a state anxiety score of the study group but it was not statistically significant (38.1 +/- 8.8 versus 35.5 +/- 8.2, p>0.05). The baseline FHR of the music group was significantly higher than that of the control group (134.09 +/- 7.2 versus 130.3 +/- 5.7, pmusic group was significantly higher than that of the control group (8.9 +/- 4.7 versus 5.9 +/- 3.9, pmusic group was significantly higher than that of the control group (5.7 +/- 2.1 versus 4.5 +/- 2.04, pmusic group was significantly lower than that of control group (13.4 +/- 5.2 versus 15.6 +/- 6.1, p0.05). NST has anxiogenic effects on mothers and listening to music during the test has positive impact on both maternal and fetal parameters but it is an open question whether maternal anxiety during pregnancy may affect fetal accelerations to such an extent that it could influence clinical judgments.

  6. Heart rate variability in cyclic alternating pattern during sleep in healthy and Nocturnal Front Lobe Epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorantes, Guadalupe; Méndez, Martín; Alba, Alfonso; Gonzaáez, J S; Parrino, Liborio; Milioli, G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess heart rate variability (HRV) during the cyclic alternating pattern, which is a sleep phenomenon, composed by cortical events that interrupt the basal oscillation of the NREM sleep stage. These cortical events are called A-phases and classified into three subtypes: A1, A2, A3. In addition, a comparison between healthy and Nocturnal Front Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE) patients was carried out. HRV was assessed by means of a time-varying autoregressive (TVAR) model with an adaptive filtering prediction scheme and by the time-varying square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences (RMSSD) of the RR intervals. For each A-phase, two signal segments were evaluated, the first one before the onset of the A-phase and the second one after the onset of the A-phase. An increase in the sympathetic outflow was suggested by higher values of low-frequency (LF) power in the three A-phases after the onset of A-phases, where A3-phases showed the largest changes. Increases in LF power were related with increases in heart rate in the same signal segments. These differences were found in both healthy and NFLE patients. LF/HF ratio and normalized LF power in A1-phases resulted significantly higher in NFLE patients in comparison with healthy subjects, which could suggest that there is a shift in the sympatho-vagal balance towards a more sympathetically mediated control of heart rate involving A1-phases in NFLE patients.

  7. Comparison of halogen light and vibroacoustic stimulation on nonreactive fetal heart rate pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimikian, Fatemeh; Rahiminia, Tahereh; Modarres, Maryam; Mehran, Abbas

    2013-03-01

    One of the first-line assessment tools for fetal surveillance is nonstress test (NST), although it is limited by a high rate of false-nonreactive results. This study was performed to investigate if external stimulation from vibroacoustic and halogen light could help in provoking fetal responsiveness and altering NST results. This is a clinical trial. Sampling was done from April to July 2010. One hundred pregnant women with nonreactive NST for 20 min were allocated in two groups: Vibroacoustic stimulated NST (VNST, n = 50) who received vibration from a standard fetal vibratory stimulator and halogen light stimulated NST (LNST, n = 50) who received a halogen light source for 3 and 10 sec, respectively. Results were compared together and then compared to biophysical profile (BPP) scores as a backup test. We used Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test to compare the variables in the two groups through SPSS version 14. P vibroacoustic stimulation group changed to reactive patterns. Time to onset of the first acceleration (VNST: 2.17 min; LNST: 2.27 min) and the test duration (VNST: 4.91 min; LNST: 5.26 min) were the same in the two groups. In VNST 89.5% and in LNST 87.5% of nonreactivity followed by score 8 in BPP. There was no significant relation between stimulus NSTs and BPPs. Vibroacoustic and light stimulation offer benefits by decreasing the incidence of nonreactive results and reducing the test time. Both halogen light stimulation and vibroacoustic stimulation are safe and efficient in fetal well-being assessment services.

  8. Fetal heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageotte, Michael P

    2015-06-01

    Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring is a widely utilized means of assessment of fetal status during labor. Whereas little evidence exists regarding efficacy, this modality continues to be used extensively in every modern labor and delivery unit in developed countries. It is of importance that all providers of health care to the woman in labor and her newborn have a clear understanding of the basic pathophysiology of fetal heart rate monitoring and an appreciation for labor course and concerns as they arise in order to optimize outcomes and patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Sep 15,2017 Understanding the difference ... your blood moving through your blood vessels, your heart rate is the number of times your heart beats ...

  10. Modelling Heart Rate Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual’s cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164

  11. Target Heart Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is your level of intensity? When is the best time of day to work out? Target Heart Rates Warm Up, Cool Down See More >> Getting Active Getting Started - Tips for Long-term Exercise Success Get Moving: Easy Tips to Get Active! ...

  12. Embryonic control of heart rate: examining developmental patterns and temperature and oxygenation influences using embryonic avian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewartha, Sarah J; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Burggren, Warren W

    2011-08-31

    Long-term measurements (days and weeks) of heart rate (HR) have elucidated infradian rhythms in chicken embryos and circadian rhythms in chicken hatchlings. However, such rhythms are lacking in emu embryos and only rarely observed in emu hatchlings. Parasympathetic control of HR (instantaneous heart rate (IHR) decelerations) occurs at ∼60% of incubation in both precocial and altricial avian embryos, with sympathetic control (IHR accelerations) becoming more prevalent close to hatching. A large increase in avian embryonic HR occurs during hatching (presumably an energetically expensive process, i.e. increased oxygen consumption M(O) ₂), beginning during pipping when a physical barrier to O(2) conductance is removed. Alterations in ambient O(2) have little effect on early embryonic HR, likely due to the low rate of M(O)₂ of early embryos and the fact that adequate O(2) delivery can occur via diffusion. As M(O)₂ increases in advanced embryos and circulatory convection becomes important for O(2) delivery, alterations in ambient O(2) have more profound effects on embryonic HR. Early embryos demonstrate a wide ambient temperature (T(a)) tolerance range compared with older embryos. In response to a rapid decrease in T(a), embryonic HR decreases (stroke volume and blood flow are preserved) in an exponential fashion to a steady state (from which it can potentially recover if re-warmed). A more severe decrease in T(a) results in complete cessation of HR; however, depending on developmental age, embryos are able to survive severe cold exposure and cessation of HR for up to 24h in some instances. The development of endothermy can be tracked by measuring baseline HR during T(a) changes. HR patterns change from thermo-conformity to thermoregulation (reverse to T(a) changes). Further, IHR low frequency oscillations mediated by the autonomic nervous system are augmented at low T(a)s in hatchlings. Transitions of baseline HR during endothermic development are unique to

  13. Heart Rate Dynamics and their Relation with the Cyclic Alternating Pattern of Sleep in Normal Subjects and NFLE Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jose S.; Dorantes, Guadalupe; Alba, Alfonso; Méndez, Martin O.; Camacho, Sergio; Luna-Rivera, Martin; Parrino, Liborio; Riccardi, Silvia; Terzano, Mario G.; Milioli, Giulia

    The aim of this work is to study the behavior of the autonomic system through variations in the heart rate (HR) during the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP) which is formed by A-phases. The analysis was carried out in 10 healthy subjects and 10 patients with Nocturnal Front Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE) that underwent one whole night of polysomnographic recordings. In order to assess the relation of A-phases with the cardiovascular system, two time domain features were computed: the amplitude reduction and time delay of the minimum of the R-R intervals with respect to A-phases onset. In addition, the same process was performed over randomly chosen R-R interval segments during the NREM sleep for baseline comparisons. A non-parametric bootstrap procedure was used to test differences of the kurtosis values of two populations. The results suggest that the onset of the A-phases is correlated with a significant increase of the HR that peaks at around 4s after the A-phase onset, independently of the A-phase subtype and sleep time for both healthy subjects and NFLE patients. Furthermore, the behavior of the reduction in the R-R intervals during the A-phases was significantly different for NFLE patients with respect to control subjects.

  14. Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tachycardia occurs less commonly with: Heart attack Serious mitral valve disease Symptoms and Complications of Atrial or SVT Some ... tachycardia occurs less commonly with: Heart attack Serious mitral valve disease Symptoms and Complications of Atrial or SVT Some ...

  15. Behavior patterns and coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between two behavioral patterns, cardiac risk factors, and coronary heart disease are investigated. Risk factors used in the analysis were family history of coronary disease, smoking, cholesterol, obesity, systotic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood sugar, uric acid, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood unit. It was found that conventional, non-behavioral pattern risk factors alone were not significantly related to coronary heart disease.

  16. Effects of Liraglutide on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumarathurai, Preman; Anholm, Christian; Larsen, Bjørn Strøier

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and increased heart rate (HR) have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) increase HR, and studies have suggested that they may reduce HRV. We examined the effect of the GLP-1 RA...

  17. Recognition and response to electronic fetal heart rate patterns: impact on newborn outcomes and primary cesarean delivery rate in women undergoing induction of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven L; Meyers, Janet A; Frye, Donna K; Garthwaite, Thomas; Lee, Alan J; Perlin, Jonathan B

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the clinical impact of specific fetal monitoring-related practices during induced labor. This was a prospective, nonrandomized study. We studied 14,398 women undergoing oxytocin induction of labor. A decrease in the infusion rate of oxytocin in the face of specified category II fetal heart rate tracings was associated with a significantly reduced rate of neonatal intensive care unit admission (3.8% vs 5.2%, P = .01) and Apgar score less than 7 at 1 and 5 minutes (4.9% vs 6.4%, P = .01, 0.6% vs 1.1%, P = .04). Compliance with an in-use checklist was associated with both a reduction in the rate of neonatal intensive care unit admission (2.9 vs 4.4, P = .00) and a reduction in the cesarean delivery rate (15.8% vs 18.8%, P = .00). Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring improves neonatal outcomes when unambiguous definitions of abnormal fetal heart rate and tachysystole are coupled with specific interventions. Utilization of a checklist for oxytocin monitoring is associated with improved neonatal outcomes and a reduction in the cesarean delivery rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prescribing patterns to optimize heart rate: analysis of 1,000 consecutive outpatient appointments to a single heart failure clinic over a 6-month period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, Riet; Cleland, John G F; Parsons, Sunaina; Putzu, Paola; Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Dicken, Benjamin; Boyalla, Vennela; Clark, Andrew L

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to characterize patients attending a community heart failure (HF) clinic and identified those who were eligible for optimization of beta-blockers (BB) or ivabradine. Among patients with HF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction in sinus rhythm, those with higher resting heart rate have a worse prognosis. Reducing sinus rate to 50 to 60 beats/min might improve outcomes. A total of 1,000 consecutively scheduled HF clinic follow-up appointments over a 6-month period were reviewed. Demographic, clinical, and echocardiographic data were collected for patients who attended (824 unique patients; 555 men). Mean age was 74 ± 11 years, median N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels were 1,002 ng/l (interquartile range: 367 to 2,151 ng/l), and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 44 ± 11%. A total of 202 (25%), 252 (31%), and 370 (45%) patients had LVEFs of ≤35%, 36% to 49%, and ≥50%, respectively. Of patients with LVEF ≤35%, 142 (70%) were in sinus rhythm. At 70 clinic visits, 58 patients with LVEFs of ≤35% were in sinus rhythm and had heart rates ≥70 beats/min. Of these, 13 patients had their BB dose increased, 20 were potentially eligible for, but did not have, BB uptitration, 15 were already taking target doses of BBs, and 10 patients were reported to be intolerant of higher doses. Thus, 25 patients were potentially eligible for ivabradine according to European Society of Cardiology guidelines; this number dropped to 14 when the United Kingdom National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines were applied. Among patients with LVEFs of ≤35%, most are treated with BBs and have a heart rate at rest of <70 beats/min; 12% of these patients might be eligible for ivabradine. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Target Heart Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Educator CPR & ECC Shop Causes Advocate Giving Media Healthy Eating Nutrition The American Heart Association's Diet and Lifestyle ... Keep It Off Recognizing Roadblocks in Weight Loss Eating When Not Hungry Keeping the Weight ... Stress With Healthy Habits Take Action to Control Stress 3 Tips to ...

  20. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  1. The computation of evoked heart rate and blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koers, G.; Mulder, L.J.M.; van der Veen, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    For many years psychophysiologists have been interested in stimulus related changes in heart rate and blood pressure. To represent these evoked heart rate and blood pressure patterns, heart rate and blood pressure data have to be transformed into equidistant time series. This paper presents an

  2. All about Heart Rate (Pulse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result of taking a drug such as a beta blocker . A lower heart rate is also common for ... 100. Medication use: Meds that block your adrenaline (beta blockers) tend to slow your pulse, while too much ...

  3. For gold, heart rate matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmely, Jean-François; Mohacsi, Paul; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Carrel, Thierry; Delacretaz, Etienne

    2005-08-01

    A 19-year-old woman presented with decreased exercise tolerance 3 years after orthotopic heart transplantation. Exercise capacity was severely reduced, with a maximal workload of 84 W, corresponding to 56% of the predicted value. After exclusion of other causes, insufficient heart rate response to exercise was considered as the major contributor to her decreased exercise tolerance. Correction of this problem with the implantation of an AAIR pacemaker dramatically improved her physical performance, allowing her to win 5 gold medals at the European Heart and Lung Transplant Games. This case report illustrates how pacemaker therapy can dramatically improve the symptoms and performance of patients with chronotropic incompetence.

  4. The influence of elective amniotomy on fetal heart rate patterns and the course of labor in term patients: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garite, T J; Porto, M; Carlson, N J; Rumney, P J; Reimbold, P A

    1993-06-01

    Our study was designed to evaluate the effects of routine elective amniotomy on the frequency and severity of abnormal fetal heart rate patterns and on the course of labor and the need for oxytocin augmentation. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted at term in patients in active labor who were randomly selected to undergo elective amniotomy (amniotomy group) or left intact with amniotomy reserved for specific indications (intact group). Four hundred fifty-nine patients were studied (235 in the amniotomy group vs 224 in the intact group). Average cervical dilatation at rupture was 5.5 cm in the amniotomy group and 8.1 cm in the intact group. Analysis of fetal heart rate revealed more mild and moderate variable decelerations in the active phase of labor in the amniotomy group but no difference in the frequency of more severe decelerations or operative deliveries. In the intact group the need for oxytocin was twice as common (76 in the intact group vs 36 in the amniotomy group, p = 0.000005), and the active phase of labor was considerably longer (5 hours 56 minutes in the intact group vs 4 hours 35 minutes in the amniotomy group). Neonatal outcome was similar in the two groups. Elective amniotomy appears to increase the likelihood of umbilical cord compression in the active phase of labor and results in more mild and moderate variable decelerations, but it does not result in more severe abnormal fetal heart rate patterns or more operative intervention. Elective amniotomy does, however, shorten the active phase of labor and decreases the need for oxytocin augmentation.

  5. Potassium supplementation and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Molenberg, Famke; Bakker, S.J.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Increasing the intake of potassium has been shown to lower blood pressure, but whether it also affects heart rate (HR) is largely unknown. We therefore assessed the effect of potassium supplementation on HR in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods and

  6. Optically Remote Noncontact Heart Rates Sensing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkongoum, W.; Boonduang, S.; Limsuwan, P.

    2017-09-01

    Heart rate monitoring via optically remote noncontact technique was reported in this research. A green laser (5 mW, 532±10 nm) was projected onto the left carotid artery. The reflected laser light on the screen carried the deviation of the interference patterns. The interference patterns were recorded by the digital camera. The recorded videos of the interference patterns were frame by frame analysed by 2 standard digital image processing (DIP) techniques, block matching (BM) and optical flow (OF) techniques. The region of interest (ROI) pixels within the interference patterns were analysed for periodically changes of the interference patterns due to the heart pumping action. Both results of BM and OF techniques were compared with the reference medical heart rate monitoring device by which a contact measurement using pulse transit technique. The results obtained from BM technique was 74.67 bpm (beats per minute) and OF technique was 75.95 bpm. Those results when compared with the reference value of 75.43±1 bpm, the errors were found to be 1.01% and 0.69%, respectively.

  7. Heart Rate Fragmentation: A Symbolic Dynamical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena D. Costa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We recently introduced the concept of heart rate fragmentation along with a set of metrics for its quantification. The term was coined to refer to an increase in the percentage of changes in heart rate acceleration sign, a dynamical marker of a type of anomalous variability. The effort was motivated by the observation that fragmentation, which is consistent with the breakdown of the neuroautonomic-electrophysiologic control system of the sino-atrial node, could confound traditional short-term analysis of heart rate variability.Objective: The objectives of this study were to: (1 introduce a symbolic dynamical approach to the problem of quantifying heart rate fragmentation; (2 evaluate how the distribution of the different dynamical patterns (“words” varied with the participants' age in a group of healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD; and (3 quantify the differences in the fragmentation patterns between the two sample populations.Methods: The symbolic dynamical method employed here was based on a ternary map of the increment NN interval time series and on the analysis of the relative frequency of symbolic sequences (words with a pre-defined set of features. We analyzed annotated, open-access Holter databases of healthy subjects and patients with CAD, provided by the University of Rochester Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW.Results: The degree of fragmentation was significantly higher in older individuals than in their younger counterparts. However, the fragmentation patterns were different in the two sample populations. In healthy subjects, older age was significantly associated with a higher percentage of transitions from acceleration/deceleration to zero acceleration and vice versa (termed “soft” inflection points. In patients with CAD, older age was also significantly associated with higher percentages of frank reversals in heart rate acceleration (transitions from acceleration to

  8. Heart Rate Fragmentation: A Symbolic Dynamical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Madalena D; Davis, Roger B; Goldberger, Ary L

    2017-01-01

    Background: We recently introduced the concept of heart rate fragmentation along with a set of metrics for its quantification. The term was coined to refer to an increase in the percentage of changes in heart rate acceleration sign, a dynamical marker of a type of anomalous variability. The effort was motivated by the observation that fragmentation, which is consistent with the breakdown of the neuroautonomic-electrophysiologic control system of the sino-atrial node, could confound traditional short-term analysis of heart rate variability. Objective: The objectives of this study were to: (1) introduce a symbolic dynamical approach to the problem of quantifying heart rate fragmentation; (2) evaluate how the distribution of the different dynamical patterns ("words") varied with the participants' age in a group of healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD); and (3) quantify the differences in the fragmentation patterns between the two sample populations. Methods: The symbolic dynamical method employed here was based on a ternary map of the increment NN interval time series and on the analysis of the relative frequency of symbolic sequences (words) with a pre-defined set of features. We analyzed annotated, open-access Holter databases of healthy subjects and patients with CAD, provided by the University of Rochester Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW). Results: The degree of fragmentation was significantly higher in older individuals than in their younger counterparts. However, the fragmentation patterns were different in the two sample populations. In healthy subjects, older age was significantly associated with a higher percentage of transitions from acceleration/deceleration to zero acceleration and vice versa (termed "soft" inflection points). In patients with CAD, older age was also significantly associated with higher percentages of frank reversals in heart rate acceleration (transitions from acceleration to deceleration and vice

  9. Correlation between regular mouthing movements and heart rate patterns during non-rapid eye movement periods in normal human fetuses between 32 and 40 weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otera, Yuka; Morokuma, Seiichi; Fukushima, Kotaro; Wake, Norio; Kato, Kiyoko

    2013-06-01

    Regular mouthing movements (RMMs) are observed during fetal non-rapid eye movement (NREM) periods. To determine the correlation between RMM and fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns during NREM periods. Fetal eye and mouth movements and FHR patterns were observed and recorded. 50 normal singleton pregnancies between 32 and 40 weeks of gestation. Changes in the power spectrum ratio of 3-minute blocks of RMM clusters, FHR with RMM clusters (HR+), and FHR without RMM clusters (HR-) were calculated at a frequency band of 0.02 Hz among 3 gestational age groups: group 1, 32-34 weeks gestation; group 2, 35-37 weeks gestation; group 3, 38-40 weeks gestation. We calculated the percentage of cases showing dominant peak ratios of RMM and HR+ in the same frequency band, the maximum correlation coefficient, and its lag time. In group 3, the dominant peaks of both RM and HR+ were present at the same frequency band, 0.06-0.08 Hz; this was not seen in the other groups' relative power spectral patterns. The percentage of cases showing dominant peaks of RMM and HR+ in the same frequency band increased with advancing gestational age. The maximum correlation coefficient in groups 1 (0.28 ± 0.11) and 3 (0.45 ± 0.14) differed significantly (p<0.05). The correlation between RMM and FHR patterns became stronger, and their rhythmicity was similar, from 38 to 40 gestational weeks, suggesting that a common center starts to govern both patterns at approximately 38 weeks gestation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of Positional Differences in Fitness of Male University Ice Hockey Players and the Frequency, Time Spent and Heart Rate of Movement Patterns during Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Jackson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Men’s university ice hockey has received little scientific attention over the past 30 years, a time in which the traits of the players and the demands of the game have evolved.  Objectives: This study compared the physiological characteristics of university ice hockey players and examined the frequency and duration of the different movement patterns and heart rate (HR responses during competition. Methods: Twenty male ice hockey players from the same team ( age ± SD = 22±2 years underwent a fitness evaluation and were filmed and HR monitored during regular season games. Results: Forwards and defense had similar fitness and only differed on % fatigue index and peak heart during on-ice sprinting (P<0.05. Defense stood, glided and skated backwards more than forwards and forwards skated at a moderate intensity and glided forward more than defense (P<0.05. All players spent the majority of game time gliding forward (60% of the time followed by skating forward at a moderate intensity (17% and standing with little movement (9%. Average HR during the game reached 96 and 92 % and peak HR was 100 and 96 % of maximum in forwards and defense, respectively. Conclusions: Male university hockey players present with a high level of physical fitness in a variety of categories with few differences between forwards and defense. Movement patterns during games suggest that players are performing low to moderate intensity on-ice activities the majority of the time. Paradoxically, HR continues to climb to near maximum during on ice shifts.

  11. [Resting heart rate and cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Alemán Sánchez, José Juan; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2014-07-07

    Heart rate reflects autonomic nervous system activity. Numerous studies have demonstrated that an increased heart rate at rest is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as an independent risk factor. It has been shown a link between cardiac autonomic balance and inflammation. Thus, an elevated heart rate produces a micro-inflammatory response and is involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. In turn, decrease in heart rate produces benefits in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Alteration of other heart rate-related parameters, such as their variability and recovery after exercise, is associated with risk of cardiovascular events. Drugs reducing the heart rate (beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and inhibitors of If channels) have the potential to reduce cardiovascular events. Although not recommended in healthy subjects, interventions for reducing heart rate constitute a reasonable therapeutic goal in certain pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  13. Heart rate in professional musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have analysed heart rate (HR with regard to music playing, and the scarce evidence available is controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyse the HR response of professional musicians during their real-work activity. Methods Sixty-two voluntary professional musicians (20 women, 42 men, whose ages ranged between 15 and 71 years old, underwent the test while playing their instruments in real life scenarios, i.e. rehearsals, practice and public concerts. The musicians carried Sport Tester PE4000 (Polar®, Finland pulsometers to record their HR. In order to compare data from differently aged subjects we calculated their Maximum Theoretical Heart Rate (MTHR. Later on we found out the MTHR percentages (%MTHR corresponding to the registered HR of each subject in different situations. The value of the MTHR for every musician was obtained by means of the 220 – age (in years formula. Results Throughout the HR recordings, we have observed that musicians present a heightened HR while playing (in soloists, mean and maximum HR were 72% and 85%MTHR, respectively. Cardiac demand is significantly higher in concerts than in rehearsals while performing the same musical piece. The HR curves corresponding to the same musician playing in repeated concerts (with the same programme were similar. Conclusion The cardiac demand of a professional instrument player is higher than previously described, much greater than what would be expected from a supposedly sedentary activity.

  14. Heart rate in professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñesta, Claudia; Terrados, Nicolás; García, Daniel; Pérez, José A

    2008-07-25

    Very few studies have analysed heart rate (HR) with regard to music playing, and the scarce evidence available is controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyse the HR response of professional musicians during their real-work activity. Sixty-two voluntary professional musicians (20 women, 42 men), whose ages ranged between 15 and 71 years old, underwent the test while playing their instruments in real life scenarios, i.e. rehearsals, practice and public concerts. The musicians carried Sport Tester PE4000 (Polar(R), Finland) pulsometers to record their HR.In order to compare data from differently aged subjects we calculated their Maximum Theoretical Heart Rate (MTHR). Later on we found out the MTHR percentages (%MTHR) corresponding to the registered HR of each subject in different situations. The value of the MTHR for every musician was obtained by means of the 220 - age (in years) formula. Throughout the HR recordings, we have observed that musicians present a heightened HR while playing (in soloists, mean and maximum HR were 72% and 85%MTHR, respectively). Cardiac demand is significantly higher in concerts than in rehearsals while performing the same musical piece. The HR curves corresponding to the same musician playing in repeated concerts (with the same programme) were similar. The cardiac demand of a professional instrument player is higher than previously described, much greater than what would be expected from a supposedly sedentary activity.

  15. Improvement of the Dynamic Responses of Heart Rate Variability Patterns after Needle and Laser Acupuncture Treatment in Patients with Burnout Syndrome: A Transcontinental Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated manual needle and laser needle acupuncture as a complementary therapy for patients with burnout syndrome. Twenty patients with a mean age ± SD of 38.7 ± 8.4 years were assigned to two groups, each consisting of ten patients. One group was treated with manual needle acupuncture and the other with laser needle acupuncture. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV, and a new score called dynamic acupuncture treatment score (DATS served as evaluation parameters. The study documented significant effects on heart rate after needle acupuncture treatment and significant effects on HRV caused by both needle and laser needle acupuncture. Based on new neurovegetative acupuncture treatment evaluation scores, it can be stated that both noninvasive laser needle acupuncture and manual needle acupuncture have the potential to be a powerful approach for evidence-based complementary treatment of patients with burnout syndrome. Further transcontinental studies to verify or refute the preliminary findings are in progress.

  16. Benchmarking heart rate variability toolboxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Adriana N; Li, Qiao; Liu, Chengyu; Nemati, Shamim; Shah, Amit; Clifford, Gari D

    Heart rate variability (HRV) metrics hold promise as potential indicators for autonomic function, prediction of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, psychophysiological status, and general wellness. Although the investigation of HRV has been prevalent for several decades, the methods used for preprocessing, windowing, and choosing appropriate parameters lack consensus among academic and clinical investigators. A comprehensive and open-source modular program is presented for calculating HRV implemented in Matlab with evidence-based algorithms and output formats. We compare our software with another widely used HRV toolbox written in C and available through PhysioNet.org. Our findings show substantially similar results when using high quality electrocardiograms (ECG) free from arrhythmias. Our software shows equivalent performance alongside an established predecessor and includes validated tools for performing preprocessing, signal quality, and arrhythmia detection to help provide standardization and repeatability in the field, leading to fewer errors in the presence of noise or arrhythmias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantification of fetal heart rate regularity using symbolic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, P.; Cysarz, D.; Lange, S.; Geue, D.; Groenemeyer, D.

    2007-03-01

    Fetal heart rate complexity was examined on the basis of RR interval time series obtained in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. In each fetal RR interval time series, short term beat-to-beat heart rate changes were coded in 8bit binary sequences. Redundancies of the 28 different binary patterns were reduced by two different procedures. The complexity of these sequences was quantified using the approximate entropy (ApEn), resulting in discrete ApEn values which were used for classifying the sequences into 17 pattern sets. Also, the sequences were grouped into 20 pattern classes with respect to identity after rotation or inversion of the binary value. There was a specific, nonuniform distribution of the sequences in the pattern sets and this differed from the distribution found in surrogate data. In the course of gestation, the number of sequences increased in seven pattern sets, decreased in four and remained unchanged in six. Sequences that occurred less often over time, both regular and irregular, were characterized by patterns reflecting frequent beat-to-beat reversals in heart rate. They were also predominant in the surrogate data, suggesting that these patterns are associated with stochastic heart beat trains. Sequences that occurred more frequently over time were relatively rare in the surrogate data. Some of these sequences had a high degree of regularity and corresponded to prolonged heart rate accelerations or decelerations which may be associated with directed fetal activity or movement or baroreflex activity. Application of the pattern classes revealed that those sequences with a high degree of irregularity correspond to heart rate patterns resulting from complex physiological activity such as fetal breathing movements. The results suggest that the development of the autonomic nervous system and the emergence of fetal behavioral states lead to increases in not only irregular but also regular heart rate patterns. Using symbolic dynamics to

  18. Heart rate and heart rate variability in normal young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumel, P; Maison-Blanche, P; Catuli, D

    1994-11-01

    The relationships between heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) are not simple. Because both depend on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), they are not independent variables. Technically, the quantification of HRV is influenced by the duration of the cardiac cycles. The complexity of these relationships does not justify ignoring HR when studying HRV, as frequently occurs. Using spectral and nonspectral methods, the HR and various normalized and non-normalized indices of HRV were studied in 24-hour recordings of a homogeneous cohort of seventeen 20-year-old healthy males. The HR-HRV relationships were appraised by analyzing the same data in two different ways. The 24 mean hourly values provide consistent information on the circadian behavior of the indices, while the average 24-hour individual data show a wide spectrum of normality. Combined approaches allow assessment of the direct impact of RR interval on HRV evaluation. The correlations between HR and normalized indices of HRV are weaker in 24-hour individual data than in pooled hourly data of the same individuals. These correlations are close to 1 in the latter case, which does not mean that measuring HRV is simply another method of evaluating HR, but that normal physiology supposes a harmonious behavior of the various indices. When considered individually without normalization, the specific indices of vagal modulation (high-frequency band of the spectrum, short-term HR oscillations of the nonspectral analysis) consistently increase at night and diminish during the day. However, the low-frequency power, which supposedly reflects sympathetic influences, also increases at night, whereas more logically the longer HR oscillations would predominate during the day. Moreover, the selective analysis of HR oscillations during HR acceleration or decrease indicates that their behavior differs accordingly. We recommend that closer attention be paid to the complex relationships between HR and HRV. The strong correlations

  19. Resting heart rate, heart rate variability and functional decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliari, Giulia; Mahinrad, Simin; Stott, David J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart rate and heart rate variability, markers of cardiac autonomic function, have been linked with cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether heart rate and heart rate variability are associated with functional status in older adults, independent of cardiovascular disease. METHODS......: We obtained data from the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). A total of 5042 participants were included in the present study, and mean followup was 3.2 years. Heart rate and heart rate variability were derived from baseline 10-second electrocardiograms. Heart rate.......3 years. At baseline, higher heart rate was associated with worse ADL and IADL, and lower SDNN was related to worse IADL (all p values heart rate (range 71-117 beats/min) had a 1.79-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-2.22) and 1.35-fold (95% CI 1...

  20. Effects of different levels of positive airway pressure on breathing pattern and heart rate variability after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B.F. Pantoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP produces important hemodynamic alterations, which can influence breathing pattern (BP and heart rate variability (HRV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of CPAP on postoperative BP and HRV after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery and the impact of CABG surgery on these variables. Eighteen patients undergoing CABG were evaluated postoperatively during spontaneous breathing (SB and application of four levels of CPAP applied in random order: sham (3 cmH2O, 5 cmH2O, 8 cmH2O, and 12 cmH2O. HRV was analyzed in time and frequency domains and by nonlinear methods and BP was analyzed in different variables (breathing frequency, inspiratory tidal volume, inspiratory and expiratory time, total breath time, fractional inspiratory time, percent rib cage inspiratory contribution to tidal volume, phase relation during inspiration, phase relation during expiration. There was significant postoperative impairment in HRV and BP after CABG surgery compared to the preoperative period and improvement of DFAα1, DFAα2 and SD2 indexes, and ventilatory variables during postoperative CPAP application, with a greater effect when 8 and 12 cmH2O were applied. A positive correlation (P < 0.05 and r = 0.64; Spearman was found between DFAα1 and inspiratory time to the delta of 12 cmH2O and SB of HRV and respiratory values. Acute application of CPAP was able to alter cardiac autonomic nervous system control and BP of patients undergoing CABG surgery and 8 and 12 cmH2O of CPAP provided the best performance of pulmonary and cardiac autonomic functions.

  1. Heart rate reduction and longevity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Sabine; Kleinbongard, Petra; Dammann, Philip; Neuhäuser, Markus; Heusch, Gerd

    2015-03-01

    Heart rate correlates inversely with life span across all species, including humans. In patients with cardiovascular disease, higher heart rate is associated with increased mortality, and such patients benefit from pharmacological heart rate reduction. However, cause-and-effect relationships between heart rate and longevity, notably in healthy individuals, are not established. We therefore prospectively studied the effects of a life-long pharmacological heart rate reduction on longevity in mice. We hypothesized, that the total number of cardiac cycles is constant, and that a 15% heart rate reduction might translate into a 15% increase in life span. C57BL6/J mice received either placebo or ivabradine at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day in drinking water from 12 weeks to death. Heart rate and body weight were monitored. Autopsy was performed on all non-autolytic cadavers, and parenchymal organs were evaluated macroscopically. Ivabradine reduced heart rate by 14% (median, interquartile range 12-15%) throughout life, and median life span was increased by 6.2% (p = 0.01). Body weight and macroscopic findings were not different between placebo and ivabradine. Life span was not increased to the same extent as heart rate was reduced, but nevertheless significantly prolonged by 6.2%.

  2. Heart rate dependency of JT interval sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatkova, Katerina; Johannesen, Lars; Vicente, Jose; Malik, Marek

    2017-08-09

    Little experience exists with the heart rate correction of J-Tpeak and Tpeak-Tend intervals. In a population of 176 female and 176 male healthy subjects aged 32.3±9.8 and 33.1±8.4years, respectively, curve-linear and linear relationship to heart rate was investigated for different sections of the JT interval defined by the proportions of the area under the vector magnitude of the reconstructed 3D vectorcardiographic loop. The duration of the JT sub-section between approximately just before the T peak and almost the T end was found heart rate independent. Most of the JT heart rate dependency relates to the beginning of the interval. The duration of the terminal T wave tail is only weakly heart rate dependent. The Tpeak-Tend is only minimally heart rate dependent and in studies not showing substantial heart rate changes does not need to be heart rate corrected. For any correction formula that has linear additive properties, heart rate correction of JT and JTpeak intervals is practically the same as of the QT interval. However, this does not apply to the formulas in the form of Int/RR(a) since they do not have linear additive properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Heart Rate Responses to Synthesized Affective Spoken Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirja Ilves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of brief synthesized spoken words with emotional content on the ratings of emotions and heart rate responses. Twenty participants' heart rate functioning was measured while they listened to a set of emotionally negative, neutral, and positive words produced by speech synthesizers. At the end of the experiment, ratings of emotional experiences were also collected. The results showed that the ratings of the words were in accordance with their valence. Heart rate deceleration was significantly the strongest and most prolonged to the negative stimuli. The findings are the first suggesting that brief spoken emotionally toned words evoke a similar heart rate response pattern found earlier for more sustained emotional stimuli.

  4. Losartan improves heart rate variability and heart rate turbulence in heart failure due to ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Arslan, Uğur; Türkoğlu, Sedat; Balcioğlu, Serhat; Cengel, Atiye

    2007-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate turbulence are known to be disturbed and associated with excess mortality in heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether losartan, when added on top of beta-blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) therapy, could improve these indices in patients with systolic heart failure. Seventy-seven patients (mean age 60.4 +/- 8.0, 80.5% male) with ischemic cardiomyopathy (mean ejection fraction 34.5 +/- 4.4%) and New York Heart Association Class II-III heart failure symptoms, already receiving a beta-blocker and an ACEI, were randomly assigned to either open-label losartan (losartan group) or no additional drug (control group) in a 2:1 ratio and the patients were followed for 12 weeks. The HRV and heart rate turbulence indices were calculated from 24-hour Holter recordings both at the beginning and at the end of follow-up. The baseline clinical characteristics, HRV, and heart rate turbulence indices were similar in the 2 groups. At 12 weeks of follow-up, all HRV parameters except pNN50 increased (SDNN: 113.2 +/- 34.2 versus 127.8 +/- 24.1, P = .001; SDANN: 101.5 +/- 31.7 versus 115.2 +/- 22.0, P = .001; triangular index: 29.9 +/- 11.1 versus 34.2 +/- 7.9, P = .008; RMSSD: 29.1 +/- 20.2 versus 34.3 +/- 23.0, P = .009; NN50: 5015.3 +/- 5554.9 versus 6446.7 +/- 6101.1, P = .024; NN50: 5.65 +/- 6.41 versus 7.24 +/- 6.99, P = .089; SDNNi: 45.1 +/- 13.3 versus 50.3 +/- 14.5, P = .004), turbulence onset decreased (-0. 61 +/- 1.70 versus -1.24 +/- 1.31, P = .003) and turbulence slope increased (4.107 +/- 3.881 versus 5.940 +/- 4.281, P = .004) significantly in the losartan group as compared with controls. A 12-week-long losartan therapy significantly improved HRV and heart rate turbulence in patients with Class II-III heart failure and ischemic cardiomyopathy already on beta-blockers and ACEI.

  5. Mental load, heart rate and heart rate variability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blitz, P.S.; Hoogstraten, J.; Mulder, G.

    1970-01-01

    "Several investigators have shown that diminished sinus arrhythmia can be seen as an indication of increased mental load. The present experiment deals with the influence of different levels of mental load, operationalized as the number of binary choices per minute, on the regularity of the heart

  6. Measuring heart rate with optical sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barachi, M. (Mitra)

    2014-01-01

    The problem addressed in this report is to verify the possibility of using an optical sensor in the SaxShirt in order to extract the heart rate. There are specifically three questions that we try to address. 1) How is it possible to extract heart rate (BPM) from the optical sensor? 2) Is it

  7. Resting heart rate estimation using PIR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapu, Hemanth; Saraswat, Kavisha; Ozturk, Yusuf; Cetin, A. Enis

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a non-invasive and non-contact system of estimating resting heart rate (RHR) using a pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor. This infrared system monitors and records the chest motion of a subject using the analog output signal of the PIR sensor. The analog output signal represents the composite motion due to inhale-exhale process with magnitude much larger than the minute vibrations of heartbeat. Since the acceleration of the heart activity is much faster than breathing the second derivative of the PIR sensor signal monitoring the chest of the subject is used to estimate the resting heart rate. Experimental results indicate that this ambient sensor can measure resting heart rate with a chi-square significance level of α = 0.05 compared to an industry standard PPG sensor. This new system provides a low cost and an effective way to estimate the resting heart rate, which is an important biological marker.

  8. Fetal heart rate after vibroacoustic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Jeong Kyu; Park, Young-Sun; Cha, Kyung-Joon; Park, Moon-Il

    2009-07-01

    To define reference ranges for fetal heart rate (FHR) parameters after vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) according to gestational age by determining the relationship between FHR and gestational age using a computerized analysis system. Data were analyzed from 3453 women using 10-minute observational recordings during nonstress testing (NST) and VAS testing. FHR parameters were analyzed according to gestational age. All FHR parameters were related to gestational age except for mean baseline FHR, which did not vary significantly with gestational age. All other parameters followed trends similar to the NST results, except for decelerations. FHR parameters after VAS differed significantly according to gestational age. The results suggest that the gestational age of the fetus should be considered when interpreting FHR patterns after VAS.

  9. Heart rate and respiratory rate influence on heart rate variability repeatability: effects of the correction for the prevailing heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Sławomir Gąsior

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since heart rate variability (HRV is associated with average heart rate (HR and respiratory rate (RespRate, alterations in these parameters may impose changes in HRV. Hence the repeatability of HRV measurements may be affected by differences in HR and RespRate. The study aimed to evaluate HRV repeatability and its association with changes in HR and RespRate.Methods: Forty healthy volunteers underwent two ECG examinations seven days apart. Standard HRV indices were calculated from 5-min ECG recordings. The ECG-derived respiration signal was estimated to assess RespRate. To investigate HR impact on HRV, HRV parameters were corrected for prevailing HR. Results: Differences in HRV parameters between the measurements were associated with the changes in HR and RespRate. However, in multiple regression analysis only HR alteration proved to be independent determinant of the HRV differences – every change in HR by 1 bpm changed HRV values by 16.5% on average. After overall removal of HR impact on HRV, coefficients of variation of the HRV parameters significantly dropped on average by 26.8% (p < 0.001, i.e. by the same extent HRV reproducibility improved. Additionally, the HRV correction for HR decreased association between RespRate and HRV. Conclusions: In stable conditions, HR but not RespRate is the most powerful factor determining HRV reproducibility and even a minimal change of HR may considerably alter HRV. However, the removal of HR impact may significantly improve HRV repeatability. The association between HRV and RespRate seems to be, at least in part, HR dependent.

  10. Peak heart rates at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    We have measured maximal heart rate during a graded maximal bicycle exercise test to exhaustion in five healthy climbers before and during an expedition to Mt. Everest. Maximal heart rates at sea level were 186 (177-204) beats/min(-1) at sea level and 170 (169-182) beats/min(-1) with acute hypoxia....... After 1, 4 and 6 weeks of acclimatization to 5400 m, maximal heart rates were 155 (135-182), 158 (144-182), and 155 (140-183) beats/min(-1), respectively. Heart rates of two of the climbers were measured during their attempt to reach the summit of Mt. Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen....... The peak heart rates at 8,750 m for the two climbers were 142 and 144 beats/min(-1), which were similar to their maximal heart rates during exhaustive bicycle exercise at 5,400 m, the values being 144 and 148 beats/min(-1), respectively. The peak heart rates at 8,750 m are in agreement with other field...

  11. FPGA Implementation of Heart Rate Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, D; Rakshit, M; Sahu, P K

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a system that calculates the heart rate from Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. After heart rate calculation, tachycardia, bradycardia or normal heart rate can easily be detected. ECG is a diagnosis tool routinely used to access the electrical activities and muscular function of the heart. Heart rate is calculated by detecting the R peaks from the ECG signal. To provide a portable and the continuous heart rate monitoring system for patients using ECG, needs a dedicated hardware. FPGA provides easy testability, allows faster implementation and verification option for implementing a new design. We have proposed a five-stage based methodology by using basic VHDL blocks like addition, multiplication and data conversion (real to the fixed point and vice-versa). Our proposed heart rate calculation (R-peak detection) method has been validated, using 48 first channel ECG records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. It shows an accuracy of 99.84%, the sensitivity of 99.94% and the positive predictive value of 99.89%. Our proposed method outperforms other well-known methods in case of pathological ECG signals and successfully implemented in FPGA.

  12. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade on the early decrease in maximal heart rate at high altitude (4559 m). We also attempted to clarify the time-dependent component of this reduction and the extent to which it is reversed by oxygen breathing. Twelve subjects performed...... progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen...... breathing completely reversed the decrease in maximal heart rate to values not different from those at sea level. In conclusion, dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade with domperidone demonstrates that hypoxic exercise in humans activates D(2)-receptors, resulting in a decrease in circulating levels...

  13. Pattern of Acquired Heart Diseases among Children Seen in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endomyocardial fibrosis was seen in 7 (6.4%) patients while infective endocarditis and Kawasaki disease occurred in 6 (5.5%) and 2 (1.8%) patients respectively. Mortality rate was 17.3%. Commonly observed co‑morbidities included heart failure, bronchopneumonia, and pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: The pattern ...

  14. Heart rate and heart rate variability in dogs with different degrees of myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Caroline Elisabeth; Falk, Bo Torkel; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    HEART RATE AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN DOGS WITH DIFFERENT DEGREES OF MYXOMATOUS MITRAL VALVE DISEASE. CE Rasmussen1, T Falk1, NE Zois1, SG Moesgaard1, HD Pedersen2, J Häggström3 and LH Olsen1. 1. Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenh......HEART RATE AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN DOGS WITH DIFFERENT DEGREES OF MYXOMATOUS MITRAL VALVE DISEASE. CE Rasmussen1, T Falk1, NE Zois1, SG Moesgaard1, HD Pedersen2, J Häggström3 and LH Olsen1. 1. Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University...

  15. Heart rate monitors and abnormal heart rhythm detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, G; Chamoux, A

    2000-10-01

    We test the accuracy of two third generation heart rate monitors (HRM), Accurex Plus and Vantage NV and compare these data with those of an older monitor, PE 4000. Then we investigate responses of the HRM's to abnormal heart rhythms (HR). Accurex Plus and Vantage NV, and PE 4000 were tested in the laboratory under both stable and transient conditions. The Phantom 320 HR simulator gave 7 stable heart rates, each lasting 3 min. The responses of the HRM's to abnormal heart rhythms were tested with an automatic arrhythmia program lasting 17 min. The new HRM's, Accurex Plus and Vantage NV, were more accurate (89 to 94% and over 98% at +/-3 beats per min) in the stable state than the PE 4000. They all showed a smoothing effect in transient measurements, which was stronger in decelerating HR (1st case) than in accelerating HR (2nd case). - 1st case: Accurex Plus =Vantage NV >PE 4000 -2nd case: PE 4000 >Accurex =Vantage. Most isolated heart rhythm disorders (missing beat, pause 4 s, important bradycardia or tachycardia.

  16. Heart Rate Variability - A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Billman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate or the duration of the R-R interval – the heart period, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool. The temporal fluctuations in heart rate exhibit a marked synchrony with respiration (increasing during inspiration and decreasing during expiration – the so called respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA and are widely believed to reflect changes in cardiac autonomic regulation. Although the exact contributions of the parasympathetic and the sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system to this variability are controversial and remain the subject of active investigation and debate, a number of time and frequency domain techniques have been developed to provide insight into cardiac autonomic regulation in both health and disease. It is the purpose of this essay to provide an historical overview of the evolution in the concept of heart rate variability. Briefly, pulse rate was first measured by ancient Greek physicians and scientists. However, it was not until the invention of the Physician’s Pulse Watch (a watch with a second hand that could be stopped in 1707 that changes in pulse rate could be accurately assessed. The Rev. Stephen Hales (1733 was the first to note that pulse varied with respiration and in 1847 Carl Ludwig was the first to record RSA. With the measurement of the ECG (1895 and advent of digital signal processing techniques in the 1960’s, investigation of HRV and its relationship to health and disease has exploded. This essay will conclude with a brief description of time domain, frequency domain, and non-linear dynamic analysis techniques (and their limitations that are commonly used to measure heart rate variability.

  17. Resting Heart Rate and Auditory Evoked Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fiuza Regaçone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between rest heart rate (HR and the components of the auditory evoked-related potentials (ERPs at rest in women. We investigated 21 healthy female university students between 18 and 24 years old. We performed complete audiological evaluation and measurement of heart rate for 10 minutes at rest (heart rate monitor Polar RS800CX and performed ERPs analysis (discrepancy in frequency and duration. There was a moderate negative correlation of the N1 and P3a with rest HR and a strong positive correlation of the P2 and N2 components with rest HR. Larger components of the ERP are associated with higher rest HR.

  18. Low Resting Heart Rate and Stalking Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Danielle; Wells, Jessica; Armstrong, Todd; Lewis, Richard H; Woeckener, Matthias; Nobles, Matt R

    2017-04-01

    There is consistent evidence to suggest that individuals with low resting heart rate are more likely to engage in a variety of antisocial behaviors. The present study examines whether this finding can be extended to stalking perpetration. Drawing from fearlessness theory and stimulation-seeking theory, as well as conceptual work of Meloy and Fisher, we find that individuals with low resting heart rates had significantly greater odds of engaging in stalking behavior, net of controls for sex, age, race, self-control, parental affection, delinquent peers, attitudes/beliefs toward crime, and aggression. When disaggregated by sex, the heart rate-stalking relationship was found to be significant for males, but not for females. The implications of these findings are discussed from a biosocial perspective.

  19. Effects of social stress on heart rate and heart rate variability in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, IC; Sgoifo, A; Lambooij, E; Korte, SM; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM

    The effects of social stress on heart rate, heart rate variability and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias were studied in 12 growing pigs. Social stress was induced during a good competition test with a pen mate, and subsequently during a resident-intruder test with an unacquainted pig in which

  20. Effects of social stress on heart rate and heart rate variability in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Sgoifo, A.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of social stress on heart rate, heart rate variability and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias were studied in 12 growing pigs. Social stress was induced during a good competition test with a pen mate, and subsequently during a resident-intruder test with an unacquainted pig in which

  1. Quantitative evaluation of heartbeat interval time series using Poincaré analysis reveals distinct patterns of heart rate dynamics during cycles of vagus nerve stimulation in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbus, Imad; Nearing, Bruce D; Amurthur, Badri; KenKnight, Bruce H; Verrier, Richard L

    Optimization of stimulation parameters is essential to maximizing therapeutic efficacy and minimizing side effects. The ANTHEM-HF study enrolled patients with heart failure who received chronic autonomic regulation therapy (ART) with an implantable vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) system on either the right (n=30) or left side (n=29). Acute effects of continuously cycling VNS on R-R interval dynamics were evaluated using post hoc Poincaré analysis of ECG recordings collected during multiple titration sessions over an 8-12week period. During each titration session, VNS intensity associated with maximum tolerable dose was determined. Poincaré plots of R-R interval time series were created for epochs when VNS cycled from OFF to ON at varying intensity levels. VNS produced an immediate, relatively small change in beat-to-beat distribution of R-R intervals during the 14-sec ON time, which was correlated with stimulation current amplitude (r=0.85, p=0.05). During titration of right-sided stimulation, there was a strong correlation (r=0.91, p=0.01) between stimulus intensity and the Poincaré parameter of standard deviation, SD1, which is associated with high-frequency heart rate variability. The effect of VNS on instantaneous heart rate was indicated by a shift in the centroid of the beat-to-beat cloud distribution demarcated by the encircling ellipse. As anticipated, left-sided stimulation did not alter any Poincaré parameter except at high stimulation intensities (≥2mA). Quantitative Poincaré analysis reveals a tight coupling in beat-to-beat dynamics during VNS ON cycles that is directly related to stimulation intensity, providing a useful measurement for confirming autonomic engagement. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Heart rate and reinforcement sensitivity in ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luman, M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Hyde, C.; van Meel, C.S.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Both theoretical and clinical accounts of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) implicate a dysfunctional reinforcement system. This study investigated heart rate parameters in response to feedback associated with reward and response cost in ADHD children and controls aged 8

  3. Heart rate control via vagus nerve stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschman, H.P.J.; Storm, Corstiaan J.; Duncker, Dirk J.; Verdouw, Pieter D.; van der Aa, Hans E.; van der Kemp, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: There is ample and well-established evidence that direct electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can change heart rate in animals and humans. Since tachyarrhythmias cannot always be controlled through medication, we sought, in this pilot study, to elucidate whether a clinical

  4. Has electronic fetal heart rate monitoring made a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Philip J

    2008-02-01

    Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (EFHRM) has revolutionised our understanding of the function of the cardiovascular system of the fetus during labour, and how the fetus responds to hypoxia. However, although it is a sensitive technique for the detection of hypoxia during labour, it is relatively non-specific for detecting the development of acidosis. Moreover, it is highly dependent on accurate interpretation of fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns, which has been shown to be commonly of a low standard in everyday clinical practice. Use of EFHRM has probably reduced the incidence of birth asphyxia, but it has also contributed to the rise in the caesarean section rate. Ancillary techniques, such as pulse oximetry, have not proved useful, although ST-segment analysis of the ECG waveform shows some promise. Computerised expert systems for the analysis of FHR patterns may be more successful at avoiding poor outcomes.

  5. Median maximal heart rate for heart rate calibration in different conditions: laboratory, field and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, G; Garet, M; Bedu, M; Albuisson, E; Chamoux, A

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the variability of maximal heart rate in three different conditions: laboratory tests, field tests, and competitions. Sixteen male endurance volunteers were tested in five exhaustive tests for each condition. All exhaustive events were heart rate monitored (Accurex plus, Polar Electro, Finland) and true maximal heart rates were assessed and compared with each other and with predicted maximal heart rates. Results show that under the three conditions HR(peaks) were not statistically different (p = 0.62, NS, Friedman test). Mean HR(peaks) (SD) were: laboratory = 194.3 (7.8), field = 193.8 (11.8), competition = 192.3 (10.1) beats x min(-1). Conditions for reaching individual heart rate peak were in the laboratory (treadmill VO(2)max protocol) for 5 subjects, in field tests for 7 subjects and in competitions for 6 subjects (two circumstances for two subjects). A large intra-individual variation existed in the three circumstances (+/- 6 beats x min(-1)). Absolute median maximal heart rate was 190.0 bpm (9.32) i.e 7.6 bpm lower than heart rate peak. Both were highly related (rho = 0.89, z = 3.449, p = 0.0006, Spearman test). Median maximal heart rates inter-condition relationship were higher. Median maximal heart rate was more stable and took more information into account than an isolated peak. It gives a central value that minimizes the potential risk of under or over estimation when calibrating exercise intensities with HR.

  6. Gaussian mixture model of heart rate variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Costa

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is an important measure of sympathetic and parasympathetic functions of the autonomic nervous system and a key indicator of cardiovascular condition. This paper proposes a novel method to investigate HRV, namely by modelling it as a linear combination of Gaussians. Results show that three Gaussians are enough to describe the stationary statistics of heart variability and to provide a straightforward interpretation of the HRV power spectrum. Comparisons have been made also with synthetic data generated from different physiologically based models showing the plausibility of the Gaussian mixture parameters.

  7. Heart rate detection from plantar bioimpedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Landaeta, R; Casas, O; Pallàs-Areny, R

    2006-01-01

    The heart rate is a basic health indicator, useful in both clinical measurements and home health care. Current home care systems often require the attachment of electrodes or other sensors to the body, which can be cumbersome to the patient. Moreover, some measurements are sensitive to movement artifacts, are not user-friendly and require a specialized supervision. In this paper, a novel technique for heart rate measurement for a standing subject is proposed, which is based on plantar bioimpedance measurements, such as those performed by some bathroom weighting scales for body composition analysis. Because of the low level of heart-related impedance variations, the measurement system has a gain of 1400. We have implemented a fully differential AC amplifier with a common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of 105 dB at 10 kHz. Coherent demodulation based on synchronous sampling yields a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 55 dB. The system has a sensitivity of 1.9 V/Omega. The technique has been demonstrated on 18 volunteers, whose bioimpedance signal and ECG were simultaneously measured to validate the results. The average cross-correlation coefficient between the heart rates determined from these two signals was 0.998 (std. dev. 0.001).

  8. Music determines heart rate variability of singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eVickhoff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Choir singing is known to promote wellbeing. One reason for this may be that singing demands a slower than normal respiration which may in turn affect heart activity. Coupling of heart rate variability (HRV to respiration is called Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA. This coupling has a subjective as well as a biologically soothing effect, and it is beneficial for cardiovascular function. RSA is seen to be more marked during slow-paced breathing and at lower respiration rates (0.1 Hz and below. In this study, we investigate how singing, which is a form of guided breathing, affects HRV and RSA. The study comprises a group of healthy 18 year olds of mixed gender. The subjects are asked to; (1 hum a single tone and breathe whenever they need to; (2 sing a hymn with free, unguided breathing; and (3 sing a slow mantra and breathe solely between phrases. Heart rate (HR is measured continuously during the study. The study design makes it possible to compare above three levels of song structure. In a separate case study, we examine five individuals performing singing tasks (1-(3. We collect data with more advanced equipment, simultaneously recording HR, respiration, skin conductance and finger temperature. We show how song structure, respiration and heart rate are connected. Unison singing of regular song structures makes the hearts of the singers accelerate and decelerate simultaneously. Implications concerning the effect on wellbeing and health are discussed as well as the question how this inner entrainment may affect perception and behavior.

  9. Lessons from the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth; Birnbaum, Burton H.

    Learning about the relationship between heart rate and physical activity is an important aspect of fitness education. Use of a heart rate monitor (HRM) helps a student to understand how stretching and large muscle movements gradually increase the heart rate and blood flow, and enables students to measure their exercise heart rates and set goals…

  10. Changes in heart rate variability with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, M; Malik, M

    1996-11-01

    Depressed heart rate variability (HRV) after a myocardial infarction is associated with increased mortality. This is thought to be due to reduced parasympathetic activity and heightened sympathetic activity. Aging is associated with depressed HRV, but little is known of the affect of aging on parasympathetic activity. This study examined 56 healthy subjects (age range 40-102 years; 39 women). None had a history of heart disease or were on medication that would affect cardiac function. All had normal resting ECGs, normal heart size on chest X ray, and normal electrolytes. In all subjects, 24-hour Holter recordings were performed and used to measure HRV. In particular, the study examined the affect of age on HRV triangular index, which gives an estimate of overall HRV, and on RMSSD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal RR intervals), which gives an estimate of short-term components of HRV and is thought to reflect the overall extent of vagal modulations of heart rates. Both these parameters were compared in patients younger and older than 70 years. Each recording lasted at least 17 hours; the majority of recordings were longer than 20 hours. There was a significant decrease in HRV triangular index with age (r = -0.4, P 70 years compared with those < 70 years (38.0 +/- 9.3 vs 31.0 +/- 11, respectively, P < 0.02). There was no significant difference in RMSSD between the two age groups (26.7 +/- 8.2 ms vs 28.4 +/- 11.3 ms, respectively, P = NS). Thus, the study concludes that aging reduces the global measure of HRV and may reflect reduced responsiveness of autonomic activity to external environmental stimuli with age. However, the time-domain short-term components of HRV are not affected by age and, therefore, the fast and presumably vagal modulations of heart rate appear to be maintained.

