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Sample records for heart muscle biopsy

  1. Prevalence of viral genome in endomyocardial biopsies from patients with inflammatory heart muscle disease.

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    Pankuweit, S; Portig, I; Eckhardt, H; Crombach, M; Hufnagel, G; Maisch, B

    2000-05-01

    In the report of the 1995 World Health Federation/International Society and Federation of Cardiology (WHF/ISFC) Task Force on the Definition and Classification of Cardiomyopathies, the definition of heart muscle diseases was updated. Idiopathic, autoimmune, and infectious forms of inflammatory cardiomyopathy are now recognized in this definition. Enteroviruses, adenoviruses and cytomegaloviruses are considered as main etiopathological factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory heart disease. A wide range of different assays have been and are currently being used, either alone or in combination, to assay for the presence of enteroviral RNA and/or DNA of cytomegalo- and adenoviruses in endomyocardial biopsy and explanted heart samples. The prevalence of cardiotropic viruses in endomyocardial biopsies of patients with clinically suspected inflammatory cardiomyopathy varies widely: enteroviral genome was detected in endomyocardial biopsies of 3 to 53% of patients, cytomegaloviral DNA was detected in 3 to 40% of patients with inflammatory heart disease and adenoviruses in 3 to 23% of the patients. This report summarizes the methods that have been used and the results of molecular biological investigation with polymerase chain reaction, which were reported by several groups over the last years. Taking this together it seems to be clear that the improvement of molecular biological techniques and the experience of people working with these methods will lead to more reliable results on prevalence, persistence and the diagnostic value of these investigations. These findings have to be taken into account in future diagnostic and therapeutic studies in the field of cardiomyopathies.

  2. Myositis with antimitochondrial antibodies diagnosed by rectus abdominis muscle biopsy.

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    Uenaka, Takeshi; Kowa, Hisatomo; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Nagata, Kakuya; Ohtsuka, Yoshihisa; Kanda, Fumio; Toda, Tatsushi

    2013-05-01

    Antimitochondrial antibodies are autoantibodies detected in 90% of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients. Some PBC cases are complicated by myositis, which is difficult to confirm due to minimal histological evidence of inflammation in limb muscles. Our aim was to determine the extent of inflammatory changes in a truncal muscle biopsy specimen from a PBC patient. A 48-year-old woman with a 5-year history of atrial fibrillation and chronic heart failure was evaluated for elevated serum creatine kinase level. Antimitochondrial M2 antibodies were detected, and PBC was diagnosed. A biceps brachii biopsy specimen showed mild, non-specific myogenic changes; a second biopsy was performed on the rectus abdominis muscle, which showed typical inflammatory changes. Myositis with antimitochondrial M2 antibodies was confirmed. In myositis patients with antimitochondrial M2 antibodies, muscles of the extremities are involved to a lesser extent. Radiological and histological examination focusing on truncal muscles, including a biopsy, is important. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Muscle biopsy in Pompe disease

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    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease (PD can be diagnosed by measuring alpha-glucosidase levels or by identifying mutations in the gene enzyme. Muscle biopsies can aid diagnosis in doubtful cases. Methods: A review of muscle biopsy from 19 cases of PD (infantile, 6 cases; childhood, 4 cases; and juvenile/adult, 9 cases. Results: Vacuoles with or without glycogen storage were found in 18 cases. All cases had increased acid phosphatase activity. The vacuole frequency varied (almost all fibers in the infantile form to only a few in the juvenile/adult form. Atrophy of type 1 and 2 fibers was frequent in all forms. Atrophic angular fibers in the NADH-tetrazolium reductase and nonspecific esterase activity were observed in 4/9 of the juvenile/adult cases. Conclusion: Increased acid phosphatase activity and vacuoles were the primary findings. Most vacuoles were filled with glycogen, and the adult form of the disease had fewer fibers with vacuoles than the infantile or childhood forms.

  4. Needle muscle biopsy and its application

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    Meng-long CHEN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Needle muscle biopsy is a straightforward and reliable minimally-invasive technique. During the past century, the needle biopsy can provide adequate samples and the technique has gradually gained wider acceptance. Compared with open biopsy, needle biopsy is less traumatic, with low rate of complications, and is suitable for the identifications and evaluations of muscular dystrophy, inflammatory myopathies and systemic diseases involving muscles, specially for infants and young children. Domestic insiders should be encouraged to apply this technique. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.06.003 

  5. Reye's syndrome; diagnosis by muscle biopsy?

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    Shapira, Y; Deckelbaum, R; Statter, M; Tennenbaum, A; Aker, M; Yarom, R

    1981-01-01

    Three children with Reye's syndrome are described. One child died, the second had mild and transient illness, and the third had recurrent episodes. In all 3 children a muscle biopsy showed pronounced infiltration of the myofibres with fat microdroplets as shown by the oil red O stain and by electron microscopical examination. We suggest that needle biopsy of muscle may be a quick and safe aid to the diagnosis of Reye's syndrome, and may be preferable to liver biopsy in view of the pronounced tendency to bleed in Reye's syndrome. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7247440

  6. Making more heart muscle

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    van den Hoff, Maurice J. B.; Kruithof, Boudewijn P. T.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.

    2004-01-01

    Postnatally, heart muscle cells almost completely lose their ability to divide, which makes their loss after trauma irreversible. Potential repair by cell grafting or mobilizing endogenous cells is of particular interest for possible treatments for heart disease, where the poor capacity for

  7. Preservative solution for skeletal muscle biopsy samples

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    Yasemin Gulcan Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Muscle biopsy samples must be frozen with liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and maintained at -80 o C until analysis. Because of this requirement for tissue processing, patients with neuromuscular diseases often have to travel to centers with on-site muscle pathology laboratories for muscle biopsy sample excision to ensure that samples are properly preserved. Aim: Here, we developed a preservative solution and examined its protectiveness on striated muscle tissues for a minimum of the length of time that would be required to reach a specific muscle pathology laboratory. Materials and Methods: A preservative solution called Kurt-Ozcan (KO solution was prepared. Eight healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed; striated muscle tissue samples were collected and divided into six different groups. Muscle tissue samples were separated into groups for morphological, enzyme histochemical, molecular, and biochemical analysis. Statistical method used: Chi-square and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: Samples kept in the KO and University of Wisconsin (UW solutions exhibited very good morphological scores at 3, 6, and 18 hours, but artificial changes were observed at 24 hours. Similar findings were observed for the evaluated enzyme activities. There were no differences between the control group and the samples kept in the KO or UW solution at 3, 6, and 18 hours for morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA of β-actin gene was protected up to 6 hours in the KO and UW solutions. Conclusion: The KO solution protects the morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features of striated muscle tissue of healthy rats for 18 hours and preserves the mRNA for 6 hours.

  8. New approach to percutaneous muscle biopsy in dogs.

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    Reynolds, A J; Fuhrer, L; Valentine, B A; Kallfelz, F A

    1995-08-01

    The size and quality of muscle specimens obtained by use of a percutaneous biopsy technique were studied. All biopsies were performed under local anesthesia, using an 11-gauge biopsy needle. The mean +/- SEM size of specimens obtained from 128 biopsies of the semitendinosus muscles of 16 Alaskan Huskies was 23.8 +/- 4.4 mg. All biopsy specimens were of sufficient quality to permit histochemical differentiation of the fiber types by use of myosin ATPase staining. An additional 8 biopsy specimens were obtained from 1 dog and analyzed for muscle glycogen content. These specimens contained 50.6 +/- 7.2 mmol of glucose/kg of muscle wet weight. This modified biopsy procedure was free of notable complications, and repeatable use produced specimens of adequate size and quality for histologic and biochemical analysis. It is concluded that this procedure is a safe and reliable alternative to open biopsy for diagnosis and management of neuromuscular, metabolic, and nutritional myopathies.

  9. Ultrasound guided needle biopsy of skeletal muscle in neuromuscular disease

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    Lindequist, S; Schrøder, H D; Larsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Guided by ultrasonography percutaneous needle biopsy of skeletal muscle was performed in 24 patients, using the one hand held Biopty system and a 2 mm Tru-Cut needle. The specimens were graded with regard to diagnostic quality and utility and almost all specimens (96%) were of highest quality....... The use of ultrasonography was helpful in selecting a suitable area for the biopsy and vascular structures could be avoided. The procedure was well tolerated and easy to perform, and no complications were recorded....

  10. Sequential muscle biopsy changes in a case of congenital myopathy.

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    Danon, M. J.; Giometti, C. S.; Manaligod, J. R.; Swisher, C.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; New York Medical Coll.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Children' s Memorial Hospital

    1997-05-01

    Muscle biopsies at age 7 months in a set of dizygotic male twins born floppy showed typical features of congenital fiber-type disproportion (CFTD). One of the twins died at age 1 year due to respiratory complications. The second one subsequently developed facial diplegia and external ophthalmoplegia. He never walked, remained wheelchair bound, and required continuous ventilatory support. He underwent repeat biopsies at ages 2 and 4, which showed many atrophic type 1 muscle fibers containing central nuclei and severe type 2 fiber deficiency compatible with centronuclear myopathy (CNM). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of muscle showed decreases of type II myosin light chains 2 and 3, suggestive of histochemical type I fiber deficiency. The progressive nature of morphological changes in one of our patients cannot be explained by maturational arrest. Repeat biopsies in cases of CFTD with rapid clinical deterioration may very well show CNM.

  11. Cardiac toxoplasmosis after heart transplantation diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy.

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    Petty, L A; Qamar, S; Ananthanarayanan, V; Husain, A N; Murks, C; Potter, L; Kim, G; Pursell, K; Fedson, S

    2015-10-01

    We describe a case of cardiac toxoplasmosis diagnosed by routine endomyocardial biopsy in a patient with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) intolerance on atovaquone prophylaxis. Data are not available on the efficacy of atovaquone as Toxoplasma gondii prophylaxis after heart transplantation. In heart transplant patients in whom TMP-SMX is not an option, other strategies may be considered, including the addition of pyrimethamine to atovaquone. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Muscle biopsies off-set normal cellular signaling in surrounding musculature

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    Krag, Thomas O; Hauerslev, Simon; Dahlqvist, Julia R

    2013-01-01

    muscle tissue for at least 3 weeks after the biopsy was performed and magnetic resonance imaging suggests that an effect of a biopsy may persist for at least 5 months. Cellular signaling after a biopsy resembles what is seen in severe limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I with respect to protein......Studies of muscle physiology and muscular disorders often require muscle biopsies to answer questions about muscle biology. In this context, we have often wondered if muscle biopsies, especially if performed repeatedly, would affect interpretation of muscle morphology and cellular signaling. We...... hypothesized that muscle morphology and cellular signaling involved in myogenesis/regeneration and protein turnover can be changed by a previous muscle biopsy in close proximity to the area under investigation. Here we report a case where a past biopsy or biopsies affect cellular signaling of the surrounding...

  13. Needle muscle biopsy: technique validation and histological and histochemical methods for evaluating canine skeletal muscles

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    Sérgio de Almeida Braga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the needle muscle biopsy technique using a 6G Bergström percutaneous needle combined with histological and histochemical methods to analyze the skeletal muscle of dogs. There are few studies about canine skeletal muscles and a lack of reports in the literature about tissue collection and analysis for canine species. Evaluation of 32 German Shepherd samples collected from the gluteus medius, at a depth of 3 cm, was performed. The choice of gluteus medius and the 3-cm depth provided good quantity fragments with sufficient sizes (3–5 mm, which permitted optimal visualization of muscle fibers. Myosin ATPase, at pH 9.4, 4.6, and 4.3, and SDH reactions revealed that all muscle samples analyzed had fibers in the classic mosaic arrangement, enabling counting and typification. The mean percentages of fibers were 29.95% for type I and 70.05% for type II. On the basis of these results, we concluded that the percutaneous needle biopsy technique for canine skeletal muscles is a safe and easy procedure that obtains fragments of proper sizes, thereby enabling the study of muscle fibers. Standardization of the muscle of choice and the depth of muscle sample collection significantly contributed to this success. This is an important method to evaluate muscle fiber types of dogs and diagnose important diseases affecting the skeletal muscles.

  14. Electromyography (EMG) accuracy compared to muscle biopsy in childhood.

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    Rabie, Malcolm; Jossiphov, Joseph; Nevo, Yoram

    2007-07-01

    Reports show wide variability of electromyography (EMG) in detecting pediatric neuromuscular disorders. The study's aim was to determine EMG/nerve conduction study accuracy compared to muscle biopsy and final clinical diagnosis, and sensitivity for myopathic motor unit potential detection in childhood. Of 550 EMG/nerve conduction studies performed by the same examiner from a pediatric neuromuscular service, 27 children (ages 6 days to 16 years [10 boys; M:F, 1:1.7]) with muscle biopsies and final clinical diagnoses were compared retrospectively. Final clinical diagnoses were congenital myopathies (5 of 27,18%), nonspecific myopathies (biopsy myopathic, final diagnosis uncertain; 6 of 27, 22%), congenital myasthenic syndrome (3 of 27, 11%), juvenile myasthenia gravis (1 of 27, 4%), arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (2 of 27, 7%), hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (1 of 27, 4%), bilateral peroneal neuropathies (1 of 27, 4%), and normal (8 of 27, 30%). There were no muscular dystrophy or spinal muscular atrophy patients. EMG/nerve conduction studies had a 74% agreement with final clinical diagnoses and 100% agreement in neurogenic, neuromuscular junction, and normal categories. Muscle biopsies concurred with final diagnoses in 87%, and 100% in myopathic and normal categories. In congenital myasthenic syndrome, muscle biopsies showed mild variation in fiber size in 2 of 3 children and were normal in 1 of 3. EMG sensitivity for detecting myopathic motor unit potentials in myopathies was 4 of 11 (36%), greater over 2 years of age (3 of 4, 75%), compared to infants less than 2 years (1 of 7, 14%), not statistically significant (P = .0879). EMGs false-negative for myopathy in infants EMG detected myopathic motor unit potentials in 40%, with false-negative results neurogenic (20%) or normal (40%). Because our study has no additional tests for active myopathies, for example Duchenne muscular dystrophy genetic testing, our sensitivity for myopathies is lower than if we

  15. Biopsies

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    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Biopsies - Overview A biopsy is the removal of tissue ... What are the limitations of biopsies? What are biopsies? A biopsy is the removal of tissue in ...

  16. Prevalence of adult Pompe disease in patients with proximal myopathic syndrome and undiagnosed muscle biopsy.

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    Golsari, Amir; Nasimzadah, Arzoo; Thomalla, Götz; Keller, Sarah; Gerloff, Christian; Magnus, Tim

    2017-12-07

    We examined patients with limb-girdle muscle weakness and/or hyper-CKaemia and undiagnosed muscle biopsy for late onset Pompe disease (LOPD). Patients with an inconclusive limb-girdle muscle weakness who presented at our neuromuscular centre between 2005 and 2015 with undiagnosed muscle biopsies were examined by dry blood spot testing (DBS) including determination of the enzyme activity of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). In the case of depressed enzyme activity, additional gene testing of the GAA gene was carried out. Of the 340 evaluated muscle biopsies, 69 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were examined with DBS. Among those patients, 76% showed a limb-girdle muscle weakness and 14% showed a hyper-CKaemia. A diagnosis of LOPD could be established in the case of two patients (2.9%) with reduced GAA enzyme activity and proof of mutations in the GAA gene. One of the two patients presents in the muscle biopsy suggestive features of Pompe disease including vacuoles with positive acid phosphatase reaction. In summary, our results show that a muscle biopsy can be helpful in identifying LOPD patients, but vacuolation with glycogen storage can also be absent. An inconspicuous muscle biopsy does not rule out Pompe disease. Consequently, all patients with limb-girdle muscle weakness should be examined by DBS before conducting a muscle biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases with myopathic pathology reveal common alterations in mitochondrial function.

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    Sunitha, Balaraju; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Nalini, Atchayaram; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2016-07-01

    Muscle diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and manifest as dystrophic, inflammatory and myopathic pathologies, among others. Our previous study on the cardiotoxin mouse model of myodegeneration and inflammation linked muscle pathology with mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies from muscle disease patients, represented by dysferlinopathy (dysfy) (dystrophic pathology; n = 43), polymyositis (PM) (inflammatory pathology; n = 24), and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) (distal myopathy; n = 31) were analyzed. Mitochondrial damage (ragged blue and COX-deficient fibers) was revealed in dysfy, PM, and DMRV cases by enzyme histochemistry (SDH and COX-SDH), electron microscopy (vacuolation and altered cristae) and biochemical assays (significantly increased ADP/ATP ratio). Proteomic analysis of muscle mitochondria from all three muscle diseases by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated down-regulation of electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunits, assembly factors and Krebs cycle enzymes. Interestingly, 80 of the under-expressed proteins were common among the three pathologies. Assay of ETC and Krebs cycle enzyme activities validated the MS data. Mitochondrial proteins from muscle pathologies also displayed higher tryptophan (Trp) oxidation and the same was corroborated in the cardiotoxin model. Molecular modeling predicted Trp oxidation to alter the local structure of mitochondrial proteins. Our data highlight mitochondrial alterations in muscle pathologies, represented by morphological changes, altered mitochondrial proteome and protein oxidation, thereby establishing the role of mitochondrial damage in human muscle diseases. We investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies

  18. The effect of shot biopsy on behavior, salivary cortisol, and heart rate in slaughter pigs

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    Geverink, NA; Ruis, MAW; Eisen, R; Lambooij, E; Blokhuis, HJ; Wiegant, VM

    This paper describes behavioral and. physiological responses of pigs to shot biopsy, an experimental method used to study muscle tissue processes or to:predict meat quality. One biopsy sample from the longissimus muscle was obtained from 23-wk-old gilts (n = 10) using a cannula connected to a

  19. Skeletal muscle molecular alterations precede whole-muscle dysfunction in NYHA Class II heart failure patients

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    Godard MP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael P Godard,1 Samantha A Whitman,2 Yao-Hua Song,3 Patrice Delafontaine41Department of Nutrition and Kinesiology, University of Central Missouri, Warrensburg, MO, USA; 2Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 3Cyrus Tang Hematology Center, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou, China; 4Tulane University School of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, New Orleans, LA, USABackground: Heart failure (HF, a debilitating disease in a growing number of adults, exerts structural and neurohormonal changes in both cardiac and skeletal muscles. However, these alterations and their affected molecular pathways remain uncharacterized. Disease progression is known to transform skeletal muscle fiber composition by unknown mechanisms. In addition, perturbation of specific hormonal pathways, including those involving skeletal muscle insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFB-5 appears to occur, likely affecting muscle metabolism and regeneration. We hypothesized that changes in IGF-1 and IGFB-5 mRNA levels correlate with the transformation of single–skeletal muscle fiber myosin heavy chain isoforms early in disease progression, making these molecules valuable markers of skeletal muscle changes in heart failure.Materials and methods: To investigate these molecules during “early” events in HF patients, we obtained skeletal muscle biopsies from New York Heart Association (NYHA Class II HF patients and controls for molecular analyses of single fibers, and we also quantified isometric strength and muscle size.Results: There were more (P < 0.05 single muscle fibers coexpressing two or more myosin heavy chains in the HF patients (30% ± 7% compared to the control subjects (13% ± 2%. IGF-1 and IGFBP-5 expression was fivefold and 15-fold lower in patients with in HF compared to control subjects (P < 0.05, respectively. Strikingly

  20. Muscle biopsy and cell cultures: potential diagnostic tools in hereditary skeletal muscle channelopathies

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    G Meola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary muscle channelopathies are caused by dominant mutations in the genes encoding for subunits of muscle voltage- gated ion channels. Point mutations on the human skeletal muscle Na+ channel (Nav1.4 give rise to hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, potassium aggravated myotonia, paramyotonia congenita and hypokalemic periodic paralysis type 2. Point mutations on the human skeletal muscle Ca2+ channel give rise to hypokalemic periodic paralysis and malignant hyperthermia. Point mutations in the human skeletal chloride channel ClC-1 give rise to myotonia congenita. Point mutations in the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir2.1 give rise to a syndrome characterized by periodic paralysis, severe cardiac arrhythmias and skeletal alterations (Andersen’s syndrome. Involvement of the same ion channel can thus give rise to different phenotypes. In addition, the same mutation can lead to different phenotypes or similar phenotypes can be caused by different mutations on the same or on different channel subtypes. Bearing in mind, the complexity of this field, the growing number of potential channelopathies (such as the myotonic dystrophies, and the time and cost of the genetic procedures, before a biomolecular approach is addressed, it is mandatory to apply strict diagnostic protocols to screen the patients. In this study we propose a protocol to be applied in the diagnosis of the hereditary muscle channelopathies and we demonstrate that muscle biopsy studies and muscle cell cultures may significantly contribute towards the correct diagnosis of the channel involved. DNAbased diagnosis is now a reality for many of the channelopathies. This has obvious genetic counselling, prognostic and therapeutic implications.

  1. Latissimus dorsi fine needle muscle biopsy: a novel and efficient approach to study proximal muscles of upper limbs.

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    Paoli, Antonio; Pacelli, Quirico F; Toniolo, Luana; Miotti, Danilo; Reggiani, Carlo

    2010-12-01

    The muscle biopsy based on the Bergström needle has been widely used for more than 40 y for diagnosis and experimental studies on muscle. More recently, thinner needles and tru-cut needles have also been introduced. Such techniques have been largely tested on various muscles, including the quadriceps, with few studies on upper limb muscles like deltoid, and no studies on latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM). In this study, we implemented and validated a protocol to collect samples of LDM for experimental purposes, causing minimal discomfort to volunteers. Two main problems were considered: the anatomical localization of the biopsy site and the selection of an appropriate needle. A strict protocol of palpatory anatomy was adopted and validated with ultrasonography to localize the biopsy site in LDM in subjects with various degrees of muscle development. A 14 gauge tru-cut needle was selected as the smallest and still effective device for sampling. Biopsy sampling was performed in 18 subjects without any complications, or complains of pain or functional limitations. Approximately 4 mg of tissue were recovered from each introduction of the inner notched cannula of the needle. With three consecutive samplings, an amount of tissue sufficient to prepare proteins for gel electrophoresis and Western blot and to dissect single fiber segment for functional experiments, was obtained. Taken together, the results suggest that this biopsy technique opens to experimental studies muscles until now never considered accessible. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene expression in human skeletal muscle: alternative normalization method and effect of repeated biopsies

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    Lundby, Carsten; Nordsborg, Nikolai; Kusuhara, K.

    2005-01-01

    . Specifically, we investigated (1) a new normalization method based on determining the cDNA content by the flourophores PicoGreen and OliGreen, (2) effect of repeated muscle biopsies on mRNA gene expression, and (3) the spatial heterogeneity in mRNA expression across the muscle. Standard curves using oligo...... that multiple muscle biopsies obtained from the same muscle do not influence the mRNA response induced by an acute exercise bout for any of the genes examined....

  3. Development of a Multifunctional Needle for Percutaneous Heart Biopsy and Cell Therapy. A Technical Note.

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    Soubihe, Nathan Valle; Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite S; Arcêncio, Livia; Thomazini, José Antonio; Schmidt, Andre; Evora, Paulo Roberto B

    2016-01-01

    Validation of transendocardial injection as a method for delivering therapeutic agents to the diseased heart is increasing. Puncture heart biopsies should re-emerge as a possible alternative method to allow access to the myocardium and implantable biomaterial for cell therapy. Therefore, this work aims to present a percutaneous puncture device for biopsy and intramyocardial biomaterial injection, standardize the technique and attest to the safety of the method. The adaptation consists of creating myocardial microlesions that allow for better fixation of stem cells. The objective of this technical note covers only the development of the needle and the histological quality of the biopsies. It has not been used in humans yet.

  4. EFNS review on the role of muscle biopsy in the investigation of myalgia

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    Kyriakides, T; Angelini, Cinzia; Schaefer, J

    2013-01-01

    Myalgia, defined as any pain perceived in muscle, is very common in the general population and a frequent cause for referral to neurologists, rheumatologists and internists in general. It is however only rarely due to primary muscle disease and often referred from ligaments, joints, bones, the pe......, the peripheral and central nervous system. A muscle biopsy should only be performed if this is likely to be diagnostically useful. At present no 'guidelines' exist....

  5. Correlation of muscle biopsy, clinical course, and outcome in PM and sporadic IBM.

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    Chahin, Nizar; Engel, Andrew G

    2008-02-05

    To correlate muscle biopsy findings with prebiopsy and postbiopsy clinical course and response to therapy in polymyositis (PM) and sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM). Existence of pure PM has recently been questioned; subsequently, the definition and criteria for diagnosing PM were debated. Patient records, follow-up information, and muscle biopsies were analyzed in 107 patients whose biopsies were initially read as PM and IBM. The patients fell into three groups by combined biopsy and clinical criteria: PM, 27 patients; IBM, 64 patients; PM/IBM, 16 patients with biopsy diagnosis of PM but clinical features of IBM. For the three groups, the respective mean periods from disease onset to end of follow-up were 5.9, 8.5, and 9.6 years. Another autoimmune disease was present in 4 of 27 PM, 8 of 64 IBM, and 1 of 16 PM/IBM cases. An autoimmune serologic marker occurred in one-third of each group. Nineteen PM patients had no associated autoimmune disease or marker. Nonnecrotic fiber invasion by mononuclear cells appeared in all IBM, 17 of 27 PM, and 13 of 16 PM/IBM patients. The density of both invaded fibers and cytochrome-c oxidase-negative fibers was higher in IBM and PM/IBM than in PM. Immunotherapy improved 22 of 27 PM patients but had only transient beneficial effects in 2 of 32 IBM and 1 of 14 PM/IBM patients. 1) Sixteen of 43 patients (37%) with biopsy features of polymyositis (PM) had clinical features of inclusion body myositis (IBM). 2) Absence of canonical biopsy features of IBM from clinically affected muscles of IBM patients challenges biopsy criteria for IBM, or the IBM markers appear late in some patients, or their distribution in muscle is patchy and restricted compared with that of the inflammatory exudate. 3) The muscle biopsy is a reliable instrument in the diagnosis of PM and IBM in close to 85% of the patients. Errors of diagnosis in the remaining 15% can be avoided or reduced by combined evaluation of the clinical and pathologic findings.

  6. Orbicularis oculi muscle biopsies for mitochondrial DNA analysis in suspected mitochondrial myopathy

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    A. Roefs (Anne); P.J. Waters (Paula); G.R.W. Moore (G. R. Wayne); P.J. Dolman (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAims: We wished to demonstrate the feasibility of performing diagnostic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis on biopsies of the orbicularis oculi muscle in patients with a chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) phenotype and suspicion of an underlying mitochondrial disorder.

  7. Assessment of satellite cell number and activity status in human skeletal muscle biopsies

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    Mackey, Abigail L; Kjær, Michael; Charifi, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to validate the assessment of myonuclear and satellite cell number in biopsies from human skeletal muscle. We found that 25 type I and 25 type II fibers are sufficient to estimate the mean number of myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the assessment of satellite cells...

  8. Correlation of Utrophin Levels with the Dystrophin Protein Complex and Muscle Fibre Regeneration in Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy Muscle Biopsies.

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    Janghra, Narinder; Morgan, Jennifer E; Sewry, Caroline A; Wilson, Francis X; Davies, Kay E; Muntoni, Francesco; Tinsley, Jonathon

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe and currently incurable progressive neuromuscular condition, caused by mutations in the DMD gene that result in the inability to produce dystrophin. Lack of dystrophin leads to loss of muscle fibres and a reduction in muscle mass and function. There is evidence from dystrophin-deficient mouse models that increasing levels of utrophin at the muscle fibre sarcolemma by genetic or pharmacological means significantly reduces the muscular dystrophy pathology. In order to determine the efficacy of utrophin modulators in clinical trials, it is necessary to accurately measure utrophin levels and other biomarkers on a fibre by fibre basis within a biopsy section. Our aim was to develop robust and reproducible staining and imaging protocols to quantify sarcolemmal utrophin levels, sarcolemmal dystrophin complex members and numbers of regenerating fibres within a biopsy section. We quantified sarcolemmal utrophin in mature and regenerating fibres and the percentage of regenerating muscle fibres, in muscle biopsies from Duchenne, the milder Becker muscular dystrophy and controls. Fluorescent immunostaining followed by image analysis was performed to quantify utrophin intensity and β-dystrogylcan and ɣ -sarcoglycan intensity at the sarcolemma. Antibodies to fetal and developmental myosins were used to identify regenerating muscle fibres allowing the accurate calculation of percentage regeneration fibres in the biopsy. Our results indicate that muscle biopsies from Becker muscular dystrophy patients have fewer numbers of regenerating fibres and reduced utrophin intensity compared to muscle biopsies from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Of particular interest, we show for the first time that the percentage of regenerating muscle fibres within the muscle biopsy correlate with the clinical severity of Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients from whom the biopsy was taken. The ongoing development of these tools to quantify

  9. Passive mechanical features of single fibers from human muscle biopsies – effects of storage

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    Runesson Eva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of storage of human muscle biopsies on passive mechanical properties. Methods Stress-strain analysis accompanied by laser diffraction assisted sarcomere length measurement was performed on single muscle fibres from fresh samples and compared with single fibres from stored samples (-20°C, 4 weeks with the same origin as the corresponding fresh sample. Basic morphological analysis, including cross sectional area (CSA measurement, fibre diameter measurement, fibre occupancy calculation and overall morphology evaluation was done. Results Statistical analysis of tangent values in stress-strain curves, corresponding to the elastic modulus of single muscle fibres, did not differ when comparing fresh and stored samples from the same type of muscle. Regardless of the preparation procedure, no significant differences were found, neither in fibre diameter nor the relation between muscle fibres and extra-cellular matrix measured under light microscopy. Conclusion We conclude that muscle fibre structure and mechanics are relatively insensitive to the storage procedures used and that the different preparations are interchangeable without affecting passive mechanical properties. This provides a mobility of the method when harvesting muscle biopsies away from the laboratory.

  10. Development of a Multifunctional Needle for Percutaneous Heart Biopsy and Cell Therapy. A Technical Note

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    Nathan Valle Soubihe Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Validation of transendocardial injection as a method for delivering therapeutic agents to the diseased heart is increasing. Puncture heart biopsies should re-emerge as a possible alternative method to allow access to the myocardium and implantable biomaterial for cell therapy. Therefore, this work aims to present a percutaneous puncture device for biopsy and intramyocardial biomaterial injection, standardize the technique and attest to the safety of the method. The adaptation consists of creating myocardial microlesions that allow for better fixation of stem cells. The objective of this technical note covers only the development of the needle and the histological quality of the biopsies. It has not been used in humans yet.

  11. Nuclear microprobe analysis of muscle biopsies: Applications in pathology and clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Ph; Coquet, M.; Gherardi, R. K.; Stoedzel, P.

    2000-03-01

    The nuclear microprobe analysis of muscle biopsy sections has been recently applied to investigate different muscle disorders. This technique, employed as a complementary examination in the frame of pathological studies, permitted to confirm the diagnosis for a first pathology and to elucidate the cause of a second. In skeletal muscles of a young patient suffering from a slow progressive myopathy, calcium accumulations have been demonstrated in histologically abnormal fibers. These findings have been compared to histopathological characteristics previously described. On the other hand, we have evaluated muscle sections from two patients who presented symptoms of an inflammatory myopathy, a rare pathology that recently emerged in France. The chemical analyses permitted us to highlight local aluminium infiltration in muscles. The hypothesis of an unusual reaction to intramuscular aluminium accumulation has been advanced. These studies demonstrate the capability for ion beam microanalytical techniques to address acute problems in pathology.

  12. Muscle biopsy technique for electrophoresis analysis of fish from the genus Brycon

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    Hilsdorf Alexandre

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein and mitochondrial DNA have been used as molecular markers to assess variability in stock identification studies of fishes. Protein and mtDNA used for electrophoretic analysis are extracted from tissues, which often leads to death of the individuals. In this study, we present a skeletal muscle biopsy procedure to extract mitochondrial DNA that does not require specimen sacrifice. Eighty pirapitinga-do-sul (Brycon opalinus were biopsied by the present technique, with no mortalities recorded. Total DNA was extracted from muscle and digested by restriction enzymes ApaI and HpaI. The mtDNA fragment patterns were hybridized with 32P-labeled pirapitinga-do-sul mtDNA probes. The described technique is simple and may be useful in protocols requiring tissue extraction for DNA and protein analyses without loss of the individual investigated.

  13. Computer tomography guided transthoracic periaortic abscess needle biopsy in late mediastinitis after heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, Tomasz; Buczkowski, Piotr; Budniak, Wiktor; Katyńska, Izabela; Walczak, Maciej; Tomczyk, Jadwiga; Jemielity, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Mediastinitis is a well-known complication of open heart surgery. Abscess as late complication, presenting years after heart surgery, is adegnotical. Transthoracic needle biopsies of lung parenchyma guided by computer tomography are widely accepted. The puncture of periaortic masses is not routinely performed. We report the case of an encapsulated mediastinal abscess localized next to ascending vascular graft. The febrile 47-year-old white male patient with history of Bentall operation was admitted to Cardiac Surgery Department. He was transferred for urgent chest tomography after International Normalization Ratio was reversed by prothrombin complex concentrate. Tomography revealed 7 × 5 × 4 cm mass between the sternum and ascending aorta, that was punctured by the needle. After biopsy specimen was sent for microbiology, the patient was transferred for surgery. There was no vascular graft invasion by the mass. The surgery was limited to abscess removal with postoperative drainage of periaortic area. The 6-week antibiotic therapy was applied. Patient recovered uneventfully.

  14. High-resolution respirometry of fine-needle muscle biopsies in pre-manifest Huntington's disease expansion mutation carriers shows normal mitochondrial respiratory function.

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    Eva Buck

    Full Text Available Alterations in mitochondrial respiration are an important hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD, one of the most common monogenetic causes of neurodegeneration. The ubiquitous expression of the disease causing mutant huntingtin gene raises the prospect that mitochondrial respiratory deficits can be detected in skeletal muscle. While this tissue is readily accessible in humans, transgenic animal models offer the opportunity to cross-validate findings and allow for comparisons across organs, including the brain. The integrated respiratory chain function of the human vastus lateralis muscle was measured by high-resolution respirometry (HRR in freshly taken fine-needle biopsies from seven pre-manifest HD expansion mutation carriers and nine controls. The respiratory parameters were unaffected. For comparison skeletal muscle isolated from HD knock-in mice (HdhQ111 as well as a broader spectrum of tissues including cortex, liver and heart muscle were examined by HRR. Significant changes of mitochondrial respiration in the HdhQ knock-in mouse model were restricted to the liver and the cortex. Mitochondrial mass as quantified by mitochondrial DNA copy number and citrate synthase activity was stable in murine HD-model tissue compared to control. mRNA levels of key enzymes were determined to characterize mitochondrial metabolic pathways in HdhQ mice. We demonstrated the feasibility to perform high-resolution respirometry measurements from small human HD muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we conclude that alterations in respiratory parameters of pre-manifest human muscle biopsies are rather limited and mirrored by a similar absence of marked alterations in HdhQ skeletal muscle. In contrast, the HdhQ111 murine cortex and liver did show respiratory alterations highlighting the tissue specific nature of mutant huntingtin effects on respiration.

  15. Distinct Muscle Biopsy Findings in Genetically Defined Adult-Onset Motor Neuron Disorders.

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    Manu Jokela

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize and compare muscle histopathological findings in 3 different genetic motor neuron disorders. We retrospectively re-assessed muscle biopsy findings in 23 patients with autosomal dominant lower motor neuron disease caused by p.G66V mutation in CHCHD10 (SMAJ, 10 X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA and 11 autosomal dominant c9orf72-mutated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (c9ALS patients. Distinct large fiber type grouping consisting of non-atrophic type IIA muscle fibers were 100% specific for the late-onset spinal muscular atrophies (SMAJ and SBMA and were never observed in c9ALS. Common, but less specific findings included small groups of highly atrophic rounded type IIA fibers in SMAJ/SBMA, whereas in c9ALS, small group atrophies consisting of small-caliber angular fibers involving both fiber types were more characteristic. We also show that in the 2 slowly progressive motor neuron disorders (SMAJ and SBMA the initial neurogenic features are often confused with considerable secondary "myopathic" changes at later disease stages, such as rimmed vacuoles, myofibrillar aggregates and numerous fibers reactive for fetal myosin heavy chain (dMyHC antibodies. Based on our findings, muscle biopsy may be valuable in the diagnostic work-up of suspected motor neuron disorders in order to avoid a false ALS diagnosis in patients without clear findings of upper motor neuron lesions.

  16. Motor Branch Biopsy of the Pronator Teres Muscle in a Patient with Painful Forearm Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Kinoshita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Histological evaluation of a peripheral nerve is often the final diagnostic work-up for a neuropathy of unknown origin, and a distal sensory nerve is usually biopsied. Here, we report the case of a female patient with painful unilateral neuropathy in the upper arm. According to the histological evaluation of the pronator teres motor branch, vasculitis seemed to be the most probable cause of the condition, and steroid therapy improved the patients' symptoms. A biopsy of the motor branch of the pronator teres muscle nerve may be considered a valuable diagnostic option in selected cases with neuropathy affecting the upper limb, when performed in cooperation with neurologists and orthopedic surgeons.

  17. Muscle size explains low passive skeletal muscle force in heart failure patients

    OpenAIRE

    Panizzolo, FA; Maiorana, AJ; Naylor, LH; Dembo, LG; Lloyd, DG; Green, DJ; Rubenson, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alterations in skeletal muscle function and architecture have been linked to the compromised exercise capacity characterizing chronic heart failure (CHF). However, how passive skeletal muscle force is affected in CHF is not clear. Understanding passive force characteristics in CHF can help further elucidate the extent to which altered contractile properties and/or architecture might affect muscle and locomotor function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate passive f...

  18. Muscle size explains low passive skeletal muscle force in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzolo, Fausto Antonio; Maiorana, Andrew J; Naylor, Louise H; Dembo, Lawrence G; Lloyd, David G; Green, Daniel J; Rubenson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in skeletal muscle function and architecture have been linked to the compromised exercise capacity characterizing chronic heart failure (CHF). However, how passive skeletal muscle force is affected in CHF is not clear. Understanding passive force characteristics in CHF can help further elucidate the extent to which altered contractile properties and/or architecture might affect muscle and locomotor function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate passive force in a single muscle for which non-invasive measures of muscle size and estimates of fiber force are possible, the soleus (SOL), both in CHF patients and age- and physical activity-matched control participants. Passive SOL muscle force and size were obtained by means of a novel approach combining experimental data (dynamometry, electromyography, ultrasound imaging) with a musculoskeletal model. We found reduced passive SOL forces (∼30%) (at the same relative levels of muscle stretch) in CHF vs. healthy individuals. This difference was eliminated when force was normalized by physiological cross sectional area, indicating that reduced force output may be most strongly associated with muscle size. Nevertheless, passive force was significantly higher in CHF at a given absolute muscle length (non length-normalized) and likely explained by the shorter muscle slack lengths and optimal muscle lengths measured in CHF compared to the control participants. This later factor may lead to altered performance of the SOL in functional tasks such gait. These findings suggest introducing exercise rehabilitation targeting muscle hypertrophy and, specifically for the calf muscles, exercise that promotes muscle lengthening.

  19. [Facioscapulohumeral muscle dystrophy and heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmrich, P; Ogunlade, V; Gradistanac, T; Daneschnejad, S; Koch, M C; Schober, R

    2005-05-01

    Cardiac involvement is well known in a number of skeletomuscular diseases but not in facio-scapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). We report on a 71 year old woman with progressive cardiac insufficiency in FSHD, which was also confirmed by molecular analysis in one of the two daughters affected by the disease. Autopsy of the deceased patient showed the typical changes in skeletal muscles including focal inflammatory infiltrates in the diaphragm and, in addition, cardiac muscular involvement. The histological changes resembled those seen in primary cardiomyopathy despite the normal muscle mass volume. Both clinically and morphologically, the cardiac disease was the cause of death in this patient with FSHD.

  20. Bioengineering Heart Muscle: A Paradigm for Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Kathy O.; Tandon, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The idea of extending the lifetime of our organs is as old as humankind, fueled by major advances in organ transplantation, novel drugs, and medical devices. However, true regeneration of human tissue has becoming increasingly plausible only in recent years. The human heart has always been a focus of such efforts, given its notorious inability to repair itself following injury or disease. We discuss here the emerging bioengineering approaches to regeneration of heart muscle as a paradigm for regenerative medicine. Our focus is on biologically inspired strategies for heart regeneration, knowledge gained thus far about how to make a “perfect” heart graft, and the challenges that remain to be addressed for tissue-engineered heart regeneration to become a clinical reality. We emphasize the need for interdisciplinary research and training, as recent progress in the field is largely being made at the interfaces between cardiology, stem cell science, and bioengineering. PMID:21568715

  1. Muscle metaboreflex and autonomic regulation of heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, James P; Adlan, Ahmed M; Shantsila, Alena

    2013-01-01

    We elucidated the autonomic mechanisms whereby heart rate (HR) is regulated by the muscle metaboreflex. Eight male participants (22 ± 3 years) performed three exercise protocols: (1) enhanced metaboreflex activation with partial flow restriction (bi-lateral thigh cuff inflation) during leg cycling...

  2. Mechanism for Mechanical Wave Break in the Heart Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, L. D.; Panfilov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Using a reaction-diffusion-mechanics model we identify a mechanism for mechanical wave break in the heart muscle. For a wide range of strengths and durations an external mechanical load causes wave front dissipation leading to formation and breakup of spiral waves. We explain the mechanism, and discuss under which conditions it can cause or abolish cardiac arrhythmias.

  3. Contribution of muscle biopsy and genetics to the diagnosis of chronic progressive external opthalmoplegia of mitochondrial origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Challa; Meena, A K; Uppin, Megha S; Govindaraj, P; Vanniarajan, A; Thangaraj, K; Kaul, Subhash; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Murthy, J M K

    2011-04-01

    Chronic progressive external opthalmoplegia (CPEO) is the most common phenotypic syndrome of the mitochondrial myopathies. Muscle biopsy, which provides important morphological clues for the diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders, is normal in approximately 25% of patients with CPEO, thus necessitating molecular genetic analysis for more accurate diagnosis. We aimed to study the utility of various histochemical stains in the diagnosis of CPEO on muscle biopsy and to correlate these results with genetic studies. Between May 2005 and November 2007 all 45 patients diagnosed with CPEO were included in the study (23 males; mean age at presentation, 35 years). Thirty-nine patients had CPEO only and six had CPEO plus; two had a positive family history but the remaining 39 patients had sporadic CPEO. Muscle biopsy samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, modified Gomori's trichrome stain, succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome C oxidase (COX) and combined COX-SDH. Ragged red fibers were seen in 27 biopsies; seven showed characteristics of neurogenic atrophy only, and 11 were normal. The abnormal fibers were best identified on COX-SDH stain. A complete mitochondrial genome was amplified in muscle and blood samples of all patients. Mutations were found in transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, ND, CYTB, COX I, II and III genes. Mitochondrial gene mutations were found in ten of the 11 patients with a normal muscle biopsy. The genetic mutations were classified according to their significance. The observed muscle biopsy findings were correlated with genetic mutations noted. Histological studies should be combined with genetic studies for the definitive diagnosis of CPEO syndrome. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Restoration of heart functions using human embryonic stem cells derived heart muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepstein, Lior; Kehat, Izhak

    2005-02-01

    Extract: Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology and specifically in the areas of stem cell biology and tissue engineering have paved the way for the development of a new field in biomedicine, regenerative medicine. This exciting approach seeks to develop new biological solutions, using the mobilization of endogenous stem cells or delivery of exogenous cells to replace or modify the function of diseased, absent, or malfunctioning tissue. The adult heart represents an attractive candidate for these emerging technologies, since adult cardiomyocytes have limited regenerative capacity. Thus, any significant heart cell loss or dysfunction, such as occurs during heart attack, is mostly irreversible and may lead to the development of progressive heart failure, one of the leading causes of world-wide morbidity and mortality. Similarly, dysfunction of the specialized electrical conduction system within the heart may result in inefficient rhythm initiation or impulse conduction, leading to significant slowing of the heart rate, usually requiring the implantation of a permanent electronic pacemaker. Replacement of the dysfunctional myocardium (heart muscle) by implantation of external heart muscle cells is emerging as a novel paradigm for restoration of the myocardial electromechanical properties, but has been significantly hampered by the paucity of cell sources for human heart cells and by the relatively limited evidence for functional integration between grafted and host cells. The recently described human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines may provide a possible solution for the aforementioned cell sourcing problem.

  5. Gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from people with type 2 diabetes and relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsgaard, Jane; Brøns, Charlotte; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    type 2 diabetes, they provide a good model in the search for primary causes of the disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle biopsies from Caucasian males with type 2 diabetes, healthy first degree relatives, and healthy controls. Gene expression......BACKGROUND: Gene expression alterations have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes, however whether these changes are primary causes or secondary effects of type 2 diabetes is not known. As healthy first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing...... was measured using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays covering the entire human genome. These arrays have not previously been used for this type of study. We show for the first time that genes involved in insulin signaling are significantly upregulated in first degree relatives and significantly...

  6. Concurrent Isolation of 3 Distinct Cardiac Stem Cell Populations From a Single Human Heart Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsanto, Megan M; White, Kevin S; Kim, Taeyong; Wang, Bingyan J; Fisher, Kristina; Ilves, Kelli; Khalafalla, Farid G; Casillas, Alexandria; Broughton, Kathleen; Mohsin, Sadia; Dembitsky, Walter P; Sussman, Mark A

    2017-07-07

    The relative actions and synergism between distinct myocardial-derived stem cell populations remain obscure. Ongoing debates on optimal cell population(s) for treatment of heart failure prompted implementation of a protocol for isolation of multiple stem cell populations from a single myocardial tissue sample to develop new insights for achieving myocardial regeneration. Establish a robust cardiac stem cell isolation and culture protocol to consistently generate 3 distinct stem cell populations from a single human heart biopsy. Isolation of 3 endogenous cardiac stem cell populations was performed from human heart samples routinely discarded during implantation of a left ventricular assist device. Tissue explants were mechanically minced into 1 mm3 pieces to minimize time exposure to collagenase digestion and preserve cell viability. Centrifugation removes large cardiomyocytes and tissue debris producing a single cell suspension that is sorted using magnetic-activated cell sorting technology. Initial sorting is based on tyrosine-protein kinase Kit (c-Kit) expression that enriches for 2 c-Kit+ cell populations yielding a mixture of cardiac progenitor cells and endothelial progenitor cells. Flowthrough c-Kit- mesenchymal stem cells are positively selected by surface expression of markers CD90 and CD105. After 1 week of culture, the c-Kit+ population is further enriched by selection for a CD133+ endothelial progenitor cell population. Persistence of respective cell surface markers in vitro is confirmed both by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Three distinct cardiac cell populations with individualized phenotypic properties consistent with cardiac progenitor cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and mesenchymal stem cells can be successfully concurrently isolated and expanded from a single tissue sample derived from human heart failure patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Toxic myopathies: muscle biopsy features Miopatia tóxica: biópsia muscular

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    Rosana Herminia Scola

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Several drugs and toxic substances can cause muscular abnormalities and are frequent causes of acquired myopathies. We present a series of 32 patients, predominance of young adult patients, diagnosed with toxic myopathy. The most common substances inducing myopathy were corticosteroids (56.2% followed by the propoxyphene, neuroleptics, zidovudine and drug-induced hypokalemia. The investigation showed normal serum creatine kinase levels in 65.4%, myopathic pattern of the needle electromyography in 40% and the more frequent histological diagnosis of the muscle biopsy was type 2 fiber atrophy (59.3%. Clinical features, etiology, course of the disease, serum levels of muscular enzymes, electromyographic features and, especially, muscle biopsy features are discussed.Diversos medicamentos e substâncias tóxicas podem causar alterações musculares e são causas freqüentes de miopatia adquirida. Apresentamos uma série de 32 pacientes, predomínio de pacientes adulto jovens, com miopatia tóxica. As substâncias mais relacionadas com a miopatia foram os corticosteróides (56,2% seguidos pelo propoxifeno, neurolépticos, zidovudina e drogas indutoras de hipocalemia. A investigação mostrou níveis normais de creatino quinase sérica em 65,4%, eletromiografia de agulha com padrão miopático em 40% e o mais freqüente diagnóstico histológico da biópsia muscular foi atrofia de fibras do tipo 2 (59,3%. As manifestações clínicas, etiologia, tempo de evolução, nível sérico das enzimas musculares, alterações da eletroneuromiografia e, especialmente, da biópsia muscular são discutidos.

  8. Functional Electrical Stimulation as a Safe and Effective Treatment for Equine Epaxial Muscle Spasms: Clinical Evaluations and Histochemical Morphometry of Mitochondria in Muscle Biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravara, Barbara; Gobbo, Valerio; Carraro, Ugo; Gelbmann, Lin; Pribyl, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) has been used extensively over several decades to reverse muscle atrophy during rehabilitation for spinal cord injury patients. The benefits of the technology are being expanded into other areas, and FES has been recently utilized for injury rehabilitation and performance enhancement in horses. Six retired horses (age from 10 to 17 yrs) that had been previously used mainly for dressage riding were selected for this study. Clinical evaluation found epaxial muscle spasms in all horses with minimal to no pelvic extension when manually palpated. FES treatments were performed on the sacral/lumbar region 3 times per week for a period of 8 weeks, obtaining a total of 22 treatments per horse. The Modified Ashworth Scale for grading muscle spasms found a one grade improvement after approximately four FES treatments, indicating improved functional movement of the sacral/lumbar region, supporting the evidence by clinical palpations that a reduction in epaxial muscle spasms occurred. Skeletal muscle biopsies Pre and Post FES treatments were obtained from the longissimus lumborum muscle. Cryosections were stained with a Hemotoxylin-Eosin (H-E), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase reaction (NADH-TR). The eventual size change of the muscle fibers were evaluated by morphometry in the H-E and NADH-TR stained cryosections, while in the NADH-TR slides the histochemical density and distribution of mitochondria were also determined. The main results of the morphometric analyses were: 1) As expected for the type of FES treatment used in this study, only a couple of horses showed significant increases in mean muscle fiber size when Pre- vs Post-FES biopsies were compared; 2) In the older horses, there were sparse (or many in one horse) very atrophic and angulated muscle fibers in both Pre- and Post-FES samples, whose attributes and distribution suggests that they were denervated due to a distal neuropathy; 3) The hypothesis

  9. Muscle size explains low passive skeletal muscle force in heart failure patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Antonio Panizzolo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Alterations in skeletal muscle function and architecture have been linked to the compromised exercise capacity characterizing chronic heart failure (CHF. However, how passive skeletal muscle force is affected in CHF is not clear. Understanding passive force characteristics in CHF can help further elucidate the extent to which altered contractile properties and/or architecture might affect muscle and locomotor function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate passive force in a single muscle for which non-invasive measures of muscle size and estimates of fiber force are possible, the soleus (SOL, both in CHF patients and age- and physical activity-matched control participants. Methods Passive SOL muscle force and size were obtained by means of a novel approach combining experimental data (dynamometry, electromyography, ultrasound imaging with a musculoskeletal model. Results We found reduced passive SOL forces (∼30% (at the same relative levels of muscle stretch in CHF vs. healthy individuals. This difference was eliminated when force was normalized by physiological cross sectional area, indicating that reduced force output may be most strongly associated with muscle size. Nevertheless, passive force was significantly higher in CHF at a given absolute muscle length (non length-normalized and likely explained by the shorter muscle slack lengths and optimal muscle lengths measured in CHF compared to the control participants. This later factor may lead to altered performance of the SOL in functional tasks such gait. Discussion These findings suggest introducing exercise rehabilitation targeting muscle hypertrophy and, specifically for the calf muscles, exercise that promotes muscle lengthening.

  10. Muscle function in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröönström, Linda Ashman; Johansson, Linda; Zetterström, Anna-Klara; Dellborg, Mikael; Eriksson, Peter; Cider, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess muscle function in a sample of Swedish adult men and women with congenital heart disease (ACHD) and to compare the results with published reference values in healthy adults. From April 2009 to December 2010, 762 adult outpatients were assessed for their suitability and individual need for tests of physical fitness. The patients performed five muscle function tests, two isotonic tests and three isometric tests. Of the 762 patients, 315 (41.3%) patients performed the tests. Patients with ACHD had lower isotonic muscle function compared to healthy reference values. In the heel lift test, men with ACHD performed at 63% and women at 58% of the healthy reference values and in the shoulder flexion test the corresponding performance level was 60% for men with ACHD and 85% for the women. Multiple regression analyses showed that NYHA class II-IV was a significant predictor for a lower isotonic muscle function i.e. heel lift in women (pfunction in a broad and unselected group of patients with ACHD. Our data shows that patients with ACHD have lower isotonic muscle function. The impacts of low muscle function in activities of daily living and the question of whether muscle function could be improved with exercise training need further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosis of Pompe disease: muscle biopsy vs blood-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissing, John; Lukacs, Zoltan; Straub, Volker

    2013-07-01

    The diagnosis of Pompe disease (acid maltase deficiency, glycogen storage disease type II) in children and adults can be challenging because of the heterogeneous clinical presentation and considerable overlap of signs and symptoms found in other neuromuscular diseases. This review evaluates some of the methods used in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of late-onset Pompe disease. Muscle biopsy is commonly used as an early diagnostic tool in the evaluation of muscle disease. However, experience has shown that relying solely on visualizing a periodic acid-Schiff-positive vacuolar myopathy to identify late-onset Pompe disease often leads to false-negative results and subsequent delays in identification and treatment of the disorder. Serum creatine kinase level can be normal or only mildly elevated in late-onset Pompe disease and is not very helpful alone to suggest the diagnosis, but in combination with proximal and axial weakness it may raise the suspicion for Pompe disease. A simple blood-based assay to measure the level of α-glucosidase activity is the optimal initial test for confirming or excluding Pompe disease. A timely and accurate diagnosis of late-onset Pompe disease likely will improve patient outcomes as care standards including enzyme replacement therapy can be applied and complications can be anticipated. Increased awareness of the clinical phenotype of Pompe disease is therefore warranted to expedite diagnostic screening for this condition with blood-based enzymatic assays.

  12. The mechanisms of muscle wasting in COPD and heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Vescovo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the mechanisms leading to skeletal muscle wasting in COPD and heart failure are common to both conditions. These encompass neurohormonal activation and systemic inflammation. The mechanisms leading to muscle dysfunction are both qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative changes comprise the transition from aerobic metabolism and prevalent slow fibers composition toward anaerobic metabolism and fast fibers synthesis. Quantitative changes are mainly linked to muscle loss. These changes occur not only in the major muscles bulks of the body but also in respiratory muscles. The mechanisms leading to muscle wastage include cytokine-triggered skeletal muscle apoptosis and ubiquitin-proteasomeand non-ubiquitin-dependent pathways. The regulation of fiber type involves the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1/calcineurin/transcriptional coactivator PGC1 cascade. The imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation plays an important role. Protein degradation can occur through ubiquitin-dependent and non-ubiquitin-dependent pathways. Very recently, two systems controlling ubiquitin-proteasome activation have been described: FOXO-ubiquitin ligase and NFkB ubiquitin ligase. These are triggered by TNFα and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1. Moreover, apoptosis, which is triggered by tumor necrosis factor α, plays an important role. Another mechanism acting on muscle wastage is malnutrition, with an imbalance between catabolic and anabolic factors toward the catabolic component. Catabolism is also worsened by the activation of the adrenergic system and alteration of the cortisol/DEHA ratio toward cortisol production. Sarcomeric protein oxidation and its consequent contractile impairment can be another cause of skeletal muscle dysfunction in CHF.

  13. Tissue specific phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins isolated from rat liver, heart muscle, and skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Steffen; León, Ileana R; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    -specific phosphorylation sites were identified in tissue-specific enzymes such as those encoded by HMGCS2, BDH1, PCK2, CPS1, and OTC in liver mitochondria, and CKMT2 and CPT1B in heart and skeletal muscle. Kinase prediction showed an important role for PKA and PKC in all tissues but also for proline-directed kinases...

  14. The use of muscle biopsy in the diagnosis of systemic vasculitis affecting small to medium-sized vessels: a prospective evaluation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunokawa, T; Yokogawa, N; Shimada, K; Enatsu, K; Sugii, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of muscle biopsy for histopathological confirmation of small vessel vasculitis (SVV) or medium vessel vasculitis (MVV). Muscle biopsies were performed for all consecutive cases of suspected SVV or MVV seen at Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Medical Centre between February 2012 and May 2014 except those for which a skin or renal biopsy was indicated. Forty-nine patients underwent muscle biopsies. All patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months. Diagnosis of SVV or MVV was made in 35 patients. An unrelated condition was diagnosed in 11 patients and no diagnoses were made in three patients. Of the 35 patients in whom SVV or MVV was diagnosed, positive muscle biopsies were obtained in 20 patients [15 microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), three polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), and two eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA)], while other findings led to the same diagnosis in 15 (seven MPA, four GPA, three PAN, and one rheumatoid vasculitis). The sensitivity of the muscle biopsy was 57% [20/35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 50-57]. Of 13 patients presenting with peripheral neuropathy, the muscle biopsy demonstrated vasculitis in nine patients, with 75% sensitivity (9/12; 95% CI 69-75). There were no complications in the procedure apart from delayed wound healing in one patient. Muscle biopsy is a safe method that offers a high diagnostic yield for SVV or MVV, especially in patients with vasculitic neuropathy.

  15. Clonal analysis reveals a common origin between nonsomite-derived neck muscles and heart myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Fabienne; Hamou, Wissam; Francou, Alexandre; Théveniau-Ruissy, Magali; Kelly, Robert G.; Buckingham, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Neck muscles constitute a transition zone between somite-derived skeletal muscles of the trunk and limbs, and muscles of the head, which derive from cranial mesoderm. The trapezius and sternocleidomastoid neck muscles are formed from progenitor cells that have expressed markers of cranial pharyngeal mesoderm, whereas other muscles in the neck arise from Pax3-expressing cells in the somites. Mef2c-AHF-Cre genetic tracing experiments and Tbx1 mutant analysis show that nonsomitic neck muscles share a gene regulatory network with cardiac progenitor cells in pharyngeal mesoderm of the second heart field (SHF) and branchial arch-derived head muscles. Retrospective clonal analysis shows that this group of neck muscles includes laryngeal muscles and a component of the splenius muscle, of mixed somitic and nonsomitic origin. We demonstrate that the trapezius muscle group is clonally related to myocardium at the venous pole of the heart, which derives from the posterior SHF. The left clonal sublineage includes myocardium of the pulmonary trunk at the arterial pole of the heart. Although muscles derived from the first and second branchial arches also share a clonal relationship with different SHF-derived parts of the heart, neck muscles are clonally distinct from these muscles and define a third clonal population of common skeletal and cardiac muscle progenitor cells within cardiopharyngeal mesoderm. By linking neck muscle and heart development, our findings highlight the importance of cardiopharyngeal mesoderm in the evolution of the vertebrate heart and neck and in the pathophysiology of human congenital disease. PMID:25605943

  16. Aerobic vs anaerobic metabolism during ischemia in heart muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D K; Engelman, R M; Rousou, J A; Breyer, R H

    1987-01-01

    Anaerobic metabolism in heart muscle plays a role in maintenance of myocardial preservation only during ischemia or hypoxia. In an ischemic state, such as during a heart attack or even during the induced ischemia of open heart surgery, there is impairment of blood flow to the myocardium. The major energy-yielding process in the heart is through the metabolism of glucose and lipids by oxidative reactions. Under anaerobic conditions, oxygen is not available to accept the electrons in the metabolic degradation of substrates and anaerobic glycolysis becomes important in the preservation of myocardial viability during the ischemic process. Unfortunately, the accumulated products of glycolysis, namely protons and lactate, work to inhibit glycolysis, ultimately resulting in a depression of anaerobic metabolism. Cardioplegia, as utilized during open heart surgery, has the effect of inducing instantaneous induction of myocardial mechanical and electrical arrest with a maximal inhibition of the energy utilizing metabolic processes. This effectively reduces substrate utilization and prevents the deleterious consequences of the ischemic process. Cardioplegia is most effective when combined with the additive properties of hypothermia, which plays a significant role in decreasing myocardial metabolism. However, during prolonged hypothermic cardioplegic arrest, sufficient ATP cannot be maintained for cellular integrity and anaerobic glycolysis becomes of increasing importance for maintenance of myocardial preservation. This presentation deals with the mechanics of aerobic versus anaerobic metabolism during the ischemic process of open heart surgery.

  17. Mechanical stimulation in the engineering of heart muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Norman Yu; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus

    2016-01-15

    Recreating the beating heart in the laboratory continues to be a formidable bioengineering challenge. The fundamental feature of the heart is its pumping action, requiring considerable mechanical forces to compress a blood filled chamber with a defined in- and outlet. Ventricular output crucially depends on venous loading of the ventricles (preload) and on the force generated by the preloaded ventricles to overcome arterial blood pressure (afterload). The rate of contraction is controlled by the spontaneously active sinus node and transmission of its electrical impulses into the ventricles. The underlying principles for these physiological processes are described by the Frank-Starling mechanism and Bowditch phenomenon. It is essential to consider these principles in the design and evaluation of tissue engineered myocardium. This review focuses on current strategies to evoke mechanical loading in hydrogel-based heart muscle engineering. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Micro-RNA and mRNA myocardial tissue expression in biopsy specimen from patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ka-Bik; Sanderson, John E; Izzat, Mohammad Bashar; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2015-11-15

    There is increasing evidence that changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression occur in chronic heart failure and these may be involved in the pathogenesis. In this study we have explored the expression of selected myocyte and fibroblast-related microRNAs and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that are associated with hypertrophy, apoptosis and fibrosis in biopsy specimens from patients with relatively new onset heart failure compared to a group of patients without heart failure. Myocardial biopsy specimens taken from Chinese patients presenting with recent heart failure were compared with a group of patients without heart failure undergoing routine cardiac surgery (n=34). miRNAs (miR-1, -21, -23, -29, -30, -130, -133, -195, -199, -208, and -320) and corresponding mRNA expression were measured by real-time quantitative-PCR method. miR-1, -21, -23, -29, -130, -195 and -199 were significantly up-regulated in the heart failure group when compared to those without heart failure (all p<0.01). However, miR-30, -133, -208 and -320 were not significantly different. Related mRNAs (casp3, coll I, coll III and TGF) were also significantly up-regulated (all p<0.05) in the heart failure group. Certain selected microRNAs involved in apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis are up-regulated in the myocardium of patients with a clinical history of heart failure compared to those without. These specific miRNAs may be the most suitable for circulating biomarkers in the early stages of chronic heart failure and possibly future therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Tibialis anterior muscle needle biopsy and sensitive biomolecular methods: a useful tool in myotonic dystrophy type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iachettini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 is a neuromuscular disorder caused by a CTG repeat expansion in 3’UTR of DMPK gene. This mutation causes accumulation of toxic RNA in nuclear foci leading to splicing misregulation of specific genes. In view of future clinical trials with antisense oligonucleotides in DM1 patients, it is important to set up sensitive and minimally-invasive tools to monitor the efficacy of treatments on skeletal muscle. A tibialis anterior (TA muscle sample of about 60 mg was obtained from 5 DM1 patients and 5 healthy subjects through a needle biopsy. A fragment of about 40 mg was used for histological examination and a fragment of about 20 mg was used for biomolecular analysis. The TA fragments obtained with the minimally-invasive needle biopsy technique is enough to perform all the histopathological and biomolecular evaluations useful to monitor a clinical trial on DM1 patients.

  20. Direct morphological identification of Borrelia burgdorferi in the muscle biopsies: the possibility of association of the neuromuscular abnormalities with Borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sakharova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors examined 40 muscle biopsy specimens taken from patients with neuromuscular symptoms when the diagnosis was unestablished or presumptive. Eighteen of them exhibited foci of muscle fiber damage with the presence of spirochete-like structures in the semithin tissue sections. Electron microscopy of these areas detected Borrelia as vegetative and diverse L-forms. Immunocytochemical techniques usingantibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens confirmed that the spirochetes belonged to this species. This allows one to consider borreliosis as an etiological or complicating factor of neuromuscular pathology and to recommend the above morphological methods for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases of unknown origin.

  1. Intercostal and forearm muscle deoxygenation during respiratory fatigue in patients with heart failure: potential role of a respiratory muscle metaboreflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A M; Castro, R R T; Silva, B M; Villacorta, H; Sant'Anna Junior, M; Nóbrega, A C L

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of respiratory muscle fatigue on intercostal and forearm muscle perfusion and oxygenation in patients with heart failure. Five clinically stable heart failure patients with respiratory muscle weakness (age, 66 ± 12 years; left ventricle ejection fraction, 34 ± 3%) and nine matched healthy controls underwent a respiratory muscle fatigue protocol, breathing against a fixed resistance at 60% of their maximal inspiratory pressure for as long as they could sustain the predetermined inspiratory pressure. Intercostal and forearm muscle blood volume and oxygenation were continuously monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy with transducers placed on the seventh left intercostal space and the left forearm. Data were compared by two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni correction. Respiratory fatigue occurred at 5.1 ± 1.3 min in heart failure patients and at 9.3 ± 1.4 min in controls (P0.05). Respiratory fatigue in heart failure reduced intercostal and forearm muscle blood volume (Pmuscles (heart failure, -4.5 ± 0.5%; controls, +0.5 ± 0.8%; Pfatigue in patients with heart failure causes an oxygen demand/delivery mismatch in respiratory muscles, probably leading to a reflex reduction in peripheral limb muscle perfusion, featuring a respiratory metaboreflex.

  2. Maximum entropy, fractal dimension and lacunarity in quantification of cellular rejection in myocardial biopsy of patients submitted to heart transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, L A [Universidade Estadual Paulista, IGCE, DEMAC, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, F R; Peres, F A [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Moreira, R D; Moriel, A R; De Godoy, M F [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, FAMERP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Murta Junior, L O, E-mail: laneves@rc.unesp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo, FFCLRP, Depto Computacao e Matematica, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a method for the quantification of cellular rejection in endomyocardial biopsies of patients submitted to heart transplant. The model is based on automatic multilevel thresholding, which employs histogram quantification techniques, histogram slope percentage analysis and the calculation of maximum entropy. The structures were quantified with the aid of the multi-scale fractal dimension and lacunarity for the identification of behavior patterns in myocardial cellular rejection in order to determine the most adequate treatment for each case.

  3. Muscle reflex in heart failure: the role of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-Jun; Zucker, Irving H; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Exercise evokes sympathetic activation and increases blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Two neural mechanisms that cause the exercise-induced increase in sympathetic discharge are central command and the exercise pressor reflex (EPR). The former suggests that a volitional signal emanating from central motor areas leads to increased sympathetic activation during exercise. The latter is a reflex originating in skeletal muscle which contributes significantly to the regulation of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during exercise. The afferent arm of this reflex is composed of metabolically sensitive (predominantly group IV, C-fibers) and mechanically sensitive (predominately group III, A-delta fibers) afferent fibers. Activation of these receptors and their associated afferent fibers reflexively adjusts sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity during exercise. In heart failure, the sympathetic activation during exercise is exaggerated, which potentially increases cardiovascular risk and contributes to exercise intolerance during physical activity in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. A therapeutic strategy for preventing or slowing the progression of the exaggerated EPR may be of benefit in CHF patients. Long-term exercise training (ExT), as a non-pharmacological treatment for CHF increases exercise capacity, reduces sympatho-excitation and improves cardiovascular function in CHF animals and patients. In this review, we will discuss the effects of ExT and the mechanisms that contribute to the exaggerated EPR in the CHF state.

  4. Intercostal and forearm muscle deoxygenation during respiratory fatigue in patients with heart failure: potential role of a respiratory muscle metaboreflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Moreno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of respiratory muscle fatigue on intercostal and forearm muscle perfusion and oxygenation in patients with heart failure. Five clinically stable heart failure patients with respiratory muscle weakness (age, 66±12 years; left ventricle ejection fraction, 34±3% and nine matched healthy controls underwent a respiratory muscle fatigue protocol, breathing against a fixed resistance at 60% of their maximal inspiratory pressure for as long as they could sustain the predetermined inspiratory pressure. Intercostal and forearm muscle blood volume and oxygenation were continuously monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy with transducers placed on the seventh left intercostal space and the left forearm. Data were compared by two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni correction. Respiratory fatigue occurred at 5.1±1.3 min in heart failure patients and at 9.3±1.4 min in controls (P0.05. Respiratory fatigue in heart failure reduced intercostal and forearm muscle blood volume (P<0.05 along with decreased tissue oxygenation both in intercostal (heart failure, -2.6±1.6%; controls, +1.6±0.5%; P<0.05 and in forearm muscles (heart failure, -4.5±0.5%; controls, +0.5±0.8%; P<0.05. These results suggest that respiratory fatigue in patients with heart failure causes an oxygen demand/delivery mismatch in respiratory muscles, probably leading to a reflex reduction in peripheral limb muscle perfusion, featuring a respiratory metaboreflex.

  5. Diagnostic Pitfalls and Challenges in Interpretation of Heart Transplantation Rejection in Endomyocardial Biopsies With Focus on our Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Kambiz; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Amin, Ahmad; Naderi, Nasim; Taghavi, Sepideh; Ojaghi-Haghighi, Zahra; Abdollahi, Mahsa

    2014-02-01

    The current trend of heart transplantation in recent years has taken a quantum leap forward. We decided to look back at our experience in this center. Here, we focus on the diagnostic pitfalls and challenges in these biopsies. Forty two patients based on the standard protocol of heart transplantation group, yielded 63 biopsy samples over a period of 33 months (April 2010 - December 2012). The mean age was 30.4 years (ranging from 16 to 58 years) with 51 males (81%) and 12 females (19%). All the patients were examined periodically and biopsy samples were taken from the right ventricular wall. Rarely fewer than three pieces of myocardial samples were procured. Scar, adipose tissues and blood clots may be seen instead. Quilty effect (nodular endocardial lesions composed of inflammatory cell infiltrates) was seen in 8 cases (12.7%). Other findings not directly related to rejection including early ischemic injury, Quilty effect and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) were not encountered. Specimen inadequacy was not a major problem in our center. It poses a great limitation, because suboptimal specimens sometimes mislead the pathologist. Other findings especially Quilty effect were within the range defined for this finding.

  6. Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum with myopathy and velopharyngeal insufficiency. A case report with a non-branchiomeric muscle biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Murialdo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we report on a case of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum presenting fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization tests negative, hypotonia of some branchiomeric muscles (with velo-pharyngeal insufficiency, dysphagia and nasal voice and non-branchiomeric muscles (with strabismus and limb hypotrophy. On the basis of the left quadriceps muscle biopsy, showing anisometry and prevalence of type 1 fibers, and on literature data, we underline the relevance of TBX1 gene (regulator of neural crest cells and activator of myogenic factors in branchiomeric muscles development and of PAX3 gene (present in neural crest, inducing migration of these cells and reported in non-branchiomeric muscles. We conclude that the case of OAVS presented a generalized myopathy and we hypothesize that a cluster of genes strictly neural crest cells related, including TBX1 and PAX3, may be responsible of the branchiomeric and non-branchiomeric myopathy; alternatively, a regulatory mechanism abnormally common to OAVS and velo-cardio-facial syndrome could be present.

  7. Effects of inactivity on human muscle glutathione synthesis by a double-tracer and single-biopsy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesco; Libera, Luciano Dalla; Rittweger, Jörn; Mazzucco, Sara; Jurdana, Mihaela; Mekjavic, Igor B; Pišot, Rado; Gorza, Luisa; Narici, Marco; Biolo, Gianni

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is often associated to inactivity-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy. Glutathione is one of the major antioxidant systems stimulated, both at muscular and systemic level, by activation of oxidative processes. We measured changes in glutathione availability, oxidative stress induction and the extent of atrophy mediated by 35 days of experimental bed rest in vastus lateralis muscle of healthy human volunteers. To assess muscle glutathione synthesis, we applied a novel single-biopsy and double-tracer ([2H2]glycine and [15N]glycine) approach based on evaluation of steady-state precursor incorporation in product. The correlations between the traditional (multiple-samples, one-tracer) and new (one-sample, double-tracer infusion) methods were analysed in erythrocytes by Passing–Bablok and Altman–Bland tests. Muscle glutathione absolute synthesis rate increased following bed rest from 5.5 ± 1.1 to 11.0 ± 1.5 mmol (kg wet tissue)−1 day−1 (mean ±s.e.m.; n= 9; P= 0.02) while glutathione concentration failed to change significantly. Bed rest induced vastus lateralis muscle atrophy, as assessed by pennation angle changes measured by ultrasonography (from 18.6 ± 1.0 to 15.3 ± 0.9 deg; P= 0.01) and thickness changes (from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 1.9 ± 0.1 cm; P glutathione system. PMID:20962001

  8. Congenital Heart Disease in Adolescents With Gluteal Muscle Contracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Tian; Zhang, Xin-tao; Zha, Zhen-gang; Zhang, Wen-tao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gluteal muscle contracture (GMC), presented with hip abduction and external rotation when crouching, is common in several ethnicities, particularly in Chinese. It remains unclear that the reasons why these children are weak and have no choice to accept repeated intramuscular injection. Here, we found some unique cases which may be useful to explain this question. We describe a series of special GMC patients, who are accompanied with congenital heart disease (CHD). These cases were first observed in preoperative examinations of a patient with atrial septal defect (ASD), which was proved by chest X-ray and cardiac ultrasound. From then on, we gradually identified additional 3 GMC patients with CHD. The original patient with ASD was sent to cardiosurgery department to repair atrial septal first and received arthroscopic surgery later. While the other 3 were cured postoperative of ventricular septal defect (VSD), tetralogy of fallot (TOF), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), respectively, and had surgery directly. The study gives us 3 proposals: (1) as to CHD children, it is essential to decrease the use of intramuscular injection, (2) paying more attention to cardiac examination especially cardiac ultrasound in perioperative period, and (3) taking 3D-CT to reconstruct gluteal muscles for observing contracture bands clearly in preoperation. However, more larger series of patients are called for to confirm these findings. PMID:25654394

  9. Action Potential-Evoked Calcium Release Is Impaired in Single Skeletal Muscle Fibers from Heart Failure Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranco, Marino; Quiñonez, Marbella; Shieh, Perry; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Cruz, Daniel; Deng, Mario C.; Vergara, Julio L.; Middlekauff, Holly R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (HF) has been attributed to abnormalities of the skeletal muscles. Muscle function depends on intact excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), but ECC studies in HF models have been inconclusive, due to deficiencies in the animal models and tools used to measure calcium (Ca2+) release, mandating investigations in skeletal muscle from HF patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ca2+ release is significantly impaired in the skeletal muscle of HF patients in whom exercise capacity is severely diminished compared to age-matched healthy volunteers. Methods and Findings Using state-of-the-art electrophysiological and optical techniques in single muscle fibers from biopsies of the locomotive vastus lateralis muscle, we measured the action potential (AP)-evoked Ca2+ release in 4 HF patients and 4 age-matched healthy controls. The mean peak Ca2+ release flux in fibers obtained from HF patients (10±1.2 µM/ms) was markedly (2.6-fold) and significantly (pfibers from healthy volunteers (28±3.3 µM/ms). This impairment in AP-evoked Ca2+ release was ubiquitous and was not explained by differences in the excitability mechanisms since single APs were indistinguishable between HF patients and healthy volunteers. Conclusions These findings prove the feasibility of performing electrophysiological experiments in single fibers from human skeletal muscle, and offer a new approach for investigations of myopathies due to HF and other diseases. Importantly, we have demonstrated that one step in the ECC process, AP-evoked Ca2+ release, is impaired in single muscle fibers in HF patients. PMID:25310188

  10. Action potential-evoked calcium release is impaired in single skeletal muscle fibers from heart failure patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino DiFranco

    Full Text Available Exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (HF has been attributed to abnormalities of the skeletal muscles. Muscle function depends on intact excitation-contraction coupling (ECC, but ECC studies in HF models have been inconclusive, due to deficiencies in the animal models and tools used to measure calcium (Ca2+ release, mandating investigations in skeletal muscle from HF patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ca2+ release is significantly impaired in the skeletal muscle of HF patients in whom exercise capacity is severely diminished compared to age-matched healthy volunteers.Using state-of-the-art electrophysiological and optical techniques in single muscle fibers from biopsies of the locomotive vastus lateralis muscle, we measured the action potential (AP-evoked Ca2+ release in 4 HF patients and 4 age-matched healthy controls. The mean peak Ca2+ release flux in fibers obtained from HF patients (10±1.2 µM/ms was markedly (2.6-fold and significantly (p<0.05 smaller than in fibers from healthy volunteers (28±3.3 µM/ms. This impairment in AP-evoked Ca2+ release was ubiquitous and was not explained by differences in the excitability mechanisms since single APs were indistinguishable between HF patients and healthy volunteers.These findings prove the feasibility of performing electrophysiological experiments in single fibers from human skeletal muscle, and offer a new approach for investigations of myopathies due to HF and other diseases. Importantly, we have demonstrated that one step in the ECC process, AP-evoked Ca2+ release, is impaired in single muscle fibers in HF patients.

  11. Acute compartment syndrome in the pelvic limb of a cow following biopsy of a skeletal muscle-associated hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susan R; Desrochers, André; Lanthier, Isabelle; Strina, Marion; Babkine, Marie

    2012-02-15

    A 6-year-old Holstein cow was examined because of chronic lameness and swelling near the stifle joint of the left pelvic limb. A mass was palpated in the soft tissues lateral to the proximal aspect of the left tibia. Multiple attempts to obtain a biopsy specimen of the mass resulted in acute compartment syndrome of the femoral compartment (tensor fasciae latae and biceps femoris muscles) and lateral tibial compartment (cranial tibial and peroneus tertius muscles) with associated sciatic nerve paralysis. Surgical decompression via tensor fasciae latae and biceps femoris incision resolved the sciatic nerve paralysis. On the fifth day following surgery, the cow began to develop signs of increased respiratory effort. Thoracic radiography revealed a pulmonary metastatic micronodular pattern. The cow was euthanized because its condition deteriorated. Metastatic hemangiosarcoma was confirmed at necropsy, and the primary tumor was the mass that was lateral to the tibia and within the biceps femoris muscle. Hemangiosarcoma should be considered a differential diagnosis for lameness in cattle when no orthopedic cause can be identified. Close patient surveillance is strongly recommended in the event that a vascular tumor is present because catastrophic consequences are possible. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute compartment syndrome in a pelvic limb of a bovine patient and the only report of hemangiosarcoma in the skeletal muscle of cattle.