  11. Sound and vibration : effects on infants' heart rate and heart rate variability during neonatal transport

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Björn-Markus; Lindkvist, Marie; Lindkvist, Markus; Karlsson, Marcus; Lundström, Ronnie; Håkansson, Stellan; Wiklund, Urban; van den Berg, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To measure the effect of sound and whole-body vibration on infants' heart rate and heart rate variability during ground and air ambulance transport. Methods: Sixteen infants were transported by air ambulance with ground ambulance transport to and from the airports. Whole-body vibration and sound levels were recorded and heart parameters were obtained by ECG signal. Results: Sound and whole-body vibration levels exceeded the recommended limits. Mean whole-body vibration and sound levels w...

  12. Guided imagery, anxiety, heart rate, and heart rate variability during centrifuge training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaolu; Wu, Ping; Liu, Fang; Wu, Bin; Miao, Danmin

    2011-02-01

    Centrifuge training is an important method of improving the hypergravity tolerance of pilots, cosmonauts, and Chinese astronauts. However, the concomitants of tension or anxiety often impede training. Guided imagery (GI), a mind-body relaxation technique, provides a behavioral and cognitive means whereby individuals are able to exert control over the focus of attention. This study aims to investigate the immediate effects of GI for reducing stress in centrifuge training. There were 12 healthy young men who were randomly assigned to a GI group or music group. We measured changes in heart rate during centrifuge training, in heart rate variability before and after centrifuge training, and also evaluated relaxation and anxiety in three phases: before intervention, after intervention, and following centrifuge training. The change in the pattern of anxiety was different in the two groups over the three phases. Anxiety (measured by State Anxiety Inventory) in the GI group changed from 31.7 +/- 5.9 to 26.8 +/- 2.6 and 27.8 +/- 4.1, whereas for the music group this changed from 32.2 +/- 7.6 to 31.2 +/- 8.3 and 26.8 +/- 6.8. During centrifuge training, the maximal HR for the GI group (101.2 +/- 8.8) was lower than that of the music group (123.0 +/- 19.1). In addition GI showed a decrease in low frequency (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz) components and an increase in high frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz) components before and after centrifuge training. GI was capable of decreasing tension, anxiety, and sympathetic nervous system activity pre- or post-centrifugation.

  13. Emotions, heart rate and performance in archery. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robazza, C; Bortoli, L; Nougier, V

    1999-06-01

    A case study of an elite female archer was conducted to gain insight into individual psychophysical reactions accompanying an athletic event, and to test predictions of pre-performance emotions effects upon performance. Good performance was expected when the actual pre-performance emotions resembled the recalled optimal emotion pattern. Conversely, poor performance was expected when the actual pre-performance emotions paralleled the recalled ineffective emotion pattern. the investigation comprised individual emotion profiling, emotions and heart rate monitoring, final interview and performance evaluation. The research was accomplished during the 1996 European Archery Championships, one of the most important international archery competitions. An 18-year-old female athlete of the Italian archery national team. Because of the exploratory nature of the study, no intervention was implemented. Emotion profiling was carried out using an idiographic approach based on recalled optimal and poor performances, according to the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) model. Emotions, heart rate, and performance were monitored across the five days of practice and competition. Individual pre-performance optimal emotion pattern, heart rate deceleration during shooting, consistent shooting scores were revealed throughout practice and competition. The good performance predicted on the basis of pre-performance emotion assessments was met and was confirmed by the archer's interpretation.

  14. Effect of uterine contractions on fetal heart rate in pregnancy: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletten, Julie; Kiserud, Torvid; Kessler, Jörg

    2016-10-01

    The new Holter monitoring technology enables long-term electrocardiographic recording of the fetal heart rate without discomfort for the mother. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of a fetal Holter monitor. This technology was further used to study fetal heart rate outside the hospital setting during normal daily activities and to test the hypothesis that uterine activity during pregnancy influences fetal heart rate. Prospective observational study including 12 healthy pregnant women at 20-40 weeks of gestation. Data were collected using the Monica AN24 system. Outcome measures were fetal heart rate, maternal heart rate, and uterine activity categorized according to the strength of the electrohysterographic signal. The recordings had a median length of 18.8 h, and fetal heart rate and maternal heart rate were obtained with success rates of 73.1 and 99.9%, respectively. Uterine activity was found to affect fetal heart rate in all participants. Compared with the basal tone and mild levels of uterine activity, moderate and strong levels of uterine activity were associated with increases in fetal heart rate of 4.0 and 5.7 beats/min, respectively. At night, the corresponding increases were 4.9 and 7.6 beats/min. Linear correlations were found between maternal heart rate and fetal heart rate in 11 of the 12 cases, with a mean coefficient beta of 0.189. Both maternal heart rate and fetal heart rate exhibited a diurnal pattern, with lower heart rates being recorded at night. Uterine activity during pregnancy is associated with a graded response in fetal heart rate and may represent a physiological challenge for the development and adaptation of the fetal cardiovascular system. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Decomposition of heart rate variability by adaptive filtering for estimation of cardiac vagal tone

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Kedu; Nagel, Joachim H.; Hurwitz, Barry E.; Schneiderman, Neil

    1991-01-01

    Heart rate fluctuations resulting from respiration and other influences upon the cardiovascular system are encoded into the patterns of heart rate variability (HRV). The fluctuations due to respiration are called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Since RSA is primarily mediated through the autonomic nervous system (ANS), it is of interest to separate RSA from other influences to assess the underlying ANS function. On the other hand, the RSA may obscure heart rate responses to external manip...

  16. [Music and heart rate variability. Study of the effect of music on heart rate variability in healthy adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, J; Evéquoz, D

    1999-05-20

    The effect of trophotropic (relaxing) music on heart rate and heart rate variability has been investigated in 23 healthy young individuals by means of 24-hour Holter-ECG. Relaxing music (Bach, Vivaldi, Mozart) resulted in significant reduction of heart rate and also significant reduction of heart rate variability. The significance of these results for the use of music in coronary heart disease is discussed.

  17. Bluetooth Heart Rate Monitors For Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, R. E.; West, M. R.; Kalogera, K. L.; Hanson, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required for crewmembers during exercise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data are required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth heart rate monitors (BT_HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health aboard the ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT_HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) were worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT_HRM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the 2 data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. RESULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6% error), followed by CS4 (3.3% error), CS3 (6.4% error), and CS2 (9.2% error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, but unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to obtain the best quality data. CS2 will be

  18. Diminution of Heart Rate Variability in Bipolar Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Hage

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system (ANS dysregulation in depression is associated with symptoms associated with the ANS. The beat-to-beat pattern of heart rate defined as heart rate variability (HRV provides a noninvasive portal to ANS function and has been proposed to represent a means of quantifying resting vagal tone. We quantified HRV in bipolar depressed (BDD patients as a measure of ANS dysregulation seeking to establish HRV as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for treatment outcome. Forty-seven BDD patients were enrolled. They were randomized to receive either escitalopram–celecoxib or escitalopram-placebo over 8 weeks in a double-blind study design. Thirty-five patients completed the HRV studies. Thirty-six healthy subjects served as controls. HRV was assessed at pretreatment and end of study and compared with that of controls. HRV was quantified and corrected for artifacts using an algorithm that incorporates time and frequency domains to address non-stationarity of the beat-to-beat heart rate pattern. Baseline high frequency-HRV (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia was lower in BDD patients than controls, although the difference did not reach significance. Baseline low-frequency HRV was significantly lower in BDD patients (ln4.20 than controls (ln = 5.50 (p < 0.01. Baseline heart period was significantly shorter (i.e., faster heart rate in BDD patients than controls. No significant change in HRV parameters were detected over the course of the study with either treatment. These findings suggest that components of HRV may be diminished in BDD patients.

  19. The mitochondrial uniporter controls fight or flight heart rate increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejin; Rasmussen, Tyler P; Koval, Olha M; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Hall, Duane D; Chen, Biyi; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qiongling; Rokita, Adam G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-01-20

    Heart rate increases are a fundamental adaptation to physiological stress, while inappropriate heart rate increases are resistant to current therapies. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving heart rate acceleration in cardiac pacemaker cells remain incompletely understood. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) facilitates calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix to stimulate metabolism. We developed mice with myocardial MCU inhibition by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) MCU. Here, we show that DN-MCU mice had normal resting heart rates but were incapable of physiological fight or flight heart rate acceleration. We found that MCU function was essential for rapidly increasing mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells and that MCU-enhanced oxidative phoshorylation was required to accelerate reloading of an intracellular calcium compartment before each heartbeat. Our findings show that MCU is necessary for complete physiological heart rate acceleration and suggest that MCU inhibition could reduce inappropriate heart rate increases without affecting resting heart rate.

  20. Case Studies in Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, J.; Parboosingh, I.J.

    1986-01-01

    Subtle changes in the characteristics of the fetal heart rate are currently used to assess the condition of the fetus in late pregnancy and during labour. The authors present three case studies of fetal heart rate monitoring.

  1. BIOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISATION OF THE UNDER-APPRECIATED AND IMPORTANT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND HEART RATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfredi, Oliver; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Johnsen, Anne-Berit; Inada, Shin; Schneider, Heiko; Wang, Ruoxi; Nirmalan, Mahesh; Wisloff, Ulrik; Maltsev, Victor A; Lakatta, Edward G; Zhang, Henggui; Boyett, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (beat-to-beat changes in the RR interval) has attracted considerable attention over the last 30+ years (PubMed currently lists >17,000 publications). Clinically, a decrease in heart rate variability is correlated to higher morbidity and mortality in diverse conditions, from heart disease to foetal distress. It is usually attributed to fluctuation in cardiac autonomic nerve activity. We calculated heart rate variability parameters from a variety of cardiac preparations (including humans, living animals, Langendorff-perfused heart and single sinoatrial nodal cell) in diverse species, combining this with data from previously published papers. We show that regardless of conditions, there is a universal exponential decay-like relationship between heart rate variability and heart rate. Using two biophysical models, we develop a theory for this, and confirm that heart rate variability is primarily dependent on heart rate and cannot be used in any simple way to assess autonomic nerve activity to the heart. We suggest that the correlation between a change in heart rate variability and altered morbidity and mortality is substantially attributable to the concurrent change in heart rate. This calls for re-evaluation of the findings from many papers that have not adjusted properly or at all for heart rate differences when comparing heart rate variability in multiple circumstances. PMID:25225208

  2. Heart Rate During Sleep: Implications for Monitoring Training Status

    OpenAIRE

    Waldeck, Miriam R.; Lambert, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    Resting heart rate has sometimes been used as a marker of training status. It is reasonable to assume that the relationship between heart rate and training status should be more evident during sleep when extraneous factors that may influence heart rate are reduced. Therefore the aim of the study was to assess the repeatability of monitoring heart rate during sleep when training status remained unchanged, to determine if this measurement had sufficient precision to be used as a marker of train...

  3. The role of preparatory heart rate deceleration on balance beam performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottyn, Jorge; de Clercq, Dirk; Crombez, Geert; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2008-04-01

    Preparatory heart rate deceleration occurs in tasks with an external focus of attention and is often assumed to facilitate balance performance. However, its effects upon sport-related complex balance movements have not been studied. Heart rate patterns during the preparation period of an acrobatic element (flic-flac) on the balance beam were studied in 14 female gymnasts (M age 13.2 years). A significant heart rate deceleration was found in attempts with a fall in the consecutive acrobatic element, but not in attempts without a fall. These data suggest that preparatory heart rate deceleration may be detrimental to the performance of complex movements on the balance beam.

  4. Resting heart rate and cardiovascular events: risk factor or risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Resting heart rate and cardiovascular events: risk factor or risk marker? 128. Vol 52 No 2. SA Fam Pract 2010. SA Fam Pract 2010;52(2): 128-129. Heart rate in epidemiological studies. Over the last 25 years numerous reports demonstrated a significant association between resting heart rate and all- cause mortality ...

  5. Simultaneous measurement of instantaneous heart rate and chest wall plethysmography in short-term, metronome guided heart rate variability studies: suitability for assessment of autonomic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perring, S; Jones, E

    2003-08-01

    Instantaneous heart rate and chest wall motion were measured using a 3-lead ECG and an air pressure chest wall plethysmography system. Chest wall plethysmography traces were found to accurately represent the breathing pattern as measured by spirometry (average correlation coefficient 0.944); though no attempt was made to calibrate plethysmography voltage output to tidal volume. Simultaneous measurements of heart rate and chest wall motion were made for short periods under metronome guided breathing at 6 breaths per minute. The average peak to trough heart rate change per breath cycle (AVEMAX) and maximum correlation between heart rate and breathing cycle (HRBRCORR) were measured. Studies of 44 normal volunteers indicated clear inverse correlation of heart rate variability parameters with age (AVEMAX R = -0.502, P heart rate variability in diabetics (P = 0.005 for AVEMAX) and significantly worse correlation between heart rate and breathing (P measurement of heart rate and breathing offers the possibility of more sensitive diagnosis of autonomic failure in a simple bedside test and gives further insight into the nature of cardio-ventilatory coupling.

  6. HEART-RATE-VARIABILITY SPECTRA BASED ON NONEQUIDISTANT SAMPLING - THE SPECTRUM OF COUNTS AND THE INSTANTANEOUS HEART-RATE SPECTRUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSTEENIS, HG; TULEN, JHM; MULDER, LJM

    This paper compares two methods to estimate heart rate variability spectra i.e., the spectrum of counts and the instantaneous heart rate spectrum. Contrary to Fourier techniques based on equidistant sampling of the interbeat intervals, the spectrum of counts of the instantaneous heart rate spectrum

  7. Heart rate monitoring during training and competition in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, A; VanDiemen, A

    1998-01-01

    To obtain optimal training effects and avoid overtraining, it is necessary to monitor the intensity of training. In cycling, speed is not an accurate indicator of exercise intensity, and therefore alternatives have to be found to monitor exercise intensity during training and competition. Power output may be the most direct indicator, but heart rate is easier to monitor and measure. There are, however, limitations that have to be taken into account when using a heart rate monitor. For example, the position on the bicycle may change heart rate at a given exercise intensity. More important, however, is the increase in heart rate over time, a phenomenon described as 'cardiac drift'. Cardiac drift can change the heart rate-power output relationship drastically, especially in hot environments or at altitude. It is important to determine whether one is interested in monitoring exercise intensity per se or measuring whole-body stress. Power output may be a better indicator of the former and heart rate may, under many conditions, be a better indicator of the latter. Heart rate can be used to evaluate a cyclist after training or competition, or to determine the exercise intensity during training. Heart rate monitoring is very useful in the detection of early overtraining, especially in combination with lactate curves and questionnaires. During overtraining, maximal heart rates as well as submaximal heart rates may be decreased, while resting and, in particular, sleeping - heart rates may be increased.

  8. Heart rate awareness in patients with chronic stable heart failure. A multi-center observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, D

    2014-08-23

    We assessed adherence to European Society of Cardiology heart rate guidelines (i.e. heart rates less than 70bpm) in patients with chronic stable heart failure. We also investigated the percent of patients on target doses of rate controlling drugs.

  9. High readmission rate after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibilitz, K L; Berg, S K; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2015-01-01

    age (hazard ratio (95% CI): 1.3 (1.0-1.6)), male sex (1.2 (1.0-1.5)), mitral valve surgery (1.3 (1.0-1.6)), and infective endocarditis after surgery (1.8 (1.1-3.0), p: 0.01) predicted readmission, whereas higher age (2.3 (1.0-5.4)), higher comorbidity score (3.2 (1.8-6.0)), and infective endocarditis......BACKGROUND: After heart valve surgery, knowledge on long-term self-reported health status and readmission is lacking. Thus, the optimal strategy for out-patient management after surgery remains unclear. METHODS: Using a nationwide survey with linkage to Danish registers with one year follow-up, we...... included all adults 6-12 months after heart valve surgery irrespective of valve procedure, during Jan-June 2011 (n = 867). Participants completed a questionnaire regarding health-status (n = 742), and answers were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Readmission rates and mortality were...

  10. Heart rate variability in familial Mediterranean fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinovitch, Naomi; Livneh, Avi; Katz, Keren; Langevitz, Pnina; Feld, Olga; Nussinovitch, Moshe; Volovitz, Benjamin; Lidar, Merav; Nussinovitch, Udi

    2011-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary disease, characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and polyserositis. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a powerful, simple and reliable technique to evaluate autonomic nervous system function. Previous studies of physiologic parameters during tilt-test have suggested that patients with FMF have abnormal cardiovascular reactivity and occult dysautonomia. Prompted by these findings, the present study sought to evaluate HRV in patients with FMF, at rest and in the standing position. The study sample included 34 patients with FMF and 34 sex- and age-matched control subjects. All underwent electrocardiography according to strict criteria. HRV parameters were computed with custom-made software. There was no significant difference in HRV parameters, in either the supine or standing position, between the FMF and control groups. In both groups, the upright position was associated with a significant decrease, when compared with the supine position, in maximal RR interval, minimal RR, average RR, root square of successive differences in RR interval, number of intervals differing by >50 ms from preceding interval (NN50), NN50 divided by total number of intervals (pNN50) and high-frequency components as well as a significant increase in average heart rate, very low frequency or low-frequency components, low-frequency/high-frequency components ratio and total power. In conclusion, patients with FMF who are continuously treated with low-dose colchicine have not developed amyloidosis and have normal HRV parameters in the supine and upright position. Further investigation of occult dysautonomia in FMF is needed.

  11. Biophysical characterization of the underappreciated and important relationship between heart rate variability and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfredi, Oliver; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Johnsen, Anne-Berit; Inada, Shin; Schneider, Heiko; Wang, Ruoxi; Nirmalan, Mahesh; Wisloff, Ulrik; Maltsev, Victor A; Lakatta, Edward G; Zhang, Henggui; Boyett, Mark R

    2014-12-01

    Heart rate (HR) variability (HRV; beat-to-beat changes in the R-wave to R-wave interval) has attracted considerable attention during the past 30+ years (PubMed currently lists >17 000 publications). Clinically, a decrease in HRV is correlated to higher morbidity and mortality in diverse conditions, from heart disease to fetal distress. It is usually attributed to fluctuation in cardiac autonomic nerve activity. We calculated HRV parameters from a variety of cardiac preparations (including humans, living animals, Langendorff-perfused heart, and single sinoatrial nodal cell) in diverse species, combining this with data from previously published articles. We show that regardless of conditions, there is a universal exponential decay-like relationship between HRV and HR. Using 2 biophysical models, we develop a theory for this and confirm that HRV is primarily dependent on HR and cannot be used in any simple way to assess autonomic nerve activity to the heart. We suggest that the correlation between a change in HRV and altered morbidity and mortality is substantially attributable to the concurrent change in HR. This calls for re-evaluation of the findings from many articles that have not adjusted properly or at all for HR differences when comparing HRV in multiple circumstances. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Influence of heavy cigarette smoking on heart rate variability and heart rate turbulence parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagirci, Goksel; Cay, Serkan; Karakurt, Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular events related with several mechanisms. The most suggested mechanism is increased activity of sympathetic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate turbulence (HRT) has been shown to be independent and powerful...... predictors of mortality in a specific group of cardiac patients. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of heavy cigarette smoking on cardiac autonomic function using HRV and HRT analyses. METHODS: Heavy cigarette smoking was defined as more than 20 cigarettes smoked per day. Heavy cigarette smokers......, 69 subjects and nonsmokers 74 subjects (control group) were enrolled in this study. HRV and HRT analyses [turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS)] were assessed from 24-hour Holter recordings. RESULTS: The values of TO were significantly higher in heavy cigarette smokers than control group...

  13. Genome-wide association studies and resting heart rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revolutionized the search for genetic variants regulating resting heart rate. In the last 10 years, GWASs have led to the identification of at least 21 novel heart rate loci. These discoveries have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms...... and pathways that regulate heart rate and link heart rate to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. GWASs capture majority of genetic variation in a population sample by utilizing high-throughput genotyping chips measuring genotypes for up to several millions of SNPs across the genome in thousands...... of individuals. This allows the identification of the strongest heart rate associated signals at genome-wide level. While GWASs provide robust statistical evidence of the association of a given genetic locus with heart rate, they are only the starting point for detailed follow-up studies to locate the causal...

  14. Resting heart rate and the risk of heart failure in healthy adults: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanchen, David; Leening, Maarten J G; Locatelli, Isabella; Cornuz, Jacques; Kors, Jan A; Heeringa, Jan; Deckers, Jaap W; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Dehghan, Abbas

    2013-05-01

    An elevated resting heart rate is associated with rehospitalization for heart failure and is a modifiable risk factor in heart failure patients. We aimed to examine the association between resting heart rate and incident heart failure in a population-based cohort study of healthy adults without pre-existing overt heart disease. We studied 4768 men and women aged ≥55 years from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We excluded participants with prevalent heart failure, coronary heart disease, pacemaker, atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular block, and those using β-blockers or calcium channel blockers. We used extended Cox models allowing for time-dependent variation of resting heart rate along follow-up. During a median of 14.6 years of follow-up, 656 participants developed heart failure. The risk of heart failure was higher in men with higher resting heart rate. For each increment of 10 beats per minute, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios in men were 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.28; P=0.005) in the time-fixed heart rate model and 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.25; P=0.017) in the time-dependent heart rate model. The association could not be demonstrated in women (P for interaction=0.004). Censoring participants for incident coronary heart disease or using time-dependent models to account for the use of β-blockers or calcium channel blockers during follow-up did not alter the results. Baseline or persistent higher resting heart rate is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure in healthy older men in the general population.

  15. Heart rate variability and blood pressure during dynamic and static exercise at similar heart rate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Stoll, Regina; Kreuzfeld, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    Aim was to elucidate autonomic responses to dynamic and static (isometric) exercise of the lower limbs eliciting the same moderate heart rate (HR) response. 23 males performed two kinds of voluntary exercise in a supine position at similar heart rates: static exercise (SE) of the lower limbs (static leg press) and dynamic exercise (DE) of the lower limbs (cycling). Subjective effort, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), rate pressure product (RPP) and the time between consecutive heart beats (RR-intervals) were measured. Time-domain (SDNN, RMSSD), frequency-domain (power in the low and high frequency band (LFP, HFP)) and geometric measures (SD1, SD2) as well as non-linear measures of regularity (approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn) and correlation dimension D2) were calculated. Although HR was similar during both exercise conditions (88±10 bpm), subjective effort, SBP, DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly enhanced during SE. HRV indicators representing overall variability (SDNN, SD 2) and vagal modulated variability (RMSSD, HFP, SD 1) were increased. LFP, thought to be modulated by both autonomic branches, tended to be higher during SE. ApEn and SampEn were decreased whereas D2 was enhanced during SE. It can be concluded that autonomic control processes during SE and DE were qualitatively different despite similar heart rate levels. The differences were reflected by blood pressure and HRV indices. HRV-measures indicated a stronger vagal cardiac activity during SE, while blood pressure response indicated a stronger sympathetic efferent activity to the vessels. The elevated vagal cardiac activity during SE might be a response mechanism, compensating a possible co-activation of sympathetic cardiac efferents, as HR and LF/HF was similar and LFP tended to be higher. However, this conclusion must be drawn cautiously as there is no HRV-marker reflecting "pure" sympathetic cardiac activity.

  16. Pattern and Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Disease in Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the pattern of Congenital Heart Diseases (CHD) in children referred to Ahmed Gasim Cardiac Center) in Khartoum. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional, clinic based study conducted over a six months period. The children were referred to the Cardiac Centre because of suspected heart ...

  17. A systematic review of trends and patterns of congenital heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the patterns of congenital heart disease in children in Nigeria and examine trends in the occurrence ... Results: The commonest congenital heart diseases in Nigeria are ventricular septal defect (40.6%), patent ductus arteriosus. (18.4%) ...... Milgram E. High prevalence of muscular ventricular sep-.

  18. pattern of anticoagulation control after heart valve surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-07-07

    Jul 7, 2000 ... Objective: To determine the pattern of anticoagulation control for post heart-valve surgery for patients on ... quality control systems are in place, levels of adequate ..... in Haematoloty, Haemostasis and Thrombosis Task Force.

  19. Heart Rate, Life Expectancy and the Cardiovascular System: Therapeutic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudoulas, Konstantinos Dean; Borer, Jeffrey S; Boudoulas, Harisios

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that life span is inversely related to resting heart rate in most organisms. This association between heart rate and survival has been attributed to the metabolic rate, which is greater in smaller animals and is directly associated with heart rate. Studies have shown that heart rate is related to survival in apparently healthy individuals and in patients with different underlying cardiovascular diseases. A decrease in heart rate due to therapeutic interventions may result in an increase in survival. However, there are many factors regulating heart rate, and it is quite plausible that these may independently affect life expectancy. Nonetheless, a fast heart rate itself affects the cardiovascular system in multiple ways (it increases ventricular work, myocardial oxygen consumption, endothelial stress, aortic/arterial stiffness, decreases myocardial oxygen supply, other) which, in turn, may affect survival. In this brief review, the effects of heart rate on the heart, arterial system and survival will be discussed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Accuracy of smartphone apps for heart rate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppetti, Thomas; Brauchlin, Andreas; Müggler, Simon; Attinger-Toller, Adrian; Templin, Christian; Schönrath, Felix; Hellermann, Jens; Lüscher, Thomas F; Biaggi, Patric; Wyss, Christophe A

    2017-08-01

    Background Smartphone manufacturers offer mobile health monitoring technology to their customers, including apps using the built-in camera for heart rate assessment. This study aimed to test the diagnostic accuracy of such heart rate measuring apps in clinical practice. Methods The feasibility and accuracy of measuring heart rate was tested on four commercially available apps using both iPhone 4 and iPhone 5. 'Instant Heart Rate' (IHR) and 'Heart Fitness' (HF) work with contact photoplethysmography (contact of fingertip to built-in camera), while 'Whats My Heart Rate' (WMH) and 'Cardiio Version' (CAR) work with non-contact photoplethysmography. The measurements were compared to electrocardiogram and pulse oximetry-derived heart rate. Results Heart rate measurement using app-based photoplethysmography was performed on 108 randomly selected patients. The electrocardiogram-derived heart rate correlated well with pulse oximetry ( r = 0.92), IHR ( r = 0.83) and HF ( r = 0.96), but somewhat less with WMH ( r = 0.62) and CAR ( r = 0.60). The accuracy of app-measured heart rate as compared to electrocardiogram, reported as mean absolute error (in bpm ± standard error) was 2 ± 0.35 (pulse oximetry), 4.5 ± 1.1 (IHR), 2 ± 0.5 (HF), 7.1 ± 1.4 (WMH) and 8.1 ± 1.4 (CAR). Conclusions We found substantial performance differences between the four studied heart rate measuring apps. The two contact photoplethysmography-based apps had higher feasibility and better accuracy for heart rate measurement than the two non-contact photoplethysmography-based apps.

  1. Increased heart rate is associated with a prothrombotic state: The Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofler, Geoffrey H; Massaro, Joseph; Levy, Daniel A; Sutherland, Patrice A; Buckley, Thomas; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2017-03-01

    Background Although a higher heart rate is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism is not well understood. As thrombosis has an important role in plaque development and acute coronary syndromes, the increase related to heart rate may result from a prothrombotic imbalance. Methods We investigated the relation between heart rate and thrombotic potential in 3451 participants from the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study (mean age 54 years, 55% women). Participants were divided into quintiles based on heart rate derived from a resting electrocardiogram. Results Higher heart rates were associated with significant age-adjusted increases in fibrinogen, viscosity, factor VII antigen, and impaired fibrinolytic potential (plasminogen activator inhibitor and tissue plasminogen activator antigen) among men and women, and von Willebrand factor antigen among men. Fibrinogen levels were 9% higher among men with a heart rate of 80.9 ± 8.1 beats/min (quintile 5) vs. 50.0 ± 3.9 beats/min (quintile 1) (314 vs. 287 mg/dl, p heart rates are associated with a prothrombotic state. Because these factors are also associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, these findings are consistent with an injurious effect of higher heart rates on the endothelium. Measures to reduce thrombotic potential may be of particular value in people with higher heart rates.

  2. Fetal heart rate monitoring: from Doppler to computerized analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Young; Park, In Yang

    2016-03-01

    The monitoring of fetal heart rate (FHR) status is an important method to check well-being of the baby during labor. Since the electronic FHR monitoring was introduced 40 years ago, it has been expected to be an innovative screening test to detect fetuses who are becoming hypoxic and who may benefit from cesarean delivery or operative vaginal delivery. However, several randomized controlled trials have failed to prove that electronic FHR monitoring had any benefit of reducing the perinatal mortality and morbidity. Also it is now clear that the FHR monitoring had high intra- and interobserver disagreements and increased the rate of cesarean delivery. Despite such limitations, the FHR monitoring is still one of the most important obstetric procedures in clinical practice, and the cardiotocogram is the most-used equipment. To supplement cardiotocogram, new methods of computerized FHR analysis and electrocardiogram have been developed, and several clinical researches have been currently performed. Computerized equipment makes us to analyze beat-to-beat variability and short term heart rate patterns. Furthermore, researches about multiparameters of FHR variability will be ongoing.

  3. HEART RATE DURING SLEEP: IMPLICATIONS FOR MONITORING TRAINING STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam R. Waldeck

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Resting heart rate has sometimes been used as a marker of training status. It is reasonable to assume that the relationship between heart rate and training status should be more evident during sleep when extraneous factors that may influence heart rate are reduced. Therefore the aim of the study was to assess the repeatability of monitoring heart rate during sleep when training status remained unchanged, to determine if this measurement had sufficient precision to be used as a marker of training status. The heart rate of ten female subjects was monitored for 24 hours on three occasions over three weeks whilst training status remained unchanged. Average, minimum and maximum heart rate during sleep was calculated. The average heart rate of the group during sleep was similar on each of the three tests (65 ± 9, 63 ± 6 and 67 ± 7 beats·min-1 respectively. The range in minimum heart rate variation during sleep for all subjects over the three testing sessions was from 0 to 10 beats·min-1 (mean = 5 ± 3 beats·min-1 and for maximum heart rate variation was 2 to 31 beats·min-1 (mean = 13 ± 9 beats·min-1. In summary it was found that on an individual basis the minimum heart rate during sleep varied by about 8 beats·min-1. This amount of intrinsic day-to-day variation needs to be considered when changes in heart rate that may occur with changes in training status are interpreted

  4. Heart rate during sleep: implications for monitoring training status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeck, Miriam R; Lambert, Michael I

    2003-12-01

    Resting heart rate has sometimes been used as a marker of training status. It is reasonable to assume that the relationship between heart rate and training status should be more evident during sleep when extraneous factors that may influence heart rate are reduced. Therefore the aim of the study was to assess the repeatability of monitoring heart rate during sleep when training status remained unchanged, to determine if this measurement had sufficient precision to be used as a marker of training status. The heart rate of ten female subjects was monitored for 24 hours on three occasions over three weeks whilst training status remained unchanged. Average, minimum and maximum heart rate during sleep was calculated. The average heart rate of the group during sleep was similar on each of the three tests (65 ± 9, 63 ± 6 and 67 ± 7 beats·min(-1) respectively). The range in minimum heart rate variation during sleep for all subjects over the three testing sessions was from 0 to 10 beats·min(-1) (mean = 5 ± 3 beats·min(-1)) and for maximum heart rate variation was 2 to 31 beats·min(-1) (mean = 13 ± 9 beats·min(-1)). In summary it was found that on an individual basis the minimum heart rate during sleep varied by about 8 beats·min(-1). This amount of intrinsic day-to-day variation needs to be considered when changes in heart rate that may occur with changes in training status are interpreted.

  5. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate as a marker for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayan, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Patients with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction frequently present without evidence of cardiac-specific heart enzymes by laboratory analysis or specific pathologic electro-cardiogram findings. The current study analyzed the efficacy of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate as an additional potential indicator for coronary heart disease, the aim being to enable quicker identification of patients with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction so that they can be more rapidly treated. Patients with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction who had undergone a heart catheter examination were included in the study. The diagnosis of acute coronary heart disease was made by the physician who performed coronary angiography. Patients without coronary heart disease were used as a control group. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was measured in all patients. Patients with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction and an inflammatory or tumor disease were excluded. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was prolonged in 79 (58.09%) of 136 patients; 69 (50.74%) patients (95% confidence interval ±8.4%, 42.34%-59.14%) had coronary heart disease and a prolonged erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was prolonged in ten (7.35%) patients (95% confidence interval ±4.39%, 2.96%-11.74%) without coronary heart disease by coronary angiography. The specificity of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate for coronary heart disease was 70.59% and the sensitivity was 67.65%. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate may be a useful additional diagnostic criterion for coronary heart disease.

  6. [Effect of the hypothalamus on the diurnal rhythm of heart rate in the Rana temporaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmanova, I G; Belich, A I; Shilling, N V

    1983-01-01

    Computer treatment of the continuous row of R-R intervals of the ECG revealed the general pattern and masked periodicity of the diurnal dynamics of the heart rate in the frog Rana temporaria. It was found that in day time intact frogs exhibit tonic decrease of the heart rate with a maximum at about 12 a.m. At night, there is a tendency to tachycardia with a maximum at about 4 a.m. This periodicity of the heart rate is monitored mainly by the anterior and posterior hypothalamus.

  7. Reduced intrinsic heart rate is associated with reduced arrhythmic susceptibility in guinea-pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2014-12-01

    In the clinical setting, patients with slower resting heart rate are less prone to cardiovascular death compared with those with elevated heart rate. However, electrophysiological adaptations associated with reduced cardiac rhythm have not been thoroughly explored. In this study, relationships between intrinsic heart rate and arrhythmic susceptibility were examined by assessments of action potential duration (APD) rate adaptation and inducibility of repolarization alternans in sinoatrial node (SAN)-driven and atrioventricular (AV)-blocked guinea-pig hearts perfused with Langendorff apparatus. Electrocardiograms, epicardial monophasic action potentials, and effective refractory periods (ERP) were assessed in normokalemic and hypokalemic conditions. Slower basal heart rate in AV-blocked hearts was associated with prolonged ventricular repolarization during spontaneous beating, and with attenuated APD shortening at increased cardiac activation rates during dynamic pacing, when compared with SAN-driven hearts. During hypokalemic perfusion, the inducibility of repolarization alternans and tachyarrhythmia by rapid pacing was found to be lower in AV-blocked hearts. This difference was ascribed to prolonged ERP in the setting of reduced basal heart rate, which prevented ventricular capture at critically short pacing intervals required to induce arrhythmia. Reduced basal heart rate is associated with electrophysiological changes that prevent electrical instability upon an abrupt cardiac acceleration.

  8. Heart rate responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by structural alterations and dysfunction in central autonomic regulatory regions, which may impair dynamic and static cardiovascular regulation, and contribute to other syndrome pathologies. Characterizing cardiovascular responses to autonomic challenges may provide insights into central nervous system impairments, including contributions by sex, since structural alterations are enhanced in OSA females over males. The objective was to assess heart rate responses in OSA versus healthy control subjects to autonomic challenges, and, separately, characterize female and male patterns. We studied 94 subjects, including 37 newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA patients (6 female, age mean ± std: 52.1 ± 8.1 years; 31 male aged 54.3 ± 8.4 years, and 57 healthy control subjects (20 female, 50.5 ± 8.1 years; 37 male, 45.6 ± 9.2 years. We measured instantaneous heart rate with pulse oximetry during cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. All challenges elicited significant heart rate differences between OSA and control groups during and after challenges (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. In post-hoc analyses, OSA females showed greater impairments than OSA males, which included: for cold pressor, lower initial increase (OSA vs. control: 9.5 vs. 7.3 bpm in females, 7.6 vs. 3.7 bpm in males, OSA delay to initial peak (2.5 s females/0.9 s males, slower mid-challenge rate-of-increase (OSA vs. control: -0.11 vs. 0.09 bpm/s in females, 0.03 vs. 0.06 bpm/s in males; for hand grip, lower initial peak (OSA vs. control: 2.6 vs. 4.6 bpm in females, 5.3 vs. 6.0 bpm in males; for Valsalva maneuver, lower Valsalva ratio (OSA vs. control: 1.14 vs. 1.30 in females, 1.29 vs. 1.34 in males, and OSA delay during phase II (0.68 s females/1.31 s males. Heart rate responses showed lower amplitude, delayed onset, and slower rate changes in OSA patients over healthy controls, and impairments may be more pronounced in

  9. Clutch effects explain heart rate variation in embryonic frogs (Cave Coqui, Eleutherodactylus cooki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggren, W; Crossley, D; Rogowitz, G; Thompson, D

    2003-01-01

    Few physiological studies to date have focused on whether variation among sibling groups during development can account for often large, intraspecific physiological variation. In this study, we measured heart rate in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus cooki throughout its embryonic development and examined heart rate variation among egg clutches comprising from 10 to 40 eggs. Clutches were collected in the wild in Yubucoa, Puerto Rico, and individual eggs were maintained under equivalent conditions in the lab. Heart rate showed large increases during development, rising from about 40 beats min(-1) in the earliest stages to about 110 beats min(-1) at hatching. The effect of stage (averaged across clutches) was highly significant (P<0.001). However, repeated-measures MANOVA also revealed that there were highly significant effects on heart rate associated with both clutch (variation among clutches averaged across development; P<0.001) and clutch-stage interactions (differences among clutches in the developmental change in heart rate; P<0.0001). These effects and interactions reveal that throughout development, heart rate in siblings is much more similar than in nonsiblings and that sib groups follow different heart rate trajectories during their development. Collectively, these data indicate that "clutch effects" caused by genetic and/or maternal influences can strongly affect patterns of heart function during development within cave coqui populations. This phenomenon also occurs in bird eggs and armadillo neonates, suggesting that physiological variation attributable to clutch effects might be a widespread phenomenon in vertebrates.

  10. Maternal Psychopathology Influences Infant Heart Rate Variability: Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dierckx (Bram); J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); M.P. Lambregtse-van den Berg (Mijke); A. Tharner (Anne); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in children. The autonomic nervous system as measured by HR and HRV is considered a biological marker of psychopathology in children. METHODS: We examined the relationship of maternal

  11. Using photoplethysmography in heart rate monitoring of patients with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, Judith; Ungureanu, Constantin; Aarts, Ronald; Leijten, Frans; Arends, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate is a useful neurophysiological sign when monitoring seizures in patients with epilepsy. In an ambulatory setting, heart rate is measured with ECG involving electrodes on the skin. This method is uncomfortable which is burdensome for patients and is sensitive to motion artifacts, which

  12. Do high fetal catecholamine levels affect heart rate variability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To deternrine the relationship between Umbilical arterial catecholamine levels and fetal heart rate variability and meconium passage. Study design. A prospective descriptive study was perfonned. Umbilical artery catecholamine levels were measured in 55 newborns and correlated with fetal heart rate before ...

  13. The Correlation Between Ultrasound-Measured Fetal Heart Rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 400 apparently healthy pregnant women with singleton fetuses from Enugu, Southeast Nigeria were randomly selected for the study. The aims of the study are to establish: a normogram for fetal heart rate (FHR) and the relationship between fetal heart rate and gestational age (GA) by 2–D ultrasound. Crown rump ...

  14. Retrospective low heart rate variability overview in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) describes the variations of both instantaneous heart rate and R-R intervals in an electrocardiogram. Low HRV is considered to be a non-invasive measurement of autonomic inactivity and propensity lethal arrhythmias. Methodology: This was a retrospective study of patients with ...

  15. Effects of Malaria on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Electrocardiogram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of malaria on blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiogram and the cardiovascular responses to postural change were studied in malaria patients. Blood pressure was measured by the sphygmomanometric-auscultatory method. Standard ECG machine was used to record the electrocardiogram. Heart rate was ...

  16. A comparison between heart rate and heart rate variability as indicators of cardiac health and fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Cornelia Grant

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of cardiac autonomic activity and control via heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV is known to provide prognostic information in clinical populations. Issues with regard to standardisation and interpretation of HRV data make the use of the more easily accessible HR on its own as an indicator of autonomic cardiac control very appealing. The aim of this study was to investigate the strength of associations between an important cardio vascular health metric such as VO2max and the following: HR, HRV indicators and heart rate normalised HRV indicators. A cross sectional descriptive study was done including 145 healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 22 years. HRV was quantified by time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré plot analysis. Indirect VO2max was determined using the Multistage Coopers test. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the strength of the associations. Both simple linear and multiple stepwise regressions were performed to be able to discriminate between the role of the individual indicators as well as their combined association with VO2max. Only HR, RR interval and pNN50 showed significant (p<0.01, p<0.01 and p=0.03 correlations with VO2max. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that, when combining all HRV indicators the most important predictor of cardio vascular fitness as represented by VO2max, is HR. HR explains 17% of the variation, while the inclusion of HF (high frequency HRV indicator added only an additional 3.1% to the coefficient of determination. Results also showed when testing the normalised indicators, HR explained of the largest percentage of the changes in VO2max (16.5%. Thus HR on its own is the most important predictor of changes in an important cardiac health metric such as VO2max. These results may indicate that during investigation of exercise ability (VO2max phenomena, quantification of HRV may not add significant value.

  17. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring from Phonocardiograph Signal Using Repetition Frequency of Heart Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Tang; Ting Li; Tianshuang Qiu; Yongwan Park

    2016-01-01

    As a passive, harmless, and low-cost diagnosis tool, fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring based on fetal phonocardiography (fPCG) signal is alternative to ultrasonographic cardiotocography. Previous fPCG-based methods commonly relied on the time difference of detected heart sound bursts. However, the performance is unavoidable to degrade due to missed heart sounds in very low signal-to-noise ratio environments. This paper proposes a FHR monitoring method using repetition frequency of heart sound...

  18. Assessing Heart Rate in Physical Education. Assessment Series: K-12 Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Marilyn M.

    This guide discusses the assessment of heart rate and, in particular, the assessment of heart rate using a heart monitor. Part 1, "Foundation for the Use of Heart Rate," reviews literature about heart rate assessment and heart rate monitors, offering an overview of national guidelines for physical activity. It focuses on the importance…

  19. The clinical significance of detection to heart rate deceleration capacity and heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-rong Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the change of heart rate deceleration capacity ( DC and heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and its relationship with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Methods: DC, LVEF, time and frequency domain parameters of HRV were measured in 66 patients with CHF and 34 healthy adults (control group by using 24h Holter recordings and Echocardiography. The standard deviation of normal R-R intervals( SDNN, squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals ( RMSSD,low frequency power( LFn and high frequency power( HFn and the changes of LVEF were compared between  the two groups,the relationship between DC,LVEF and HRV were studied in patients with CHF. Results: The median value of DC in the patients with CHF was significantly lower than that in control group( 3.1 ± 2.4 ms vs 7.2 ± 1.3 ms,P <0.01.Incidence of abnormal DC in the CHF group was 57.5%,which was significantly higher than that in the control group (P <0.01.The HRV index, including SDNN、RMSSD、LFn、HFn, in the CHF group was significantly lower than that in normal control group (P < 0.01. Significant positive correlation between HRV index and LVEF were confirmed (P < 0.01. Conclusions: DC and HRV index are lower in patients with CHF and have a good correlation with the left ventricular ejection fraction.

  20. The effect of heart rate on the heart rate variability response to autonomic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, George E

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR) or heart period (R-R interval), has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20) or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9) autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD) and the high frequency (HF) variability (HF, 0.24-1.04 Hz) were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec)(2) for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF) while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation) even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.

  1. The Effect of Heart Rate on the Heart Rate Variability Response to Autonomic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Billman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR or heart period (R-R interval, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20 or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9 autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD and the high frequency variability (HF, 0.2 to 1.04 Hz were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec2 for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.

  2. Firefighter Incident Rehabilitation: Interpreting Heart Rate Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Benedict, Ron; Moore-Merrell, Lori

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this observational study was to document the heart rate (HR) responses of firefighters during incident rehabilitation following firefighting activity in a high-rise building with a simulated fire on the 10th floor. Additionally, the study investigated potential factors, including firefighting workload, ambient temperature, firefighter movement, and individual characteristics, that may have affected HR during recovery. Firefighters (n = 198) were assigned to perform a simulation of fire suppression, search and rescue, or material support during one of six firefighting trials that involved different crew sizes and ascent modes, and were performed in different environmental conditions. After completing the simulated firefighting activity, firefighters reported to a rehabilitation area on the 8th floor. The rehabilitation area was staffed by firefighter/paramedics. HR was monitored continuously during simulated firefighting activity and a 15-minute rehabilitation period. Average HR during rehabilitation (HRmean) was calculated and compared across trials. Simulated firefighting activity was performed in the summer in Virginia, USA, and ambient conditions varied among trials (mean ± SD: 31 ± 4°C; 46 ± 15% relative humidity; 32 ± 4°C heat index). Duration of simulated firefighting activity ranged from 12.0 to 20.3 minutes among trials (mean: 15.4 ± 5.2 minutes). Over all trials, mean peak HR during simulations was 173 ± 18 beats·min(-1). Mean HR over all trials at entry into rehabilitation was 149 ± 24 beats·min(-1). Following 15 minutes of recovery, mean HR over all trials was 126 ± 23 beats·min(-1). Exploratory analyses revealed that higher workload during firefighting (stair trials), higher ambient temperature (≥30°C), greater movement during rehabilitation (≥0.1 g-force), higher age (≥45 years), and higher BMI (≥30.0 kg·m(-2)) were associated with higher HR responses during rehabilitation. During complex emergency

  3. Long‐term Cardiovascular Risks Associated With an Elevated Heart Rate: The Framingham Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jennifer E.; Larson, Martin G.; Ghorbani, Anahita; Cheng, Susan; Coglianese, Erin E.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher heart rate has been associated with an adverse prognosis, but most prior studies focused on individuals with known cardiovascular disease or examined a limited number of outcomes. We sought to examine the association of baseline heart rate with both fatal and nonfatal outcomes during 2 decades of follow‐up. Methods and Results Our study included 4058 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 55 years, 56% women). Cox models were performed with multivariable adjustment for clinical risk factors and physical activity. A total of 708 participants developed incident cardiovascular disease (303 heart failure, 343 coronary heart disease, and 216 stroke events), 48 received a permanent pacemaker, and 1186 died. Baseline heart rate was associated with incident cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15 per 1 SD [11 bpm] increase in heart rate, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.24, P=0.0002), particularly heart failure (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.48, Pheart rate was also associated with higher all‐cause (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.24, Pheart rate abated or increased. In contrast, individuals with a higher heart rate had a lower risk of requiring permanent pacemaker placement (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.79, P=0.001). Conclusions Individuals with a higher heart rate are at elevated long‐term risk for cardiovascular events, in particular, heart failure, and all‐cause death. On the other hand, a higher heart rate is associated with a lower risk of future permanent pacemaker implantation. PMID:24811610

  4. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Assessment of heart rate (HR) from Holter recording may afford a more precise estimate of the effect of RHR on cardiovascular risk, as compared to casual RHR. Comparative analysis was carried ...

  5. Heart rate and heart rate variability during a novel object test and a handling test in young horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Knaap, J.H.; Barneveld, A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Forty-one Dutch Warmblood immature horses were used in a study to quantify temperamental traits on the basis of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) measures. Half of the horses received additional training from the age of 5 months onwards; the other half did not. Horses were tested at

  6. Job strain in relation to ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability among female nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H.; Doornen, L.J.P. van; Houtman, I.L.D.; Geus, E.J.C. de

    2004-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the effects of exposure to job strain on independent predictors of cardiovascular disease (ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability). Methods. The participants comprised a homogeneous group of 159 healthy female nurses [mean age 35.9 (SD 8.5)

  7. Heart rate variability during cycloergometric exercise or judo wrestling eliciting the same heart rate level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, François; Durbin, François; Papelier, Yves

    2004-03-01

    This study compared heart rate variability (HRV) in ten male judokas between two types of exercise eliciting the same near-maximal average heart rate (HR): judo wrestling vs. cycloergometric bout. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were recorded during (1) a 4-min judo randori (wrestling); (2) a 4-min cycloergometric exercise eliciting maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2MAX)). Time series were analyzed both by short term Fourier transform (STFT) and Poincaré plot (PP). The main results are as follows. First, despite the fact that the same maximal HR was reached during the two exercises, the spectral energy computed from the judo recordings was significantly higher than that recorded from the cycloergometric exercise. Second, according to the PP index of rapid HRV (SD1), the high-frequency spectral energy (HF) was significantly higher during judo than cycloergometric exercise as well. Third, judo spectra show chaotic harmonics in place of the precise HF peak observed during cycloergometric exercise. Fourth, the respective parts of normalized LFn and HFn are not different between the two exercise modes, suggesting that autonomic control during severe exercise cannot depend on the type of exercise. In conclusion, this study shows that it is possible, according to the observed kind of variability from RR time series, to differentiate between two types of effort: steady-state dynamic exercise or conversely exercise made of both isometric and irregular dynamic efforts (wrestling, collective sports, and others).

  8. Heart rate and heart rate variability modification in chronic insomnia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Benedetto; Dittoni, Serena; Colicchio, Salvatore; Testani, Elisa; Losurdo, Anna; Gnoni, Valentina; Di Blasi, Chiara; Brunetti, Riccardo; Contardi, Anna; Mazza, Salvatore; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Chronic insomnia is highly prevalent in the general population, provoking personal distress and increased risk for psychiatric and medical disorders. Autonomic hyper-arousal could be a pathogenic mechanism of chronic primary insomnia. The aim of this study was to investigate autonomic activity in patients with chronic primary insomnia by means of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Eighty-five consecutive patients affected by chronic primary insomnia were enrolled (38 men and 47 women; mean age: 53.2 ± 13.6). Patients were compared with a control group composed of 55 healthy participants matched for age and gender (23 men and 32 women; mean age: 54.2 ± 13.9). Patients underwent an insomnia study protocol that included subjective sleep evaluation, psychometric measures, and home-based polysomnography with evaluation of HRV in wake before sleep, in all sleep stages, and in wake after final awakening. Patients showed modifications of heart rate and HRV parameters, consistent with increased sympathetic activity, while awake before sleep and during Stage-2 non-REM sleep. No significant differences between insomniacs and controls could be detected during slow-wave sleep, REM sleep, and post-sleep wake. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that autonomic hyper-arousal is a major pathogenic mechanism in primary insomnia, and confirm that this condition is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk.

  9. Heart rate, heart rate variability and inflammatory biomarkers among young and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Schoen, Tobias; Dörig, Laura; Kreuzmann, Rahel; Neuhauser, Charlotte; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2017-02-01

    Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and inflammation are all associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess potential interrelationships between these parameters in a young and healthy population. Healthy individuals aged 25-41 years were included in a prospective population-based study. All participants underwent 24-h electrocardiography using a validated device. The standard deviation of all normal RR intervals (SDNN) was pre-defined as the main HRV outcome variable. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total leukocyte (LC) count and LC subtypes were obtained from venous blood samples. A total of 2064 participants (47% men, 37 years) were included in this analysis. In multivariable linear regression analyses using SDNN as the outcome variable, β-coefficients (95% confidence intervals) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase on the log-scale were -0.11 (-0.16; -0.07), p healthy adults, inflammatory parameters were strongly associated with increased HR and decreased HRV, suggesting an important interaction between inflammatory pathways and the autonomic nervous system. Key message Inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and leukocyte cell count with its subtypes were inversely associated with HRV and positively associated with HR. Our findings suggest important interrelationships between inflammatory pathways and the ANS.

  10. Heart rate differentiates urgency and emergency in hypertensive crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bannay, Rashed; Böhm, Michael; Husain, Aysha

    2013-08-01

    To study the clinical significance of presenting blood pressure parameters and heart rate in patients with hypertensive crisis. In patients admitted with hypertensive crisis between January 2011 and May 2011, demography, mode of presentation, co-morbidities, blood pressure readings, and heart rate at presentation were documented. Further clustering of hypertensive crisis into emergency or urgency was based on the presence or absence of target organ involvement. The relationship between blood pressure parameters, heart rate, and other variables was analyzed. 189 patients in sinus rhythm were enrolled in this pilot study. The rate of hypertensive urgency was 56 %, whereas the rate of hypertensive emergency was 44 %, respectively. Subjects with hypertensive emergency had a higher mean heart rate (93 ± 22.7 bpm) than those with urgency (81 ± 11.5 bpm) (P = 0.015). Women had higher heart rates (92 ± 18.5 bpm) than men (86 ± 17.6 bpm) (P = 0.014). Heart rates below 100 bpm had a specificity of 94 %, classifying patients as hypertensive urgency. Tachycardia had a powerful statistical association with hypertensive left ventricular failure (P pulse pressure, and mean blood pressure relates neither to urgency nor to emergency. Diabetic patients with HBA1c levels of more than 53 mmol/mol had a heart rate of more than 100 bpm (P = 0.015) during hypertensive crisis. Normal heart rate is characteristic of hypertensive urgency. Tachycardia in this setting is an ominous sign and denotes hypertensive complications in particular left ventricular failure. Among diabetics, elevated heart rate is associated with poor glycemic control.

  11. Algorithms for Computerized Fetal Heart Rate Diagnosis with Direct Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Maeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Since pattern classification of fetal heart rate (FHR was subjective and enlarged interobserver difference, objective FHR analysis was achieved with computerized FHR diagnosis. Methods: The computer algorithm was composed of an experts’ knowledge system, including FHR analysis and FHR score calculation, and also of an objective artificial neural network system with software. In addition, a FHR frequency spectrum was studied to detect ominous sinusoidal FHR and the loss of baseline variability related to fetal brain damage. The algorithms were installed in a central-computerized automatic FHR monitoring system, which gave the diagnosis rapidly and directly to the attending doctor. Results: Clinically perinatal mortality decreased significantly and no cerebral palsy developed after introduction of the centralized system. Conclusion: The automatic multichannel FHR monitoring system improved the monitoring, increased the objectivity of FHR diagnosis and promoted clinical results.

  12. Changes in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate during Fixed-Interval Responding in Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Episodic and sustained increases in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure can occur with recurring patterns of schedule-controlled behavior. Most previous studies were conducted under fixed-ratio schedules, which maintained a consistent high rate of responding that alternated with periods of no responding during times when the schedule was…

  13. Adapting workload improves the measurement of heart rate recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, R P; Maskell, S; Borresen, J; Lambert, M I

    2011-09-01

    Heart rate after a standardized test varies with a change in training status, possibly compromising the accuracy of measuring changes in heart rate recovery (HRR). The aim of this study was to determine if a change in the exercise intensity would result in a change in heart rate recovery and/or the accuracy of the heart rate recovery measurement. 31 subjects performed 4 submaximal running tests (HIMS). Based on the heart rate after the first HIMS, subjects either completed 4 identical HIMS (SAME (n=9)), 2 standard and 2 faster HIMS (FASTER (n=10)) or 2 standard and 2 slower HIMS (SLOWER (n=12)). Although no changes in heart rate recovery were found when the HIMS protocol was adapted, lower coefficients of variation (CV) and typical errors of measurement (TEM) were found in the SLOWER (CV: 11 ± 7 to 5 ± 3% ( P=0.025)), TEM: 6 to 3 beats and FASTER group (CV: 11 ± 7 to 4 ± 3% ( P=0.048), TEM: 7 to 3 beats). To ensure the highest level of sensitivity in detecting meaningful changes in HRR over time, submaximal testing protocols should target exercise intensities ranging in-between 86-93% of heart rate maximum. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring from Phonocardiograph Signal Using Repetition Frequency of Heart Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a passive, harmless, and low-cost diagnosis tool, fetal heart rate (FHR monitoring based on fetal phonocardiography (fPCG signal is alternative to ultrasonographic cardiotocography. Previous fPCG-based methods commonly relied on the time difference of detected heart sound bursts. However, the performance is unavoidable to degrade due to missed heart sounds in very low signal-to-noise ratio environments. This paper proposes a FHR monitoring method using repetition frequency of heart sounds. The proposed method can track time-varying heart rate without both heart sound burst identification and denoising. The average accuracy rate comparison to benchmark is 88.3% as the SNR ranges from −4.4 dB to −26.7 dB.

  15. Effect of Selective Heart Rate Slowing in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Nikhil; Sivaswamy, Nadiya; Mahmod, Masliza; Yavari, Arash; Rudd, Amelia; Singh, Satnam; Dawson, Dana K; Francis, Jane M; Dwight, Jeremy S; Watkins, Hugh; Neubauer, Stefan; Frenneaux, Michael; Ashrafian, Houman

    2015-11-03

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality but is currently refractory to therapy. Despite limited evidence, heart rate reduction has been advocated, on the basis of physiological considerations, as a therapeutic strategy in HFpEF. We tested the hypothesis that heart rate reduction improves exercise capacity in HFpEF. We conducted a randomized, crossover study comparing selective heart rate reduction with the If blocker ivabradine at 7.5 mg twice daily versus placebo for 2 weeks each in 22 symptomatic patients with HFpEF who had objective evidence of exercise limitation (peak oxygen consumption at maximal exercise [o2 peak] heart rate compared with placebo in the HFpEF (107 versus 129 bpm; Pheart rate reduction with ivabradine for improving symptoms in a HFpEF population characterized by exercise limitation. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02354573. © 2015 The Authors.

  16. Assesment of Autonomic Function in Metabolic Syndrome using Combination Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay Aydın

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is described as a group of various abnormal metabolic risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, increased blood pressure, increased plasma glucose levels, prothrombotic condition and proinflammatory state. These parameters are related to decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic activity. We aimed to evaluate autonomic function using a combination with heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate turbulence (HRT in metabolic syndrome to compare non-metabolic syndrome(non-MetS. METHODS: We selected consecutive 50 patients with MetS and 50 patients with healthy non-MetS individuals. All patients underwent 24 hours holter monitoring to evaluate HRT and HRV parameters. RESULTS: Age of patients was not different in two groups. Mean age of MetS patients was 57,50±12,13 and 54,6±10,25 in non- MetS individuals. Sex of patients was non different in MetS compared to non-MetS (37 female and 13 male vs. 22 female, 28 male p<0,05 respectively. SDNN and RMSSD was lower in MetS compared to those without MetS (131,96±49,12 vs 179,59±85,83 p=0,03 and 78,64±35,22 vs 112,73±81,24 p=0,08 respectively. SDANN, pNN50,Mean RR, mean heart rate, count of ventricular premature complex(VPC were not different between two groups. Turbulence Slope(TS was not different in two groups. Turbulence Onset(TO was higher in MetS compared to non-MetS (2,01±15,29 and -6,21±13,5 p=0,005. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We showed that autonomic function in MetS was impaired using a combination with HRT and HRV. These patients should be followed closely for adverse cardiovascular outcome especially including cardiac arrhythmia.

  17. Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chez, Bonnie Flood; Baird, Suzanne McMurtry

    2011-01-01

    Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (EFM) continues to be the primary method utilized for fetal assessment in the United States. Standardization of nomenclature associated with this perinatal technology has evolved over the past 40 years such that the current nomenclature recommended by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) has been adopted by professional perinatal organizations as the agreed-upon method for professional communication and documentation. Current research continues to focus on the optimal management of intrapartum fetal heart rate tracings. The clinical controversies and challenges related to electronic fetal heart rate monitoring continue to evolve.

  18. An Overview of Heart Rate Variability Metrics and Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Shaffer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthy biological systems exhibit complex patterns of variability that can be described by mathematical chaos. Heart rate variability (HRV consists of changes in the time intervals between consecutive heartbeats called interbeat intervals (IBIs. A healthy heart is not a metronome. The oscillations of a healthy heart are complex and constantly changing, which allow the cardiovascular system to rapidly adjust to sudden physical and psychological challenges to homeostasis. This article briefly reviews current perspectives on the mechanisms that generate 24 h, short-term (~5 min, and ultra-short-term (<5 min HRV, the importance of HRV, and its implications for health and performance. The authors provide an overview of widely-used HRV time-domain, frequency-domain, and non-linear metrics. Time-domain indices quantify the amount of HRV observed during monitoring periods that may range from ~2 min to 24 h. Frequency-domain values calculate the absolute or relative amount of signal energy within component bands. Non-linear measurements quantify the unpredictability and complexity of a series of IBIs. The authors survey published normative values for clinical, healthy, and optimal performance populations. They stress the importance of measurement context, including recording period length, subject age, and sex, on baseline HRV values. They caution that 24 h, short-term, and ultra-short-term normative values are not interchangeable. They encourage professionals to supplement published norms with findings from their own specialized populations. Finally, the authors provide an overview of HRV assessment strategies for clinical and optimal performance interventions.

  19. Heart rate, heart rate variability, and arrhythmias in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Caroline Elisabeth; Falk, Bo Torkel; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Autonomic modulation of heart rhythm is thought to influence the pathophysiology of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD).......Autonomic modulation of heart rhythm is thought to influence the pathophysiology of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD)....

  20. Statistical Patterns in Movie Rating Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ramos

    Full Text Available Currently, users and consumers can review and rate products through online services, which provide huge databases that can be used to explore people's preferences and unveil behavioral patterns. In this work, we investigate patterns in movie ratings, considering IMDb (the Internet Movie Database, a highly visited site worldwide, as a source. We find that the distribution of votes presents scale-free behavior over several orders of magnitude, with an exponent very close to 3/2, with exponential cutoff. It is remarkable that this pattern emerges independently of movie attributes such as average rating, age and genre, with the exception of a few genres and of high-budget films. These results point to a very general underlying mechanism for the propagation of adoption across potential audiences that is independent of the intrinsic features of a movie and that can be understood through a simple spreading model with mean-field avalanche dynamics.

  1. Behaviour, heart rate, and heart rate variability in pigs exposed to novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manja Zupan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, we investigated behavioural responses and determined parameters of heart rate variability (HRV to elucidate a relative activation of autonomic nervous system (ANS during baseline (10 min and in response to potentially stressful situations (10 min in two pig breeds and sexes. Gilts (n = 21 and barrows (n = 9 of the Landrace × Yorkshire (LY; n = 15 and Landrace/Yorkshire × Landrace/Duroc (LYLD; n = 15 breeds were subjected to a novel object test (NOT and a novel arena test (NAT. Basal ANS state differed in pigs across breeds but not sexes. Landrace × Yorkshire pigs had a significantly lower basal heart rate (HR and low-frequency band (LF with a higher root mean square of successive interbeat intervals (RMSSD and high-frequency band (HF than LYLD pigs. In the NOT, despite having similar cardiac responses, gilts had a longer duration of contact with a novel object, higher lying and standing duration, and a lower duration of walking compared with barrows. In the NAT, we found similar behaviour across sexes but a different degree of ANS state, with barrows having a significantly higher increase in LF/HF (power of the low frequency component divided by the power of the high-frequency band compared with gilts. Landrace/Yorkshire × Landrace/Duroc pigs showed longer duration of contact with a novel object in the NOT accompanied by less lying and standing than LY pigs in both tests. No difference in ANS activation between breeds was found in the NOT. In the NAT, HR increased more from baseline to testing in LY pigs than in LYLD pigs. There is a complex and often contradictory nature of relationships between behaviour and cardiac responses to novelty in pigs of different breeds and sexes.

  2. Comparison of Polar M600 Optical Heart Rate and ECG Heart Rate during Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, John F; Stergiou, Pro; Fung, Tak S; Katz, Larry

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Polar M600 optical heart rate (OHR) sensor compared with ECG heart rate (HR) measurement during various physical activities. Thirty-six subjects participated in a continuous 76-min testing session, which included rest, cycling warm-up, cycling intervals, circuit weight training, treadmill intervals, and recovery. HR was measured using a three-lead ECG configuration and a Polar M600 Sport Watch on the left wrist. Statistical analyses included OHR percent accuracy, mean difference, mean absolute error, Bland-Altman plots, and a repeated-measures generalized estimating equation design. OHR percent accuracy was calculated as the percentage of occurrences where OHR measurement was within and including ±5 bpm from the ECG HR value. Of the four exercise phases performed, the highest OHR percent accuracy was found during cycle intervals (91.8%), and the lowest OHR percent accuracy occurred during circuit weight training (34.5%). OHR percent accuracy improved steadily within exercise transitions during cycle intervals to a maximum of 98.5% and during treadmill intervals to a maximum of 89.0%. Lags in HR calculated by the Polar M600 OHR sensor existed in comparison to ECG HR, when exercise intensity changed until steady state occurred. There was a tendency for OHR underestimation during intensity increases and overestimation during intensity decreases. No statistically significant interaction effect with device was found in this sample on the basis of sex, body mass index, V˙O2max, skin type, or wrist size. The Polar M600 was accurate during periods of steady-state cycling, walking, jogging, and running, but less accurate during some exercise intensity changes, which may be attributed to factors related to total peripheral resistance changes and pulse pressure.

  3. Increased heart rate variability but normal resting metabolic rate in hypocretin/orexin-deficient human narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Reijntjes, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Pijl, H.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated autonomic balance and resting metabolic rate to explore their possible involvement in obesity in hypocretin/orexin-deficient narcoleptic subjects. METHODS: Resting metabolic rate (using indirect calorimetry) and variability in heart rate and blood pressure were

  4. Summary The effect of pregnancy on the heart rate, respiratory rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. The effect of pregnancy on the heart rate, respiratory rate,. QRS axis and QRS complex duration of the ECG was investigated in 41 pregnant compared to 39 non pregnant age and height matched Nigerian subjects. Results obtained show that pregnancy had no significant effect (p>0.05) on heart rate, respiratory ...

  5. Arduino-based noise robust online heart-rate detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sangita; Pal, Saurabh; Mitra, Madhuchhanda

    2017-04-01

    This paper introduces a noise robust real time heart rate detection system from electrocardiogram (ECG) data. An online data acquisition system is developed to collect ECG signals from human subjects. Heart rate is detected using window-based autocorrelation peak localisation technique. A low-cost Arduino UNO board is used to implement the complete automated process. The performance of the system is compared with PC-based heart rate detection technique. Accuracy of the system is validated through simulated noisy ECG data with various levels of signal to noise ratio (SNR). The mean percentage error of detected heart rate is found to be 0.72% for the noisy database with five different noise levels.

  6. Signal processing methodologies for an acoustic fetal heart rate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, Robert A., III; Stoughton, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Research and development is presented of real time signal processing methodologies for the detection of fetal heart tones within a noise-contaminated signal from a passive acoustic sensor. A linear predictor algorithm is utilized for detection of the heart tone event and additional processing derives heart rate. The linear predictor is adaptively 'trained' in a least mean square error sense on generic fetal heart tones recorded from patients. A real time monitor system is described which outputs to a strip chart recorder for plotting the time history of the fetal heart rate. The system is validated in the context of the fetal nonstress test. Comparisons are made with ultrasonic nonstress tests on a series of patients. Comparative data provides favorable indications of the feasibility of the acoustic monitor for clinical use.

  7. Prognostic significance of heart rate turbulence parameters in patients with chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, De-Chun; Wang, Zhao-Jun; Guo, Shuai; Xie, Hong-Yu; Sun, Lin; Feng, Wei; Qiu, Wei; Qu, Xiu-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Background This study is aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of heart rate turbulence (HRT) parameters in predicting the prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods From June 2011 to December 2012, a total of 104 CHF patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We obtained a 24-hour Holter ECG recording to assess the HRT parameters, included turbulence onset (TO), turbulence slope (TS), standard deviation of N-N intervals (SDNN), and resting heart ...

  8. Disentangling Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia in Heart Rate Variability Records

    OpenAIRE

    Topçu, Çağdaş; Frühwirth, Matthias; Moser, Maximilian; Rosenblum, Michael; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2018-01-01

    Different measures of heart rate variability and particularly of respiratory sinus arrhythmia are widely used in research and clinical applications. Inspired by the ideas from the theory of coupled oscillators, we use simultaneous measurements of respiratory and cardiac activity to perform a nonlinear decomposition of the heart rate variability into the respiratory-related component and the rest. We suggest to exploit the technique as a universal preprocessing tool, both for the analysis of r...

  9. Accuracy of Heart Rate Watches: Implications for Weight Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Wallen

    Full Text Available Wrist-worn monitors claim to provide accurate measures of heart rate and energy expenditure. People wishing to lose weight use these devices to monitor energy balance, however the accuracy of these devices to measure such parameters has not been established.To determine the accuracy of four wrist-worn devices (Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, Samsung Gear S and Mio Alpha to measure heart rate and energy expenditure at rest and during exercise.Twenty-two healthy volunteers (50% female; aged 24 ± 5.6 years completed ~1-hr protocols involving supine and seated rest, walking and running on a treadmill and cycling on an ergometer. Data from the devices collected during the protocol were compared with reference methods: electrocardiography (heart rate and indirect calorimetry (energy expenditure.None of the devices performed significantly better overall, however heart rate was consistently more accurate than energy expenditure across all four devices. Correlations between the devices and reference methods were moderate to strong for heart rate (0.67-0.95 [0.35 to 0.98] and weak to strong for energy expenditure (0.16-0.86 [-0.25 to 0.95]. All devices underestimated both outcomes compared to reference methods. The percentage error for heart rate was small across the devices (range: 1-9% but greater for energy expenditure (9-43%. Similarly, limits of agreement were considerably narrower for heart rate (ranging from -27.3 to 13.1 bpm than energy expenditure (ranging from -266.7 to 65.7 kcals across devices.These devices accurately measure heart rate. However, estimates of energy expenditure are poor and would have implications for people using these devices for weight loss.

  10. Heart Rate at Hospital Discharge in Patients With Heart Failure Is Associated With Mortality and Rehospitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, Warren K.; Alomari, Ihab; Cox, Margueritte; Schulte, Phillip J.; Zhao, Xin; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Eapen, Zubin J.; Yancy, Clyde; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether heart rate upon discharge following hospitalization for heart failure is associated with long‐term adverse outcomes and whether this association differs between patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been well studied. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective cohort study from clinical registry data linked to Medicare claims for 46 217 patients participating in Get With The Guidelines®–Heart Failure. Cox proportional‐hazards models were used to estimate the association between discharge heart rate and all‐cause mortality, all‐cause readmission, and the composite outcome of mortality/readmission through 1 year. For SR and AF patients with heart rate ≥75, the association between heart rate and mortality (expressed as hazard ratio [HR] per 10 beats‐per‐minute increment) was significant at 0 to 30 days (SR: HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.39; AF: HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.29) and 31 to 365 days (SR: HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.20; AF: HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08). Similar associations between heart rate and all‐cause readmission and the composite outcome were obtained for SR and AF patients from 0 to 30 days but only in the composite outcome for SR patients over the longer term. The HR from 0 to 30 days exceeded that from 31 to 365 days for both SR and AF patients. At heart rates heart failure, higher discharge heart rate was associated with increased risks of death and rehospitalization, with higher risk in the first 30 days and for SR compared with AF. PMID:25904590

  11. Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Control on Return from International Space Station (CCISS)- Heart Rate and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, R. L.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Blaber, A. P.; Arbeille, Ph.; Zuj, K. A.; Greaves, D. K.

    2008-06-01

    CCISS is a project to study the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses of astronauts before, during and after long-duration (>60-day) stays on the International Space Station. The CCISS experiments consist of three phases that are designed to achieve an integrated examination of components responsible for return of blood to the heart, the pumping of blood from the heart and the distribution to the vascular territories including the brain. In this report the data are obtained from the 24-h monitoring of physical activity (Actiwatch on wrist and ankle) and of heart rate (Holter monitor). The data show clear patterns of change in physical activity from predominantly leg-based on Earth to relatively little activity of the ankles with maintained or increased activity of the wrists on ISS. Both on Earth and on ISS the largest changes in heart rate occur during the periods of leg activity. Average heart rate was changed little during the periods of minimal activity or of sleep in comparisons of Earth with in-flight recording both within the first two weeks of flight and the last two weeks. These data clearly show the importance of monitoring heart rate and physical activity simultaneously and show that attempts to derive indicators of autonomic activity from spectral analysis of heart rate variability should not be performed in the absence of knowledge of both variables.

  12. Probability of detection of clinical seizures using heart rate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Ivan; Manly, B F J

    2015-08-01

    Heart rate-based seizure detection is a viable complement or alternative to ECoG/EEG. This study investigates the role of various biological factors on the probability of clinical seizure detection using heart rate. Regression models were applied to 266 clinical seizures recorded from 72 subjects to investigate if factors such as age, gender, years with epilepsy, etiology, seizure site origin, seizure class, and data collection centers, among others, shape the probability of EKG-based seizure detection. Clinical seizure detection probability based on heart rate changes, is significantly (pprobability of detecting clinical seizures (>0.8 in the majority of subjects) using heart rate is highest for complex partial seizures, increases with a patient's years with epilepsy, is lower for females than for males and is unrelated to the side of hemisphere origin. Clinical seizure detection probability using heart rate is multi-factorially dependent and sufficiently high (>0.8) in most cases to be clinically useful. Knowledge of the role that these factors play in shaping said probability will enhance its applicability and usefulness. Heart rate is a reliable and practical signal for extra-cerebral detection of clinical seizures originating from or spreading to central autonomic network structures. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A systematic review of trends and patterns of congenital heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: We searched PubMed database, Google scholar, TRIP database, World Health Organisation libraries and reference lists of selected articles for studies on patterns of congenital heart disease among children in Nigeria between 1964 and 2015. Two researchers reviewed the papers independently and extracted the ...

  14. Pattern of acquired heart diseases among children seen in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... Key words: Acquired heart disease, children, Nigeria, outcome, pattern, Sokoto ... people who acquire acute rheumatic fever (ARF) every year, .... cardiology clinic. An 11‑year‑old girl with RHD, who was on secondary prophylaxis for rheumatic fever, developed anaphylactic hypersensitivity reaction to ...

  15. Differences in heart rate variability during haemodialysis and haemofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovesi, Simonetta; Bracchi, Oscar; Fabbrini, Paolo; Luisetto, Elena; Viganò, Maria Rosa; Lucini, Daniela; Malacarne, Mara; Stella, Andrea; Pagani, Massimo

    2007-08-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate whether convective (haemofiltration, Hf) and diffusive (haemodialysis, Hd) dialysis techniques induce different patterns of long- and short-term autonomic adjustments in haemodynamically stable dialysis patients. Ten haemodynamically stable Hd patients were studied. Each patient underwent a block of six Hd sessions, then was switched to six Hf. During the last session of each dialytic treatment, continuous beat to beat measurements of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and heart rate (HR) were performed. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was made before and during the treatment to evaluate the modification of autonomic nervous system activity. Baseline values of plasma sodium, body weight, HR and SAP were not different for the two considered methods of dialysis, while the baseline values of normalized LF were significantly higher in Hf as compared to Hd and the opposite was observed for HF powers (P < 0.001). Sodium balance and body weight loss per hour did not differ between Hd and Hf while body temperature was kept constant in all sessions. Throughout the dialytic procedures, with both techniques, SAP was constant, while HR diminished from the first hour till the end of the procedure (P < 0.05). An increase in LF (and decrease in HF) was noticed only in the case of Hd, considering normalized units (P < 0.05). These selective changes were maintained also during the recovery after the procedure. The spectral analysis of RR interval variability during Hd and Hf suggests a potential autonomic advantage with Hf, to be added to the well-recognized intrinsic greater haemodynamic stability.

  16. Rate and pattern of interproximal dental attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig, Rachel; Hershkovitz, Israel; Shpack, Nir; May, Hila; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2015-08-01

    Although occlusal and interproximal attrition occur because of diverse etiology and present dissimilar features, both progress with age. The objectives of this study were to reveal the rate and pattern of development of interproximal attrition facets (PAF) with age and to compare those with occlusal attrition (OA) changes. Five-hundred and ninety-four teeth were collected from 198 skulls (of adults, 20-71 yr of age). Three mandibular teeth [first premolar (P1), second premolar (P2), and first molar (M1)] were examined for PAF size and OA rate. Interproximal attrition and OA followed similar patterns of development until subjects reached 40-45 yr of age, after which they took different paths: PAF did not increase in size and were not as large as in younger groups, regardless of facet location, whereas OA continued to progress. The PAF changes with age differed between premolars and molars, unlike OA, which presented a similar rate for all teeth studied. Although OA scores presented significantly moderate correlations with age, PAF area size demonstrated low correlations with age. Low, but significant, correlations were found between the rate of OA and that of PAF. However, PAF and OA exhibited different patterns of development with age. Premolars and molars presented dissimilar development of PAF, which is probably caused by a unique attrition pattern in the molar teeth, different morphology, and force vectors. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  17. Inadequate control of heart rate in patients with stable angina: results from the European heart survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daly, C.A.; Clemens, F.; Sendon, J.L.; Tavazzi, L.; Boersma, E.; Danchin, N.; Delahaye, F.; Gitt, A.; Julian, D.; Mulcahy, D.; Ruzyllo, W.; Thygesen, K.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Fox, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To examine resting heart rate (HR) in a population presenting with stable angina in relation to prior and subsequent pharmacological treatment, comorbid conditions and clinical outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: The European Heart Survey was a prospective, observational, cohort study of 3779

  18. The limits of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring in the prevention of neonatal metabolic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven L; Hamilton, Emily F; Garite, Thomas J; Timmins, Audra; Warrick, Philip A; Smith, Samuel

    2017-02-01

    Despite intensive efforts directed at initial training in fetal heart rate interpretation, continuing medical education, board certification/recertification, team training, and the development of specific protocols for the management of abnormal fetal heart rate patterns, the goals of consistently preventing hypoxia-induced fetal metabolic acidemia and neurologic injury remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to validate a recently published algorithm for the management of category II fetal heart rate tracings, to examine reasons for the birth of infants with significant metabolic acidemia despite the use of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring, and to examine critically the limits of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring in the prevention of neonatal metabolic acidemia. The potential performance of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring under ideal circumstances was evaluated in an outcomes-blinded examination fetal heart rate tracing of infants with metabolic acidemia at birth (base deficit, >12) and matched control infants (base deficit, fetal heart rate tracings, followed by delivery within 30 minutes, (4) evaluation without the need to provide patient care simultaneously, and (5) comparison of results under these circumstances with those achieved in actual clinical practice. During the study period, 120 infants were identified with an arterial cord blood base deficit of >12 mM/L. Matched control infants were not demographically different from subjects. In actual practice, operative intervention on the basis of an abnormal fetal heart rate tracings occurred in 36 of 120 fetuses (30.0%) with metabolic acidemia. Based on expert, algorithm-assisted reviews, 55 of 120 patients with acidemia (45.8%) were judged to need operative intervention for abnormal fetal heart rate tracings. This difference was significant (P=.016). In infants who were born with a base deficit of >12 mM/L in which blinded, algorithm-assisted expert review indicated the need for

  19. Time-motion analysis and heart rate recordings of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the movement patterns, heart rates and work-to-rest ratios of South African Rugby Union referees during the two halves of match-refereeing. The referees were monitored by means of a video camera in 16 matches during a tournament. The frequency and duration of the different ...

  20. Quantifying collective effervescence: Heart-rate dynamics at a fire-walking ritual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris; Konvalinka, Ivana; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    solidarity, yet quantitative evidence for these conjectures is scarce. Our recent study measured the physiological effects of a highly arousing Spanish fire-walking ritual, revealing shared patterns in heart-rate dynamics between participants and related spectators. We briefly describe our results...

  1. Evaluation of the metabolic rate based on the recording of the heart rate

    OpenAIRE

    MALCHAIRE, Jacques; ALFANO, Francesca Romana d?AMBROSIO; PALELLA, Boris Igor

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of harsh working conditions requires a correct evaluation of the metabolic rate. This paper revises the basis described in the ISO 8996 standard for the evaluation of the metabolic rate at a work station from the recording of the heart rate of a worker during a representative period of time. From a review of the literature, formulas different from those given in the standard are proposed to estimate the maximum working capacity, the maximum heart rate, the heart rate and the me...

  2. Heart rate variability and heart rate turbulence in mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ugur; Ozdemir, Murat; Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Balcioglu, Serhat; Cemri, Mustafa; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-12-01

    To study heart rate (HR) variability and HR turbulence parameters in mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis (AS) and to disclose whether any relationship exists between these parameters and echocardiographic findings. Forty-three asymptomatic patients with mild-to-moderate AS (AS group) were studied. Echocardiographic parameters and HR variability and HR turbulence indices obtained over 24 Holter ECG recordings were compared with those of an age and sex matched control population free of cardiovascular disease. Correlation between echocardiographic findings and HR variability and HR turbulence indices was also studied in the AS group. All HR variability parameters except mean RR interval, RMSSD, and pNN50 and one HR turbulence parameter, turbulence onset, were significantly disturbed in the AS group. Echocardiographic findings of diastolic dysfunction had significant correlations with HR variability and HR turbulence parameters in AS patients. Symphatovagal imbalance as shown by disturbed HR variability and HR turbulence parameters was demonstrated for the first time in patients with mild-to-moderate AS. This imbalance, which was shown to be correlated with echocardiographic findings of diastolic dysfunction, may lead to arrhythmic complications in this seemingly low-risk patient population.

  3. HEART-RATE-VARIABILITY IN LEFT-VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION AND HEART-FAILURE - EFFECTS AND IMPLICATIONS OF DRUG-TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TUININGA, YS; VANVELDHUISEN, DJ; BROUWER, J; HAAKSMA, J; CRIJNS, HJGM; MANINTVELD, AJ; LIE, KI

    1994-01-01

    Objective-To review the importance of heart rate variability analysis in left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure and to assess the effects of drug treatment. In patients with left: ventricular dysfunction or heart failure, a low heart rate variability is a strong predictor of a low

  4. Cognitive strategies, perception of effort and heart rate in endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A light-weight micro-cassette recorder was used to document the subjects' verbalised thoughts while training. Effort was measured by the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) at the completion of each ride, and through the recording of heart rate every 60 seconds. A cycling-specific sub-category of thought ";equipment ...

  5. The Use of Heart Rate Monitors in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Randall; Davis, Kathryn L.; McCord, Tim; Schmidt, Dave; Slezak, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The ever-rising rate of obesity and the need for increased physical activity for young children is well documented. Data suggests that today's youth are not participating in enough quality health-enhancing physical activity either in or outside of school. Heart rate monitors have been used by adult exercisers for many years to monitor and assess…

  6. Heart rate-based lactate minimum test: a reproducible method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strupler, M.; Muller, G.; Perret, C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find the individual intensity for aerobic endurance training, the lactate minimum test (LMT) seems to be a promising method. LMTs described in the literature consist of speed or work rate-based protocols, but for training prescription in daily practice mostly heart rate is used. The

  7. Impact of training load on the heart rate of horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In our work, we analyzed the effect of training load on the heart rate of horses in a simulated load by the loading regulator for horse motion Horse Gym 2000. In the experiment were observed 8 Slovak Warmblood horses (3 mares, 4 geldings, 1 stallion aged 6-10 years. The experiment was divided into two parts after three weeks. The speed of the tested horses was 4.9 km/h in the first part of experiment, in the second part was the speed 5.2 km/h with a gradual uphill up to 7 %. The tested horses achieved during the experiment an average heart rate level below 70 beats a minute, which is a light load. The maximum values of heart rate were recorded at 120 to 147 beats/min. Differences between tested horses in the values of heart rate were not statistically significant. After three weeks we recorded in the values of average and maximum heart rate onset of bradycardia, which is documented the adaptation of body to the specified load.

  8. Steep Trendelenburg position during robotic sacrocolpopexy and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Lior; Mustafa, Mona; Burke, Yechiel Z; Mustafa, Susana; Segal, Dror; Weissman, Amir

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability and hemodynamic parameters following steep Trendelenburg positioning during robotic sacrocolpopexy. For 19 women, median age 57 (range: 45-72), blood pressure and ECG were recorded during surgery. From the ECG signals interbeat intervals were used to assess heart rate variability, analyzed in time and frequency domains using the Fast Fourier transform. The low frequency and high frequency spectral bands were used to assess sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways respectively. All women underwent robotic supracervical hysterectomy and sacrocolpopexy. A statistically significant decrease in the mean values of the low-frequency and high-frequency spectral bands, representing sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, respectively were demonstrated 5min following Trendelenburg positioning of the patients (from 3.6±1.4 to 2.9±0.8ms(2)/Hz, and from 3.5±1.4 to 2.9±1ms(2)/Hz, Pchanges correlated with a mean 20% decrease in heart rate, which lasted for 30min, and with a second drop in sympathetic and parasympathetic activity and heart rate, commencing 2h from the start of surgery, and lasting until the end of the operation. Steep Tredelenburg positioning during robotic urogynecology surgery results in significant changes in the autonomic nervous system modulation of heart rate variability and in other hemodynamic parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heart rate measurement based on face video sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Zhou, Qin-Wu; Wu, Peng; Chen, Xing; Yang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Hong-jian

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a new non-contact heart rate measurement method based on photoplethysmography (PPG) theory. With this method we can measure heart rate remotely with a camera and ambient light. We collected video sequences of subjects, and detected remote PPG signals through video sequences. Remote PPG signals were analyzed with two methods, Blind Source Separation Technology (BSST) and Cross Spectral Power Technology (CSPT). BSST is a commonly used method, and CSPT is used for the first time in the study of remote PPG signals in this paper. Both of the methods can acquire heart rate, but compared with BSST, CSPT has clearer physical meaning, and the computational complexity of CSPT is lower than that of BSST. Our work shows that heart rates detected by CSPT method have good consistency with the heart rates measured by a finger clip oximeter. With good accuracy and low computational complexity, the CSPT method has a good prospect for the application in the field of home medical devices and mobile health devices.

  10. Heart rate detection from an electronic weighing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Landaeta, R; Casas, O; Pallàs-Areny, R

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel technique for heart rate detection on a subject that stands on a common electronic weighing scale. The detection relies on sensing force variations related to the blood acceleration in the aorta, works even if wearing footwear, and does not require any sensors attached to the body. We have applied our method to three different weighing scales, and estimated whether their sensitivity and frequency response suited heart rate detection. Scale sensitivities were from 490 nV/V/N to 1670 nV/V/N, all had an underdamped transient response and their dynamic gain error was below 19% at 10 Hz, which are acceptable values for heart rate estimation. We also designed a pulse detection system based on off-the-shelf integrated circuits, whose gain was about 70x10(3) and able to sense force variations about 240 mN. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the main peaks of the pulse signal detected was higher than 48 dB, which is large enough to estimate the heart rate by simple signal processing methods. To validate the method, the ECG and the force signal were simultaneously recorded on 12 volunteers. The maximal error obtained from heart rates determined from these two signals was +/-0.6 beats/minute.

  11. Is the normal heart rate ``chaotic'' due to respiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Niels; Riedl, Maik; Kurths, Jürgen

    2009-06-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular diseases increases with the growth of the human population and an aging society, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, it is challenging to develop sophisticated methods in order to improve medical diagnostics. The question whether the normal heart rate is chaotic or not is an attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of cardiovascular dynamics and therefore a highly controversial topical challenge. In this contribution we demonstrate that linear and nonlinear parameters allow us to separate completely the data sets of the three groups provided for this controversial topic in nonlinear dynamics. The question whether these time series are chaotic or not cannot be answered satisfactorily without investigating the underlying mechanisms leading to them. We give an example of the dominant influence of respiration on heart beat dynamics, which shows that observed fluctuations can be mostly explained by respiratory modulations of heart rate and blood pressure (coefficient of determination: 96%). Therefore, we recommend reformulating the following initial question: "Is the normal heart rate chaotic?" We rather ask the following: "Is the normal heart rate `chaotic' due to respiration?"

  12. QRS peak detection for heart rate monitoring on Android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambudi Utomo, Trio; Nuryani, Nuryani; Darmanto

    2017-11-01

    In this study, Android smartphone is used for heart rate monitoring and displaying electrocardiogram (ECG) graph. Heart rate determination is based on QRS peak detection. Two methods are studied to detect the QRS complex peak; they are Peak Threshold and Peak Filter. The acquisition of ECG data is utilized by AD8232 module from Analog Devices, three electrodes, and Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3. To record the ECG data from a patient, three electrodes are attached to particular body’s surface of a patient. Patient’s heart activity which is recorded by AD8232 module is decoded by Arduino UNO R3 into analog data. Then, the analog data is converted into a voltage value (mV) and is processed to get the QRS complex peak. Heart rate value is calculated by Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3 uses the QRS complex peak. Voltage, heart rate, and the QRS complex peak are sent to Android smartphone by Bluetooth HC-05. ECG data is displayed as the graph by Android smartphone. To evaluate the performance of QRS complex peak detection method, three parameters are used; they are positive predictive, accuracy and sensitivity. Positive predictive, accuracy, and sensitivity of Peak Threshold method is 92.39%, 70.30%, 74.62% and for Peak Filter method are 98.38%, 82.47%, 83.61%, respectively.

  13. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Skaaby, Tea

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were...... included in observational and Mendelian randomisation (MR) meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), hypertension, and resting heart rate. For the MR analyses, a genetic variant rs16969968/rs1051730 was used as a proxy...... association of smoking heaviness with higher level of resting heart rate, but not with blood pressure. These findings suggest that part of the cardiovascular risk of smoking may operate through increasing resting heart rate....

  14. Effect of oxygen treatment on heart rate after abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Lie, C; Bernhard, A

    1999-01-01

    . METHODS: The authors studied the effect of oxygen therapy on arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate in 100 consecutive unselected patients randomly and double blindly allocated to receive air or oxygen therapy between the first and fourth day after major abdominal surgery. RESULTS: The median arterial...... supplementation were found between patients with or without an epidural catheter or between the postoperative day studied. CONCLUSION: Postoperative oxygen therapy increased arterial oxygen saturation and decreased heart rate after uncomplicated abdominal surgery in a consecutive unselected group of patients who......BACKGROUND: Cardiac complications are common during the postoperative period and may be associated with hypoxemia and tachycardia. Preliminary studies in high-risk patients after operation have shown a possible beneficial effect of oxygen therapy on arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate...

  15. Heart rate variability in sleep-related migraine without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollono, Catello; Gnoni, Valentina; Testani, Elisa; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Colicchio, Salvatore; Di Blasi, Chiara; Mazza, Salvatore; Farina, Benedetto; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-07-15

    This is an observational study aimed to investigate the activity of autonomic nervous system during sleep in patients with sleep-related migraine. Eight consecutive migraineurs without aura were enrolled (6 women and 2 men), aged 30 to 62 years (mean 48.1 ± 9.3 years). Inclusion criteria were: high frequency of attacks (> 5 per month) and occurrence of more than 75% of the attacks during sleep causing an awakening. Patients were compared with a control group of 55 healthy subjects (23 men and 32 women, mean age 54.2 ± 13.0 years), and with a further control group of 8 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patient and controls underwent polysomnography and heart rate variability analysis. A significant reduction of the LF/HF ratio during N2 and N3 sleep stages was observed in migraineurs compared with controls. No differences in sleep macrostructure were observed; cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) time and CAP rate were lower in migraineurs than in controls. These findings indicate a peculiar modification of the autonomic balance during sleep in sleep-related migraine. The reduction of LF/HF ratio in NREM sleep was observed in controls, but it was quantitatively much more evident in migraineurs. Changes in LF/HF could be consequent to an autonomic unbalance which could manifest selectively (or alternatively become more evident) during sleep. These findings, together with the reduction in CAP rate, could be an expression of reduced arousability during sleep in patients with sleep-related migraine. The simultaneous involvement of the autonomic, arousal, and pain systems might suggest involvement of the hypothalamic pathways.

  16. Peak heart rate decreases with increasing severity of acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degree to which peak heart rate is reduced during exhaustive exercise in acute hypoxia. Five sea-level lowlanders performed maximal exercise at normobaric normoxia and at three different levels of hypobaric hypoxia (barometric pressures of 518......, 459, and 404 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber and while breathing 9% O(2) in N(2). These conditions were equivalent to altitudes of 3300, 4300, 5300, and 6300 m above sea level, respectively. At 4300 m, maximal exercise was also repeated after 4 and 8 h. Peak heart rate (HR) decreased from 191 (182...

  17. Heart rate recovery in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Karaşen, Rıza Murat; ÇİFTÇİ, Bülent; Acar, Baran; YALÇIN, Ahmet Arif; GÜVEN, Selma FIRAT

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on baroregulatory function by using heart rate recovery (HRR) parameters. Materials and methods: Fifty-four moderate and severe OSAS patients were included in the study. HRR was defined as the difference in heart rate between peak exercise and 1 min later; a value of 18 beats/min was considered abnormal. OSAS patients were enrolled in the study as group 1 (normal HRR; n = 12) and group 2 (abnormal HRR, n = 42). Left ventr...

  18. Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring: applying principles of patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A; Miller, Lisa A

    2012-04-01

    In 1999, a highly publicized report from the Institute of Medicine identified major deficiencies in the United States health care system, which fueled the rapid growth of the modern patient safety movement. One of the greatest risks to patient safety in obstetrics is poor communication of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring findings. Standardization and elimination of unnecessary complexity are 2 of the cornerstones of improved patient safety. This article describes a standardized, simplified approach to the definition, interpretation, and management of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring that is evidence-based and reflects consensus in the literature. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Heart rate variability as determinism with jump stochastic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiongxuan; Skufca, Joseph D; Bollt, Erik M

    2013-08-01

    We use measured heart rate information (RR intervals) to develop a one-dimensional nonlinear map that describes short term deterministic behavior in the data. Our study suggests that there is a stochastic parameter with persistence which causes the heart rate and rhythm system to wander about a bifurcation point. We propose a modified circle map with a jump process noise term as a model which can qualitatively capture such this behavior of low dimensional transient determinism with occasional (stochastically defined) jumps from one deterministic system to another within a one parameter family of deterministic systems.

  20. Heart rate regulation at different levels of convulsive readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalyga, M L

    2013-08-01

    Heart rate variability parameters and the level of convulsive readiness during pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in rats were analyzed using telemetric ECG and EEG monitoring. Analysis of ECG recorded over many days showed that heart rate variability was equally reduced after 7 and 27 days of kindling irrespective of the level of convulsive readiness. Reduced sympathovagal index after 7 days of kindling showed the compensatory character of changes. However, compensatory mechanisms cannot prevent high risk of life-threatening arrhythmias. High convulsive readiness after 27 days of kindling was accompanied by a shift of autonomic balance towards the increase in sympathetic tone, which may lead to decompensation and transition to a prenosological state.

  1. Dopamine and noradrenaline are unrelated to renalase, heart rate, and blood pressure in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski, G; Przybyłowski, P; Janik, L; Nowak, E; Sadowski, J; Małyszko, J

    2014-10-01

    Renalase may degrade catecholamines and regulate sympathetic tone and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess dopamine, norepinephrine, and renalase in 80 heart transplant recipients and 22 healthy volunteers and their correlations with heart rate, blood pressure control, type of hypotensive therapy, and renal function. Renalase, dopamine, and norepinephrine were studied by using commercially available assays. Renalase levels were higher in heart transplant recipients compared with healthy volunteers, and noradrenaline levels were lower in the studied cohort patients than in the healthy volunteers. Noradrenaline was correlated with white blood cell count (r = -0.21, P noradrenaline nor dopamine was correlated with heart rate, blood pressure, kidney function, or New York Heart Association class. Noradrenaline was significantly higher in patients with elevated diastolic blood pressure (>90 mm Hg) compared with those with normal diastolic blood pressure (P < .05). Renalase was related to kidney function but was unrelated to catecholamines. Elevated renalase levels in heart transplant patients were related to kidney function but not linked to the sympathetic nervous system activity in this study population. In heart transplant recipients, these findings might suggest that sympathetic denervation and the modulation of β-receptors persist.

  2. When heart goes “BOOM” to fast. Heart rate greater than 80 as mortality predictor in acute myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Davidovic, Goran; Iric-Cupic, Violeta; Milanov, Srdjan; Dimitijevic, Aleksandra; Petrovic-Janicijevic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Many prospective studies established association between high heart rate and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of other risk factors. Heart rate over 80 beats per minute more often leads to atherosclerotic plaque disruption, the main step in developing acute coronary syndrome. Purpose was to investigate the incidence of higher heart rate levels in patients with anterior wall acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation and the influence of heart rate on ...

  3. Evaluation of the metabolic rate based on the recording of the heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchaire, Jacques; d'AMBROSIO Alfano, Francesca Romana; Palella, Boris Igor

    2017-06-08

    The assessment of harsh working conditions requires a correct evaluation of the metabolic rate. This paper revises the basis described in the ISO 8996 standard for the evaluation of the metabolic rate at a work station from the recording of the heart rate of a worker during a representative period of time. From a review of the literature, formulas different from those given in the standard are proposed to estimate the maximum working capacity, the maximum heart rate, the heart rate and the metabolic rate at rest and the relation (HR vs. M) at the basis of the estimation of the equivalent metabolic rate, as a function of the age, height and weight of the person. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to determine, from the approximations of these parameters and formulas, the imprecision of the estimated equivalent metabolic rate. The results show that the standard deviation of this estimate varies from 10 to 15%.

  4. [Bundle-branch block depending on the heart rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolov, L

    1975-01-01

    Five patients are reported, admitted to the hospital, with diseases predominantly of the cardio-vascular system. During the electrocardiographic examinations bundle branch block was established, depending on heart rate. It fluctuated within the physiological limits from 50 to 90/min. In three of the patients, the bundle branch block appeared with the quickening of the heart rate (tachycardia-depending bundle branch block) and in two of the patients--the bundle branch block appeared during the slowing down of the heart action and disappeared with its quickening (bradicardia-depending bundle branch block). A brief literature review is presented and attention is paid to the possible diagnostic errors and the treatment mode of those patients with cardiac tonic and antiarrhythmic medicaments.

  5. Inhalation of ultrafine carbon particles alters heart rate and heart rate variability in people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Rathin; Zareba, Wojciech; Utell, Mark J; Pietropaoli, Anthony P; Chalupa, David; Little, Erika L; Oakes, David; Bausch, Jan; Wiltshire, Jelani; Frampton, Mark W

    2014-07-16

    Diabetes may confer an increased risk for the cardiovascular health effects of particulate air pollution, but few human clinical studies of air pollution have included people with diabetes. Ultrafine particles (UFP, ≤100 nm in diameter) have been hypothesized to be an important component of particulate air pollution with regard to cardiovascular health effects. 17 never-smoker subjects 30-60 years of age, with stable type 2 diabetes but otherwise healthy, inhaled either filtered air (0-10 particles/cm3) or elemental carbon UFP (~107 particles/cm3, ~50 ug/m3, count median diameter 32 nm) by mouthpiece, for 2 hours at rest, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study design. A digital 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded continuously for 48 hours, beginning 1 hour prior to exposure. Analysis of 5-minute segments of the ECG during quiet rest showed reduced high-frequency heart rate variability with UFP relative to air exposure (p = 0.014), paralleled by non-significant reductions in time-domain heart rate variability parameters. In the analysis of longer durations of the ECG, we found that UFP exposure increased the heart rate relative to air exposure. During the 21- to 45-hour interval after exposure, the average heart rate increased approximately 8 beats per minute with UFP, compared to 5 beats per minute with air (p = 0.045). There were no UFP effects on cardiac rhythm or repolarization. Inhalation of elemental carbon ultrafine particles alters heart rate and heart rate variability in people with type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest that effects may occur and persist hours after a single 2-hour exposure.

  6. Simplifying cardiovascular risk estimation using resting heart rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-09-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a known, independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but is not included in risk estimation systems, including Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). We aimed to derive risk estimation systems including RHR as an extra variable and assess the value of this addition.

  7. Fetal heart rate variation after corticosteroids for fetal maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaven, Olga; Ganzevoort, Wessel; de Boer, Marjon; Wolf, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies report a decrease of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) after corticosteroids for improvement of fetal maturity and advice not to deliver a fetus for low STV within 2-3 days after corticosteroids. However, literature is not unanimous in this respect. This

  8. Noradrenaline: Central inhibitory control of blood pressure and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Wybren de

    1974-01-01

    Noradrenaline injected bilaterally into the brainstem in the area of the nucleus tractus solitarii decreased systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate of anesthetized rats. The effect of noradrenaline was prevented by a preceding injection of the α-adrenergic blocking agent phentolamine, at

  9. Allostatic load and heart rate variability as health risk indicators.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Uncertainty often exists about the comparability of results obtained by different health risk indicator systems. Objectives: To compare two health risk indicator systems, i.e, allostatic load and heart rate variability (HRV). Additionally, to investigate the feasibility of inclusion of HRV indicators into allostatic ...

  10. Heart Rate Variability and Drawing Impairment in Hypoxemic COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Corsonello, Andrea; Trojano, Luigi; Pedone, Claudio; Acanfora, Domenico; Spada, Aldo; D'Addio, Gianni; Maestri, Roberto; Rengo, Franco; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    We studied 54 patients with hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Mini Mental State Examination and the Mental Deterioration Battery were used for neuropsychological assessment. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed based on 24-h Holter ECG recording. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare HRV parameters of patients…

  11. [Analysing heart rate variability to improve the monitoring of pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butruille, Laura; De Jonckheere, Julien; Jeanne, Mathieu; Tavernier, Benoît; Logier, Régis

    2016-12-01

    An innovative technique based on the analysis of instantaneous heart rate variability helps to improve the prevention and management of pain and discomfort. Simple to implement, this non-invasive technique is based on the continuous recording of the electrocardiograph signal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Heart rate variability and sustained attention in ADHD children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börger, N.A.; Van der Meere, J.J.; Ronner, A.; Alberts, E.; Geuze, R.H.; Bogte, H

    The major goal of the current study was to investigate the association between continuous performance tests (CPTs) and the heart rate variability (HRV) of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. The HRV, specifically the 0.10-Hz component, may be considered to be a

  13. Heart rate differences in small sided games in formative basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gracia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine and learn the heart rate responses of basketball players in small-sided or modified games, in order to develop a more effective workout plan in the future. The study sample consisted of 19 basketball players from a National Championship Club, 12 of them in the U’14 category and the remaining 7 belonging to the U’16 category. Small-sided games were 3x3 and 4x4 with a duration of 4 minutes and an active break of 3 minutes. Significant differences (p<0.05 were found referring to the relations established between 3x3 without feedback and 3x3 with feedback in vigorous exercise; in 3x3 without feedback and 3x3 with feedback in moderate exercise; in 3x3 and 3x3 with average heart rate; in 4x4 and 4x4 with average heart rate and in 4x4 and 4x4 with average heart rate related to game categories.Keywords:

  14. Heart Rate Variability Interventions for Concussion and Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lake Conder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of Heart Rate Variability (HRV has emerged as an essential component of cardiovascular health, as well as a physiological mechanism by which one can increase the interactive communication between the cardiac and the neurocognitive systems (i.e., the body and the brain. It is well-established that lack of heart rate variability implies cardiopathology, morbidity, reduced quality-of-life, and precipitous mortality. On the positive, optimal heart rate variability has been associated with good cardiovascular health, autonomic nervous system (ANS control, emotional regulation, and enhanced neurocognitive processing. In addition to health benefits, optimal HRV has been shown to improve neurocognitive performance by enhancing focus, visual acuity and readiness, and by promoting emotional regulation needed for peak performance. In concussed athletes and soldiers, concussions not only alter brain connectivity, but also alter cardiac functioning and impair cardiovascular performance upon exertion. Altered sympathetic and parasympathetic balance in the ANS has been postulated as a critical factor in refractory Post Concussive Syndrome (PCS. This article will review both the pathological aspects of reduced heart rate variability on athletic performance, as well as the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular components of concussion and PCS. Additionally, this article will review interventions with HRV biofeedback (HRV BFB training as a promising and underutilized treatment for sports and military-related concussion. Finally, this article will review research and promising case studies pertaining to use of HRV BFB for enhancement of cognition and performance, with applicability to concussion rehabilitation.

  15. Continuous measurement of heart rate variability following carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-16

    Jul 16, 2010 ... Power spectral analysis of the electrocardiographic R-R interval [heart rate variability: (HRV)] is a well known, non- invasive method for assessing autonomic nervous activity.1. Studies using HRV analysis during positive-pressure pneumoperitoneum (PPP) have demonstrated increased sympathetic ...

  16. Continuous measurement of heart rate variability following carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Previous studies of autonomic nervous system activity through analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) have demonstrated increased sympathetic activity during positive-pressure pneumoperitoneum. We employed an online, continuous method for rapid HRV analysis (MemCalc™, Tarawa, Suwa Trust, Tokyo, ...

  17. Applicability and performance of heart rate variability methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaksma, J; Brouwer, J; Dijk, WA; van den Berg, M; Takens, F; Dassen, WRM; Murray, A

    2003-01-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) may be measured using different measurement techniques. Almost all of these techniques deal with ectopic beats. Either these beats are excluded from the analysis or they are required. To access the functional character and easiness of use of several HRV techniques we

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Fetal Heart Rate and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilevsky, Barbara S.; Hains, Sylvia M. J.

    2010-01-01

    A relationship between fetal heart rate (HR) and cognition is explored within the context of infant, child and adult studies where the association is well established. Lack of direct access to the fetus and maturational changes limit research paradigms and response measures for fetal studies. Nevertheless, neural regulation of HR shows a number of…

  19. Heart Rate and Stress in a College Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Vogt, F. Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Conditions producing stress are present in all colleges and universities. In this paper we report on an investigation utilizing heart rate as an indicator of stress in students when participating in activities encountered in a college classroom or laboratory. The activities included presenting an oral report, taking an exam, and participating in a…

  20. Gonadal hormones and heart rate as an emotional response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Loos, Wolter Statius

    1988-01-01

    Animai experiments may give information on the physiology of hormones under stress conditions. The model for the investigation of acute emotional stress in animals that has been chosen permits the study of heart rate in freely moving laboratory rats as a sensitive psychophysiological parameter, This

  1. Decreased heart rate variability in surgeons during night shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, Ilda; Toftegård Andersen, Lærke; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a measure of stress and mental strain in surgeons. Low HRV has been associated with death and increased risk of cardiac events in the general population. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of a 17-hour night shift on surgeons'...

  2. Blood pressure and heart rate adjustment following acute Frenkel's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure and heart rate adjustment following acute Frenkel's ambulatory exercise in chronic hemiparetics stroke survivors: a comparative study. ... a pre, within and post-activity monitoring of stroke survivors while subjecting them to Frenkel's ambulatory activity. Keys words: cardiovascular, ambulatory activity, stroke ...

  3. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  4. Muscle metaboreflex and autonomic regulation of heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, James P; Adlan, Ahmed M; Shantsila, Alena

    2013-01-01

    We elucidated the autonomic mechanisms whereby heart rate (HR) is regulated by the muscle metaboreflex. Eight male participants (22 ± 3 years) performed three exercise protocols: (1) enhanced metaboreflex activation with partial flow restriction (bi-lateral thigh cuff inflation) during leg cycling...

  5. Early Embryonic Heart Rate in Normal Pregnancies In Memory of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the appearance and development of embryonic heart rate a total of n = 317 Nigerian pregnant women were studied in the very early pregnancy from 23 – 56 days from the onset of last menstrual period (LMP). All pregnancies had a subsequent successful outcome. Transvaginal ultrasonography was ...

  6. Functionality of the baroreceptor nerves in heart rate regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.; Olufsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    are a consequence of the memory encapsulated by the models, and the nonlinearity gives rise to sigmoidal response curves. The nonlinear afferent baroreceptor models are coupled with an effector model, and the coupled model has been used to predict baroreceptor feedback regulation of heart rate during postural...

  7. Allostatic load and heart rate variability as health risk indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Uncertainty often exists about the comparability of results obtained by different health risk indicator systems. Objectives: To compare two health risk indicator systems, i.e, allostatic load and heart rate variability (HRV). Additionally, to investigate the feasibility of inclusion of HRV indicators into allostatic load ...

  8. The effect of exercise and lifestyle interventions on heart rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of exercise and lifestyle interventions on heart rate variability in students at risk of cardiovascular disease –A pilot study. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Cardiovascular disease is a major public health concern and it can be modified by diet, exercise and health awareness. However ...

  9. QT measurement and heart rate correction during hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Folke; Randløv, Jette; Christensen, Leif Engmann

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies show that hypoglycemia causes QT interval prolongation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of QT measurement methodology, heart rate correction, and insulin types during hypoglycemia. Methods. Ten adult subjects with type 1 diabetes had hypoglycemia ...

  10. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Gharipour, Mojgan; Nezafati, Pouya; Shafie, Davood; Aghababaei, Esmaeil; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III) definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5%) were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR) was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078). However, the mean maximum heart (MHR) rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min) compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min) (Pgroup, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033) and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, Page. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  11. Monitoring of fetal heart rate and uterine activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graatsma, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis a renewed monitoring technique for fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine activity has been investigated. Through non-invasive measurements of electrical signals as recorded from the maternal abdomen, both the fetal-electrocardiogram (fECG) and uterine electrohysterogram (EHG) can be

  12. Blood pressure and heart rate adjustment following acute Frenkel's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Procedure. This study is a comparative observational study of the pre/post test influence of Frenkel's ambulatory activity on heart rate and blood pressure in hemiparetic stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation. The study was conducted in the gymnasium of the Department of Physiotherapy, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital.

  13. Hydration status after exercise affect resting metabolic rate and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Cerda-Kohler, Hugo; Pérez-Luco, Cristian; Monsalves, Matías; Andrade, David Cristobal; Zbinden-Foncea, Herman; Báez-San Martín, Eduardo; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2014-12-17

    Heart rate variability and resting metabolic rate are commonly to assess athlete's physiological status and energy requirements. Exercise-induced dehydration can reach up to 5% of body mass per hour. Consequently, dehydration may have a profound physiological effect on human's homeostasis. To compare the effects of dehydration and rehydration after exercise on heart rate variability and resting metabolic rate in college athletes. 14 college athletes were divided into a dehydration group (n=7) and a rehydration group (n=7), both submitted to basal (T1) heart rate variability and resting metabolic rate measurements. After basal measurements both groups were actively dehydrated (-3.4 ± 0.4% of body mass for both groups). Afterwards, dehydration group rested, while rehydration group receive a fluid intake (during a 3 h period) equivalent to 150% of body mass loss achieved during active dehydration. Four hours after active dehydration heart rate variability and resting metabolic rate were re-assessed (T2). At T2 both rehydration group (+13%) and dehydration group (+30%) achieve a significant (phydration state before resting metabolic rate and heart rate variability assessment. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of subchronic exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in mice. III. Acute and chronic effects of CAPs on heart rate, heart-rate fluctuation, and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Nadziejko, Christine; Chen, Lung Chi

    2005-04-01

    Normal mice (C57) and mice prone to develop atherosclerosis (ApoE-/-) were implanted with electrocardiograph (EKG), core body temperature, and motion transmitters were exposed daily for 6 h to Tuxedo, NY, concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) for 5 day/wk during the spring and summer of 2003. The series of 5-min EKG monitoring and body-temperature measurements were obtained for each animal in the CAPs and filtered air sham exposure groups. Our hypothesis was that chronic exposure could cause cumulative health effects. We used our recently developed nonparametric method to estimate the daily time periods that mean heart rates (HR), body temperature, and physical activity differed significantly between the CAPs and sham exposed group. CAPs exposure most affected heart rate between 1:30 a.m. and 4:30 a.m. With the response variables being the average heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity, we adopted a two-stage modeling approach to obtain the estimates of chronic and acute effects on the changes of these three response variables. In the first stage, a time-varying model estimated daily crude effects. In the second stage, the true means of the estimated crude effects were modeled with a polynominal function of time for chronic effects, a linear term of daily CAPs exposure concentrations for acute effects, and a random component for unknown noise. A Bayesian framework combined these two stages. There were significant decreasing patterns of HR, body temperature, and physical activity for the ApoE-/- mice over the 5 mo of CAPs exposure, with smaller and nonsignificant changes for the C57 mice. The chronic effect changes of the three response variables for ApoE-/- mice were maximal in the last few weeks. There was also a significant relationship between CAPs exposure concentration and short-term changes of heart rate in ApoE-/- mice during exposure. Response variables were also defined for examining fluctuations of 5-min heart rates within long (i.e., 3-6 h

  15. Heart rate turbulence analysis in female patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Huseyin; Onrat, Ersel; Ercan, Emine; Demirdal, Umit Secil; Avsar, Alaettin; Dundar, Umit; Solak, Ozlem; Toktas, Hasan

    2015-04-01

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal pain and discomfort. There are several reports regarding autonomic nervous system dysfunction in patients with fibromyalgia. Heart rate turbulence is expressed as ventriculophasic sinus arrhythmia and has been considered to reflect cardiac autonomic activity. Heart rate turbulence has been shown to be an independent and powerful predictor of sudden cardiac death in various cardiac abnormalities. The aim of this study is to determine whether heart rate turbulence is changed in female patients with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls. Thirty-seven female patients (mean age, 40±11 years) with fibromyalgia, and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy female control subjects (mean age, 42±9 years) were included. Twenty-four hours of ambulatory electrocardiography recordings were collected for all subjects, and turbulence onset and turbulence slope values were automatically calculated. The baseline clinical characteristics of the two groups were similar. There were no significant differences in turbulence onset and turbulence slope measures between patients and control subjects (turbulence onset: -1.648±1.568% vs. -1.582±1.436%, p ϝ 0.853; turbulence slope: 12.933±5.693 ms/RR vs. 13.639±2.505 ms/RR, p ϝ 0.508). Although body mass index was negatively correlated with turbulence slope (r ϝ -0.258, p ϝ 0.046), no significant correlation was found between body mass index and turbulence onset (r ϝ 0.228, p ϝ 0.054). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate heart rate turbulence in patients with fibromyalgia. It appears that heart rate turbulence parameters reflecting cardiac autonomic activity are not changed in female patients with fibromyalgia.