  12. A hypothesis for examining skeletal muscle biopsy derived sarcolemmal nNOSµ as surrogate for enteric nNOSα function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun eChaudhury

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of gastrointestinal motility disorders is controversial and largely unresolved. This provokes empiric approaches to patient management of these so-called functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs. Preliminary evidence demonstrate that defects in nNOS expression and function, the enzyme that synthesizes nitric oxide (NO, the key inhibitory neurotransmitter mediating mechano-electrical smooth muscle relaxation, is the major pathophysiological basis for sluggishness of oro-aboral transit of luminal contents. This opinion is an ansatz of the potential of skeletal muscle biopsy and examining sarcolemmal nNOSµ to provide complementary insights regarding nNOSα expression, localization and function within enteric nerve terminals, the site of stimulated de novo NO synthesis. The main basis of this thesis is two-folds: (a the molecular similarity of the structures of nNOS α and µ, similar mechanisms of localizations to active zones of nitrergic synthesis and same mechanisms of electron transfers during NO synthesis (b pragmatic difficulty to routinely obtain full-thickness biopsies of gastrointestinal tract, even in patients presenting with the most recalcitrant manifestations of stasis and delayed transit of lu

  13. Respiratory Muscle Training Improves Diaphragm Citrate Synthase Activity and Hemodynamic Function in Rats with Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rodrigo Boemo; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Arena, Ross; Lago, Pedro Dal

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced respiratory muscle strength in patients with heart failure positively alters the clinical trajectory of heart failure. In an experimental model, respiratory muscle training in rats with heart failure has been shown to improve cardiopulmonary function through mechanisms yet to be entirely elucidated. The present report aimed to evaluate the respiratory muscle training effects in diaphragm citrate synthase activity and hemodynamic function in rats with heart failure. Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: sedentary sham (Sed-Sham, n=8), trained sham (RMT-Sham, n=8), sedentary heart failure (Sed-HF, n=7) and trained heart failure (RMT-HF, n=7). The animals were submitted to a RMT protocol performed 30 minutes a day, 5 days/week, for 6 weeks. In rats with heart failure, respiratory muscle training decreased pulmonary congestion and right ventricular hypertrophy. Deleterious alterations in left ventricular pressures, as well as left ventricular contractility and relaxation, were assuaged by respiratory muscle training in heart failure rats. Citrate synthase activity, which was significantly reduced in heart failure rats, was preserved by respiratory muscle training. Additionally, a negative correlation was found between citrate synthase and left ventricular end diastolic pressure and positive correlation was found between citrate synthase and left ventricular systolic pressure. Respiratory muscle training produces beneficial adaptations in the diaphragmatic musculature, which is linked to improvements in left ventricular hemodynamics and blood pressure in heart failure rats. The RMT-induced improvements in cardiac architecture and the oxidative capacity of the diaphragm may improve the clinical trajectory of patients with heart failure.

  14. Morphology of electrophysiologically identified junctions between Purkinje fibers and ventricular muscle in rabbit and pig hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tranum-Jensen, J.; Wilde, A. A.; Vermeulen, J. T.; Janse, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Purkinje fiber-ventricular muscle (PV) junctions were identified by extracellular recording in isolated, superfused preparations from rabbit and pig hearts. Microelectrode recordings from different cell types at the PV junctions were obtained, and the cells recorded from were retrieved

  15. Biomolecular identification of (CCTG)n mutation in myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) by FISH on muscle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardani, R; Mancinelli, E; Sansone, V; Rotondo, G; Meola, G

    2004-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a dominantly inherited disorder with multisystemic clinical features, caused by a CCTG repeat expansion in intron 1 of the zinc finger protein 9 (ZNF9) gene. The mutant transcripts are retained in the nucleus forming multiple discrete foci also called ribonuclear inclusions. The size and the somatic instability of DM2 expansion complicate the molecular diagnosis of DM2. In our study fluorescence-labeled CAGG-repeat oligonucleotides were hybridized to muscle biopsies to investigate if fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), a relatively quick and simple procedure, could be used as a method to diagnose DM2. When FISH was performed with (CAGG)5 probe, nuclear foci of mutant RNA were present in all genetically confirmed DM2 patients (n=17) and absent in all patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1; n=5) or with other muscular disease (n=17) used as controls. In contrast, foci were observed both in DM1 and DM2 myonuclei when muscle tissue were hybridized with (CAG)6CA probe indicating that this probe is not specific for DM2 identification. The consistent detection of ribonuclear inclusions in DM2 muscles and their absence in DM1, in agreement with the clinical diagnosis and with leukocyte (CCTG)n expansion, suggests that fluorescence in situ hybridization using (CAGG)5 probes, may be a specific method to distinguish between DM1 and DM2. Moreover, the procedure is simple, and readily applicable in any pathology laboratory.

  16. Skeletal muscle signaling and the heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads

    2013-01-01

    -extensor training and 2 weeks of deconditioning of the other leg (leg cast). Hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotides were determined during exercise with the (1) deconditioned leg, (2) trained leg, and (3) trained leg with atrial pacing to the heart rate obtained with the deconditioned leg. Heart rate...

  17. Fibre hybrids in type group . An investigation of human muscle biopsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennekens, F.G.I.; Meijer, A.E.F.H.; Bethlem, J.; Wijngaarden, G.K. van

    1974-01-01

    Change of fibre type caused by reinnervation implies change in a series of metabolic processes. As long as these changes are in progress the histochemical pattern in muscle fibres may demonstrate deviations from the normal characteristics. The present histochemical study was undertaken to evaluate

  18. Needle Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Needle biopsy Sections About Print Overview Thyroid biopsy Thyroid biopsy During a thyroid biopsy, your doctor uses a ... the needle to the suspicious area. Core needle biopsy Core needle biopsy A core needle biopsy uses ...

  19. Heart failure induces changes in acid-sensing ion channels in sensory neurons innervating skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, David D; Kutschke, William J; Weiss, Robert M; Benson, Christopher J

    2015-10-15

    Heart failure is associated with diminished exercise capacity, which is driven, in part, by alterations in exercise-induced autonomic reflexes triggered by skeletal muscle sensory neurons (afferents). These overactive reflexes may also contribute to the chronic state of sympathetic excitation, which is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality of heart failure. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are highly expressed in muscle afferents where they sense metabolic changes associated with ischaemia and exercise, and contribute to the metabolic component of these reflexes. Therefore, we tested if ASICs within muscle afferents are altered in heart failure. We used whole-cell patch clamp to study the electrophysiological properties of acid-evoked currents in isolated, labelled muscle afferent neurons from control and heart failure (induced by myocardial infarction) mice. We found that the percentage of muscle afferents that displayed ASIC-like currents, the current amplitudes, and the pH dose-response relationships were not altered in mice with heart failure. On the other hand, the biophysical properties of ASIC-like currents were significantly different in a subpopulation of cells (40%) from heart failure mice. This population displayed diminished pH sensitivity, altered desensitization kinetics, and very fast recovery from desensitization. These unique properties define these channels within this subpopulation of muscle afferents as being heteromeric channels composed of ASIC2a and -3 subunits. Heart failure induced a shift in the subunit composition of ASICs within muscle afferents, which significantly altered their pH sensing characteristics. These results might, in part, contribute to the changes in exercise-mediated reflexes that are associated with heart failure. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  20. Autonomic control of heart rate by metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, James P; Seifert, Thomas; Hartwich, Doreen

    2010-01-01

    Isolated activation of metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (muscle metaboreflex) using post-exercise ischaemia (PEI) following handgrip partially maintains exercise-induced increases in arterial blood pressure (BP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), while heart rate (HR...... of cardiac parasympathetic reactivation on heart rate....... moderate (PEI-M) and high (PEI-H) intensity isometric handgrip performed at 25% and 40% maximum voluntary contraction, under control (no drug), parasympathetic blockade (glycopyrrolate) and beta-adrenergic blockade (metoprolol or propranalol) conditions, while beat-to-beat HR and BP were continuously...

  1. Toad heart utilizes exclusively slow skeletal muscle troponin T: an evolutionary adaptation with potential functional benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Han-Zhong; Chen, Xuequn; Hossain, M Moazzem; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2012-08-24

    The three isoforms of vertebrate troponin T (TnT) are normally expressed in a muscle type-specific manner. Here we report an exception that the cardiac muscle of toad (Bufo) expresses exclusively slow skeletal muscle TnT (ssTnT) together with cardiac forms of troponin I and myosin as determined using immunoblotting, cDNA cloning, and/or LC-MS/MS. Using RT-PCR and 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends on toad cardiac mRNA, we cloned full-length cDNAs encoding two alternatively spliced variants of ssTnT. Expression of the cloned cDNAs in Escherichia coli confirmed that the toad cardiac muscle expresses solely ssTnT, predominantly the low molecular weight variant with the exon 5-encoded NH(2)-terminal segment spliced out. Functional studies were performed in ex vivo working toad hearts and compared with the frog (Rana) hearts. The results showed that toad hearts had higher contractile and relaxation velocities and were able to work against a significantly higher afterload than that of frog hearts. Therefore, the unique evolutionary adaptation of utilizing exclusively ssTnT in toad cardiac muscle corresponded to a fitness value from improving systolic function of the heart. The data demonstrated a physiological importance of the functional diversity of TnT isoforms. The structure-function relationship of TnT may be explored for the development of new treatment of heart failure.

  2. The effects of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle abnormalities in patients with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L

    2001-01-01

    Resistance exercise increases muscular strength and endurance, which prevents injuries associated with musculoskeletal disorders, favorably alters muscle fiber type distribution, and up-regulates the genetic expression of certain enzymes seen in dysfunctional skeletal muscles. Although the benefits of resistance exercise are well documented in the literature, this form of exercise is not routinely recommended for patients with heart failure for fear of symptom exacerbation, and because of poor understanding of how best to prescribe this type of exercise. Because muscle atrophy and deconditioning states are common findings in patients with heart failure, these patients stand to benefit substantially from resistance training because this type of physical activity results in functional adaptations in the neuromuscular system. This article addresses changes in skeletal muscle pathophysiology that occur in patients with heart failure and the potential role resistance training may play in reversing this sequela, and recommends a weight lifting exercise prescription for these patients. (c)2001 CHF, Inc.

  3. Heart size and mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area related to birth weight in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims in domestic pig breeding has been to increase the size of litters resulting in variation in birth weight of piglets. Pig breeding has also resulted in increased body muscle mass. Muscles with the same size can consist either of large number of thin muscle fibres or small number of thick muscle fibres. Larger body muscle content means that in living animal the heart must pump blood to larger muscle mass than earlier. Our interest in this study was to investigate the relationship between the pig’s birth weight and (i growth performance and carcass composition, (ii the size of organs, and (iii the mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area at slaughter. The study consisted of twenty pigs slaughtered at the age of 165±2 days. The day after the slaughter, the carcass composition was determined by dissecting the chilled carcass into lean, fat, bones, and skin and organs were weighed. The average cross sectional area of muscle fibres was determined from three fast-twitch muscles longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, gluteus superficialis, and two slow-twitch muscles infraspinatus and masseter. The birth weight of pigs ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 kg. We found no clear relationships between the birth weight and the pig’s growth performance from birth to slaughter. When the birth weight increased the heart weight at slaughter increased as well (P < 0.01. The heart weight was higher in those pigs with high carcass weight (P < 0.05 and with the high weight of total muscle mass in the carcass (P < 0.001. The cross sectional area of muscle fibres in M. longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05, M. semimembranosus (P < 0.10, and M. gluteus superficialis (P < 0.05 was larger in those pigs with low birth weight compared to those found in pigs with high birth weight.;

  4. Dropped Head Syndrome and the Presence of Rimmed Vacuoles in a Muscle Biopsy in Scleroderma-Polymyositis Overlap Syndrome Associated with Anti-Ku Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshi, Yoshida; Mai, Yoshida; Kinjo, Mitsuyo; Manabu, Jonosono; Itsuro, Higuchi

    2017-11-20

    A 66-year-old woman with a history of interstitial lung disease presented with a 3-month history of dropped head syndrome (DHS), followed by camptocormia and extremity weakness. A clinical examination revealed Raynaud phenomenon, arthralgia, distal skin sclerosis, and microbleeds in the nailfold capillaries. An anti-Ku antibody test was positive. A muscle biopsy revealed inflammatory myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (RVs). The diagnosis of scleroderma-polymyositis (SSc-PM) overlap syndrome was made. RVs on a muscle biopsy in a patient with inflammatory myositis involving axial muscles may be seen either in inclusion body myositis or SSc-PM overlap syndrome. The examination of the skin and autoantibody testing help determine the diagnosis and treatment strategy.

  5. Regulation of mechano growth factor in skeletal muscle and heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottens, M.

    2010-01-01

    The mechano growth factor (MGF) is expressed in mechanically overloaded skeletal muscle. MGF was discovered in 1996 as an alternative splice product of the IGF-1 gene. Since then, its significance has been investigated particularly in skeletal muscle, because the local expression of MGF could

  6. Establishing the framework to support bioartificial heart fabrication using fibrin-based three-dimensional artificial heart muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Matthew; Mohamed, Mohamed; Tao, Ze-Wei; Gutierrez, Laura; Birla, Ravi

    2015-02-01

    Only 3000 heart transplants are performed in the USA every year, leaving some 30 000-70 000 Americans without proper care. Current treatment modalities for heart failure have saved many lives yet still do not correct the underlying problems of congestive heart failure. Tissue engineering represents a potential field of study wherein a combination of cells, scaffolds, and/or bioreactors can be utilized to create constructs to mimic, replace, and/or repair defective tissue. The focus of this study was to generate a bioartificial heart (BAH) model using artificial heart muscle (AHM), composed of fibrin gel and neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, and a decellularized scaffold, formed by subjecting an adult rat heart to a series of decellularization solutions. By suturing the AHM around the outside of the decellularized heart and culturing while suspended in media, we were able to retain functional cardiac cells on the scaffold as evinced by visible contractility. Observed contractility rate was correlated with biopotential measurements to confirm essential functionality of cardiac constructs. Cross-sections of the BAH show successful decellularization of the scaffold and contiguous cell-rich AHM around the perimeter of the heart. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The liver in heart failure: a biopsy and explant series of the histopathologic and laboratory findings with a particular focus on pre-cardiac transplant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Christine Y; Pham, Michael X; Daugherty, Tami J; Kambham, Neeraja; Higgins, John P T

    2015-07-01

    The pathologic liver changes in chronic heart failure have been characterized mostly based on autopsy series and include sinusoidal dilation and congestion progressing to pericellular fibrosis, bridging fibrosis, and ultimately to cardiac cirrhosis or sclerosis. Liver biopsies are commonly obtained as part of the work up before heart transplantation in patients with longstanding right heart failure, particularly if ascites, abnormal liver function tests or abnormal abdominal imaging are noted as part of the pre-transplant evaluation. In these cases, the liver biopsy findings may be used to further risk stratify patients for isolated heart or combined heart and liver transplantation. Thus, it is important to be able to correlate the histologic changes with post-transplant outcomes. We report the pathologic and clinical findings in liver explants from six patients who underwent combined heart-liver transplantation. We also report preoperative liver biopsy findings from 21 patients who underwent heart transplantation without simultaneous liver transplantation. We staged the changes related to chronic passive congestion as follows: stage 0-no fibrosis; stage I-pericellular fibrosis; stage II-bridging fibrosis; and stage III-regenerative nodules. Nineteen biopsies showed fibrosis with bridging fibrosis in 13 and regenerative nodules in 6. Fifteen patients were alive at 1 year post transplant. Only three patients had a post-operative course that was characterized by signs and symptoms of chronic liver disease. Pre-transplant liver biopsies from these patients all showed at least stage II fibrosis. These patients survived for 3, 6, and 10 months after cardiac transplant. The presence of bridging fibrosis was not significantly associated with post-operative survival (P=0.336) or post-operative liver failure (P=0.257). We conclude that patients with bridging fibrosis may still be considered viable candidates for isolated heart transplantation. Because the pattern of

  8. Muscle biopsy in Pompe disease Biópsia muscular na doença de Pompe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease (PD can be diagnosed by measuring alpha-glucosidase levels or by identifying mutations in the gene enzyme. Muscle biopsies can aid diagnosis in doubtful cases. Methods: A review of muscle biopsy from 19 cases of PD (infantile, 6 cases; childhood, 4 cases; and juvenile/adult, 9 cases. Results: Vacuoles with or without glycogen storage were found in 18 cases. All cases had increased acid phosphatase activity. The vacuole frequency varied (almost all fibers in the infantile form to only a few in the juvenile/adult form. Atrophy of type 1 and 2 fibers was frequent in all forms. Atrophic angular fibers in the NADH-tetrazolium reductase and nonspecific esterase activity were observed in 4/9 of the juvenile/adult cases. Conclusion: Increased acid phosphatase activity and vacuoles were the primary findings. Most vacuoles were filled with glycogen, and the adult form of the disease had fewer fibers with vacuoles than the infantile or childhood forms.O diagnóstico da doença de Pompe (PD pode ser feito pela dosagem da enzima alfa-glicosidase ou pela mutação do seu gene codificador. A biópsia muscular pode ajudar em casos duvidosos. Métodos: Revisão das biópsias musculares de 19 casos de PD (forma infantil, 6 casos; infantil tardia, 4; e juvenil/adulto, 9. Resultados: Encontrados vacúolos em 18 casos, com ou sem depósito de glicogênio. Todos mostraram aumento da fosfatase ácida. Os vacúolos estavam presentes na maioria das fibras nas formas infantis, menos frequentes nas formas juvenil e mais raros nas formas do adulto. A atrofia de fibras dos tipos 1 e 2 ocorreram em todas as formas. Fibras atróficas na NADH-tetrazolium redutase e esterase não específica foram observadas em 4/9 das formas infantil tardia/adulta. Conclusões: Os dados mais frequentes foram vacúolos, preenchidos por glicogênio com atividade aumentada da fosfatase ácida. A forma adulta apresenta menor número de vacúolos que as formas infantil e infantil

  9. Rectal biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy; Crohn disease - rectal biopsy; Colorectal cancer - biopsy; Hirschsprung disease - rectal biopsy ... Colorectal polyps Infection Inflammation Tumors Amyloidosis Crohn disease Hirschsprung disease in infants Ulcerative colitis

  10. Metabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle to voluntary wheel running exercise in hypertensive heart failure rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, R L; Kullman, E L; Waters, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rat mimics the human progression of hypertension from hypertrophy to heart failure. However, it is unknown whether SHHF animals can exercise at sufficient levels to observe beneficial biochemical adaptations in skeletal muscle. Thirty-seven female...... and expression, and glycogen utilization. The SHHFex rats ran a greater distance and duration as compared to the WFex rats (PSkeletal muscle citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme activity was not altered in the SHHFex group...... robust amounts of aerobic activity, voluntary wheel running exercise was not sufficiently intense to improve the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult SHHF animals, indicating an inability to compensate for declining heart function by improving peripheral oxidative adaptations in the skeletal...

  11. Arterial wall mechanics as a function of heart rate: role of vascular smooth muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Fernando Pablo; Schiavone, Jonathan; Craiem, Damian; Barra, Juan Gabriel

    2007-11-01

    Vascular wall viscoelasticity can be evaluated using a first-order lumped model. This model consists of a spring with elastic constant E and a dashpot with viscous constant η. More importantly, this viscoelastic model can be fitted in-vivo measuring arterial pressure and diameter. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of heart rate over E and η. In two anesthetized sheep, diameter in thoracic aorta and intravascular pressure has been registered. The right atrium was connected to a programmable stimulator through a pair of pace-maker wires to produce changes in stimulation heart rate (HR) from 80 to 160 bpm. Additionally, local activation of vascular smooth muscle was induced with phenylephrine. After converting pressure and diameter signals into stress and strain respectively, E y η were calculated in control state and during muscle activation. The elastic modulus E did not present significant changes with heart rate. The viscous modulus η decreased 49% with a two-fold acceleration in heart rate from 80 to 160 bpm. However, the product η HR remained stable. The viscous modulus η increased 39% with smooth muscle activation. No significant pressure changes were registered during the experiment. The contractile action of vascular smooth muscle could contribute to increasing arterial wall viscosity. The decrease of η when HR increased might be related to smooth muscle relaxation mediated by endothelium activity, which was stimulated by flow increase. We conclude that HR can modulate arterial wall viscoelasticity through endothelium-dependent mechanisms.

  12. Respiratory muscle strength no influence the need for noninvasive ventilation after heart surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Christiane Riedi; Driessen, Taissa; Fréz,Andersom Ricardo; Mora, Cintia Teixeira Rossato

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between preoperative respiratory muscle strength and indication and performance of noninvasive ventilation in the planned heart surgery. We conducted a retrospective study using data collected from clinical records and analyzed 109 medical records and noninvasive ventilation accompanying paper. We analyzed the values of respiratory muscle strength, peak flow and respirometry, as well as the postoperative respiratory complications, correlat...

  13. Profiling Carbonylated Proteins in Heart and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria from Trained and Untrained Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Andrea; Gamberi, Tania; Modesti, Alessandra; Amoresano, Angela; Colombini, Barbara; Nocella, Marta; Bagni, Maria Angela; Fiaschi, Tania; Barolo, Lorenzo; Gulisano, Massimo; Magherini, Francesca

    2016-10-07

    Understanding the relationship between physical exercise, reactive oxygen species, and skeletal muscle modification is important in order to better identify the benefits or the damages that appropriate or inappropriate exercise can induce. Heart and skeletal muscles have a high density of mitochondria with robust energetic demands, and mitochondria plasticity has an important role in both the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscle responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of regular physical activity on the oxidation profiles of mitochondrial proteins from heart and tibialis anterior muscles. To this end, we used the mouse as animal model. Mice were divided into two groups: untrained and regularly trained. The carbonylated protein pattern was studied by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by Western blot with anti-dinitrophenyl hydrazone antibodies. Mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of several different protein oxidation sites, including methionine, cysteine, proline, and leucine residues. A large number of oxidized proteins were found in both untrained and trained animals. Moreover, mitochondria from skeletal muscles and heart showed almost the same carbonylation pattern. Interestingly, exercise training seems to increase the carbonylation level mainly of mitochondrial proteins from skeletal muscle.

  14. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  15. Segmentation of the heart muscle in 3-D pediatric echocardiographic images.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nillesen, M.M.; Lopata, R.G.P.; Gerrits, I.H.; Kapusta, L.; Huisman, H.J.; Thijssen, J.M.; Korte, C.L. de

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to show segmentation of the heart muscle in pediatric echocardiographic images as a preprocessing step for tissue analysis. Transthoracic image sequences (2-D and 3-D volume data, both derived in radiofrequency format, directly after beam forming) were registered in real time from

  16. Levosimendan improves calcium sensitivity of diaphragm muscle fibres from a rat model of heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, H.W.H. van; Andrade Acuna, G.L.; Linkels, M.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Heunks, L.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diaphragm muscle weakness occurs in patients with heart failure (HF) and is associated with exercise intolerance and increased mortality. Reduced sensitivity of diaphragm fibres to calcium contributes to diaphragm weakness in HF. Here we have investigated the ability of the

  17. Na+,K+-ATPase concentration in rodent and human heart and skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, K; Bjerregaard, P; Richter, Erik

    1988-01-01

    0.02) and the heart to body weight ratio by 14% (p less than 0.005). The increase in Na+,K+-ATPase concentration was only slowly reversible. After three weeks of deconditioning an increase of 12% (p less than 0.05) was still observed. In comparison skeletal muscle Na+,K+-ATPase concentration...

  18. Fatty acid composition of muscle and heart tissue of Nile perch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid composition in the heart tissue and muscle tissue of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus populations from Lakes Kioga and Victoria was determined by methanolysis and gas chromatography of the resulting fatty acid methyl esters. The analytical data were treated by ...

  19. On improvement of exercise tolerance in patients with chronic heart failure, with special reference to local muscle training

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Allan

    1996-01-01

    ON IMPROVEMENT OF EXERCISE TOLERANCE IN PATIENTS WrrH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE With special reference to local muscle traimng Thesis by Allan Gordon, MD, Division of Cardiology at the Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, S-14186 Huddinge, Sweden Reduced heart pump function and skeletal muscle abnormalities are considered important determinants for the low physical exercise capacity in chronic heart failure. Because of reduce...

  20. Combination of liver biopsy with MELD-XI scores for post-transplant outcome prediction in patients with advanced heart failure and suspected liver dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Maryjane; Mitchell, James; Lippel, Matthew; Kato, Tomoko S; Jin, Zhezhen; Ippolito, Paul; Dove, Lorna; Jorde, Ulrich P; Takayama, Hiroo; Emond, Jean; Naka, Yoshifumi; Mancini, Donna; Lefkowitch, Jay H; Schulze, P Christian

    2015-07-01

    Functional and structural liver abnormalities may be found in patients with advanced heart failure (HF). The Model of End-Stage Liver Disease Excluding INR (MELD-XI) score allows functional risk stratification of HF patients on and off anti-coagulation awaiting heart transplantation (HTx), but these scores may improve or worsen depending on bridging therapies and during time on the waiting list. Liver biopsy is sometimes performed to assess for severity of fibrosis. Uncertainty remains whether biopsy in addition to MELD-XI improves prediction of adverse outcomes in patients evaluated for HTx. Sixty-eight patients suspected of advanced liver disease underwent liver biopsy as part of their HTx evaluation. A liver risk score (fibrosis-on-biopsy + 1) × MELD-XI was generated for each patient. Fifty-two patients were listed, of whom 14 had mechanical circulatory support (MCS). Thirty-six patients underwent transplantation and 27 patients survived ≥1 year post-HTx (74%, as compared with 88% average 1-year survival in HTx patients without suspected liver disease; p liver risk score at evaluation for HTx (31.0 ± 20.4 vs 65.2 ± 28.6, p liver risk score was identified by receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the analysis using Cox proportional hazards models, a liver risk score ≥45 at evaluation for HTx was associated with greater risk of death at 1 year post-HTx compared with a score of liver risk score at evaluation for HTx also predicted 1-year mortality after HTx listing (p liver dysfunction are high-risk HTx candidates. Liver biopsy in addition to MELD-XI improves risk stratification of patients with advanced HF and suspected irreversible liver dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from people with type 2 diabetes and relatives: differential regulation of insulin signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Palsgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene expression alterations have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes, however whether these changes are primary causes or secondary effects of type 2 diabetes is not known. As healthy first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, they provide a good model in the search for primary causes of the disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle biopsies from Caucasian males with type 2 diabetes, healthy first degree relatives, and healthy controls. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays covering the entire human genome. These arrays have not previously been used for this type of study. We show for the first time that genes involved in insulin signaling are significantly upregulated in first degree relatives and significantly downregulated in people with type 2 diabetes. On the individual gene level, 11 genes showed altered expression levels in first degree relatives compared to controls, among others KIF1B and GDF8 (myostatin. LDHB was found to have a decreased expression in both groups compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We hypothesize that increased expression of insulin signaling molecules in first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes, work in concert with increased levels of insulin as a compensatory mechanism, counter-acting otherwise reduced insulin signaling activity, protecting these individuals from severe insulin resistance. This compensation is lost in people with type 2 diabetes where expression of insulin signaling molecules is reduced.

  2. Relationship between leg muscle endurance and (.)VE/(.)VCO2 slope in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saval, Matthew A; Kerrigan, Dennis J; Ophaug, Kristin M; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Keteyian, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    Ventilatory efficiency, as measured by the slope of the relationship between minute ventilation and carbon dioxide production ((.)VE/(.)VCO2 slope) during cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) testing, is an important prognostic measure in patients with heart failure (HF). An abnormal slope is linked to the skeletal muscle metaboreflex. In addition, skeletal muscle endurance is reduced in patients with HF. However, the relationship between (.)VE/(.)VCO2 slope and skeletal muscle endurance is not known. This investigation tests the hypothesis that reduced knee extensor muscle endurance is inversely related to an elevated (.)VE/(.)VCO2 slope during CPX testing in patients with HF and that these variables are not related in normal subjects. Patients with HF (n = 32) and 6 age-matched normal subjects performed CPX testing and isokinetic dynamometry to determine the (.)VE/(.)VCO2 slope and knee extensor muscle endurance, respectively. The (.)VE/(.)VCO2 slope and leg muscle endurance percentage were significantly related in patients with HF (r = -0.68, P slope. This finding helps explain, in part, the factors that influence an established prognostic indicator, elevated (.)VE/(.)VCO2 slope. Future research is needed to determine whether the relationship between skeletal muscle dysfunction and ventilatory efficiency is directly mediated through the skeletal muscle ergoreflex.

  3. Sarcopenia, cachexia, and muscle performance in heart failure: Review update 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Masakazu; Ishida, Junichi; Doehner, Wolfram; von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Markus S; Coats, Andrew J S; Anker, Stefan D; Springer, Jochen

    2017-07-01

    Cachexia in the context of heart failure (HF) has been termed cardiac cachexia, and represents a progressive involuntary weight loss. Cachexia is mainly the result of an imbalance in the homeostasis of muscle protein synthesis and degradation due to a lower activity of protein synthesis pathways and an over-activation of protein degradation. In addition, muscle wasting leads to of impaired functional capacity, even after adjusting for clinical relevant variables in patients with HF. However, there is no sufficient therapeutic strategy in muscle wasting in HF patients and very few studies in animal models. Exercise training represents a promising intervention that can prevent or even reverse the process of muscle wasting, and worsening the muscle function and performance in HF with muscle wasting and cachexia. The pathological mechanisms and effective therapeutic approach of cardiac cachexia remain uncertain, because of the difficulty to establish animal cardiac cachexia models, thus novel animal models are warranted. Furthermore, the use of improved animal models will lead to a better understanding of the pathways that modulate muscle wasting and therapeutics of muscle wasting of cardiac cachexia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Respiratory Muscle Training Improves Chemoreflex Response, Heart Rate Variability, and Respiratory Mechanics in Rats With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rodrigo B; Quagliotto, Edson; Chechi, Chalyne; Calegari, Leonardo; Dos Santos, Fernando; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Dal Lago, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present report was to evaluate respiratory muscle training (RMT) effects on hemodynamic function, chemoreflex response, heart rate variability, and respiratory mechanics in rats with heart failure (HF rats). Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary-sham (Sed-Sham, n = 8), respiratory muscle trained-sham (RMT-Sham, n = 8), sedentary-HF (Sed-HF, n = 8) and respiratory muscle trained-HF (RMT-HF, n = 8). Animals were submitted to an RMT protocol performed 30 minutes per day, 5 days per week for 6 weeks, whereas the sedentary animals did not exercise. In HF rats, RMT promoted the reduction of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pulmonary edema. Moreover, RMT produced a reduction in pressure response during chemoreflex activation, sympathetic modulation, and sympathetic vagal balance in addition to an increase in parasympathetic modulation. Also after RMT, HF rats demonstrated a reduction in respiratory system resistance, tissue resistance, Newtonian resistance, respiratory system compliance, and quasistatic compliance. These findings suggested that 6 weeks of RMT in HF rats promoted beneficial adaptations in hemodynamics, autonomic function, and respiratory mechanics and attenuated pressure response evoked by chemoreflex activation in HF rats. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The action of a toxin from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata upon Mammalian heart muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsen, C; Béress, L; Fischer, K; Proppe, D; Reinberg, T; Sattler, R W

    1976-10-01

    The cardiac activity of toxin II, a basic polypeptide (m.w.: 4770) from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata, was investigated in isolated electrically driven guinea-pig and rat auricles, Langendorff heart preparations of guinea-pigs and cat heart-lung preparations. Low concentrations of toxin II (2-100 nM) evoked a dose-dependent positive inotropic effect in the three different heart muscle preparations investigated. Higher concentrations of toxin II produced toxic symptoms like contracture and arrhythmia in auricles and atria (about 25 nM). In isolated cat hearts high toxin II concentrations (about 160 nM) caused unusual toxic symptoms such as long periods of ventricular fibrillation alternating with periods of normal cardiac activity. In rat and guinea-pig auricles as well as in Langendorff hearts of guinea-pigs the extent and rate of the positive inotropic effect induced by toxin II depended on the extracellular calcium concentration (0.45 to 2.7 mM). Toxin II did not alter the heart rate in spontaneously beating isolated cat hearts. In electrically driven guinea-pig auricles, the rate of the inotropic effect induced by toxin II was accelerated by increasing stimulation frequencies. Toxin II did not change the coronary flow in Langendorff heart preparations of guinea-pigs.

  6. Muscle wasting and sarcopenia in heart failure and beyond: update 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Jochen; Springer, Joshua-I; Anker, Stefan D

    2017-11-01

    Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and muscle function) is a strong predictor of frailty, disability and mortality in older persons and may also occur in obese subjects. The prevalence of sarcopenia is increased in patients suffering from chronic heart failure. However, there are currently few therapy options. The main intervention is resistance exercise, either alone or in combination with nutritional support, which seems to enhance the beneficial effects of training. Also, testosterone has been shown to increased muscle power and function; however, a possible limitation is the side effects of testosterone. Other investigational drugs include selective androgen receptor modulators, growth hormone, IGF-1, compounds targeting myostatin signaling, which have their own set of side effects. There are abundant prospective targets for improving muscle function in the elderly with or without chronic heart failure, and the continuing development of new treatment strategies and compounds for sarcopenia and cardiac cachexia makes this field an exciting one. © 2017 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  7. Oracle, a novel PDZ-LIM domain protein expressed in heart and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passier, R; Richardson, J A; Olson, E N

    2000-04-01

    In order to identify novel genes enriched in adult heart, we performed a subtractive hybridization for genes expressed in mouse heart but not in skeletal muscle. We identified two alternative splicing variants of a novel PDZ-LIM domain protein, which we named Oracle. Both variants contain a PDZ domain at the amino-terminus and three LIM domains at the carboxy-terminus. Highest homology of Oracle was found with the human and rat enigma proteins in the PDZ domain (62 and 61%, respectively) and in the LIM domains (60 and 69%, respectively). By Northern hybridization analysis, we showed that expression is highest in adult mouse heart, low in skeletal muscle and undetectable in other adult mouse tissues. In situ hybridization in mouse embryos confirmed and extended these data by showing high expression of Oracle mRNA in atrial and ventricular myocardial cells from E8.5. From E9.5 low expression of Oracle mRNA was detectable in myotomes. These data suggest a role for Oracle in the early development and function of heart and skeletal muscle.

  8. Myotoxic effects of clenbuterol in the rat heart and soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burniston, Jatin G; Ng, Yeelan; Clark, William A; Colyer, John; Tan, Lip-Bun; Goldspink, David F

    2002-11-01

    Myocyte-specific necrosis in the heart and soleus muscle of adult male Wistar rats was investigated in response to a single subcutaneous injection of the anabolic beta(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist clenbuterol. Necrosis was immunohistochemically detected by administration of a myosin antibody 1 h before the clenbuterol challenge and quantified by using image analysis. Clenbuterol-induced myocyte necrosis occurred against a background of zero damage in control muscles. In the heart, the clenbuterol-induced necrosis was not uniform, being more abundant in the left subendocardium and peaking 2.4 mm from the apex. After position (2.4 mm from the apex), dose (5 mg clenbuterol/kg), and sampling time (12 h) were optimized, maximum cardiomyocyte necrosis was found to be 1.0 +/- 0.2%. In response to the same parameters (i.e., 5 mg of clenbuterol and sampled at 12 h), skeletal myocyte necrosis was 4.4 +/- 0.8% in the soleus. These data show significant myocyte-specific necrosis in the heart and skeletal muscle of the rat. Such irreversible damage in the heart suggests that clenbuterol may be damaging to long-term health.

  9. Calcium versus strontium handling by the heart muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrych, Michal; Olejnickova, Veronika; Novakova, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Calcium plays a crucial role in numerous processes in living systems, from both intracellular and intercellular signalling to blood clotting. Calcium can be replaced by strontium in various intracellular processes due to high level of their similarity and strontium thus may serve as a valuable tool for different experimental studies. On the other hand, strontium is also used in clinical medicine and is commonly taken to the human body with food and water. The negative cardiac side effects of strontium therapy of osteoporosis and bone metastases are well known, but still not fully explained. This fact explains enhanced interest in this element and its impact on human body. This article reviews effects of calcium and strontium on several biochemical and physiological processes, with special emphasis on cardiac muscle.

  10. Loss of Notch3 Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Promotes Severe Heart Failure Upon Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragot, Hélène; Monfort, Astrid; Baudet, Mathilde; Azibani, Fériel; Fazal, Loubina; Merval, Régine; Polidano, Evelyne; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Delcayre, Claude; Vodovar, Nicolas; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2016-08-01

    Hypertension, which is a risk factor of heart failure, provokes adaptive changes at the vasculature and cardiac levels. Notch3 signaling plays an important role in resistance arteries by controlling the maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Notch3 deletion is protective in pulmonary hypertension while deleterious in arterial hypertension. Although this latter phenotype was attributed to renal and cardiac alterations, the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. To investigate the role of Notch3 signaling in the cardiac adaptation to hypertension, we used mice with either constitutive Notch3 or smooth muscle cell-specific conditional RBPJκ knockout. At baseline, both genotypes exhibited a cardiac arteriolar rarefaction associated with oxidative stress. In response to angiotensin II-induced hypertension, the heart of Notch3 knockout and SM-RBPJκ knockout mice did not adapt to pressure overload and developed heart failure, which could lead to an early and fatal acute decompensation of heart failure. This cardiac maladaptation was characterized by an absence of media hypertrophy of the media arteries, the transition of smooth muscle cells toward a synthetic phenotype, and an alteration of angiogenic pathways. A subset of mice exhibited an early fatal acute decompensated heart failure, in which the same alterations were observed, although in a more rapid timeframe. Altogether, these observations indicate that Notch3 plays a major role in coronary adaptation to pressure overload. These data also show that the hypertrophy of coronary arterial media on pressure overload is mandatory to initially maintain a normal cardiac function and is regulated by the Notch3/RBPJκ pathway. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Testicular biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - testicle ... The biopsy can be done in many ways. The type of biopsy you have depends on the reason for the ... will talk to you about your options. Open biopsy may be done in the provider's office, a ...