  16. A healthy heart is not a metronome: an integrative review of the heart's anatomy and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Fred; McCraty, Rollin; Zerr, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the change in the time intervals between adjacent heartbeats, is an emergent property of interdependent regulatory systems that operate on different time scales to adapt to challenges and achieve optimal performance. This article briefly reviews neural regulation of the heart, and its basic anatomy, the cardiac cycle, and the sinoatrial and atrioventricular pacemakers. The cardiovascular regulation center in the medulla integrates sensory information and input from higher brain centers, and afferent cardiovascular system inputs to adjust heart rate and blood pressure via sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent pathways. This article reviews sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on the heart, and examines the interpretation of HRV and the association between reduced HRV, risk of disease and mortality, and the loss of regulatory capacity. This article also discusses the intrinsic cardiac nervous system and the heart-brain connection, through which afferent information can influence activity in the subcortical and frontocortical areas, and motor cortex. It also considers new perspectives on the putative underlying physiological mechanisms and properties of the ultra-low-frequency (ULF), very-low-frequency (VLF), low-frequency (LF), and high-frequency (HF) bands. Additionally, it reviews the most common time and frequency domain measurements as well as standardized data collection protocols. In its final section, this article integrates Porges' polyvagal theory, Thayer and colleagues' neurovisceral integration model, Lehrer et al.'s resonance frequency model, and the Institute of HeartMath's coherence model. The authors conclude that a coherent heart is not a metronome because its rhythms are characterized by both complexity and stability over longer time scales. Future research should expand understanding of how the heart and its intrinsic nervous system influence the brain.

  17. Ambient air pollution alters heart rate regulation in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P; Breysse, Patrick N; Dominici, Francesca; Geyh, Alison; Tankersley, Clarke G

    2010-03-01

    Heart rate alterations associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants have been observed in epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Nevertheless, the time-lag of these associations is still unclear. Determine the association at different time-lags between the complex mixture of ambient concentrations of PM, carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and markers of cardiac function in a model of aged mice. AKR/J inbred mice were exposed to ambient air, 6 h daily for 40 weekdays. During this period, the animals' electrocardiogram (ECG), deep body temperature (Tdb), and body weight (BW) were registered, and concentrations of PM, CO, NO(2), as well as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were measured. Data analysis included random effects models with lagged covariate methods. CO was significantly associated with declines in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), PM was significantly associated with declines in HRV and BW, and NO(2) was significantly associated with declines in HR. Some significant associations occurred in the same day (PM and HRV, PM and BW, CO and HR), whereas others were delayed by 1 to 3 days (CO and HR, CO and HRV, NO(2) and HR, PM and HRV). Finding significant declines in heart function in aged mice associated with the combined effects of air pollutants at ambient concentrations and at different time-lags is of great importance to public health. These results further implicate the potential short term and delayed effects of air pollution on HR alterations.

  18. Asymmetric acceleration/deceleration dynamics in heart rate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Echeverria, J. C.; Meraz, M.; Rodriguez, E.

    2017-08-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) is an important physiological signal used either to assess the risk of cardiac death or to model the cardiovascular regulatory dynamics. Asymmetries in HRV data have been observed using 2D Poincare plots, which have been linked to a non-equilibrium operation of the cardiac autonomic system. This work further explores the presence of asymmetries but in the serial correlations of the dynamics of HRV data. To this end, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used to estimate the Hurst exponent both when the heart rate is accelerating and when it is decelerating. The analysis is conducted using data collected from subjects under normal sinus rhythm (NSR), congestive heart failure (CHF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) . For the NSR cases, it was found that correlations are stronger (p behavior was detected for the CHF and AF patients. Possible links between asymmetric correlations in the dynamics and the mechanisms controlling the operation of the heart rate are discussed, as well as their implications for modeling the cardiovascular regulatory dynamics.

  19. Heart rate variability in neonates of type 1 diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Noirin E; Higgins, Mary F; Kinsley, Brendan F; Foley, Michael E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a common finding in offspring of pre-gestational type 1 diabetic pregnancy. Echocardiographic and biochemical evidence of fetal cardiac dysfunction have also been reported. Studies suggest that offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM) undergo a fetal programming effect due to the hyperglycaemic intrauterine milieu which increases their risk of cardiovascular morbidity in adult life. Decreased neonatal heart rate variability (HRV) has been described in association with in-utero growth restriction, prematurity, sudden infant death syndrome and congenital heart disease. The effect of in-utero exposure to hyperglycaemia in diabetic pregnancy on neonatal HRV is unknown. Our aim was to determine if neonatal HRV differs between normal and diabetic pregnancy. This was a prospective observational study of 38 patients with pregestational type 1 diabetes and 26 controls. HRV assessment was performed using Powerlab (ADI Instruments Ltd). Heart rate variability assessment and cord blood sampling for pH and glucose were performed for all neonates. Maternal glycaemic control was assessed via measurement of glycosylated haemoglobin in each trimester in the diabetic cohort. Neonates of diabetic mothers had evidence of altered heart rate variability, with increased low frequency to high frequency ratio (LF: HF), suggestive of a shift towards sympathetic predominance (pheart to fluctuations in maternal glycaemia with subsequent alterations in HRV may explain why infants of diabetic mothers are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. When heart goes "BOOM" to fast. Heart rate greater than 80 as mortality predictor in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovic, Goran; Iric-Cupic, Violeta; Milanov, Srdjan; Dimitijevic, Aleksandra; Petrovic-Janicijevic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Many prospective studies established association between high heart rate and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of other risk factors. Heart rate over 80 beats per minute more often leads to atherosclerotic plaque disruption, the main step in developing acute coronary syndrome. Purpose was to investigate the incidence of higher heart rate levels in patients with anterior wall acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation and the influence of heart rate on mortality. Research included 140 patients with anterior wall acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation treated in Coronary Unit, Clinical Center Kragujevac in the period from January 2001-June 2006. Heart rate was calculated as the mean value of baseline and heart rate in the first 30 minutes after admission. Other risk factors were also followed to determine their connection with elevated heart rate. Results showed that the majority of patients survived (over 70%). In a total number of patients, more than 75% had a heart rate levels greater than 80 beats per minute. There was a significant difference in heart rate on addmision between survivors and patients who died, with a greater levels in patients with fatal outcome. Both, univariate and multivariate regression analysis singled out heart rate greater than 80 beats per minute as independent mortality predictor in these patients. Heart rate greater than 80 beats per minute is a major, independent risk factor for morbidity and important predictor of mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  1. Plankton motility patterns and encounter rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    distances to their prey, but short compared to the reaction distances of their predators. We show motility data for planktonic organisms ranging from bacteria to copepods that support this prediction. We also present simple ballistic and diffusive motility models for estimating encounter rates, which lead......Many planktonic organisms have motility patterns with correlation run lengths (distances traversed before direction changes) of the same order as their reaction distances regarding prey, mates and predators (distances at which these organisms are remotely detected). At these scales, the relative...... measure of run length to reaction distance determines whether the underlying encounter is ballistic or diffusive. Since ballistic interactions are intrinsically more efficient than diffusive, we predict that organisms will display motility with long correlation run lengths compared to their reaction...

  2. [Research on conditional fluctuation characteristics of CHF heart rate variation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Junfeng; Zhou, Lingling; Huang, Xiaoling; Bian, Chunhua

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we applied generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model to conditional fluctuation characteristics of heart rate variation (HRV) series (congestive heart failure, Normal), with all the data from PhysioNet ECG database. Research results proved the existence of condition fluctuation characteristic in the series of changing rate of HRV. In the GARCH model family, threshold GARCH (1,1)(TGARCH (1,1)) model performs best in fitting changing rate of HRV. Although the structure of ARCH (1) model is simple, its error is the closest to that of TGARCH (1, 1) model. The results also showed that the difference was obvious between disease group and normal group. All these results provide a new method to the research and clinical application of HRV.

  3. Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Dairy Cows with Different Temperament and Behavioural Reactivity to Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Kovács

    Full Text Available From the 1990s, extensive research was started on the physiological aspects of individual traits in animals. Previous research has established two extreme (proactive and reactive coping styles in several animal species, but the means of reactivity with the autonomic nervous system (ANS activity has not yet been investigated in cattle. The aim of this study was the characterization of cardiac autonomic activity under different conditions in cows with different individual characteristics. For this purpose, we investigated heart rate and ANS-related heart rate variability (HRV parameters of dairy cows (N = 282 on smaller- and larger-scale farms grouped by (1 temperament and (2 behavioural reactivity to humans (BRH. Animals with high BRH scores were defined as impulsive, while animals with low BRH scores were defined as reserved. Cardiac parameters were calculated for undisturbed lying (baseline and for milking bouts, the latter with the presence of an unfamiliar person (stressful situation. Sympathetic tone was higher, while vagal activity was lower in temperamental cows than in calm animals during rest both on smaller- and larger-scale farms. During milking, HRV parameters were indicative of a higher sympathetic and a lower vagal activity of temperamental cows as compared to calm ones in farms of both sizes. Basal heart rate did not differ between BRH groups either on smaller- or larger-scale farms. Differences between basal ANS activity of impulsive and reserved cows reflected a higher resting vagal and lower sympathetic activity of reserved animals compared to impulsive ones both on smaller- and larger-scale farms. There was no difference either in heart rate or in HRV parameters between groups during milking neither in smaller- nor in larger-scale farms. These two groupings allowed to draw possible parallels between personality and cardiac autonomic activity during both rest and milking in dairy cows. Heart rate and HRV seem to be useful for

  4. Improved ultrasound transducer positioning by fetal heart location estimation during Doppler based heart rate measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelmann, Paul; Vullings, Rik; Schmitt, Lars; Kolen, Alexander F; Mischi, Massimo; van Laar, Judith O E H; Bergmans, Jan W M

    2017-09-21

    Doppler ultrasound (US) is the most commonly applied method to measure the fetal heart rate (fHR). When the fetal heart is not properly located within the ultrasonic beam, fHR measurements often fail. As a consequence, clinical staff need to reposition the US transducer on the maternal abdomen, which can be a time consuming and tedious task. In this article, a method is presented to aid clinicians with the positioning of the US transducer to produce robust fHR measurements. A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) algorithm is developed, which provides information on fetal heart location using the power of the Doppler signals received in the individual elements of a standard US transducer for fHR recordings. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated with simulations and in vitro experiments performed on a beating-heart setup. Both the experiments and the simulations show that the heart location can be accurately determined with an error of less than 7 mm within the measurement volume of the employed US transducer. The results show that the developed algorithm can be used to provide accurate feedback on fetal heart location for improved positioning of the US transducer, which may lead to improved measurements of the fHR.

  5. A new physiological method for heart rate correction of the QT interval

    OpenAIRE

    Davey, P.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To reassess QT interval rate correction.
BACKGROUND—The QT interval is strongly and inversely related to heart rate. To compare QT intervals between different subjects with different heart rates requires the application of a QT interval rate correction formula. To date these formulae have inappropriately assumed a fixed relation between QT interval and heart rate. An alternative method of QT interval rate correction that makes no assumptions about the QT interval-heart rate relation is ne...

  6. General anesthesia suppresses normal heart rate variability in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Gerald; Wood, Philip

    2014-06-01

    The human heart normally exhibits robust beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV). The loss of this variability is associated with pathology, including disease states such as congestive heart failure (CHF). The effect of general anesthesia on intrinsic HRV is unknown. In this prospective, observational study we enrolled 100 human subjects having elective major surgical procedures under general anesthesia. We recorded continuous heart rate data via continuous electrocardiogram before, during, and after anesthesia, and we assessed HRV of the R-R intervals. We assessed HRV using several common metrics including Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Multifractal Analysis, and Multiscale Entropy Analysis. Each of these analyses was done in each of the four clinical phases for each study subject over the course of 24 h: Before anesthesia, during anesthesia, early recovery, and late recovery. On average, we observed a loss of variability on the aforementioned metrics that appeared to correspond to the state of general anesthesia. Following the conclusion of anesthesia, most study subjects appeared to regain their normal HRV, although this did not occur immediately. The resumption of normal HRV was especially delayed on DFA. Qualitatively, the reduction in HRV under anesthesia appears similar to the reduction in HRV observed in CHF. These observations will need to be validated in future studies, and the broader clinical implications of these observations, if any, are unknown.

  7. Multifractal properties of ECG patterns of patients suffering from congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Srimonti

    2010-12-01

    The multifractal properties of two-channel ECG patterns of patients suffering from severe congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes III-IV) are studied and are compared with those for normal healthy people using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis methodology. Ivanov et al (1999 Nature 399 461) have studied the multifractality of human heart rate dynamics using the wavelet transformation modulus maxima (WTMM) methodology. But it has been observed by several scientists that multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) works better than the WTMM method in the detection of monofractal and multifractal characteristics of the data. Galaska et al (2008 Ann. Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 13 155) have observed that MFDFA is more sensitive compared to the WTMM method in the differentiation between multifractal properties of the heart rate in healthy subjects and patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. In the present work the variation of two parameters of the multifractal spectrum—its width W (related to the degree of multifractality) and the value of the Hölder exponent α0—for the healthy and congestive heart failure patients is studied. α0 is a measure of the degree of correlation. The degree of multifractality varies appreciably (85-90% C.L.) for the normal and the CHF sets for channel I. For channel II no significant change in the values is observed. The degree of correlation is found to be comparatively high for the normal healthy people compared to those suffering from CHF.

  8. Linear and Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability Indexes in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buccelletti Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological organisms have intrinsic control systems that act in response to internal and external stimuli maintaining homeostasis. Human heart rate is not regular and varies in time and such variability, also known as heart rate variability (HRV, is not random. HRV depends upon organism's physiologic and/or pathologic state. Physicians are always interested in predicting patient's risk of developing major and life-threatening complications. Understanding biological signals behavior helps to characterize patient's state and might represent a step toward a better care. The main advantage of signals such as HRV indexes is that it can be calculated in real time in noninvasive manner, while all current biomarkers used in clinical practice are discrete and imply blood sample analysis. In this paper HRV linear and nonlinear indexes are reviewed and data from real patients are provided to show how these indexes might be used in clinical practice.

  9. Association between oral variables and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Milana Drumond Ramos; de Souza, Ana Cecilia Amorim; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E

    2013-12-27

    The heart rate variability is a useful method to assess cardiac autonomic modulation in patients undergoing dental procedures, because knowledge of physiological conditions provides greater security to the professional as well as the possibility of a better plan treatment to patient benefit. The aim of our study was to describe the association between cardiac autonomic control and dental variables. We consulted the databases Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane, using the terms "autonomic", "dentistry", "heart rate variability", "cardiovascular physiology." The selected studies indicated a strong relationship between dental variables and HRV. There was an association between malocclusion, TMD, dental procedures cirugia and low HRV. Thus, they become more studies that relate to HRV in dental science, especially in clinical practice.

  10. [Heart rate variability during sleep in children with multiple disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquier, L; Amand, M; Van Eecke, D

    2013-12-01

    To study heart rate variability during sleep in children with multiple disabilities in order to observe the behavior of the autonomic nervous system. The R-R interval variability of 4 to 12 years old children was recorded with a heart rate monitor during one night. Children with multiple disabilities (G1) and healthy children (G2) were compared in time, frequency, and non-linear domains. Temporal (P0.05). The diseases encountered are probably the reason for these findings, but the variety of disorders and medications of the children with multiple disabilities needs to be studied with a larger and more varied sample. Sympathetic predominance during sleep in children with multiple disabilities is associated with a decrease in adaptive abilities of these children's autonomic nervous system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Cholesterol enhances classical conditioning of the rabbit heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Bernard G; Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Darwish, Deya S; Wang, Desheng; Burhans, Lauren B; Gonzales-Joekes, Jimena; Deci, Stephen; Stankovic, Goran; Sparks, D Larry

    2007-07-19

    The cholesterol-fed rabbit is a model of atherosclerosis and has been proposed as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. Feeding rabbits cholesterol has been shown to increase the number of beta amyloid immunoreactive neurons in the cortex. Addition of copper to the drinking water of cholesterol-fed rabbits can increase this number still further and may lead to plaque-like structures. Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response in cholesterol-fed rabbits is retarded in the presence of these plaque-like structures but may be facilitated in their absence. In a factorial design, rabbits fed 2% cholesterol or a normal diet (0% cholesterol) for 8 weeks with or without copper added to the drinking water were given trace classical conditioning using a tone and periorbital electrodermal stimulation to study the effects of cholesterol and copper on classical conditioning of heart rate and the nictitating membrane response. Cholesterol-fed rabbits showed significant facilitation of heart rate conditioning and conditioning-specific modification of heart rate relative to normal diet controls. Consistent with previous research, cholesterol had minimal effects on classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response when periorbital electrodermal stimulation was used as the unconditioned stimulus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase in the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala of the cholesterol-fed rabbits. Supplementation of drinking water with copper increased the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex of cholesterol-fed rabbits but did not produce plaque-like structures or have a significant effect on heart rate conditioning. The data provide additional support for our finding that, in the absence of plaques, dietary cholesterol may facilitate learning and memory.

  12. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5% were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078. However, the mean maximum heart (MHR rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min (P<0.001. In the MetS group, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033 and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, P<0.001. The MHR had a moderate value for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state (c=0.580, P=0.004 with the optimal cutoff point of 140 beats per min. In MetS patients, the MHR was significantly greater compared to non-MetS subjects and was directly correlated with serum triglyceride levels and inversely with advanced age. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  13. Applying Hyperspectral Imaging to Heart Rate Estimation for Adaptive Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Walker, G. H., Baber , C., & Jenkins, D. P. (2005). Human Factors Methods: A Practical Guide for Engineering and Design. Burlington, VT: Ashgate...the training, subjects were asked if they were ready to begin the experiment or if they wanted any extra time to practice . Test Sessions and Testing...intrusive and not practical for day-to-day operations. Several imaging techniques have been developed to remotely measure heart rate; however, each

  14. Classifying work rate from heart rate measurements using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolus, Ahmet; Imbeau, Daniel; Dubé, Philippe-Antoine; Dubeau, Denise

    2016-05-01

    In a new approach based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), field heart rate (HR) measurements were used to classify work rate into four categories: very light, light, moderate, and heavy. Inter-participant variability (physiological and physical differences) was considered. Twenty-eight participants performed Meyer and Flenghi's step-test and a maximal treadmill test, during which heart rate and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured. Results indicated that heart rate monitoring (HR, HRmax, and HRrest) and body weight are significant variables for classifying work rate. The ANFIS classifier showed superior sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy compared to current practice using established work rate categories based on percent heart rate reserve (%HRR). The ANFIS classifier showed an overall 29.6% difference in classification accuracy and a good balance between sensitivity (90.7%) and specificity (95.2%) on average. With its ease of implementation and variable measurement, the ANFIS classifier shows potential for widespread use by practitioners for work rate assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Heating and cooling rates and their etTects upon heart rate in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-16

    Mar 16, 1988 ... have investigated aspects of thermoregulation, but the results obtained are contradictory, and no heart rate measurements were done. The purpose of this study was to investigate the heating and cooling rates of the angulate tortoise, Chersina angulata, in the eastern Cape Province,. South Africa.

  16. Heating and cooling rates and their effects upon heart rate in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rates increase with increasing body temperature, and for all body temperatures heart rates were greater during heating than during cooling. This suggests that the cardiovascular system plays a role in the heat exchange of the tortoises, but further study is required to completely understand the thermoregulatory process.

  17. Assessing heart rate variability through wavelet-based statistical measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowiak, Mark P; Hay, Dean C; Johnson, Michel J

    2016-10-01

    Because of its utility in the investigation and diagnosis of clinical abnormalities, heart rate variability (HRV) has been quantified with both time and frequency analysis tools. Recently, time-frequency methods, especially wavelet transforms, have been applied to HRV. In the current study, a complementary computational approach is proposed wherein continuous wavelet transforms are applied directly to ECG signals to quantify time-varying frequency changes in the lower bands. Such variations are compared for resting and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) conditions using statistical and information-theoretic measures, and compared with standard HRV metrics. The latter confirm the expected lower variability in the LBNP condition due to sympathetic nerve activity (e.g. RMSSD: p=0.023; SDSD: p=0.023; LF/HF: p=0.018). Conversely, using the standard Morlet wavelet and a new transform based on windowed complex sinusoids, wavelet analysis of the ECG within the observed range of heart rate (0.5-1.25Hz) exhibits significantly higher variability, as measured by frequency band roughness (Morlet CWT: p=0.041), entropy (Morlet CWT: p=0.001), and approximate entropy (Morlet CWT: p=0.004). Consequently, this paper proposes that, when used with well-established HRV approaches, time-frequency analysis of ECG can provide additional insights into the complex phenomenon of heart rate variability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Stress Detection Using Low Cost Heart Rate Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Salai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The automated detection of stress is a central problem for ambient assisted living solutions. The paper presents the concepts and results of two studies targeted at stress detection with a low cost heart rate sensor, a chest belt. In the device validation study (n=5, we compared heart rate data and other features from the belt to those measured by a gold standard device to assess the reliability of the sensor. With simple synchronization and data cleaning algorithm, we were able to select highly (>97% correlated, low average error (2.2% data segments of considerable length from the chest data for further processing. The protocol for the clinical study (n=46 included a relax phase followed by a phase with provoked mental stress, 10 minutes each. We developed a simple method for the detection of the stress using only three time-domain features of the heart rate signal. The method produced accuracy of 74.6%, sensitivity of 75.0%, and specificity of 74.2%, which is impressive compared to the performance of two state-of-the-art methods run on the same data. Since the proposed method uses only time-domain features, it can be efficiently implemented on mobile devices.

  19. Practical remarks on the heart rate and saturation measurement methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, M.; Kubal, S.; Piotrowski, P.; Staniec, K.

    2017-05-01

    A surface reflection-based method for measuring heart rate and saturation has been introduced as one having a significant advantage over legacy methods in that it lends itself for use in special applications such as those where a person’s mobility is of prime importance (e.g. during a miner’s work) and excluding the use of traditional clips. Then, a complete ATmega1281-based microcontroller platform has been described for performing computational tasks of signal processing and wireless transmission. In the next section remarks have been provided regarding the basic signal processing rules beginning with raw voltage samples of converted optical signals, their acquisition, storage and smoothing. This chapter ends with practical remarks demonstrating an exponential dependence between the minimum measurable heart rate and the readout resolution at different sampling frequencies for different cases of averaging depth (in bits). The following section is devoted strictly to the heart rate and hemoglobin oxygenation (saturation) measurement with the use of the presented platform, referenced to measurements obtained with a stationary certified pulsoxymeter.

  20. Effect of maternal stress on fetal heart rate assessed by vibroacoustic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, I; Matsuda, Y; Yoneyama, M; Hirasawa, K; Takagi, K; Ohta, H; Konishi, Y

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether maternal stress levels, state and trait anxiety levels, and stress hormones affect fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns after vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) at 30 weeks of gestation. A total of 24 healthy pregnant women with a single fetus pregnancy were enrolled. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone in maternal plasma and cortisol, and chromogranin A in saliva were measured. The FHR patterns after VAS were divided into three types: type I, a long period of acceleration or one acceleration lasting > 1 min or at least two accelerations lasting > 15 s; type II, a biphasic response with acceleration followed by deceleration; and type III, no response or prolonged deceleration. In the high trait anxiety group, CRH levels were significantly higher than in the low trait anxiety group, and FHR patterns after VAS showed mostly a type II response pattern. These findings suggest that stress in pregnant women with high trait anxiety may influence FHR patterns after VAS.

  1. Ivabradine reduces heart rate while preserving metabolic fluxes and energy status of healthy normoxic working hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzier, Benjamin; Vaillant, Fanny; Gélinas, Roselle; Bouchard, Bertrand; Brownsey, Roger; Thorin, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2011-03-01

    Heart rate reduction (HRR) is an important target in the management of patients with chronic stable angina. Most available drugs for HRR, such as β-blockers, have adverse effects, including on cardiac energy substrate metabolism, a well-recognized determinant of cardiac homeostasis. This study aimed at 1) testing whether HRR by ivabradine (IVA) alters substrate metabolism in the healthy normoxic working heart and 2) comparing the effect of IVA with that of the β-blocker metoprolol (METO). This was assessed using our well-established model of ex vivo mouse heart perfusion in the working mode, which enables concomitant evaluation of myocardial contractility and metabolic fluxes using (13)C-labeled substrates. Hearts were perfused in the absence (controls; n = 10) or presence of IVA (n = 10, 3 μM) with or without atrial pacing to abolish HRR in the IVA group. IVA significantly reduced HR (35 ± 5%) and increased stroke volume (39 ± 9%) while maintaining similar cardiac output, contractility, power, and efficiency. Effects of IVA on HR and stroke volume were reversed by atrial pacing. At the metabolic level, IVA did not impact on substrate selection to citrate formation, rates of glycolysis, or tissue levels of high-energy phosphates. In contrast, METO, at concentrations up to 40 μM, decreased markedly cardiac function (flow: 25 ± 6%; stroke volume: 30 ± 10%; contractility: 31 ± 9%) as well as glycolysis (2.9-fold) but marginally affected HR. Collectively, these results demonstrate that IVA selectively reduces HR while preserving energy substrate metabolism of normoxic healthy working mouse hearts perfused ex vivo, a model that mimics to some extent the denervated transplanted heart. Our results provide the impetus for testing selective HRR by IVA on cardiac substrate metabolism in pathological models.

  2. Is there a relationship between obesity, heart rate variability and inflammatory parameters in heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taçoy, Gülten; Açikgöz, Kadri; Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Ozdemir, Murat; Cengel, Atiye

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on heart rate variability (HRV) and inflammatory parameters in patients with heart failure. We analyzed 55 consecutive patients (mean age, 63.5 +/- 12.8 years; male/female, 39/16) with symptomatic left ventricular systolic (ejection fraction or= 30 kg/m2). The cause of heart failure was mainly ischemic heart disease (75%) with mean ejection fraction 30 +/- 7%. Plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and C-reactive protein levels were measured, and time-domain HRV indices were determined on Holter electrocardiogram. The relationship between HRV indices and laboratory, inflammatory and echocardiographic parameters was investigated with correlation analysis. Age, sex, clinical characteristics (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, family history, smoking) were similar between groups. BMI was inversely correlated with NT-pro BNP levels (P = 0.001). HRV indices did not differ between groups. Correlation analysis demonstrated the relationship between HRV indices and fasting blood glucose (SDNN, SDANN, SDNNI, root mean square successive differences, VTI), C-reactive protein (SDANN, SDNNI, VTI), pulmonary artery pressure (SDNN, SDANN, VTI) levels. In systolic heart failure patients a higher BMI is associated with decreased NT-proBNP levels. Although HRV indices were not different between groups, inflammatory parameters, fasting blood glucose and pulmonary artery pressure were correlated with them.

  3. Relationship between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference

    OpenAIRE

    Karageorghis, CI; Jones, L; Low, DC

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the predicted positive and linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a,1995b) between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference. Initially, 128 undergraduates (M 3 age = 20.0 years, SD = 0.9 years) were surveyed to establish their three favorite music artists of all time. A separate experimental group of 29 undergraduates (M age = 20.3 years, SD = 1.2 years) selected the music of a single artist from a choice of the three highest-rated artists from the earlier survey. ...

  4. Catecholamine-Independent Heart Rate Increases Require CaMKII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhan; Singh, Madhu V; Hall, Duane D; Koval, Olha M.; Luczak, Elizabeth D.; Joiner, Mei-ling A.; Chen, Biyi; Wu, Yuejin; Chaudhary, Ashok K; Martins, James B; Hund, Thomas J; Mohler, Peter J; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Catecholamines increase heart rate by augmenting the cAMP responsive HCN4 ‘pacemaker current’ (If) and/or by promoting inward Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current (INCX), by a ‘Ca2+ clock’ mechanism in sinoatrial nodal cells (SANCs). The importance, identity and function of signals that connect If and Ca2+ clock mechanisms are uncertain and controversial, but the multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is required for physiological heart rate responses to β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation. The aim of this stuy is to measure the contribution of the Ca2+ clock and CaMKII to cardiac pacing independent of β-AR agonist stimulation. Methods and Results We used the L-type Ca2+ channel agonist BayK 8644 (BayK) to activate the SANC Ca2+ clock. BayK and isoproterenol were similarly effective in increasing rates in SANCs and Langendorff-perfused hearts from WT control mice. In contrast, SANCs and isolated hearts from mice with CaMKII inhibition by transgenic expression of an inhibitory peptide (AC3-I) were resistant to rate increases by BayK. BayK only activated CaMKII in control SANCs, but increased ICa equally in all SANCs, indicating that increasing ICa was insufficient and suggesting CaMKII activation was required for heart rate increases by BayK. BayK did not increase If or protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of phospholamban (at Ser16), indicating that increased SANC Ca2+ by BayK did not augment cAMP/PKA signaling at these targets. Late diastolic intracellular Ca2+ release and INCX were significantly reduced in AC3-I SANCs and the response to BayK was eliminated by ryanodine in all groups. Conclusions The Ca2+ clock is capable of supporting physiological fight or flight responses, independent of β-AR stimulation or If increases. Complete Ca2+ clock and β-AR stimulation responses require CaMKII. PMID:21406683

  5. Bluetooth(Registered Trademark) Heart Rate Monitors for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Roxanne E.; West, Michael R.; Kalogera, Kent L.; Hanson, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required during exercise for crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data is required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth® heart rate monitors (BT_HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health on board ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT_HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) was worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT_RHM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the two data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. REULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6%error), followed by CS4 (3.3%error), CS3 (6.4%error), and CS2 (9.2%error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to get the best quality data. CS2 will be used in an

  6. The Regional Centralization of Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring and Its Impact on Neonatal Acidemia and the Cesarean Birth Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Michikata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The improvement of the accuracy of fetal heart rate (FHR pattern interpretation to improve perinatal outcomes remains an elusive challenge. We examined the impact of an FHR centralization system on the incidence of neonatal acidemia and cesarean births. Methods. We performed a regional, population-based, before-and-after study of 9,139 deliveries over a 3-year period. The chi-squared test was used for the statistical analysis. Results. The before-and-after study showed no difference in the rates of acidemia, cesarean births, or perinatal death in the whole population. A subgroup analysis using the 4 hospitals in which an FHR centralization system was continuously connected (compliant group and 3 hospitals in which the FHR centralization system was connected on demand (noncompliant group showed that the incidence acidemia was significantly decreased (from 0.47% to 0.11% without a corresponding increase in the cesarean birth rate due to nonreassuring FHR patterns in the compliant group. Although there was no difference in the incidence of nonreassuring FHR patterns in the noncompliant group, the total cesarean birth rate was significantly higher than that in the compliant group. Conclusion. The continuous FHR centralization system, in which specialists help to interpret results and decide clinical actions, was beneficial in reducing the incidence of neonatal acidemia (pH < 7.1 without increasing the cesarean birth rate due to nonreassuring FHR patterns.

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Heart Rate Variability and Baroreflex Sensitivity in Rats with Chronic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Sharon Del Bem Velloso; da Silva, Luiz Eduardo Virgilio; Lataro, Renata Maria; Silva, Carlos Alberto Aguiar; de Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos; de Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira; Simões, Marcus Vinicius; da Silva Meirelles, Lindolfo; Fazan, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure induced by myocardial infarct (MI) attenuates the heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity, which are important risk factors for life-threatening cardiovascular events. Therapies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising results after MI. However, the effects of MSCs on hemodynamic (heart rate and arterial pressure) variability and baroreflex sensitivity in chronic heart failure (CHF) following MI have not been evaluated thus far. Male Wistar rats received MSCs or saline solution intravenously 1 week after ligation of the left coronary artery. Control (noninfarcted) rats were also evaluated. MI size was assessed using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography. Four weeks after MSC injection, the animals were anesthetized and instrumented for chronic ECG recording and catheters were implanted in the femoral artery to record arterial pressure. Arterial pressure and HRVs were determined in time and frequency domain (spectral analysis) while HRV was also examined using nonlinear methods: DFA (detrended fluctuation analysis) and sample entropy. The initial MI size was the same among all infarcted rats but was reduced by MSCs. CHF rats exhibited increased myocardial interstitial collagen and sample entropy combined with the attenuation of the following cardiocirculatory parameters: DFA indices, LVEF, baroreflex sensitivity, and HRV. Nevertheless, MSCs hampered all these alterations, except the LVEF reduction. Therefore, 4 weeks after MSC therapy was applied to CHF rats, MI size and myocardial interstitial fibrosis decreased, while baroreflex sensitivity and HRV improved. PMID:26059001

  8. Assessment of post-laparotomy pain in laboratory mice by telemetric recording of heart rate and heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasermann Hans P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain of mild to moderate grade is difficult to detect in laboratory mice because mice are prey animals that attempt to elude predators or man by hiding signs of weakness, injury or pain. In this study, we investigated the use of telemetry to identify indicators of mild-to-moderate post-laparotomy pain. Results Adult mice were subjected to laparotomy, either combined with pain treatment (carprofen or flunixin, 5 mg/kg s/c bid, for 1 day or without pain relief. Controls received anesthesia and analgesics or vehicle only. Telemetrically measured locomotor activity was undisturbed in all animals, thus confirming that any pain experienced was of the intended mild level. No symptoms of pain were registered in any of the groups by scoring the animals' outer appearance or spontaneous and provoked behavior. In contrast, the group receiving no analgesic treatment after laparotomy demonstrated significant changes in telemetry electrocardiogram recordings: increased heart rate and decreased heart rate variability parameters pointed to sympathetic activation and pain lasting for 24 hours. In addition, core body temperature was elevated. Body weight and food intake were reduced for 3 and 2 days, respectively. Moreover, unstructured cage territory and destroyed nests appeared for 1–2 days in an increased number of animals in this group only. In controls these parameters were not affected. Conclusion In conclusion, real-time telemetric recordings of heart rate and heart rate variability were indicative of mild-to-moderate post-laparotomy pain and could define its duration in our mouse model. This level of pain cannot easily be detected by direct observation.

  9. Assessment of post-laparotomy pain in laboratory mice by telemetric recording of heart rate and heart rate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arras, Margarete; Rettich, Andreas; Cinelli, Paolo; Kasermann, Hans P; Burki, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Background Pain of mild to moderate grade is difficult to detect in laboratory mice because mice are prey animals that attempt to elude predators or man by hiding signs of weakness, injury or pain. In this study, we investigated the use of telemetry to identify indicators of mild-to-moderate post-laparotomy pain. Results Adult mice were subjected to laparotomy, either combined with pain treatment (carprofen or flunixin, 5 mg/kg s/c bid, for 1 day) or without pain relief. Controls received anesthesia and analgesics or vehicle only. Telemetrically measured locomotor activity was undisturbed in all animals, thus confirming that any pain experienced was of the intended mild level. No symptoms of pain were registered in any of the groups by scoring the animals' outer appearance or spontaneous and provoked behavior. In contrast, the group receiving no analgesic treatment after laparotomy demonstrated significant changes in telemetry electrocardiogram recordings: increased heart rate and decreased heart rate variability parameters pointed to sympathetic activation and pain lasting for 24 hours. In addition, core body temperature was elevated. Body weight and food intake were reduced for 3 and 2 days, respectively. Moreover, unstructured cage territory and destroyed nests appeared for 1–2 days in an increased number of animals in this group only. In controls these parameters were not affected. Conclusion In conclusion, real-time telemetric recordings of heart rate and heart rate variability were indicative of mild-to-moderate post-laparotomy pain and could define its duration in our mouse model. This level of pain cannot easily be detected by direct observation. PMID:17683523

  10. Evolution in functional complexity of heart rate dynamics: a measure of cardiac allograft adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresh, J Y; Izrailtyan, I

    1998-09-01

    The capacity of self-organized systems to adapt is embodied in the functional organization of intrinsic control mechanisms. Evolution in functional complexity of heart rate variability (HRV) was used as measure of the capacity of the transplanted heart to express newly emergent regulatory order. In a cross-sectional study of 100 patients after (0-10 yr) heart transplantation (HTX), heart rate dynamics were assessed using pointwise correlation dimension (PD2) analysis. A new observation is that, commencing with the acute event of allograft transplantation, the dynamics of rhythm formation proceed through complex phase transitions. At implantation, the donor heart manifested metronome-like chronotropic behavior (PD2 approximately 1.0). At 11-100 days, dimensional complexity of HRV reached a peak (PD2 approximately 2.0) associated with resurgence in the high-frequency component (0.15-0.5 Hz) of the power spectral density. Subsequent dimensional loss to PD2 approximately 1.0 at 20-30 mo after HTX was followed by a progressive near-linear gain in system complexity, reaching PD2 approximately 3.0 7-10 yr after HTX. The "dynamic reorganization" in the allograft rhythm-generating system, seen in the first 100 days, is a manifestation of the adaptive capacity of intrinsic control mechanisms. The loss of HRV 2 yr after HTX implies a withdrawal of intrinsic autonomic control and/or development of an entrained dynamic pattern characteristic of extrinsic sympathetic input. The subsequent long-term progressive rise in dimensional complexity of HRV can be attributed to the restoration of a functional order patterning parasympathetic control. The recognition that the decentralized heart can restitute the multidimensional state space of HR generator dynamics independent of external autonomic signaling may provide a new perspective on principles that constitute homeodynamic regulation.

  11. Smartphone accelerometers for the detection of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreani, Federica; Caiani, Enrico Gianluca

    2017-12-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems technology, now embedded into smartphones, potentially allows measuring heart mechanical activity by positioning the phone on the body and acquiring vibrational signals, without the need for additional peripherals or interfaces. However, lack of standardization in experimental protocol, processing methodology and validation procedures, together with the wide range of available smartphones on the market, impact on the comparability of results and their general validity. The aim of this review is to provide information on the state-of-the art of research in this field, with current limitations and potentials, thus potentially serving as a basis for the creation of a standard based on current experiences. Areas covered: The review focused on studies relevant to the extraction of the heart rate using accelerometric technology, searching for relevant literature (papers or conference proceedings) both in Pubmed and IEEE eXplore engines. Expert commentary: From the results of this review, the smartphone can be considered a powerful device able to accurately measure the resting heart rate, thanks to embedded accelerometer technology. However, lack of a shared standard in the acquisition protocol and analysis procedure, thus affecting user-collected data reliability, could limit clinical acceptability and prevent recommending this approach as a self-tracking tool in patients.

  12. Heart rate turbulence and variability in patients with ventricular arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tarricone

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the changes in autonomic neural control mechanisms before malignant ventricular arrhythmias, we measured heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate turbulence (HRT in patients with ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (Group I; n=6, non sustained ventricular tachycardia (Group II; n=32, frequent premature ventricular beats (Group III; n=26 and with ICD implantation (Group IV; n=11. Methods: Time domain parameters of HRV and turbulence onset (TO and slope (TS were calculated on 24 hour Holter recordings. Normal values were: SDNN > 70 msec for HRV, TO <0% and TS >2.5 msec/RR-I for HRT. Results: Whereas SDNN was within normal range and similar in all study groups, HRT parameters were significantly different in patients who experienced VT/VF during Holter recording. Abnormal TO and/or TS were present in 100% of Group I patients and only in about 50% of Group II and IV. On the contrary, normal HRT parameters were present in 40-70% of Group II, III and IV patients and none of Group I. Conclusions: These data suggest that HRT analysis is more suitable than HRV to detect those transient alterations in autonomic control mechanisms that are likely to play a major trigger role in the genesis of malignant cardiac arrhythmias. (Heart International 2007; 3: 51-7

  13. Mosquito aging modulates the heart rate and the proportional directionality of heart contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Charlotte R; Estévez-Lao, Tania Y; Hillyer, Julián F

    2017-08-01

    Mosquito aging impacts a myriad of physiological processes, including digestion, flight, mating, reproductive success, and immunity. In the present study, we conducted intravital video imaging in 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20-day-old Anopheles gambiae female adults to assess whether aging impacts mosquito heart physiology. We found that the heart contraction rate increases over the first 15days of adulthood and then decreases. These changes occur for both contraction directions, although aging results in a relative change in the anterograde versus retrograde contraction rates. That is, whereas for the first 5days of life the anterograde and retrograde contraction rates are similar, from day 10 to day 20 the retrograde contraction rate is higher than the anterograde contraction rate. Aging also biases the proportional directionality of heart contractions, from approximately two thirds of the time being spent contracting in the anterograde direction and two thirds of the contractions propagating anterograde during the first 5days of life to an approximately even split between anterograde and retrograde when the mosquitoes have reached 10 to 20days of age. Transcriptional analyses of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), FMRFamide, calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII), pygopus, manganese-iron superoxide dismutase (MnSOD1) and vinculin by quantitative RT-PCR revealed age-associated changes in gene expression, with MnSOD1 and vinculin expression showing a declining trend with age. RNAi-based knockdown of MnSOD1 or vinculin resulted in heart physiology that trended toward the aging phenotype for every parameter that was measured, suggesting that these two genes are involved in cardiac aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Heritability of cardiac vagal control in 24-h heart rate variability recordings: influence of ceiling effects at low heart rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijts, Melanie; Van Lien, Rene; Kupper, Nina; Boomsma, Dorret; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C

    2014-10-01

    This study estimated the heritability of 24-h heart rate variability (HRV) measures, while considering ceiling effects on HRV at low heart rates during the night. HRV was indexed by the standard deviation of all valid interbeat intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of differences between valid, successive interbeat intervals (RMSSD), and peak-valley respiratory sinus arrhythmia (pvRSA). Sleep and waking levels of cardiac vagal control were assessed in 1,003 twins and 285 of their non-twin siblings. Comparable heritability estimates were found for SDNN (46%-53%), RMSSD (49%-54%), and pvRSA (48%-57%) during the day and night. A nighttime ceiling effect was revealed in 10.7% of participants by a quadratic relationship between mean pvRSA and the interbeat interval. Excluding these participants did not change the heritability estimates. The genetic factors influencing ambulatory pvRSA, RMSSD, and SDNN largely overlap. These results suggest that gene-finding studies may pool the different cardiac vagal indices and that exclusion of participants with low heart rates is not required. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Respiratory modulation and baroreflex control of heart rate in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyden, Bart; Couckuyt, Kurt; Liu, Jiexin; Aubert, Andre

    During everyday life, gravity constantly stresses the human circulation by diminishing venous return in the upright position. This induces baroreflex-mediated cardiovascular adjustments that are aimed to prevent the blood pressure from falling. In weightlessness, gravitational pressure gradients do not arise in the circulation so that baroreflex function remains chronically unchallenged. This may contribute to the development of post spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate respiratory modulation and baroreflex control of heart rate after a week of weightlessness in space. We tested the hypothesis that cardiovascular control in space will be similar to the baseline supine condition on Earth. We studied nine male cosmonauts during seven different space missions aboard the ISS (age 40 - 52 yrs, height 1.69 - 1.85 m, weight 67 - 90 kg). Data collection was performed between 30 and 45 days before launch in the standing and supine positions, and after 8 days in space. Cosmonauts were carefully trained to perform in-flight data collection by themselves. They were instructed to pace their breathing to a fixed rate of 12 breaths per minute (0.2 Hz) for a total duration of 3 minutes. The electrocardiogram and beat-by-beat finger arterial blood pressure were recorded at 1-kHz sample rate. Respiratory rate was evaluated using an abdominal pressure sensor. We used power spectral analysis to calculate respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as well as the low-frequency (0.04 - 0.15 Hz) powers of spontaneous oscillations in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was estimated in the time domain using cross-correlation analysis. As expected, there was a rise in heart rate upon assuming the standing position before space- flight (59 ± 6 to 79 ± 11 beats per min; p ¡ 0.001). This was accompanied by an increase in mean arterial blood pressure (84 ± 6 to 93 ± 6 mmHg; p ¡ 0.001). Standing up further induced a marked

  16. Comparison of higher order spectra in heart rate signals during two techniques of meditation: Chi and Kundalini meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshvarpour, Ateke; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2013-02-01

    The human heartbeat is one of the important examples of complex physiologic fluctuations. For the first time in this study higher order spectra of heart rate signals during meditation have explored. Specifically, the aim of this study was to analysis and compares the contribution of quadratic phase coupling of human heart rate variability during two forms of meditation: (1) Chinese Chi (or Qigong) meditation and (2) Kundalini Yoga meditation. For this purpose, Bispectrum was estimated by using biased, parametric and the direct (FFT) method. The results show that the mean Bispectrum magnitude of heart rate signals increased during Kundalini Yoga meditation, but it decreased significantly during Chi meditation. However, in both meditation techniques phase-coupled harmonics are shifted to the higher frequencies during meditation. In addition, it has shown that not only there are significant differences between rest and meditation states, but also heart rate patterns appear to be influenced by different types of meditation.

  17. Newborn infant pain assessment using heart rate variability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Papa M; De Jonckheere, Julien; Logier, Regis; Kuissi, Eliane; Jeanne, Mathieu; Rakza, Thameur; Storme, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Systems controlling cardiovascular function are closely coupled with the perception of pain. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a well-established noninvasive measure of cardiac autonomic control. We hypothesized that pain may alter HRV in the newborn infant and that HRV analysis could be used as an indicator of prolonged pain in the newborn infant. To test the hypothesis, we measured the magnitude of the heart rate high-frequency variations using an innovative High Frequency Variability Index (HFVI) in newborn infants at risk of postoperative pain. We investigated newborn infants with a gestational age (GA) more than 34 weeks, and who were admitted after a major surgical procedure. Inclusions ranged from 2 to 72 hours after the surgery. The postoperative pain was scored using EDIN scale (neonatal pain and discomfort scale) at the end of the 2 hours recording period. The infants were separated in: (1) Group "Low EDIN," when EDIN=5. Predictive positive and negative values of a threshold value of HFVI in assessing pain have been studied. Twenty-eight newborn infants were enrolled in the study (mean GA=37.8+/-1.5 wk) at a median delay between the surgery and the recording of 5 hours. Mean EDIN were 2+/-1 and 7+/-2 in respectively the groups "Low EDIN" and "High EDIN." The 2 groups were similar for GA, basal heart and respiratory rates, SpO2, mean arterial blood pressure, and morphine infusion rate. HFVI was significantly lower in the group "High EDIN" than in the group "Low EDIN" (0.7+/-0.2 vs. 1.2+/-0.3, respectively; P=5, with a sensitivity of 90%, and a specificity of 75%. The results of this study indicate that postoperative pain is associated with a decreased high-frequency HRV in full-term newborn infants. Our findings suggest that HRV could be used as an indicator to assess prolonged pain in the newborn infants.

  18. Loss of lag-response curvilinearity of indices of heart rate variability in congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Tushar P; Smith, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) is known to be impaired in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Time-domain analysis of ECG signals traditionally relies heavily on linear indices of an essentially non-linear phenomenon. Poincaré plots are commonly used to study non-linear behavior of physiologic signals. Lagged Poincaré plots incorporate autocovariance information and analysis of Poincaré plots for various lags can provide interesting insights into the autonomic control of the heart. Methods Using Poincaré plot analysis, we assessed whether the relation of the lag between heart beats and HRV is altered in CHF. We studied the influence of lag on estimates of Poincaré plot indices for various lengths of beat sequence in a public domain data set (PhysioNet) of 29 subjects with CHF and 54 subjects with normal sinus rhythm. Results A curvilinear association was observed between lag and Poincaré plot indices (SD1, SD2, SDLD and SD1/SD2 ratio) in normal subjects even for a small sequence of 50 beats (p value for quadratic term 3 × 10-5, 0.002, 3.5 × 10-5 and 0.0003, respectively). This curvilinearity was lost in patients with CHF even after exploring sequences up to 50,000 beats (p values for quadratic term > 0.5). Conclusion Since lagged Poincaré plots incorporate autocovariance information, these analyses provide insights into the autonomic control of heart rate that is influenced by the non-linearity of the signal. The differences in lag-response in CHF patients and normal subjects exist even in the face of the treatment received by the CHF patients. PMID:16768800

  19. Loss of lag-response curvilinearity of indices of heart rate variability in congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Michael L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart rate variability (HRV is known to be impaired in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF. Time-domain analysis of ECG signals traditionally relies heavily on linear indices of an essentially non-linear phenomenon. Poincaré plots are commonly used to study non-linear behavior of physiologic signals. Lagged Poincaré plots incorporate autocovariance information and analysis of Poincaré plots for various lags can provide interesting insights into the autonomic control of the heart. Methods Using Poincaré plot analysis, we assessed whether the relation of the lag between heart beats and HRV is altered in CHF. We studied the influence of lag on estimates of Poincaré plot indices for various lengths of beat sequence in a public domain data set (PhysioNet of 29 subjects with CHF and 54 subjects with normal sinus rhythm. Results A curvilinear association was observed between lag and Poincaré plot indices (SD1, SD2, SDLD and SD1/SD2 ratio in normal subjects even for a small sequence of 50 beats (p value for quadratic term 3 × 10-5, 0.002, 3.5 × 10-5 and 0.0003, respectively. This curvilinearity was lost in patients with CHF even after exploring sequences up to 50,000 beats (p values for quadratic term > 0.5. Conclusion Since lagged Poincaré plots incorporate autocovariance information, these analyses provide insights into the autonomic control of heart rate that is influenced by the non-linearity of the signal. The differences in lag-response in CHF patients and normal subjects exist even in the face of the treatment received by the CHF patients.

  20. The Impact of Income on the Echocardiographic Pattern of Heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dilated cardiomyopathy was the 2nd most common heart disease (in 15.2%), more common among group 2 patients (p=0.037). Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) was the 3rd most common (in 8.7%) heart disease in the study, more common than rheumatic heart disease (in 8.3%). Peripartum cardiomyopathy was exclusively ...

  1. Association between atrial fibrillatory rate and heart rate variability in patients with atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corino, Valentina D A; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Mainardi, Luca T; Stridh, Martin; Vasquez, Rafael; Bayes de Luna, Antonio; Holmqvist, Fredrik; Zareba, Wojciech; Platonov, Pyotr G

    2013-01-01

    Even if atrial fibrillatory rate (AFR) has been related to clinical outcome in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), its relation with ventricular response has not been deeply studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between AFR and RR series variability in patients with AF. Twenty-minute electrocardiograms in orthogonal leads were processed to extract AFR, using spatiotemporal QRST cancellation and time frequency analysis, and RR series in 127 patients (age 69 ± 11 years) with congestive heart failure (NYHA II-III) enrolled in the MUSIC study (MUerte Subita en Insufficiencia Cardiaca). Heart rate variability and irregularity were assessed by time domain parameters and entropy-based indices, respectively and their correlation with AFR investigated. Variability measures seem not to be related to AFR, while irregularity measures do. A significant correlation between AFR and variability parameters of heart rate variability during AF was found only in patients not treated with antiarrhythmics drugs (correlation = 0.56 P < 0.05 for pNN50), while this correlation was lost in patients taking rate- or rhythm-control drugs. A significant positive correlation between AFR and indices of RR irregularity was found, showing that a higher AFR is related to a less organized RR series (correlation = 0.33 P < 0.05 for regularity index for all patients, correlation increased in subgroups of patients treated with the same drug). These results suggest that a higher AFR is associated with a higher degree of irregularity of ventricular response that is observed regardless of the use of rate-controlling drugs. ©2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Adherence to optimal heart rate control in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: insight from a survey of heart rate in heart failure in Sweden (HR-HF study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, M; Ahrenmark, U; Berglund, S; Lindholm, C J; Lehto, A; Broberg, A Månsson; Tasevska-Dinevska, G; Wikstrom, G; Ågard, A; Andersson, B

    2017-12-01

    Despite that heart rate (HR) control is one of the guideline-recommended treatment goals for heart failure (HF) patients, implementation has been painstakingly slow. Therefore, it would be important to identify patients who have not yet achieved their target heart rates and assess possible underlying reasons as to why the target rates are not met. The survey of HR in patients with HF in Sweden (HR-HF survey) is an investigator-initiated, prospective, multicenter, observational longitudinal study designed to investigate the state of the art in the control of HR in HF and to explore potential underlying mechanisms for suboptimal HR control with focus on awareness of and adherence to guidelines for HR control among physicians who focus on the contributing role of beta-blockers (BBs). In 734 HF patients the mean HR was 68 ± 12 beats per minute (bpm) (37.2% of the patients had a HR >70 bpm). Patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (n = 425) had the highest HR (70 ± 13 bpm, with 42% >70 bpm), followed by HF with preserved ejection fraction and HF with mid-range ejection fraction. Atrial fibrillation, irrespective of HF type, had higher HR than sinus rhythm. A similar pattern was observed with BB treatment. Moreover, non-achievement of the recommended target HR (70 bpm optimal and an equal number considered a HR of >70 bpm too high, but without recommending further action. Furthermore, suboptimal HR control cannot be attributed to the use of BBs because there was neither a difference in use of BBs nor an interaction with BBs for HR >70 bpm compared with HR HF care.

  3. Heart rate turbulence predicts all-cause mortality and sudden death in congestive heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Zareba, Wojciech; Vazquez, Rafael; Vallverdu, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R; Valdes, Mariano; Almendral, Jesus; Cinca, Juan; Caminal, Pere; de Luna, Antoni Bayes

    2008-08-01

    Abnormal heart rate turbulence (HRT) has been documented as a strong predictor of total mortality and sudden death in postinfarction patients, but data in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of HRT for predicting mortality in CHF patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III. In 651 CHF patients with sinus rhythm enrolled into the MUSIC (Muerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiaca) study, the standard HRT parameters turbulence onset (TO) and slope (TS), as well as HRT categories, were assessed for predicting total mortality and sudden death. HRT was analyzable in 607 patients, mean age 63 years (434 male), 50% of ischemic etiology. During a median follow up of 44 months, 129 patients died, 52 from sudden death. Abnormal TS and HRT category 2 (HRT2) were independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR: 2.10, CI: 1.41 to 3.12, P 120 ms. HRT is a potent risk predictor for both heart failure and arrhythmic death in patients with class II and III CHF.

  4. Comparison of heart rate and external performance at selected field tests for determining maximum heart rate for bicyclists and triathletes when cycling.

    OpenAIRE

    Podrazil, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Title: Comparison of the heart rate values and external performance is based on selected field tests determining maximal heart rate in cycling of cyclist and triathletes Objectives: Objective of thesis is to determine the values of maximal heart rate and external performance from selected field tests in cycling and compare them with one another. Methods: Three cyclist were measured in field tests and acquired results were used to create the graphs and tables. Data were obtained by cycling per...

  5. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Heart Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Hagstrup Christensen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may modulate autonomic control of the heart because omega-3 PUFA is abundant in the brain and other nervous tissue as well as in cardiac tissue. This might partly explain why omega-3 PUFA offer some protection against sudden cardiac death (SCD. The autonomic nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of SCD. Heart rate variability (HRV can be used as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic control and a low HRV is a predictor for SCD and arrhythmic events. Studies on HRV and omega-3 PUFA have been performed in several populations such as patients with ischemic heart disease, patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with chronic renal failure, and in healthy subjects as well as in children.. The studies have demonstrated a positive association between cellular content of omega-3 PUFA and HRV and supplementation with omega-3 PUFA seems to increase HRV which could be a possible explanation for decreased risk of arrhythmic events and SCD sometimes observed after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. However, the results are not consistent and further research is needed

  6. Optimum Heart Rate to Minimize Pulsatile External Cardiac Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2011-11-01

    The workload on the left ventricle is composed of steady and pulsatile components. Clinical investigations have confirmed that an abnormal pulsatile load plays an important role in the pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and progression of LVH to congestive heart failure (CHF). The pulsatile load is the result of the complex dynamics of wave propagation and reflection in the compliant arterial vasculature. We hypothesize that aortic waves can be optimized to reduce the left ventricular (LV) pulsatile load. We used an in-vitro experimental approach to investigate our hypothesis. A unique hydraulic model was used for in-vitro experiments. This model has physical and dynamical properties similar to the heart-aorta system. Different compliant models of the artificial aorta were used to test the hypothesis under various aortic rigidities. Our results indicate that: i) there is an optimum heart rate that minimizes LV pulsatile power (this is in agreement with our previous computational study); ii) introducing an extra reflection site at the specific location along the aorta creates constructive wave conditions that reduce the LV pulsatile power.