  12. Gum biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - gingiva (gums) ... used to close the opening created for the biopsy. ... to eat for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Risks for this procedure include: Bleeding from the biopsy site Infection of the gums Soreness

  13. Physiologic force-frequency in engineered heart muscle by electromechanical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godier-Furnémont, Amandine F. G.; Tiburcy, Malte; Wagner, Eva; Dewenter, Matthias; Lämmle, Simon; El-Armouche, Ali; Lehnart, Stephan E.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of mature mammalian ventricular myocardium is a positive force-frequency relationship (FFR). Despite evidence of organotypic structural and molecular maturation, a positive FFR has not been observed in mammalian tissue engineered heart muscle. We hypothesized that concurrent mechanical and electrical stimulation at frequencies matching physiological heart rate will result in functional maturation. To this end, we investigated the role of such biomimetic mechanical and electrical stimulation in functional maturation in engineered heart muscle (EHM) comprising collagen type I and neonatal rat heart cells. Following tissue consolidation (8 days), EHM were subjected to electrical field stimulation at 0, 2, 4, or 6 Hz for 5 days, while strained on flexible poles to facilitate auxotonic contractions. EHM stimulated at 2 and 4 Hz displayed a similarly enhanced inotropic reserve, but a clearly diverging FFR. The positive FFR in 4 Hz stimulated EHM was associated with reduced calcium sensitivity, frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation, and enhanced post-rest potentiation. This was paralleled on the cellular level with improved calcium storage and release capacity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, increased amounts of SERCA2a and RyR2 protein, and enhanced T-tubulation. We demonstrate that electromechanical stimulation at a frequency matching closely the physiological heart rate supports functional maturation in mammalian EHM. The observed positive FFR in EHM has important implications for the applicability of EHM in cardiovascular research and drug testing. PMID:25985155

  14. Ionic contrast terahertz time resolved imaging of frog auricular heart muscle electrical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Gallot, Guilhem

    2006-10-01

    The authors demonstrate the direct, noninvasive and time resolved imaging of functional frog auricular fibers by ionic contrast terahertz (ICT) near field microscopy. This technique provides quantitative, time-dependent measurement of ionic flow during auricular muscle electrical activity, and opens the way of direct noninvasive imaging of cardiac activity under stimulation. ICT microscopy technique was associated with full three-dimensional simulation enabling to measure precisely the fiber sizes. This technique coupled to waveguide technology should provide the grounds to development of advanced in vivo ion flux measurement in mammalian hearts, allowing the prediction of heart attack from change in K+ fluxes.

  15. Endurance training induces fiber type-specific revascularization in hindlimb skeletal muscles of rats with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Kamal; Ardakanizade, Malihe; Nazem, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that skeletal muscle microcirculation was reduced in chronic heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of endurance training on capillary and arteriolar density of fast and slow twitch muscles in rats with chronic heart failure. Four weeks after surgeries (left anterior descending (LAD) artery occlusion), chronic heart failure rats were divided into 3 groups: Sham (Sham, n=10); Sedentary (Sed, n=10); Exercise training (Ex, n=10). Ex group rats were subjected to endurance training in the form of treadmill running with moderate intensity for 10 weeks. Exercise training significantly increased capillary density and capillary to fiber ratio (Ptraining, but slow twitch muscle arteriolar density did not change in response to exercise in chronic heart failure rats. HIF-1 increased (Ptraining. In fast twitch muscle, HIF-1 mRNA increased (Ptraining. Endurance training ameliorates fast and slow twitch muscle revascularization non-uniformly in chronic heart failure rats by increasing capillary density in slow twitch muscle and arteriolar density in fast twitch muscle. The difference in revascularization at slow and fast twitch muscles may be induced by the difference in angiogenic and angiostatic gene expression response to endurance training.

  16. Identification and characterization of uncoupling protein in heart and muscle mitochondria of canary birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata B; Almsherqi, Zakaria Ali Moh; Sluse, Francis E; Navet, Rachel; Deng, Yuru

    2010-08-01

    An uncoupling protein (cUCP) was identified in heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria of canary birds. cUCP was immunodetected using polyclonal antibodies raised against murine UCP2. Its molecular mass was similar to those of mammalian UCPs (32 kDa). The activity of cUCP was stimulated by palmitic acid (PA) and inhibited by GTP mainly in state 3 respiration. Additions of PA augmented state 4 respiration and lowered the ADP/O ratio. Thus, the activity of cUCP diverted energy from oxidative phosphorylation in state 3 respiration. cUCP in heart and skeletal muscles of canary birds might have implications in thermogenesis as well as protection against free radical production.

  17. Upregulation of heart PFK-2/FBPase-2 isozyme in skeletal muscle after persistent contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Jordi; Irimia, Jose Maria; Guerrero, Mario; Cadefau, Joan Aureli; Cussó, Roser

    2012-04-01

    Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P(2)) is the most potent allosteric activator of liver 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase enzyme, which is crucial for glycolysis. It is present in skeletal muscle but its importance is controversial as a regulator of muscle glycolysis. This study aims to determine the role of Fru-2,6-P(2) in the control of muscle glycolysis during contraction. Muscle contraction was produced by chronic low-frequency stimulation of rabbit tibialis anterior for 24 h, followed by a rest period of 48 h. To determine muscle glycolysis adaptation, we applied a short functional electrostimulation test using the same system of low-frequency stimulation for 1, 3, and 10 s. The variation in concentration of lactate and pyruvate was used to calculate the flux along the glycolysis pathway and the Fru-1,6-P(2)/Fru-6-P ratio permitted to analyze the 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase activation. Fru-2,6-P(2) levels increased over the 24 h of stimulation and remained elevated after the rest period, this being the only metabolite that kept the changes produced by chronic low-frequency stimulation during the rest. During the short functional electrostimulation test, the glycolytic pathway in stimulated and rested muscle was more active than in control muscle, which coincided with higher kinase activity of the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK-2/FBPase-2) enzyme. Furthermore, we found a decrease in muscle, liver, and ubiquitous PFK-2/FBPase-2 isoform expression and an increase in heart isoform expression. For the first time, we demonstrate that a persistent increase in Fru-2,6-P(2) produced by a change in PFK-2/FBPase-2 isoform expression may play an important role in the regulation of muscle glycolysis during the first moments of exercise.

  18. [Computer simulation programs as an alternative for classical nerve, muscle and heart experiments using frog tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breves, G; Schröder, B

    2000-03-01

    Courses in Physiology include different methodical approaches such as exercises with living animals, experiments using organs or tissues from killed or slaughtered animals, application of diagnostic techniques in humans and theoretical seminars. In addition to these classical approaches computer programs for multimedia simulation of nerve, muscle and heart physiology are now a regular component of courses in Physiology at the School of Veterinary Medicine in Hannover. It is the aim of the present paper to give the first experiences about these new components.

  19. Resveratrol improves exercise performance and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Miranda M; Byrne, Nikole J; Robertson, Ian M; Kim, Ty T; Samokhvalov, Victor; Levasseur, Jody; Soltys, Carrie-Lynn; Fung, David; Tyreman, Neil; Denou, Emmanuel; Jones, Kelvin E; Seubert, John M; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Dyck, Jason R B

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether treatment of mice with established pressure overload-induced heart failure (HF) with the naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol could improve functional symptoms of clinical HF such as fatigue and exercise intolerance. C57Bl/6N mice were subjected to either sham or transverse aortic constriction surgery to induce HF. Three weeks postsurgery, a cohort of mice with established HF (%ejection fraction resveratrol (~450 mg·kg-1·day-1) or vehicle for 2 wk. Although the percent ejection fraction was similar between both groups of HF mice, those mice treated with resveratrol had increased total physical activity levels and exercise capacity. Resveratrol treatment was associated with altered gut microbiota composition, increased skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, a switch toward greater whole body glucose utilization, and increased basal metabolic rates. Although muscle mass and strength were not different between groups, mice with HF had significant declines in basal and ADP-stimulated O2 consumption in isolated skeletal muscle fibers compared with sham mice, which was completely normalized by resveratrol treatment. Overall, resveratrol treatment of mice with established HF enhances exercise performance, which is associated with alterations in whole body and skeletal muscle energy metabolism. Thus, our preclinical data suggest that resveratrol supplementation may effectively improve fatigue and exercise intolerance in HF patients.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Resveratrol treatment of mice with heart failure leads to enhanced exercise performance that is associated with altered gut microbiota composition, increased whole body glucose utilization, and enhanced skeletal muscle metabolism and function. Together, these preclinical data suggest that resveratrol supplementation may effectively improve fatigue and exercise intolerance in heart failure via these mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Cytophotometric analysis of reaction rates of succinate and lactate dehydrogenase activity in rat liver, heart muscle and tracheal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Vogels, I. M.

    1989-01-01

    Reaction rates of succinate and lactate dehydrogenase activity in cryostat sections of rat liver, tracheal epithelium and heart muscle were monitored by continuous measurement of formazan formation by cytophotometry at room temperature. Incubation media contained polyvinyl alcohol as tissue

  1. [Evaluation of heart impact in the 100 m extreme intensity sport using near-infrared non-invasive muscle oxygen detecting device and sports heart rate detection technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Yong; Long, Fei-Xiao; Fu, Lan-Ying; Li, Yue; Ding, Hai-Shu; Qu, An-Lian; Zhou, Xiao-Ping

    2010-02-01

    Using continuous two wavelength near-infrared technology to detect the variation in the consistency of oxygen hemoglobin in the muscle and the sports heart rate wireless real time collection technology, we devised the real time muscle tissue oxygenation and instantaneous heart rate experiment scheme and implemented it for the process of the 100 m run with two parameters given simultaneously. The experiment shows that the concentration of the oxygen hemoglobin in the muscle tissue continues decreasing after the end of the 100 m run, and the time interval between the moment when the concentration of the oxygen hemoglobin attains the minimum value and the moment when the athletes finish the 100 m run is (6.65 +/- 1.10) sec; while the heart rate continues increasing after the end of the 100 m run, and the time interval between the moment when the heart rate attains the maximum value and the moment when the athletes finish the 100 m run is (8.00 +/- 1.57) sec. The results show that the two wavelength near-infrared tissue oxygenation detection technology and the sports heart rate real time collection equipment can accurately measure the sports tissue oxygenation and the heart rate in the extreme intensity sport, and reveal the process of muscle oxygen transportation and consumption and its dynamic character with the heart rate in the extreme intensity sport.

  2. Assessment of skeletal muscle fatigue of road maintenance workers based on heart rate monitoring and myotonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalkis Henrijs

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This research work is dedicated to occupational health problems caused by ergonomic risks. The research object was road building industry, where workers have to work very intensively, have long work hours, are working in forced/constrained work postures and overstrain during the work specific parts of their bodies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the work heaviness degree and to estimate the muscle fatigue of workers after one week work cycle. The study group consisted of 10 road construction and maintenance workers and 10 pavers aged between 20 and 60 years. Methods Physical load were analyzed by measuring heart rate (HR, work postures (OWAS and perceived exertion (RPE. Assessments of the muscles strain and functional state (tone were carried out using myotonometric (MYO measurements. The reliability of the statistical processing of heart rate monitoring and myotonometry data was determined using correlating analysis. Results This study showed that that road construction and repairing works should be considered as a hard work according to average metabolic energy consumption 8.1 ± 1.5 kcal/min; paving, in its turn, was a moderately hard work according to 7.2 ± 1.1 kcal/min. Several muscle tone levels were identified allowing subdivision of workers into three conditional categories basing on muscle tone and fatigue: I – absolute muscle relaxation and ability to relax; II – a state of equilibrium, when muscles are able to adapt to the work load and are partly able to relax; and III – muscle fatigue and increased tone. It was also found out that the increase of muscle tone and fatigue mainly depend on workers physical preparedness and length of service, and less – on their age. Conclusion We have concluded that a complex ergonomic analysis consisting of heart rate monitoring, assessment of compulsive working postures and myotonometry is appropriate to assess the work heaviness degree and can provide prognosis of

  3. Alcohol Differentially Alters Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Molecule Expression in Skeletal Muscle and Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Pruznak, Anne M; Navaratnarajah, Maithili; Lang, Charles H

    2015-08-01

    The production of fibrosis in response to chronic alcohol abuse is well recognized in liver but has not been fully characterized in striated muscle and may contribute to functional impairment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use an unbiased discovery-based approach to determine the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the expression profile of genes important for cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions in both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Adult male rats were pair-fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet or control diet for 24 weeks, and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) and heart were collected in the freely fed state. A pathway-focused gene expression polymerase chain reaction array was performed on these tissues to assess mRNA content for 84 ECM proteins, and selected proteins were confirmed by Western blot analysis. In gastrocnemius, alcohol feeding up-regulated the expression of 11 genes and down-regulated the expression of 1 gene. Alcohol increased fibrosis as indicated by increased mRNA and/or protein for collagens α1(I), α2(I), α1(III), and α2(IV) as well as hydroxyproline. Alcohol also increased α-smooth muscle actin protein, an index of myofibroblast activation, but no concomitant change in transforming growth factor-β was detected. The mRNA and protein content for other ECM components, such as integrin-α5, L-selectin, PECAM, SPARC, and ADAMTS2, were also increased by alcohol. Only laminin-α3 mRNA was decreased in gastrocnemius from alcohol-fed rats, while 66 ECM- or cell adhesion-related mRNAs were unchanged by alcohol. For heart, expression of 16 genes was up-regulated, expression of 3 genes was down-regulated, and 65 mRNAs were unchanged by alcohol; there were no common alcohol-induced gene expression changes between heart and skeletal muscle. Finally, alcohol increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-12 mRNA in both skeletal and cardiac muscle, but IL-6 mRNA was increased and IL-10 mRNA decreased

  4. Comparison of magnetic field and electric potential produced by frog heart muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Deborah; Cohen, David

    1985-04-01

    A comparison is made here between the magnetic field and electric potential produced by a thin strip of frog heart muscle. An experimental test is made of the theory which states that the wave front of a single fiber (or parallel bundle of fibers as in this strip) can be represented, for both the magnetic field and electric potential, by the same single-current dipole. First, an experimental measurement is made of the ratio of magnetic field/electric potential produced by an actual current dipole in an electrolytic tank. Then the dipole is replaced by the muscle strip and a measurement is again made of the ratio; this is done for three muscle strips at eight different source-to-detector distances ranging from 1 to 5 cm. It is found, in all cases, that the muscle ratios are equal to those of the actual dipole to within the experimental uncertainty of ±10%. Therefore, to this extent the theory is verified for this case of a thin strip of frog heart tissue.

  5. Effect of muscle mass and intensity of isometric contraction on heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, J M; Alonso, J P; Sangrador, L A; Navarro, G

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of muscle mass and the level of force on the contraction-induced rise in heart rate. We conducted an experimental study in a sample of 28 healthy men between 20 and 30 yr of age (power: 95%, alpha: 5%). Smokers, obese subjects, and those who performed regular physical activity over a certain amount of energetic expenditure were excluded from the study. The participants exerted two types of isometric contractions: handgrip and turning a 40-cm-diameter wheel. Both were sustained to exhaustion at 20 and 50% of maximal force. Twenty-five subjects finished the experiment. Heart rate increased a mean of 15.1 beats/min [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.5-24.6] from 20 to 50% handgrip contractions, and 20.7 beats/min (95% CI: 11.9-29.5) from 20 to 50% wheel-turn contractions. Heart rate also increased a mean of 13.3 beats/min (95% CI: 10.4-16.1) from handgrip to wheel-turn contractions at 20% maximal force, and 18.9 beats/min (95% CI: 9. 8-28.0) from handgrip to wheel-turn contractions at 50% maximal force. We conclude that the magnitude of the heart rate increase during isometric exercise is related to the intensity of the contraction and the mass of the contracted muscle.

  6. Cloning and characterization of the heart muscle isoform of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) from crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongdong; Zhang, Zhiping; Wheatly, Michele G; Gao, Yongping

    2002-09-01

    This paper describes the cloning and functional characterization of the heart muscle isoform of Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) from crayfish Procambarus clarkii. The complete crayfish heart SERCA, identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), consists of 4495 bp with a 3060 bp open reading frame, coding for 1020 amino acids. This isoform differs from the previously identified axial abdominal (tail) muscle SERCA solely in its C-terminal amino acids. The last nine amino acids of the tail muscle isoform are replaced by 27 hydrophobic amino acids in the heart isoform that have the potential to form an additional transmembrane domain. Consistent with other invertebrate studies, Southern blot analysis suggested that the heart and tail muscle isoforms are encoded from the same gene that is equally related to SERCA-1, -2 and -3 of vertebrates. The tissue distributions of these two isoforms have been assessed using isoform-specific probes and northern analysis. A cardiac-specific probe bound only to a 5.8 kb species in heart and had minimal cross-hybridization with 7.6 and 5.8 kb species in eggs and no hybridization with tail muscle. A tail-isoform-specific probe hybridized with a 4.5 kb species in tail muscle and cross-hybridized with a 4.5 kb species in eggs and 8.8 kb in heart muscle. Both isoforms are expressed in eggs suggesting that transcripts are formed early in development and are subsequently broadly expressed in all tissue types. Expression of the cardiac muscle SERCA isoform varied with the stage of moulting. Expression was high in intermoult and decreased in premoult. However, expression was restored rapidly in postmoult (within 2 days) unlike expression of tail muscle SERCA, which remained downregulated for weeks. Differences in contractility between the two muscle types in the postmoult period may explain these expression patterns.

  7. Heart- and muscle-derived signaling system dependent on MED13 and Wingless controls obesity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2014-07-01

    Obesity develops in response to an imbalance of energy homeostasis and whole-body metabolism. Muscle plays a central role in the control of energy homeostasis through consumption of energy and signaling to adipose tissue. We reported previously that MED13, a subunit of the Mediator complex, acts in the heart to control obesity in mice. To further explore the generality and mechanistic basis of this observation, we investigated the potential influence of MED13 expression in heart and muscle on the susceptibility of Drosophila to obesity. Here, we show that heart/muscle-specific knockdown of MED13 or MED12, another Mediator subunit, increases susceptibility to obesity in adult flies. To identify possible muscle-secreted obesity regulators, we performed an RNAi-based genetic screen of 150 genes that encode secreted proteins and found that Wingless inhibition also caused obesity. Consistent with these findings, muscle-specific inhibition of Armadillo, the downstream transcriptional effector of the Wingless pathway, also evoked an obese phenotype in flies. Epistasis experiments further demonstrated that Wingless functions downstream of MED13 within a muscle-regulatory pathway. Together, these findings reveal an intertissue signaling system in which Wingless acts as an effector of MED13 in heart and muscle and suggest that Wingless-mediated cross-talk between striated muscle and adipose tissue controls obesity in Drosophila. This signaling system appears to represent an ancestral mechanism for the control of systemic energy homeostasis.

  8. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  9. Analysis of Skeletal Muscle Torque Capacity and Circulating Ceramides in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunjes, Danielle L; Dunlop, Mark; Wu, Christina; Jones, Meaghan; Kato, Tomoko S; Kennel, Peter J; Armstrong, Hilary F; Choo, Tse-Hwei; Bartels, Matthew N; Forman, Daniel E; Mancini, Donna M; Schulze, P Christian

    2016-05-01

    Heart failure (HF)-related exercise intolerance is thought to be perpetuated by peripheral skeletal muscle functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities. We analyzed specific dynamics of muscle contraction in patients with HF compared with healthy, sedentary controls. Isometric and isokinetic muscle parameters were measured in the dominant upper and lower limbs of 45 HF patients and 15 healthy age-matched controls. Measurements included peak torque normalized to body weight, work normalized to body weight, power, time to peak torque, and acceleration and deceleration to maximum strength times. Body morphometry (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) and circulating fatty acids and ceramides (lipodomics) were analyzed in a subset of subjects (18 HF and 9 controls). Extension and flexion time-to-peak torque was longer in the lower limbs of HF patients. Furthermore, acceleration and deceleration times in the lower limbs were also prolonged in HF subjects. HF subjects had increased adiposity and decreased lean muscle mass compared with controls. Decreased circulating unsaturated fatty acids and increased ceramides were found in subjects with HF. Delayed torque development suggests skeletal muscle impairments that may reflect abnormal neuromuscular functional coupling. These impairments may be further compounded by increased adiposity and inflammation associated with increased ceramides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of moderate heart failure and functional overload on rat plantaris muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenburg, Espen E.; Lees, Simon J.; Otis, Jeff S.; Musch, Timothy I.; Talmadge, Robert J.; Williams, Jay H.

    2002-01-01

    It is thought that changes in sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) of skeletal muscle contribute to alterations in skeletal muscle function during congestive heart failure (CHF). It is well established that exercise training can improve muscle function. However, it is unclear whether similar adaptations will result from exercise training in a CHF patient. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether skeletal muscle during moderate CHF adapts to increased activity, utilizing the functional overload (FO) model. Significant increases in plantaris mass of the CHF-FO and sham-FO groups compared with the CHF and control (sham) groups were observed. Ca(2+) uptake rates were significantly elevated in the CHF group compared with all other groups. No differences were detected in Ca(2+) uptake rates between the CHF-FO, sham, and sham-FO groups. Increases in Ca(2+) uptake rates in moderate-CHF rats were not due to changes in SERCA isoform proportions; however, FO may have attenuated the CHF-induced increases through alterations in SERCA isoform expression. Therefore, changes in skeletal muscle Ca(2+) handling during moderate CHF may be due to alterations in regulatory mechanisms, which exercise may override, by possibly altering SERCA isoform expression.

  11. Mechanisms of blunted muscle vasodilation during peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaré Nunes Alves, Maria Janieire; Alves, M J N N; dos Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues; Nobre, Thais Simões; Martinez, Daniel Godoy; Martinez, D G; Pereira Barretto, Antonio Carlos; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Rondon, Maria Urbana P B; Middlekauff, Holly R; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    We described recently that systemic hypoxia provokes vasoconstriction in heart failure (HF) patients. We hypothesized that either the exaggerated muscle sympathetic nerve activity and/or endothelial dysfunction mediate the blunted vasodilatation during hypoxia in HF patients. Twenty-seven HF patients and 23 age-matched controls were studied. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity was assessed by microneurography and forearm blood flow (FBF) by venous occlusion plethysmography. Peripheral chemoreflex control was evaluated through the inhaling of a hypoxic gas mixture (10% O(2) and 90% N(2)). Basal muscle sympathetic nerve activity was greater and basal FBF was lower in HF patients versus controls. During hypoxia, muscle sympathetic nerve activity responses were greater in HF patients, and forearm vasodilatation in HF was blunted versus controls. Phentolamine increased FBF responses in both groups, but the increase was lower in HF patients. Phentolamine and N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine infusion did not change FBF responses in HF but markedly blunted the vasodilatation in controls. FBF responses to hypoxia in the presence of vitamin C were unchanged and remained lower in HF patients versus controls. In conclusion, muscle vasoconstriction in response to hypoxia in HF patients is attributed to exaggerated reflex sympathetic nerve activation and blunted endothelial function (NO activity). We were unable to identify a role for oxidative stress in these studies.

  12. Faster and stronger manifestation of mitochondrial diseases in skeletal muscle than in heart related to cytosolic inorganic phosphate (Pi) accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A model of the cell bioenergetic system was used to compare the effect of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficiencies in a broad range of moderate ATP demand in skeletal muscle and heart. Computer simulations revealed that kinetic properties of the system are similar in both cases despite the much higher mitochondria content and “basic” OXPHOS activity in heart than in skeletal muscle, because of a much higher each-step activation (ESA) of OXPHOS in skeletal muscle than in heart. Large OXPHOS deficiencies lead in both tissues to a significant decrease in oxygen consumption (V̇o2) and phosphocreatine (PCr) and increase in cytosolic ADP, Pi, and H+. The main difference between skeletal muscle and heart is a much higher cytosolic Pi concentration in healthy tissue and much higher cytosolic Pi accumulation (level) at low OXPHOS activities in the former, caused by a higher PCr level in healthy tissue (and higher total phosphate pool) and smaller Pi redistribution between cytosol and mitochondria at OXPHOS deficiency. This difference does not depend on ATP demand in a broad range. A much greater Pi increase and PCr decrease during rest-to-moderate work transition in skeletal muscle at OXPHOS deficiencies than at normal OXPHOS activity significantly slows down the V̇o2 on-kinetics. Because high cytosolic Pi concentrations cause fatigue in skeletal muscle and can compromise force generation in skeletal muscle and heart, this system property can contribute to the faster and stronger manifestation of mitochondrial diseases in skeletal muscle than in heart. Shortly, skeletal muscle with large OXPHOS deficiencies becomes fatigued already during low/moderate exercise. PMID:27283913

  13. Sporadic-inclusion body myositis (s-IBM) is not so prevalent in Istanbul/Turkey: a muscle biopsy based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oflazer, P Serdaroglu; Deymeer, F; Parman, Y

    2011-06-01

    In a muscle biopsy based study, only 9 out of 5450 biopsy samples, received from all parts of greater Istanbul area, had typical clinical and most suggestive light microscopic sporadic-inclusion body myositis (s-IBM) findings. Two other patients with and ten further patients without characteristic light microscopic findings had referring diagnosis of s-IBM. As the general and the age-adjusted populations of Istanbul in 2010 were 13.255.685 and 2.347.300 respectively, the calculated corresponding 'estimated prevalences' of most suggestive s-IBM in the Istanbul area were 0.679 X 10(-6) and 3.834 X 10(-6). Since Istanbul receives heavy migration from all regions of Turkey and ours is the only muscle pathology laboratory in Istanbul, projection of these figures to the Turkish population was considered to be reasonable and an estimate of the prevalence of s-IBM in Turkey was obtained. The calculated 'estimated prevalence' of s-IBM in Turkey is lower than the previously reported rates from other countries. The wide variation in the prevalence rates of s-IBM may reflect different genetic, immunogenetic or environmental factors in different populations.

  14. Does En-bloc transurethral resection of bladder tumor give a better yield in terms of presence of detrusor muscle in the biopsy specimen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Upadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Detrusor muscle in initial transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT may not be found in up to 50% of the cases. This study was done to assess the safety, feasibility and yield of detrusor muscle on en- bloc TURBT using a conventional electrocautery loop. Materials and Methods: Patients with bladder tumor of size 2-4 cm, from September 2007 to August 2010, who had en-bloc TURBT, were compared with patients who had conventional resection for the presence of detrusor muscle in the biopsy specimen on an initial resection. Tumor size was calculated on ultrasonography or contrast enhanced computerized tomography scan. Tumor with pedunculated base, more than 4 cm in size and tumor with hydroureteronephrosis were excluded. Conventional electrocautery loop was bent to 45° and periphery of the tumor was marked first and then the whole tumor was resected en bloc. The free-lying tumor was then cut into two or three pieces in the bladder for retrieval. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software Version 13. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using Pearson chi square test and P value of <.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 25 patients in the control arm (with conventional TURBT were compared with 21 patients who had en-bloc TURBT. En-bloc TURBT did not result in bladder perforation as vision was clear due to better hemostasis. Twenty of 21 (94.4% patients had detrusor muscle but only 15 of 25 (60% patients in the control arm had detrusor muscle on histopathological examination (P.001 Conclusions: En-bloc TURBT is safe and gives well-controlled resection of the whole tumor due to better visualization. Yield of detrusor muscle present in the specimen is significantly better with en-bloc TURBT.

  15. Exercise training decreases NADPH oxidase activity and restores skeletal muscle mass in heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Telma F; Bechara, Luiz R G; Bacurau, Aline V N; Jannig, Paulo R; Voltarelli, Vanessa A; Dourado, Paulo M; Vasconcelos, Andrea R; Scavone, Cristóforo; Ferreira, Júlio C B; Brum, Patricia C

    2017-04-01

    We have recently demonstrated that NADPH oxidase hyperactivity, NF-κB activation, and increased p38 phosphorylation lead to atrophy of glycolytic muscle in heart failure (HF). Aerobic exercise training (AET) is an efficient strategy to counteract skeletal muscle atrophy in this syndrome. Therefore, we tested whether AET would regulate muscle redox balance and protein degradation by decreasing NADPH oxidase hyperactivity and reestablishing NF-κB signaling, p38 phosphorylation, and proteasome activity in plantaris muscle of myocardial infarcted-induced HF (MI) rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats underwent MI or fictitious surgery (SHAM) and were randomly assigned into untrained (UNT) and trained (T; 8 wk of AET on treadmill) groups. AET prevented HF signals and skeletal muscle atrophy in MI-T, which showed an improved exercise tolerance, attenuated cardiac dysfunction and increased plantaris fiber cross-sectional area. To verify the role of inflammation and redox imbalance in triggering protein degradation, circulating TNF-α levels, NADPH oxidase profile, NF-κB signaling, p38 protein levels, and proteasome activity were assessed. MI-T showed a reduced TNF-α levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and Nox2 mRNA expression toward SHAM-UNT levels. The rescue of NADPH oxidase activity induced by AET in MI rats was paralleled by reducing nuclear binding activity of the NF-κB, p38 phosphorylation, atrogin-1, mRNA levels, and 26S chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity. Taken together our data provide evidence for AET improving plantaris redox homeostasis in HF associated with a decreased NADPH oxidase, redox-sensitive proteins activation, and proteasome hyperactivity further preventing atrophy. These data reinforce the role of AET as an efficient therapy for muscle wasting in HF.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates, for the first time, the contribution of aerobic exercise training (AET) in decreasing muscle NADPH oxidase activity associated with reduced reactive oxygen

  16. Endometrial biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - endometrium ... The biopsy is normal if the cells in the sample are not abnormal. ... Risks of endometrial biopsy include: Infection Causing a hole in (perforating) the uterus or tearing the cervix (rarely occurs) Prolonged bleeding Slight spotting ...

  17. Bladder biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bladder ... A bladder biopsy can be done as part of a cystoscopy . Cystoscopy is a telescopic examination of the inside of the ... informed consent form before you have a bladder biopsy. In most cases, you are asked to urinate ...

  18. Nerve biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - nerve ... A nerve biopsy is most often done on a nerve in the ankle, forearm, or along a rib. The health care ... feel a prick and a mild sting. The biopsy site may be sore for a few days ...

  19. Biopsy - polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyp biopsy ... are treated is the colon. How a polyp biopsy is done depends on the location: Colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy explores the large bowel Colposcopy-directed biopsy examines the vagina and cervix Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or ...

  20. Liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  1. Acute electromyostimulation decreases muscle sympathetic nerve activity in patients with advanced chronic heart failure (EMSICA Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrunée, Marc; Despas, Fabien; Marque, Philippe; Guiraud, Thibaut; Galinier, Michel; Senard, Jean Michel; Pathak, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Muscle passive contraction of lower limb by neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) is frequently used in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients but no data are available concerning its action on sympathetic activity. However, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is able to improve baroreflex in CHF. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effect of TENS and NMES compared to Sham stimulation on sympathetic overactivity as assessed by Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity (MSNA). We performed a serie of two parallel, randomized, double blinded and sham controlled protocols in twenty-two CHF patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III. Half of them performed stimulation by TENS, and the others tested NMES. Compare to Sham stimulation, both TENS and NMES are able to reduce MSNA (63.5 ± 3.5 vs 69.7 ± 3.1 bursts / min, p < 0.01 after TENS and 51.6 ± 3.3 vs 56.7 ± 3.3 bursts / min, p < 0, 01 after NMES). No variation of blood pressure, heart rate or respiratory parameters was observed after stimulation. The results suggest that sensory stimulation of lower limbs by electrical device, either TENS or NMES, could inhibit sympathetic outflow directed to legs in CHF patients. These properties could benefits CHF patients and pave the way for a new non-pharmacological approach of CHF.

  2. Segmentation of the heart muscle in 3-D pediatric echocardiographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillesen, Maartje M; Lopata, Richard G P; Gerrits, Inge H; Kapusta, Livia; Huisman, Henkjan J; Thijssen, Johan M; de Korte, Chris L

    2007-09-01

    This study aimed to show segmentation of the heart muscle in pediatric echocardiographic images as a preprocessing step for tissue analysis. Transthoracic image sequences (2-D and 3-D volume data, both derived in radiofrequency format, directly after beam forming) were registered in real time from four healthy children over three heart cycles. Three preprocessing methods, based on adaptive filtering, were used to reduce the speckle noise for optimizing the distinction between blood and myocardium, while preserving the sharpness of edges between anatomical structures. The filtering kernel size was linked to the local speckle size and the speckle noise characteristics were considered to define the optimal filter in one of the methods. The filtered 2-D images were thresholded automatically as a first step of segmentation of the endocardial wall. The final segmentation step was achieved by applying a deformable contour algorithm. This segmentation of each 2-D image of the 3-D+time (i.e., 4-D) datasets was related to that of the neighboring images in both time and space. By thus incorporating spatial and temporal information of 3-D ultrasound image sequences, an automated method using image statistics was developed to perform 3-D segmentation of the heart muscle.

  3. Acute electromyostimulation decreases muscle sympathetic nerve activity in patients with advanced chronic heart failure (EMSICA Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Labrunée

    Full Text Available Muscle passive contraction of lower limb by neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES is frequently used in chronic heart failure (CHF patients but no data are available concerning its action on sympathetic activity. However, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS is able to improve baroreflex in CHF. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effect of TENS and NMES compared to Sham stimulation on sympathetic overactivity as assessed by Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity (MSNA.We performed a serie of two parallel, randomized, double blinded and sham controlled protocols in twenty-two CHF patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA Class III. Half of them performed stimulation by TENS, and the others tested NMES.Compare to Sham stimulation, both TENS and NMES are able to reduce MSNA (63.5 ± 3.5 vs 69.7 ± 3.1 bursts / min, p < 0.01 after TENS and 51.6 ± 3.3 vs 56.7 ± 3.3 bursts / min, p < 0, 01 after NMES. No variation of blood pressure, heart rate or respiratory parameters was observed after stimulation.The results suggest that sensory stimulation of lower limbs by electrical device, either TENS or NMES, could inhibit sympathetic outflow directed to legs in CHF patients. These properties could benefits CHF patients and pave the way for a new non-pharmacological approach of CHF.

  4. Acute electromyostimulation Decreases Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Patients with Advanced Chronic Heart Failure (EMSICA Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrunée, Marc; Despas, Fabien; Marque, Philippe; Guiraud, Thibaut; Galinier, Michel; Senard, Jean Michel; Pathak, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Background Muscle passive contraction of lower limb by neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) is frequently used in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients but no data are available concerning its action on sympathetic activity. However, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is able to improve baroreflex in CHF. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effect of TENS and NMES compared to Sham stimulation on sympathetic overactivity as assessed by Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity (MSNA). Methods We performed a serie of two parallel, randomized, double blinded and sham controlled protocols in twenty-two CHF patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III. Half of them performed stimulation by TENS, and the others tested NMES. Results Compare to Sham stimulation, both TENS and NMES are able to reduce MSNA (63.5 ± 3.5 vs 69.7 ± 3.1 bursts / min, p < 0.01 after TENS and 51.6 ± 3.3 vs 56.7 ± 3.3 bursts / min, p < 0, 01 after NMES). No variation of blood pressure, heart rate or respiratory parameters was observed after stimulation. Conclusion The results suggest that sensory stimulation of lower limbs by electrical device, either TENS or NMES, could inhibit sympathetic outflow directed to legs in CHF patients. These properties could benefits CHF patients and pave the way for a new non-pharmacological approach of CHF. PMID:24265770

  5. The nonlinear elastic and viscoelastic passive properties of left ventricular papillary muscle of a guinea pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M A; Hamdi, M; Noma, A

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of the heart muscle tissues is the central problem in finite element simulation of the heart contraction, excitation propagation and development of an artificial heart. Nonlinear elastic and viscoelastic passive material properties of the left ventricular papillary muscle of a guinea pig heart were determined based on in-vitro precise uniaxial and relaxation tests. The nonlinear elastic behavior was modeled by a hypoelastic model and different hyperelastic strain energy functions such as Ogden and Mooney-Rivlin. Nonlinear least square fitting and constrained optimization were conducted under MATLAB and MSC.MARC in order to obtain the model material parameters. The experimental tensile data was used to get the nonlinear elastic mechanical behavior of the heart muscle. However, stress relaxation data was used to determine the relaxation behavior as well as viscosity of the tissues. Viscohyperelastic behavior was constructed by a multiplicative decomposition of a standard Ogden strain energy function, W, for instantaneous deformation and a relaxation function, R(t), in a Prony series form. The study reveals that hypoelastic and hyperelastic (Ogden) models fit the tissue mechanical behaviors well and can be safely used for heart mechanics simulation. Since the characteristic relaxation time (900 s) of heart muscle tissues is very large compared with the actual time of heart beating cycle (800 ms), the effect of viscosity can be reasonably ignored. The amount and type of experimental data has a strong effect on the Ogden parameters. The in vitro passive mechanical properties are good initial values to start running the biosimulation codes for heart mechanics. However, an optimization algorithm is developed, based on clinical intact heart measurements, to estimate and re-correct the material parameters in order to get the in vivo mechanical properties, needed for very accurate bio-simulation and for the development of new materials for the

  6. Clenbuterol increases lean muscle mass but not endurance in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakkannan, Gayathri; Petrilli, Christopher M; George, Isaac; LaManca, John; McLaughlin, Brooke T; Shane, Elizabeth; Mancini, Donna M; Maybaum, Simon

    2008-04-01

    Clenbuterol, a beta(2)-agonist with potent anabolic properties, has been shown to improve skeletal muscle function in healthy subjects, and in high doses, promotes cardiac recovery in patients with left ventricular assist devices. In a small, randomized controlled study, we investigated the effect of clenbuterol on skeletal muscle function, cardiac function, and exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. Clenbuterol was well tolerated and led to a significant increase in both lean mass and the lean/fat ratio. Maximal strength increased significantly with both clenbuterol (27%) and placebo (14%); however, endurance and exercise duration decreased after clenbuterol. Prior data support combining exercise training with clenbuterol to maximize performance, and on-going studies will evaluate this approach.

  7. ECG-triggered skeletal muscle stimulation improves hemodynamics and physical performance of heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapanashvili, L; Buziashvili, Y I; Matskeplishvili, S T; Lobjanidze, T G; Bockeria, L A; Huber, P P; Hess, O M; Walpoth, B H

    2008-03-01

    Muscular counterpulsation (MCP) was developed for circulatory assistance by stimulation of peripheral skeletal muscles. We report on a clinical MCP study in patients with and without chronic heart failure (CHF). MCP treatment was applied (30 patients treated, 25 controls, all under optimal therapy) for 30 minutes during eight days by an ECG-triggered, battery-powered, portable pulse generator with skin electrodes inducing light contractions of calf and thigh muscles, sequentially stimulated at early diastole. Hemodynamic parameters (ECG, blood pressure and echocardiography) were measured one day before and one day after the treatment period in two groups: Group 1 (9 MCP, 11 no MCP) with ejection fraction (EF) above 40% and Group 2 (21 MCP, 14 no MCP) below 40%. In Group 2 (all patients suffering from CHF) mean EF increased by 21% (pCHF.