  7. A novel modality for intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, Eran; Shinar, Shiri; Aviram, Amir; Orbach, Sharon; Yogev, Yariv; Hiersch, Liran

    2017-11-02

    Intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring is well recommended during labor to assess fetal wellbeing. Though commonly used, the external Doppler and fetal scalp electrode monitor have significant shortcomings. Lately, non-invasive technologies were developed as possible alternatives. The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of FHR trace using novel Electronic Uterine Monitoring (EUM) to that of external Doppler and fetal scalp electrode monitor. A comparative study conducted in a single tertiary medical center. Intrapartum FHR trace was recorded simultaneously using three different methods: internal fetal scalp electrode, external Doppler, and EUM. The latter, a multichannel electromyogram (EMG) device acquires a uterine signal and maternal and fetal electrocardiograms. FHR traces obtained from all devices during the first and second stages of labor were analyzed. Positive percent of agreement (PPA) and accuracy (by measuring root means square error between observed and predicted values) of EUM and external Doppler were both compared to internal scalp electrode monitoring. A Bland-Altman agreement plot was used to compare the differences in FHR trace between all modalities. For momentary recordings of fetal heart rate 160 bpm level of agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were also evaluated. Overall, 712,800 FHR momentary recordings were obtained from 33 parturients. Although both EUM and external Doppler highly correlated with internal scalp electrode monitoring (r2 = 0.98, p fetal heart rate 160 bpm, the PPA, sensitivity, and specificity of EUM as compared with internal fetal scalp electrode, were significantly greater than those of external Doppler (p monitoring than external Doppler. As such, it may provide a good framework for non-invasive evaluation of intrapartum FHR.

  8. Caffeine Enhances Heart Rate Variability in Middle-Aged Healthy, But Not Heart Failure Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarius, Catherine F; Floras, John S

    2012-06-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF) due to left ventricular dysfunction, diminished heart rate variability (HRV) is an independent predictor of poor prognosis. Caffeine has been shown to increase HRV in young healthy subjects. Such an increase may be of potential benefit to patients with CHF. We hypothesized that intravenous infusion of caffeine would increase HRV in CHF, and in age-matched healthy control subjects. On two separate days, 11 patients (1F) with CHF (age=51.3±4.6 years; left ventricular ejection fraction=18.6±2.7%; mean±standard error) and 10 healthy control subjects (age=48.0±4.0) according to a double-blind randomization design, received either saline or caffeine (4 mg/kg) infusion. We assessed HRV over 7 minutes of supine rest (fast Fourier Transform analysis) to determine total spectral power as well as its high-frequency (HF) (0.15-0.50 Hz) and low-frequency (LF) (0.05-0.15 Hz) components, and recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) directly from the peroneal nerve (microneurography). In healthy control subjects, compared with saline, caffeine reduced both heart rate and sympathetic nerve traffic (p≤0.003) and increased the ratio of HF/total power (p≤0.05). Baseline LF power and the ratio LF/HF were significantly lower in CHF compared with controls (p=0.02), but caffeine had no effect on any element of HRV. Caffeine increases cardiac vagal heart rate modulation and reduces MSNA in middle-aged healthy subjects, but not in those with CHF.

  9. Heart rate variability biofeedback: how and why does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Paul M; Gevirtz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been substantial support for heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB) as a treatment for a variety of disorders and for performance enhancement (Gevirtz, 2013). Since conditions as widely varied as asthma and depression seem to respond to this form of cardiorespiratory feedback training, the issue of possible mechanisms becomes more salient. The most supported possible mechanism is the strengthening of homeostasis in the baroreceptor (Vaschillo et al., 2002; Lehrer et al., 2003). Recently, the effect on the vagal afferent pathway to the frontal cortical areas has been proposed. In this article, we review these and other possible mechanisms that might explain the positive effects of HRVB.

  10. Impact of training load on the heart rate of horses

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Mlyneková; Marko Halo; Miroslav Maršálek; Lucie Starostová

    2016-01-01

    In our work, we analyzed the effect of training load on the heart rate of horses in a simulated load by the loading regulator for horse motion Horse Gym 2000. In the experiment were observed 8 Slovak Warmblood horses (3 mares, 4 geldings, 1 stallion) aged 6-10 years. The experiment was divided into two parts after three weeks. The speed of the tested horses was 4.9 km/h in the first part of experiment, in the second part was the speed 5.2 km/h with a gradual uphill up to 7 %. The tested horse...

  11. Neural Network Analysis and Evaluation of the Fetal Heart Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Noguchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to obtain a highly objective automatic fetal heart rate (FHR diagnosis. The neural network software was composed of three layers with the back propagation, to which 8 FHR data, including sinusoidal FHR, were input and the system was educated by the data of 20 cases with a known outcome. The output was the probability of a normal, intermediate, or pathologic outcome. The neural index studied prolonged monitoring. The neonatal states and the FHR score strongly correlated with the outcome probability. The neural index diagnosis was correct. The completed software was transferred to other computers, where the system function was correct.

  12. Heart rate variability biofeedback: How and why does it work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Lehrer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been substantial support for Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback (HRVB as a treatment for a variety of disorders and for performance enhancement (Gevirtz, 2013. Since conditions as widely varied as asthma and depression seem to respond to this form of cardiorespiratory feedback training, the issue of possible mechanisms becomes more salient. The most supported possible mechanism is the strengthening of homeostasis in the barorecptor (Vashillo, et al, 2002; Lehrer, et al, 2003. Recently, the effect on the vagal afferent pathway to the frontal cortical areas has been proposed. In this article, we review these and other possible mechanisms that might explain the positive effects of HRVB.

  13. Simulation of heart rate variability model in a network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascaval, Radu C.; D'Apice, Ciro; D'Arienzo, Maria Pia

    2017-07-01

    We consider a 1-D model for the simulation of the blood flow in the cardiovascular system. As inflow condition we consider a model for the aortic valve. The opening and closing of the valve is dynamically determined by the pressure difference between the left ventricular and aortic pressures. At the outflow we impose a peripheral resistance model. To approximate the solution we use a numerical scheme based on the discontinuous Galerkin method. We also considering a variation in heart rate and terminal reflection coefficient due to monitoring of the pressure in the network.

  14. Heart rate and estimated energy expenditure during ballroom dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanksby, B A; Reidy, P W

    1988-01-01

    Ten competitive ballroom dance couples performed simulated competitive sequences of Modern and Latin American dance. Heart rate was telemetered during the dance sequences and related to direct measures of oxygen uptake and heart rate obtained while walking on a treadmill. Linear regression was employed to estimate gross and net energy expenditures of the dance sequences. A multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures on the dance factor was applied to the data to test for interaction and main effects on the sex and dance factors. Overall mean heart rate values for the Modern dance sequence were 170 beats.min-1 and 173 beats.min-1 for males and females respectively. During the Latin American sequence mean overall heart rate for males was 168 beats.min-1 and 177 beats.min-1 for females. Predicted mean gross values of oxygen consumption for the males were 42.8 +/- 5.7 ml.kg-1 min-1 and 42.8 +/- 6.9 ml.kg-1 min-1 for the Modern and Latin American sequences respectively. Corresponding gross estimates of oxygen consumption for the females were 34.7 +/- 3.8 ml.kg-1 min-1 and 36.1 +/- 4.1 ml.kg-1 min-1. Males were estimated to expand 54.1 +/- 8.1 kJ.min-1 of energy during the Modern sequence and 54.0 +/- 9.6 kJ.min-1 during the Latin American sequence, while predicted energy expenditure for females was 34.7 +/- 3.8 kJ.min-1 and 36.1 +/- 4.1 kJ.min-1 for Modern and Latin American dance respectively. The results suggested that both males and females were dancing at greater than 80% of their maximum oxygen consumption. A significant difference between males and females was observed for predicted gross and net values of oxygen consumption (in L.min-1 and ml.kg-1 min-1). PMID:3167503

  15. A comparative study of pulse rate variability and heart rate variability in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jih-Sen; Lu, Wan-An; Wu, Kung-Tai; Liu, Margaret; Chen, Gau-Yang; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2012-04-01

    Both heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse rate variability (PRV) are noninvasive means for the assessment of autonomic nervous control of the heart. However, it is not settled whether or not the PRV obtained from either hand can be the surrogate of HRV. The HRV measures obtained from electrocardiographic signals and the PRV measures obtained from the pulse waves recorded from the index fingers of both hands were compared in normal subjects by using linear regression analysis and Bland and Altman method. Highly significant correlations (P heart rate and ultra-low frequency power (ULFP). The PRV of either hand is close to, but not the same as the HRV in healthy subjects. The HRV, right PRV and left PRV are not surrogates of one another in normal subjects except heart rate and ULFP. Since HRV is generally accepted as the standard method for the assessment of the autonomic nervous modulation of a subject, the PRV of either hand may not be suitable for the assessment of the cardiac autonomic nervous modulation of the subject.

  16. Heart rate effects of intraosseous injections using slow and fast rates of anesthetic solution deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Louis; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel; Drum, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a single-blind manner, 3 primary intraosseous injections to 61 subjects using: the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 45 seconds (fast injection); the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection); a conventional syringe injection at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection), in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 3 weeks apart. A pulse oximeter measured heart rate (pulse). The results demonstrated the mean maximum heart rate was statistically higher with the fast intraosseous injection (average 21 to 28 beats/min increase) than either of the 2 slow intraosseous injections (average 10 to 12 beats/min increase). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 slow injections. We concluded that an intraosseous injection of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine with the Wand at a 45-second rate of anesthetic deposition resulted in a significantly higher heart rate when compared with a 4-minute and 45-second anesthetic solution deposition using either the Wand or traditional syringe.

  17. Heart rate level of golf swing in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease and in healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    下村, 雅昭; Shimomura, Masaaki; 羽田, 龍彦; Hata, Tatsuhiko; 上村, 桂子; Uemura, Keiko; 廣瀬, 美嘉; Hirose, Mika; 浜崎, 博; Hamazaki, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of golf swing on the heart rate level in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (IHD) and healthy adults. METHODS: Study subjects were 7 male patients with IHD (mean age 59.3±8.7 years) and 7 age-matched, healthy male golfers. AIl subjects underwent golf swing at driving range, during which heart rate and electrocardiogram were monitored via telemetry system. Blood pressure was taken immediately after each golf swing. RESULTS: The average heart rate value...

  18. Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hoed, Marcel; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Esko, Tõnu; Brundel, Bianca J J M; Peal, David S; Evans, David M; Nolte, Ilja M; Segrè, Ayellet V; Holm, Hilma; Handsaker, Robert E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Johnson, Toby; Isaacs, Aaron; Yang, Jian; Lundby, Alicia; Zhao, Jing Hua; Kim, Young Jin; Go, Min Jin; Almgren, Peter; Bochud, Murielle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Hadley, David; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; den Heijer, Martin; Igl, Wilmar; Jackson, Anne U; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Kemp, John P; Kristiansson, Kati; Ladenvall, Claes; Lorentzon, Mattias; Montasser, May E; Njajou, Omer T; O'Reilly, Paul F; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; St Pourcain, Beate; Rankinen, Tuomo; Salo, Perttu; Tanaka, Toshiko; Timpson, Nicholas J; Vitart, Veronique; Waite, Lindsay; Wheeler, William; Zhang, Weihua; Draisma, Harmen H M; Feitosa, Mary F; Kerr, Kathleen F; Lind, Penelope A; Mihailov, Evelin; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Song, Ci; Weedon, Michael N; Xie, Weijia; Yengo, Loic; Absher, Devin; Albert, Christine M; Alonso, Alvaro; Arking, Dan E; de Bakker, Paul I W; Balkau, Beverley; Barlassina, Cristina; Benaglio, Paola; Bis, Joshua C; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Brage, Søren; Chanock, Stephen J; Chines, Peter S; Chung, Mina; Darbar, Dawood; Dina, Christian; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Felix, Stephan B; Fischer, Krista; Fuchsberger, Christian; de Geus, Eco J C; Goyette, Philippe; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Havulinna, Aki S; Heckbert, Susan R; Hicks, Andrew A; Hofman, Albert; Holewijn, Suzanne; Hoogstra-Berends, Femke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Jensen, Majken K; Johansson, Asa; Junttila, Juhani; Kääb, Stefan; Kanon, Bart; Ketkar, Shamika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Knowles, Joshua W; Kooner, Angrad S; Kors, Jan A; Kumari, Meena; Milani, Lili; Laiho, Päivi; Lakatta, Edward G; Langenberg, Claudia; Leusink, Maarten; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert N; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Lynch, Stacey N; Markus, Marcello R P; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Mateo Leach, Irene; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarroll, Steven A; Medland, Sarah E; Miller, Kathryn A; Montgomery, Grant W; Morrison, Alanna C; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Navarro, Pau; Nelis, Mari; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Ong, Ken K; Newman, Anne B; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Rao, Dabeeru C; Ring, Susan M; Rossin, Elizabeth J; Rudan, Diana; Sanna, Serena; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Jaban S; Sharp, Stephen; Shin, Jordan T; Singleton, Andrew B; Smith, Albert V; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D; Stewart, Chip; Stringham, Heather M; Tarasov, Kirill V; Uitterlinden, André G; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Whitfield, John B; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Wong, Andrew; Wong, Quenna; Jamshidi, Yalda; Zitting, Paavo; Boer, Jolanda M A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ekelund, Ulf; Forouhi, Nita G; Froguel, Philippe; Hingorani, Aroon; Ingelsson, Erik; Kivimaki, Mika; Kronmal, Richard A; Kuh, Diana; Lind, Lars; Martin, Nicholas G; Oostra, Ben A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Quertermous, Thomas; Rotter, Jerome I; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W M Monique; Walker, Mark; Albanes, Demetrius; Arnar, David O; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Boehnke, Michael; de Boer, Rudolf A; Bouchard, Claude; Caulfield, W L Mark; Chambers, John C; Curhan, Gary; Cusi, Daniele; Eriksson, Johan; Ferrucci, Luigi; van Gilst, Wiek H; Glorioso, Nicola; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Groop, Leif; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Hu, Frank B; Huikuri, Heikki V; Hunter, David J; Iribarren, Carlos; Isomaa, Bo; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kraft, Peter; Iacoviello, Licia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lokki, Marja-Liisa L; Mitchell, Braxton D; Navis, Gerjan; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Poulter, Neil R; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rimm, Eric B; Rioux, John D; Rizzi, Federica; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sever, Peter S; Shields, Denis C; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Stanton, Alice V; Stolk, Ronald P; Strachan, David P; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tuomilehto, Jaako; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Widen, Elisabeth; Cho, Yoon Shin; Olsen, Jesper V; Visscher, Peter M; Willer, Cristen; Franke, Lude; Erdmann, Jeanette; Thompson, John R; Pfeufer, Arne; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Ellinor, Patrick T; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Metspalu, Andres; Perola, Markus; Beckmann, Jacques S; Smith, George Davey; Stefansson, Kari; Wareham, Nicholas J; Munroe, Patricia B; Sibon, Ody C M; Milan, David J; Snieder, Harold; Samani, Nilesh J; Loos, Ruth J F

    2013-06-01

    Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously established loci. Experimental downregulation of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio identified 20 genes at 11 loci that are relevant for heart rate regulation and highlight a role for genes involved in signal transmission, embryonic cardiac development and the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart failure and/or sudden cardiac death. In addition, genetic susceptibility to increased heart rate is associated with altered cardiac conduction and reduced risk of sick sinus syndrome, and both heart rate-increasing and heart rate-decreasing variants associate with risk of atrial fibrillation. Our findings provide fresh insights into the mechanisms regulating heart rate and identify new therapeutic targets.

  19. Evaluation for Intensity of Stress in Lesson using Heart Rate Variability Detected by Simultaneously Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Ayaka; Takatsu, Hiroaki; Ohno, Wataru; Ozeki, Osamu

    We studied the evaluation for the intensity of stress of students in lesson using heart rate variability. Heart rate of many students were measured simultaneously by developed portable measurement systems. Heart rate variability data suggests that many students have more stress in normal dictation lesson then video lesson using difficult subject.

  20. Discovery of novel heart rate-associated loci using the Exome Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Marten E.; Warren, Helen R; Cabrera, Claudia P; Verweij, Niek; Mifsud, Borbala; Haessler, Jeffrey; Bihlmeyer, Nathan A.; Fu, Yi-Ping; Weiss, Stefan; Lin, Henry J.; Grarup, Niels; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Pistis, Giorgio; Shah, Nabi; Brody, Jennifer A.; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Lin, Honghuang; Mei, Hao; Smith, Albert V.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Hall, Leanne M; van Setten, Jessica; Trompet, Stella; Prins, Bram P.; Isaacs, Aaron; Radmanesh, Farid; Marten, Jonathan; Entwistle, Aiman; Kors, Jan A.; Silva, Claudia T; Alonso, Alvaro; Bis, Joshua C.; de Boer, Rudolf; de Haan, Hugoline G; de Mutsert, Renee; Dedoussis, George; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Eppinga, Ruben N.; Felix, Stephan B.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hagemeijer, Yanick; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Huang, Paul L.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Kahonen, Mika; Kanters, Jorgen K.; Kolcic, Ivana; Launer, Lenore J.; Li, Man; Yao, Jie; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Simin; MacFarlane, Peter W.; Mangino, Massimo; Morris, Andrew D.; Mulas, Antonella; Murray, Alison D.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Orru, Marco; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Peters, Annette; Porteous, David J.; Poulter, Neil; Psaty, Bruce M.; Qi, Lihong; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Roselli, Carolina; Rudan, Igor; Sattar, Naveed; Sever, Peter; Sinner, Moritz F.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Spector, Timothy D.; Stanton, Alice V.; Stirrups, Kathleen E; Taylor, Kent D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Uitterlinden, Andre; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Hoes, Arno W.; van der Meer, Peter; Voelker, Uwe; Waldenberger, Melanie; Xie, Zhijun; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Tinker, Andrew; Polasek, Ozren; Rosand, Jonathan; Jamshidi, Yalda; Duijn, Cornelia Mvan; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Jukema, Wouter J.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Wilson, James G.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Kaeaeb, Stefan; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Caulfield, Mark J.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Sanna, Serena; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Deloukas, Panos; Pedersen, Oluf; Rotter, Jerome I.; Doerr, Marcus; O'Donnell, Chris J.; Hayward, Caroline; Arking, Dan E.; Kooperberg, Charles; van der Harst, Pim; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Stricker, Bruno H.; Munroe, Patricia B.

    2017-01-01

    Resting heart rate is a heritable trait, and an increase in heart rate is associated with increased mortality risk. Genome-wide association study analyses have found loci associated with resting heart rate, at the time of our study these loci explained 0.9% of the variation. This study aims to

  1. Discovery of novel heart rate-associated loci using the Exome Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van den Berg (Marten); H. Warren (Helen); Cabrera, C.P. (Claudia P.); Verweij, N. (Niek); Mifsud, B. (Borbala); J. Haessler (Jeff); N.A. Bihlmeyer (Nathan A.); Fu, Y.-P. (Yi-Ping); Weiss, S. (Stefan); Lin, H.J. (Henry J.); N. Grarup (Niels); Li-Gao, R. (Ruifang); G. Pistis (Giorgio); N. Shah (Nisha); J.A. Brody (Jennifer A.); Müller-Nurasyid, M. (Martina); H. Lin (Honghuang); H. Mei (Hao); A.V. Smith (Albert V.); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); L.M. Hall (Leanne M.); J. van Setten (Jessica); S. Trompet (Stella); Prins, B.P. (Bram P.); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); F. Radmanesh (Farid); J. Marten (Jonathan); Entwistle, A. (Aiman); J.A. Kors (Jan); C.T. Silva (Claudia Tamar); A. Alonso (Alvaro); J.C. Bis (Joshua); R.A. de Boer (Rudolf); H.G. De Haan (Hugoline G.); R. de Mutsert (Reneé); G.V. Dedoussis (George); A. Dominiczak (Anna); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); P.T. Ellinor (Patrick); Eppinga, R.N. (Ruben N.); S.B. Felix (Stephan); X. Guo (Xiuqing); Hagemeijer, Y. (Yanick); T. Hansen (T.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); Huang, P.L. (Paul L.); S.-J. Hwang (Shih-Jen); M. Kähönen (Mika); J.K. Kanters; I. Kolcic (Ivana); L.J. Launer (Lenore); M. Li (Man); J. Yao (Jiefen); A. Linneberg (Allan); Liu, S. (Simin); P.W. MacFarlane (Peter); M. Mangino (Massimo); Morris, A.D. (Andrew D.); Mulas, A. (Antonella); Murray, A.D. (Alison D.); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); M. Orrù (Marco); S. Padmanabhan (Sandosh); A. Peters (Annette); D.J. Porteous (David J.); N.R. Poulter (Neil); B.M. Psaty (Bruce M.); L. Qi (Lihong); Raitakari, O.T. (Olli T.); Rivadeneira, F. (Fernando); Roselli, C. (Carolina); I. Rudan (Igor); N. Sattar (Naveed); P. Sever (Peter); M.F. Sinner (Moritz); E.Z. Soliman (Elsayed); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A. Stanton (Alice); K. Stirrups (Kathy); K.D. Taylor (Kent); M.D. Tobin (Martin); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); I. Vaartjes (Ilonca); A.W. Hoes (Arno); van der Meer, P. (Peter); U. Völker (Uwe); Waldenberger, M. (Melanie); Xie, Z. (Zhijun); M. Zoledziewska (Magdalena); Tinker, A. (Andrew); O. Polasek (Ozren); J. Rosand (Jonathan); Jamshidi, Y. (Yalda); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J.F. Wilson (James); Lubitz, S.A. (Steven A.); S. Kääb (Stefan); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); M. Caulfield (Mark); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); S. Sanna (Serena); D.O. Mook-Kanamori (Dennis); Deloukas, P. (Panos); O. Pedersen (Oluf); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); M. Dörr (Marcus); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher J.); C. Hayward (Caroline); D.E. Arking (Dan); C. Kooperberg (Charles); van der Harst, P. (Pim); M. Eijgelsheim (Mark); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); P. Munroe (Patricia)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractResting heart rate is a heritable trait, and an increase in heart rate is associated with increased mortality risk. Genome-wide association study analyses have found loci associated with resting heart rate, at the time of our study these loci explained 0.9% of the variation. This

  2. Discovery of novel heart rate-associated loci using the Exome Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Marten E; Warren, Helen R; Cabrera, Claudia P

    2017-01-01

    Resting heart rate is a heritable trait, and an increase in heart rate is associated with increased mortality risk. Genome-wide association study analyses have found loci associated with resting heart rate, at the time of our study these loci explained 0.9% of the variation. This study aims to di...

  3. Making the Most of the "Daphnia" Heart Rate Lab: Optimizing the Use of Ethanol, Nicotine & Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corotto, Frank; Ceballos, Darrel; Lee, Adam; Vinson, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Students commonly test the effects of chemical agents on the heart rate of the crustacean "Daphnia" magna, but the procedure has never been optimized. We determined the effects of three concentrations of ethanol, nicotine, and caffeine and of a control solution on heart rate in "Daphnia." Ethanol at 5% and 10% (v/v) reduced mean heart rate to…

  4. Heart Rate and Lactate Levels during Weight-Training Exercise in Trained and Untrained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of effects of squatting exercise on heart rate and blood lactate levels in trained and untrained males indicated that trained subjects performed more work and had higher heart rates and lactate levels at exhaustion untrained subjects, though heart rate and lactate levels were lower for trained subjects at a given bar mass or submaximal…

  5. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  6. Effects of Vibration and G-Loading on Heart Rate, Breathing Rate, and Response Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinez, Angelica; Ayzenberg, Ruthie; Liston, Dorian B.; Stone, Leland S.

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace and applied environments commonly expose pilots and astronauts to G-loading and vibration, alone and in combination, with well-known sensorimotor (Cohen, 1970) and performance consequences (Adelstein et al., 2008). Physiological variables such as heart rate (HR) and breathing rate (BR) have been shown to increase with G-loading (Yajima et al., 1994) and vibration (e.g. Guignard, 1965, 1985) alone. To examine the effects of G-loading and vibration, alone and in combination, we measured heart rate and breathing rate under aerospace-relevant conditions (G-loads of 1 Gx and 3.8 Gx; vibration of 0.5 gx at 8, 12, and 16 Hz).

  7. Using the heart rate variability for classifying patients with and without chronic heart failure and periodic breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Giraldo, Beatriz; Téllez, Joan P.; Herrera, Sergio; Benito, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the dynamic interactions between cardiovascular signals can provide valuable information that improves the understanding of cardiovascular control. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is known to provide information about the autonomic heart rate modulation mechanism. Using the HRV signal, we aimed to obtain parameters for classifying patients with and without chronic heart failure (CHF), and with periodic breathing (PB), non-periodic breathing (nPB), and Cheyne-Stokes respira...

  8. Differential Lectin Binding Patterns Identify Distinct Heart Regions in Giant Danio (Devario aequipinnatus) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, Trina; May, Adam; Quinn, Joshua; Lafontant, Dominique S.; Shifatu, Olubusola; He, Wei; Gonzalez-Rosa, Juan M.; Burns, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Caroline E.; Burns, Alan R.; Lafontant, Pascal J.

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins commonly used as biochemical and histochemical tools to study glycoconjugate (glycoproteins, glycolipids) expression patterns in cells, tissues, including mammalian hearts. However, lectins have received little attention in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and giant danio (Devario aequipinnatus) heart studies. Here, we sought to determine the binding patterns of six commonly used lectins—wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin, Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin (BS lectin), concanavalin A (Con A), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I), and Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (tomato lectin)—in these hearts. Con A showed broad staining in the myocardium. WGA stained cardiac myocyte borders, with binding markedly stronger in the compact heart and bulbus. BS lectin, which stained giant danio coronaries, was used to measure vascular reconstruction during regeneration. However, BS lectin reacted poorly in zebrafish. RCA I stained the compact heart of both fish. Tomato lectin stained the giant danio, and while low reactivity was seen in the zebrafish ventricle, staining was observed in their transitional cardiac myocytes. In addition, we observed unique staining patterns in the developing zebrafish heart. Lectins’ ability to reveal differential glycoconjugate expression in giant danio and zebrafish hearts suggests they can serve as simple but important tools in studies of developing, adult, and regenerating fish hearts. PMID:27680670

  9. Analysis of heart rate variability in the presence of ectopic beats using the heart timing signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Javier; Laguna, Pablo

    2003-03-01

    The time-domain signals representing the heart rate variability (HRV) in the presence of an ectopic beat exhibit a sharp transient at the position of the ectopic beat, which corrupts the signal, particularly the power spectral density (PSD) of the HRV. Consequently, there is a need for correction of this type of beat prior to any HRV analysis. This paper deals with the PSD estimation of the HRV by means of the heart timing (HT) signal when ectopic beats are present. These beat occurrence times are modeled from a generalized, continuous time integral pulse frequency modulation model and, from this point of view, a specific method for minimizing the effect of the presence of ectopic beats is presented to work together with the HT signal. By using both, a white noise driven autoregressive model of the HRV signal with artificially introduced ectopic beats and actual heart rate series including ectopic beats, the more usual methods of HRV spectral estimation are compared. Results of the PSD estimation error function of the number of ectopic beats are presented. These results demonstrate that the proposed method has one order of magnitude lower error than usual ectopic beats removal strategies in preserving PSD, thus, this strategy better recovers the original clinical indexes of interest.

  10. Resting heart rate and incident heart failure in apparently healthy men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roman; Michels, Guido; Sharp, Stephen J; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nick J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2012-10-01

    Increasing levels of resting heart rate are associated with increased risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and seem to play a role in the progression of heart failure. The shape of the association between resting heart rate and risk of developing heart failure has not been examined in healthy individuals of the general population. Hazard ratios (HRs) of heart failure comparing categories of resting heart rate [51-60 b.p.m. (reference), 61-70 b.p.m., 71-80 b.p.m., 81-90 b.p.m., and 91-100 b.p.m.] were calculated in apparently healthy men (9805) and women (12 321) aged 39-79 participating in the 'European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition' (EPIC) study in Norfolk. During a mean follow-up of 12.9 years, 1356 incident cases of heart failure occurred. In participants without potential heart rate-modifying medication, age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates of heart failure were 3.3, 3.7, 4.0, 5.1, and 5.5 per 1000 person-years for increasing categories of resting heart rate; compared with the reference category, HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for increasing categories of resting heart rate were 1.08 (0.88-1.34), 1.17 (0.94-1.46), 1.39 (1.08-1.79), and 1.42 (1.00-2.03), respectively, in multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, prevalent diabetes, cholesterol concentration, social class, educational level, smoking, and physical activity. Within the reference range of resting heart rate (50-100 b.p.m.) each 10 b.p.m. increase was associated with an 11% increase in hazard of heart failure in multivariable analysis. The results did not change materially after adjusting for myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease events during follow up (1.12, 1.06-1.18). Resting heart rate shows a graded association with hazard of heart failure in apparently healthy men and women which is not mediated by coronary heart disease. Further study is needed to examine the underlying mechanisms.

  11. Impact of sleep-disordered breathing on heart rate turbulence in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Takiguchi, Mai; Shimizu, Takeshi; Abe, Satoshi; Sato, Takamasa; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2014-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Additionally, heart rate turbulence (HRT) reflects changes in the sinus cycle length of baroreceptor in response to hemodynamic fluctuations after ventricular premature beat. Recent studies have suggested that HRT as a marker of vagal activity has a predictive value of poor prognosis in CHF patients. However, little is known about the relationship between SDB and HRT in CHF patients. In this study, 75 patients with CHF were enrolled. We simultaneously performed Holter ECG during a 24-hr period and portable sleep monitoring at nighttime, and determined the respiratory disturbance index (RDI), HRT (turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS)) during that 24-hr period. These patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of severe SDB: Group A (RDI≥30, n = 17) and Group B (RDICHF patients.

  12. Mercury Exposure and Heart Rate Variability: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Matthew O; Cheng, Alan; Berger, Ronald D; Rosman, Lori; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-09-01

    Mercury affects the nervous system and has been implicated in altering heart rhythm and function. We sought to better define its role in modulating heart rate variability, a well-known marker of cardiac autonomic function. This is a systematic review study. We searched PubMed, Embase, TOXLINE, and DART databases without language restriction. We report findings as a qualitative systematic review because heterogeneity in study design and assessment of exposures and outcomes across studies, as well as other methodological limitations of the literature, precluded a quantitative meta-analysis. We identified 12 studies of mercury exposure and heart rate variability in human populations (ten studies involving primarily environmental methylmercury exposure and two studies involving occupational exposure to inorganic mercury) conducted in Japan, the Faroe Islands, Canada, Korea, French Polynesia, Finland, and Egypt. The association of prenatal mercury exposure with lower high-frequency band scores (thought to reflect parasympathetic activity) in several studies, in particular the inverse association of cord blood mercury levels with the coefficient of variation of the R-R intervals and with low-frequency and high-frequency bands at 14 years of age in the Faroe Islands birth cohort study, suggests that early mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity. Studies with later environmental exposures to mercury in children or in adults were heterogeneous and did not show consistent associations. The evidence was too limited to draw firm causal inferences. Additional research is needed to elucidate the effects of mercury on cardiac autonomic function, particularly as early-life exposures might have lasting impacts on cardiac parasympathetic function.

  13. Facets of psychopathy, heart rate variability and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anita Lill; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Thornton, David; Waage, Leif; Thayer, Julian F

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the four facets of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991; Bolt, Hare, Vitale, & Newman, 2004) were related to physiological and cognitive mechanisms. Fifty-three male prisoners participated in this study. Physiological responses were measured as heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR). Cognitive functions were measured using a continuous performance test (CPT; California Computerized Assessment Package, Abbreviated version) and a working memory test (WMT); based on Baddeley & Hitch (1974). The regression analysis of the HRV revealed that the interpersonal facet explained most of the variance during baseline (28%), CPT (16%), and WMT (12%). This was also true for the HR data during baseline (28%), CPT (20%), WMT (10%), and recovery (13%). The antisocial facet explained 10% of the variance only during baseline. Subjects scoring high compared to low on the interpersonal facet also showed better cognitive functioning. The study suggests that the different facets were differently associated with both physiological and cognitive functions.

  14. Human heart rate variability relation is unchanged during motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, T. J.; Berger, R. D.; Oman, C. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a study of 18 human subjects, we applied a new technique, estimation of the transfer function between instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and instantaneous heart rate (HR), to assess autonomic activity during motion sickness. Two control recordings of ILV and electrocardiogram (ECG) were made prior to the development of motion sickness. During the first, subjects were seated motionless, and during the second they were seated rotating sinusoidally about an earth vertical axis. Subjects then wore prism goggles that reverse the left-right visual field and performed manual tasks until they developed moderate motion sickness. Finally, ILV and ECG were recorded while subjects maintained a relatively constant level of sickness by intermittent eye closure during rotation with the goggles. Based on analyses of ILV to HR transfer functions from the three conditions, we were unable to demonstrate a change in autonomic control of heart rate due to rotation alone or due to motion sickness. These findings do not support the notion that moderate motion sickness is manifested as a generalized autonomic response.

  15. Heart rate variability (HRV) during virtual reality immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malińska, Marzena; Zużewicz, Krystyna; Bugajska, Joanna; Grabowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was assessment of the hour-long training involving handling virtual environment (sVR) and watching a stereoscopic 3D movie on the mechanisms of autonomic heart rate (HR) regulation among the subjects who were not predisposed to motion sickness. In order to exclude predispositions to motion sickness, all the participants (n=19) underwent a Coriolis test. During an exposure to 3D and sVR the ECG signal was continuously recorded using the Holter method. For the twelve consecutive 5-min epochs of ECG signal, the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in time and frequency domains was conducted. After 30 min from the beginning of the training in handling the virtual workstation a significant increase in LF spectral power was noted. The values of the sympathovagal LF/HF index while sVR indicated a significant increase in sympathetic predominance in four time intervals, namely between the 5th and the 10th minute, between the 15th and the 20th minute, between the 35th and 40th minute and between the 55th and the 60th minute of exposure.

  16. Noisy fluctuation of heart rate indicates cardiovascular system instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier; Baum, Charlotte; Jeanguillaume, Christian; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2013-09-01

    Heart rate spontaneously fluctuates despite homeostatic regulatory mechanisms to stabilize it. Harmonic and fractal fluctuations have been described. Non-harmonic non-fractal fluctuation has not been studied because it is usually thought that it is caused by apparatus noise. We hypothesized that this fluctuation looking like apparatus noise (that we call "noisy fluctuation") is linked to challenged blood pressure stabilization and not to apparatus noise. We assessed noisy fluctuation by quantifying the small and fastest beat-to-beat fluctuation of RR-interval by means of spectral analysis (Nyquist power of heart rate variability: nyHRV) after filtering out its fractal component. We observed nyHRV in healthy supine subjects and in patients with vasovagal symptoms. We challenged stabilization of blood pressure by upright posture (by means of a head-up tilt table test). Head-up position on the tilt table dramatically decreased nyHRV (0.128 ± 0.063 vs. 0.004 ± 0.002, p cardiovascular system is challenged (upright posture). It also indicates cardiovascular instability because it does not disappear in upright patients before vasovagal syncope, a transient failure of cardiovascular regulation.

  17. Importance of heart rate analysis in exercise tolerance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Haddad Herdy

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available After many years away from the limelights, at the beginning of this century, exercise tolerance testing has earned back an important position in international medical journals. The different sorts of information derived from a variety of studies based on it have shown us that this propedeutic method has a highly valuable prognostic impact. Because of its low cost and easy applicability, the exercise testing reinforces its position in the clinical practice of the cardiologist. In the early 70's, research relating the influence of the autonomic nervous system in heart rate behavior in all phases of an exercise tolerance testing began. Ever since, a number of hypotheses tried to clarify which would be the mechanisms related to the chronotropic response during effort and its performance in the recovery period. In this updating article the authors deal with an important data referring to the chronotropic deficit and the abnormal heart rate recovery, commenting on the prognostic implication of keeping the focus on the potential of its clinical impact. In other words, approaches that can be used whenever there is someone performing a monitored exercise tolerance testing.

  18. Heart rate and sentiment experimental data with common timeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Jaromír; Mouček, Roman

    2017-12-01

    Sentiment extraction and analysis using spoken utterances or written corpora as well as collection and analysis of human heart rate data using sensors are commonly used techniques and methods. On the other hand, these have been not combined yet. The collected data can be used e.g. to investigate the mutual dependence of human physical and emotional activity. The paper describes the procedure of parallel acquisition of heart rate sensor data and tweets expressing sentiment and difficulties related to this procedure. The obtained datasets are described in detail and further discussed to provide as much information as possible for subsequent analyses and conclusions. Analyses and conclusions are not included in this paper. The presented experiment and provided datasets serve as the first basis for further studies where all four presented data sources can be used independently, combined in a reasonable way or used all together. For instance, when the data is used all together, performing studies comparing human sensor data, acquired noninvasively from the surface of the human body and considered as more objective, and human written data expressing the sentiment, which is at least partly cognitively interpreted and thus considered as more subjective, could be beneficial.

  19. Correlation between electroencephalography and heart rate variability during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Mina; Kawara, Tokuhiro; Uchida, Sunao; Miyazaki, Shinichi; Nishihara, Kyoko; Mukai, Junko; Hirao, Kenzo; Ako, Junya; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2003-02-01

    It is known that autonomic nervous activities change in correspondence with sleep stages. However, the characteristics of continuous fluctuations in nocturnal autonomic nerve tone have not been clarified in detail. The study aimed to determine the possible correlation between the electroencephalogram (EEG) and autonomic nervous activities, and to clarify in detail the nocturnal fluctuations in autonomic nerve activities. Overnight EEGs and electrocardiograms of seven healthy males were obtained. These EEGs were analyzed by fast Fourier transformation algorithm to extract delta, sigma and beta power. Heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were calculated in consecutive 5-min epochs. The HRV indices of low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and LF/HF ratio were calculated from the spectral analysis of R-R intervals. The sleep stages were manually scored according to Rechtschaffen and Kales' criteria. Low frequency and LF/HF were significantly lower during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) than REM, and were lower in stages 3 and 4 than in stages 1 and 2. Furthermore, delta EEG showed inverse correlations with LF (r = - 0.44, P lightening.

  20. Smartphone-based photoplethysmographic imaging for heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alafeef, Maha

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to make use of visible light reflected mode photoplethysmographic (PPG) imaging for heart rate (HR) monitoring via smartphones. The system uses the built-in camera feature in mobile phones to capture video from the subject's index fingertip. The video is processed, and then the PPG signal resulting from the video stream processing is used to calculate the subject's heart rate. Records from 19 subjects were used to evaluate the system's performance. The HR values obtained by the proposed method were compared with the actual HR. The obtained results show an accuracy of 99.7% and a maximum absolute error of 0.4 beats/min where most of the absolute errors lay in the range of 0.04-0.3 beats/min. Given the encouraging results, this type of HR measurement can be adopted with great benefit, especially in the conditions of personal use or home-based care. The proposed method represents an efficient portable solution for HR accurate detection and recording.

  1. Healthy lifestyle and heart rate variability in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Bossard, Matthias; Ruperti Repilado, Francisco Javier; Good, Nathalie; Schoen, Tobias; Zimny, Matylda; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to determine the association of a comprehensive healthy lifestyle with heart rate variability (HRV), a validated measure of autonomic function. This was a prospective cohort study. A population-based sample of 2079 individuals aged 25-41 years without prevalent cardiovascular disease was investigated. The standard deviation of all normal RR intervals (SDNN) during 24-hour electrocardiography was used as main HRV marker. Healthy lifestyle metrics were summed to a validated lifestyle-score ranging from 0 = most unhealthy to 7 = most healthy. One point was given for each of the following items: never smoking cigarettes; consuming a healthy diet; performing moderate (≥150 min/week) or vigorous (≥75 min/week) physical activity; body mass index (BMI)heart rate (HR) (β-estimate (95% CI) 0.07 (0.07-0.10), p healthy lifestyle in this large contemporary cohort of young adults from the general population. Adopting a healthy lifestyle has an important effect on autonomic function. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  2. Assessment of cardiac autonomic functions by heart rate recovery, heart rate variability and QT dynamicity parameters in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dural, Muhammet; Kabakcı, Giray; Cınar, Neşe; Erbaş, Tomris; Canpolat, Uğur; Gürses, Kadri Murat; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Oto, Ali; Kaya, Ergün Barış; Yorgun, Hikmet; Sahiner, Levent; Dağdelen, Selçuk; Aytemir, Kudret

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular complications are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in acromegaly. However, there is little data regarding cardiac autonomic functions in these patients. Herein, we aimed to investigate several parameters of cardiac autonomic functions in patients with acromegaly compared to healthy subjects. We enrolled 20 newly diagnosed acromegalic patients (55% female, age:45.7 ± 12.6 years) and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent 24 h Holter recording. Heart rate recovery (HRR) indices were calculated by subtracting 1st, 2nd and 3rd minute heart rates from maximal heart rate. All patients underwent heart rate variability (HRV) and QT dynamicity analysis. Baseline characteristics were similar except diabetes mellitus and hypertension among groups. Mean HRR1 (29.2 ± 12.3 vs 42.6 ± 6.5, p = 0.001), HRR2 (43.5 ± 15.6 vs 61.1 ± 10.8, p = 0.001) and HRR3 (46.4 ± 16.2 vs 65.8 ± 9.8, p = 0.001) values were significantly higher in control group. HRV parameters as, SDNN [standard deviation of all NN intervals] (p = 0.001), SDANN [SD of the 5 min mean RR intervals] (p = 0.001), RMSSD [root square of successive differences in RR interval] (p = 0.001), PNN50 [proportion of differences in successive NN intervals >50 ms] (p = 0.001) and high-frequency [HF] (p = 0.001) were significantly decreased in patients with acromegaly; but low frequency [LF] (p = 0.046) and LF/HF (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in acromegaly patients. QTec (p = 0.009), QTac/RR slope (p = 0.017) and QTec/RR slope (p = 0.01) were significantly higher in patients with acromegaly. Additionally, there were significant negative correlation of disease duration with HRR2, HRR3, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, variability index. Our study results suggest that cardiac autonomic functions are impaired in patients with acromegaly. Further large scale studies are needed to exhibit the prognostic significance of impaired autonomic functions in patients with

  3. Modeling baroreflex regulation of heart rate during orthostatic stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olufsen, Mette; Tran, Hien T.; Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2006-01-01

    in healthy and hypertensive elderly people the hysteresis loop shifts to higher blood pressure values and its area is diminished. Finally, for hypertensive elderly people the hysteresis loop is generally not closed indicating that during postural change from sitting to standing, the blood pressure resettles....... The model uses blood pressure measured in the finger as an input to model heart rate dynamics in response to changes in baroreceptor nerve firing rate, sympathetic and parasympathetic responses, vestibulo-sympathetic reflex, and concentrations of norepinephrine and acetylcholine. We formulate an inverse...... validate our model against clinical data it is necessary to include the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex. Furthermore our model reveals that the transfer between the nerve firing and blood pressure is non-linear and follows a hysteresis curve. In healthy young people, the hysteresis loop is wide, while...

  4. Familial co-occurrence of congenital heart defects follows distinct patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina G.; Workman, Christopher T.; Bouvagnet, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) affect almost 1% of all live born children and the number of adults with CHD is increasing. In families where CHD has occurred previously, estimates of recurrence risk, and the type of recurring malformation are important for counselling and clinical decision......-making, but the recurrence patterns in families are poorly understood. We aimed to determine recurrence patterns, by investigating the co-occurrences of CHD in 1163 families with known malformations, comprising 3080 individuals with clinically confirmed diagnosis. We calculated rates of concordance and discordance for 41...... specific types of malformations, observing a high variability in the rates of concordance and discordance. By calculating odds ratios for each of 1640 pairs of discordant lesions observed between affected family members, we were able to identify 178 pairs of malformations that co-occurred significantly...

  5. Resting heart rate as predictor for left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure: MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdahl, Anders; Ambale Venkatesh, Bharath; Fernandes, Veronica R S; Wu, Colin O; Nasir, Khurram; Choi, Eui-Young; Almeida, Andre L C; Rosen, Boaz; Carvalho, Benilton; Edvardsen, Thor; Bluemke, David A; Lima, João A C

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between baseline resting heart rate and incidence of heart failure (HF) and global and regional left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. The association of resting heart rate to HF and LV function has not been well described in an asymptomatic multi-ethnic population. Resting heart rate was measured in participants in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) trial at inclusion. Incident HF was registered (n = 176) during follow-up (median 7 years) in those who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (n = 5,000). Changes in ejection fraction (ΔEF) and peak circumferential strain (Δεcc) were measured as markers of developing global and regional LV dysfunction in 1,056 participants imaged at baseline and 5 years later. Time to HF (Cox model) and Δεcc and ΔEF (multiple linear regression models) were adjusted for demographics, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, calcium score, LV end-diastolic volume, and mass in addition to resting heart rate. Cox analysis demonstrated that for 1 beat/min increase in resting heart rate, there was a 4% greater adjusted relative risk for incident HF (hazard ratio: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.06; p heart rate was positively associated with deteriorating εcc and decrease in EF, even when all coronary heart disease events were excluded from the model. Elevated resting heart rate was associated with increased risk for incident HF in asymptomatic participants in the MESA trial. Higher heart rate was related to development of regional and global LV dysfunction independent of subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]; NCT00005487). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Echocardiographic patterns of juvenile rheumatic heart disease at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe the echocardiographic features of children with rheumatic heart disease seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: The Kenyatta National Hospital Heart Unit. Subjects: Patients aged 20 years and less with echocardiographic diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease.

  7. Sternal Pulse Rate Variability Compared with Heart Rate Variability on Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chreiteh, Shadi; Belhage, Bo; Hoppe, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) is a commonly used method to quantify the sympathetic and the parasympathetic modulation of the heart rate. HRV is mainly conducted on electrocardiograms (ECG). However, the use of photoplethysmography (PPG) as a marker of the autonomic tone is emerging....... In this study we investigated the feasibility of deriving pulse rate variability (PRV) using PPG signals recorded by a reflectance PPG sensor attached to the chest bone (sternum) and comparing it to HRV. The recordings were conducted on 9 healthy subjects being in a relaxed supine position and under forced...... the parameters (r > 0:95 with p using sternal PPG can be an alternative to HRV analysis on healthy subjects at rest....

  8. Estimating 'lost heart beats' rather than reductions in heart rate during the intubation of critically-ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter; Ovenden, Nick; Dauger, Stéphane; Peters, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in heart rate occur frequently in children during critical care intubation and are currently considered the gold standard for haemodynamic instability. Our objective was to estimate loss of heart beats during intubation and compare this to reduction in heart rate alone whilst testing the impact of atropine pre-medication. Data were extracted from a prospective 2-year cohort study of intubation ECGs from critically ill children in PICU/Paediatric Transport. A three step algorithm was established to exclude variation in pre-intubation heart rate (using a 95%CI limit derived from pre-intubation heart rate variation of the children included), measure the heart rate over time and finally the estimate the numbers of lost beats. 333 intubations in children were eligible for inclusion of which 245 were available for analysis (74%). Intubations where the fall in heart rate was less than 50 bpm were accompanied almost exclusively by less than 25 lost beats (n = 175, median 0 [0-1]). When there was a reduction of >50 bpm there was a poor correlation with numbers of lost beats (n = 70, median 42 [15-83]). During intubation the median number of lost beats was 8 [1]-[32] when atropine was not used compared to 0 [0-0] when atropine was used (pheart rate during intubation of heart rate was >50 bpm the heart rate was poorly predictive of lost beats. A study looking at the relationship between lost beats and cardiac output needs to be performed. Atropine reduces both fall in heart rate and loss of beats. Similar area-under-the-curve methodology may be useful for estimating risk when biological parameters deviate outside normal range.

  9. A method to detect heart rate based on electrical bio-impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kun-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basic health indicator, heart rate has been widely used in clinical measurement and daily health care. Electrical bio-impedance (EBI measurement provides non-invasive method for heart rate detection. Therefore, this paper proposed a method to detect heart rate based on EBI. With the BIOPAC EBI module, the signal can be de-noised in real-time. Finally, the de-noised EBI signal is used to compute heart rate. Four electrodes are located at radial artery of left upper limb in this method. The result proves that this method has high accuracy on heart rate measurement.

  10. Patterns of mortality rates in Darfur conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degomme, Olivier; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2010-01-23

    Several mortality estimates for the Darfur conflict have been reported since 2004, but few accounted for conflict dynamics such as changing displacement and causes of deaths. We analyse changes over time for crude and cause-specific mortality rates, and assess the effect of displacement on mortality rates. Retrospective mortality surveys were gathered from an online database. Quasi-Poisson models were used to assess mortality rates with place and period in which the survey was done, and the proportions of displaced people in the samples were the explanatory variables. Predicted mortality rates for five periods were computed and applied to population data taken from the UN's series about Darfur to obtain the number of deaths. 63 of 107 mortality surveys met all criteria for analysis. Our results show significant reductions in mortality rates from early 2004 to the end of 2008, although rates were higher during deployment of fewer humanitarian aid workers. In general, the reduction in rate was more important for violence-related than for diarrhoea-related mortality. Displacement correlated with increased rates of deaths associated with diarrhoea, but also with reduction in violent deaths. We estimated the excess number of deaths to be 298 271 (95% CI 178 258-461 520). Although violence was the main cause of death during 2004, diseases have been the cause of most deaths since 2005, with displaced populations being the most susceptible. Any reduction in humanitarian assistance could lead to worsening mortality rates, as was the case between mid 2006 and mid 2007. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nocturnal heart rate variability in 1-year-old infants analyzed by using the Least Square Cosine Spectrum Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochiya, Yuko; Hirabayashi, Akari; Ichimaru, Yuhei

    2017-09-16

    To evaluate the dynamic nature of nocturnal heart rate variability, RR intervals recorded with a wearable heart rate sensor were analyzed using the Least Square Cosine Spectrum Method. Six 1-year-old infants participated in the study. A wearable heart rate sensor was placed on their chest to measure RR intervals and 3-axis acceleration. Heartbeat time series were analyzed for every 30 s using the Least Square Cosine Spectrum Method, and an original parameter to quantify the regularity of respiratory-related heart rate rhythm was extracted and referred to as "RA (RA-COSPEC: Respiratory Area obtained by COSPEC)." The RA value is higher when a cosine curve is fitted to the original data series. The time sequential changes of RA showed cyclic changes with significant rhythm during the night. The mean cycle length of RA was 70 ± 15 min, which is shorter than young adult's cycle in our previous study. At the threshold level of RA greater than 3, the HR was significantly decreased compared with the RA value less than 3. The regularity of heart rate rhythm showed dynamic changes during the night in 1-year-old infants. Significant decrease of HR at the time of higher RA suggests the increase of parasympathetic activity. We suspect that the higher RA reflects the regular respiratory pattern during the night. This analysis system may be useful for quantitative assessment of regularity and dynamic changes of nocturnal heart rate variability in infants.

  12. Prognostic significance of heart rate turbulence parameters in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, De-Chun; Wang, Zhao-Jun; Guo, Shuai; Xie, Hong-Yu; Sun, Lin; Feng, Wei; Qiu, Wei; Qu, Xiu-Fen

    2014-04-13

    This study is aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of heart rate turbulence (HRT) parameters in predicting the prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). From June 2011 to December 2012, a total of 104 CHF patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We obtained a 24-hour Holter ECG recording to assess the HRT parameters, included turbulence onset (TO), turbulence slope (TS), standard deviation of N-N intervals (SDNN), and resting heart rate (RHR). The relationships between HRT parameters and the prognosis of CHF patients were determined. The assessment follow-up period lasted until January 31, 2013. The overall mortality of CHF patients was 9.6% (10/104). Our results revealed that CHF patients had higher levels of TO than those of healthy subjects, but the TS levels of CHF patients were lower than that of the control group. CHF patients with NYHA grade IV had higher HRT1/2 rate than those with NYHA grade II/III. There were statistical differences in TS, LVEF, SDNN and RHR between the non-deteriorating group and the non-survivor group. Significant differences in TS among the three groups were also found. Furthermore, CHF patients in the non-survivor group had lower levels of TS than those in the deteriorating group. Correlation analyses indicated that TO negatively correlate with SDNN, while TS positively correlated with SDNN and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We also observed negative correlations between TS and left ventricular end-diastolic cavity dimension (LVEDD), RHR, homocysteine (Hcy) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Multivariate Cox regression analysis further confirmed that LVEF (≤30%), HRT2, SDNN and RHR were independent risk factors which can indicate poor prognosis in CHF patients. Our findings indicate that HRT may have good clinical predictive value in patients with CHF. Thus, quantifying HRT parameters could be a useful tool for predicting mortality in CHF patients.

  13. Clinical significance of heart rate turbulence assessment in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowska, Katarzyna; Piatkowska, Anna; Nowicka, Anna; Michalski, Marek; Dankowski, Rafał; Kandziora, Magdalena; Biegalski, Wojciech; Wierzchowiecki, Michał; Poprawski, Kajetan

    2008-12-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is modulated by the baroreceptor reflex, and it has been suggested that it could be used as a measure of autonomic dysfunction. Impaired HRT has a significant prognostic value in patients after myocardial infarction. The usefulness of HRT parameters in CHF patients has not yet been well established. To assess the relationship between HRT parameters, clinical course of CHF and selected biochemical markers with respect to their prognostic value in CHF patients. A 64 of 100 consecutive CHF patients, in whom it was possible to calculate HRT, were divided into four groups according to NYHA class. Uric acid (UA) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations were measured. Heart rate turbulence was analysed from 24-hour Holter ECG and characterised by two parameters: turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS). The results of 20 healthy persons served as a control group. Follow-up examinations were performed after 6 and 12 months. In patients with CHF both HRT parameters (TO and TS) were significantly impaired in comparison to TO and TS in healthy subjects. A negative correlation between these parameters was found. A strong positive correlation between TO and NYHA class and a significant negative correlation between TS and BNP and UA concentrations were observed. There were 11 deaths during one-year follow-up. Patients who died due to CHF had significantly lower TS and higher TO values in comparison to survivors. Heart rate turbulence is impaired in CHF patients. HRT parameters show a significant correlation with some clinical factors: NYHA class, BNP and UA concentrations. Both HRT parameters, TO and TS, seem to be significant prognostic markers in patients with CHF.

  14. Hierarchical Structure of Heart Rate Variability in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X. Z.; Ching, E. S. C.; Lin, D. C.

    2004-03-01

    We show a hierarchical structure (HS) of the She-Leveque form in the beat-to-beat RR intervals of heart rate variability (HRV) in humans. This structure, first found as an empirical law in turbulent fluid flows, implies further details in the HRV multifractal scaling. We tested HS using daytime RRi data from healthy subjects and heart diseased patients with congestive heart failure and found a universal law C(b) where b characterizes the multifractality of HRV and C is related to a co-dimension parameter of the most violent events in the fluctuation. The potential of diagnosis is discussed based on the characteristics of this finding. To model the HRV phenomenology, we propose a local-feedback-global-cascade (LFGC) model based on the She-Waymire (SW) cascade solution to the HS in fluid turbulence. This model extends from the previous work in that it integrates additive law multiplicatively into the cascade structure. It is an attempt to relate to the cardiovascular physiology which consists of numerous feedback controls that function primarily on the principle of additive law. In particular, the model is based on the same philosophy as the SW cascade that its multifractal dynamics consists of a singular and a modulating component. In the LFGC model, we introduce local feedback to model the dynamics of the modulating effect. The novelty of our model is to incorporate the cascade structure in the scheduling for the feedback control. This model also represents an alternative solution to the HS. We will present the simulation results by the LFGC model and discuss its implication in physiology terms.

  15. Separating the effect of respiration from the heart rate variability for cases of constant harmonic breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kircher Michael

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart Rate Variability studies are a known measure for the autonomous control of the heart rate. In special situations, its interpretation can be ambiguous, since the respiration has a major influence on the heart rate variability. For this reason it has often been proposed to measure Heart Rate Variability, while the subjects are breathing at a constant respiration rate. That way the spectral influence of the respiration is known. In this work we propose to remove this constant respiratory influence from the heart rate and the Heart Rate Variability parameters to gain respiration free autonomous controlled heart rate signal. The spectral respiratory component in the heart rate signal is detected and characterized. Subsequently the respiratory effect on Heart Rate Variability is removed using spectral filtering approaches, such as the Notch filter or the Raised Cosine filter. As a result new decoupled Heart Variability parameters are gained, which could lead to new additional interpretations of the autonomous control of the heart rate.