  8. The obesity paradox in men with coronary heart disease and heart failure: the role of muscle mass and leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannamethee, S Goya; Shaper, A Gerald; Whincup, Peter H; Lennon, Lucy; Papacosta, Olia; Sattar, Naveed

    2014-01-15

    We have investigated the role of muscle mass, natriuretic peptides and adipokines in explaining the obesity paradox. The obesity paradox relates to the association between obesity and increased survival in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) or heart failure (HF). Prospective study of 4046 men aged 60-79 years followed up for a mean period of 11 years, during which 1340 deaths occurred. The men were divided according to the presence of doctor diagnosed CHD and HF: (i) no CHD or HF ii), with CHD (no HF) and (iii) with HF. Overweight (BMI 25-9.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) were associated with lower mortality risk compared to men with normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) in those with CHD [hazards ratio (HR) 0.71 (0.56,0.91) and 0.77 (0.57,1.04); p=0.04 for trend] and in those with HF [HR 0.57 (0.28,1.16) and 0.41 (0.16,1.09; p=0.04 for trend). Adjustment for muscle mass and NT-proBNP attenuated the inverse association in those with CHD (no HF) [HR 0.78 (0.61,1.01) and 0.96 (0.68,1.36) p=0.60 for trend) but made minor differences to those with HF [p=0.05]. Leptin related positively to mortality in men without HF but inversely to mortality in those with HF; adjustment for leptin abolished the BMI mortality association in men with HF [HR 0.82 (0.31,2.20) and 0.99 (0.27,3.71); p=0.98 for trend]. The lower mortality risk associated with excess weight in men with CHD without HF may be due to higher muscle mass. In men with HF, leptin (possibly reflecting cachexia) explain the inverse association. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Cardiac pathological changes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affected with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Skjødt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is a disease of marine farmed Atlantic salmon where the pathological changes associated with the disease involve necrosis and an infiltration of inflammatory cells into different regions of the heart and skeletal muscle. The aim of this work...... was to characterize cardiac changes and inflammatory cell types associated with a clinical HSMI outbreak in Atlantic salmon using immunohistochemistry. Different immune cells and cardiac tissue responses associated with the disease were identified using different markers. The spectrum of inflammatory cells associated...... immunostaining was observed for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II in HSMI hearts. Although low in number, a few positive cells in diseased hearts were detected using the mature myeloid cell line granulocytes/monocytes antibody indicating more positive cells in diseased than non-diseased hearts...

  10. Maternal blood pressure and heart rate response to pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cristine H; Naldoni, Luciane M V; Ribeiro, Juliana Dos Santos; Meirelles, Maria Cristina C C; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Bø, Kari

    2014-07-01

    To assess whether maternal blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) change significantly in response to pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. Longitudinal exploratory study with repeated measurements. Twenty-seven nulliparous healthy women of mean age 23.3 years (range 18-36) and mean body mass index 23.4 (range 23.1-29.5). Individual supervised pelvic floor muscle training from gestational week 20 till 36 with assessment of BP and HR at gestational weeks 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured before and after each training session and HR was monitored during each session. Pelvic floor muscle training did not change BP. 77% (n = 21) of participants exceeded 70% of estimated maximum HR during at least one session. The time for exceeding 70% of estimated maximum HR was between 2.2 and 3.2 % of the total exercise session. Increases in BP and HR from gestational weeks 20 till 36 were within normal limits for pregnant women. Pelvic floor muscle training in nulliparous sedentary pregnant women does not increase BP. It significantly increases HR during the exercise sessions, but only for a limited period of time and with no negative long-term effect on BP or HR. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Electrical Stimulation of Artificial Heart Muscle: A Look Into the Electrophysiologic and Genetic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Islas, Jose F; Schwartz, Robert J; Birla, Ravi K

    Development of tissue-engineered hearts for treatment of myocardial infarction or biologic pacemakers has been hindered by the production of mostly arrhythmic or in-synergistic constructs. Electrical stimulation (ES) of these constructs has been shown to produce tissues with greater twitch force and better adrenergic response. To further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effect of ES, we fabricated a bioreactor capable of delivering continuous or intermittent waveforms of various types to multiple constructs simultaneously. In this study, we examined the effect of an intermittent biphasic square wave on our artificial heart muscle (AHM) composed of neonatal rat cardiac cells and fibrin gel. Twitch forces, spontaneous contraction rates, biopotentials, gene expression profiles, and histologic observations were examined for the ES protocol over a 12 day culture period. We demonstrate improved consistency between samples for twitch force and contraction rate, and higher normalized twitch force amplitudes for electrically stimulated AHMs. Improvements in electrophysiology within the AHM were noted by higher conduction velocities and lower latency in electrical response for electrically stimulated AHMs. Genes expressing key electrophysiologic and structural markers peaked at days 6 and 8 of culture, only a few days after the initiation of ES. These results may be used for optimization strategies to establish protocols for producing AHMs capable of replacing damaged heart tissue in either a contractile or electrophysiologic capacity. Optimized AHMs can lead to alternative treatments to heart failure and alleviate the limited donor supply crisis.

  12. Liver Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Series Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Liver Biopsy What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that involves ... organ, has many important functions. Why is a liver biopsy performed? A health care provider will perform a ...

  13. Training differentially regulates elastin level and proteolysis in skeletal and heart muscles and aorta in healthy rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gilbert

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induces changes in muscle fibers and the extracellular matrix that may depend on elastin content and the activity of proteolytic enzymes. We investigated the influence of endurance training on the gene expression and protein content and/or activity of elastin, elastase, cathepsin K, and plasmin in skeletal and heart muscles and in the aorta. Healthy rats were randomly divided into untrained (n=10 and trained (n=10; 6 weeks of endurance training with increasing load groups. Gene expression was evaluated via qRT-PCR. Elastin content was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme activity was measured fluorometrically. Elastin content was significantly higher in skeletal (P=0.0014 and heart muscle (P=0.000022 from trained rats versus untrained rats, but not in the aorta. Although mRNA levels in skeletal muscle did not differ between groups, the activities of elastase (P=0.0434, cathepsin K (P=0.0343 and plasmin (P=0.000046 were higher in trained rats. The levels of cathepsin K (P=0.0288 and plasminogen (P=0.0005 mRNA were higher in heart muscle from trained rats, but enzyme activity was not. Enzyme activity in the aorta did not differ between groups. Increased elastin content in muscles may result in better adaption to exercise, as may remodeling of the extracellular matrix in skeletal muscle.

  14. Attenuated fatigue in slow twitch skeletal muscle during isotonic exercise in rats with chronic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Munkvik

    Full Text Available During isometric contractions, slow twitch soleus muscles (SOL from rats with chronic heart failure (chf are more fatigable than those of sham animals. However, a muscle normally shortens during activity and fatigue development is highly task dependent. Therefore, we examined the development of skeletal muscle fatigue during shortening (isotonic contractions in chf and sham-operated rats. Six weeks following coronary artery ligation, infarcted animals were classified as failing (chf if left ventricle end diastolic pressure was >15 mmHg. During isoflurane anaesthesia, SOL with intact blood supply was stimulated (1s on 1s off at 30 Hz for 15 min and allowed to shorten isotonically against a constant afterload. Muscle temperature was maintained at 37°C. In resting muscle, maximum isometric force (F(max and the concentrations of ATP and CrP were not different in the two groups. During stimulation, F(max and the concentrations declined in parallel sham and chf. Fatigue, which was evident as reduced shortening during stimulation, was also not different in the two groups. The isometric force decline was fitted to a bi-exponential decay equation. Both time constants increased transiently and returned to initial values after approximately 200 s of the fatigue protocol. This resulted in a transient rise in baseline tension between stimulations, although this effect which was less prominent in chf than sham. Myosin light chain 2s phosphorylation declined in both groups after 100 s of isotonic contractions, and remained at this level throughout 15 min of stimulation. In spite of higher energy demand during isotonic than isometric contractions, both shortening capacity and rate of isometric force decline were as well or better preserved in fatigued SOL from chf rats than in sham. This observation is in striking contrast to previous reports which have employed isometric contractions to induce fatigue.

  15. Blunted muscle vasodilatation during chemoreceptor stimulation in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vanna, Andrea; Braga, Ana Maria F W; Laterza, Mateus C; Ueno, Linda M; Rondon, Maria Urbana P B; Barretto, Antonio C P; Middlekauff, Holly R; Negrão, Carlos E

    2007-07-01

    Chemoreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity is exaggerated in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the vascular implications of the augmented sympathetic activity during chemoreceptor activation in patients with HF are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the muscle blood flow responses during peripheral and central chemoreflex stimulation would be blunted in patients with HF. Sixteen patients with HF (49 +/- 3 years old, Functional Class II-III, New York Heart Association) and 11 age-paired normal controls were studied. The peripheral chemoreflex control was evaluated by inhalation of 10% O(2) and 90% N(2) for 3 min. The central chemoreflex control was evaluated by inhalation of 7% CO(2) and 93% O(2) for 3 min. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was directly evaluated by microneurography. Forearm blood flow was evaluated by venous occlusion plethysmography. Baseline MSNA were significantly greater in HF patients (33 +/- 3 vs. 20 +/- 2 bursts/min, P = 0.001). Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was not different between the groups. During hypoxia, the increase in MSNA was significantly greater in HF patients than in normal controls (9.0 +/- 1.6 vs. 0.8 +/- 2.0 bursts/min, P = 0.001). The increase in FVC was significantly lower in HF patients (0.00 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.76 +/- 0.25 units, P = 0.001). During hypercapnia, MSNA responses were significantly greater in HF patients than in normal controls (13.9 +/- 3.2 vs. 2.1 +/- 1.9 bursts/min, P = 0.001). FVC responses were significantly lower in HF patients (-0.29 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.37 +/- 0.18 units, P = 0.001). In conclusion, muscle vasodilatation during peripheral and central chemoreceptor stimulation is blunted in HF patients. This vascular response seems to be explained, at least in part, by the exaggerated MSNA responses during hypoxia and hypercapnia.

  16. Inspiratory muscle training improves oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ricardo; Chiappa, Gaspar R; Güths, Henrique; Dall'Ago, Pedro; Ribeiro, Jorge P

    2009-01-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improves exercise capacity and ventilatory responses to exercise in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) with inspiratory muscle weakness (IMW). We analyzed the effects of IMT on the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) in this patient population. Thirty-two CHF patients with IMW (maximal inspiratory pressure [PImax] < 70% of predicted) were randomly assigned to either a 12-week program of IMT (IMT, n = 16) or placebo-IMT (P-IMT, n = 16). PImax and OUES were obtained before and after the intervention. Inspiratory muscle training resulted in 115% increment in PImax (5.9 +/- 0.9 vs 12.7 +/- 0.9 kPa; P < .001) and in significant improvement in OUES (1,554 +/- 617 to 2,037 +/- 747 mL min O2/L min of minute ventilation; P = .001). There were no significant changes in the P-IMT group. There was a significant association between the changes in PImax and OUES (r = 0.82, P < .01). In CHF patients with IMW, IMT results in a significant increase in OUES.

  17. Anatomic variations of the cardiac valves and papillary muscles of the right heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Theodoros; Dalivigkas, Ioannis; Ekmektzoglou, Konstantinos A

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the right atrioventricular and pulmonary valves, along with their anatomic variations as well as the papillary muscles and chordae tendineae of the right ventricle of the human heart. A brief anatomical background is given for every structure, as well as a gross review of their embryological basis. Although the normal morphology of the right atrioventricular valve is tricuspid, this is not always the case; its anatomic variations involve, firstly, the number of cusps and accessory leaflets. Anatomic variations of the right atrioventricular valve may occur in association with other congenital anomalies and syndromes. Also the number, length and shape of the papillary muscles and chordae tendineae are variable. This can be of clinical significance since the papillary muscles play an important role in the contraction of the right ventricle and in the closure of the tricuspid valve so as to prevent ventricular blood from passing back into the right atrium. The pulmonary valve may present variations in the number of cusps, stenosis or atresia, either as isolated clinical findings or in association with congenital syndromes.

  18. New Trends in Heart Regeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochegarov A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on new approaches that could lead to the regeneration of heart muscle and the restoration of cardiac muscle function derived from newly-formed cardiomyocytes. Various strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, adult bone marrow stem cells and cardiac spheres from human heart biopsies are described. Pathological conditions which lead to atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease often are followed by myocardial infarction causing myocardial cell death. After cell death, there is very little self-regeneration of the cardiac muscle tissue, which is replaced by non-contractile connective tissue, thus weakening the ability of the heart muscle to contract fully and leading to heart failure. A number of experimental research approaches to stimulate heart muscle regeneration with the hope of regaining normal or near normal heart function in the damaged heart muscle have been attempted. Some of these very interesting studies have used a variety of stem cell types in combination with potential cardiogenic differentiation factors in an attempt to promote differentiation of new cardiac muscle for possible future use in the clinical treatment of patients who have suffered heart muscle damage from acute myocardial infarctions or related cardiovascular diseases. Although progress has been made in recent years relative to promoting the differentiation of cardiac muscle tissue from non-muscle cells, much work remains to be done for this technology to be used routinely in translational clinical medicine to treat patients with damaged heart muscle tissue and return such individuals to pre-heart-attack activity levels.

  19. Effects of electric paravertebral muscle relaxation processes in the athletes heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Syshko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influence of paravertebrals miorelaxation on electric processes in a heart at sportsmen is studied. Paravertebrals miorelaxation was the complex of exercises in a water environment directed on the decline of tone of paravertebral muscles. Before and after it was used of paravertebrals miorelaxation registered the indexes of electrocardiography at the sportsmen engaged in the Greek-Roman fight (n=22 by football (n=24 and heavy athletics (n=25. It is got, that at the sportsmen of engaged in the Greek -Roman fight after paravertebrals miorelaxation QRS and QT were it was increased, and R-R and PQ went down. At the sportsmen of engaged in heavy athletics HR and PQ went down after paravertebrals miorelaxation, R-R, QRS and QT were it was increased. At the sportsmen of getting busy by football the PQ interval shortened, and QRS and QT has multiplied. Findings testify to the presence of different mechanisms of adaptation of the conducting system of heart in the conditions of influencing of paravertebrals miorelaxation. These distinctions are fated by two basic factors: by the functional being of the cardio-vessels system on the whole and functional being of sine knot and conducting system of heart in particular.

  20. Still Heart Encodes a Structural HMT, SMYD1b, with Chaperone-Like Function during Fast Muscle Sarcomere Assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal Prill

    Full Text Available The vertebrate sarcomere is a complex and highly organized contractile structure whose assembly and function requires the coordination of hundreds of proteins. Proteins require proper folding and incorporation into the sarcomere by assembly factors, and they must also be maintained and replaced due to the constant physical stress of muscle contraction. Zebrafish mutants affecting muscle assembly and maintenance have proven to be an ideal tool for identification and analysis of factors necessary for these processes. The still heart mutant was identified due to motility defects and a nonfunctional heart. The cognate gene for the mutant was shown to be smyd1b and the still heart mutation results in an early nonsense codon. SMYD1 mutants show a lack of heart looping and chamber definition due to a lack of expression of heart morphogenesis factors gata4, gata5 and hand2. On a cellular level, fast muscle fibers in homozygous mutants do not form mature sarcomeres due to the lack of fast muscle myosin incorporation by SMYD1b when sarcomeres are first being assembled (19hpf, supporting SMYD1b as an assembly protein during sarcomere formation.

  1. Ageing and activity: their effects on the functional reserve capacities of the heart and vascular smooth and skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldspink, David F

    During perinatal life striated muscles grow through the acquisition of more contractile cells (myocytes or fibres) followed by their postnatal enlargement (i.e. hypertrophy). In the ageing adult these events are reversed, with a progressive loss of myocytes that cannot be fully compensated despite the presence of cell renewal systems or reactive myocyte hypertrophy. Hence the functional reserve capacities of the heart and skeletal muscles decline with age. This is probably a consequence of physiological ageing and diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. For example, sufficient coordinated absolute muscle force is required for an individual to rise from a chair or climb stairs, and the reserve capacity of the heart is a major determinant of an individual's ability to remain active and cope with daily stresses and illnesses. Long-term participation in endurance-based activities helps to preserve cardiac reserve, and has both direct and indirect beneficial effects on vascular smooth muscle and health preservation within the cardiovascular system. In contrast, this type of activity does little to protect skeletal muscles against the age-related losses of fast-twitch fibres, small motor units, overall muscle mass and power output. While resistance exercise promotes fibre hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, and to a lesser extent in myocytes of the heart, the explosive power of muscles still declines with age. Hence, while physical activity is important in attenuating age-related changes in muscle function and its reserve capacity, it delays rather than prevents the deleterious effects of ageing per se. Despite this, in a culture where inactivity has become an accepted part of life we still need to explore in greater detail the benefits of habitual physical activity, and use this information as a community-based educational tool to help prevent or delay

  2. New-onset heart failure due to heart muscle disease in childhood: a prospective study in the United kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Rachel E; Fenton, Matthew J; Ridout, Deborah A; Burch, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We undertook the first prospective, national, multicenter study to describe the incidence and outcome of heart muscle disease-induced heart failure in children. Data were collected on patients admitted to a hospital through 2003 with a first episode of heart failure in the absence of congenital heart disease. All 17 pediatric cardiac centers in the United Kingdom and Ireland participated. Follow-up data were obtained to a minimum of 1 year. The incidence was 0.87/100,000 population Heart Association class III to IV. Causes of heart failure included dilated cardiomyopathy (50 idiopathic, 8 familial), probable myocarditis (23), occult arrhythmia (7), anthracycline toxicity (5), metabolic disease (4), left ventricular noncompaction (3), and other (4). Overall 1-year survival was 82%, and event (death or transplantation)-free survival was 66%. Regression analysis showed older age and reduced systolic function on admission echocardiogram increased the event risk. Only 8% of event-free survivors (n=69) remained in New York Heart Association class III to IV, but 35 required readmission during the study period, and all but 8 remained on medication. This first national prospective study of new-onset heart failure in children has shown an incidence of 0.87/100,000. Multivariable analysis of survival data indicates a better outcome for younger children and for those with better systolic function at presentation, but overall, one third of children die or require transplantation within 1 year of presentation.

  3. Individual differences in the cardiovascular responses to tonic muscle pain: parallel increases or decreases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazalbhoy, Azharuddin; Birznieks, Ingvars; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2012-10-01

    We recently showed that acute muscle pain, induced by bolus intramuscular injection of hypertonic saline, causes a sustained increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and a modest increase in blood pressure and heart rate. However, it is not known whether long-lasting (tonic) pain, which more closely resembles chronic pain, causes a sustained increase in MSNA and blood pressure. We tested this hypothesis by recording MSNA in 12 healthy subjects. Tonic pain was induced for ~60 min by slow intramuscular infusion of hypertonic saline (7%) into the ipsilateral tibialis anterior muscle. Pain was sustained at a tolerable level (5/10 to 6/10 on a visual analog scale). Seven subjects showed progressive increases in mean MSNA amplitude during tonic pain, increasing to 154 ± 17% (SEM) at 45 min and remaining essentially constant for the duration of the infusion. In these subjects, blood pressure and heart rate also increased. Conversely, for the other five subjects MSNA showed a progressive decline, with a peak fall of 67 ± 11% at 40 min; blood pressure and heart rate also fell in these subjects. We conclude that tonic muscle pain has long-lasting effects on the sympathetic control of blood pressure, causing a sustained increase in some subjects yet a sustained decrease in others. This may have implications for individual differences in the cardiovascular consequences of chronic pain.

  4. FIRST SOUND EVIDENCE OF MUSCLE REGENERATION IN RECOVERY OF FUNCTION OF HUMAN PERMANENT DENERVATED MUSCLES BY A LONG-LASTING FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION (FES TRAINING: BIOPSY FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to general believe, in one case of 18month cauda equina lesion four-month electrical stimulation of thigh muscles (impulse energy 1.92 Joule increased stimulation frequency from 2 to 20 Hz, i. e., up to tetanic contractions. After 2 years of treatment, CT-cross sectional area of quadriceps improved 58.3% (right and 44.4% (left with increased muscle density. Mean myofiber size was 37.2 ± 24.8 µm (right and 40.5 ±  24.9 µm (left. Improvement of stimulated knee torque, from zero to 12.0 Nm and 10.5 Nm, respectively, enabled to stand up trials. Surviving myofibers undergo re-growth (they show the chess board appearance of normal muscle, and dying myofibers continuously regenerate (up to 3% are embryonic myosin positive 3-year post-FES. Regeneration events are essential components of the FES rehabilitation protocol due to superior excitability of regenerated myofibers in comparison to long-term denervated, degenerated myofibers, which were almost not excitable before FES training.

  5. Reversibility of muscle and heart lesions in chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infected mice after late trypanomicidal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Segura

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of trypanomicidal treatment upon established histopathological Trypanosoma cruzi induced lesions was studied in Swiss mice. The animals were inoculated with 50 trypomastigotes and infection was allowed to progress without treatment for 99 days. After this period, the animals were divided in three groups, treated for 30 days with either placebo, benznidazole (200 mg/kg/day or nifurtimox (100 mg/kg/day. These treatments induced 94 and 100 (per cent cure rates respectively as detected by xenodiagnosis and reduction of antibody levels. Autopsies and histopathological studies of heart, urinary bladderand skeletal muscle performed on day 312 after infection showed almost complete healing without residual lesions. As long periods were allowed between infection, treatment and autopsy, the results indicate that tissue lesions depend, up to advances stages, on the continuous presence of the parasite.

  6. Primary skeletal muscle myoblasts from chronic heart failure patients exhibit loss of anti-inflammatory and proliferative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sente, T.; Berendoncks, A.M. Van; Jonckheere, A.I.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Lauwers, P.; Hoof, V. Van; Wouters, A.; Lardon, F.; Hoymans, V.Y.; Vrints, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral skeletal muscle wasting is a common finding with adverse effects in chronic heart failure (HF). Whereas its clinical relevance is beyond doubt, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated. We aimed to introduce and characterize the primary culture

  7. Clinical usefulness of random biopsies in diagnosis and treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiela, J D; Palou, J; Esquinas, C; Fernández Gómez, J M; Rodríguez Faba, O

    2017-11-20

    This systematic review of the literature has been focused on determining the clinical usefulness of random bladder biopsies (RB) in the diagnosis of carcinoma in situ. A meta-analysis was performed to establish the clinic and pathological factors associated to positive biopsies. A systematic review was performed using Pubmed/Medline database according to the PRISMA guidelines. Thirty-seven articles were included, recruiting a total of 12,657 patients, 10,975 were submitted to RB. The overall incidence of positive RB was 21.91%. Significant differences were found in the incidence of positive RB when patients were stratified according to urine cytology result, tumor multiplicity, tumor appearance, stage and grade. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that the presence of positive cytology, tumor multiplicity, non-papillary appearance tumors, stage T1 and histological grades G2 and G3 represent the risk factors to predict abnormalities in RB. The incidence of positive RB in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer was 21.91%. The maximum usefulness of RB was observed when these are performed in a standardized way. The results of the meta-analysis showed that besides positive cytology and non-papillary appearance tumors, tumor multiplicity and histological grades G2 and G3 represent risk factors associated to positive RB, suggesting that the use of RB might be extensive to the intermediate risk group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of combining traction and vibration on back muscles, heart rate and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhen; Zhao, Meiya; Ma, Jian; Tian, Shan; Xiang, Pin; Yao, Wei; Fan, Yubo

    2014-11-01

    Eighty-five percent of the population has experienced low back pain (LBP), which may result in decreasing muscle strength and endurance, functional capacity of the spine, and so on. Traction and vibration are commonly used to relieve the low back pain. The effect of the combing traction and vibration on back muscles, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) was investigated in this study. Thirty healthy subjects participated in 12 trials lying supine on the spine-combing bed with different tilt angle (0°, 10°, 20° and 30°) and vibration modes (along with the sagittal and coronal axis with 0 Hz, 2 Hz and 12 Hz separately). EMG was recorded during each trial. Power spectral frequency analysis was applied to evaluate muscle fatigue by the shift of median power frequency (MPF). Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated from BP. HR and PP were used to estimate the effect of the combination of traction and vibration on the cardio-vascular system. It was shown that vibration could increase HR and decrease PP. The combination of traction and vibration (2 Hz vibration along Z-axis and 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis) had no significant effect on the cardio-vascular system. The MPF of lumbar erector spinae (LES) and upper trapezius (UT) decreased significantly when the angle reached 20° under the condition of 2 Hz vibration along Z-axis compared with it of 0°. Furthermore, the MPF also decreased significantly compared with it of static mode at 20° for LES and at 30° for UT. However at 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis, the MPF had significant increase when the angle reached 20° in LES and 30° in UT compared to 0°. For LES, the MPF also had significant difference when the angle was increased from 10° to 20°. Therefore, combining 2 Hz vibration along Z-axis and traction (tilt angles that less than 20°) may to reduce muscle fatigue both for LES and UT compared with either vibration or traction alone. The combination of 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis and traction (tilt angles

  9. Oxidative capacities of cardiac and skeletal muscles of heart transplant recipients: mitochondrial effects of cyclosporin-A and its vehicle Cremophor-EL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N' Guessan, Benoit Banga; Sanchez, Hervé; Zoll, Joffrey; Ribera, Florence; Dufour, Stéphane; Lampert, Eliane; Kindo, Michel; Geny, Bernard; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Mettauer, Bertrand

    2014-04-01

    Chronic immunosuppressive treatment was suspected to alter maximal muscle oxidative capacity (Vmax ) of heart transplant recipients, leading to a limitation of their exercise tolerance. It remains undefined whether the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) of right ventricle (RV) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles were altered by immunosuppressants and/or their vehicles. Vmax was measured polarographically in saponin-skinned fibres of RV and VL biopsies of patients and compared with Vmax of healthy VL and myocardium. Effects of increasing concentrations (1-10-100 μM) of Sandimmune(®) , its vehicle, Cyclosporine (CsA) in ethanol (EtOH), or EtOH alone were tested. The vehicle's effects on MRC complexes were investigated using specific substrates and inhibitors. Ten months after grafting, Vmax of RV and VL of immunosuppressed patients were similar to their Vmax at time of transplantation and to that of control tissues. In Vitro, Sandimmune(®) significantly decreased Vmax while CsA in EtOH or EtOH exerted small and similar effects. Effects of the vehicle were higher than (RV) or identical to (VL) those of Sandimmune(®) . The sites of action of the vehicle on MRC were located on complexes I and IV. While unchanged under chronic immunosuppressive therapy, Vmax of RV and VL muscles was depressed by acute exposure to intravenous Sandimmune(®) in vitro, an effect attributed to its vehicle by inhibition of complexes I and IV of the MRC. This work provides an in vitro proof of a toxic effect on the mitochondria respiratory chain of the vehicle used in the intravenous formulation of Sandimmune(®) but with no clinical consequences in chronically immunosuppressed patients. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  10. Comparative cardiac pathological changes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affected with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) and pancreas disease (PD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Skjødt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    The heart is considered the powerhouse of the cardiovascular system. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) and pancreas disease (PD) are cardiac diseases of marine farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) which commonly affect the heart in addition to the skeletal...

  11. Human Engineered Heart Muscles Engraft and Survive Long-Term in a Rodent Myocardial Infarction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegler, Johannes; Tiburcy, Malte; Ebert, Antje; Tzatzalos, Evangeline; Raaz, Uwe; Abilez, Oscar J.; Shen, Qi; Kooreman, Nigel G.; Neofytou, Evgenios; Chen, Vincent C.; Wang, Mouer; Meyer, Tim; Tsao, Philip S.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Couture, Larry A.; Gold, Joseph D.; Zimmermann, Wolfram H.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Rational Tissue engineering approaches may improve survival and functional benefits from human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocte (ESC-CM) transplantation, thereby potentially preventing dilative remodelling and progression to heart failure. Objective Assessment of transport stability, long term survival, structural organisation, functional benefits, and teratoma risk of engineered heart muscle (EHM) in a chronic myocardial infarction (MI) model. Methods and Results We constructed EHMs from ESC-CMs and released them for transatlantic shipping following predefined quality control criteria. Two days of shipment did not lead to adverse effects on cell viability or contractile performance of EHMs (n=3, P=0.83, P=0.87). After ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, EHMs were implanted onto immunocompromised rat hearts at 1 month to simulate chronic ischemia. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) showed stable engraftment with no significant cell loss between week 2 and 12 (n=6, P=0.67), preserving up to 25% of the transplanted cells. Despite high engraftment rates and attenuated disease progression (change in ejection fraction for EHMs −6.7±1.4% vs control −10.9±1.5%, n>12, P=0.05), we observed no difference between EHMs containing viable or non-viable human cardiomyocytes in this chronic xenotransplantation model (n>12, P=0.41). Grafted cardiomyocytes showed enhanced sarcomere alignment and increased connexin 43 expression at 220 days after transplantation. No teratomas or tumors were found in any of the animals (n=14) used for long-term monitoring. Conclusions EHM transplantation led to high engraftment rates, long term survival, and progressive maturation of human cardiomyocytes. However, cell engraftment was not correlated with functional improvements in this chronic MI model. Most importantly, the safety of this approach was demonstrated by the lack of tumor or teratoma formation. PMID:26291556

  12. HDAC6 contributes to pathological responses of heart and skeletal muscle to chronic angiotensin-II signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos-Davies, Kimberly M; Ferguson, Bradley S; Cavasin, Maria A; Mahaffey, Jennifer H; Williams, Sarah M; Spiltoir, Jessica I; Schuetze, Katherine B; Horn, Todd R; Chen, Bo; Ferrara, Claudia; Scellini, Beatrice; Piroddi, Nicoletta; Tesi, Chiara; Poggesi, Corrado; Jeong, Mark Y; McKinsey, Timothy A

    2014-07-15

    Little is known about the function of the cytoplasmic histone deacetylase HDAC6 in striated muscle. Here, we addressed the role of HDAC6 in cardiac and skeletal muscle remodeling induced by the peptide hormone angiotensin II (ANG II), which plays a central role in blood pressure control, heart failure, and associated skeletal muscle wasting. Comparable with wild-type (WT) mice, HDAC6 null mice developed cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in response to ANG II. However, whereas WT mice developed systolic dysfunction upon treatment with ANG II, cardiac function was maintained in HDAC6 null mice treated with ANG II for up to 8 wk. The cardioprotective effect of HDAC6 deletion was mimicked in WT mice treated with the small molecule HDAC6 inhibitor tubastatin A. HDAC6 null mice also exhibited improved left ventricular function in the setting of pressure overload mediated by transverse aortic constriction. HDAC6 inhibition appeared to preserve systolic function, in part, by enhancing cooperativity of myofibrillar force generation. Finally, we show that HDAC6 null mice are resistant to skeletal muscle wasting mediated by chronic ANG-II signaling. These findings define novel roles for HDAC6 in striated muscle and suggest potential for HDAC6-selective inhibitors for the treatment of cardiac dysfunction and muscle wasting in patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Effects of respiratory muscle unloading on leg muscle oxygenation and blood volume during high-intensity exercise in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Carrascosa, Cláudia; Oliveira, Cristino Carneiro; Barroco, Adriano C; Berton, Danilo C; Vilaça, Debora; Lira-Filho, Edgar B; Ribeiro, Dirceu; Nery, Luiz Eduardo; Neder, J Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Blood flow requirements of the respiratory muscles (RM) increase markedly during exercise in chronic heart failure (CHF). We reasoned that if the RM could subtract a fraction of the limited cardiac output (QT) from the peripheral muscles, RM unloading would improve locomotor muscle perfusion. Nine patients with CHF (left ventricle ejection fraction = 26 +/- 7%) undertook constant-work rate tests (70-80% peak) receiving proportional assisted ventilation (PAV) or sham ventilation. Relative changes (Delta%) in deoxy-hemoglobyn, oxi-Hb ([O2Hb]), tissue oxygenation index, and total Hb ([HbTOT], an index of local blood volume) in the vastus lateralis were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. In addition, QT was monitored by impedance cardiography and arterial O2 saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2). There were significant improvements in exercise tolerance (Tlim) with PAV. Blood lactate, leg effort/Tlim and dyspnea/Tlim were lower with PAV compared with sham ventilation (P 0.05). Unloaded breathing, however, was related to enhanced leg muscle oxygenation and local blood volume compared with sham, i.e., higher Delta[O2Hb]% and Delta[HbTOT]%, respectively (P < 0.05). We conclude that RM unloading had beneficial effects on the oxygenation status and blood volume of the exercising muscles at similar systemic O2 delivery in patients with advanced CHF. These data suggest that blood flow was redistributed from respiratory to locomotor muscles during unloaded breathing.

  14. Cold knife cone biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References American ...

  15. Update on Myocarditis and Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy: Reemergence of Endomyocardial Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Fernando; Kühl, Uwe; Pieske, Burkert; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo; Tschöpe, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Myocarditis is defined as an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle and is an important cause of acute heart failure, sudden death, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Viruses account for most cases of myocarditis or inflammatory cardiomyopathy, which could induce an immune response causing inflammation even when the pathogen has been cleared. Other etiologic agents responsible for myocarditis include drugs, toxic substances, or autoimmune conditions. In the last few years, advances in noninvasive techniques such as cardiac magnetic resonance have been very useful in supporting diagnosis of myocarditis, but toxic, infectious-inflammatory, infiltrative, or autoimmune processes occur at a cellular level and only endomyocardial biopsy can establish the nature of the etiological agent. Furthermore, after the generalization of immunohistochemical and viral genome detection techniques, endomyocardial biopsy provides a definitive etiological diagnosis that can lead to specific treatments such as antiviral or immunosuppressive therapy. Endomyocardial biopsy is not commonly performed for the diagnosis of myocarditis due to safety reasons, but both right- and left endomyocardial biopsies have very low complication rates when performed by experienced operators. This document provides a state-of-the-art review of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy, with special focus on the role of endomyocardial biopsy to establish specific treatments. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Adults with complex congenital heart disease have impaired skeletal muscle function and reduced confidence in performing exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Camilla; Thilén, Ulf; Wadell, Karin; Johansson, Bengt

    2015-12-01

    Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) usually have reduced aerobic exercise capacity compared with controls. However, their skeletal muscle function is less studied. In this cross-sectional study, unilateral isotonic shoulder flexion, unilateral isotonic heel-lift, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) were tested in 85 patients with ACHD (35 women, mean age 36.8 ± 14.8 years), classed as either 'complex' (n = 43) or 'simple' (n = 42), and 42 age and gender matched controls (16 women, mean age 36.9 ± 14.9). Maximum number of shoulder flexions and heel-lifts were measured. MIP/MEP was tested using a handheld respiratory pressure meter. Exercise self-efficacy, measuring confidence in performing exercise training, was evaluated. Adults with complex lesions performed fewer shoulder flexions compared with controls and patients with simple lesions (28.2 ± 11.1 vs. 63.6 ± 40.4, p heart lesions were independently associated with impaired limb muscle function. Adults with complex congenital heart disease have impaired skeletal muscle function compared with patients with simple lesions and healthy controls. They also had lower confidence in performing exercise training. Thus, this population might have a potential for rehabilitation focusing on improving muscle function and confidence in performing exercise training. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  17. Expression of TPM1κ, a Novel Sarcomeric Isoform of the TPM1 Gene, in Mouse Heart and Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamalima Dube

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the expression of TPM1α and TPM1κ in mouse striated muscles. TPM1α and TMP1κ were amplified from the cDNA of mouse heart by using conventional RT-PCR. We have cloned the PCR amplified DNA and determined the nucleotide sequences. Deduced amino acid sequences show that there are three amino acid changes in mouse exon 2a when compared with the human TPM1κ. However, the deduced amino acid sequences of human TPM1α and mouse TPM1α are identical. Conventional RT-PCR data as well as qRT-PCR data, calculating both absolute copy number and relative expression, revealed that the expression of TPM1κ is significantly lower compared to TPM1α in both mouse heart and skeletal muscle. It was also found that the expression level of TPM1κ transcripts in mouse heart is higher than it is in skeletal muscle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the expression of TPM1κ in mammalian skeletal muscle.

  18. Effects of exercise training on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in skeletal muscle and heart of rats post myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heow Won; Ahmad, Monir; Wang, Hong-Wei; Leenen, Frans H H

    2017-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? Exercise training increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus, which depends on a myokine, fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). Whether exercise training after myocardial infarction induces parallel increases in FNDC5 and BDNF expression in skeletal muscle and the heart has not yet been studied. What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise training after myocardial infarction increases BDNF protein in skeletal muscle and the non-infarct area of the LV without changes in FNDC5 protein, suggesting that BDNF is not regulated by FNDC5 in skeletal muscle and heart. An increase in cardiac BDNF may contribute to the improvement of cardiac function by exercise training. Exercise training after myocardial infarction (MI) attenuates progressive left ventricular (LV) remodelling and dysfunction, but the peripheral stimuli induced by exercise that trigger these beneficial effects are still unclear. We investigated as possible mediators fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the skeletal muscle and heart. Male Wistar rats underwent either sham surgery or ligation of the left descending coronary artery, and surviving MI rats were allocated to either a sedentary (Sed-MI) or an exercise group (ExT-MI). Exercise training was done for 4 weeks on a motor-driven treadmill. At the end, LV function was evaluated, and FNDC5 and BDNF mRNA and protein were assessed in soleus muscle, quadriceps and non-, peri- and infarct areas of the LV. At 5 weeks post MI, FNDC5 mRNA was decreased in soleus muscle and all areas of the LV, but FNDC5 protein was increased in the soleus muscle and the infarct area. Mature BDNF (mBDNF) protein was decreased in the infarct area without a change in mRNA. Exercise training attenuated the decrease in ejection fraction and the increase in LV end-diastolic pressure post MI. Exercise training had no

  19. Dipyridamole-induced neoformation of capillaries in the rat heart. Quantitative stereological study on papillary muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, G; Schikora, I; Mattfeldt, T; Bodle, R

    1987-07-01

    Eighteen young male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups of equal size. Each experimental animal was treated with the powerful vasodilating drug dipyridamole (4 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally twice daily) for a period of 6 weeks. The control animals received sham injections with saline. The rats were fixed by retrograde vascular perfusion. Seven transverse and two longitudinal sections per animal were randomly selected from the left ventricular papillary muscles for stereological investigation. Length density of capillaries (length of capillaries per unit of tissue volume), surface density of capillaries (surface area of capillaries per unit of tissue volume) and the "true" three-dimensional capillary-fiber ratio (length of capillaries per unit length of myocardial fibers) were estimated by means of the Dimroth-Watson distribution, a mathematical model of directional statistics which assumes that the capillary directions scatter around the longitudinal axis of the muscle. This model was recently introduced into the stereology of myocardial capillaries and leads to a more accurate quantitation of the capillary network than parameters used hitherto, such as the "capillary density" (number of capillary profiles per mm2 of cross sectional area) and the "capillary-fiber ratio" (number of capillary profiles per number of myofiber profiles in cross sections). After chronic dipyridamole treatment, the length density of myocardial capillaries (+5%; p less than 0.02), the surface density of capillaries (+8%, p less than 0.01) and the three-dimensional capillary-fiber ratio (+6%, p less than 0.05) were increased. It is therefore concluded that the vasodilating drug dipyridamole evokes capillary growth in the heart which may be induced by mechanical factors via the enhanced myocardial blood flow. Investigation of the frequency distribution of capillary directions in space in both groups provided evidence that the capillary growth resulted from neoformation of

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cardiac Strain Pattern Following Transplantation of Human Tissue Engineered Heart Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Riegler, Johannes; Tiburcy, Malte; Zhao, Xin; Chour, Tony; Ndoye, Babacar; Nguyen, Michael; Adams, Jackson; Ameen, Mohamed; Denney, Thomas S.; Yang, Phillip C.; Nguyen, Patricia; Zimmermann, Wolfram H.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of tissue engineering approaches in combination with exogenously produced cardiomyocytes offers the potential to restore contractile function after myocardial injury. However, current techniques assessing changes in global cardiac performance following such treatments are plagued by relatively low detection ability. As the treatment is locally performed, this detection could be improved by myocardial strain imaging that measures regional contractility. Methods and Results Tissue engineered heart muscles (EHMs) were generated by casting human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes with collagen in preformed molds. EHMs were transplanted (n=12) to cover infarct and border zones of recipient rat hearts one month after ischemia reperfusion injury. A control group (n=10) received only sham placement of sutures without EHMs. To assess the efficacy of EHMs, MRI and ultrasound-based strain imaging were performed prior to and four weeks after transplantation. In addition to strain imaging, global cardiac performance was estimated from cardiac MRI. Although no significant differences were found with global changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) (Control −9.6±1.3% vs. EHM −6.2±1.9%, P=0.17), regional myocardial strain from tagged MRI was able to detect preserved systolic function in EHM-treated animals compared to control (Control 4.4±1.0% vs. EHM 1.0±0.6%, P=0.04). However, ultrasound-based strain failed to detect any significant change (Control 2.1±3.0% vs. EHM 6.3±2.9%, P=0.46). Conclusions This study highlights the feasibility of using cardiac strain from tagged MRI to assess functional changes in rat models due to localized regenerative therapies, which may not be detected by conventional measures of global systolic performance. PMID:27903535

  1. Synovial biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlag, Danielle; Tak, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    In patients with arthritis, synovial tissue is easily accessible for analysis. Blind needle biopsy is a simple and safe procedure. Arthroscopic biopsy is also safe, it allows access to most sites in the joint and it can provide adequate tissue for extensive laboratory investigations, both before and

  2. Tissue Biopsies in Diabetes Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    resistance of glucose disposal and glycogen synthesis in this tissue are hallmark features of type 2 diabetes in humans (2,3). During the past two decades, we have carried out more than 1200 needle biopsies of skeletal muscle to study the cellular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes....... Together with morphological studies, measurement of energy stores and metabolites, enzyme activity and phosphorylation, gene and protein expression in skeletal muscle biopsies have revealed a variety of cellular abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. The possibility to establish...... and gene expression profiling on skeletal muscle biopsies have pointed to abnormalities in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in type 2 diabetes. These novel insights will inevitably cause a renewed interest in studying skeletal muscle. This chapter reviews our experience to date and gives a thorough...