  16. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV)

  17. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Migliaro

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min. R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  18. Coronary heart disease prevention: nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-08-17

    Diet is a key modifiable risk factor in the prevention and risk reduction of coronary heart disease (CHD). Results from the Seven Countries Study in the early 1970s spurred an interest in the role of single nutrients such as total fat in CHD risk. With accumulating evidence, we have moved away from a focus on total fat to the importance of considering the quality of fat. Recent meta-analyses of intervention studies confirm the beneficial effects of replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids on CHD risk. Scientific evidence for a detrimental role of trans fat intake from industrial sources on CHD risk has led to important policy changes including listing trans fatty acid content on the "Nutrition Facts" panel and banning the use of trans fatty acids in food service establishments in some cities. The effects of such policy changes on changes in CHD incidence are yet to be evaluated. There has been a surging interest in the protective effects of vitamin D in primary prevention. Yet, its associations with secondary events have been mixed and intervention studies are needed to clarify its role in CHD prevention. Epidemiological and clinical trial evidence surrounding the benefit of B vitamins and antioxidants such as carotenoids, vitamin E, and vitamin C, have been contradictory. While pharmacological supplementation of these vitamins in populations with existing CHD has been ineffective and, in some cases, even detrimental, data repeatedly show that consumption of a healthy dietary pattern has considerable cardioprotective effects for primary prevention. Results from these studies and the general ineffectiveness of nutrient-based interventions have shifted interest to the role of foods in CHD risk reduction. The strongest and most consistent protective associations are seen with fruit and vegetables, fish, and whole grains. Epidemiological and clinical trial data also show risk reduction with moderate alcohol consumption. In the past decade, there has

  19. CAFFEINE IMPROVES HEART RATE WITHOUT IMPROVING SEPSIS SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauzá, Gustavo; Remick, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Caffeine is consumed on a daily basis for its nervous system stimulant properties and is a global adenosine receptor antagonist. Since adenosine receptors have been found to play a major role in regulating the immune response to a septic insult, we investigated if caffeine consumption prior to a septic insult would alter immunological and physiological responses, as well as survival. Methods Two separate experimental designs were employed, both using outbred female ICR mice. In the first experiment mice were administered 20mg/kg of caffeine (equal to 2–3 cups of coffee for a human) or normal saline intraperitoneally at the time of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Immunological parameters including cytokines and local cell recruitment measured. In the second experiment caffeine (10mg/kg/hr) was delivered continuously for 24 hours via a subcutaneous infusion pump placed the day prior to CLP and hemodynamic parameters were examined. In both experiments survival was followed for five days. Results A single dose of caffeine at the initiation of sepsis did not alter survival. This single dose of caffeine did significantly increase in plasma levels of the chemokine KC six hours after the onset of sepsis compared to septic mice given normal saline. There were no changes in IL-6 or IL-10 levels in the caffeine groups. Peritoneal lavages performed 24 hours post-CLP showed no difference in the levels of IL-6, TNF, KC, MIP-1, IL-10 or the IL-1 receptor antagonist between caffeine and normal saline treated mice. Additionally, the lavages yielded similar numbers of cells (4.1×106 vehicle vs. 6.9×106 caffeine) and bacterial colony forming units (CFU, 4.1 million CFU vehicle vs. 2.8 million CFU caffeine). In the infusion group, caffeine also did not alter survival. However, caffeine infusion did increase heart rate prior to CLP, and prevented the decline in heart rate after CLP. Conclusion Caffeine increased heart rate in mice but does not impact cytokine

  20. Problem Behavior and Heart Rate Reactivity in Adopted Adolescents: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…

  1. Unobtrusive heart rate monitor based on a fiber specklegram sensor and a single-board computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides, Alessandro B.; Frizera, Anselmo; Cotrina, Anibal; Ribeiro, Moisés. R. N.; Segatto, Marcelo E. V.; Pontes, Maria José

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a portable and unobtrusive heart rate monitor based on fiber specklegram sensors. The proposed module uses the Raspberry Pi module to perform the image acquisition and the fiber specklegram sensor, which is based on multimode plastic optical fibers. The heart rate is obtained by welch power spectral density estimate and the heart beats are identified by means of a threshold analysis.

  2. Resting Heart Rate as Predictor for Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Heart Failure: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdahl, Anders; Venkatesh, Bharath Ambale; Fernandes, Veronica R. S.; Wu, Colin O.; Nasir, Khurram; Choi, Eui-Young; Almeida, Andre L. C.; Rosen, Boaz; Carvalho, Benilton; Edvardsen, Thor; Bluemke, David A.; Lima, Joao A. C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between baseline resting heart rate and incidence of heart failure (HF) and global and regional left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. BACKGROUND The association of resting heart rate to HF and LV function is not well described in an asymptomatic multi-ethnic population. METHODS Participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis had resting heart rate measured at inclusion. Incident HF was registered (n=176) during follow-up (median 7 years) in those who underwent cardiac MRI (n=5000). Changes in ejection fraction (ΔEF) and peak circumferential strain (Δεcc) were measured as markers of developing global and regional LV dysfunction in 1056 participants imaged at baseline and 5 years later. Time to HF (Cox model) and Δεcc and ΔEF (multiple linear regression models) were adjusted for demographics, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, calcium score, LV end-diastolic volume and mass in addition to resting heart rate. RESULTS Cox analysis demonstrated that for 1 bpm increase in resting heart rate there was a 4% greater adjusted relative risk for incident HF (Hazard Ratio: 1.04 (1.02, 1.06 (95% CI); Pheart rate was positively associated with deteriorating εcc and decrease in EF, even in analyses when all coronary heart disease events were excluded from the model. CONCLUSION Elevated resting heart rate is associated with increased risk for incident HF in asymptomatic participants in MESA. Higher heart rate is related to development of regional and global LV dysfunction independent of subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. PMID:24412444

  3. CHANGES IN HEART RATE, HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND QT INTERVAL IN WOMEN WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS DURING RITUXIMAB TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Novikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a proven high cardiovascular risk disease. High heart rate (HR, lower heart rate variabil- ity (HRV, and increased QT interval are considered as predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, and diabetes mellitus. In RA, there is a pronounced rise in HR, a reduction in HRV, and an increase in QT interval mainly due to the factors reflecting the severity of the disease. Rituximab (RTM is successfully used to treat patients with high RA activity. At the same time there are only a few pieces of evidence for the effect of the drug on the cardiovascular system. Objective: to study changes in HR, HRV, and QT interval values obtained during electrocardiography (ECG Holter monitoring (ECG HM in RTM-treated women during a 6-month follow-up. Subjects and methods: The investigation enrolled 55 women (mean age 50 years with a definite diagnosis of RA and its high activity. The patients were examined 6 months after administration of RTM. The latter was infused intra- venously twice (500 and 1000 mg in 22% and 78% of the patients, respectively during therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids. The RA patients were divided into two groups: 1 a satisfactory/good effect of RTM according to the EULAR criteria (n = 41; 2 no effect (n = 14. Analysis of 24-hour ECG HM yielded the values of HR and mean duration of corrected QT interval (QTc. The tim- ing HRV values obtained at ECG HM were standardized from age and mean HR (SDNNn, RMSSDn, and pNN50n. Results. The baseline HRmin and HRmean values were higher and SDNNn was lower in the RA patients in Group 1 than those in Group 2 (p < 0.05. In Group 1, RTM therapy was accompanied by a reduction in HRmean and HRmin by 8% and by an increase in SDNNn by 3%, RMSSDn by 26%, and pNN50n by 33% whereas no significant changes in HR and HRV were found in Group 2. The RTM therapy

  4. Athlete's heart patterns in elite rugby players: effects of training specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Laurent; Kervio, Gaëlle; Corneloup, Luc; Vincent, Marie-Pierre; Baudot, Christophe; Rebeyrol, Jean-Louis; Merle, Francis; Gencel, Laurent; Carré, François

    2013-02-01

    Athlete's heart patterns have been widely described. However, to our knowledge, few studies have focused on professional rugby players, who train differently according to their field position. To describe electrocardiographic and echocardiographic patterns observed in elite rugby players according to their field position. One hundred and thirty-five professional rugby players at the end of the competitive season were included. According to a modified Pelliccia's classification, 68.1% of electrocardiograms were normal or had minor abnormalities, 27.2% were mildly abnormal and 3.7% were distinctly abnormal. Heart rate was higher in scrum first-row players (P<0.05). Absolute and indexed left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameters (LVIDd; absolute value 59.3±4.7 mm) exceeded 65 mm and 32 mm/m2 in 13% and 1.5% of players, respectively. Indexed LVIDd values were higher in back players (P<0.001). Left ventricular interventricular septum and posterior wall thicknesses (absolute values 9.4±1.7 mm and 9.2±1.6 mm, respectively) exceeded 13 mm in 3.7% of players. Concentric cardiac hypertrophy was noted in 3.7% of players. Except for one Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern, players with significant ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities showed no cardiovascular event or disease during follow-up. Thus, elite rugby players present similar heart patterns to elite athletes in other sports. Major electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities are quite rare. Eccentric cardiac remodelling is more frequent in back players. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Individually Coded Telemetry: a Tool for Studying Heart Rate and Behaviour in Reindeer Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudas T

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test the performance of a silver wire modified version of the coded telemetric heart rate monitor Polar Vantage NV™ (PVNV and to measure heart rate (HR in a group of captive reindeer calves during different behaviour. The technical performance of PVNV HR monitors was tested in cold conditions (-30°C using a pulse generator and the correlation between generated pulse and PVNV values was high (r = 0.9957. The accuracy was tested by comparing the HR obtained with the PVNV monitor with the standard ECG, and the correlation was significant (r = 0.9965. Both circadian HR and HR related to behavioural pattern were recorded. A circadian rhythm was observed in the HR in reindeer with a minimum during night and early morning hours and maximum at noon and during the afternoon, the average HR of the reindeer calves studied being 42.5 beats/min in February. The behaviour was recorded by focal individual observations and the data was synchronized with the output of the HR monitors. Running differed from all other behavioural categories in HR. Inter-individual differences were seen expressing individual responses to external and internal stimuli. The silver wire modified Polar Vantage NV™ provides a suitable and reliable tool for measuring heart rate in reindeer, also in natural conditions.

  6. Rapid Heartbeat, But Dry Palms: Reactions of Heart Rate and Skin Conductance Levels to Social Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eIffland

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social rejection elicits negative mood, emotional distress and neural activity in networks that are associated with physical pain. However, studies assessing physiological reactions to social rejection are rare and results of these studies were found to be ambiguous. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine and specify physiological effects of social rejection.Methods: Participants (N = 50 were assigned to either a social exclusion or inclusion condition of a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball. Immediate and delayed physiological (skin conductance level and heart rate reactions were recorded. In addition, subjects reported levels of affect, emotional states and fundamental needs.Results: Subjects who were socially rejected showed increased heart rates. However, social rejection had no effect on subjects’ skin conductance levels. Both conditions showed heightened arousal on this measurement. Furthermore, psychological consequences of social rejection indicated the validity of the paradigm.Conclusions: Our results reveal that social rejection evokes an immediate physiological reaction. Accelerated heart rates indicate that behavior activation rather than inhibition is associated with socially threatening events. In addition, results revealed gender-specific response patterns suggesting that sample characteristics such as differences in gender may account for ambiguous findings of physiological reactions to social rejection.

  7. Rapid heartbeat, but dry palms: reactions of heart rate and skin conductance levels to social rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffland, Benjamin; Sansen, Lisa M; Catani, Claudia; Neuner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Social rejection elicits negative mood, emotional distress, and neural activity in networks that are associated with physical pain. However, studies assessing physiological reactions to social rejection are rare and results of these studies were found to be ambiguous. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine and specify physiological effects of social rejection. Participants (n = 50) were assigned to either a social exclusion or inclusion condition of a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Immediate and delayed physiological [skin conductance level (SCL) and heart rate] reactions were recorded. In addition, subjects reported levels of affect, emotional states, and fundamental needs. Subjects who were socially rejected showed increased heart rates. However, social rejection had no effect on subjects' SCLs. Both conditions showed heightened arousal on this measurement. Furthermore, psychological consequences of social rejection indicated the validity of the paradigm. Our results reveal that social rejection evokes an immediate physiological reaction. Accelerated heart rates indicate that behavior activation rather than inhibition is associated with socially threatening events. In addition, results revealed gender-specific response patterns suggesting that sample characteristics such as differences in gender may account for ambiguous findings of physiological reactions to social rejection.

  8. Effect of xylazine and ketamine on blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T D; Colby, E D

    1980-06-01

    New Zealand white and New Zeland white-Dutch Belted cross rabbits of both sexes were anesthetized using xylazine and ketamine alone and in combination while blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates were monitored. Blood pressure effects were measured from the aortic arch by a cannula implant through the left carotid artery. Ketamine-xylazine in combination at 35 and 5 mg/kg body weight, respectively, produced 45-60 minutes of surgical plane anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced in approximately 10 minutes. The average initial blood pressure drop was complete in 10 minutes and was 30%. Heart and respiratory rates dropped 19% and 77%, respectively, in the same time span. An additional blood pressure drop of 6-7% occurred as consciousness was regained. Blood pressure recovery was nearly complete (normal) about 6 hours following injection of the drug combination.

  9. Web-based comparison of historical vs contemporary methods of fetal heart rate interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Aaron J; Iriye, Brian K; Hancock, Lyle; Quilligan, Edward J; Rumney, Pamela J; Hancock, Judy; Ghamsary, Mark; Eakin, Cortney M; Smith, Cheryl; Wing, Deborah A

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary interpretation of fetal heart rate patterns is based largely on the tenets of Drs Quilligan and Hon. This method differs from an older method that was championed by Dr Caldeyro-Barcia in recording speed and classification of decelerations. The latter uses a paper speed of 1 cm/min and classifies decelerations referent to uterine contractions as type I or II dips, compared with conventional classification as early, late, or variable with paper speed of 3 cm/min. We hypothesized that 3 cm/min speed may lead to over-analysis of fetal heart rate and that 1 cm/min may provide adequate information without compromising accuracy or efficiency. The purpose of this study was to compare the Hon-Quilligan method of fetal heart rate interpretation with the Caldeyro-Barcia method among groups of obstetrics care providers with the use of an online interactive testing tool. We deidentified 40 fetal heart rate tracings from the terminal 30 minutes before delivery. A website was created to view these tracings with the use of the standard Hon-Quilligan method and adjusted the same tracings to the 1 cm/min monitoring speed for the Caldeyro-Barcia method. We invited 2-4 caregivers to participate: maternal-fetal medicine experts, practicing maternal-fetal medicine specialists, maternal-fetal medicine fellows, obstetrics nurses, and certified nurse midwives. After completing an introductory tutorial and quiz, they were asked to interpret the fetal heart rate tracings (the order was scrambled) to manage and predict maternal and neonatal outcomes using both methods. Their results were compared with those of our expert, Edward Quilligan, and were compared among groups. Analysis was performed with the use of 3 measures: percent classification, Kappa, and adjusted Gwet-Kappa (P < .05 was considered significant). Overall, our results show from moderate to almost perfect agreement with the expert and both between and within examiners (Gwet-Kappa 0.4-0.8). The agreement at each

  10. Effect of atrioventricular conduction on heart rate variability

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Talha Jamal

    2011-08-01

    This paper discusses the effect of atrioventricular conduction time (AVCT) on the short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) by computing HRV parameters using intervals between the onsets of successive P waves (PP time series) for three groups: normal, arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) patients. A very precise wavelet transform based ECG delineator was developed to detect PP, PR and RR time series. Mean PR variation in arrhythmia and SCD group was found to be significantly high as compared to the normal group. It was observed that when PR variations in arrhythmia and SCD cases crossed a certain threshold, RR variability no longer provided a very accurate estimate of HRV. In such cases, PP variability was able to provide a better assessment of HRV. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Decreased heart rate variability responses during early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Brinth, Louise; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating to postope......BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating...... to postoperative autonomic dysfunction. Thus, based on a previous study on haemodynamic responses during mobilization before and after elective total hip arthroplasty (THA), we performed secondary analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) and aimed to identify possible abnormal postoperative autonomic responses...... in relation to postural change. METHODS: A standardized mobilization protocol before, 6 and 24 h after surgery was performed in 23 patients scheduled for elective THA. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure was measured by photoplethysmography and HRV was derived from pulse wave interbeat intervals and analysed...

  12. Heart rate variability analysis with the R package RHRV

    CERN Document Server

    García Martínez, Constantino Antonio; Vila, Xosé A; Lado Touriño, María José; Rodríguez-Liñares, Leandro; Rodríguez Presedo, Jesús María; Méndez Penín, Arturo José

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the basic concepts of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and its most important analysis algorithms using a hands-on approach based on the open-source RHRV software. HRV refers to the variation over time of the intervals between consecutive heartbeats. Despite its apparent simplicity, HRV is one of the most important markers of the autonomic nervous system activity and it has been recognized as a useful predictor of several pathologies. The book discusses all the basic HRV topics, including the physiological contributions to HRV, clinical applications, HRV data acquisition, HRV data manipulation and HRV analysis using time-domain, frequency-domain, time-frequency, nonlinear and fractal techniques. Detailed examples based on real data sets are provided throughout the book to illustrate the algorithms and discuss the physiological implications of the results. Offering a comprehensive guide to analyzing beat information with RHRV, the book is intended for masters and Ph.D. students in v...

  13. Automated Fetal Heart Rate Analysis in Labor: Decelerations and Overshoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, A. E.; Payne, S. J.; Moulden, M.; Redman, C. W. G.

    2010-10-01

    Electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) recording is a standard way of monitoring fetal health in labor. Decelerations and accelerations usually indicate fetal distress and normality respectively. But one type of acceleration may differ, namely an overshoot that may atypically reflect fetal stress. Here we describe a new method for detecting decelerations, accelerations and overshoots as part of a novel system for computerized FHR analysis (OxSyS). There was poor agreement between clinicians when identifying these FHR features visually, which precluded setting a gold standard of interpretation. We therefore introduced `modified' Sensitivity (SE°) and `modified' Positive Predictive Value (PPV°) as appropriate performance measures with which the algorithm was optimized. The relation between overshoots and fetal compromise in labor was studied in 15 cases and 15 controls. Overshoots showed promise as an indicator of fetal compromise. Unlike ordinary accelerations, overshoots cannot be considered to be reassuring features of fetal health.

  14. Heart rate variability is reduced during acute uncomplicated diverticulitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chenxi; Alamili, Mahdi; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to report the trajectory of heart rate variability (HRV) indices during a low-grade acute inflammation and their associations to biomarkers for infection. METHODS: Twelve patients with uncomplicated acute diverticulitis completed this observational study......, which composed of 3 sessions of continuous HRV recording from 9 PM to 8 AM during ongoing diverticulitis and at complete remission (baseline). The blood samples were collected at each study session measuring C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocytes. RESULTS: This study showed that the trajectories...... of the HRV indices were decreased both in time and frequency domains during acute diverticulitis compared to baseline. In particular, the indices reflecting the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic activities were affected: standard deviation of normal-to-normal beats (P = .003), low-frequency power (P...

  15. [Comparison of heart rate variability measurements between ballistocardiogram and electrocardiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Zhu, Tiangang; Zhang, Xianwen; Yu, Chao; Cao, Xinrong; Tang, Jintian; Wan, Zheng

    2015-05-01

    To compare the heart rate variability (HRV) measurements between ballistocardiogram (BCG) and electrocardiography (ECG). The signals of BCG and ECG of 21 patients were collected synchronously. JJ intervals of BCG and RR intervals of ECG were used to calculate the cardiac periods. The parameters of HRV analysis were calculated in time domain analysis, frequency domain analysis and nonlinear analysis. The results derived from BCG and ECG were compared. The parameters of HRV analysis calculated from BCG and ECG had high similarity. The correlation coefficients of SDNN, TP, LF, HF and SD2 between the BCG and ECG methods were high (r = 1). The correlation coefficients of rMSSD and SD2 were 0.99 and of PNN50 and LF/HF were 0.98 between the two methods. HRV analysis results derived from the two methods were similar (P > 0.05). HRV could also be measured reliably by calculating the JJ interval from BCG.

  16. Heart rate variability and motion sickness during forklift simulator driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zużewicz, Krystyna; Saulewicz, Antoni; Konarska, Maria; Kaczorowski, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study was to determine the effect of a 1-h hour long forklift truck virtual simulator driving on the mechanism of autonomic heart rate (HR) regulation in operators. The participants were divided into 2 subgroups: subjects with no definite inclination to motion sickness (group A) and subjects with a definite inclination to motion sickness (group B). Holter monitoring of electrocardiogram (ECG) signal was carried out in all subjects during the virtual simulator driving. For 12 consecutive epochs of ECG signal, HR variability analysis was conducted in time and frequency domains. In subjects with a definite inclination to motion sickness after ~30 min of the driving, changes in parameter values were found indicating an increase in sympathetic and parasympathetic activity with parasympathetic dominance.

  17. Wearable depression monitoring system with heart-rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Taehwan; Hong, Sunjoo; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2014-01-01

    A wearable depression monitoring system is proposed with an application-specific system-on-chip (SoC) solution. The SoC is designed to accelerate the filtering and feature extraction of heart-rate variability (HRV) from the electrocardiogram (ECG). Thanks to the SoC solution and planar-fashionable circuit board (P-FCB), the monitoring system becomes a low-power wearable system. Its dimension is 14cm × 7cm with 5mm thickness covering the chest band for convenient usage. In addition, with 3.7V 500mAh battery, its lifetime is at least 10 hours. For user's convenience, the system is interfacing to smart phones through Bluetooth communication. With the features of the HRV and Beck depression inventory (BDI), the smart phone application trains and classifies the user's depression scale with 71% of accuracy.

  18. Extraction of heart rate variability from smartphone photoplethysmograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rong-Chao; Zhou, Xiao-Lin; Lin, Wan-Hua; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a useful clinical tool for autonomic function assessment and cardiovascular diseases diagnosis. It is traditionally calculated from a dedicated medical electrocardiograph (ECG). In this paper, we demonstrate that HRV can also be extracted from photoplethysmograms (PPG) obtained by the camera of a smartphone. Sixteen HRV parameters, including time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear parameters, were calculated from PPG captured by a smartphone for 30 healthy subjects and were compared with those derived from ECG. The statistical results showed that 14 parameters (AVNN, SDNN, CV, RMSSD, SDSD, TP, VLF, LF, HF, LF/HF, nLF, nHF, SD1, and SD2) from PPG were highly correlated (r > 0.7, P maximum first derivative (M1D), maximum second derivative (M2D), and tangent intersection (TI). The results showed that M2D and TI algorithms had the best performance. These results suggest that the smartphone might be used for HRV measurement.

  19. Breathing frequency bias in fractal analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakakis, Pandelis; Taylor, Michael; Martinez-Nieto, Eduardo; Revithi, Ioanna; Vila, Jaime

    2009-09-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is an algorithm widely used to determine fractal long-range correlations in physiological signals. Its application to heart rate variability (HRV) has proven useful in distinguishing healthy subjects from patients with cardiovascular disease. In this study we examined the effect of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) on the performance of DFA applied to HRV. Predictions based on a mathematical model were compared with those obtained from a sample of 14 normal subjects at three breathing frequencies: 0.1Hz, 0.2Hz and 0.25Hz. Results revealed that: (1) the periodical properties of RSA produce a change of the correlation exponent in HRV at a scale corresponding to the respiratory period, (2) the short-term DFA exponent is significantly reduced when breathing frequency rises from 0.1Hz to 0.2Hz. These findings raise important methodological questions regarding the application of fractal measures to short-term HRV.

  20. Alterations in the heart rate and activity rhythms of three orbital astronauts on a space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhizhen; Wan, Yufeng; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Yu; Lv, Ke; Li, Yinghui; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Xiaoping; Chen, Shanguang; Guo, Jinhu

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors in space are dramatically different from those on Earth. The spaceflight environment has been known to influence human physiology and behavior on orbital missions. In this study, we investigated alterations in the diurnal rhythms of activity and heart rate of three Chinese astronauts on a space mission. An analysis of the heart rate data showed a significant decrease in heart rate amplitudes during flight in all three subjects. The heart rate amplitudes of all the three astronauts were significantly dampened during flight, and the minimum as well as the maximum value of heart rate increased after flight. A phase shift in heart rate was observed in one of the three astronauts after flight. These results demonstrate the influence of spaceflight on heart physiology and function. In addition, a significant decrease in body trunk activity and rhythmicity occurred during flight, demonstrating that the spaceflight environment disturbs motion adaptation and diurnal activity rhythms.

  1. Resting and postexercise heart rate variability in professional handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayacan, Yildirim; Yildiz, Sedat

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability (HRV) in professional handball players during rest and following a 5 min mild jogging exercise. For that purpose, electrocardiogram (ECG) of male handball players (N.=12, mean age 25±3.95 years) and sedentary controls (N.=14, mean age 23.5±2.95 years) were recorded for 5 min at rest and just after 5 min of mild jogging. ECGs were recorded and following HRV parameters were calculated: time-domain variables such as heart rate (HR), average normal-to-normal RR intervals, standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals, square root of the mean of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals, percentage of differences between adjacent NN intervals that are greater than 50 milliseconds (pNN50), and frequency-domain variables such as very low frequency, low (LF) and high frequency (HF) of the power and LF/HF ratio. Unpaired t-test was used to find out differences among groups while paired t-test was used for comparison of each group for pre- and postjogging HRV. Pearson correlations were carried out to find out the relationships between the parameters. Blood pressures were not different between handball players and sedentary controls but exercise increased systolic blood pressure (Phandball players (Phandball players (Phandball players in response to a mild, short-time (5 min) jogging exercise. However, in sedentary subjects, either the sympathetic regulation of the autonomous nervous system increased or vagal withdrawal occurred.

  2. Heart rate variability as a biomarker for epilepsy seizure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridani, M K; Farhadi, H

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes seizures of many different types. Recent research has shown that epileptic seizures can be predicted by using the electrocardiogrami instead of the electroencephalogram. In this study, we used the heart rate variability that is generated by the fluctuating balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems to predict epileptic seizures. We studied 11 epilepsy patients to predict the seizure interval. With regar tos the fact that HRV signals are nonstationary, our analysis focused on linear features in the time and frequency domain of HRV signal such as RR Interval (RRI), mean heart rate (HR), high-frequency (HF) (0.15-0.40 Hz) and low-frequency (LF) (0.04-0.15 Hz), as well as LF/HF. Also, quantitative analyses of Poincaré plot features (SD1, SD2, and SD1/SD2 ratio) were performed. HRV signal was divided into intervals of 5 minutes. In each segment linear and nonlinear features were extracted and then the amount of each segment compared to the previous segment using a threshold. Finally, we evaluated the performance of our method using specificity and sensitivity. During seizures, mean HR, LF/HF, and SD2/SD1 ratio significantly increased while RRI significantly decreased. Significant differences between two groups were identified for several HRV features. Therefore, these parameters can be used as a useful feature to discriminate a seizure from a non-seizure The seizure prediction algorithm proposed based on HRV achieved 88.3% sensitivity and 86.2 % specificity. These results indicate that the HRV signal contains valuable information and can be a predictor for epilepsy seizure. Although our results in comparison with EEG ares a little bit weaker, the recording of ECG is much easier and faster than EEG. Also, our finding showed the results of this study are considerably better than recent research based on ECG (Tab. 1, Fig. 10, Ref. 17).

  3. Venipuncture procedure affects heart rate variability and chronotropic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Esco, Michael R; E Bechke, Emily; Feito, Yuri; M Williamson, Cassie; Brown, Danielle; Price, Brandi

    2017-10-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to be influenced by several factors such as noise, sleep status, light, and emotional arousal; however, little evidence is available concerning autonomic responses to a venipuncture. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of HRV indexes and heart rate (HR) during and following a venipuncture procedure among healthy individuals. 33 healthy individuals (22.8 ± 0.56 years, 167 ± 1.56 cm, 69.5 ± 2.61 kg) participated. Testing included 10-minute HRV analysis prior to the venipuncture, a 1-minute venipuncture procedure followed by a 10-minute analysis of HRV, and a total recording of 21 minutes. The first 5 minutes of the 21-minute recordings were discarded, and the remaining 5 minutes of the resting segment was analyzed (PRE), and the last 5 minutes of the 21-minute recording (POST). The log transformation of the time domain root mean squared of successive differences (lnRMSSD) and the frequency domains of high frequency (lnHF) and low frequency (lnLF) and LF/HF ratio (lnLF/HF) were used to quantify autonomic activity. HR was measured in 1-minute segments at 2 minutes prior (PRE), venipuncture (STICK), and post (P1-5). HR significantly increased at STICK (P = 0.002), and fell below resting at P-5 (P < 0.001). lnRMSSD and lnHF increased significantly by POST (P < 0.001, P = 0.005). lnLF/HF ratio significantly decreased at POST (P = 0.047), while no significant changes occurred for lnLF (P = 0.590). HRV and HR are influenced for 10 minutes following the venipuncture procedure. Practitioners and researchers who are interested in collecting blood and measuring HRV need to account for the influence of the venipuncture. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Heart rate variability in porcine progressive peritonitis-induced sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar eJarkovska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that heart rate variability (HRV alterations could serve as an indicator of sepsis progression and outcome, however, the relationships of HRV and major pathophysiological processes of sepsis remain unclear. Therefore, in this experimental study HRV was investigated in a clinically relevant long-term porcine model of severe sepsis/septic shock. HRV was analyzed by several methods and the parameters were correlated with pathophysiological processes of sepsis.In 16 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and instrumented domestic pigs of either gender, sepsis was induced by fecal peritonitis. Experimental subjects were screened up to the refractory shock development or death. ECG was continuously recorded throughout the experiment, afterwards RR intervals were detected and HRV parameters computed automatically using custom made measurement and analysis MATLAB routines. In all septic animals, progressive hyperdynamic septic shock developed. The statistical measures of HRV, geometrical measures of HRV and Poincaré plot analysis revealed a pronounced reduction of HRV that developed quickly upon the onset of sepsis and was maintained throughout the experiment. The frequency domain analysis demonstrated a decrease in the high frequency component and increase in the low frequency component together with an increase of the low/high frequency component ratio. The reduction of HRV parameters preceded sepsis-associated hemodynamic changes including heart rate increase or shock progression.In a clinically relevant porcine model of peritonitis-induced progressive septic shock, reduction of HRV parameters heralded sepsis development. HRV reduction was associated with a pronounced parasympathetic inhibition and a shift of sympathovagal balance. Early reduction of HRV may serve as a non-invasive and sensitive marker of systemic inflammatory syndrome, thereby widening the therapeutic window for early interventions.

  5. Rate Control Management of Atrial Fibrillation: May a Mathematical Model Suggest an Ideal Heart Rate?

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmino, Matteo; Camporeale, Carlo; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite the routine prescription of rate control therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF), clinical evidence demonstrating a heart rate target is lacking. Aim of the present study was to run a mathematical model simulating AF episodes with a different heart rate (HR) to predict hemodynamic parameters for each situation. Methods. The lumped model, representing the pumping heart together with systemic and pulmonary circuits, was run to simulate AF with HR of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 bpm, respectively. Results. Left ventricular pressure increased by 56.7%, from 33.92+-37.56 mmHg to 53.15+-47.56 mmHg, and mean systemic arterial pressure increased by 27.4%, from 82.66+-14.04 mmHg to 105.29+-7.63 mmHg, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. Stroke volume (from 77.45+-8.5 to 39.09+-8.08 mL), ejection fraction (from 61.1+-4.4 to 39.32+-5.42%) and stroke work (SW, from 0.88+-0.04 to 0.58+-0.09 J) decreased by 49.5, 35.6 and 34.2%, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. In addition, oxygen co...

  6. The predictive value of resting heart rate following osmotherapy in brain injury: back to basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanpour Mir Mahsa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of resting heart rate as a prognostic factor was described in several studies. An elevated heart rate is an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events and total mortality in patients with coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and the general population. Also heart rate is elevated in the Multi Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS and the mortality due to MODS is highly correlated with inadequate sinus tachycardia. To evaluate the value of resting heart rate in predicting mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury along scoring systems like Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation(APACHE II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS. Method By analyzing data which was collected from an open labeled randomized clinical trial that compared the different means of osmotherapy (mannitol vs bolus or infusion hypertonic saline, heart rate, GCS, APACHE II and SOFA score were measured at baseline and daily for 7 days up to 60 days and the relationship between elevated heart rate and mortality during the first 7 days and 60th day were assessed. Results After adjustments for confounding factors, although there was no difference in mean heart rate between either groups of alive and expired patients, however, we have found a relative correlation between 60th day mortality rate and resting heart rate (P=0.07. Conclusion Heart rate can be a prognostic factor for estimating mortality rate in brain injury patients along with APACHE II and SOFA scores in patients with brain injury.

  7. Factors underlying the perception of effort during constant heart rate running above and below the critical heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Haley C; Housh, Terry J; Cochrane, Kristen C; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Zuniga, Jorge M; Buckner, Samuel L; Goldsmith, Jacob A; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O; Cramer, Joel T

    2015-10-01

    This study examined: (1) the sustainability of the critical heart rate (CHR) minus 5 b min(-1) (CHR - 5) and CHR plus 5 b min(-1) (CHR + 5); (2) the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), velocity, [Formula: see text], minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]), breathing frequency (f b ), and electromyographic amplitude (EMG AMP) and EMG mean power frequency (MPF) responses during treadmill running at CHR - 5 and CHR + 5 to determine what factors underlie the perception of effort when heart rate (HR) is held constant; and (3) the relationships among RPE, [Formula: see text], and HR, to determine which variable(s) reflect exhaustion during exercise performed at a constant HR. The CHR was determined in eight runners (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 3 years) from a series of four exhaustive, constant velocity runs. The RPE, velocity, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], f b , EMG AMP, and EMG MPF responses were recorded during runs at the CHR - 5 and CHR + 5. At CHR - 5, RPE, f b, and EMG MPF increased, while velocity, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and EMG AMP decreased. At CHR + 5, RPE and f b increased, velocity, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and EMG AMP decreased, and EMG MPF remained constant. The close association between f b and RPE throughout the run at CHR - 5 and during the last 50 % of the run at CHR + 5 indicated that muscle afferents may have provided feedback from metabolic and mechanical stimuli that contributed to the perceptual responses. In addition, only RPE consistently indicated exhaustion and the current findings supported its use to monitor exercise performed at a constant HR.

  8. A new approach to the measurement of heart rate in patients with chronic heart failure-heart rate performance index: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Aydın; Alpsoy, Şeref; Akkoyun, Dursun Çayan; Güler, Niyazi

    2013-05-01

    In order to evaluate the utility of the heart rate performance index (HRPI), which is obtained by dividing HR mean by the difference of HR max and HR min in the context of Holter monitoring, we sought to determine whether there was any correlation or relationship between the HRPI and LVEF values as determined by echocardiography and to compare the HRPI between the study and control groups. This study is a cross-sectional, controlled observational study. Thirty-two patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVEF heart failure (CHF) were included as a control group. In the study group, 10 patients were in NYHA class I (31.2%), 12 - were in NYHA class II (37.6%) and 10 - were in NYHA class III (31.2%). Heart rate analysis was measured using 24-hour Holter ambulatory electrocardiography. To determine the HRPI, the difference between maximum (HR max) and minimum heart rate (HR min) was divided by mean heart rate (HR mean) (beats/minute): HRPI=(HR max-HR min) / HR mean. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test for independent samples, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses. The HRPI index value was markedly decreased [0.83 (0.58-1.1) and 1.10 (0.74-1.3), pheart rate derivatives (unstandardized β=42.43 95% CI: 21.98-50.51, p=0.231). According to our findings, patients with CHF exhibited higher HR mean values, reduced HR max-min values and significantly decreased HRPI values. There is a positive correlation between HRPI and LVEF, a decreased HRPI is associated with a decreased LVEF, but there is no relationship between these two variables. Therefore, HRPI values may represent a viable option for assessing daily exercise activity and potentially sympathetic activation in patients with CHF. The assessment of HRPI may be helpful the evaluation of CHF patients, as well as resting HR.

  9. Resonance of about-weekly human heart rate rhythm with solar activity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, G; Halberg, F; Wendt, H W; Bingham, C; Sothern, R B; Haus, E; Kleitman, E; Kleitman, N; Revilla, M A; Revilla, M; Breus, T K; Pimenov, K; Grigoriev, A E; Mitish, M D; Yatsyk, G V; Syutkina, E V

    1996-12-01

    In several human adults, certain solar activity rhythms may influence an about 7-day rhythm in heart rate. When no about-weekly feature was found in the rate of change in sunspot area, a measure of solar activity, the double amplitude of a circadian heart rate rhythm, approximated by the fit of a 7-day cosine curve, was lower, as was heart rate corresponds to about-weekly features in solar activity and/or relates to a sunspot cycle.

  10. Variability in heart rate recovery measurements over 1 year in healthy, middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellis, M G; Ingle, L; Carroll, S

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the longer-term (12-month) variability in post-exercise heart rate recovery following a submaximal exercise test. Longitudinal data was analysed for 97 healthy middle-aged adults (74 male, 23 female) from 2 occasions, 12 months apart. Participants were retrospectively selected if they had stable physical activity habits, submaximal treadmill fitness and anthropometric measurements between the 2 assessment visits. A submaximal Bruce treadmill test was performed to at least 85% age-predicted maximum heart rate. Absolute heart rate and Δ heart rate recovery (change from peak exercise heart rate) were recorded for 1 and 2 min post-exercise in an immediate supine position. Heart rate recovery at both time-points was shown to be reliable with intra-class correlation coefficient values ≥ 0.714. Absolute heart rate 1-min post-exercise showed the strongest agreement between repeat tests (r = 0.867, P heart rate values rather than Δ heart rate recovery, and for 1-min rather than 2-min post-exercise recovery time points. Log-transformed values generated better variability with acceptable coefficient of variation for all measures (2.2-10%). Overall, 1 min post-exercise heart rate recovery data had least variability over the 12-month period in apparently healthy middle-aged adults. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. [The exercise training restores the heart rate variability in heart failure patients. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Victoria; Manterola, Carlos; González, Marcelo; Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván

    Cardiovascular diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the general population. In this sense, the autonomic imbalance is the cornerstone of the pathophysiology underlying the development of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of exercise training on heart rate variability (HRV) in adult patients with chronic heart failure. A systematic literature review was conducted in electronic databases. The considered studies were randomised clinical trials, quasi-experimental studies with non-randomised control group, quasi-experimental studies with analysis of pre- and post- intervention, and crossover studies with randomly assigned training and non-training periods. The standardised mean differences were calculated between pre- and post-intervention in both the control and experimental group. Within-subject analysis of the control group showed no statistical significance in the standardised mean differences of HRV. In the experimental group, the standardised mean differences were positive for the root mean square of successive difference (+0.468±0.215; P=.032), high frequency band (HF) (0.934±0.256; P < .001) and low frequency band (LF) (< 0.415±0.096; P=.001). Moreover, the standardised mean difference was negative for LF/HF (-0.747±0.369, P=<.044). On the other hand, only 3 studies entered the comparative meta-analysis. The effect of exercise training was favourable for the experimental group in LF/HF (-2.21±95% CI: -3.83 to -0.60), HF, and LF. The exercise training was effective in increasing HRV and restoring the autonomic balance in patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinic and ambulatory heart rates in patients with ischaemic heart disease and/or chronic heart failure taking rate-limiting medications: are they interchangeable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Omar; Koo, Kenneth; El-Omar, Omar; Allen, Stuart; Squires, Alexander; El-Omar, Magdi

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic benefit from heart rate (HR) reduction in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and/or chronic heart failure (CHF) is now firmly established. Most decisions regarding initiation and/or dose adjustment of HR-limiting medications in such patients are based on clinic HR. Yet, this is a highly variable parameter that may not necessarily reflect HR control over the 24 h period. To examine the level of agreement between mean clinic and mean ambulatory HRs in patients with IHD and/or CHF taking rate-limiting medications. Prospective, observational study. Fifty patients with IHD and/or CHF who attended cardiology outpatient clinics at the Manchester Heart Centre and underwent same-day 24 h continuous ECG recording between March and October 2013 were included in the study. Mean clinic HR was compared with mean 24 h, daytime and night-time HRs. Limits-of-agreement plots were constructed to examine the relationship between the two HR measures in more detail. The mean clinic HR was numerically similar to the mean HRs of all ambulatory time periods examined. However, on Bland-Altman plots, the limits of agreement between clinic and ambulatory HR means were quite wide, with the mean clinic HR ranging between 10.93 and 13.58 bpm below and 8.4 and 18.15 bpm above the mean ambulatory HR. Although numerically similar, the means of clinic and ambulatory HRs in patients with IHD and/or CHF display wide limits of agreement. As such, the two measures cannot be regarded as interchangeable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Post-exercise heart-rate recovery correlates to resting heart-rate variability in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Guilherme Eckhardt; Fontana, Keila Elizabeth; Porto, Luiz Guilherme Grossi; Junqueira, Luiz Fernando

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between post-exercise heart-rate recovery (HRR) and resting cardiac autonomic modulation is an incompletely explored issue. To correlate HRR with resting supine and orthostatic autonomic status. HRR at the 1st, 3th, and 5th min following maximal treadmill exercise were correlated with 5-min time-domain (CV, pNN50 and rMSSD) and frequency-domain (TP, LF, HF, LFn, HFn, and LF/HF ratio) indices of heart-rate variability (HRV) in both supine and standing positions in 31 healthy physically active non-athletes men. Statistical analysis employed non-parametric tests with two-tailed p value set at 5 %. Absolute HRR and Δ %HRR at each post-exercise time did not correlated with HRV in supine position, as well as at 1st min in standing position. At the 3rd min and 5th min, these measures negatively correlated with pNN50, rMSSD, TP, and HF indices, and only in the 5th min, they showed negative correlation with HFn and positive correlation with LF, LFn, and LF/HF ratio in the standing position. Coefficient of HRR (CHRR) at the 1st min negatively correlated with pNN50 and rMSSD and at 3rd and 5th min showed positive correlation with LFn and LF/HF ratio in supine position. With HRV indices in standing position CHRR from the 1st to 5th min showed the same respective negative and positive correlations as the other measures. HRR from the 1st to 5th min post-exercise negatively correlated with parasympathetic modulation in resting orthostatic, but showed no correlation in supine position. At the 3rd and 5th min, a positive correlation with combined sympathetic-parasympathetic modulation in both positions was observed.

  14. The Effect of Valsartan on Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate Recovery in Patients with Mild to Moderate Mitral Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Metin Esen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Atrial fibrillation (AF is known to be one of the most important complications of mitral stenosis (MS. It has been reported that autonomic nervous system (ANS had an effect on AF development, heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate recovery (HRR were under the control of ANS, and their disorders were present in MS. We studied the effect of Valsartan on HRV and HRT, and thus its effect on ANS. Methods: Eleven patients (39±8 years, 10 females with mild to moderate MS were included in the study. Sixteen volunteers (38±8 years, 14 females matched for age and sex were selected for control group. All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE, symptom-limited treadmill test and 24 hour Holter monitorization.The patients were administered 160 mg of Valsartan daily for 14 weeks. TTE, treadmill test and Holter monitorization were repeated at the end of treatment period. In Holter monitorization, the time and frequency domain analysis of HRV and in exercise test, HRR at first and third minutes (HRR1 and HRR3 were examined. Results: Before Valsartan treatment, no significant difference was found in HRR and HRV parameters between the two groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and also HRR1values were significantly decreased after treatment of Valsartan (117±6 vs. 107±4 mmHg p<0.002, 76±6 vs. 69±9 mmHg p<0.044, 44±14 vs. 33±12 p< 0.014, respectively, while the exercise time was significantly increased (786±114 vs. 846±95 sn p< 0.044. In Holter analysis neither time nor frequency domain of HRV parameters showed a meaningful change. Conclusion: In moderate MS, treatment with Valsartan improved the effort capacity, while autonomic function parameters have been defined on the base of HRV and HRR were not significantly different.

  15. Autonomic imbalance induced breakdown of long-range dependence in healthy heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, N; Struzik, Z R; Kiyono, K; Yamamoto, Y

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of the relation between the long-range correlation property of heart rate and autonomic balance. An investigation of the fractal scaling properties of heart rate variability was carried out by using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Eleven healthy subjects were examined for two consecutive days, which included usual daily activity, strenuous prolonged experimental exercise, and sleep. We also considered two patient groups with autonomic dysfunction characterized by selective sympathetic and parasympathetic dominance. Robust long-range dependence in heart rate is observed only in the state of usual daily activity, characterized by normal heart rate typical of balanced autonomic sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation. This confirms the previously postulated behavioral independence of heart rate regulation, but reveals that the occurrence of 1/f, long-range dependence is restricted to only the state of autonomic balance. Both the sympathetic dominant high heart rate state, realized during strenuous experimental exercise, and the parasympathetic dominant low heart rate state, prevalent in (deep) sleep, are characterized by uncorrelated, near white-noise-like scaling, lacking long-range dependence. Remarkably, the breakdown of the long-range correlations observed in healthy heart rate in the states of sympathetic and parasympathetic dominance is in stark contrast to the increased correlations which have previously been observed in neurogenic parasympathetic and sympathetic dominance in patients suffering from primary autonomic failure and congestive heart failure, respectively. Our findings further reveal the diagnostic capabilities of heart rate dynamics, by differentiating physiological healthy states from pathology.

  16. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate. A Meta-Analysis of 63 Randomized Controlled Trials Including 72 Study Populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    .... As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction...

  17. The Performance of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in the Detection of Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Fausto; Barros, Allan Kardec; Ohnishi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a cardiac disease associated with the decreasing capacity of the cardiac output. It has been shown that the CHF is the main cause of the cardiac death around the world. Some works proposed to discriminate CHF subjects from healthy subjects using either electrocardiogram (ECG) or heart rate variability (HRV) from long-term recordings. In this work, we propose an alternative framework to discriminate CHF from healthy subjects by using HRV short-term intervals based on 256 RR continuous samples. Our framework uses a matching pursuit algorithm based on Gabor functions. From the selected Gabor functions, we derived a set of features that are inputted into a hybrid framework which uses a genetic algorithm and k-nearest neighbour classifier to select a subset of features that has the best classification performance. The performance of the framework is analyzed using both Fantasia and CHF database from Physionet archives which are, respectively, composed of 40 healthy volunteers and 29 subjects. From a set of nonstandard 16 features, the proposed framework reaches an overall accuracy of 100% with five features. Our results suggest that the application of hybrid frameworks whose classifier algorithms are based on genetic algorithms has outperformed well-known classifier methods.

  18. The Performance of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in the Detection of Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Lucena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congestive heart failure (CHF is a cardiac disease associated with the decreasing capacity of the cardiac output. It has been shown that the CHF is the main cause of the cardiac death around the world. Some works proposed to discriminate CHF subjects from healthy subjects using either electrocardiogram (ECG or heart rate variability (HRV from long-term recordings. In this work, we propose an alternative framework to discriminate CHF from healthy subjects by using HRV short-term intervals based on 256 RR continuous samples. Our framework uses a matching pursuit algorithm based on Gabor functions. From the selected Gabor functions, we derived a set of features that are inputted into a hybrid framework which uses a genetic algorithm and k-nearest neighbour classifier to select a subset of features that has the best classification performance. The performance of the framework is analyzed using both Fantasia and CHF database from Physionet archives which are, respectively, composed of 40 healthy volunteers and 29 subjects. From a set of nonstandard 16 features, the proposed framework reaches an overall accuracy of 100% with five features. Our results suggest that the application of hybrid frameworks whose classifier algorithms are based on genetic algorithms has outperformed well-known classifier methods.

  19. [Design of Oxygen Saturation, Heart Rate, Respiration Rate Detection System Based on Smartphone of Android Operating System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshan; Zeng, Bixin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we designed an oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate monitoring system based on smartphone of android operating system, physiological signal acquired by MSP430 microcontroller and transmitted by Bluetooth module.

  20. Effect of Aerobic Training on Heart Rate Recovery in Patients with Established Heart Disease; a Systematic Review: e83907

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johan A Snoek; Sietske van Berkel; Nico van Meeteren; Frank J G Backx; Hein A M Daanen

    2013-01-01

      Background Although a delayed decrease in heart rate during the first minute after graded exercise has been identified as a powerful predictor of overall mortality in cardiac patients, the potential...

  1. Analysis of heart rate during a tennis training session and its relationship with heart-healthy index

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Díaz Casasola, César

    2010-01-01

    .... The aims of this research were: first, to assess heart rate obtained during a tennis training, changing the intensity at those stages in which the player is hitting the ball, through various forms of displacement: 1...

  2. Nonlinear Methods to Assess Changes in Heart Rate Variability in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar, Roy, E-mail: imbhaskarall@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology (India); University of Connecticut, Farmington, CT (United States); Ghatak, Sobhendu [Indian Institute of Technology (India)

    2013-10-15

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is an important indicator of autonomic modulation of cardiovascular function. Diabetes can alter cardiac autonomic modulation by damaging afferent inputs, thereby increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. We applied nonlinear analytical methods to identify parameters associated with HRV that are indicative of changes in autonomic modulation of heart function in diabetic patients. We analyzed differences in HRV patterns between diabetic and age-matched healthy control subjects using nonlinear methods. Lagged Poincaré plot, autocorrelation, and detrended fluctuation analysis were applied to analyze HRV in electrocardiography (ECG) recordings. Lagged Poincare plot analysis revealed significant changes in some parameters, suggestive of decreased parasympathetic modulation. The detrended fluctuation exponent derived from long-term fitting was higher than the short-term one in the diabetic population, which was also consistent with decreased parasympathetic input. The autocorrelation function of the deviation of inter-beat intervals exhibited a highly correlated pattern in the diabetic group compared with the control group. The HRV pattern significantly differs between diabetic patients and healthy subjects. All three statistical methods employed in the study may prove useful to detect the onset and extent of autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients.

  3. Sternal pulse rate variability compared with heart rate variability on healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chreiteh, Shadi S; Belhage, Bo; Hoppe, Karsten; Branebjerg, Jens; Thomsen, Erik V

    2014-01-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) is a commonly used method to quantify the sympathetic and the parasympathetic modulation of the heart rate. HRV is mainly conducted on electrocardiograms (ECG). However, the use of photo-plethysmography (PPG) as a marker of the autonomic tone is emerging. In this study we investigated the feasibility of deriving pulse rate variability (PRV) using PPG signals recorded by a reflectance PPG sensor attached to the chest bone (sternum) and comparing it to HRV. The recordings were conducted on 9 healthy subjects being in a relaxed supine position and under forced respiration, where the subjects were asked to breathe following a visual scale with a rate of 27 breaths/min. HRV parameters such as the mean intervals (meanNN), the standard deviation of intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of difference of successive intervals (RMSSD), and the proportion of intervals differing more than 50 ms (pNN50) were calculated from the R peak-to-R peak (R-R) and pulse-to-pulse (P-P) intervals. In the frequency domain the low and high frequency ratio of the power spectral density (LF/HF) was also computed. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed significant correlation for all the parameters (r > 0.95 with p healthy subjects at.

  4. Heart rate modulation in stable coronary artery disease without clinical heart failure: What we have already learned from SIGNIFY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Piero Perna

    2016-12-01

    In conclusion, heart rate is a marker of risk but is not a risk factor and/or a target of therapy in patients with stable coronary artery disease and preserved ventricular systolic function. Standard doses of ivabradine are indicated for treatment of angina as an alternative or in addition to beta-blockers, but should not be administered in association with CYP3A4 inhibitors or heart rate-lowering calcium-channel blockers.

  5. Are smoking and passive smoking related with heart rate variability in male adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Renata Melo; Farah, Breno Quintella; Santos, Carolina da Franca Bandeira Ferreira; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the relation between smoking and passive smoking with heart rate variability parameters in male adolescents. The sample consisted of 1,152 males, aged 14 and 19 years. Data related to smoking and passive smoking were collected using a questionnaire. RR intervals were obtained by a heart rate monitor, on supine position, for 10 minutes. After collecting the RR intervals, time (standard deviation of all RR intervals, root mean square of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent intervals over 50ms) and frequency domains (low and high frequency and sympathovagal balance) parameters of heart rate variability were obtained. No significant differences between smoker and nonsmoker adolescents were observed in heart rate variability parameters (p>0.05). Similarly, heart rate variability parameters did not show significant difference between exposed and not exposed to passive smoking (p>0.05). Cigarette smoking and passive smoking are not related to heart rate variability in adolescence.

  6. Heart rates of elementary physical education students during the dancing classrooms program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Larry; Evans, Melissa; Guess, Wendy; Morris, Mary; Olson, Terry; Buckwalter, John

    2011-06-01

    We examined how different types of dance activities, along with their duration, influenced heart rate responses among fifth-grade physical education students (N = 96) who participated in the Dancing Classrooms program. Results indicated that the overall Dancing Classrooms program elicits a moderate cardiovascular heart rate response (M = 124.4 bpm), in which 47% of class time was spent above a 60% maximal heart rate threshold. The swing dance in particular (M = 143.4 bpm) stimulated a much higher heart rate level than all other dances in the program, with a mean heart rate change of 52.6 bpm. Girls (127.3 bpm) achieved marginally higher heart rates (p = .059) than boys (121.1 bpm).

  7. Approximate entropy and point correlation dimension of heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storella, R J; Wood, H W; Mills, K M

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of nonlinear dynamics to heart rate variability in healthy humans was examined using surrogate data analysis. Several measures of heart rate variability were used and compared. Heart rates were recorded for three hours and original data sets of 8192 R-R intervals created. For each...... original data set (n = 34), three surrogate data sets were made by shuffling the order of the R-R intervals while retaining their linear correlations. The difference in heart rate variability between the original and surrogate data sets reflects the amount of nonlinear structure in the original data set....... Heart rate variability was analyzed by two different nonlinear methods, point correlation dimension and approximate entropy. Nonlinearity, though under 10 percent, could be detected with both types of heart rate variability measures. More importantly, not only were the correlations between...

  8. Reliability of heart rate mobile apps in young healthy adults: exploratory study and research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpinel, Maria; Scherling, Laura; Lazzer, Stefano; Della Mea, Vincenzo

    2017-06-30

    Recently, a number of smartphone apps appeared that allow for heart rate measurements basing on the photoplethysmography principle. In fact, almost every smartphone now has a camera with flash that could be used for that. Some studies appeared on the reliability of some of those apps, with heterogeneous results. The present study aims at adding up evidence in particular during physical activity, by comparing 3 apps on two different platforms (IOs and Android), on a broad range of heart rates. As gold standard, heart rate has been measured with a traditional heart rate monitor. The results suggest that heart rate apps might be used for measuring heart rate for fitness aims for many individuals, but further research is needed to i) analyse influence of smartphone features; ii) identify personal factors hindering measurements, and iii) verify reliability on different measurement sites.