  3. Silver nanoparticles administered to chicken affect VEGFA and FGF2 gene expression in breast muscle and heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotowy, Anna Malgorzata; Sawosz, Ewa; Pineda, Lane Manalili

    2012-01-01

    chickens as a water solution in two concentrations (10 and 20 ppm). After dissection of the birds, breast muscles and hearts were collected. Gene expression of FGF2 and VEGF on the mRNA and protein levels were evaluated using qPCR and ELISA methods. The results for gene expression in breast muscle revealed......Nanoparticles of colloidal silver (AgNano) can influence gene expression. Concerning trials of AgNano application in poultry as antimicrobial and metabolic agents, it is useful to reveal whether they affect the expression of genes crucial for bird development. AgNano were administered to broiler...... significant changes on the mRNA level (FGF2 was up-regulated) but not on the protein level. In the heart, 20 ppm of AgNano in drinking water increased the expression of VEGFA, at the same time decreasing FGF2 expression both on the transcriptional and translational levels. Changes in the expression...

  4. Long-Term Blocking of Calcium Channels in mdx Mice Results in Differential Effects on Heart and Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Blain, Alison; Greally, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    calcium ions to enter the cell. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chronically blocking calcium channels with the aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin from onset of disease in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Treatment in utero onwards delayed onset......The disease mechanisms underlying dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy are complex, involving not only muscle membrane fragility, but also dysregulated calcium homeostasis. Specifically, it has been proposed that calcium channels directly initiate a cascade of pathological events by allowing...... in older mice. However, streptomycin treatment did not show positive effects in diaphragm or heart muscle, and heart pathology was worsened. Thus, blocking calcium channels even before disease onset does not prevent dystrophy, making this an unlikely treatment for DMD. These findings highlight...

  5. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation of farmed salmon is associated with infection with a novel reovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Palacios

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. mariculture has been associated with epidemics of infectious diseases that threaten not only local production, but also wild fish coming into close proximity to marine pens and fish escaping from them. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI is a frequently fatal disease of farmed Atlantic salmon. First recognized in one farm in Norway in 1999, HSMI was subsequently implicated in outbreaks in other farms in Norway and the United Kingdom. Although pathology and disease transmission studies indicated an infectious basis, efforts to identify an agent were unsuccessful. Here we provide evidence that HSMI is associated with infection with piscine reovirus (PRV. PRV is a novel reovirus identified by unbiased high throughput DNA sequencing and a bioinformatics program focused on nucleotide frequency as well as sequence alignment and motif analyses. Formal implication of PRV in HSMI will require isolation in cell culture and fulfillment of Koch's postulates, or prevention or modification of disease through use of specific drugs or vaccines. Nonetheless, as our data indicate that a causal relationship is plausible, measures must be taken to control PRV not only because it threatens domestic salmon production but also due to the potential for transmission to wild salmon populations.

  6. Effects of halothane, isoflurane and enflurane on isolated rat heart muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, F S; Carceles, M D; Laorden, M L; Hernandez, J

    1989-05-01

    Since the effects in the intact organism are complicated by central as well as peripheral effects, we compared the direct cardiac effects of three commonly used inhalational anaesthetics--halothane, isoflurane and enflurane--on isolated heart muscle. Concentration-response curves for inotropic, chronotropic and ventricular automaticity effects of halothane, isoflurane and enflurane (0.1-2% v/v) on electrically stimulated left atria, right atria and right ventricles of the rat were obtained. All three inhalational anaesthetics significantly decreased contractile force; the inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of enflurane was 0.55 +/- 0.06% v/v, significantly lower than halothane (0.96 +/- 0.08% v/v) and isoflurane (0.67 +/- 0.05% v/v). Similar results were obtained on atrial nomotopic rate. Halothane, isoflurane and enflurane produced negative chronotropic effects in this preparation. On the other hand, halothane and isoflurane significantly reduced the ventricular ectopic automaticity. However enflurane (0.3, 0.5, 1% v/v) increased ventricular rate. There were statistically significant differences between the IC50 values of atrial and ventricular rate for halothane and isoflurane. These results indicate: (a) direct negative inotropic and chronotropic effects for the three inhalational anaesthetics tested; (b) anti-dysrhythmic actions for halothane and isoflurane; and (c) dysrhythmogenic effects of enflurane.

  7. Iron supplementation effectively suppresses gastrocnemius muscle lesions to improve exercise capacity in chronic heart failure rats with anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Peng; Li, Li; Zhang, Mu-Qing; Liu, Shu-Juan; Li, Wen-Ya; Wang, Na

    2015-01-01

    For patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), exertional fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms. However, the poor relationship between heart dysfunction and exercise capacity has been ascribed to peripheral abnormalities. Several previous studies confirmed that iron supplementation could significantly improve the exercise capacity of patients with CHF, although they did not analyze effects in the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of iron treatment on gastrocnemius muscles of CHF rats with anemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to coronary ligation to induce heart failure. At the same time, blood (1-1.5 mL) was withdrawn from the retro-orbital plexus once every week to induce anemia. After 6 wk of this process, iron dextran was administered to the CHF rats with anemia (CHFa rats) at the dose of 8, 16, 32, or 64 mg/kg every 2 d for 2 wk. Iron dextran (8 mg/kg every 2 d) effectively improved hemodynamic parameters (P iron dextran significantly reduced the ratio of heart weight to body weight (P Iron dextran effectively inhibited sarcoplasmic vacuolation and muscle atrophy of gastrocnemius muscles in CHFa rats, as evaluated by pathologic examinations. Other iron treatments, however, were found to be ineffective on the same parameters, so particular focus was placed on the iron dextran (8 mg/kg every 2 d) group in subsequent analyses. Consistently, phospho-p38 in gastrocnemius muscles of CHFa rats was markedly suppressed by iron dextran. Additionally, iron dextran significantly decreased c-fos and c-jun and up-regulated cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein expression levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MELAS: clinical features, muscle biopsy and molecular genetics MELAS: manifestações clínicas, biópsia muscular e estudo molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Lorenzoni

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze a series of Brazilian patients suffering from MELAS. METHOD: Ten patients with MELAS were studied with correlation between clinical findings, laboratorial data, electrophysiology, histochemical and molecular features. RESULTS: Blood lactate was increased in eight patients. Brain image studies revealed a stroke-like pattern in all patients. Muscle biopsy showed ralled-red fibers (RRF in 90% of patients on modified Gomori-trichrome and in 100% on succinate dehydrogenase stains. Cytochrome c oxidase stain analysis indicated deficient activity in one patient and subsarcolemmal accumulation in seven patients. Strongly succinate dehydrogenase-reactive blood vessels (SSV occurred in six patients. The molecular analysis of tRNA Leu(UUR gene by PCR/RLFP and direct sequencing showed the A3243G mutation on mtDNA in 4 patients. CONCLUSION: The muscle biopsy often confirmed the MELAS diagnosis by presence of RRF and SSV. Molecular analysis of tRNA Leu(UUR gene should not be the only diagnostic criteria for MELAS.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar uma série de pacientes brasileiros portadores de MELAS. MÉTODO: Dez pacientes com MELAS foram estudados com correlação entre manifestações clínicas, alterações laboratoriais, estudo eletrofisiológico, histoquímico e molecular. RESULTADOS: O nível de lactato sérico estava aumentado em 8 pacientes. O estudo das imagens do crânio revelou padrão semelhante ao de AVC isquêmico em todos os pacientes. A biópsia muscular mostrou fibras rajadas vermelhas (RRF em 90% dos pacientes na coloração pelo tricrômio de Gomori modificado e em 100% na reação histoquímica pela desidrogenase succicínica (SDH. A análise da coloração pela citocromo c oxidase indicou atividade deficiente em um paciente e acúmulo subsarcolemal em sete pacientes. Vasos com forte reação para SDH (SSV ocorreram em seis pacientes. O estudo molecular do gene tRNA Leu(UUR por

  9. An anti-NH2-terminal antibody localizes NBCn1 to heart endothelia and skeletal and vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkier, Helle Hasager; Nielsen, Søren; Prætorius, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    plexus. The anti-NH2-terminal antibody localized NBCn1 to the plasma membrane domains of endothelia and smooth muscle cells in small mesenteric and renal arteries, as well as the capillaries of the heart ventricles, spleen, and salivary glands. NBCn1 was also detected in neuromuscular junctions......The electroneutral sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 or NBC3 was originally cloned from rat aorta and from human skeletal muscle. NBCn1 (or NBC3) has been localized to the basolateral membrane of various epithelia, but thus far it has been impossible to detect the protein in these tissues...... and vasculature in skeletal muscle. Analysis of variable NBCn1 splicing by RT-PCR revealed that an NH2-terminal sequence, the cassette III, seems absent from cardiovascular NBCn1 and that both cassettes I and III are variable in most epithelia, whereas cassette II is absent from epithelial NBCn1. Thus...

  10. Influence of skeletal muscle mass on ventilatory and hemodynamic variables during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Ricardo Vivacqua Cardoso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of skeletal muscle mass on ventilatory and hemodynamic variables during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF. METHODS: Twenty-five male patients underwent maximum cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill with a ramp protocol and measurement of the skeletal muscle mass of their thighs by using magnetic resonance imaging. The clinically stable, noncachectic patients were assessed and compared with 14 healthy individuals (S paired by age and body mass index, who underwent the same examinations. RESULTS: Similar values of skeletal muscle mass were found in both groups (CHF group: 3863 ± 874 g; S group: 3743 ± 540 g; p = 0.32. Significant correlations of oxygen consumption in the anaerobic threshold (CHF: r = 0.39; P= 0.02 and S: r = 0.14; P = 0.31 and of oxygen pulse also in the anaerobic threshold (CHF: r = 0.49; P = 0.01 and S: r =0.12; P = 0.36 were found only in the group of patients with chronic heart failure. CONCLUSION: The results obtained indicate that skeletal muscle mass may influence the capacity of patients with CHF to withstand submaximal effort, due to limitations in their physical condition, even maintaining a value similar to that of healthy individuals. This suggests qualitative changes in the musculature.

  11. Kinetics of a single cross-bridge in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy heart muscle measured by reverse Kretschmann fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettikolla, Prasad; Calander, Nils; Luchowski, Rafal; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Borejdo, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is a serious heart disease that often leads to a sudden cardiac death of young athletes. It is believed that the alteration of the kinetics of interaction between actin and myosin causes FHC by making the heart to pump blood inefficiently. We set out to check this hypothesis ex vivo. During contraction of heart muscle, a myosin cross-bridge imparts periodic force impulses to actin. The impulses are analyzed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) of fluorescently labeled actin. To minimize observation volume and background fluorescence, we carry out FCS measurements in surface plasmon coupled emission mode in a reverse Kretschmann configuration. Fluorescence is a result of near-field coupling of fluorophores excited in the vicinity of the metal-coated surface of a coverslip with the surface plasmons propagating in the metal. Surface plasmons decouple on opposite sides of the metal film and emit in a directional manner as far-field p-polarized radiation. We show that the rate of changes of orientation is significantly faster in contracting cardiac myofibrils of transgenic mice than wild type. These results are consistent with the fact that mutated heart muscle myosin translates actin faster in in vitro motility assays.

  12. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Procedure Safety Results en español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would ... skin infections, such as staph diseases, such as cancer other medical problems that may affect the skin, ...

  13. Immunological Properties of Murine Parthenogenetic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Engineered Heart Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Didié

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent parthenogenetic stem cells (pSCs can be derived by pharmacological activation of unfertilized oocytes. Homozygosity of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC in pSCs makes them an attractive cell source for applications in allogeneic tissue repair. This was recently demonstrated for pSC-based tissue-engineered heart repair. A detailed analysis of immunological properties of pSC-derived cardiomyocytes and engineered heart muscle (EHM thereof is, however, lacking. The aim of this study was to determine baseline and cytokine-inducible MHC class I and MHC class II as well as programmed death ligand-1 (PDL-1 and co-stimulatory protein (CD40, CD80, CD86 expression in pSC-derived cardiomyocytes and pSC-EHM in vitro and in vivo. Cardiomyocytes from an MHC-homologous (H2d/d pSC-line were enriched to ~90% by making use of a recently developed cardiomyocyte-specific genetic selection protocol. MHC class I and MHC class II expression in cardiomyocytes could only be observed after stimulation with interferon gamma (IFN-γ. PDL-1 was markedly upregulated under IFN-γ. CD40, CD80, and CD86 were expressed at low levels and not upregulated by IFN-γ. EHM constructed from H2d/d cardiomyocytes expressed similarly low levels of MHC class I, MHC class II, and costimulatory molecules under basal conditions. However, in EHM only MHC class I, but not MHC class II, molecules were upregulated after IFN-γ-stimulation. We next employed a cocultivation system with MHC-matched and MHC-mismatched splenocytes and T-cells to analyze the immune stimulatory properties of EHMs. Despite MHC-mismatched conditions, EHM did not induce splenocyte or T-cell proliferation in vitro. To evaluate the immunogenicity of pSC-derived cardiomyocytes in vivo, we implanted pSC-derived embryoid bodies after elimination of non-cardiomyocytes (cardiac bodies under the kidney capsules of MHC-matched and -mismatched mice. Spontaneous beating of cardiac bodies could be observed for 28

  14. Immunological Properties of Murine Parthenogenetic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Engineered Heart Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didié, Michael; Galla, Satish; Muppala, Vijayakumar; Dressel, Ralf; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus

    2017-01-01

    Pluripotent parthenogenetic stem cells (pSCs) can be derived by pharmacological activation of unfertilized oocytes. Homozygosity of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in pSCs makes them an attractive cell source for applications in allogeneic tissue repair. This was recently demonstrated for pSC-based tissue-engineered heart repair. A detailed analysis of immunological properties of pSC-derived cardiomyocytes and engineered heart muscle (EHM) thereof is, however, lacking. The aim of this study was to determine baseline and cytokine-inducible MHC class I and MHC class II as well as programmed death ligand-1 (PDL-1) and co-stimulatory protein (CD40, CD80, CD86) expression in pSC-derived cardiomyocytes and pSC-EHM in vitro and in vivo. Cardiomyocytes from an MHC-homologous (H2d/d) pSC-line were enriched to ~90% by making use of a recently developed cardiomyocyte-specific genetic selection protocol. MHC class I and MHC class II expression in cardiomyocytes could only be observed after stimulation with interferon gamma (IFN-γ). PDL-1 was markedly upregulated under IFN-γ. CD40, CD80, and CD86 were expressed at low levels and not upregulated by IFN-γ. EHM constructed from H2d/d cardiomyocytes expressed similarly low levels of MHC class I, MHC class II, and costimulatory molecules under basal conditions. However, in EHM only MHC class I, but not MHC class II, molecules were upregulated after IFN-γ-stimulation. We next employed a cocultivation system with MHC-matched and MHC-mismatched splenocytes and T-cells to analyze the immune stimulatory properties of EHMs. Despite MHC-mismatched conditions, EHM did not induce splenocyte or T-cell proliferation in vitro. To evaluate the immunogenicity of pSC-derived cardiomyocytes in vivo, we implanted pSC-derived embryoid bodies after elimination of non-cardiomyocytes (cardiac bodies) under the kidney capsules of MHC-matched and -mismatched mice. Spontaneous beating of cardiac bodies could be observed for 28 days in the

  15. Hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Lee, Joshua F.; Berbert, Amanda; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Nativi-Nicolau, Jose; Stehlik, Josef; Richardson, Russell S.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the present study sought to evaluate the hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in this cohort. In 25 HFrEF patients (64 ± 2 yr) and 17 healthy, age-matched control subjects (64 ± 2 yr), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and limb blood flow were examined during graded static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee-extensor (KE) exercise. During HG exercise, MAP increased similarly between groups. CO increased significantly (+1.3 ± 0.3 l/min) in the control group, but it remained unchanged across workloads in HFrEF patients. At 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), forearm blood flow was similar between groups, while HFrEF patients exhibited an attenuated increase at the two highest intensities compared with controls, with the greatest difference at the highest workload (352 ± 22 vs. 492 ± 48 ml/min, HFrEF vs. control, 45% MVC). During KE exercise, MAP and CO increased similarly across work rates between groups. However, HFrEF patients exhibited a diminished leg hyperemic response across all work rates, with the most substantial decrement at the highest intensity (1,842 ± 64 vs. 2,675 ± 81 ml/min; HFrEF vs. control, 15 W). Together, these findings indicate a marked attenuation in exercising limb perfusion attributable to impairments in peripheral vasodilatory capacity during both arm and leg exercise in patients with HFrEF, which likely plays a role in limiting exercise capacity in this patient population. PMID:25260608

  16. A practical approach to assess leg muscle oxygenation during ramp-incremental cycle ergometry in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Barroco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is characterized by the inability of the cardiovascular system to maintain oxygen (O2 delivery (i.e., muscle blood flow in non-hypoxemic patients to meet O2 demands. The resulting increase in fractional O2 extraction can be non-invasively tracked by deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (deoxi-Hb as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. We aimed to establish a simplified approach to extract deoxi-Hb-based indices of impaired muscle O2 delivery during rapidly-incrementing exercise in heart failure. We continuously probed the right vastus lateralis muscle with continuous-wave NIRS during a ramp-incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test in 10 patients (left ventricular ejection fraction <35% and 10 age-matched healthy males. Deoxi-Hb is reported as % of total response (onset to peak exercise in relation to work rate. Patients showed lower maximum exercise capacity and O2 uptake-work rate than controls (P<0.05. The deoxi-Hb response profile as a function of work rate was S-shaped in all subjects, i.e., it presented three distinct phases. Increased muscle deoxygenation in patients compared to controls was demonstrated by: i a steeper mid-exercise deoxi-Hb-work rate slope (2.2±1.3 vs 1.0±0.3% peak/W, respectively; P<0.05, and ii late-exercise increase in deoxi-Hb, which contrasted with stable or decreasing deoxi-Hb in all controls. Steeper deoxi-Hb-work rate slope was associated with lower peak work rate in patients (r=–0.73; P=0.01. This simplified approach to deoxi-Hb interpretation might prove useful in clinical settings to quantify impairments in O2 delivery by NIRS during ramp-incremental exercise in individual heart failure patients.

  17. A practical approach to assess leg muscle oxygenation during ramp-incremental cycle ergometry in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroco, A C; Sperandio, P A; Reis, M; Almeida, D R; Neder, J A

    2017-10-02

    Heart failure is characterized by the inability of the cardiovascular system to maintain oxygen (O2) delivery (i.e., muscle blood flow in non-hypoxemic patients) to meet O2 demands. The resulting increase in fractional O2 extraction can be non-invasively tracked by deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (deoxi-Hb) as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We aimed to establish a simplified approach to extract deoxi-Hb-based indices of impaired muscle O2 delivery during rapidly-incrementing exercise in heart failure. We continuously probed the right vastus lateralis muscle with continuous-wave NIRS during a ramp-incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test in 10 patients (left ventricular ejection fraction <35%) and 10 age-matched healthy males. Deoxi-Hb is reported as % of total response (onset to peak exercise) in relation to work rate. Patients showed lower maximum exercise capacity and O2 uptake-work rate than controls (P<0.05). The deoxi-Hb response profile as a function of work rate was S-shaped in all subjects, i.e., it presented three distinct phases. Increased muscle deoxygenation in patients compared to controls was demonstrated by: i) a steeper mid-exercise deoxi-Hb-work rate slope (2.2±1.3 vs 1.0±0.3% peak/W, respectively; P<0.05), and ii) late-exercise increase in deoxi-Hb, which contrasted with stable or decreasing deoxi-Hb in all controls. Steeper deoxi-Hb-work rate slope was associated with lower peak work rate in patients (r=-0.73; P=0.01). This simplified approach to deoxi-Hb interpretation might prove useful in clinical settings to quantify impairments in O2 delivery by NIRS during ramp-incremental exercise in individual heart failure patients.

  18. Cloning and tissue distribution of rat hear fatty acid binding protein mRNA: identical forms in heart and skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claffey, K.P.; Herrera, V.L.; Brecher, P.; Ruiz-Opazo, N.

    1987-12-01

    A fatty acid binding protein (FABP) as been identified and characterized in rat heart, but the function and regulation of this protein are unclear. In this study the cDNA for rat heart FABP was cloned from a lambda gt11 library. Sequencing of the cDNA showed an open reading frame coding for a protein with 133 amino acids and a calculated size of 14,776 daltons. Several differences were found between the sequence determined from the cDNA and that reported previously by protein sequencing techniques. Northern blot analysis using rat heart FABP cDNA as a probe established the presence of an abundant mRNA in rat heart about 0.85 kilobases in length. This mRNA was detected, but was not abundant, in fetal heart tissue. Tissue distribution studies showed a similar mRNA species in red, but not white, skeletal muscle. In general, the mRNA tissue distribution was similar to that of the protein detected by Western immunoblot analysis, suggesting that heart FABP expression may be regulated at the transcriptional level. S1 nuclease mapping studies confirmed that the mRNA hybridized to rat heart FABP cDNA was identical in heart and red skeletal muscle throughout the entire open reading frame. The structural differences between heart FABP and other members of this multigene family may be related to the functional requirements of oxidative muscle for fatty acids as a fuel source.

  19. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI disease diagnosed on a British Columbia salmon farm through a longitudinal farm study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Di Cicco

    Full Text Available Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI is an emerging disease of marine-farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar, first recognized in 1999 in Norway, and later also reported in Scotland and Chile. We undertook a longitudinal study involving health evaluation over an entire marine production cycle on one salmon farm in British Columbia (Canada. In previous production cycles at this farm site and others in the vicinity, cardiac lesions not linked to a specific infectious agent or disease were identified. Histologic assessments of both live and moribund fish samples collected at the farm during the longitudinal study documented at the population level the development, peak, and recovery phases of HSMI. The fish underwent histopathological evaluation of all tissues, Twort's Gram staining, immunohistochemistry, and molecular quantification in heart tissue of 44 agents known or suspected to cause disease in salmon. Our analysis showed evidence of HSMI histopathological lesions over an 11-month timespan, with the prevalence of lesions peaking at 80-100% in sampled fish, despite mild clinical signs with no associated elevation in mortalities reported at the farm level. Diffuse mononuclear inflammation and myodegeneration, consistent with HSMI, was the predominant histologic observation in affected heart and skeletal muscle. Infective agent monitoring identified three agents at high prevalence in salmon heart tissue, including Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV, and parasites Paranucleospora theridion and Kudoa thyrsites. However, PRV alone was statistically correlated with the occurrence and severity of histopathological lesions in the heart. Immunohistochemical staining further localized PRV throughout HSMI development, with the virus found mainly within red blood cells in early cases, moving into the cardiomyocytes within or, more often, on the periphery of the inflammatory reaction during the peak disease, and reducing to low or undetectable levels later in

  20. Developmental Alterations in Heart Biomechanics and Skeletal Muscle Function in Desmin Mutants Suggest an Early Pathological Root for Desminopathies

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    Caroline Ramspacher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Desminopathies belong to a family of muscle disorders called myofibrillar myopathies that are caused by Desmin mutations and lead to protein aggregates in muscle fibers. To date, the initial pathological steps of desminopathies and the impact of desmin aggregates in the genesis of the disease are unclear. Using live, high-resolution microscopy, we show that Desmin loss of function and Desmin aggregates promote skeletal muscle defects and alter heart biomechanics. In addition, we show that the calcium dynamics associated with heart contraction are impaired and are associated with sarcoplasmic reticulum dilatation as well as abnormal subcellular distribution of Ryanodine receptors. Our results demonstrate that desminopathies are associated with perturbed excitation-contraction coupling machinery and that aggregates are more detrimental than Desmin loss of function. Additionally, we show that pharmacological inhibition of aggregate formation and Desmin knockdown revert these phenotypes. Our data suggest alternative therapeutic approaches and further our understanding of the molecular determinants modulating Desmin aggregate formation.

  1. Lymph node biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - lymph nodes; Open lymph node biopsy; Fine needle aspiration biopsy; Sentinel lymph node biopsy ... A lymph node biopsy is done in an operating room in a hospital. Or, it is done at an outpatient surgical center. The ...

  2. Alterations in mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum from heart and skeletal muscle of horizontally casted primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordahl, L. A.; Stone, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Horizontally body-casted rhesus monkeys are used as an animal model in order to study the physiological changes known as cardiovascular deconditioning which occur during weightless conditions. No difference was found between the experimental and control animals in heart mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation which indicates that no apparent changes occurred in the primary energy-producing system of the heart. A marked increase in cytochrome oxidase activity was observed in the casted primate heart mitochondria compared to controls, while a 25% decrease in respiratory substrate-supported calcium uptake was found in casted primate heart mitochondria compared to controls. Sacroplasmic reticulum isolated from the primate hearts revealed marked changes in calcium transport activities. It is concluded that the marked depression in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum functions indicates altered calcium homeostasis in the casted-primate heart which could be a factor in cardiovascular deconditioning.

  3. Chronic skeletal muscle ischemia preserves coronary flow in the ischemic rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavas, Varnavas C; Kontaras, Konstantinos; Glava, Chryssoula; Maniotis, Christos D; Koutouzis, Michael; Baltogiannis, Giannis G; Papalois, Apostolos; Kolettis, Theofilos M; Kyriakides, Zenon S

    2011-10-01

    Chronic skeletal muscle ischemia confers cytoprotection to the ventricular myocardium during infarction, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Although neovascularization in the left ventricular myocardium has been proposed as a possible mechanism, the functional capacity of such vessels has not been studied. We examined the effects of chronic limb ischemia on infarct size, coronary blood flow, and left ventricular function after ischemia-reperfusion. Hindlimb ischemia was induced in 65 Wistar rats by excision of the left femoral artery, whereas 65 rats were sham operated. After 4 wk, myocardial infarction was generated by permanent coronary artery ligation. Infarct size was measured 24 h postligation. Left ventricular function was evaluated in isolated hearts after ischemia-reperfusion, 4 wk after limb ischemia. Neovascularization was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and coronary flow was measured under maximum vasodilatation at different perfusion pressures before and after coronary ligation. Infarct size was smaller after limb ischemia compared with controls (24.4 ± 8.1% vs. 46.2 ± 9.5% of the ventricle and 47.6 ± 8.7% vs. 80.1 ± 9.3% of the ischemic area, respectively). Indexes of left ventricular function at the end of reperfusion (divided by baseline values) were improved after limb ischemia (developed pressure: 0.68 ± 0.06 vs. 0.59 ± 0.05, P = 0.008; maximum +dP/dt: 0.70 ± 0.08 vs. 0.59 ± 0.04, P = 0.004; and maximum -dP/dt: 0.86 ± 0.14 vs. 0.72 ± 0.10, P = 0.041). Coronary vessel density was markedly higher (P = 0.00021) in limb ischemic rats. In contrast to controls (F = 5.65, P = 0.00182), where coronary flow decreased, it remained unchanged (F = 1.36, P = 0.28) after ligation in limb ischemic rats. In conclusion, chronic hindlimb ischemia decreases infarct size and attenuates left ventricular dysfunction by increasing coronary collateral vessel density and blood flow.

  4. Comparison of blood pressure and heart rate responses to isometric exercise and passive muscle stretch in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, K; Selle, K; Leyk, D; Essfeld, D

    1995-01-01

    The responses of mean arterial blood pressure (BPa) and heart rate (fc) to isometric contraction and passive stretch were compared in seven healthy male subjects at identical external forces. They were investigated in the sitting position with the hip and knee joint flexed to 90 degrees. Each subject performed two tests, separated by a day, in which the stimuli were applied in random order. After 5 min of rest they performed either 10-min static plantar flexion of one calf (200 N) or 10 min of passive calf muscle stretch at the same load. After 5-min rest, the second stimulus was applied for a further 10 min followed by 5-min rest. The second test was identical except for the sequence of the stimuli. The BPa was measured by a noninvasive and continuous method. Contraction of the vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius lateralis, and soleus muscles were determined by the myo-electric activity (electromyogram, EMG) by means of surface electrodes. The EMG activity of the vastus lateralis muscle remained at resting values throughout the experiments. Increases in EMG activity could only be detected for the triceps surae muscles during isometric contraction. During the initial 2 min of stimulation the BPa and fc responses to active contraction and passive stretch were comparable. Thereafter, both parameters showed significantly higher values during contraction. It was concluded that mechanical stress may have contributed to the early response of BPa during both passive stretch and voluntary contraction but that chemical stimuli were needed to maintain the peripheral cardiovascular drive.

  5. Transformation of jaw muscle satellite cells to cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Randall S; Keirstead, Susan A; Slack, Jonathan M W

    In the embryo a population of progenitor cells known as the second heart field forms not just parts of the heart but also the jaw muscles of the head. Here we show that it is possible to take skeletal muscle satellite cells from jaw muscles of the adult mouse and to direct their differentiation to become heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). This is done by exposing the cells to extracellular factors similar to those which heart progenitors would experience during normal embryonic development. By contrast, cardiac differentiation does not occur at all from satellite cells isolated from trunk and limb muscles, which originate from the somites of the embryo. The cardiomyocytes arising from jaw muscle satellite cells express a range of specific marker proteins, beat spontaneously, display long action potentials with appropriate responses to nifedipine, norepinephrine and carbachol, and show synchronized calcium transients. Our results show the existence of a persistent cardiac developmental competence in satellite cells of the adult jaw muscles, associated with their origin from the second heart field of the embryo, and suggest a possible method of obtaining cardiomyocytes from individual patients without the need for a heart biopsy. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of long-acting testosterone treatment on functional exercise capacity, skeletal muscle performance, insulin resistance, and baroreflex sensitivity in elderly patients with chronic heart failure a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caminiti, Giuseppe; Volterrani, Maurizio; Iellamo, Ferdinando; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Massaro, Rosalba; Miceli, Marco; Mammi, Caterina; Piepoli, Massimo; Fini, Massimo; Rosano, Giuseppe M C

    2009-01-01

    ...) in elderly patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). CHF is characterized by a metabolic shift favoring catabolism and impairment in skeletal muscle bulk and function that could be involved in the pathophysiology of heart failure...

  7. Adult-onset Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke (MELAS)-like Encephalopathy Diagnosed Based on the Complete Sequencing of Mitochondrial DNA Extracted from Biopsied Muscle without any Myopathic Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Masako; Nagata, Eiichiro; Mizuma, Atsushi; Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Sugaya, Keizo; Nishino, Ichizo; Goto, Yu-Ichi; Takizawa, Shunya

    The clinical features of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) are not uniform. We herein report a male patient with unusual MELAS-like encephalopathy who had been experiencing isolated recurrent stroke-like episodes since he was 33 years old without any particular family history. Despite an extensive investigation, he had no other signs suggestive of MELAS. Although the muscle pathology showed a normal appearance, a mitochondrial genome sequence analysis of the biopsied muscle revealed a heteroplasmic m.10158T>C mutation in the mitochondrial complex I subunit gene, MT-ND3. To prevented further deterioration of the higher brain function, the early diagnosis and treatment of mitochondrial stroke-like episodes is important.

  8. Examination of mitral regurgitation with a goat heart model for the development of intelligent artificial papillary muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Y; Yambe, T; Yoshizawa, M; Hashimoto, H; Yamada, A; Miura, H; Hashem, M; Kitano, T; Shiga, T; Homma, D

    2012-01-01

    Annuloplasty for functional mitral or tricuspid regurgitation has been made for surgical restoration of valvular diseases. However, these major techniques may sometimes be ineffective because of chamber dilation and valve tethering. We have been developing a sophisticated intelligent artificial papillary muscle (PM) by using an anisotropic shape memory alloy fiber for an alternative surgical reconstruction of the continuity of the mitral structural apparatus and the left ventricular myocardium. This study exhibited the mitral regurgitation with regard to the reduction in the PM tension quantitatively with an originally developed ventricular simulator using isolated goat hearts for the sophisticated artificial PM. Aortic and mitral valves with left ventricular free wall portions of isolated goat hearts (n=9) were secured on the elastic plastic membrane and statically pressurized, which led to valvular leaflet-papillary muscle positional change and central mitral regurgitation. PMs were connected to the load cell, and the relationship between the tension of regurgitation and PM tension were measured. Then we connected the left ventricular specimen model to our hydraulic ventricular simulator and achieved hemodynamic simulation with the controlled tension of PMs.

  9. Cdc42 and formin activity control non-muscle myosin dynamics during Drosophila heart morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Georg; Liu, Jiandong; Iafe, Timothy W.; Migh, Ede; Mihály, József

    2014-01-01

    During heart formation, a network of transcription factors and signaling pathways guide cardiac cell fate and differentiation, but the genetic mechanisms orchestrating heart assembly and lumen formation remain unclear. Here, we show that the small GTPase Cdc42 is essential for Drosophila melanogaster heart morphogenesis and lumen formation. Cdc42 genetically interacts with the cardiogenic transcription factor tinman; with dDAAM which belongs to the family of actin organizing formins; and with zipper, which encodes nonmuscle myosin II. Zipper is required for heart lumen formation, and its spatiotemporal activity at the prospective luminal surface is controlled by Cdc42. Heart-specific expression of activated Cdc42, or the regulatory formins dDAAM and Diaphanous caused mislocalization of Zipper and induced ectopic heart lumina, as characterized by luminal markers such as the extracellular matrix protein Slit. Placement of Slit at the lumen surface depends on Cdc42 and formin function. Thus, Cdc42 and formins play pivotal roles in heart lumen formation through the spatiotemporal regulation of the actomyosin network. PMID:25267295

  10. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: A previous heart attack Open heart surgery Chest trauma A heart attack that has affected the thickness of your heart muscle Symptoms Symptoms include: Anxiety Chest pain from the swollen pericardium rubbing on the ...

  11. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  12. Getting a New Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a procedure that opens clogged arteries. Repair the heart valve . This procedure can often make your heart function ... heart muscle. Ventricular assist devices (VAD) . These are mechanical pumps that surgeons insert to help the heart ...

  13. Exercise training dose differentially alters muscle and heart capillary density and metabolic functions in an obese rat with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcus Vinicius; Vieira, Aline Bomfim; da Conceição, Fabiana Gomes; Nascimento, Alessandro Rodrigues; da Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; Tibirica, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    What is the central question of this study? Regular exercise is recommended as a non-pharmacological approach for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. However, the impact of different combinations of intensity, duration and frequency of exercise on metabolic syndrome and microvascular density has not been reported. What is the main finding and its importance? We provide evidence on the impact of aerobic exercise dose on metabolic and microvascular alterations in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome induced by high-fat diet. We found that the exercise frequency and duration were the main factors affecting anthropometric and metabolic parameters and microvascular density in the skeletal muscle. Exercise intensity was related only to microvascular density in the heart. We evaluated the effect of the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise training on metabolic parameters and structural capillary density in obese rats with metabolic syndrome. Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed either a standard commercial diet (CON) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals that received the HFD were randomly separated into either a sedentary (SED) group or eight different exercise groups that varied according to the frequency, duration and intensity of training. After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, the body composition, aerobic capacity, haemodynamic variables, metabolic parameters and capillary density in the heart and skeletal muscle were evaluated. All the exercise training groups showed reduced resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate and normalized fasting glucose. The minimal amount of exercise (90 min per week) produced little effect on metabolic syndrome parameters. A moderate amount of exercise (150 min per week) was required to reduce body weight and improve capillary density. However, only the high amount of exercise (300 min per week) significantly reduced the amount of body fat depots. The three-way ANOVA showed a main effect of exercise

  14. Changes in skeletal muscle biochemistry and histology relative to fiber type in rats with heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, M. D.; Duan, C.; Mattson, J. P.; Musch, T. I.

    1997-01-01

    One of the primary consequences of left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) after myocardial infarction is a decrement in exercise capacity. Several factors have been hypothesized to account for this decrement, including alterations in skeletal muscle metabolism and aerobic capacity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LVD-induced alterations in skeletal muscle enzyme activities, fiber composition, and fiber size are 1) generalized in muscles or specific to muscles composed primarily of a given fiber type and 2) related to the severity of the LVD. Female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated controls (n = 13) and rats with moderate (n = 10) and severe (n = 7) LVD. LVD was surgically induced by ligating the left main coronary artery and resulted in elevations (P myocardial infarction exhibit 1) decrements in mitochondrial enzyme activities independent of muscle fiber composition, 2) a reduction in PFK activity in type IIB muscle, 3) transformation of type IID/X to type IIB fibers, and 4) atrophy of type I, IIA, and IIB fibers.