  9. Circadian heart rate variability in patients with primary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasińska-Kloch, Władysława; Furgała, Agata; Banach, Tomasz; Laskiewicz, Janusz; Thor, Piotr J

    2002-01-01

    Abnormalities of autonomic nervous system function (ANS) exist in patients with hypertension and have been considered as one of the important factors in developing of essential hypertension. However the information about the effect of antihypertensive treatment (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors--ACEI) on cardiac ANS activity is scarce. The main aim of our study was to evaluate circadian heart rate variability changes in primary hypertension treated with ACE inhibitors. Fourteen patients with essential hypertension with night/day differences of mean blood pressure of more than 10% (dippers) aged 26 to 61 years (mean 52.9 +/- 9.2) and 14 healthy volunteers, 14 healthy volunteers were recruited and matched for age and gender. Ambulatory 24 hour arterial blood pressure measurement using HolCARD (Aspel, Poland) recorder with simultaneous ECG monitoring using the Mediarc-Premier IV Holter Monitoring System (DRG-International) undertaken in both groups of patients. The hypertensive patients were tested before and after one year of the enalapril treatment. The HRV analysis was performed according to a standard Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The time and spectral analysis parameters were compared within the examined groups of patients during day and night. The results obtained in the control group showed the great circadian fluctuations in sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. A simultaneous circadian HRV evaluation showed also significant increases in night RMSSD, TP, VLF, LF and HF mean values (p < 0.05) with significantly decreased night LF/HF ratio (p < 0.05) in comparison to the day time recordings. After one year of ACE inhibitors treatment, we noted the following circadian changes: Significant increase of RMSSD, pNN50 (p < 0.05), TP, VLF, LF and HF (p < 0.05) parameters with non-significant increases in LF/HF ratio during night recording. A comparison between daily HRV parameters, before and after 1 year of ACEI treatment, presented significant

  10. Cold-hearted bats: uncoupling of heart rate and metabolism during torpor at subzero temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Shannon E; Stawski, Clare; Geiser, Fritz

    2017-11-07

    Many hibernating animals thermoregulate during torpor and defend their body temperature (Tb) below 10°C by an increase in metabolic rate. Above a critical temperature (Tcrit) animals usually thermoconform. We investigated the physiological responses above and below Tcrit for a small tree dwelling bat (Chalinolobus gouldii, ∼14 g) that is often exposed to subzero temperatures during winter. Through simultaneous measurement of heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (V̇O2) we show that the relationship between oxygen transport and cardiac function is substantially altered in thermoregulating torpid bats between 1 and -2°C, compared with thermoconforming torpid bats at mild ambient temperatures (Ta 5-20°C). Tcrit for this species was Ta 0.7±0.4°C, with a corresponding Tb of 1.8±1.2°C. Below Tcrit animals began to thermoregulate, indicated by a considerable but disproportionate increase in both HR and V̇O2 The maximum increase in HR was only 4-fold greater than the average thermoconforming minimum, compared to a 46-fold increase in V̇O2 The differential response of HR and V̇O2 to low Ta was reflected in a 15-fold increase in oxygen delivery per heart beat (cardiac oxygen pulse). During torpor at low Ta, thermoregulating bats maintained a relatively slow HR and compensated for increased metabolic demands by significantly increasing stroke volume and tissue oxygen extraction. Our study provides new information on the relationship between metabolism and HR in an unstudied physiological state that may occur frequently in the wild and can be extremely costly for heterothermic animals. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Effect of changing heart rate during treatment of hypertension on incidence of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okin, Peter M; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Julius, Stevo; Hille, Darcy A; Dahlöf, Björn; Devereux, Richard B

    2012-03-01

    An elevated heart rate (HR) at rest at baseline is associated with an increased risk of incident heart failure (HF) and with greater cardiovascular event rates in patients with chronic HF. However, despite the high attributable risk of hypertension for HF, whether the in-treatment HR predicts incident HF in patients with treated hypertension has not been evaluated. The HR was evaluated on annual electrocardiograms from 9,024 patients with hypertension without HF who were treated with losartan- or atenolol-based regimens. During a mean follow-up of 4.7 ± 1.1 years, HF developed in 285 patients (3.2%). On multivariate Cox analyses adjusted for randomized treatment, the baseline risk factors for HF, baseline and in-treatment blood pressure, QRS duration, and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, a greater in-treatment HR predicted a 45% greater adjusted risk of new HF for every 10-beats/min increase in the HR (95% confidence interval [CI] 34% to 57%) or a 159% greater risk of HF in patients with the persistence or development of a HR of ≥84 beats/min (95% CI 88% to 257%). In contrast, with adjustment for the same covariates, the baseline HR as a continuous variable was a significantly less powerful predictor of new HF (hazard ratio 1.15 per 10 beats/min, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.28) and a baseline HR of ≥84 beats/min did not predict new HF (hazard ratio 1.00, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.58). In conclusion, a greater in-treatment HR on the serial electrocardiograms predicts a greater risk of incident HF during antihypertensive treatment, independent of the covariates, in patients with hypertension with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy. These findings support serial HR assessment to improve the risk stratification of patients with hypertension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. False Heart Rate Feedback and the Perception of Heart Symptoms in Patients with Congenital Heart Disease and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsdorp, Petra A.; Kindt, Merel; Rietveld, Simon; Everaerd, Walter; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the mechanisms explaining an increased perception of heart symptoms in congenital heart disease (ConHD). In the present study, it was suggested that a combination of high trait anxiety and disease history increases the perception of heart symptoms. Purpose It was

  13. False heart rate feedback and the perception of heart symptoms in patients with congenital heart disease and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsdorp, P.A.; Kindt, M.; Rietveld, S.; Everaerd, W.; Mulder, B.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the mechanisms explaining an increased perception of heart symptoms in congenital heart disease (ConHD). In the present study, it was suggested that a combination of high trait anxiety and disease history increases the perception of heart symptoms. Purpose: It was

  14. Running wavelet archetype aids the determination of heart rate from the video photoplethysmogram during motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S; Foo, David M H; Jacquel, Dominique

    2017-07-01

    The extraction of heart rate from a video-based biosignal during motion using a novel wavelet-based ensemble averaging method is described. Running Wavelet Archetyping (RWA) allows for the enhanced extraction of pulse information from the time-frequency representation, from which a video-based heart rate (HRvid) can be derived. This compares favorably to a reference heart rate derived from a pulse oximeter.

  15. Components of the cannabinoid system in the dorsal periaqueductal gray are related to resting heart rate

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Caron; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Seagard, Jeanne L.; Hopp, Francis A.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether variations in endocannabinoid signaling in the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) are associated with baseline autonomic nerve activity, heart rate, and blood pressure. Blood pressure was recorded telemetrically in rats, and heart rate and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability were determined. Natural variations from animal to animal provided a range of baseline values for analysis. Transcript levels of endocannabinoid signaling c...

  16. Heart rate variability and heart rate turbulence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with versus without cardiac autonomic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcioğlu, Serhat; Arslan, Uğur; Türkoğlu, Sedat; Ozdemir, Murat; Cengel, Atiye

    2007-09-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is an important complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and confers an increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to disclose the place of heart rate (HR) variability and HR turbulence for the detection of CAN in patients with type 2 DM and no obvious heart disease. Ninety patients who were /=2 years were studied. CAN was diagnosed with a battery of cardiovascular reflex tests and the degree of neuropathic involvement was graded by the Ewing score. Time-domain HR variability and HR turbulence parameters were assessed on 24-hour digital Holter recordings. Thirty-five patients were found to have CAN. The clinical characteristics of patients with and without CAN were similar, except that the mean duration of DM and the number of patients using insulin were significantly increased in the group with CAN. All time-domain HR variability parameters were significantly lower in the group with CAN. Of the 2 HR turbulence parameters studied, turbulence onset was similar but turbulence slope was significantly lower in the group with CAN. The Ewing score significantly correlated negatively with all HR variability parameters and turbulence slope, and among all, turbulence slope was the most strongly correlated (r = -0.617, p <0.01). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis revealed a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 71% at a turbulence slope cut-off value of 3.32 for the detection of CAN. In conclusion, time-domain HR variability and HR turbulence parameters, except turbulence, onset were found to be significantly depressed in patients with type 2 DM and CAN. Decreases in all these parameters were found to correlate significantly with degree of neuropathic involvement. The most strongly correlated parameter, turbulence slope, was found to be highly sensitive and specific for the detection of CAN at a cut-off value of 3.32.

  17. Relationship between heart rate and quiescent interval of the cardiac cycle in children using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Bogale, Saivivek; Golriz, Farahnaz; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh

    2017-11-01

    Imaging the heart in children comes with the challenge of constant cardiac motion. A prospective electrocardiography-triggered CT scan allows for scanning during a predetermined phase of the cardiac cycle with least motion. This technique requires knowing the optimal quiescent intervals of cardiac cycles in a pediatric population. To evaluate high-temporal-resolution cine MRI of the heart in children to determine the relationship of heart rate to the optimal quiescent interval within the cardiac cycle. We included a total of 225 consecutive patients ages 0-18 years who had high-temporal-resolution cine steady-state free-precession sequence performed as part of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetic resonance angiography study of the heart. We determined the location and duration of the quiescent interval in systole and diastole for heart rates ranging 40-178 beats per minute (bpm). We performed the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the duration of quiescent interval in systole and diastole for each heart rate group. The duration of the quiescent interval at heart rates bpm and >90 bpm was significantly longer in diastole and systole, respectively (Pbpm [P=.02]). For heart rates 80-89 bpm, diastolic interval was longer than systolic interval, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=.06). We created a chart depicting optimal quiescent intervals across a range of heart rates that could be applied for prospective electrocardiography-triggered CT imaging of the heart. The optimal quiescent interval at heart rates bpm is in diastole and at heart rates ≥90 bpm is in systole. The period of quiescence at heart rates 80-89 bpm is uniformly short in systole and diastole.

  18. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in women requires further study.

  19. Episodic arterial oxygen desaturation and heart rate variations following major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Dirkes, W E; Kehlet, H

    1989-01-01

    In 20 patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery, heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation were monitored continuously during the night 2 days before operation and during the first and second nights after operation (23:00 to 07:30). Mean heart rate increased by 16 beat min-1 (P less than...... arrhythmias on the morning of the third day after operation. In another patient the episodes of desaturation correlated with increases in heart rate. There was no correlation between administration of opioids and heart rate and saturation disturbances. The mechanism and clinical relevance of episodic...

  20. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: implications for monitoring training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Robert P; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Durandt, Justin J; Lambert, Michael I

    2004-08-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four subjects (26.5 +/- 5.4 years; mean +/- standard deviation) participated in a submaximal running test at the same time of day for 5 consecutive days. Heart rates were determined during each of the 4 exercise intensities (2 minutes each) of increasing intensity and during the 1-minute recovery period after each stage. The repeatability of the heart rate on a day-to-day basis during the stages and recovery periods were high (intraclass correlation coefficient: 95% confidence interval R = 0.94- 0.99). The lowest variation in heart rate occurred in the fourth stage ( approximately 90% maximum heart rate) with heart rate varying 5 +/- 2 b.min(-1) (95% confidence interval for coefficient of variation = 1.1-1.4%). In conclusion, the standard error of measurement of submaximal heart rate is 1.1-1.4%. This magnitude of measurement error needs to be considered when heart rate is used as a marker of training status.

  1. THE ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN ELITE ATHLETES DURING NON STATION NARY PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Korobeynikov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The heart rate variability during non stationary processes in athletes was studied. The 29 elite athletes were examined. The parameters of scattergram for analysis of non stationnary processes of heart rate regulation were used. The results are shows about of tendency for decrease of periodic and non periodic variations of cardiac intervals depending from characters of reaction of heart rate. The obtained result showed the aging increasing of tension of autonomic regulation of heart rate of athletes as fatigue or non adequate performance.

  2. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor regulates embryonic heart rate in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Shannon N; Edwards, Hailey E; Souder, Jaclyn Paige; Ryan, Kevin J; Cui, Xiangqin; Gorelick, Daniel A

    2017-10-24

    Estrogens act by binding to estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα, ERβ), ligand-dependent transcription factors that play crucial roles in sex differentiation, tumor growth and cardiovascular physiology. Estrogens also activate the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), however the function of GPER in vivo is less well understood. Here we find that GPER is required for normal heart rate in zebrafish embryos. Acute exposure to estrogens increased heart rate in wildtype and in ERα and ERβ mutant embryos but not in GPER mutants. GPER mutant embryos exhibited reduced basal heart rate, while heart rate was normal in ERα and ERβ mutants. We detected gper transcript in discrete regions of the brain and pituitary but not in the heart, suggesting that GPER acts centrally to regulate heart rate. In the pituitary, we observed gper expression in cells that regulate levels of thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3), a hormone known to increase heart rate. Compared to wild type, GPER mutants had reduced levels of T3 and estrogens, suggesting pituitary abnormalities. Exposure to exogenous T3, but not estradiol, rescued the reduced heart rate phenotype in gper mutant embryos, demonstrating that T3 acts downstream of GPER to regulate heart rate. Using genetic and mass spectrometry approaches, we find that GPER regulates maternal estrogen levels, which are required for normal embryonic heart rate. Our results demonstrate that estradiol plays a previously unappreciated role in the acute modulation of heart rate during zebrafish embryonic development and suggest that GPER regulates embryonic heart rate by altering maternal estrogen levels and embryonic T3 levels.

  3. Nonlinear Control of Heart Rate Variability in Human Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, George; Allan, Walter; Sobel, Daniel; Allan, Kenneth D.

    1996-03-01

    Nonlinear analyses of infant heart rhythms reveal a marked rise in the complexity of the electrocardiogram with maturation. We find that normal mature infants (gestation >= 35 weeks) have complex and distinctly nonlinear heart rhythms (consistent with recent reports for healthy adults) but that such nonlinearity is lacking in preterm infants (gestation physiological states.

  4. Heart Rate Variability Analysis in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ying Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Very few studies investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis. In this study, we evaluated the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis patients using heart rate variability (HRV analysis. Methods. Eleven patients with allergic rhinitis and 13 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 40 years old, were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was based on clinical history, symptoms, and positive Phadiatop test. Electrocardiographic recordings on the sitting and supine positions were obtained for HRV analysis. Results. In the supine position, there were no significant statistical differences in very-low-frequency power (VLF, ≤0.04 Hz, low-frequency power (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz, high-frequency power (HF, 0.15–0.40 Hz, and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF between the patient and control groups. The mean RR intervals significantly increased, while LF% and LF/HF significantly decreased in the patient group in the sitting position. Moreover, mean RR intervals, LF, and LF/HF, which were significantly different between the two positions in the control group, did not show a significant change with the posture change in the patient group. Conclusion. These suggest that patients with allergic rhinitis may have poor sympathetic modulation in the sitting position. Autonomic dysfunction may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis.

  5. Multiscale analysis of heart rate variability in nonstationary environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo eGao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is highly nonstationary, even if no perturbing influences can be identified during the recording of the data. The nonstationarity becomes more profound when HRV data are measured in intrinsically nonstationary environments, such as social stress. In general, HRV data measured in such situations are more difficult to analyze than those measured in constant environments. In this paper, we analyze HRV data measured during a social stress test using two multiscale approaches, the adaptive fractal analysis (AFA and scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent (SDLE, for the purpose of uncovering differences in HRV between chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS patients and their matched-controls. CFS is a debilitating, heterogeneous illness with no known biomarker. HRV has shown some promise recently as a non-invasive measure of subtle physiological disturbances and trauma that are otherwise difficult to assess. If the HRV in persons with CFS are significantly different from their healthy controls, then certain cardiac irregularities may constitute good candidate biomarkers for CFS. Our multiscale analyses show that there are notable differences in HRV between CFS and their matched controls before a social stress test, but these differences seem to diminish during the test. These analyses illustrate that the two employed multiscale approaches could be useful for the analysis of HRV measured in various environments, both stationary and nonstationary.

  6. Heart-rate monitoring by air pressure and causal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Naoki; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2011-06-01

    Among lots of vital signals, heart-rate (HR) is an important index for diagnose human's health condition. For instance, HR provides an early stage of cardiac disease, autonomic nerve behavior, and so forth. However, currently, HR is measured only in medical checkups and clinical diagnosis during the rested state by using electrocardiograph (ECG). Thus, some serious cardiac events in daily life could be lost. Therefore, a continuous HR monitoring during 24 hours is desired. Considering the use in daily life, the monitoring should be noninvasive and low intrusive. Thus, in this paper, an HR monitoring in sleep by using air pressure sensors is proposed. The HR monitoring is realized by employing the causal analysis among air pressure and HR. The causality is described by employing fuzzy logic. According to the experiment on 7 males at age 22-25 (23 on average), the correlation coefficient against ECG is 0.73-0.97 (0.85 on average). In addition, the cause-effect structure for HR monitoring is arranged by employing causal decomposition, and the arranged causality is applied to HR monitoring in a setting posture. According to the additional experiment on 6 males, the correlation coefficient is 0.66-0.86 (0.76 on average). Therefore, the proposed method is suggested to have enough accuracy and robustness for some daily use cases.

  7. Heart rate variability is reduced during acute uncomplicated diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chenxi; Alamili, Mahdi; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the trajectory of heart rate variability (HRV) indices during a low-grade acute inflammation and their associations to biomarkers for infection. Twelve patients with uncomplicated acute diverticulitis completed this observational study, which composed of 3 sessions of continuous HRV recording from 9 PM to 8 AM during ongoing diverticulitis and at complete remission (baseline). The blood samples were collected at each study session measuring C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocytes. This study showed that the trajectories of the HRV indices were decreased both in time and frequency domains during acute diverticulitis compared to baseline. In particular, the indices reflecting the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic activities were affected: standard deviation of normal-to-normal beats (P = .003), low-frequency power (P diverticulitis suggesting inflammatory involvement in the observed HRV alterations. We found substantial HRV depression in relation to acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, and this was associated with the elevated CRP levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Heart rate recovery predicts memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Ann; Lachman, Margie E

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined cardiovascular reactivity and recovery during memory testing in a sample of 28 younger and 28 older adults. Heart rate (HR) levels were measured before, during, and after a memory test (word list recall). Contrary to prediction, older adults did not have a blunted cardiovascular response to memory tasks compared to younger adults. Word list recall performance was predicted by both Age and an Age x HR recovery interaction. As expected, younger adults performed better on the word list task than older adults. In addition, older adults with better posttest HR recovery performed significantly better than older adults with poor posttest HR recovery, whereas HR recovery differences in younger adults were inconsequential. These relationships were not affected by subjective appraisals of anxiety and task difficulty. Overall, cardiac dysregulation, seen here as low HR recovery, represents an important, potentially modifiable, factor in memory performance in older adults. In addition to being beneficial to overall health, interventions designed to help older adults regulate their HR responses may help offset certain memory declines.

  9. Heart Rate Recovery after Cognitive Challenge is Preserved with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheslavskaya, Olga V.; Burg, Matthew M.; McKinley, Paula S.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Gerin, William; Ryff, Carol D.; Weinstein, Maxine; Seeman, Teresa E.; Sloan, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of age on heart rate recovery (HRR) from cognitive challenge. Background Aging is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. HRR from exercise is an established predictor of cardiac morbidity and mortality, and evidence suggests that HRR from cognitive challenge is predictive of cardiac morbidity as well. Aging is associated with delayed HRR from exercise stress, but little is known about the effect of aging on HRR from psychological stress. We tested the hypothesis that age would be related to delayed HRR from psychological stress. Methods HRR following exposure to cognitive challenge (mental arithmetic and Stroop) was investigated in a sample of 436 participants aged 35–84 in MIDUS II, a national study of health and well-being. HRR was measured as (1) the amount of change from the stress level; (2) time to recover; and (3) the area under the curve (AUC). The analyses were controlled for medical comorbidities and medications that influence HR, such as BMI, smoking, sex, menopausal status, and amount of physical activity/exercise. Results There was no effect for age on HRR as evaluated by all three recovery assessment methods. Conclusions Contrary to expectation and in contrast to findings concerning HRR from exercise, HRR from cognitive challenge was preserved with age. These findings require further inquiry into differential mechanism(s) underlying HRR from psychological vs. exercise stress, including any role for improved emotion regulation with greater age. PMID:20028831

  10. Heart rate variability: a tool to explore the sleeping brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eChouchou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is divided into two main sleep stages: 1 non-rapid eye movement sleep (non-REMS, characterized among others by reduced global brain activity; and 2 rapid eye movement sleep (REMS, characterized by global brain activity similar to that of wakefulness. Results of heart rate variability (HRV analysis, which is widely used to explore autonomic modulation, have revealed higher parasympathetic tone during normal non-REMS and a shift toward sympathetic predominance during normal REMS. Moreover, HRV analysis combined with brain imaging has identified close connectivity between autonomic cardiac modulation and activity in brain areas such as the amygdala and insular cortex during REMS, but no connectivity between brain and cardiac activity during non-REMS. There is also some evidence for an association between HRV and dream intensity and emotionality. Following some technical considerations, this review addresses how brain activity during sleep contributes to changes in autonomic cardiac activity, organized into three parts: 1 the knowledge on autonomic cardiac control, 2 differences in brain and autonomic activity between non-REMS and REMS, and 3 the potential of HRV analysis to explore the sleeping brain, and the implications for psychiatric disorders.

  11. Extraction of Heart Rate Variability from Smartphone Photoplethysmograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chao Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is a useful clinical tool for autonomic function assessment and cardiovascular diseases diagnosis. It is traditionally calculated from a dedicated medical electrocardiograph (ECG. In this paper, we demonstrate that HRV can also be extracted from photoplethysmograms (PPG obtained by the camera of a smartphone. Sixteen HRV parameters, including time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear parameters, were calculated from PPG captured by a smartphone for 30 healthy subjects and were compared with those derived from ECG. The statistical results showed that 14 parameters (AVNN, SDNN, CV, RMSSD, SDSD, TP, VLF, LF, HF, LF/HF, nLF, nHF, SD1, and SD2 from PPG were highly correlated (r>0.7, P<0.001 with those from ECG, and 7 parameters (AVNN, TP, VLF, LF, HF, nLF, and nHF from PPG were in good agreement with those from ECG within the acceptable limits. In addition, five different algorithms to detect the characteristic points of PPG wave were also investigated: peak point (PP, valley point (VP, maximum first derivative (M1D, maximum second derivative (M2D, and tangent intersection (TI. The results showed that M2D and TI algorithms had the best performance. These results suggest that the smartphone might be used for HRV measurement.

  12. Long-term measurement of heart rate in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, R; Matsuhisa, A; Pearson, J T; Tazawa, H

    1999-12-01

    Taking advantage of acoustocardiogram (ACG), we measured the heart rate (HR) of chick embryos continuously from day 12 until hatching and then investigated the development of HR irregularities (HRI), HR variability (HRV), and the existence of a circadian rhythm in mean HR (MHR). HRI comprised transient bradycardia and tachycardia, which first developed on day 14 and 16 in most embryos, respectively. Transient bradycardia increased in frequency and magnitude with embryonic development and occurred over periods of up to 30 min in some embryos. MHR was maximal on around days 14-15 and thereafter decreased to about 250-260 bpm on days 16-18. Baseline HRV, which is an oscillation of the MHR baseline, occurred as HR decreased from days 15-16 and became predominant on days 17-18. The magnitude of the baseline oscillations reached up to 50 bpm in some embryos and the period ranged between about 40-90 min (ultradian rhythm). A circadian rhythm of MHR was not found in late chick embryos. On days 18-19, embryonic activities were augmented and then breathing movements began to occur, disturbing ACG signals and thus making it difficult to measure the HR. Instead, the development of breathing activities was recorded. Breathing frequency was irregular at first and then increased to a maximum of about 1.5 Hz prior to hatching.

  13. Heart Rate Variability Discriminates Competitive Levels in Professional Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Riccardo; di Fronso, Selenia; Pereira, Lucas A; Bortoli, Laura; Robazza, Claudio; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Bertollo, Maurizio

    2017-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been increasingly used to monitor team sports athletes. Besides the traditional time domain indices (i.e., the SD of successive RR intervals [SDNN] and the root mean square difference of successive normal RR intervals [RMSSD]), recently the use of the stress score (SS), which is an inverse function of the SD2 index derived from the Poincaré plot, and the sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio (S/PS) to monitor soccer players has been proposed. However, the reliability of these new indices and the ability of HRV to differentiate between soccer competitive levels are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability of the different HRV-derived indices in professional soccer players during the competitive period and to compare HRV of professional soccer players from 3 teams of distinct competitive levels (i.e., Italian Second Division [2D], European League [EL], and Champions League [CL]). Fifty-four male professional soccer players from 3 different teams of 2 European countries (Italy and Germany) participated in the study. The intraclass correlation coefficient values of the HRV indices varied from 0.78 (very large) to 0.90 (near perfect). The coefficient of variation (CV) values for RMSSD and SDNN were all soccer players and is able to differentiate between international- and national-level players.

  14. Categorizing Fetal Heart Rate Variability with and without Visual Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashdown, Amanda J; Scerbo, Mark W; Belfore, Lee A; Davis, Stephen S; Abuhamad, Alfred Z

    2016-10-01

    Objective This study examined the ability of clinicians to correctly categorize images of fetal heart rate (FHR) variability with and without the use of exemplars. Study Design A sample of 33 labor and delivery clinicians inspected static FHR images and categorized them into one of four categories defined by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) based on the amount of variability within absent, minimal, moderate, or marked ranges. Participants took part in three conditions: two in which they used exemplars representing FHR variability near the center or near the boundaries of each range, and a third control condition with no exemplars. The data gathered from clinicians were compared with those from a previous study using novices. Results Clinicians correctly categorized more images when the FHR variability fell near the center rather than the boundaries of each range, F (1,32) = 71.69, p visual aids to improve judgments about FHR variability and potentially enhance safety in labor and delivery.

  15. Determining cardiac vagal threshold from short term heart rate complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Rami Abou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating individual aerobic exercise capacity is fundamental in sports and exercise medicine but associated with organizational and instrumental effort. Here, we extract an index related to common performance markers, the aerobic and anaerobic thresholds enabling the estimation of exercise capacity from a conventional sports watch supporting beatwise heart rate tracking. Therefore, cardiac vagal threshold (CVT was determined in 19 male subjects performing an incremental maximum exercise test. CVT varied around the anaerobic threshold AnT with mean deviation of 7.9 ± 17.7 W. A high correspondence of the two thresholds was indicated by Bland-Altman plots with limits of agreement −27.5 W and 43.4 W. Additionally, CVT was strongly correlated AnT (rp = 0.86, p < 0.001 and reproduced this marker well (rc = 0.81. We conclude, that cardiac vagal threshold derived from compression entropy time course can be useful to assess physical fitness in an uncomplicated way.

  16. Target heart rates for the development of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D P; Abernathy, K S; Smith, C S; Lee, S J; Bunn, S A

    1994-01-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends the use of 40%, 60%, 80%, and 85% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) as target values in developing exercise prescriptions. Further, the ACSM states that 55%, 70%, 85%, and 90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) may be used as indices of these respective levels of % VO2max for the general population. The current study evaluated this relationship between %HRmax and %VO2max in apparently healthy, young adults. Eighty-one men and 81 women between the ages of 18 and 34 engaged in an incremental exercise test to exhaustion. Linear regressions of %HRmax and %VO2max were performed on each subject. From these regressions, target values of %HRmax were computed for each individual. Mean percentages of HRmax were 63%, 76%, 89%, and 92% at 40%, 60%, 80%, and 85% of VO2max, respectively. At all of these values of %VO2max, the values obtained for %HRmax were significantly greater (P < 0.001) than those used by the ACSM. Fitness affected these results, particularly among men. High fit men averaged 2% higher in %HRmax than low fit men at any given value of %VO2max.

  17. Short- and long-term variations in non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Højgaard, M V; Agner, E

    1996-01-01

    variability. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects were investigated by 3-h ambulatory ECG recordings repeated on 3 separate days. Correlation dimension, non-linear predictability, mean heart rate, and heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains were measured and compared with the results from......OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate the short- and long-term variations in the non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability, and to determine the relationships between conventional time and frequency domain methods and the newer non-linear methods of characterizing heart rate...... corresponding surrogate time series. RESULTS: A small significant amount of non-linear dynamics exists in heart rate variability. Correlation dimensions and non-linear predictability are relatively specific parameters for each individual examined. The correlation dimension is inversely correlated to the heart...

  18. Atrial fibrillation detection by heart rate variability in Poincare plot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Moongu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation (AFib is one of the prominent causes of stroke, and its risk increases with age. We need to detect AFib correctly as early as possible to avoid medical disaster because it is likely to proceed into a more serious form in short time. If we can make a portable AFib monitoring system, it will be helpful to many old people because we cannot predict when a patient will have a spasm of AFib. Methods We analyzed heart beat variability from inter-beat intervals obtained by a wavelet-based detector. We made a Poincare plot using the inter-beat intervals. By analyzing the plot, we extracted three feature measures characterizing AFib and non-AFib: the number of clusters, mean stepping increment of inter-beat intervals, and dispersion of the points around a diagonal line in the plot. We divided distribution of the number of clusters into two and calculated mean value of the lower part by k-means clustering method. We classified data whose number of clusters is more than one and less than this mean value as non-AFib data. In the other case, we tried to discriminate AFib from non-AFib using support vector machine with the other feature measures: the mean stepping increment and dispersion of the points in the Poincare plot. Results We found that Poincare plot from non-AFib data showed some pattern, while the plot from AFib data showed irregularly irregular shape. In case of non-AFib data, the definite pattern in the plot manifested itself with some limited number of clusters or closely packed one cluster. In case of AFib data, the number of clusters in the plot was one or too many. We evaluated the accuracy using leave-one-out cross-validation. Mean sensitivity and mean specificity were 91.4% and 92.9% respectively. Conclusions Because pulse beats of ventricles are less likely to be influenced by baseline wandering and noise, we used the inter-beat intervals to diagnose AFib. We visually displayed regularity of the inter

  19. Atrial fibrillation detection by heart rate variability in Poincare plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinho; Lee, Sangwook; Jeon, Moongu

    2009-12-11

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is one of the prominent causes of stroke, and its risk increases with age. We need to detect AFib correctly as early as possible to avoid medical disaster because it is likely to proceed into a more serious form in short time. If we can make a portable AFib monitoring system, it will be helpful to many old people because we cannot predict when a patient will have a spasm of AFib. We analyzed heart beat variability from inter-beat intervals obtained by a wavelet-based detector. We made a Poincare plot using the inter-beat intervals. By analyzing the plot, we extracted three feature measures characterizing AFib and non-AFib: the number of clusters, mean stepping increment of inter-beat intervals, and dispersion of the points around a diagonal line in the plot. We divided distribution of the number of clusters into two and calculated mean value of the lower part by k-means clustering method. We classified data whose number of clusters is more than one and less than this mean value as non-AFib data. In the other case, we tried to discriminate AFib from non-AFib using support vector machine with the other feature measures: the mean stepping increment and dispersion of the points in the Poincare plot. We found that Poincare plot from non-AFib data showed some pattern, while the plot from AFib data showed irregularly irregular shape. In case of non-AFib data, the definite pattern in the plot manifested itself with some limited number of clusters or closely packed one cluster. In case of AFib data, the number of clusters in the plot was one or too many. We evaluated the accuracy using leave-one-out cross-validation. Mean sensitivity and mean specificity were 91.4% and 92.9% respectively. Because pulse beats of ventricles are less likely to be influenced by baseline wandering and noise, we used the inter-beat intervals to diagnose AFib. We visually displayed regularity of the inter-beat intervals by way of Poincare plot. We tried to design an

  20. Heart rate in pediatric trauma: rethink your strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ara; Harada, Megan Y; Murry, Jason S; Nuño, Miriam; Barmparas, Galinos; Ma, Annie A; Thomsen, Gretchen M; Ley, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    The optimal heart rate (HR) for children after trauma is based on values derived at rest for a given age. As the stages of shock are based in part on HR, a better understanding of how HR varies after trauma is necessary. Admission HRs of pediatric trauma patients were analyzed to determine which ranges were associated with lowest mortality. The National Trauma Data Bank was used to evaluate all injured patients ages 1-14 years admitted between 2007 and 2011. Patients were stratified into eight groups based on age. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were recorded, and regression analysis was used to determine mortality odds ratios (ORs) for HR ranges within each age group. A total of 214,254 pediatric trauma patients met inclusion criteria. The average admission HR and systolic blood pressure were 104.7 and 120.4, respectively. Overall mortality was 0.8%. The HR range associated with lowest mortality varied across age groups and, in children ages 7-14, was narrower than accepted resting HR ranges. The lowest risk of mortality for patients ages 5-14 was captured at HR 80-99. The HR associated with lowest mortality after pediatric trauma frequently differs from resting HR. Our data suggest that a 7y old with an HR of 115 bpm may be in stage III shock, whereas traditional HR ranges suggest that this is a normal rate for this child. Knowing when HR is critically high or low in the pediatric trauma population will better guide treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heart rate variability predicts mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Juan; Tang, Wen; Li, Li-Xian; Su, Chun-Yan; Wang, Tao

    2015-08-01

    The predictive value of heart rate variability (HRV) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) has never been tested. In this study, the associations between HRV measures and the mortality in 81 PD patients were analyzed. HRV was measured by using 5-min recordings of a stationary system by a standardized method. Both time domain and frequency domain parameters were analyzed. During a follow-up period of 43.78 ± 14.77 months, 25 patients died, four patients were transferred to hemodialysis. Of the 81 patients, the time domain parameters, such as the standard deviation of differences between adjacent normal sinus to normal sinus (NN) intervals (SDSD) and the square root of the mean of the squared differences between adjacent normal NN intervals (RMSSD), were higher; the frequency domain parameters, such as the ratio of low-frequency power to high-frequency power (LF/HF) and the normalized LF, were lower, and the normalized HF was higher in the non-survived group as compared with the survived group. A Cox proportional hazards model analysis revealed that, of the HRV measures, decrease of the normalized LF, LF/HF and increase of rMSSD, SDSD, normalized HF had significant predictive value for mortality. After adjustment for other univariate predictors including age, urine volume, renal Kt/V, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), the predictive value of decreased LF/HF remained significant. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed mortality rate was much higher in patients with a low LF/HF (median value of 1.56). The decreases of LF/HF which reflects impaired sympathetic nerve regulation is an independent predictor of mortality in PD patients.

  2. Heart rate variability analysis using robust period detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotte, Jørgen H; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2014-09-23

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, which is an important tool for activity assessment of the cardiac autonomic nervous system, very often includes the estimation of power spectra for series of interbeat intervals (IBI). Ectopic beats and artifacts have a destructive effect on the standard methods (Fourier transform, FFT) for frequency analysis. This study investigates an alternative method for calculation of the periodogram using a robust period detection (RPD). Error free IBI series of 5 minutes for 221 subjects during one day were artificially distorted by randomly changing IBI values by ±15-40%. The low to high frequency rate (LF/HF) were calculated from periodograms estimated by the FFT, RPD and Lomb (LSP) methods for both error free and distorted series and for series with removed beats. Log transformed LF/HF values for series with distorted/removed beats were compared to undistorted values by linear regression. For series with 10% of distorted IBI values the regression analysis between distorted and undistorted series showed a goodness of fit, coefficient and intercept of 0.98, 0.94 and 0.02, respectively. In comparison, the values of these parameters were (0.34, 0.46, -1.61) and (0.28, 0.42,-1.32) for the FFT and LSP methods, respectively. Similarly, the comparison between series with removed and undistorted beats yielded goodness of fit, coefficient and intercept of (0.98, 0.96, -0.01), (0.93, 0.78, -0.02) and (0.98, 0.95, 0.19) for RPD, FFT and LSP, respectively. The RPD method demonstrated superior performance compared to the FFT and LSP method by estimation of power spectral characteristics for HRV analysis.

  3. HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH VENTRICULAR EXTRASYSTOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniya Chekashkina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Frequent ventricular extrasystoles (VE can affect haemodynamic indexes and lead to negative consequences for the health of not only an expectant mother, but also a fetus. The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV is recognized as an informative method for noninvasive assessment of the impact of the autonomic nervous system on the cardiovascular system. HRV in pregnant women has been understudied. Therefore, the goal of the present research is to investigate HRV indexes in pregnant women with frequent VE in the 3-rd trimester of pregnancy and early postnatal period. Materials and Methods HRV was estimated in 40 pregnant women with frequent VE, who were divided into 2 groups: group 1– in the 3-rd trimester of pregnancy, and group 2 – in the early postnatal period. A control group included 20 normal pregnant women without any arrhythmias. In addition, HRV indexes in these groups were compared to the indexes in the group of healthy non-pregnant women at the age of 18 to 30. The investigation of HRV was conducted by using the 24-hour HM-ECG with “Valenta” cardioregistrator (Russia. SDNN, SDAN, HRVi, HF, LF, VLF and LF/HF indexes of HRV were under the study. Results The analysis of time indexes revealed the decreased of HRV during pregnancy: in the 3-rd trimester SDNN decreased. In the postnatal period SDNN increased. It was found that rMSSD decresed in pregnant women and increased in the postnatal period that is indicative of enhanced parasympathetic effects. Similar dynamics was noted in analyzing the HF index associated with vagal activity. Vagal activity tended to decrease in pregnancy as compared to its normal values and increased significantly in the early postnatal period. We sould note that the LF waves activity reflecting the sympathetic effects on the heart increased gradually in pregnant women and decreased in the postnatal period. Discussion and Conclusions The investigation of HRV allows to estimate an extent of the autonomic

  4. Effects of Exercise Training on Heart Rate Variability in Chagas Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ramos Nascimento

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart rate variability (HRV is a marker of autonomic dysfunction severity. The effects of physical training on HRV indexes in Chagas heart disease (CHD are not well established. Objective: To evaluate the changes in HRV indexes in response to physical training in CHD. Methods: Patients with CHD and left ventricular (LV dysfunction, physically inactive, were randomized either to the intervention (IG, N = 18 or control group (CG, N = 19. The IG participated in a 12-week exercise program consisting of 3 sessions/week. Results: Mean age was 49.5 ± 8 years, 59% males, mean LVEF was 36.3 ± 7.8%. Baseline HRV indexes were similar between groups. From baseline to follow-up, total power (TP: 1653 (IQ 625 - 3418 to 2794 (1617 - 4452 ms, p = 0.02 and very low frequency power: 586 (290 - 1565 to 815 (610 - 1425 ms, p = 0.047 increased in the IG, but not in the CG. The delta (post - pre HRV indexes were similar: SDNN 11.5 ± 30.0 vs. 3.7 ± 25.1 ms. p = 0.10; rMSSD 2 (6 - 17 vs. 1 (21 - 9 ms. p = 0.43; TP 943 (731 - 3130 vs. 1780 (921 - 2743 Hz. p = 0.46; low frequency power (LFP 1.0 (150 - 197 vs. 60 (111 - 146 Hz. p = 0.85; except for high frequency power, which tended to increase in the IG: 42 (133 - 92 vs. 79 (61 - 328 Hz. p = 0.08. Conclusion: In the studied population, the variation of HRV indexes was similar between the active and inactive groups. Clinical improvement with physical activity seems to be independent from autonomic dysfunction markers in CHD.

  5. Impact of sleep-disordered breathing on heart rate turbulence in heart failure patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiomi Yoshihisa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF. Additionally, heart rate turbulence (HRT reflects changes in the sinus cycle length of baroreceptor in response to hemodynamic fluctuations after ventricular premature beat. Recent studies have suggested that HRT as a marker of vagal activity has a predictive value of poor prognosis in CHF patients. However, little is known about the relationship between SDB and HRT in CHF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 75 patients with CHF were enrolled. We simultaneously performed Holter ECG during a 24-hr period and portable sleep monitoring at nighttime, and determined the respiratory disturbance index (RDI, HRT (turbulence onset (TO and turbulence slope (TS during that 24-hr period. These patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of severe SDB: Group A (RDI≥30, n = 17 and Group B (RDI<30, n = 58. TS was significantly lower in Group A than in Group B across the 24-hr period (nighttime: 3.6±1.1 vs. 6.9±1.3; daytime: 3.7±0.8 vs. 7.0±1.1; all-day: 3.5±0.7 vs. 6.7±0.9% ms/RR, P<0.05, respectively. TO did not differ between the two groups. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between all-day TS and RDI (R = -0.257, P = 0.027. Moreover, in the multiple regression analysis, RDI was an independent factor to determine all-day TS. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe SDB, blunted TS was observed across 24 hours. These results suggest that SDB induce impairment of vagal activity across a 24-hour period and may be associated with poor prognosis in CHF patients.

  6. Prognostic impact of heart rate in elderly with systolic heart failure and concomitant atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barywani, Salim; Petzold, Max

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the impact of resting heart rate (HR) on 5-year all-cause mortality in patients ≥80 years with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF) after optimal up-titration of beta-blockers (BBs). Patients (n = 185) aged ≥80 years with HF and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were included between January 2000 and January 2008 from two university hospitals, Sahlgrenska and Östra and retrospectively studied from January 2 to May 30, 2013. Up-titrations of guideline recommended medications were performed at HF outpatient clinics. Of whole study population, 54% (n= 100) had AF. After optimal up-titration of BBs and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), mean HR in patients with AF was 73 ± 15 beats/minute (bpm), 36% had resting HR ≤65 bpm. Five-year all-cause mortality among patients with AF was significantly lower in patients with HR ≤65 bpm (63%) compared to HR >65 (80%). Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis adjusted for clinically important baseline variables and doses of ACEIs/ARBs and BBs demonstrated resting HR ≤65 bpm as an independent predictor of improved survival compared to resting HR >65 bpm (HR 0.3, 95%CI 0.1-0.7, P 0.005). In octogenarians with HFrEF and concomitant AF, lowering resting HR to levels as low as HR ≤65 bpm was still associated with improved survival from all-cause mortality. Our data indicate that mortality in AF became comparable to SR when patients were on maximally up-titrated beta-blocker doses with HR as low as 75 bpm.

  7. Lagged Poincar\\'{e} and auto-correlation analysis of Heart rate variability in diabetes

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, S K

    2010-01-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) in diabetic human subjects, has been analyzed using lagged Poincar\\'{e} plot, auto-correlation and the detrended fluctuation analysis methods. The parameters $SD1$, and $SD12 (= SD1/SD2)$ for Poincar\\'{e} plot for diabetic are lower than that for non-diabetic subjects and reverse is case for $SD2$ for all lagged number (m). The slope and the curvature of the plot SD12 vs m is much reduced for diabetic subject. The scatter plot of two successive interbeat intervals points out smaller variability in diabetic heart. The detrended fluctuation exponent has a higher value for diabetic group. The auto-correlation function of the deviation of interbeat interval in diabetic group shows highly correlated pattern when compared to that of normal one. The study suggests that the curvature of $SD12$ and auto-correlation method appear to be better way to assess the alteration of regulatory system on heart dynamics in diabetic condition.

  8. Familial co-occurrence of congenital heart defects follows distinct patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina G; Workman, Christopher T; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Loffredo, Christopher A; McBride, Kim L; Hinton, Robert B; van Engelen, Klaartje; Gertsen, Emma C; Mulder, Barbara J M; Postma, Alex V; Anderson, Robert H; Hjortdal, Vibeke E; Brunak, Søren; Larsen, Lars A

    2017-07-02

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) affect almost 1% of all live born children and the number of adults with CHD is increasing. In families where CHD has occurred previously, estimates of recurrence risk, and the type of recurring malformation are important for counselling and clinical decision-making, but the recurrence patterns in families are poorly understood. We aimed to determine recurrence patterns, by investigating the co-occurrences of CHD in 1163 families with known malformations, comprising 3080 individuals with clinically confirmed diagnosis. We calculated rates of concordance and discordance for 41 specific types of malformations, observing a high variability in the rates of concordance and discordance. By calculating odds ratios for each of 1640 pairs of discordant lesions observed between affected family members, we were able to identify 178 pairs of malformations that co-occurred significantly more or less often than expected in families. The data show that distinct groups of cardiac malformations co-occur in families, suggesting influence from underlying developmental mechanisms. Analysis of human and mouse susceptibility genes showed that they were shared in 19% and 20% of pairs of co-occurring discordant malformations, respectively, but none of malformations that rarely co-occur, suggesting that a significant proportion of co-occurring lesions in families is caused by overlapping susceptibility genes. Familial CHD follow specific patterns of recurrence, suggesting a strong influence from genetically regulated developmental mechanisms. Co-occurrence of malformations in families is caused by shared susceptibility genes.

  9. Using Complexity Metrics With R-R Intervals and BPM Heart Rate Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallot, Sebastian; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    on variability of the data, different choices regarding the kind of measures can have a substantial impact on the results. In this article we compare linear and non-linear statistics on two prominent types of heart beat data, beat-to-beat intervals (R-R interval) and beats-per-minute (BPM). As a proof...... of interpersonal coordination. However, there is no consensus about which measurements and analytical tools are most appropriate in mapping the temporal dynamics of heart rate and quite different metrics are reported in the literature. As complexity metrics of heart rate variability depend critically......-of-concept, we employ a simple rest-exercise-rest task and show that non-linear statistics – fractal (DFA) and recurrence (RQA) analyses – reveal information about heart beat activity above and beyond the simple level of heart rate. Non-linear statistics unveil sustained post-exercise effects on heart rate...

  10. Relationship between obesity, negative affect and basal heart rate in predicting heart rate reactivity to psychological stress among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andres E; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M; Baker, Laura A

    2015-08-01

    Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between the Rating Perceived Exertion, Heart Rate and Blood Lactate in Successive Judo Fights (Randori)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Braulio H.M.; Massuça, Luis M.; Andreato, Leonardo V.; Marinho, Bruno F.; Miarka, Bianca; Monteiro, Luis; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the association between the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and the blood lactate concentration ([La]) in successive judo fight simulations (randori). Methods Ten athletes participated in the study (age: 25.6±2.1 years; stature: 1.75±0.07 m; body mass: 75.6±14.9kg; %BF: 11.5±7.8%; practice: 14.5±6.2 years) and completed 4 judo fight simulations (T1 to T4) with duration of 5 min separated by 5 min passive recovery periods. Before each randori, [La] and HR were collected, and after each randori, the same measures and the RPE (CR-10 scale) were collected. Results Significant correlations were observed between: (1) CR-10 and HR (T2: r =0.70; T3: r =0.64; both, Pjudo fight simulations (Pjudo, should be done with caution. PMID:23802054

  12. Wave reflections, arterial stiffness, heart rate variability and orthostatic hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dai-Yin; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Yu, Wen-Chung; Cheng, Hao-Min; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Chen-Huan

    2014-12-01

    Increased arterial stiffness and wave reflections are independently associated with orthostatic hypotension (OH). This study investigated whether heart rate variability (HRV) is also involved in the modulation of orthostatic blood pressure (BP) change. A total of 429 subjects (65.1 ± 16.4 years, 77.4% men) were enrolled in this study. OH was defined as a ⩾ 20 mm Hg decrease in brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP) or a ⩾ 10 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decrease upon standing. Measurements of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and the amplitude of the reflected pressure wave from a decomposed carotid pressure wave (Pb) were obtained by carotid tonometry in the supine position. The power spectrum from a 5-min recording of an electrocardiogram at rest was analyzed to provide components in the high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) ranges. Subjects with OH (n = 59, 13.8%) had significantly higher cf-PWV and Pb and significantly lower LogHF and LogLF than those without OH (n = 370). The cf-PWV, Pb, LogHF and LogLF were significantly associated with postural SBP and DBP changes. Furthermore, cf-PWV but not Pb was significantly associated with LogHF and LogLF. Multivariate analysis showed that Pb (odds ratio (OR) per 1 s.d. 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.282-2.137; P = 0.003) and LogHF (OR 0.628, 95% CI 0.459-0.860, P = 0.004), but not cf-PWV (OR 1.279, 95% CI 0.932-1.755, P = 0.128), were significant independent determinants of OH. Increased wave reflections may predispose OH independently of arterial stiffness and HRV. In contrast, increased arterial stiffness may cause OH through the modulation of HRV.

  13. Reiki improves heart rate homeostasis in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ann Linda; Wagers, Christina; Schwartz, Gary E

    2008-05-01

    To determine whether application of Reiki to noise-stressed rats can reduce their heart rates (HRs) and blood pressures. In a previous study, we showed that exposure of rats to 90 dB white noise for 15 minutes caused their HRs and blood pressures to significantly increase. Reiki has been shown to significantly decrease HR and blood pressure in a small group of healthy human subjects. However, use of humans in such studies has the disadvantage that experimental interpretations are encumbered by the variable of belief or skepticism regarding Reiki. For that reason, noise-stressed rats were used as an animal model to test the efficacy of Reiki in reducing elevated HR and blood pressure. Three unrestrained, male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with radiotelemetric transducers were exposed daily for 8 days to a 15-minute white noise regimen (90 dB). For the last 5 days, the rats received 15 minutes of Reiki immediately before the noise and during the noise period. The experiment was repeated on the same animals but using sham Reiki. The animals were housed in a quiet room in University of Arizona Animal Facility. Mean HRs and blood pressure were determined before Reiki/sham Reiki, during Reiki/sham Reiki, and during the noise in each case. Reiki, but not sham Reiki, significantly reduced HR compared to initial values. With Reiki, there was a high correlation between change in HR and initial HR, suggesting a homeostatic effect. Reiki, but not sham Reiki, significantly reduced the rise in HR produced by exposure of the rats to loud noise. Neither Reiki nor sham Reiki significantly affected blood pressure. Reiki is effective in modulating HR in stressed and unstressed rats, supporting its use as a stress-reducer in humans.

  14. Gum chewing modulates heart rate variability under noise stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Takeuchi, Noriko; Morita, Manabu

    2012-12-01

    Gum chewing may relieve stress, although this hypothesis has not been proven. Heart-rate variability (HRV) is commonly used to measure stress levels. However, it is not known if gum chewing modulates HRV under acute stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of gum chewing on HRV under acute stress. A cross-over study involving 47 non-smoking healthy subjects, aged 22-27 years, was carried out. The subjects received a stress procedure with gum chewing (GS group) and without gum chewing (S group). Additionally, the other 20 subjects were allocated to the gum chewing without stress group (G group). The GS and S groups were exposed to noise for 5 min (75 dBA) as stress. Before and after stress exposure/gum chewing, participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s) and a single Stress Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) measurement. HRV measurement was performed before and during stress/gum chewing for 5 min. After the stress procedure, VAS score significantly increased in the GS and S groups. During the stress procedure, the GS group showed a significantly lower level of high frequency (HF) and higher levels of low frequency (LF) and LF/HF than the S group. However, there were no significant differences in the scores of the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s) and VAS between the two stress groups. These findings suggest that gum chewing modulates HRV, but may not relieve acute stress caused by noise.

  15. Association of Fetal Heart Rate Baseline Change and Neonatal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Michael; Stout, Molly J; López, Julia D; Colvin, Ryan; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2017-07-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of baseline change within normal range during labor and its prediction of neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods This was a prospective cohort of singleton, nonanomalous, term neonates with continuous electronic fetal monitoring and normal baseline fetal heart rate throughout the last 2 hours of labor. We determined baseline in 10-minute segments using Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development criteria. We evaluated baseline changes of ≥ 20 and ≥ 30 bpm for association with acidemia (umbilical cord arterial pH ≤ 7.10) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Finally, we performed a sensitivity analysis of normal neonates, excluding those with acidemia, NICU admission, or 5-minute Apgar bpm; 272 (9.0%) had ≥ 30 bpm. Among normal neonates (n = 2,939), 1,221 (41.5%) had change ≥20 bpm. Acidemia was not associated with baseline change of any direction or magnitude. NICU admission was associated with decrease ≥ 20 bpm (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19 - 7.21) or any direction ≥ 20 bpm (aOR: 4.06; 95% CI: 1.46-11.29). For decrease ≥ 20 bpm, sensitivity and specificity were 40.0 and 81.7%; for any direction ≥ 20 bpm, 75.0 and 58.3%. Conclusion Changes of normal baseline are common in term labor and poorly predict morbidity, regardless of direction or magnitude. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Isoflurane depresses baroreflex control of heart rate in decerebrate rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong S; Morrow, Don; Andresen, Michael C; Chang, Kyoung S K

    2002-05-01

    Isoflurane inhibits baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) by poorly understood mechanisms. The authors examined whether suprapontine central nervous system cardiovascular regulatory sites are required for anesthetic depression. The effects of isoflurane (1 and 2 rat minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]) on the baroreflex control of HR were determined in sham intact and midcollicular-transected decerebrate rats. Intravenous phenylephrine (0.2-12 microg/kg) and nitroprusside (1-60 microg/kg) were used to measure HR responses to peak changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Sigmoidal logistic curve fits to HR-MAP data assessed baroreflex sensitivity (HR/MAP), HR range, lower and upper HR plateau, and MAP at half the HR range (BP50). Four groups (two brain intact and two decerebrate) were studied before, during, and after isoflurane. To assess sympathetic and vagal contributions to HR baroreflex, beta-adrenoceptor (1 mg/kg atenolol) or muscarinic (0.5 mg/kg methyl atropine) antagonists were administered systemically. Decerebration did not alter resting MAP and HR or baroreflex parameters. Isoflurane depressed baroreflex slope and HR range in brain-intact and decerebrate rats. In both groups, 1 MAC reduced HR range by depressing peak reflex tachycardia. Maximal reflex bradycardia during increases in blood pressure was relatively preserved. Atenolol during 1 MAC did not alter maximum reflex tachycardia. In contrast, atropine during 1 MAC fully blocked reflex bradycardia. Therefore, 1 MAC predominantly depresses sympathetic components of HR baroreflex. Isoflurane at 2 MAC depressed both HR plateaus and decreased BP50 in both groups. Isoflurane depresses HR baroreflex control by actions that do not require suprapontine central nervous system sites. Isoflurane actions seem to inhibit HR baroreflex primarily by the sympathetic nervous system.

  17. Postural Heart Rate Changes in Young Patients With Vasovagal Syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medow, Marvin S; Merchant, Sana; Suggs, Melissa; Terilli, Courtney; O'Donnell-Smith, Breige; Stewart, Julian M

    2017-04-01

    Recurrent postural vasovagal syncope (VVS) is caused by transient cerebral hypoperfusion from episodic hypotension and bradycardia; diagnosis is made by medical history. VVS contrasts with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), defined by chronic daily symptoms of orthostatic intolerance with excessive upright tachycardia without hypotension. POTS has recently been conflated with VVS when excessive tachycardia is succeeded by hypotension during tilt testing. We hypothesize that excessive tachycardia preceding hypotension and bradycardia is part of the vasovagal response during tilt testing of patients with VVS. We prospectively performed head-up tilt (HUT) testing on patients with recurrent VVS (n = 47, 17.9 ± 1.1 y), who fainted at least 3 times within the last year, and control subjects (n = 15, 17.1 ± 1.0 y), from age and BMI-matched volunteers and measured blood pressure, heart rate (HR), cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and end tidal carbon dioxide. Baseline parameters were the same in both groups. HR (supine versus 5 and 10 minutes HUT) significantly increased in control (65 ± 2.6 vs 83 ± 3.6 vs 85 ± 3.7, P < .001) and patients with VVS (69 ± 1.6 vs 103 ± 2.3 vs 109 ± 2.4, P < .001). HUT in controls maximally increased HR by 20.3 ± 2.9 beats per minute; the increase in patients with VVS of 39.8 ± 2.1 beats per minute was significantly greater (P < .001). An increase in HR of ≥40 beats per minute by 5 and 10 minutes or before faint with HUT, occurred in 26% and 44% of patients with VVS, respectively, but not in controls. Orthostasis in VVS is accompanied by large increases in HR that should not be construed as POTS. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Heart rate variability (HRV): an indicator of stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Balvinder; Durek, Joseph J.; O'Kane, Barbara L.; Tran, Nhien; Moses, Sophia; Luthra, Megha; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N.

    2014-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) can be an important indicator of several conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system, including traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder and peripheral neuropathy [3], [4], [10] & [11]. Recent work has shown that some of the HRV features can potentially be used for distinguishing a subject's normal mental state from a stressed one [4], [13] & [14]. In all of these past works, although processing is done in both frequency and time domains, few classification algorithms have been explored for classifying normal from stressed RRintervals. In this paper we used 30 s intervals from the Electrocardiogram (ECG) time series collected during normal and stressed conditions, produced by means of a modified version of the Trier social stress test, to compute HRV-driven features and subsequently applied a set of classification algorithms to distinguish stressed from normal conditions. To classify RR-intervals, we explored classification algorithms that are commonly used for medical applications, namely 1) logistic regression (LR) [16] and 2) linear discriminant analysis (LDA) [6]. Classification performance for various levels of stress over the entire test was quantified using precision, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity measures. Results from both classifiers were then compared to find an optimal classifier and HRV features for stress detection. This work, performed under an IRB-approved protocol, not only provides a method for developing models and classifiers based on human data, but also provides a foundation for a stress indicator tool based on HRV. Further, these classification tools will not only benefit many civilian applications for detecting stress, but also security and military applications for screening such as: border patrol, stress detection for deception [3],[17], and wounded-warrior triage [12].

  19. Heart Rate Response of Professional Musicians When Playing Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L; Irwin, Conor; Lightfoot, J T

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim was to determine the level of physiological stress evoked while playing music in a standing position as indicated by heart rate (HR) response. A secondary aim was to analyze the effect of music genre (classic rock, western, contemporary Christian, and metal rock) on the relative HR response. Lastly, we considered potential physiological initiators of the music-playing-induced HR response. HR response was monitored in 27 professional musicians (3 women, 24 men) between the ages of 21 and 67 yrs old during rehearsal and public performances. The percent maximal HR (%MHR) evoked was determined by taking a percentage of the age-predicted maximal HR for each musician and comparing the average %MHR in each genre during public and rehearsal events. The role of the potential initiators of these responses (e.g., number of years playing in public, event type, instrument type, tempo, etc.) was determined using multiple regression analyses. The overall average %MHR responses were 52 ± 5% and 59 ± 5% during rehearsal and public performances, respectively, with genre type having a significant effect on the HR response (p=0.01). Body mass index and tempo were each found to be significant contributors to the HR response while playing music (r²=0.506, p=0.001). Playing music professionally evokes considerable increases in HR response, with music genre influencing the level of the physiological response. We concluded that 50% of the HR response while playing music was associated with body mass index, music tempo, and instrument type.

  20. VASCULAR REMODELING AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN DIFFERENT ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Golovanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of the long-term antihypertensive monotherapy with indapamide (Arifon Retard, 1,5 mg/d, metoprolol tartrate (Egilok Retard, 50 mg/d and combined therapy with indapamide and perindopril (Noliprel Forte, 1 tab/d: perindopril 4 mg and indapamide 1,25 mg on pulse wave velocity (PWV, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI and the sympathetic system activity.Material and methods. 88 patients, aged 30-59 y.o. (32 normotensive patients, 56 with arterial hypertension [HT] of 1-2 grades were examined. Biological age (BA was determined by the linear regression and the vascular wall age (VWA was estimated with the use of volume sphygmography (“VaSera-1000”, “Fucuda Denshi”, Japan. 39 patients with HT were randomized into 3 parallel groups with studied therapies lasted for 6 months. PWV, CAVI of the vessels of elastic, muscular and mixed types, blood pressure, measured in upper and lower extremities and heart rate variability (HRV were determined before and at the end of the therapies.Results. BA and VWA were elevated in all of patients with HT as compared with normotensive patients. The reduction in PWV and CAVI of the vessels of elastic and mixed types, HRV increase were found in patients with Arifon Retard monotherapy. Monotherapy with metoprolol significantly improved HVR without any influence on the vascular remodeling. Noliprel Forte significantly decreased in blood pressure in the upper and lower extremities, PWV and CAVI of the vessels of all types, decreased in VWA and increased in parasympathetic drive.Conclusion. Long-term therapy with Arifon Retard and Noliprel Forte resulted in decrease in vascular remodeling and increase in HRV simultaneously with significant antihypertensive effect in patients with HT. Metoprolol low doses therapy resulted in normalization of autonomic drive independently on antihypertensive action.