  15. DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE OF HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS TO UPHILL AND DOWNHILL EXERCISE IN HEART, SKELETAL MUSCLE, LUNG AND KIDNEY TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo C. B. Lollo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Running on a horizontal plane is known to increase the concentration of the stress biomarker heat-shock protein (HSP, but no comparison of the expression of HSP70 has yet been established between the uphill (predominantly concentric and downhill (predominantly eccentric muscle contractions exercise. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between eccentric and concentric contractions on the HSP70 response of the lung, kidney, gastrocnemius, soleus and heart. Twenty-four male Wistar weanling rats were divided into four groups: non-exercised and three different grades of treadmill exercise groups: horizontal, uphill (+7% and downhill (-7% of inclination. At the optimal time-point of six hours after the exercise, serum uric acid, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined by standard methods and HSP70 by the Western blot analysis. HSP70 responds differently to different types of running. For kidney, heart, soleus and gastrocnemius, the HSP70 expression increased, 230, 180, 150 and 120% respectively of the reference (horizontal. When the contraction was concentric (uphill and compared to downhill the increase in response of HSP70 was greater in 80% for kidney, 75% for gastrocnemius, 60% for soleus and 280% for the heart. Uric acid was about 50% higher (0.64 ± 0.03 mg·dL-1 in the uphill group as compared to the horizontal or downhill groups. Similarly, the activities of serum CK and LDH were both 100% greater for both the uphill and downhill groups as compared to the horizontal group (2383 ± 253 and 647.00 ± 73 U/L, respectively. The responsiveness of HSP70 appeared to be quite different depending on the type of tissue, suggesting that the impact of exercise was not restricted to the muscles, but extended to the kidney tissue. The uphill exercise increases HSP70 beyond the eccentric type and the horizontal running was a lower HSP70 responsive stimulus

  16. [Influence of oxidative processes in mitochondria on contractility of the frog Rana temporaria heart muscle. Effects of cadmium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemarova, I V; Korotkov, S M; Nesterov, V P

    2011-01-01

    The inotropic Cd2+ action on frog heart is studied with taking into account its toxic effects upon mitochondria. Cd2+ at concentrations of 1, 10, and 20 microM is established to decrease dosedependently (21.3, 50.3, and 72.0%, respectively) the muscle contraction amplitude; this is explained by its competitive action on the potential-controlled Ca2(+)-channels of the L-type (Ca 1.2). In parallel experiments on isolated rat heart mitochondria (RHM) it was shown that Cd2+ at concentrations of 15 and 25 microM produces swelling of non-energized and energized mitochondria in isotonic (with KNO2 and NH4NO3) and hypoosmotic (with 25 mM CH3COOK) media. Study of oxidative processes in RHM by polarographic method has shown 20 microM Cd2+ to disturb activity of respiratory mitochondrial chain. The rate of endogenous respiration of isolated mitochondria in the medium with Cd2+ in the presence of malate and succinate was approximately 5 times lower than in control. In experimental preparations, addition into the medium of DNP-uncoupler of oxidation and phosphorylation did not cause an increase of the oxygen consumption rate. Thus, the obtained data indicate that a decrease in the cardiac muscle contractility caused by Cd2+ is due not only to its direct blocking action on Ca2(+)-channels, but also is mediated by toxic effect on rat heart mitochondria, which was manifested as an increase in ion permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM), acceleration of the energy-dependent K+ transport into the matrix of mitochondria, and inhibition of their respiratory chain.

  17. Divergent muscle sympathetic responses to dynamic leg exercise in heart failure and age-matched healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarius, Catherine F; Millar, Philip J; Murai, Hisayoshi; Morris, Beverley L; Marzolini, Susan; Oh, Paul; Floras, John S

    2015-02-01

    People with diminished ventricular contraction who develop heart failure have higher sympathetic nerve firing rates at rest compared with healthy individuals of a similar age and this is associated with less exercise capacity. During handgrip exercise, sympathetic nerve activity to muscle is higher in patients with heart failure but the response to leg exercise is unknown because its recording requires stillness. We measured sympathetic activity from one leg while the other leg cycled at a moderate level and observed a decrease in nerve firing rate in healthy subjects but an increase in subjects with heart failure. Because these nerves release noradrenaline, which can restrict muscle blood flow, this observation helps explain the limited exercise capacity of patients with heart failure. Lower nerve traffic during exercise was associated with greater peak oxygen uptake, suggesting that if exercise training attenuated sympathetic outflow functional capacity in heart failure would improve. The reflex fibular muscle sympathetic nerve (MSNA) response to dynamic handgrip exercise is elicited at a lower threshold in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The present aim was to test the hypothesis that the contralateral MSNA response to mild to moderate dynamic one-legged exercise is augmented in HFrEF relative to age- and sex-matched controls. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and MSNA were recorded in 16 patients with HFrEF (left ventricular ejection fraction = 31 ± 2%; age 62 ± 3 years, mean ± SE) and 13 healthy control subjects (56 ± 2 years) before and during 2 min of upright one-legged unloaded cycling followed by 2 min at 50% of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2,peak). Resting HR and blood pressure were similar between groups whereas MSNA burst frequency was higher (50.0 ± 2.0 vs. 42.3 ± 2.7 bursts min(-1), P = 0.03) and V̇O2,peak lower (18.0 ± 2.0 vs. 32.6 ± 2.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P Exercise increased HR (P group difference (P = 0.1). MSNA burst

  18. A comparative study of embedded and anesthetized zebrafish in vivo on myocardiac calcium oscillation and heart muscle contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eMuntean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish (Danio rerio has been used as a model for studying vertebrate development in the cardiovascular system. In order to monitor heart contraction and cytosolic calcium oscillations, fish were either embedded in methylcellulose or anesthetized with tricaine. Using high-resolution differential interference contrast (DIC and calcium imaging microscopy, we here show that dopamine and verapamil alter calcium signaling and muscle contraction in anesthetized zebrafish, but not in embedded zebrafish. In anesthetized fish, dopamine increases the amplitude of cytosolic calcium oscillation with a subsequent increase in heart contraction, whereas verapamil decreases the frequency of calcium oscillation and heart rate. Interestingly, verapamil also increases myocardial contraction. Our data further indicate that verapamil can increase myocardial calcium sensitivity in anesthetized fish. Taken together, our data reinforce in vivo cardiac responses to dopamine and verapamil. Furthermore, effects of dopamine and verapamil on myocardial calcium and contraction are greater in anesthetized than embedded fish. We suggest that while the zebrafish is an excellent model for a cardiovascular imaging study, the cardio-pharmacological profiles are very different between anesthetized and embedded fish.

  19. A Comparative Study of Embedded and Anesthetized Zebrafish in vivo on Myocardiac Calcium Oscillation and Heart Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Brian S; Horvat, Christine M; Behler, James H; Aboualaiwi, Wissam A; Nauli, Andromeda M; Williams, Frederick E; Nauli, Surya M

    2010-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been used as a model for studying vertebrate development in the cardiovascular system. In order to monitor heart contraction and cytosolic calcium oscillations, fish were either embedded in methylcellulose or anesthetized with tricaine. Using high-resolution differential interference contrast and calcium imaging microscopy, we here show that dopamine and verapamil alter calcium signaling and muscle contraction in anesthetized zebrafish, but not in embedded zebrafish. In anesthetized fish, dopamine increases the amplitude of cytosolic calcium oscillation with a subsequent increase in heart contraction, whereas verapamil decreases the frequency of calcium oscillation and heart rate. Interestingly, verapamil also increases myocardial contraction. Our data further indicate that verapamil can increase myocardial calcium sensitivity in anesthetized fish. Taken together, our data reinforce in vivo cardiac responses to dopamine and verapamil. Furthermore, effects of dopamine and verapamil on myocardial calcium and contraction are greater in anesthetized than embedded fish. We suggest that while the zebrafish is an excellent model for a cardiovascular imaging study, the cardio-pharmacological profiles are very different between anesthetized and embedded fish.

  20. Biopsy - biliary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytology analysis - biliary tract; Biliary tract biopsy ... A sample for a biliary tract biopsy can be obtained in different ways. A needle biopsy can be done if you have a well-defined tumor. The biopsy site ...

  1. Nasal mucosal biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - nasal mucosa; Nose biopsy ... to fast for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Nasal mucosal biopsy is most often done when abnormal tissue is seen during examination of the nose. It may also be ...

  2. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... used to guide the exact placement of the biopsy instrument. The health care provider applies a numbing ... is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ...

  3. Sleep-Disordered Breathing Exacerbates Muscle Vasoconstriction and Sympathetic Neural Activation in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Denise M L; Trevizan, Patricia F; Toschi-Dias, Edgar; Oliveira, Patricia A; Piveta, Rafael B; Almeida, Dirceu R; Mady, Charles; Bocchi, Edimar A; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Middlekauff, Holly R; Negrão, Carlos E

    2016-11-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in patients with heart failure (HF), and hypoxia and hypercapnia episodes activate chemoreceptors stimulating autonomic reflex responses. We tested the hypothesis that muscle vasoconstriction and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in response to hypoxia and hypercapnia would be more pronounced in patients with HF and SDB than in patients with HF without SDB (NoSBD). Ninety consecutive patients with HF, New York Heart Association functional class II-III, and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were screened for the study. Forty-one patients were enrolled: NoSDB (n=13, 46 [39-53] years) and SDB (n=28, 57 [54-61] years). SDB was characterized by apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events per hour (polysomnography). Peripheral (10% O2 and 90% N2, with CO2 titrated) and central (7% CO2 and 93% O2) chemoreceptors were stimulated for 3 minutes. Forearm and calf blood flow were evaluated by venous occlusion plethysmography, MSNA by microneurography, and blood pressure by beat-to-beat noninvasive technique. Baseline forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance were similar between groups. MSNA was higher in the SDB group. During hypoxia, the vascular responses (forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance) were significantly lower in the SDB group compared with the NoSDB group (P<0.01 to all comparisons). Similarly, during hypercapnia, the vascular responses (forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance) were significantly lower in the SDB group compared with the NoSDB group (P<0.001 to all comparisons). MSNA were higher in response to hypoxia (P=0.024) and tended to be higher to hypercapnia (P=0.066) in the SDB group. Patients with HF and SDB have more severe muscle vasoconstriction during hypoxia and hypercapnia than HF patients without SDB, which seems to be associated

  4. Endurance exercise differentially stimulates heart and axial muscle development in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der T.; Schipper, H.; Boogaart, van den J.G.M.; Huising, M.O.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical load is an important factor in the differentiation of cells and tissues. To investigate the effects of increased mechanical load on development of muscle and bone, zebrafish were subjected to endurance swim training for 6 h/day for 10 wk starting at 14 days after fertilization. During the

  5. Alpha-receptor blockade improves muscle perfusion and glucose uptake in heart failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, M.E.R.; Mulder, A.; Bellersen, L.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Smits, P.; Tack, C.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Alpha-adrenergic receptor-mediated vasoconstriction might underlie the insulin resistance seen in conditions associated with increased sympathetic tone, like chronic heart failure (CHF). Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade by phentolamine could improve forearm blood flow (FBF) and forearm

  6. Respiratory muscle training improves hemodynamics, autonomic function, baroreceptor sensitivity, and respiratory mechanics in rats with heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rodrigo B.; Hentschke, Vítor S.; Quagliotto, Edson; Cavinato, Paulo R.; Schmeing, Letiane A.; Xavier, Léder L.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory muscle training (RMT) improves functional capacity in chronic heart-failure (HF) patients, but the basis for this improvement remains unclear. We evaluate the effects of RMT on the hemodynamic and autonomic function, arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and respiratory mechanics in rats with HF. Rats were assigned to one of four groups: sedentary sham (n = 8), trained sham (n = 8), sedentary HF (n = 8), or trained HF (n = 8). Trained animals underwent a RMT protocol (30 min/day, 5 day/wk, 6 wk of breathing through a resistor), whereas sedentary animals did not. In HF rats, RMT had significant effects on several parameters. It reduced left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure (P respiratory system resistance was reduced (P respiratory system and tissue elastance (Est) were also reduced by RMT (P respiratory mechanics, all of which are benefits associated with improvements in cardiopulmonary interaction. PMID:21903877

  7. Bovine cytochrome c oxidases, purified from heart, skeletal muscle, liver and kidney, differ in the small subunits but show the same reaction kinetics with cytochrome c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinjorgo, K. M.; Durak, I.; Dekker, H. L.; Edel, C. M.; Hakvoort, T. B.; van Gelder, B. F.; Muijsers, A. O.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate of purified cytochrome c oxidase preparations revealed that bovine kidney, skeletal muscle and heart contain different cytochrome c oxidase isoenzymes, which show differences in mobility of the subunits encoded by the

  8. Myosin cross-bridges do not form precise rigor bonds in hypertrophic heart muscle carrying troponin T mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midde, K; Dumka, V; Pinto, J R; Muthu, P; Marandos, P; Gryczynski, I; Gryczynski, Z; Potter, J D; Borejdo, J

    2011-09-01

    Distribution of orientations of myosin was examined in ex-vivo myofibrils from hearts of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (FHC) troponin T (TnT) mutations I79N, F110I and R278C. Humans are heterozygous for sarcomeric FHC mutations and so hypertrophic myocardium contains a mixture of the wild-type (WT) and mutated (MUT) TnT. If mutations are expressed at a low level there may not be a significant change in the global properties of heart muscle. In contrast, measurements from a few molecules avoid averaging inherent in the global measurements. It is thus important to examine the properties of only a few molecules of muscle. To this end, the lever arm of one out of every 60,000 myosin molecules was labeled with a fluorescent dye and a small volume within the A-band (~1 fL) was observed by confocal microscopy. This volume contained on average 5 fluorescent myosin molecules. The lever arm assumes different orientations reflecting different stages of acto-myosin enzymatic cycle. We measured the distribution of these orientations by recording polarization of fluorescent light emitted by myosin-bound fluorophore during rigor and contraction. The distribution of orientations of rigor WT and MUT myofibrils was significantly different. There was a large difference in the width and of skewness and kurtosis of rigor distributions. These findings suggest that the hypertrophic phenotype associated with the TnT mutations can be characterized by a significant increase in disorder of rigor cross-bridges. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inotropic effects of ethanol and dihydropyridines on the guinea pig heart atrial muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvatici, R.P. (Univ. of La Frontera, Temuco (Chile)); Gallardo-Carpentier, A.; Carpentier, R.G. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC (USA)); Isaacson, R.L. (State Univ. of New York, Binghamton (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effects of ethanol and/or dihydropyridines (DHPs) on force of contraction of atrial muscle were studied. Guinea pig atrial strips superfused with Tyrode's solution were driven while recording muscle tension. Bay K 8644 (BAYK) increased, while nimodipine or ethanol reduced, the peak tension developed and the maximum velocity of development of tension. The effects of ethanol were readily reversible, but those of the DHPs were not. The combined actions of ethanol and DHPs were the result of the synergism or antagonism of the drugs tested. The shorter duration of the action of ethanol resulted in the effect of DHPs being still evident well after the exposure to the drugs ended. In summary, ethanol and nimodipine exerted depressant actions on atrial contractile force, while BAYK had opposite effects. The different mechanisms of action may explain the different duration of the effects of ethanol and DHPs.

  10. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent your first heart attack. Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes A heart-healthy lifestyle can help prevent ... to flow to the heart muscle. Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Treatment for a heart attack usually includes ...

  11. The use of latissimus dorsi muscle flap in reconstructive heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalinde, E; Sanz, J; Bazán, A; Ballesteros, A; Mesa, F; Elejabeitia, J; Paloma, V; Herreros, J

    1994-09-01

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty is a technique for ventricular assistance indicated for the correction of left ventricle aneurysm and for cardiomyopathies in which heart transplantation is contraindicated. In this article, our first four patients to undergo cardiomyoplasty (from February 1991 until April 1992) with a left latissimus dorsi island flap, rotated into the thorax after a 3-week training period, are reviewed. Therapeutic indications were cardiomyopathy with contraindication for heart transplant in patients 1 and 4 and associated to surgery for left ventricle aneurysm for patients 2 and 3. Patient 1 died 4 months after surgery because of a cerebral embolism when he was at functional class II. The other three patients remain at functional class I, carrying out normal activities. All the data were evaluated with the paired t test. Ejection fraction values (obtained through echocardiography and scintigraphy studies) and maximum minute flow rate of blood (measured with an echo-Doppler) have increased significantly (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, and p < 0.01, respectively) after heart surgery. Clinical improvement has been found after cardiomyoplasty, which correlates with an increase in ejection fraction and maximum minute flow rate of blood.

  12. Changes in FAT/CD36, UCP2, UCP3 and GLUT4 gene expression during lipid infusion in rat skeletal and heart muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettor, R; Fabris, R; Serra, R; Lombardi, A M; Tonello, C; Granzotto, M; Marzolo, M O; Carruba, M O; Ricquier, D; Federspil, G; Nisoli, E

    2002-06-01

    It has been reported that an increased availability of free fatty acids (NEFA) not only interferes with glucose utilization in insulin-dependent tissues, but may also result in an uncoupling effect of heart metabolism. We aimed therefore to investigate the effect of an increased availability of NEFA on gene expression of proteins involved in transmembrane fatty acid (FAT/CD36) and glucose (GLUT4) transport and of the uncoupling proteins UCP2 and 3 at the heart and skeletal muscle level. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was performed after 24 h Intralipid(R) plus heparin or saline infusion in lean Zucker rats. Skeletal and heart muscle glucose utilization was calculated by 2-deoxy-[1-(3)H]-D-glucose technique. Quantification of FAT/CD36, GLUT4, UCP2 and UCP3 mRNAs was obtained by Northern blot analysis or RT-PCR. In Intralipid(R) plus heparin infused animals a significant decrease in insulin-mediated glucose uptake was observed both in the heart (22.62+/-2.04 vs 10.37+/-2.33 ng/mg/min; Pmuscle (13.46+/-1.53 vs 6.84+/-2.58 ng/mg/min; Pmuscle tissue (+117.4+/-16.3%, Pmuscle (291.5+/-24.7 and 146.9+/-12.7%). As a result of the increased availability of NEFA, FAT/CD36 gene expression increases in skeletal muscle, but not at the heart level. The augmented lipid fuel supply is responsible for the depression of insulin-mediated glucose transport and for the increase of UCP2 and 3 gene expression in both skeletal and heart muscle.

  13. Severe polyneuropathy in Tangier disease mimicking syringomyelia or leprosy. Clinical, biochemical, electrophysiological, and morphological evaluation, including electron microscopy of nerve, muscle, and skin biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbels, E; Schaefer, H E; Runne, U; Schröder, J M; Haupt, W F; Assmann, G

    1985-01-01

    Polyneuropathy in Tangier disease can be divided into three clinical types. The most severe form (type III) with a syringomyelia-like syndrome has been described in three cases only. Here, a fourth case of this type is presented. Because of unusual trophic disturbances even leprosy was suspected. Electrodiagnostic findings, including evoked cerebral potentials in this case, were suggestive of a generalized neuropathy with some degree of primary or secondary demyelination and implied possible impairment of central structures. Sural nerve biopsy, including electron microscopy and quantitative analysis, revealed a predominant reduction of smaller myelinated and unmyelinated fibres. The main morphological feature was the abundance of abnormal non-membrane-bound vacuoles in Schwann cells, mostly of the unmyelinated type, and in some endoneurial fibroblasts, macrophages and perineurial cells. There was no inverse relationship between lipid vacuoles and axons in Schwann cell complexes as suspected by others. An excess of endoneurial collagen as well as an increased fascicular area were obvious. In five skin biopsy specimens of different regions typical vacuoles were noted in Schwann cells, histiocytes, nevus cells, and rarely in perineurial cells.

  14. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we...... analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were...... of four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. The titration of lactate and NAD(+) into the respiration medium stimulated respiration (P = 0.003). The addition...

  15. The relationship of heart rate and lactate to cumulative muscle fatigue during recreational alpine skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, John; Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich

    2009-05-01

    Common indices of fatigue may not respond similarly between downhill skiing and other activities because of the influence of factors such as snow conditions, changing terrain, and skiing style. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship and predictors of common fatigue indices during downhill skiing. Ten healthy female recreational skiers skied for 3 hours under standardized conditions. Feedback on heart rate (HR) and finishing time were given to each skier at the end of each run to maintain a relatively stable load. A chronic stress score (Cstress) was calculated from creatine kinase (CK), cortisol, and isometric endurance. Finishing times and HR from runs 2, 12, and 24 were similar. Heart rate averaged 82% of HRmax. Heart rate was an insignificant predictor (p = .65) and was poorly correlated (r = 0.16) to Cstress. Blood lactate (LA) was a significant predictor of the Cstress (p = 0.05; r = 0.62). Pre- to postskiing peak forces were not different (p = 0.62), but skiers experienced a significant decrease in isometric endurance from 106.1 +/- 29.6 to 93.2 +/- 24.0 seconds. Endurance decreased by 13%, whereas cortisol and CK increased by 16 and 42%, respectively. Isometric contraction endurance and blood LA were significant predictors of overall stress. Individual compensation mechanisms and skiing style contributed to highly variable responses during skiing. Whereas HR may indicate stress within a given run, it is not a significant indicator of Cstress and fatigue during recreational alpine skiing. However, the cumulative stress variables and LA can be used in field testing of skiers. It is suggested that LA is a practical on-hill marker of chronic stress.

  16. Native T1 Relaxation Time and Extracellular Volume Fraction as Accurate Markers of Diffuse Myocardial Fibrosis in Heart Valve Disease - Comparison With Targeted Left Ventricular Myocardial Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockova, Radka; Kacer, Petr; Pirk, Jan; Maly, Jiri; Sukupova, Lucie; Sikula, Viktor; Kotrc, Martin; Barciakova, Lucia; Honsova, Eva; Maly, Marek; Kautzner, Josef; Sedmera, David; Penicka, Martin

    2016-04-25

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between the cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived native T1 relaxation time and myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) fraction and the extent of diffuse myocardial fibrosis (DMF) on targeted myocardial left ventricular (LV) biopsy. The study population consisted of 40 patients (age 63±8 years, 65% male) undergoing valve and/or ascending aorta surgery for severe aortic stenosis (77.5%), root dilatation (7.5%) or valve regurgitation (15%). The T1 relaxation time was assessed in the basal interventricular septum pre- and 10-min post-contrast administration using the modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery sequence prior to surgery. LV myocardial biopsy specimen was obtained during surgery from the basal interventricular septal segment matched with the T1 mapping assessment. The percentage of myocardial collagen was quantified using picrosirius red staining. The average percentage of myocardial collagen was 22.0±14.8%. Both native T1 relaxation time with cutoff value ≥1,010 ms (sensitivity=90%, specificity=73%, area under the curve=0.82) and ECV with cutoff value ≥0.32 (sensitivity=80%, specificity=90%, area under the curve=0.85) showed high accuracy to identify severe (>30%) DMF. The native T1 relaxation time showed significant correlation with LV mass (Pmarkers of DMF. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1202-1209).

  17. Cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednieks, Maija I.; Popova, Irina A.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    The cellular compartmentalization of the cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart ventricular tissue obtained from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 is determined. Photoaffinity labeling of soluble and particular cell fractions with a (32P)-8-azido analog of cyclic AMP is followed by electrophoretic separation of the proteins and by autoradiographic identification of the labeled isoforms of cAPK R subunits. It is shown that RII in the particulate subcellular fraction was significantly decreased in heart cells from rats in the flight group when compared to controls. Protein banding patterns in both the cytoplasmic fraction and in a fraction enriched in chromatin-bound proteins exhibited some variability in tissues of individual animals, but showed no changes that could be directly attributed to flight conditions. No significant change was apparent in the distribution of RI or RII cyclic AMP binding in the soluble fractions. It is inferred that the cardiac cell integrity or its protein content is not compromised under flight conditions.

  18. Classes of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... second installment explains heart failure with muscle intact. Queen Latifah and her mom, Rita, share their personal ... a Heart Attack 10 Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate *Red Dress ™ DHHS, Go Red ™ AHA ; National Wear Red ...

  19. Types of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... second installment explains heart failure with muscle intact. Queen Latifah and her mom, Rita, share their personal ... a Heart Attack 10 Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate *Red Dress ™ DHHS, Go Red ™ AHA ; National Wear Red ...

  20. Training improves the oxidative phenotype of muscle during the transition from cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure without altering MyoD and myogenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes; Aguiar, Andreo Fernando; Campos, Dijon Henrique S; Castan, Eduardo Paulino; de Souza, Rodrigo Wagner Alves; de Almeida, Fernanda Losi Alves; Carani, Fernanda; Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Silva, Maeli Dal Pai

    2016-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? We investigated the effects of physical training on phenotypic (fibre-type content) and myogenic features (MyoD and myogenin expression) in skeletal muscle during the transition from cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure. What is the main finding and its importance? We provide new insight into skeletal muscle adaptations by showing that physical training increases the type I fibre content during the transition from cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure, without altering MyoD and myogenin expression. These results have important clinical implications for patients with heart failure, because this population has reduced muscle oxidative capacity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training (PT) on phenotypic features (fibre-type content) and myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD and myogenin) in rat skeletal muscle during the transition from cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure. We used the model of ascending aortic stenosis (AS) to induce heart failure in male Wistar rats. Sham-operated animals were used as age-matched controls. At 18 weeks after surgery, rats with ventricular dysfunction were randomized into the following four groups: sham-operated, untrained (Sham-U; n = 8); sham-operated, trained (Sham-T; n = 6); aortic stenosis, untrained (AS-U; n = 6); and aortic stenosis, trained (AS-T; n = 8). The AS-T and Sham-T groups were submitted to a 10 week aerobic PT programme, while the AS-U and Sham-U groups remained untrained for the same period of time. After the PT programme, the animals were killed and the soleus muscles collected for phenotypic and molecular analyses. Physical training promoted type IIa-to-I fibre conversion in the trained groups (Sham-T and AS-T) compared with the untrained groups (Sham-U and AS-U). No significant (P > 0.05) differences were found in type I or IIa fibre content in the AS-U group compared with the Sham-U group. Additionally, there were no

  1. Muscle strength in youth and cardiovascular risk in young adulthood (the European Youth Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    from the Danish European Youth Heart Study; a population-based prospective cohort study among boys and girls (n=332) followed for up to 12 years. In youth maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer...... strength in youth (0.17 N/kg) was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI; -0.60 kg/m(2), 95% CI -0.97 to -0.22), triglyceride (-0.09 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.02), diastolic blood pressure (BP) (-1.22 mm Hg, 95% CI -2.15 to -0.29) and a composite cardiovascular risk factor score (-0.61 SD, 95% CI...

  2. The effect of short-term isometric muscle contraction and the Valsalva maneuver on systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics in patients with severe heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, Miroslav; Frana, Petr; Kara, Tomas; Sitar, Jan; Halamek, Josef; Jurak, Pavel; Rihacek, Ivan; Spinarova, Lenka; Oral, Ivo

    2009-06-01

    Chronic heart failure is characterized by high mortality, frequent hospitalization, and reduced quality of life. Patients with severe heart failure are often in very poor physical condition, they are unable to take part in the usual exercise programs, and therefore need an individual approach. To assess the systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic responses to maximum voluntary contraction of the lower extremity muscles (MVC-LEM) with persistent physiologic breathing, the Valsalva maneuver, and the combination of Valsalva with MVC-LEM. Seventeen patients with severe heart failure (ejection fraction 20%) were exposed to 3 types of load for a period of 10 seconds: 1) MVC-LEM with persistent physiologic breathing, 2) the Valsalva maneuver, and 3) a combination of MVC-LEM with the Valsalva maneuver. During each measurement, a continuous, time-synchronized record was taken of the electrocardiogram, and the pulmonary and systemic blood pressures. There were slight changes in the heart rate and systemic blood pressure when comparing resting versus MVC-LEM values. There were much greater and significant changes (P maximum voluntary contraction of the muscles of the lower extremities with persistent physiologic breathing did not have an abnormal effect on the systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics in patients with severe chronic heart failure. The Valsalva maneuver caused significantly higher hemodynamic changes in the systemic and pulmonary system with possible negative effects. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Insight into hypertrophied hearts: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study of papillary muscle mass and T1 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozor, Rebecca; Nordin, Sabrina; Treibel, Thomas A; Rosmini, Stefania; Castelletti, Silvia; Fontana, Marianna; Captur, Gabriella; Baig, Shanat; Steeds, Richard P; Hughes, Derralynn; Manisty, Charlotte; Grieve, Stuart M; Figtree, Gemma A; Moon, James C

    2017-09-01

    Left ventricular papillary muscles (LVPM) can appear disproportionately hypertrophied, particularly in Fabry disease (FD) where storage appears detectable by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping. The aim of the study was to measure LVPM mass in heart diseases with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and to gain insight into the mechanisms of LVPM hypertrophy in FD. Four hundred and seventy-eight cases were retrospectively recruited: 125 FD, 85 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 67 amyloid, 82 aortic stenosis (AS), 40 hypertension, 79 controls. LVPM contribution to LVM was manually contoured on CMR short axis cines. T1 values (septal, LVPM) were measured using ShMOLLI sequences in FD and controls. LVPM contribution to LVM was highest in LVH+ve FD and significantly increased compared to all other LVH+ve groups (FD 13 ± 3%, HCM 10 ± 3%, amyloid 8 ± 2%, AS 7 ± 3%, hypertension 7 ± 2%, controls 7 ± 1%; P < 0.001). LVH+ve HCM also had significantly increased LVPM. In LVH-ve cohorts, only FD had significantly increased LVPM (11 ± 3%; P < 0.001). In FD there was concordant septal and LVPM T1. LVH+ve FD: when septal T1 was low, LVPM T1 was low in 90%. LVH-ve FD: when septal T1 was normal, LVPM T1 was normal in 70% (indicating no detectable storage); when septal T1 was low, 75% had low LVPM T1 (indicating storage). LVPM hypertrophy was similar between the low and normal septal T1 groups (11 ± 3% vs. 10 ± 3%, P = 0.08). Disproportionate hypertrophy of LVPMs in LVH+ve hearts occurred in FD and HCM. This phenomenon also occurred in LVH-ve FD. Low T1 was not always present in FD LVPM hypertrophy, implying additional mechanisms activating hypertrophy signalling pathways.

  4. Disruption of pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems with elevated expression of the ubiquitin proteosome system in the cachectic heart muscle of nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinch, E C A; Sullivan-Gunn, M J; Vaughan, V C; McGlynn, M A; Lewandowski, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    Current research into the mechanisms of organ atrophy associated with cancer cachexia have centred on the loss of skeletal muscle, as it is one of the most profound physical changes of the disease. However, many patients with cancer cachexia also experience significant atrophy of the heart. The mechanisms causing cardiac tissue wastage in cancer cachexia are largely unknown. However, it is believed to involve a number of molecular interactions between the tumour and host. Increased levels of oxidative stress have been found in cancer cachectic skeletal muscle and has been linked to the activation of the ubiquitin proteosome system (UPS). The aim of the current study was to examine the role of oxidative stress and the UPS in the hearts of mice with cancer cachexia. Oxidative damage to DNA (8-OH-2dG), mRNA levels of the ROS-producing enzymes NADPH oxidase (NOX), and xanthine oxidase (XDH), the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and key components of the UPS was measured in the heart of mice with cancer cachexia. Protein expression levels of NOX enzyme subunits and SOD enzyme activity was also measured in the same heart samples. 8-OH-2dG levels were 1.5-fold higher in the heart of mice with cancer cachexia, and this was associated with a 1.7-fold lower level of NOX2 mRNA and twofold higher XDH mRNA in the same hearts. Cancer cachexia was also associated with a 1.5-fold lower level of SOD activity in the heart. Accompanying these pro- and antioxidant differences was a significantly higher level of mRNA for the key UPS elements MURF-1 (4.3=fold) and MAFbx (3.8-fold) in the hearts of mice with cancer cachexia. The current study demonstrated that cardiac atrophy of cachectic mice is associated with oxidative damage to DNA in the myocardium. The higher levels of XDH mRNA in cachectic hearts suggest that xanthine oxidase may have an important role to play in producing oxidative stress. It appears that the combination of higher XDH expression and lower SOD enzyme

  5. Seasonal variations of cellular stress response in the heart and gastrocnemius muscle of the water frog (Pelophylax ridibundus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Anestis, Andreas; Vasara, Eleni; Kyriakopoulou-Sklavounou, Pasqualina; Michaelidis, Basile

    2012-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the seasonal cellular stress response in the heart and the gastrocnemius muscle of the amphibian Pelophylax ridibundus (former name Rana ridibunda) during an 8 month acclimatization period in the field. Processes studied included heat shock protein expression and protein kinase activation. The cellular stress response was addressed through the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 and the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinases and particularly p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK-1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3). Due to a general metabolic depression during winter hibernation, the induction of Hsp70 and Hsp90 and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, JNKs and ERKs are retained at low levels of expression in the examined tissues of P. ridibundus. Recovery from hibernation induces increased levels of the specific proteins, probably providing stamina to the animals during their arousal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Infection with purified Piscine orthoreovirus demonstrates a causal relationship with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation in Atlantic salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Wessel

    Full Text Available Viral diseases pose a significant threat to the productivity in aquaculture. Heart- and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI is an emerging disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar farming. HSMI is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV infection, but PRV is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon and thus present also in apparently healthy individuals. This has brought speculations if additional etiological factors are required, and experiments focusing on the causal relationship between PRV and HSMI are highly warranted. A major bottleneck in PRV research has been the lack of cell lines that allow propagation of the virus. To bypass this, we propagated PRV in salmon, bled the fish at the peak of the infection, and purified virus particles from blood cells. Electron microscopy, western blot and high-throughput sequencing all verified the purity of the viral particles. Purified PRV particles were inoculated into naïve Atlantic salmon. The purified virus replicated in inoculated fish, spread to naïve cohabitants, and induced histopathological changes consistent with HSMI. PRV specific staining was demonstrated in the pathological lesions. A dose-dependent response was observed; a high dose of virus gave earlier peak of the viral load and development of histopathological changes compared to a lower dose, but no difference in the severity of the disease. The experiment demonstrated that PRV can be purified from blood cells, and that PRV is the etiological agent of HSMI in Atlantic salmon.

  7. Upper and lower extremity muscle strength levels associated with an exercise capacity of 5 metabolic equivalents in male patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Oka, Koichiro; Hiraki, Koji; Morio, Yuji; Kasahara, Yusuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Katata, Hironobu; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto

    2012-01-01

    Exercise capacity of fewer than 5 metabolic equivalents (METs) has been associated with high risk of death and poor physical functioning in male patients with heart failure (HF). Therefore, we aimed to determine upper and lower extremity muscle strength levels required to attain an exercise capacity of 5 or more METs in male outpatients with HF. We enrolled 148 male HF patients (age 60.1 ± 1.0 years). Peak oxygen uptake (peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)o2) was assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). After CPX, we further divided the patients into groups according to exercise capacity: 5 or more METs (group A, n = 85) and fewer than 5 METs (group B, n = 63). Handgrip strength and knee extensor and flexor muscle strengths were assessed as indices of upper and lower extremity muscle strength, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to select cutoff values for upper and lower extremity muscle strength resulting in an exercise capacity of 5 or more METs in these patients. Exercise capacity of 5 or more METs in male HF patients was equivalent to approximately 35.2 kgf of handgrip strength and 1.70 Nm/kg of knee extensor and 0.90 Nm/kg of knee flexor muscle strengths. These upper and lower extremity muscle strength values may be useful target goals for improvement of exercise capacity, risk management, and activities of daily living in male HF patients.

  8. MicroRNA regulation in heart and skeletal muscle over the freeze-thaw cycle in the freeze tolerant wood frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Saumya; Luu, Bryan E; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-02-01

    The North American wood frog, Rana sylvatica, is one of just a few anuran species that tolerates whole body freezing during the winter and has been intensely studied to identify the biochemical adaptations that support freeze tolerance. Among these adaptations is the altered expression of many genes, making freeze-responsive changes to gene regulatory mechanisms a topic of interest. The present study focuses on the potential involvement of microRNAs as one such regulatory mechanism and aims to better understand freeze/thaw stress-induced microRNA responses in the freeze-tolerant wood frog. Using quantitative PCR, relative levels of 53 microRNAs were measured in heart and skeletal muscle of control, 24 h frozen, and 8 h thawed frogs. MicroRNAs showed tissue specific expression patterns: 21 microRNAs decreased in the heart during thawing, whereas 16 microRNAs increased during freezing stress in skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that select genes may be activated and suppressed in heart and skeletal muscle, respectively, in response to freezing. Bioinformatics analysis using the DIANA miRPath program (v.2.0) predicted that the differentially expressed microRNAs may collectively regulate tissue-specific cellular pathways to promote survival of wood frogs undergoing freezing and thawing.

  9. Biopsy with the new essen biopsy forceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traine, Peter G; Schedler, Katharina J E; Brusa, Mariuccia G S; Rodrigues, Eduardo B

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To present initial experience with a novel biopsy method, the Essen biopsy forceps. Therefore, two patients with diagnostic suspicion of uveal melanoma underwent biopsy for histopathological confirmation. Case Presentation. Two patients presented with painless unilateral vision reduction. Ultrasound revealed the diagnostic suspicion of uveal melanoma. Therefore, biopsy with the Essen biopsy forceps using a sutureless 23-gauge three-port vitrectomy system was performed. The specimens were then submitted to a pathologist and processed. Histopathology of the obtained specimen confirmed the diagnostic suspicion of choroid melanoma in both patients. Conclusion. Essen biopsy forceps is a very practicable alternative method to the FNAB, allowing a combined histopathological and immunohistochemical examination for achieving high diagnostic accuracy at minimal risk.

  10. Biopsy with the New Essen Biopsy Forceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Traine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present initial experience with a novel biopsy method, the Essen biopsy forceps. Therefore, two patients with diagnostic suspicion of uveal melanoma underwent biopsy for histopathological confirmation. Case Presentation. Two patients presented with painless unilateral vision reduction. Ultrasound revealed the diagnostic suspicion of uveal melanoma. Therefore, biopsy with the Essen biopsy forceps using a sutureless 23-gauge three-port vitrectomy system was performed. The specimens were then submitted to a pathologist and processed. Histopathology of the obtained specimen confirmed the diagnostic suspicion of choroid melanoma in both patients. Conclusion. Essen biopsy forceps is a very practicable alternative method to the FNAB, allowing a combined histopathological and immunohistochemical examination for achieving high diagnostic accuracy at minimal risk.

  11. Seasonal and flight-related variation of galectin expression in heart, liver and flight muscles of yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Stefanie S; Dick, Morag F; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Timoshenko, Alexander V

    2017-10-01

    Galectins, a family of multifunctional glycan-binding proteins, are proposed as biomarkers of cellular stress responses. Avian migration is an energetically challenging physical stress, which represents a physiological model of muscular endurance exercises. This study assesses change in galectin gene expression profiles associated with seasonal variation in migratory state and endurance flight in yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata). Bioinformatics analysis and real-time qPCR were used to analyse the expression of galectins in flight muscle, heart and liver tissues of 15 warblers separated into three groups of winter unflown, and fall migratory flown/unflown birds. Five transcripts similar to chicken and human galectins -1, -2, -3, -4, and -8 were identified in warbler tissues. The expression of these galectins showed no seasonal changes between two experimental groups of birds maintained under unflown winter and fall conditions indicating a minor role of galectins in preparation for migration. However, endurance flight led to a significant elevation of galectin-1 and galectin-3 mRNAs in flight muscles and galectin-3 mRNA in heart tissue while no changes were observed in liver. Different changes were observed for the level of O-GlcNAcylated proteins, which were elevated in flight muscles under winter conditions. These results suggest that secreted galectin-1 and galectin-3 may be active in repair of bird muscles during and following migratory flight and serve as molecular biomarkers of recent arrival from migratory flights in field studies.