  1. Estimating mental fatigue based on electroencephalogram and heart rate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Yu, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    The effects of long term mental arithmetic task on psychology are investigated by subjective self-reporting measures and action performance test. Based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), the impacts of prolonged cognitive activity on central nervous system and autonomic nervous system are observed and analyzed. Wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are combined to estimate the change of mental fatigue. Then wavelet packet parameters of EEG which change significantly are extracted as the features of brain activity in different mental fatigue state, support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is applied to differentiate two mental fatigue states. The experimental results show that long term mental arithmetic task induces the mental fatigue. The wavelet packet parameters of EEG and power spectral indices of HRV are strongly correlated with mental fatigue. The predominant activity of autonomic nervous system of subjects turns to the sympathetic activity from parasympathetic activity after the task. Moreover, the slow waves of EEG increase, the fast waves of EEG and the degree of disorder of brain decrease compared with the pre-task. The SVM algorithm can effectively differentiate two mental fatigue states, which achieves the maximum classification accuracy (91%). The SVM algorithm could be a promising tool for the evaluation of mental fatigue. Fatigue, especially mental fatigue, is a common phenomenon in modern life, is a persistent occupational hazard for professional. Mental fatigue is usually accompanied with a sense of weariness, reduced alertness, and reduced mental performance, which would lead the accidents in life, decrease productivity in workplace and harm the health. Therefore, the evaluation of mental fatigue is important for the occupational risk protection, productivity, and occupational health.

  2. Pattern of congenital heart defects in children with Down syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is thus important to diagnose and intervene early to improve the quality of life. Few studies have been done on Down syndrome patients in Nigeria. Objective: The objective was to find out the incidence and types of congenital heart defects in Down syndrome patients seen in the Paediatric cardiology unit of this tertiary ...

  3. Health actions and disease patterns related to coronary heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-21

    Jul 21, 1990 ... included the London School of Hygiene questionnaire for chest pain.7 A medical history related to CHD was obtained. This included questions on hypertension, ..... The coexistence of the major coronary heart disease risk factors in the coloured population of the Cape Peninsula. (The CRISIC studr).

  4. Health actions and disease patterns related to coronary heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The health-related behaviour of the Cape Peninsula coloured population, which has been shown to have an adverse coronary heart disease (CHO) risk factor profile, is reported. Private medical services were used most often by participants: 54,1% and 51,6% of males and females respectively had made use of these ...

  5. The Predictive Value of Resting Heart rate Following Osmotherapy in Brain injury: Back to Basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Hasanpour Mir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of resting heart rate as a prognostic factor was described in several studies. An elevated heart rate is an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events and total mortality in patients with coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and the general population. Also heart rate is elevated in the Multi Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS and the mortality due to MODS is highly correlated with inadequate sinus tachycardia.To evaluate the value of resting heart rate in predicting mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury along scoring systems like Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation(APACHE II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS.Method: By analyzing data which was collected from an open labeled randomized clinical trial that compared the different means of osmotherapy (mannitol vs bolus or infusion hypertonic saline, heart rate, GCS, APACHE II and SOFA score were measured at baseline and daily for 7 days up to 60 days and the relationship between elevatedheart rate and mortality during the first 7 days and 60th day were assessed.Results: After adjustments for confounding factors, although there was no difference in mean heart rate between either groups of alive and expired patients, however, we have found a relative correlation between 60th day mortality rate and resting heart rate (P=0.07.Conclusion: Heart rate can be a prognostic factor for estimating mortality rate in brain injury patients along with APACHE II and SOFA scores in patients with brain injury.Keywords: Heart rate, APACHE II score, SOFA score, GCS score, Head injury

  6. Sputum Conversion Rate And Defaulter Pattern Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sputum Conversion Rate And Defaulter Pattern Among Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Three Years Of Dots Regimen At The University Of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu. ... Younger age of patient and place of domicile did not significantly affect the tendency to default form therapy mortality rate was 2.4%.

  7. NUMERIC ANALYSIS OF HEART-RATE VARIATION IN INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDED FETUSES - A LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SNIJDERS, RJM; RIBBERT, LSM; VISSER, GHA; MULDER, EJH

    OBJECTIVE: We attempted to determine changes occurring with time in fetal heart rate and its variation in fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation in whom late antepartum fetal heart rate decelerations eventually develop. STUDY DESIGN: Thirteen fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation were

  8. Elevated resting heart rate, physical fitness and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Suadicani, Poul; Hein, Hans Ole

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max).......To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max)....

  9. Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hoed, M.A.H.; Eijgelsheim, M.; Esko, T.; Brundel, B.J.; Peal, D.S.; Evans, D.M.; Nolte, I.M.; Segrè, A.V.; Holm, H.; Handsaker, R.E.; Westra, H.J.; Johnson, T.; Isaacs, A.; Yang, L.; Lundby, A.; Zhao, J.H.; Kim, Y.J.; Go, M.J.; Almgren, P.; Bochud, M.; Boucher, G.; Cornelis, M.C.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Hadley, D.; van der Harst, P.; Hayward, C.; den Heijer, M.; Igl, W.; Jackson, A.U.; Kutalik, Z.; Luan, J.; Kemp, J.P.; Kristiansson, K.; Ladenvall, C.; Lorentzon, M.; Montasser, M.E.; Njajou, O.T.; O'Reilly, P.F.; Padmanabhan, S.; St Pourcain, B.; Rankinen, T.; Salo, P.; Tanaka, T.; Timpson, N.J.; Vitart, V.; Waite, L.; Wheeler, W.; Zhang, W.; Draisma, H.H.M.; Feitosa, M.F.; Kerr, K.F.; Lind, P.A.; Mihailov, E.; Onland-Moret, N.C.; Song, C.; Weedon, M.N.; Xie, W.; Yengo, L.; Absher, D.; Albert, C.M.; Alonso, A.; Arking, D.E.; de Bakker, P.I.; Balkau, B.; Barlassina, C.; Benaglio, P.; Bis, J.C.; Bouatia-Naji, N.; Brage, S.; Chanock, S.J.; Chines, P.S.; Chung, M.; Darbar, D.; Dina, C.; Dörr, M.; Elliott, P.; Felix, S.B.; Fischer, K.; Fuchsberger, C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Goyette, P.; Gudnason, V.; Harris, T.B.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Havulinna, A.S.; Heckbert, S.R.; Hicks, A.A.; Hofman, A.; Holewijn, S.; Hoogstra-Berends, F.; Hottenga, J.J.; Jensen, M.K.; Johansson, A.; Junttila, J.; Kääb, S.; Kanon, B.; Ketkar, S.; Khaw, K.T.; Knowles, J.W.; Kooner, A.S.; Kors, J.A.; Kumari, M.; Milani, L.; Laiho, P.; Lakatta, E.G.; Langenberg, C.; Leusink, M.; Liu, Y.; Luben, R.N.; Lunetta, K.L.; Lynch, S.N.; Markus, M.R.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Mateo Leach, I.; McArdle, W.L.; McCarroll, S.A.; Medland, S.E.; Miller, K.A.; Montgomery, G.W.; Morrison, A.C.; Müller-Nurasyid, M.; Navarro, P.; Nelis, M.; O'Connell, J.R.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Ong, K.K.; Newman, A.B.; Peters, A.; Polasek, O.; Pouta, A.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Psaty, B.M.; Rao, D.C.; Ring, S.M.; Rossin, E.J.; Rudan, D.; Sanna, S.; Scott, R.A.; Sehmi, J.S.; Sharp, S.; Shin, J.T.; Singleton, A.B.; Smith, A.V.; Soranzo, N.; Spector, T.D.; Stewart, C.; Stringham, H.M.; Tarasov, K.V.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Vandenput, L.; Hwang, S.J.; Whitfield, J.B.; Wijmenga, C.; Wild, S.H.; Willemsen, G.; Wilson, J.F.; Witteman, J.C.; Wong, A.; Wong, Q.; Jamshidi, Y.; Zitting, P.; Boer, J.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Borecki, I.B.; van Duijn, C.M.; Ekelund, U.; Forouhi, N.G.; Froguel, P.; Hingorani, A.D.; Ingelsson, E.; Kivimaki, M.; Kronmal, R.A.; Kuh, D; Lind, L.; Martin, N.G.; Oostra, B.A.; Pedersen, N.L.; Quertermous, T.; Rotter, J.I.; van der Schouw, Y.T.; Verschuren, W.M.; Walker, M.; Albanes, D.; Arnar, D.O.; Assimes, T.L.; Bandinelli, S.; Boehnke, M.; de Boer, R.A.; Bouchard, C.; Caulfield, W.L.; Chambers, J.C.; Curhan, G.; Cusi, D.; Eriksson, J.; Ferrucci, L.; van Gilst, W.H.; Glorioso, N.; de Graaf, J.; Groop, L.; Gyllensten, U.; Hsueh, W.C.; Hu, F.B.; Huikuri, H.V.; Hunter, D.J.; Iribarren, C.; Isomaa, B.; Järvelin, M.R.; Jula, A.; Kähönen, M.; Kiemeney, L.A.; van der Klauw, M.M.; Kooner, J.S.; Kraft, P.; Iacoviello, L.; Lehtimäki, T.; Lokki, M.L.; Mitchell, B.D.; Navis, G.; Nieminen, M.S.; Ohlsson, C.; Poulter, N.R.; Qi, L.; Raitakari, O.T.; Rimm, E.B.; Rioux, J.D.; Rizzi, F.; Rudan, I.; Salomaa, V.; Sever, P.S.; Shields, D.C.; Shuldiner, A.R.; Sinisalo, J.; Stanton, A.V.; Stolk, R.P.; Strachan, D.P.; Tardif, J.C.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Tuomilehto, J.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Virtamo, J.; Viikari, J.; Vollenweider, P.; Waeber, G.; Widen, E.; Cho, Y.S.; Olsen, J.V.; Visscher, P.M.; Willer, C.J.; Franke, L; Erdmann, J.; Thompson, J.R.; Pfeufer, A.; Sotoodehnia, N.; Newton-Cheh, C.; Ellinor, P.T.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Metspalu, A.; Perola, M.; Beckmann, J.S.; Smith, G.D.; Stefansson, K.; Wareham, N.J.; Munroe, P.B.; Sibon, O.C.M.; Milan, D.J.; Snieder, H.; Samani, N.J.; Loos, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously

  10. Modulations of Heart Rate, ECG, and Cardio-Respiratory Coupling Observed in Polysomnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Penzel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cardiac component of cardio-respiratory polysomnography is covered by ECG and heart rate recordings. However their evaluation is often underrepresented in summarizing reports. As complements to EEG, EOG, and EMG, these signals provide diagnostic information for autonomic nervous activity during sleep. This review presents major methodological developments in sleep research regarding heart rate, ECG and cardio-respiratory couplings in a chronological (historical sequence. It presents physiological and pathophysiological insights related to sleep medicine obtained by new technical developments. Recorded nocturnal ECG facilitates conventional heart rate variability analysis, studies of cyclical variations of heart rate, and analysis of ECG waveform. In healthy adults, the autonomous nervous system is regulated in totally different ways during wakefulness, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep. Analysis of beat-to-beat heart-rate variations with statistical methods enables us to estimate sleep stages based on the differences in autonomic nervous system regulation. Furthermore, up to some degree, it is possible to track transitions from wakefulness to sleep by analysis of heart-rate variations. ECG and heart rate analysis allow assessment of selected sleep disorders as well. Sleep disordered breathing can be detected reliably by studying cyclical variation of heart rate combined with respiration-modulated changes in ECG morphology (amplitude of R wave and T wave.

  11. Association between vasomotor hot flashes and heart rate variability in recently postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoikkala, Hanna; Haapalahti, Petri; Viitasalo, Matti; Väänänen, Heikki; Sovijärvi, Anssi R A; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Mikkola, Tomi S

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cardiovascular autonomic reactivity and risk profile are associated with the frequency and severity of hot flashes in recently postmenopausal women. A total of 150 postmenopausal women with varying degrees of severity of hot flashes (none, mild, moderate, or severe) underwent 24-hour electrocardiographic recording. The function of the autonomic nervous system was assessed via heart rate variability in time and frequency domains. The effects of hot flashes on cardiac autonomic function were studied by assessing heart rate variability in the presence and absence of symptoms. There were no differences in mean heart rate, heart rate extremes, or total number of ectopic beats between women without and women with mild, moderate, or severe hot flashes. However, most women (14/17, 82%) with frequent ventricular ectopic beats and all women with ventricular runs belonged to the symptomatic groups. Although there were no differences in 24-hour or nighttime heart rate variability between the study groups, the very-low-frequency spectral component of heart rate variability increased by 72% (P hot flash period compared with the control period and was accompanied by an increase in heart rate (3%; P hot flashes in recently postmenopausal women. However, during a hot flash episode, there were signs of altered autonomic control of heart rate, which may be involved in the regulatory mechanisms of hot flashes.

  12. Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Hoed, Marcel; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Esko, Tõnu

    2013-01-01

    Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously es...

  13. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: Implications for monitoring training : Implications for monitoring training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R.P.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Durandt, J.J.; Lambert, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four

  14. Problem behavior and heart rate reactivity in adopted adolescents: Longitudinal and concurrent relations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bimmel, N.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Juffer, F.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset

  15. The Influence of Motor Impairment on Autonomic Heart Rate Modulation among Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuner, Antonio Roberto; Cunha, Andrea Baraldi; da Silva, Ester; Negri, Ana Paola; Tudella, Eloisa; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    The study of heart rate variability is an important tool for a noninvasive evaluation of the neurocardiac integrity. The present study aims to evaluate the autonomic heart rate modulation in supine and standing positions in 12 children diagnosed with cerebral palsy and 16 children with typical motor development (control group), as well as to…

  16. Resemblances of Parents and Twins in Sport Participation and Heart Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, D.I.; van den Bree, M.B.; Orlebeke, J.F.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    1989-01-01

    A model to analyze resemblances of twins and parents using LISREL is outlined and applied to sports participation and heart-rate data. Sports participation and heart rate were measured in 44 monozygotic and 46 dizygotic adolescent twin pairs and in their parents. Genetic factors influence variation

  17. Skeletal muscle signaling and the heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads

    2013-01-01

    -extensor training and 2 weeks of deconditioning of the other leg (leg cast). Hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotides were determined during exercise with the (1) deconditioned leg, (2) trained leg, and (3) trained leg with atrial pacing to the heart rate obtained with the deconditioned leg. Heart rate...

  18. Autonomic heart-rate control in response to standing in toxemic and normotensive primigravid pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WJ Jaspers; PA de Jong; PJ Kurver; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    1984-01-01

    Heart-rate changes after transition from a supine to a standing posture were measured in 12 hypertensive and 12 normotensive primigravid women, in their last trimester of gestation. The subjects beat-to-beat heart-rate (HR) changes were recorded on both an ordinary cardiotocograph and on magnetic

  19. Heart rate variability and the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Melanie I; Tulppo, Mikko P; Kiviniemi, Antti M; Petrella, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    A number of cross-sectional studies have examined associations between heart rate variability and metabolic syndrome, but differences in study populations, data collection and analysis methodologies make synthesis difficult. The purpose of this study was to systematically review published primary research examining associations between heart rate variability and metabolic syndrome or its individual risk factors. A systematic literature search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted to identify relevant articles published from January 1999 to December 2012. Studies were included if they examined associations between heart rate variability analysed by standard protocols and metabolic syndrome risk factors according to published definitions. All papers were scored with a modified Downs and Black instrument, and data were extracted. Fourteen studies were included. Heart rate variability generally was reduced in women with metabolic syndrome compared to those without, while results in men were inconsistent. Time and frequency domain heart rate variability parameters were associated with individual metabolic syndrome risk factors, though sex differences exist. Only two studies considered nonlinear and Poincaré plot heart rate variability parameters, which were reduced in metabolic syndrome. Heart rate variability is altered differently in men and women with metabolic syndrome. Future studies should follow consistent heart rate variability analysis protocols and metabolic syndrome definitions and include more comprehensive analyses to investigate potential mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hoed, Marcel; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Esko, Tonu; Brundel, Bianca J. J. M.; Peal, David S.; Evans, David M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Segre, Ayellet V.; Holm, Hilma; Handsaker, Robert E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Johnson, Toby; Isaacs, Aaron; Yang, Jian; Lundby, Alicia; Zhao, Jing Hua; Kim, Young Jin; Go, Min Jin; Almgren, Peter; Bochud, Murielle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Hadley, David; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; den Heijer, Martin; Igl, Wilmar; Jackson, Anne U.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Luan, Jian'an; Kemp, John P.; Kristiansson, Kati; Ladenvall, Claes; Lorentzon, Mattias; Montasser, May E.; Njajou, Omer T.; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pourcain, Beate St.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Salo, Perttu; Tanaka, Toshiko; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Vitart, Veronique; Waite, Lindsay; Wheeler, William; Zhang, Weihua; Draisma, Harmen H. M.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Lind, Penelope A.; Mihailov, Evelin; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Song, Ci; Weedon, Michael N.; Xie, Weijia; Yengo, Loic; Absher, Devin; Albert, Christine M.; Alonso, Alvaro; Arking, Dan E.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Balkau, Beverley; Barlassina, Cristina; Benaglio, Paola; Bis, Joshua C.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Brage, Soren; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chines, Peter S.; Chung, Mina; Darbar, Dawood; Dina, Christian; Doerr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Felix, Stephan B.; Fischer, Krista; Fuchsberger, Christian; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Goyette, Philippe; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Havulinna, Aki S.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hofman, Albert; Holewijn, Suzanne; Hoogstra-Berends, Femke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Jensen, Majken K.; Johansson, Asa; Junttila, Juhani; Kaeaeb, Stefan; Kanon, Bart; Ketkar, Shamika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kooner, Angrad S.; Kors, Jan A.; Kumari, Meena; Milani, Lili; Laiho, Paeivi; Lakatta, Edward G.; Langenberg, Claudia; Leusink, Maarten; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert N.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Lynch, Stacey N.; Markus, Marcello R. P.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Mateo Leach, Irene; McArdle, Wendy L.; McCarroll, Steven A.; Medland, Sarah E.; Miller, Kathryn A.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Navarro, Pau; Nelis, Mari; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Ong, Ken K.; Newman, Anne B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Ring, Susan M.; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Rudan, Diana; Sanna, Serena; Scott, Robert A.; Sehmi, Jaban S.; Sharp, Stephen; Shin, Jordan T.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Albert V.; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D.; Stewart, Chip; Stringham, Heather M.; Tarasov, Kirill V.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Whitfield, John B.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Wong, Andrew; Wong, Quenna; Jamshidi, Yalda; Zitting, Paavo; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ekelund, Ulf; Forouhi, Nita G.; Froguel, Philippe; Hingorani, Aroon; Ingelsson, Erik; Kivimaki, Mika; Kronmal, Richard A.; Kuh, Diana; Lind, Lars; Martin, Nicholas G.; Oostra, Ben A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rotter, Jerome I.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Walker, Mark; Albanes, Demetrius; Arnar, David O.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Boehnke, Michael; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Bouchard, Claude; Caulfield, W. L. Mark; Chambers, John C.; Curhan, Gary; Cusi, Daniele; Eriksson, Johan; Ferrucci, Luigi; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Glorioso, Nicola; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Groop, Leif; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Hu, Frank B.; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Hunter, David J.; Iribarren, Carlos; Isomaa, Bo; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kahonen, Mika; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kraft, Peter; Iacoviello, Licia; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lokki, Marja-Liisa L.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Navis, Gerjan; Nieminen, Markku S.; Ohlsson, Claes; Poulter, Neil R.; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rimm, Eric B.; Rioux, John D.; Rizzi, Federica; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sever, Peter S.; Shields, Denis C.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Stanton, Alice V.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strachan, David P.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tuomilehto, Jaako; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Widen, Elisabeth; Cho, Yoon Shin; Olsen, Jesper V.; Visscher, Peter M.; Willer, Cristen; Franke, Lude; Erdmann, Jeanette; Thompson, John R.; Pfeufer, Arne; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch; Metspalu, Andres; Perola, Markus; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Smith, George Davey; Stefansson, Kari; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Sibon, Ody C. M.; Milan, David J.; Snieder, Harold; Samani, Nilesh J.; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously

  1. Heart Rates of Elementary Physical Education Students during the Dancing Classrooms Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Larry; Evans, Melissa; Guess, Wendy; Morris, Mary; Olson, Terry; Buckwalter, John

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different types of dance activities, along with their duration, influenced heart rate responses among fifth-grade physical education students (N = 96) who participated in the Dancing Classrooms program. Results indicated that the overall Dancing Classrooms program elicits a moderate cardiovascular heart rate response (M = 124.4…

  2. Decreased nighttime heart rate variability is associated with increased stroke risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binici, Zeynep; Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Køber, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of stroke in healthy individuals is challenging and there is a diurnal variation of stroke onset. We hypothesized that heart rate variability with a focus on nighttime heart rate variability will predict the risk of stroke in apparently healthy middle-age and elderly subjects....

  3. Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Regulation to Familiar and Unfamiliar People in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Lebow, Jocelyn; Bal, Elgiz; Lamb, Damon; Harden, Emily; Kramer, Alexis; Denver, John; Bazhenova, Olga; Porges, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether familiarity of partner affects social responses in children with autism. This study investigated heart rate regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]: The myelinated vagus nerve's regulation of heart rate) and temporal-parietal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity while nineteen 8- to 12-year-old children with…

  4. Reproducibility of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity measurements in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, Andrea; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Althaus, Monika; van Roon, Arie M.; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Riese, Harriette

    Despite their extensive use, the reproducibility of cardiac autonomic measurements in children is not well-known. We investigated the reproducibility of short-term continuous measurements of heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV, time and frequency domain), and spontaneous baroreflex

  5. Modulations of Heart Rate, ECG, and Cardio-Respiratory Coupling Observed in Polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzel, Thomas; Kantelhardt, Jan W; Bartsch, Ronny P; Riedl, Maik; Kraemer, Jan F; Wessel, Niels; Garcia, Carmen; Glos, Martin; Fietze, Ingo; Schöbel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac component of cardio-respiratory polysomnography is covered by ECG and heart rate recordings. However, their evaluation is often underrepresented in summarizing reports. As complements to EEG, EOG, and EMG, these signals provide diagnostic information for autonomic nervous activity during sleep. This review presents major methodological developments in sleep research regarding heart rate, ECG, and cardio-respiratory couplings in a chronological (historical) sequence. It presents physiological and pathophysiological insights related to sleep medicine obtained by new technical developments. Recorded nocturnal ECG facilitates conventional heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, studies of cyclical variations of heart rate, and analysis of ECG waveform. In healthy adults, the autonomous nervous system is regulated in totally different ways during wakefulness, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep. Analysis of beat-to-beat heart-rate variations with statistical methods enables us to estimate sleep stages based on the differences in autonomic nervous system regulation. Furthermore, up to some degree, it is possible to track transitions from wakefulness to sleep by analysis of heart-rate variations. ECG and heart rate analysis allow assessment of selected sleep disorders as well. Sleep disordered breathing can be detected reliably by studying cyclical variation of heart rate combined with respiration-modulated changes in ECG morphology (amplitude of R wave and T wave).

  6. Neighborhood blight, stress, and health: a walking trial of urban greening and ambulatory heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenia C. South; Michelle C. Kondo; Rose A. Cheney; Charles C. Branas

    2015-01-01

    We measured dynamic stress responses using ambulatory heart rate monitoring as participants in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania walked past vacant lots before and after a greening remediation treatment of randomly selected lots. Being in view of a greened vacant lot decreased heart rate significantly more than did being in view of a nongreened vacant lot or not in view of...

  7. Heart Rate Level and Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jame; Raine, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether antisocial children are characterized by low heart rate. Method: A meta-analysis was conducted on 45 independent effect sizes of the resting heart rate-antisocial behavior relationship obtained from 40 studies meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were conducted between 1971 to 2002 using a total of 5,868…

  8. Using Heart Rate Monitors in Research on Fitness Levels of Children in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Brad; Reeder, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of heart rate monitors (HRMs) in fitness research and examines heart rate intensity levels of middle school students while they participated in a variety of physical education activities throughout a school year. Research shows the HRM has considerable potential in assessing fitness achievements in school-age children. (GLR)

  9. External physical stimulation of the human-fetus during episodes of low heart-rate variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.; ZEELENBERG, HJ; DEVRIES, JIP; DAWES, GS

    1983-01-01

    The effect of shaking the fetus through the maternal abdomen during episodes of low (nonreactive) fetal heart rate variation was studied in 10 healthy nulliparous women near term. Heart rate monitoring from an abdominal electrocardiogram was combined with real-time scanning for body movements and

  10. Middle School Student's Heart Rates during Different Curricular Activities in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Carson, Russell L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students' heart rate outcomes in physical education varied as a function of activity and grade. A total of 146 sixth to eighth graders participated in different activities (i.e., walking/jogging, line dancing, soccer, and catch ball). Their average heart rate (AHR) and percentage of time in and above…

  11. Eurythmy therapy increases specific oscillations of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Minnerop, Antje; Trapp, Barbara; Büssing, Arndt; Cysarz, Dirk

    2015-06-06

    Mind-body therapies are beneficial for several diseases (e.g. chronic pain, arterial hypertension, mood disorders). Eurythmy therapy (EYT) is a mind-body therapy from Anthroposophic Medicine. In each EYT exercise a short sequence of body movements and simultaneous guided imagery is repeated several times. In this study, the simultaneous effects of two different EYT exercises on cardiac autonomic regulation as assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) were investigated. Twenty healthy subjects (age: 29.1 ± 9.3 years, 13 female) performed two different EYT exercises (EYT-A and EYT-B) for 8 min. Each EYT exercise was compared against two matched control exercises: control exercise 1 (CE1-A and CE1-B) consisted of a repetition of the body movements of the EYT exercise but without guided imagery, control exercise 2 consisted of walking on the spot (CE2-A and CE2-B). Spectral power of HRV during each exercise was quantified on the basis of Holter ECG recordings. During EYT-A the frequency of the peak oscillation in the very low frequency (VLF) band matched the repetition rate of the sequence of body movements (0.02 Hz). Low frequency (LF) oscillations were augmented when compared to the control exercises (EYT-A: 7.31 ± 0.84, CE1-A: 6.98 ± 0.90, CE2-A: 6.52 ± 0.87 ln ms(2), p exercises (EYT-B: 9.32 ± 0.82, CE1-B: 6.31 ± 0.75, CE2-B: 6.04 ± 0.80 ln ms(2), p exercises clearly affected cardiac autonomic regulation in a rhythmic manner according to the stimulus of the specific body movements of each EYT exercise. These results offer a physiological basis to develop a rationale for specific clinical indications of these EYT exercises such as stress reduction or prevention of hypertension. DRKS00006760 (registered on 10/10/2014, i.e. retrospective registration); view details at http://www.drks.de/DRKS00006760.

  12. Effect of mibefradil on heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J; de Kam, PJ; Haaksma, J; Crijns, HJGM; van Veldhuisen, DJ

    2000-01-01

    Background: Mibefradil was recently withdrawn from the market because of an unfavorable clinical profile in patients with chronic heart failure. Although drug interactions appear to play a role, other mechanisms such as proarrhythmia and autonomic deterioration could also be relevant. Chronic heart

  13. Helping from the heart: Voluntary upregulation of heart rate variability predicts altruistic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, Boris; Kok, Bethany E; Böckler, Anne; Singer, Tania

    2016-09-01

    Our various daily activities continually require regulation of our internal state. These regulatory processes covary with changes in High Frequency Heart Rate Variability (HF-HRV), a marker of parasympathetic activity. Specifically, incidental increases in HF-HRV accompany positive social engagement behavior and prosocial action. Little is known about deliberate regulation of HF-HRV and the role of voluntary parasympathetic regulation in prosocial behavior. Here, we present a novel biofeedback task that measures the ability to deliberately increase HF-HRV. In two large samples, we find that a) participants are able to voluntarily upregulate HF-HRV, and b) variation in this ability predicts individual differences in altruistic prosocial behavior, but not non-altruistic forms of prosociality, assessed through 14 different measures. Our findings suggest that self-induction of parasympathetic states is involved in altruistic action. The biofeedback task may provide a measure of deliberate parasympathetic regulation, with implications for the study of attention, emotion, and social behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of magnesium sulphate on fetal heart rate parameters: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nensi, Alysha; De Silva, Dane A; von Dadelszen, Peter; Sawchuck, Diane; Synnes, Anne R; Crane, Joan; Magee, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    To examine the potential effects of intravenous magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) administration on antepartum and intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) parameters measured by cardiotocography (CTG) or electronic fetal monitoring (EFM). We undertook a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series. Studies were reviewed independently by two reviewers and qualitatively analyzed with regard to CTG/EFM parameters (baseline FHR, variability and acceleration-deceleration patterns), types of participants, interventions offered, and outcomes reported. Of 18 included studies, two were RCTs (72 women); 12 were prospective observational studies (269 women), 10 of which were of a pre- and post-intervention design; one was a prospective cohort study (36 women) and three were retrospective cohort studies (555 women). Lower baseline FHR was associated with MgSO4 exposure in seven of nine relevant studies. Decreased FHR variability was reported in nine of 12 relevant studies. Reductions in reactivity or acceleration pattern were seen in four of six relevant studies without an increase in decelerative patterns. All changes were small and not associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Maternal administration of MgSO4 for eclampsia prophylaxis/treatment, tocolysis or fetal neuroprotection appears to have a small negative effect on FHR, variability, and accelerative pattern, but is not sufficient clinically to warrant medical intervention.

  15. Resting heart rate and the risk of hypertension and heart failure: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Wen; Liu, Xuejiao; Ping, Zhiguang; Li, Yu-Qian; Wang, Chongjian; Lu, Jie; Mao, Zhen-Xing; Zhao, Jingzhi; Yin, Lei; Zhang, Dongdong; Li, Linlin

    2017-11-25

    Studies on the relationship of resting heart rate to the risks of hypertension and heart failure have been inconsistent, and the question as to whether there is a linear association between them is unanswered. To evaluate this possible relationship, we carried out a dose-response meta-analysis of studies that looked at risks associated with resting heart rate and hypertension or heart failure. We searched PubMed, Embase, CNKI and WanFang databases for articles published before 15 June 2017. A random-effect model was used to pool relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Restricted cubic spline analysis was used to model the resting heart rate-hypertension and heart failure risk association. We identified 13 and 17 cohort studies for hypertension and heart failure, respectively. The risk for each disease, respectively, increased by 11% relative risk: 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.15) and 19% relative risk: 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.25) for each 10 beats-per-minute increment in resting heart rate. The relationship between resting heart rate and hypertension or heart failure was consistent in most subgroup analyses except for gender subgroups, with no significant association observed in the women subgroup. The results provide no evidence of a nonlinear association of elevated resting heart rate with hypertension and heart failure risk. Resting heart rate shows a linear positive association with the incidence of hypertension and heart failure.

  16. Reduction of Heart Rate by Omega-3 Fatty Acids and the Potential Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xuan Kang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An elevated resting heart rate is one of the strongest predictors of cardiovascular mortality and is independently associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD. Agents capable of reducing heart rate without significant side effects are therefore of particular interest for the prevention of SCD. Recent human and animal studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids can reduce heart rate. Our work has shown that omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce membrane electrical excitability of the cardiac myocyte by lowering its resting membrane potential and the duration of the refractory period through inhibition of ion channels. We propose that these actions may be the underlying mechanisms for the omega-3 fatty acid-induced reduction of heart rate observed in both humans and animals. The heart rate-lowering capability of omega-3 fatty acids may contribute to their preventive effect against SCD.

  17. Dynamics of heart rate parameters in students with various personal anxiety levels during computerized testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhebrailova, T D; Sulejmanova, R G

    2012-09-01

    Students with low level of initial (pre-test) personal anxiety demonstrated a high level of modulating effects on the heart rate in all basic frequency ranges (VLF, LF, and HF) resulting in a greater total power of heart rate variability spectrum compared to students with high personal anxiety. The peculiarities of dynamics of heart rate variability were revealed during a real learning task, which correlated with personal anxiety level. In comparison with highly anxious students, the low-anxious group demonstrated more pronounced drop in the power of all ranges of the heart rate variability spectrum during testing followed by restoration of these power indices to initial levels after completion of the test. In contrast, the drop of the total power of the heart rate variability spectrum and in the power of its individual components persisted in students with high anxiety level even after the end of the testing.

  18. Heart rate variability: an index of brain processing in vegetative state? An artificial intelligence, data mining study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganello, F; Candelieri, A; Quintieri, M; Conforti, D; Dolce, G

    2010-12-01

    Brain processing at varying levels of functional complexity has been documented in vegetative state. In this study, data mining procedures are applied to identify significant changes in heart rate variability (an emerging objective descriptor of autonomic correlates of brain activation) in response to complex auditory stimuli with emotional value (music). The heart rate of subjects in vegetative state from brain damage (n=6) or spontaneous hemorrhage (n=3) and 16 healthy controls was recorded while they passively listened to four pre-selected music samples by different authors (mean recording time: 3m and 36s±24s). The parametric and non-parametric frequency spectra were computed on the heart rate, spectra were compared within/across subjects and music authors, and the spectra descriptors were entered into a 1-R rules data mining procedure (WEKA software Leave One Out and Ten Fold Cross validation). The procedure independently classified the heart rate spectral patterns of both patients and controls and the emotions reported by healthy subjects as "positive" or "negative". In both healthy controls and vegetative state subjects, the power spectra while passively listening to music differed from baseline when compared irrespective of the music authorship and from each other when compared across music samples. Data mining sorted the nu_LF (normalized parameter unit of the spectrum low frequency range) as the significant descriptor of heart rate variability in the conditions of the study. The nu_LF classification of the healthy controls' HRV changes in response to music replicated that based on subjective reports with 75-93.7% accuracy. Although preliminary, these findings suggest that autonomic changes with possible emotional value can be induced by complex stimuli also in vegetative state, with implications on the residual responsiveness of these subjects. Heart rate variability descriptors and data mining methods appear applicable to investigate brain function in

  19. Heart rate regulation in diving sea lions: the vagus nerve rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponganis, Paul J; McDonald, Birgitte I; Tift, Michael S; Williams, Cassondra L

    2017-04-15

    Recent publications have emphasized the potential generation of morbid cardiac arrhythmias secondary to autonomic conflict in diving marine mammals. Such conflict, as typified by cardiovascular responses to cold water immersion in humans, has been proposed to result from exercise-related activation of cardiac sympathetic fibers to increase heart rate, combined with depth-related changes in parasympathetic tone to decrease heart rate. After reviewing the marine mammal literature and evaluating heart rate profiles of diving California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), we present an alternative interpretation of heart rate regulation that de-emphasizes the concept of autonomic conflict and the risk of morbid arrhythmias in marine mammals. We hypothesize that: (1) both the sympathetic cardiac accelerator fibers and the peripheral sympathetic vasomotor fibers are activated during dives even without exercise, and their activities are elevated at the lowest heart rates in a dive when vasoconstriction is maximal, (2) in diving animals, parasympathetic cardiac tone via the vagus nerve dominates over sympathetic cardiac tone during all phases of the dive, thus producing the bradycardia, (3) adjustment in vagal activity, which may be affected by many inputs, including exercise, is the primary regulator of heart rate and heart rate fluctuations during diving, and (4) heart beat fluctuations (benign arrhythmias) are common in marine mammals. Consistent with the literature and with these hypotheses, we believe that the generation of morbid arrhythmias because of exercise or stress during dives is unlikely in marine mammals. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Behavioral correlates of heart rates of free-living Greater White-fronted Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, C.R.; Ward, D.H.; Bollinger, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    We simultaneously monitored the heart rate and behavior of nine free-living Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons) on their wintering grounds in northern California. Heart rates of wild geese were monitored via abdominally-implanted radio transmitters with electrodes that received electrical impulses of the heart and emitted a radio signal with each ventricular contraction. Post-operative birds appeared to behave normally, readily rejoining flocks and flying up to 15 km daily from night-time roost sites to feed in surrounding agricultural fields. Heart rates varied significantly among individuals and among behaviors, and ranged from less than 100 beats per minute (BPM) during resting, to over 400 BPM during flight. Heart rates varied from 80 to 140 BPM during non-strenuous activities such as walking, feeding, and maintenance activities, to about 180 BPM when birds became alert, and over 400 BPM when birds were startled, even if they did not take flight. Postflight heart rate recovery time averaged postures, as heart rates were context-dependent, and were highest in initial encounters among individuals. Instantaneous measures of physiological parameters, such as heart rate, are often better indicators of the degree of response to external stimuli than visual observations and can be used to improve estimates of energy expenditure based solely on activity data.

  1. Do physiological and pathological stresses produce different changes in heart rate variability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBravi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although physiological (e.g. exercise and pathological (e.g. infection stress affecting the cardiovascular system have both been documented to be associated with a reduction in overall heart rate variability (HRV, it remains unclear if loss of HRV is ubiquitously similar across different domains of variability analysis or if distinct patterns of altered HRV exist depending on the stressor. Using Continuous Individualized Multiorgan Variability Analysis (CIMVATM software, heart rate (HR and four selected measures of variability were measured over time (windowed analysis from two datasets, a set (n=13 of patients who developed systemic infection (i.e. sepsis after bone marrow transplant, and a matched set of healthy subjects undergoing physical exercise under controlled conditions. HR and the four HRV measures showed similar trends in both sepsis and exercise. The comparison through Wilcoxon sign-rank test of the levels of variability at baseline and during the stress (i.e. exercise or after days of sepsis development showed similar changes, except for LF/HF, ratio of power at low and high frequencies (associated with sympathovagal modulation, which was affected by exercise but did not show any change during sepsis. Furthermore, HRV measures during sepsis showed a lower level of correlation with each other, as compared to HRV during exercise. In conclusion, this exploratory study highlights similar responses during both exercise and infection, with differences in terms of correlation and inter-subject fluctuations, whose physiologic significance merits further investigation.

  2. Sleep Quality Estimation based on Chaos Analysis for Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Toshio; Wakuda, Yuki; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Arai, Fumihito; Kawaguchi, Mitsuo; Noda, Akiko

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm to estimate sleep quality based on a heart rate variability using chaos analysis. Polysomnography(PSG) is a conventional and reliable system to diagnose sleep disorder and to evaluate its severity and therapeatic effect, by estimating sleep quality based on multiple channels. However, a recording process requires a lot of time and a controlled environment for measurement and then an analyzing process of PSG data is hard work because the huge sensed data should be manually evaluated. On the other hand, it is focused that some people make a mistake or cause an accident due to lost of regular sleep and of homeostasis these days. Therefore a simple home system for checking own sleep is required and then the estimation algorithm for the system should be developed. Therefore we propose an algorithm to estimate sleep quality based only on a heart rate variability which can be measured by a simple sensor such as a pressure sensor and an infrared sensor in an uncontrolled environment, by experimentally finding the relationship between chaos indices and sleep quality. The system including the estimation algorithm can inform patterns and quality of own daily sleep to a user, and then the user can previously arranges his life schedule, pays more attention based on sleep results and consult with a doctor.

  3. Technique for the quantification of transient quadratic phase couplings between heart rate components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, H; Putsche, P; Eiselt, M; Arnold, M; Schmidt, K; Schack, B

    2001-03-01

    A technique for the time-variant analysis of quadratic phase coupling (QPC) in heart rate data is introduced and tested in 6 human neonates during quiet sleep. The set up of the approach is based up on the assumption that QPCs in the heart rate variability (HRV) are related to amplitude modulation effects. The application of the biamplitude deals with the detection of the coupling pattern and the bicoherence is used for the statistical quantification of coupling. By means of the results of bispectral analysis the time-variant processing has been adapted. The frequency-selective complex demodulation of the HRV leads to the envelope of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), this has been used as one input for a time-variant coherence analysis. The other input is the low-pass filtered 10-second-rhythm of the HRV. A time-continuous quantification of the QPC, caused by amplitude modulation (10-second-rhythm modulates the RSA), is possible using this approach. According to our observed results in neonatal HRV both a phase co-ordination between the 10-second-rhythm and RSA as well as a non-linear coupling (amplitude modulation) between these HRV components can be seen.

  4. Value of the application of the heart rate performance curve in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter; Pokan, Rochus

    2010-12-01

    The heart rate performance curve (HRPC) has been shown to be nonlinearly related to work load. This phenomenon has been used to determine a deflection point and to be related to the lactate anaerobic threshold. The original method was heavily criticized, and the method was challenged by several authors. However, some authors also demonstrated a high value for this method's application in various sports conditions. Unfortunately, the HRPC was shown to be not uniform and three different patterns were found. Basic investigations have shown a dependence of the HR-deflection on beta1-receptor sensitivity, which gave a plausible explanation of the phenomenon. Important details regarding the testing protocol and the method of turn point determination are given in this review. As a conclusion, we may state that based on numerous studies the method is plausible and valid to determine aerobic exercise performance in various laboratory ergometer and specific sports-related field conditions. Standard protocol conditions adjusted to the exercise performance level of subjects and a computer-supported determination of turn points are necessary to obtain reliable results. Large-scale investigations to validate the heart rate turn point with maximal lactate steady state are still needed. However, from the available literature, the application of this noninvasive method can be recommended to determine aerobic exercise performance in various sports. This noninvasive test is easy to perform repeatedly, which gives interesting possibilities for the monitoring of training adaptation in the short term, such as altitude training or specific taper forms.

  5. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in women requires further study.

  6. Association of impaired heart rate recovery with cardiopulmonary complications after lung cancer resection surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Duc; Choi, Humberto; Zell, Katrina; Raymond, Daniel P; Stephans, Kevin; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Videtic, Gregory; McCarthy, Kevin; Minai, Omar A; Mazzone, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Patients who undergo lung resection surgery are at risk for postoperative morbidity and mortality. Appropriate selection of the surgical candidate is crucial in the treatment of lung cancer. Heart rate recovery is a measure of physical fitness. We aimed to investigate the association of impaired heart rate recovery with cardiopulmonary complications after lung resection surgery for treatment of lung cancer. Data from consecutive patients who, between 2009 and 2013, underwent heart rate recovery evaluation after 6-minute walk tests before lung resection surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Impaired heart rate recovery was defined as a 12-beat or less decrease in peak heart rate at 1 minute after the 6-minute walk test. Postoperative cardiopulmonary complications were as defined by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database. Logistic regression was performed, including previously known risk factors for postoperative complications after lung resection surgery. A total of 96 patients had heart rate recovery evaluated within 6 months of lung resection surgery for treatment of lung cancer. Thirty-one patients had impaired heart rate recovery, 17 of whom (55%) had cardiopulmonary complications. A total of 65 patients had normal heart rate recovery, 17 of whom (26%) had cardiopulmonary complications. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, impaired heart rate recovery was significantly associated with postoperative cardiopulmonary complications (odds ratio, 4.97; confidence interval, 1.79-13.8; P = .002). No patient died within 30 days after surgery. Impaired heart rate recovery after the 6-minute walk test is associated with postoperative cardiopulmonary complications in patients who underwent lung resection surgery for treatment of lung cancer. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Narrative Expressive Writing on Heart Rate, Heart Rate Variability, and Blood Pressure After Marital Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Kyle J; Allen, John J B; Mehl, Matthias R; Sbarra, David A

    Divorce is a common stressor that is associated with increased risk for poor long-term physical and mental health. Using an experimental design, the current study examined the impact of expressive writing (EW) on average heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and blood pressure (BP) 7.5 months later. Participants from a community sample of recently separated adults (N = 109) were assigned to one of three conditions: traditional EW, narrative EW, or a control writing condition, and were assessed three times for an average of 7.5 months. Each study visit included 27 minutes of physiological assessment; the primary outcomes at each assessment were mean-level HR, HRV, BP scores averaged across six different tasks. Participants in the traditional EW condition did not significantly differ from control participants in their later HR, HRV, or BP. However, relative to control participants, those in the narrative EW condition had significantly lower HR (B = -3.41, 95% confidence interval = -5.76 to -1.06, p = .004) and higher HRV 7.5 months later (B = 0.41, 95% confidence interval = 0.16 to 0.74, p = .001). When comparing narrative EW participants to those in the traditional EW and control writing as a single group, these effects remained and were moderately sized, Cohen d values of -0.61 and 0.60, respectively, and durable across all task conditions when analyzed in independent models. The writing condition groups did not differ in their later BP. Narrative EW decreased HR and increased HRV after marital separation but did not affect BP. We discuss the possible disconnect between psychology and physiology in response to EW, as well as possible future clinical applications after marital separation.

  8. Heart rate response to exercise in heart failure patients: The prognostic role of metabolic-chronotropic relation and heart rate recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdusek, Pavel; Kotrc, Martin; Kautzner, Josef; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Benesova, Eva; Jarolim, Petr; Benes, Jan

    2017-02-01

    The dynamics of the sinus node response to exercise is linked to functional capacity and outcome in heart failure (HF). The goal of the work was to analyze determinants and impacts of cardio-acceleration, described by the concept of metabolic-chronotropic relation (MCR) and of cardio-deceleration, described by heart rate recovery (HRR). A cohort of 25 healthy controls and 78 patients with advanced systolic HF and optimized medical and/or device therapy (97% receiving beta-blockers, 54% ICD) underwent maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test and were prospectively followed. HF patients had impaired exercise performance compared with controls (pVO2 15±4 vs. 29±7ml.kg-1.min-1, pslope (0.54±0.24 vs. 0.90±0.15, pslope was inversely associated with beta-blocker dose (r=-0.24), NYHA class (r=-0.28) and HF duration (r=-0.25), whereas HRR with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, r=0.39), age (r=-0.28) and BMI (r=-0.31, all pslope (p=0.02) but not HRR (p=0.19). MCR slope (but not HRR) was a significant outcome predictor (p=0.02 for Cox unadjusted model) even after adjustment for LVEF, serum natrium, systolic blood pressure, eGFR and NT-proBNP (p=0.04). MCR slope is associated with different clinical variables than HRR. Compared to HRR, MCR slope provides significant prognostic information in HF patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of deep breathing exercise on spontaneous respiratory rate and heart rate variability: a randomised controlled trial in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharion, Elizabeth; Samuel, Prasanna; Rajalakshmi, R; Gnanasenthil, G; Subramanian, Rajam Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Studies show that yogic type of breathing exercises reduces the spontaneous respiratory rate. However, there are no conclusive studies on the effects of breathing exercise on heart rate variability. We investigated the effects of non-yogic breathing exercise on respiratory rate and heart rate variability. Healthy subjects (21-33 years, both genders) were randomized into the intervention group (n=18), which performed daily deep breathing exercise at 6 breaths/min (0.1 Hz) for one month, and a control group (n=18) which did not perform any breathing exercise. Baseline respiratory rate and short-term heart rate variability indices were assessed in both groups. Reassessment was done after one month and the change in the parameters from baseline was computed for each group. Comparison of the absolute changes [median (inter-quartile ranges)] of the parameters between the intervention and control group showed a significant difference in the spontaneous respiratory rate [intervention group -2.50 (-4.00, -1.00), control group 0.00 (-1.00, 1.00), cycles/min, Prate and cardiac autonomic modulation of the intervention group were significant, when compared to the changes in the control group. Thus practice of deep slow breathing exercise improves heart rate variability in healthy subjects, without altering their cardiac autonomic balance. These findings have implications in the use of deep breathing exercises to improve cardiac autonomic control in subjects known to have reduced heart rate variability.

  10. The phosphorylation pattern of bovine heart complex I subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Signorile, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoproteome of bovine heart complex I of the respiratory chain has been analysed with a procedure based on nondenaturing gel electrophoretic separation of complex I from small quantities of mitochondria samples, in-gel digestion, in combination with phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium...... programmed cell death protein 8(AIF) in native and purified samples of complex I analysed. The possible physiological relevance of these findings is discussed....

  11. ROC Analysis and a Realistic Model of Heart Rate Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Thurner, S; Teich, M C; Thurner, Stefan; Feurstein, Markus C.; Teich, Malvin C.

    1998-01-01

    We have carried out a pilot study on a standard collection of electrocardiograms from patients who suffer from congestive heart failure, and subjects without cardiac pathology, using receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis. The scale-dependent wavelet-coefficient standard deviation superior to two commonly used measures of cardiac dysfunction when the two classes of patients cannot be completely separated. A jittered integrate-and-fire model with a fractal Gaussian-noise kernel provides a realistic simulation of heartbeat sequences for both heart-failure patients and normal subjects.

  12. Systolic left ventricular function is preserved during therapeutic hypothermia, also during increases in heart rate with impaired diastolic filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerans, Viesturs; Espinoza, Andreas; Skulstad, Helge; Halvorsen, Per Steinar; Edvardsen, Thor; Bugge, Jan Frederik

    2015-12-01

    Systolic left ventricular function during therapeutic hypothermia is found both to improve and to decline. We hypothesized that this discrepancy would depend on the heart rate and the variables used to assess systolic function. In 16 pigs, cardiac performance was assessed by measurements of invasive pressures and thermodilution cardiac output and with 2D strain echocardiography. Left ventricle (LV) volumes, ejection fraction (EF), transmitral flow, and circumferential and longitudinal systolic strain were measured. Miniaturized ultrasonic transducers were attached to the epicardium of the LV to obtain M-mode images, systolic thickening, and diastolic thinning velocities and to determine LV pressure-wall dimension relationships. Preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) was calculated. Measurements were performed at 38 and 33°C at spontaneous and paced heart rates, successively increased in steps of 20 up to the toleration limit. Effects of temperature and heart rate were compared in a mixed model analysis. Hypothermia reduced heart rate from 87 ± 10 (SD) to 76 ± 11 beats/min without any changes in LV stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, EF, strain values, or PRSW. Systolic wall thickening velocity (S') and early diastolic wall thinning velocity decreased by approximately 30%, making systolic duration longer through a prolonged and slow contraction and changing the diastolic filling pattern from predominantly early towards late. Pacing reduced diastolic duration much more during hypo- than during normothermia, and combined with slow myocardial relaxation, incomplete relaxation occurred with all pacing rates. Pacing did not affect S' or PRSW at physiological heart rates, but stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, and strain were reduced as a consequence of reduced diastolic filling and much more accentuated during hypothermia. At the ultimate tolerable heart rate during hypothermia, S' decreased, probably as a consequence of myocardial hypoperfusion due to

  13. Pathogen-induced heart rate changes associated with cholinergic nervous system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Karen D; Srinivasan, Varadamurthy; Moorman, J Randall; Gaykema, Ronald P A; Goehler, Lisa E

    2011-02-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a central role in regulation of host defense and in physiological responses to sepsis, including changes in heart rate and heart rate variability. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory response, whereby infection triggers vagal efferent signals that dampen production of proinflammatory cytokines, would be predicted to result in increased vagal signaling to the heart and increased heart rate variability. In fact, decreased heart rate variability is widely described in humans with sepsis. Our studies elucidate this apparent paradox by showing that mice injected with pathogens demonstrate transient bradyarrhythmias of vagal origin in a background of decreased heart rate variability (HRV). Intraperitoneal injection of a large inoculum of Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or Candida albicans rapidly induced bradyarrhythmias of sinus and AV nodal block, characteristic of cardiac vagal firing and dramatically increased short-term HRV. These pathogen-induced bradycardias were immediately terminated by atropine, an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, demonstrating the role of vagal efferent signaling in this response. Vagal afferent signaling following pathogen injection was demonstrated by intense nuclear c-Fos activity in neurons of the vagal sensory ganglia and brain stem. Surprisingly, pathogen-induced bradycardia demonstrated rapid and prolonged desensitization and did not recur on repeat injection of the same organism 3 h or 3 days after the initial exposure. After recovery from the initial bradycardia, depressed heart rate variability developed in some mice and was correlated with elevated plasma cytokine levels and mortality. Our findings of decreased HRV and transient heart rate decelerations in infected mice are similar to heart rate changes described by our group in preterm neonates with sepsis. Pathogen sensing and signaling via the vagus nerve, and the desensitization of this response, may account for periods of

  14. Effect of Exercise Testing on Short-term Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Dai-Fu; Liang, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of exercise testing on short term heart rate variability in patients with CHD.Methods In 12 patients with CHD and 12 age-and sex-matched healthy controls, short-term frequency domain analysis was performed at respective stage before, during and after ET.Results It sh......Objective To study the effect of exercise testing on short term heart rate variability in patients with CHD.Methods In 12 patients with CHD and 12 age-and sex-matched healthy controls, short-term frequency domain analysis was performed at respective stage before, during and after ET...

  15. A healthy heart is not a metronome: An integrative review of the heart’s anatomy and heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredric Bruce Shaffer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the change in the time intervals between adjacent heartbeats, is an emergent property of interdependent regulatory systems that operate on different time scales to adapt to challenges and achieve optimal performance. This article briefly reviews neural regulation of the heart, and its basic anatomy, the cardiac cycle, and the sinoatrial and atrioventricular pacemakers. The cardiovascular regulation center in the medulla integrates sensory information and input from higher brain centers, and afferent cardiovascular system inputs to adjust heart rate and blood pressure via sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent pathways. This article reviews sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on the heart, and examines the interpretation of HRV and the association between reduced HRV, risk of disease and mortality, and the loss of regulatory capacity. This article also discusses the intrinsic cardiac nervous system and the heart-brain connection, through which afferent information can influence activity in the subcortical and frontocortical areas, and motor cortex. It also considers new perspectives on the putative underlying physiological mechanisms and properties of the ultra-low-frequency (ULF, very-low-frequency (VLF, low-frequency (LF, and high-frequency (HF bands. Additionally, it reviews the most common time and frequency domain measurements as well as standardized data collection protocols. In its final section, this article integrates Porges’ polyvagal theory, Thayer and colleagues’ neurovisceral integration model, Lehrer, Vaschillo, and Vaschillo’s resonance frequency model, and the Institute of HeartMath’s coherence model. The authors conclude that a coherent heart is not a metronome because its rhythms are characterized by both complexity and stability over longer time scales. Future research should expand understanding of how the heart and its intrinsic nervous system influence the brain.

  16. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: It was concluded that moderate intensity interval training programs is effective in the non-pharmacological adjunct management of hypertension and may prevent cardiovascular event through the down regulation of HR in hypertension. Keywords: Hypertension; Interval exercise; cardiovascular risk factor; Heart ...

  17. veteran athletes exercise at higher maximum heart rates than

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximal HR in veteran athletes during specific sporting activities was significantly higher than that attained ... false-positive results due to the athletic heart syndrome have been described,13 it is accepted that a positive test is a risk .... group (210 (21) v. 185. (18) mmHg, P < 0.05, Table ill). Exercise time to fatigue in the. lID I ...

  18. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Student's t and Pearson correlation tests were used in data analysis. Results: Findings of the study revealed significant effect of exercise training program on HR ... presentwith a series of functional and anatomic deficits, such as increasedvascular resistance, vessel rarefaction, increased heart energy expenditure, increased.

  19. Visibility graph analysis of very short-term heart rate variability during sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, F. Z.; Li, F. W.; Wang, J.; Yan, F. R.

    2016-09-01

    Based on a visibility-graph algorithm, complex networks were constructed from very short-term heart rate variability (HRV) during different sleep stages. Network measurements progressively changed from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep to light sleep and then deep sleep, exhibiting promising ability for sleep assessment. Abnormal activation of the cardiovascular controls with enhanced 'small-world' couplings and altered fractal organization during REM sleep indicates that REM could be a potential risk factor for adverse cardiovascular event, especially in males, older individuals, and people who are overweight. Additionally, an apparent influence of gender, aging, and obesity on sleep was demonstrated in healthy adults, which may be helpful for establishing expected sleep-HRV patterns in different populations.

  20. Changes in fractal structure of heart rate variability during a nap in one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, H; Shono, M; Takasaki, M; Iwasaka, T; Sugimori, H

    2001-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze fractal structures of adult heart rate (HR) variability during a nap. Fractal analysis was carried out in one case over consecutive 10-min time series of HR, which were simultaneously recorded with electroencephalogram. Scaling relationships showed cross-over patterns characterized by alphas and alphal (i.e. slopes above and below a cross-over point). The alphas and alphal were black and white noise at Stage 4 of NREM sleep, and black and 1/f noise in REM sleep. Cross-over points changed from the first to second sleep cycle. We demonstrate the multifractal structures of HR variability during a nap in the present case.