  12. Types of Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects. Acquired heart block is more common than congenital heart block. Damage to the heart muscle or its electrical system causes acquired heart block. Diseases, surgery, or medicines can cause this damage. The three types of heart block are first degree, second degree, ...

  13. What Causes Heart Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects. Acquired heart block is more common than congenital heart block. Damage to the heart muscle or its electrical system causes acquired heart block. Diseases, surgery, or medicines can cause this damage. The three types of heart block are first degree, second degree, ...

  14. Living with Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects. Acquired heart block is more common than congenital heart block. Damage to the heart muscle or its electrical system causes acquired heart block. Diseases, surgery, or medicines can cause this damage. The three types of heart block are first degree, second degree, ...

  15. Application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the lower limb skeletal muscles in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Barbara Kucio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing physical activity is a widely-known method of rehabilitation of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, what kind of procedure is to be applied if a patient suffers from advanced heart or respiratory failure, cannot undertake physical exercise due to locomotor system disorders or is currently undergoing respiratorotherapy? Recent research shows that neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the lower limb skeletal muscles (NMES may comprise an alternative to physical training in patients with CHF and COPD. The aim of this study is to summarize the current state of knowledge on the use of NMES in cardiac rehabilitation of patients with CHF and pulmonary rehabilitation of patients with COPD. As demonstrated in recent research on the topic, NMES – due to forcing the muscles to activate – increases exercise tolerance, muscle mass and endurance in patients with CHF and COPD. The beneficial effect of NMES on blood circulation in the muscles, aerobic enzymes activity, functioning of the vascular endothelium, reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines concentration and increased quality of life has also been presented. It is to be accentuated that NMES treatment, due to lesser physical exertion and, in turn, a decreased feeling of dyspnea are more comfortable for the patient than traditional physical training. Moreover, NMES treatment, after foregoing training, can be applied at home. Potential side effects include transient muscle pain and minor skin damage due to improper positioning of the electrodes. To summarize, NMES treatment is well received by CHF and COPD patients and brings about increased exercise tolerance, as well as better quality of life. Devices used for NMES therapy, due to progressive miniaturization, are easily accessible and relatively inexpensive.

  16. Innovative gastric endoscopic muscle biopsy to identify all cell types, including myenteric neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal in patients with idiopathic gastroparesis: a feasibility study (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Elizabeth; Gostout, Christopher J; Wong Kee Song, Louis M; Szarka, Lawrence A; Kashyap, Purna C; Smyrk, Thomas C; Bingener, Juliane; Deters, Jodie L; Knipschield, Mary A; Bernard, Cheryl E; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2016-09-01

    The pathophysiology of some GI neuromuscular diseases remains largely unknown. This is in part due to the inability to obtain ample deep gastric wall biopsies that include the intermuscular layer of the muscularis propria (MP) to evaluate the enteric nervous system, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), and related cells. We report on a novel technique for gastric endoscopic muscle biopsy (gEMB). Patients with idiopathic gastroparesis were prospectively enrolled in a feasibility study by using a novel "no hole" gEMB. Main outcome measures were technical success, adverse events, and histologic confirmation of the intermuscular layer, including myenteric neurons and ICC. The gEMB was a double resection clip-assist technique. A site was identified on the anterior wall of the gastric body as recommended by the International Working Group on histologic techniques. EMR was performed to unroof and expose the underlying MP. The exposed MP was then retracted into the cap of an over-the-scope clip. The clip was deployed, and the pseudopolyp of MP created was resected. This resulted in a no-hole gEMB. Three patients with idiopathic gastroparesis underwent gEMB. Patients had severe delayed gastric emptying with a mean (± standard deviation [SD]) of 49 ± 16.8% of retained gastric contents at 4 hours. They had no history of gastric or small-bowel surgery and did not use steroids or other immunosuppressive drugs. The gEMB procedure was successfully performed, with no procedural adverse events. Postprocedural abdominal pain was controlled with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and opioid analgesics. Mean length of resected MP was 10.3 ± 1.5 mm. Mean procedure time was 25.7 ± 6 minutes. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of tissue samples confirmed the presence of both inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle, as well as the intermuscular layer. H&E staining showed reduced myenteric ganglia in 1 patient. In 2 patients, specialized immunohistochemistry was performed

  17. Impaired mitochondrial function in chronically ischemic human heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stride, Nis Ottesen; Larsen, Steen; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Chronic ischemic heart disease is associated with myocardial hypoperfusion. The resulting hypoxia potentially inflicts damage upon the mitochondria, leading to a compromised energetic state. Furthermore, ischemic damage may cause excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), producing.......05), and the levels of antioxidant protein expression was lower. Diminished mitochondrial respiration capacity and excessive ROS production demonstrate an impaired mitochondrial function in ischemic human heart muscle. No chronic ischemic preconditioning effect was found......., and finally to assess myocardial antioxidant levels. Mitochondrial respiration in biopsies from ischemic and nonischemic regions from the left ventricle of the same heart was compared in nine human subjects. Maximal oxidative phosphorylation capacity in fresh muscle fibers was lower in ischemic compared...

  18. Biopsy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Braces Eating Disorders Mitral Valve Prolapse Arrhythmias Biopsy KidsHealth > For Parents > Biopsy Print A A A What's in this article? ... Questions en español Biopsias What It Is A biopsy is a test that's performed to examine tissue ...

  19. Complications of prostate biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Zapała, Lukasz; Cordeiro, Ernesto; Antoniewicz, Artur; Dimitriadis, Georgios; de Reijke, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Biopsy of the prostate is a common procedure with minor complications that are usually self-limited. However, if one considers that millions of men undergo biopsy worldwide, one realizes that although complication rate is low, the number of patients suffering from biopsy complications should not be

  20. Standards for prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Taneja, Samir S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review A variety techniques have emerged for optimization of prostate biopsy. In this review, we summarize and critically discuss the most recent developments regarding the optimal systematic biopsy and sampling labeling along with multiparametric MRI and MR targeted biopsies. Recent findings The use of 10–12-core extended-sampling protocols increases cancer detection rates compared to traditional sextant sampling and reduces the likelihood that patients will require a repeat biopsy, ultimately allowing more accurate risk stratification without increasing the likelihood of detecting insignificant cancers. As the number of cores increases above 12 cores, the increase in diagnostic yield becomes marginal. However, limitations of this technique include undersampling, over-sampling, and the need for repetitive biopsy. MRI and MR-targeted biopsies have demonstrated superiority over systematic biopsies for the detection of clinically significant disease and representation of disease burden, while deploying fewer cores and may have applications in men undergoing initial or repeat biopsy and those with low risk cancer on or considering active surveillance. Summary A 12-core systematic biopsy that incorporates apical and far-lateral cores in the template distribution allows maximal cancer detection, avoidance of a repeat biopsy, while minimizing the detection of insignificant prostate cancers. MRI guided prostate biopsy has an evolving role in both initial and repeat prostate biopsy strategies, as well as active surveillance, potentially improving sampling efficiency, increasing detection of clinically significant cancers, and reducing detection of insignificant cancers. PMID:24451092

  1. An early post-traumatic reaction of lymph-heart striated muscle fibers in adult frog Rana temporaria during the first postoperative week: An electron microscopic and autoradiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylova, Marina I; Bogolyubov, Dmitry S

    2015-12-01

    According to the current opinion, lymph-heart striated muscle represents a specialized type of skeletal muscles in frogs. Here, we studied muscle fibers in mechanically damaged lymph hearts during the first postoperative week using electron-microscopic autoradiography. We present evidence that both, the satellite cells and pre-existing muscle fibers bordering the site of injury, contribute directly to the lymph-heart muscle regeneration. Several muscle fibers located in the vicinity of the damaged area displayed features of nuclear and sarcoplasmic activation. We also observed ultrastructural changes indicating activation of a few satellite cells, namely decondensation of chromatin, enlargement of nuclei and nucleoli, appearance of free ribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum tubules in the cytoplasm. Electron-microscopic autoradiography showed that 4 h after single (3)H-thymidine administration on the seventh day after injury not only the activated satellite cells, but also some nuclei of myofibers bordering the injured zone are labeled. We showed that both, the myonuclei of fibers displaying the signs of degenerative/reparative processes in the sarcoplasm and the myonuclei of the fibers enriched with highly organized myofibrils, can re-enter into the S-phase. Our results indicate that the nuclei of lymph-heart myofibers can reactivate DNA synthesis during regenerative myogenesis, unlike the situation in regenerating frog skeletal muscle where myogenic cells do not synthesize DNA at the onset of myofibrillogenesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Non-Targeted Metabolomics Analysis of the Effects of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Sunitinib and Erlotinib on Heart, Muscle, Liver and Serum Metabolism In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Jensen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 90 tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of malignant transformation and tumor angiogenesis. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs have emerged as effective therapies in treating cancer by exploiting this kinase dependency. The TKI erlotinib targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, whereas sunitinib targets primarily vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR.TKIs that impact the function of non-malignant cells and have on- and off-target toxicities, including cardiotoxicities. Cardiotoxicity is very rare in patients treated with erlotinib, but considerably more common after sunitinib treatment. We hypothesized that the deleterious effects of TKIs on the heart were related to their impact on cardiac metabolism. Methods: Female FVB/N mice (10/group were treated with therapeutic doses of sunitinib (40 mg/kg, erlotinib (50 mg/kg, or vehicle daily for two weeks. Echocardiographic assessment of the heart in vivo was performed at baseline and on Day 14. Heart, skeletal muscle, liver and serum were flash frozen and prepped for non-targeted GC-MS metabolomics analysis. Results: Compared to vehicle-treated controls, sunitinib-treated mice had significant decreases in systolic function, whereas erlotinib-treated mice did not. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of heart identified significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, arachidonic acid (AA/ eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, O-phosphocolamine, and 6-hydroxynicotinic acid after sunitinib treatment. DHA was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle (quadriceps femoris, while elevated cholesterol was identified in liver and elevated ethanolamine identified in serum. In contrast, erlotinib affected only one metabolite (spermidine significantly increased. Conclusions: Mice treated with sunitinib exhibited systolic dysfunction within two weeks, with significantly lower heart and skeletal muscle

  3. Non-Targeted Metabolomics Analysis of the Effects of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Sunitinib and Erlotinib on Heart, Muscle, Liver and Serum Metabolism In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Brian C; Parry, Traci L; Huang, Wei; Ilaiwy, Amro; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; O'Neal, Sara K; Patterson, Cam; Johnson, Gary L; Willis, Monte S

    2017-06-22

    Background: More than 90 tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of malignant transformation and tumor angiogenesis. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have emerged as effective therapies in treating cancer by exploiting this kinase dependency. The TKI erlotinib targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), whereas sunitinib targets primarily vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR).TKIs that impact the function of non-malignant cells and have on- and off-target toxicities, including cardiotoxicities. Cardiotoxicity is very rare in patients treated with erlotinib, but considerably more common after sunitinib treatment. We hypothesized that the deleterious effects of TKIs on the heart were related to their impact on cardiac metabolism. Methods: Female FVB/N mice (10/group) were treated with therapeutic doses of sunitinib (40 mg/kg), erlotinib (50 mg/kg), or vehicle daily for two weeks. Echocardiographic assessment of the heart in vivo was performed at baseline and on Day 14. Heart, skeletal muscle, liver and serum were flash frozen and prepped for non-targeted GC-MS metabolomics analysis. Results: Compared to vehicle-treated controls, sunitinib-treated mice had significant decreases in systolic function, whereas erlotinib-treated mice did not. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of heart identified significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA)/ eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), O-phosphocolamine, and 6-hydroxynicotinic acid after sunitinib treatment. DHA was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle (quadriceps femoris), while elevated cholesterol was identified in liver and elevated ethanolamine identified in serum. In contrast, erlotinib affected only one metabolite (spermidine significantly increased). Conclusions: Mice treated with sunitinib exhibited systolic dysfunction within two weeks, with significantly lower heart and skeletal muscle levels of

  4. Short Communication Evaluation of an underwater biopsy probe for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the use of a novel underwater biopsy probe designed to collect muscle and dermal tissue samples from large (170–220 cm total length), free-swimming bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas. The biopsy probe tissue retention rate was 87% after 23 trials, and the mean size of retained tissue was 310 mg (SD ...

  5. A comparison of the heart and muscle total lipid and fatty acid profiles of nine large shark species from the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Bruce; Sidell, Jonathan; Rhodes, Jeffrey; Cliff, Geremy

    2011-03-01

    We have assessed the fatty acid profiles of the hearts and different muscle tissues from nine large shark species (Carcharhinus limbatus (blacktip), Carcharhinus obscurus (dusky), Carcharhinus brevipinna (spinner), Carcharhinus leucas (Zambezi/bull), Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger), Sphyrna lewini (scalloped hammerhead), Sphyrna zygaena (smooth hammerhead), Carcharodon carcharias (great white) and Carcharias taurus (raggedtooth/grey nurse/sand tiger)) found off the east coast of South Africa. While there was generally little variation between the species, all species showed profiles rich in both n6 and n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to terrestrial commercial meats that have low n3. Thus, utilizing skeletal muscle tissues from sharks caught as part of the bycatch when fishing for teleosts would avoid unnecessary wastage of a potentially valuable resource, with all the possible health benefits of high quality protein combined with balanced polyunsaturates, although contamination with high levels of metabolic wastes, such as urea, may be a negative consideration.

  6. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  7. Needle Biopsy of the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Needle Biopsy of the Lung Needle biopsy of the lung ... Needle Biopsy of Lung Nodules? What is Needle Biopsy of the Lung? A lung nodule is relatively ...

  8. Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Stereotactic breast biopsy uses mammography – a specific type ... Breast Biopsy? What is Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the breast are often ...

  9. Diagnostic Biopsy of a Motor Branch of the Superficial Peroneal Nerve to the Peroneus Longus: A Convenient Alternative for Motor Nerve Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Randy S; Winfree, Christopher J

    2017-07-01

    Motor nerve biopsy is performed to supplement clinical, serologic, and imaging data in the workup of neuropathies of unknown origin, especially when motor neuron disease is suspected. We describe a surgical technique for biopsy of a motor branch of the superficial peroneal nerve innervating the peroneus longus muscle. Three patients presented with weakness concerning for motor neuropathy and underwent biopsy of a motor branch of the superficial peroneal nerve innervating the peroneus longus muscle. The surgical technique is described in detail. Biopsied tissue was sufficient for pathologic diagnosis. No patient suffered postsurgical sensory or motor deficits related to the procedure. No patient suffered postsurgical complications. Biopsy of the motor branch of the superficial peroneal nerve to the peroneus longus is a safe and effective alternative for motor nerve biopsy and can be easily combined with peroneus longus muscle biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High-intensity aerobic interval training can lead to improvement in skeletal muscle power among in-hospital patients with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Masanobu; Amiya, Eisuke; Hatano, Masaru; Maki, Hisataka; Nitta, Daisuke; Saito, Akihito; Tsuji, Masaki; Hosoya, Yumiko; Minatsuki, Shun; Nakayama, Astuko; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Konishi, Yuto; Yokota, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Masafumi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Haga, Nobuhiko; Komuro, Issei

    2018-01-15

    This study investigated the effectiveness and safety of interval training during in-hospital treatment of patients with advanced heart failure. Twenty-four consecutive patients with advanced symptomatic heart failure who were referred for cardiac transplant evaluation were recruited. After performing aerobic exercise for approximate intensity, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) was performed. The protocol consisted of 3 or 4 sessions of 1-min high-intensity exercise aimed at 80% of peak VO2 or 80% heart rate reserve, followed by 4-min recovery periods of low intensity. In addition to the necessary laboratory data, hand grip strength and knee extensor strength were evaluated at the start of exercise training and both at the start and the end of HIIT. Knee extensor strength was standardized by body weight. The BNP level at the start of exercise training was 432 (812) pg/mL and it significantly decreased to 254 (400) pg/mL (p training to the start of HIIT. In addition, the change in knee extensor strength during HIIT was significantly associated with the hemoglobin A1c level at the start of exercise (R = - 0.55; p = 0.015). HIIT has a positive impact on skeletal muscle strength among in-hospital patients with advanced heart failure.

  11. Sympathetic reflex control of skeletal muscle blood flow in patients with congestive heart failure: evidence for beta-adrenergic circulatory control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassis, E.; Jacobsen, T.N.; Mogensen, F.; Amtorp, O.

    1986-11-01

    Mechanisms controlling forearm muscle vascular resistance (FMVR) during postural changes were investigated in seven patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF) and in seven control subjects with unimpaired left ventricular function. Relative brachioradial muscle blood flow was determined by the local /sup 133/Xe-washout technique. Unloading of baroreceptors with use of 45 degree upright tilt was comparably obtained in the patients with CHF and control subjects. Control subjects had substantially increased FMVR and heart rate to maintain arterial pressure whereas patients with CHF had decreased FMVR by 51 +/- 11% and had no increase in heart rate despite a fall in arterial pressure during upright tilt. The autoregulatory and local vasoconstrictor reflex responsiveness during postural changes in forearm vascular pressures were intact in both groups. In the patients with CHF, the left axillary nerve plexus was blocked by local anesthesia. No alterations in forearm vascular pressures were observed. This blockade preserved the local regulation of FMVR but reversed the vasodilator response to upright tilt as FMVR increased by 30 +/- 7% (p less than .02). Blockade of central neural impulses to this limb combined with brachial arterial infusions of phentolamine completely abolished the humoral vasoconstriction in the tilted position. Infusions of propranolol to the contralateral brachial artery that did not affect baseline values of heart rate, arterial pressure, or the local reflex regulation of FMVR reversed the abnormal vasodilator response to upright tilt as FMVR increased by 42 +/- 12% (p less than .02). Despite augmented baseline values, forearm venous but not arterial plasma levels of epinephrine increased in the tilted position, as did arteri rather than venous plasma concentrations of norepinephrine in these patients.

  12. Developmental Alterations in Heart Biomechanics and Skeletal Muscle Function in Desmin Mutants Suggest an Early Pathological Root for Desminopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramspacher, Caroline; Steed, Emily; Boselli, Francesco; Ferreira, Rita; Faggianelli, Nathalie; Roth, Stéphane; Spiegelhalter, Coralie; Messaddeq, Nadia; Trinh, Le; Liebling, Michael; Chacko, Nikhil; Tessadori, Federico; Bakkers, Jeroen; Laporte, Jocelyn; Hnia, Karim; Vermot, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Desminopathies belong to a family of muscle disorders called myofibrillar myopathies that are caused by Desmin mutations and lead to protein aggregates in muscle fibers. To date, the initial pathological steps of desminopathies and the impact of desmin aggregates in the genesis of the disease are

  13. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... second installment explains heart failure with muscle intact. Queen Latifah and her mom, Rita, share their personal ... a Heart Attack 10 Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate *Red Dress ™ DHHS, Go Red ™ AHA ; National Wear Red ...

  14. Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good” cholesterol (HDL cholesterol). But for some people, alcohol can cause heart rhythm disturbances. Alcohol abuse is a major risk factor for High Blood Pressure , cardiomyopathy (weak heart muscle), heart failure and stroke . Tobacco Tobacco (cigarettes) ...

  15. Analysis of bone biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J A; Difiore, R J; Tippens, J K

    1983-11-01

    The orthopedic surgeon is frequently confronted with the decision of when to perform a bone biopsy and whether to do a needle biopsy or an open biopsy. Frequently consultations are received from other services requesting bone biopsies with questionable indications. The indications and contraindications for performing bone biopsies are discussed as well as advantages and disadvantages of either closed or open technique. Four selective cases are discussed with illustrations. The challenge of undiagnosed osseous lesions is best met by rational evaluation of each individual case and coordinated with the team effort of the primary care physician, surgeon, pathologist, and radiologist. The decision for either an open or closed biopsy technique must be based on the experience and skills of the surgeon and pathologist.

  16. Independent and combined association of muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in youth with insulin resistance and β-cell function in young adulthood: the European Youth Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf; Froberg, Karsten; Brage, Søren; Andersen, Lars B

    2013-09-01

    To examine the independent and combined association of isometric muscle strength of the abdomen and back and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth with indices of glucose metabolism in young adulthood among boys and girls from the European Youth Heart Study. We used data from a population-based prospective cohort study among youth followed up for up to 12 years (n = 317). In youth, maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer and CRF was obtained from a maximal cycle ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood. For each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed by -11.3% (95% CI -17.0 to -5.2), -12.2% (-18.2 to -5.7), and -8.9% (-14.4 to -3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal lifestyle and demographic factors. Results for CRF were very similar in magnitude, and the magnitude of associations for both exposures was unchanged with additional adjustment for general or abdominal adiposity in youth. Combined associations of muscle strength and CRF with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B were additive, and adolescents in the highest sex-specific tertile for both isometric muscle strength and CRF had the lowest levels of these glucose metabolism outcomes. Increasing muscle strength and CRF should be targets in youth primordial prevention strategies of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction.

  17. O papel da biopsia pulmonar na indicação cirúrgica de cardiopatias congénitas The role of lung biopsy in the decision-making process for congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Bordignon

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando relacionar o aspecto morfológico dos vasos pulmonares com os dados clínicos para auxiliar na decisão da cirurgia de cardiopatias congênitas com hipertensão pulmonar severa, em casos previamente avaliados por critérios clínicos, angiográficos e/ou hemodinâmicos, foram realizadas, de 1980 a 1991, no Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul, 49 biópsias pulmonares. As idades dos pacientes variaram de 5m a 28a6m (média = 7a7m e os diagnósticos foram: CIV (16, PCA (3, CIVe ESubAo (1, PCA e CIV (2, PCA e Cl A (1 DSAV (7, DSAV incompl. e PCA (1, PCA e CoAo (1, Inter Arco Ao com PCA e CIV e/ou ESupraM e Anel SubAo (2, DVSVD com CIV e/ou PCA (6, DVSVE e EP (1, ATe ESubP. (1, TGV (1, TGV corrigida e CIV (1 e truncus arteriosus (5. Houve 3 (6,1 % óbitos no pós-operatório da biopsia. Baseado na classificação de Heath-Edwards, foram para correção cirúrgica 11 pacientes com cardiopatias simples (CIV, PCA, DSAV, cuja mortalidade foi 36,4%. Dez pacientes com cardiopatias complexas (DVSVD, DVSVE, TGV, truncus, inter arco Ao foram para cirurgia, com mortalidade de 30%. A evolução pós-operatória tardia foi favorável em 13 (62% pacientes. Conclui-se que a biopsia pulmonar pode ser útil na indicação cirúrgica das cardiopatias congênitas com hipertensão pulmonar severa e, por envolver riscos, sua utilização deve ser criteriosa. E valiosa para os pacientes que apresentam dúvidas quanto ao grau de doença vascular pulmonar ou quanto à natureza das lesões e o estudo clínico e hemodinâmico não são esclarecedores, ou mesmo quando apontarem para a contra-indicação cirúrgica.Open lung biopsy has been performed in patients with congenital heart disease and severe pulmonary hypertension in order to complement the decision-making process for surgical correction. All patients had clinical, hemodynamic and angiographic evaluation previously and would not be surgical candidates by conventional criteria. The 49 patients

  18. Cultured human muscle cells and respiratory chain deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzberg, N. H.; Bolhuis, P. A.; van den Bogert, C.; Barth, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    Cultured muscle cells are useful in the study of respiratory chain disorders. Muscle tissue is affected in most cases and muscle biopsies are often taken for diagnostic purposes. Small samples of the biopsies can provide large numbers of muscle cells. In contrast with most other cell types, the

  19. Colposcopy - directed biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... squamous cells - colposcopy; Pap smear - colposcopy; HPV - colposcopy; Human papilloma virus - colposcopy; Cervix - colposcopy; Colposcopy Images Female reproductive anatomy Colposcopy-directed biopsy Uterus References American College of ...

  20. Development of heart muscle-cell diversity: a help or a hindrance for phenotyping embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnvandraat, Arnoud C.; Lekanne Deprez, Ronald H.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the advances in cardiovascular treatment, cardiac disease remains a major cause of morbidity in all industrialized countries. The extraordinary potential of (embryonic) stem cells for therapeutic purposes has revolutionized ideas about cardiac repair of diseased cardiac muscle to exciting

  1. Biopsy of the pigmented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, David; Mariwalla, Kavita

    2012-07-01

    Although new technologies are becoming available to aid in diagnosis, the skin biopsy continues to be the fundamental tool of the dermatologist to evaluate the nature of a pigmented lesion. There are 3 major techniques for the biopsy of a pigmented lesion: shave biopsy, punch/incisional biopsy, and excisional biopsy. This article discusses when to biopsy a pigmented lesion and reviews the different biopsy techniques, with reference to specific clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Adequate energy-protein intake is not enough to improve nutritional and metabolic status in muscle-depleted patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilani, Roberto; Opasich, Cristina; Gualco, Alessandra; Verri, Manuela; Testa, Amidio; Pasini, Evasio; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo; Pastoris, Ornella; Dossena, Maurizia; Boschi, Federica

    2008-11-01

    An adequate energy-protein intake (EPI) when combined with amino acid supplementation may have a positive impact on nutritional and metabolic status in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Thirty eight stable CHF patients (27 males, 73.5+/-4 years; BMI 22.5+/-1.4 kg/m2), with severe depletion of muscle mass and were randomised to oral supplements of essential amino acids 8 g/day (EAA group; n=21) or no supplements (controls; n=17). All patients had adequate EPI (energy> or =30 kcal/kg; proteins >1.1 g/kg). At baseline and 2-months after randomisation, the patients underwent metabolic (plasma lactate, pyruvate concentration; serum insulin level; estimate of insulin resistance by HOMA index), nutritional (measure of nitrogen balance), and functional (exercise test, walking test) evaluations. Body weight increased by >1 kg in 80% of supplemented patients (mean 2.96 kg) and in 30% of controls (mean 2.3 kg) (interaction <0.05). Changes in arm muscle area, nitrogen balance, and HOMA index were similar between the two treatment groups. Plasma lactate and pyruvate levels increased in controls (p<0.01 for both) but decreased in the supplemented group (p<0.01 and 0.02 respectively). EAA supplemented patients but not controls improved both exercise output and peak oxygen consumption and walking test. Adequate EPI when combined with essential amino acid supplementation may improve nutritional and metabolic status in most muscle-depleted CHF patients.

  3. Technicalities of endoscopic biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Ignacio, J. G.

    1995-01-01

    Despite the wealth of biopsy forceps currently available, it is obvious that there are sufficient drawbacks and shortcomings to reconsider the overall design of the endoscopic biopsy depth, the short lifespan of reusable forceps, damage to the working channel, excessive time consumption, cleaning

  4. Functional and molecular effects of arginine butyrate and prednisone on muscle and heart in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerron, Alfredo D; Rawat, Rashmi; Sali, Arpana; Spurney, Christopher F; Pistilli, Emidio; Cha, Hee-Jae; Pandey, Gouri S; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Francia, Dwight; Farajian, Viken; Escolar, Diana M; Bossi, Laura; Becker, Magali; Zerr, Patricia; de la Porte, Sabine; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Partridge, Terence; Hoffman, Eric P; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2010-06-21

    The number of promising therapeutic interventions for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is increasing rapidly. One of the proposed strategies is to use drugs that are known to act by multiple different mechanisms including inducing of homologous fetal form of adult genes, for example utrophin in place of dystrophin. In this study, we have treated mdx mice with arginine butyrate, prednisone, or a combination of arginine butyrate and prednisone for 6 months, beginning at 3 months of age, and have comprehensively evaluated the functional, biochemical, histological, and molecular effects of the treatments in this DMD model. Arginine butyrate treatment improved grip strength and decreased fibrosis in the gastrocnemius muscle, but did not produce significant improvement in muscle and cardiac histology, heart function, behavioral measurements, or serum creatine kinase levels. In contrast, 6 months of chronic continuous prednisone treatment resulted in deterioration in functional, histological, and biochemical measures. Arginine butyrate-treated mice gene expression profiling experiments revealed that several genes that control cell proliferation, growth and differentiation are differentially expressed consistent with its histone deacetylase inhibitory activity when compared to control (saline-treated) mdx mice. Prednisone and combination treated groups showed alterations in the expression of genes that control fibrosis, inflammation, myogenesis and atrophy. These data indicate that 6 months treatment with arginine butyrate can produce modest beneficial effects on dystrophic pathology in mdx mice by reducing fibrosis and promoting muscle function while chronic continuous treatment with prednisone showed deleterious effects to skeletal and cardiac muscle. Our results clearly indicate the usefulness of multiple assays systems to monitor both beneficial and toxic effects of drugs with broad range of in vivo activity.

  5. Functional and molecular effects of arginine butyrate and prednisone on muscle and heart in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo D Guerron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of promising therapeutic interventions for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is increasing rapidly. One of the proposed strategies is to use drugs that are known to act by multiple different mechanisms including inducing of homologous fetal form of adult genes, for example utrophin in place of dystrophin.In this study, we have treated mdx mice with arginine butyrate, prednisone, or a combination of arginine butyrate and prednisone for 6 months, beginning at 3 months of age, and have comprehensively evaluated the functional, biochemical, histological, and molecular effects of the treatments in this DMD model. Arginine butyrate treatment improved grip strength and decreased fibrosis in the gastrocnemius muscle, but did not produce significant improvement in muscle and cardiac histology, heart function, behavioral measurements, or serum creatine kinase levels. In contrast, 6 months of chronic continuous prednisone treatment resulted in deterioration in functional, histological, and biochemical measures. Arginine butyrate-treated mice gene expression profiling experiments revealed that several genes that control cell proliferation, growth and differentiation are differentially expressed consistent with its histone deacetylase inhibitory activity when compared to control (saline-treated mdx mice. Prednisone and combination treated groups showed alterations in the expression of genes that control fibrosis, inflammation, myogenesis and atrophy.These data indicate that 6 months treatment with arginine butyrate can produce modest beneficial effects on dystrophic pathology in mdx mice by reducing fibrosis and promoting muscle function while chronic continuous treatment with prednisone showed deleterious effects to skeletal and cardiac muscle. Our results clearly indicate the usefulness of multiple assays systems to monitor both beneficial and toxic effects of drugs with broad range of in vivo activity.

  6. Improved transvenous liver biopsy needle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Matzen, P; Christoffersen, P

    1979-01-01

    A modified type of the standard transvenous cholangiography biopsy needle is described. The modified tranvenous liver biopsy needle caused only minimal artefactual changes of the liver biopsy specimens. The new type of biopsy needle is a modified Menghini needle. The conventional Menghini needle...... should be avoided for transvenous catheter biopsies because of risk of leaving catheter fragments in the liver....

  7. Development of an Assay Based on the Effects of PGBx on the Isolated Perfused Rat Heart and Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    phosphorylation and enhance ATP synthesis in aged and/or damaqed mitochondria is unique (Polis et al, 1973; Devlin, �), and its lack of effect on the...rat heart, (’An. Pha’mac. 9,101-112. Aronson, C. E. and Serlick, E. R., (1977a) Effects of chlorpromazine on the isola- ted perfused rat heart, ’ Apl...euthyroid and hyperthyroid rats. Eur. J. Pharmac. 19, 12-17. Aronson, C. E. and Serlick, E. R. (1977a) Effects of chlorpromazine on the isolated

  8. How Is Heart Block Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects. Acquired heart block is more common than congenital heart block. Damage to the heart muscle or its electrical system causes acquired heart block. Diseases, surgery, or medicines can cause this damage. The three types of heart block are first degree, second degree, ...

  9. Label-Free LC-MS Profiling of Skeletal Muscle Reveals Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Candidate Biomarker of Aerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulezwan A. Malik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its inability to resolve all proteins. In contrast, orthogonal separation by SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC coupled to mass spectrometry (MS affords deep mining of the muscle proteome, but differential analysis between samples is challenging due to the greater level of fractionation and the complexities of quantifying proteins based on the abundances of their tryptic peptides. Here we report simple, semi-automated and time efficient (i.e., 3 h per sample proteome profiling of skeletal muscle by 1-dimensional RPLC electrospray ionisation tandem MS. Solei were analysed from rats (n = 5, in each group bred as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively that exhibited a 6.4-fold difference (1,625 ± 112 m vs. 252 ± 43 m, p < 0.0001 in running capacity during a standardized treadmill test. Soluble muscle proteins were extracted, digested with trypsin and individual biological replicates (50 ng of tryptic peptides subjected to LC-MS profiling. Proteins were identified by triplicate LC-MS/MS analysis of a pooled sample of each biological replicate. Differential expression profiling was performed on relative abundances (RA of parent ions, which spanned three orders of magnitude. In total, 207 proteins were analysed, which encompassed almost all enzymes of the major metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The most abundant protein detected was type I myosin heavy chain (RA = 5,843 ± 897 and the least abundant protein detected was heat shock 70 kDa protein (RA = 2 ± 0.5. Sixteen proteins were significantly (p < 0.05 more abundant in HCR muscle and hierarchal clustering of the profiling data highlighted two protein subgroups, which encompassed proteins associated with either the respiratory chain or fatty acid oxidation. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (FABPH was 1

  10. Diabetic Muscle Infarction Masquerading as Necrotizing Fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyana C. Janga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old male patient with past medical history of diabetes mellitus (DM, end stage renal disease (ESRD on hemodialysis (HD, congestive heart failure (CHF, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, and chronic anemia presented with complaints of left thigh pain. A computerized tomogram (CT of the thigh revealed evidence of edema with no evidence of a focal collection or gas formation noted. The patient’s clinical symptoms persisted and he underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of his thigh which was reported to show small areas of muscle necrosis with fluid collection. These findings in the acute setting concerned necrotizing fasciitis. After careful discussion following a multidisciplinary approach, a decision was made to perform a fasciotomy with tissue debridement. The patient was treated with IV antibiotics and discharged with a vacuum assisted wound drain. The surgical pathology revealed evidence of muscle edema with necrosis. Seven weeks later the patient presented with similar complaints on the other thigh (right thigh. MRI of the thighs revealed worsening edema with features suggestive of myositis and possible muscle infarction. A CT guided biopsy of the right quadriceps muscle revealed fibrotic interstitial connective tissue and no evidence of necrosis. This favored a diagnosis of diabetic muscle infarction. The disease was managed with pain control, strict diabetes management, and aggressive dialysis.

  11. Comparison of total lipids and fatty acids from liver, heart and abdominal muscle of scalloped (Sphyrna lewini) and smooth (Sphyrna zygaena) hammerhead sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Bruce Clement; Nel, Wynand; Rais, Afsha; Namdarizandi, Vahid; Vizarra, Scott; Cliff, Geremy

    2014-01-01

    Liver, heart and abdominal muscle samples from scalloped (Sphyrna lewini) and smooth (Sphyrna zygaena) hammerhead sharks were analysed to characterise their lipid and fatty acid profiles. Samples were compared both between and within species, but there were no significant differences in total lipids for either comparison, although much greater total amounts were found in the liver samples. Within the individual fatty acids, the only significant differences were greater amounts of 22:6n-3, total n-3 polyunsaturates and total polyunsaturates in smooth, when compared to scalloped, hammerhead liver. This may reflect the more wide spread distribution of this species into cooler waters. Within both species the liver levels of the same fatty acid fractions decreased from spring to summer, which may correlate with changes in fatty acid profile to adapt to any differences in amount or species of prey consumed, or other considerations, eg. buoyancy, however there was no data to clarify this.

  12. Corpus vitreum, retina og chorioidea biopsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherfig, Erik Christian Høegh

    2002-01-01

    oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma......oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma...

  13. Muscle Fibre Types, Ubiquinone Content and Exercise Capacity in Hypertension and Effort Angina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Jan; Diamant, Bertil; Folkers, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Farmakologi, hypertension, IHD, skeletal muscle fibre composition, muscle coenzyme Q10, ischaemic heart disease, effort angina, muscle fibre lesion, muscle ubiquinone......Farmakologi, hypertension, IHD, skeletal muscle fibre composition, muscle coenzyme Q10, ischaemic heart disease, effort angina, muscle fibre lesion, muscle ubiquinone...

  14. V̇o2 kinetics associated with moderate-intensity exercise in heart failure: impact of intrathecal fentanyl inhibition of group III/IV locomotor muscle afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iterson, Erik H; Johnson, Bruce D; Joyner, Michael J; Curry, Timothy B; Olson, Thomas P

    2017-07-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate impaired pulmonary, circulatory, and nervous system responses to exercise. While HF demonstrates prolonged [time constant (τ)] pulmonary O2 uptake (V̇o2) on-kinetics, contributing to exercise intolerance, it is unknown whether abnormal V̇o2 kinetics couple with ventilatory and circulatory dysfunction secondary to impaired group III/IV afferents in HF. Because lower lumbar intrathecal fentanyl inhibits locomotor muscle afferents, resulting in improved exercise ventilation and hemodynamics, we tested these hypotheses: HF will demonstrate 1) rapid V̇o2 on-kinetics and 2) attenuated steady-state V̇o2 amplitude and O2 deficit (O2def) during exercise with fentanyl versus placebo. On separate visits (randomized), breath-by-breath V̇o2 was measured in HF (ejection fraction: 27 ± 6%, New York Heart Association class I-III) and age- and sex-matched controls (both n = 9, ages: 60 ± 6 vs. 63 ± 8 yr, P = 0.37) during cycling transitions at 65% peak workload (78 ± 24 vs. 115 ± 39 W, P group or condition, optimal phase II (primary component) curve fits reflected a phase I period equal to 35 s (limb-to-lung timing) via single-exponential functions. Condition did not affect steady-state V̇o2, the phase II τ of V̇o2, or O2def within controls (P > 0.05). Without differences in steady-state V̇o2, reduced O2def in fentanyl versus placebo within HF (13 ± 4 vs. 22 ± 15 ml/W, P = 0.04) was accounted for by a rapid phase II τ of V̇o2 in fentanyl versus placebo within HF (45 ± 11 vs. 57 ± 14 s, P = 0.04), respectively. In an integrative manner, these data demonstrate important effects of abnormal locomotor muscle afferents coupled to pulmonary and circulatory dysfunction in determining impaired exercise V̇o2 in HF. Effects of abnormal muscle afferents on impaired exercise V̇o2 and hence exercise intolerance may not be discernable by independently assessing steady-state V̇o2 in HF.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Inhibition of locomotor muscle

  15. Effect of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on hepatic, heart and skeletal muscle mitochrondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase and. beta. -oxidation of fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, L.J.; Brady, P.S.; Gandour, R.D.

    1986-05-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) is an antileukemic agent and polyamine analog which inhibits S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase. However, MGBG also produces mitochondrial structural damage and inhibition of ..beta..-oxidation. The present experiments were designed to determine if MGBG acts via carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A (CPT-A) inhibition. Liver, heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria were isolated from rats following a 24 h fast. MGBG was competitive with 1-carnitine. The MGBG CPT-A Ki were (mM): liver, 5.0 +/- 0.6 (n = 15); heart, 3.2 +/- 1.2 (n = 3); skeletal muscle, 2.8 +/- 1.0 (n = 3). Lysis of hepatic mitochondria with Triton X-100 yielded a Ki of 4.0 +/- 2.0. Purified hepatic CPT was also sensitive to MGBG inhibition (Ki = 4.5 mM). Spermine and spermidine, which are structurally similar to MGBG, did not inhibit CPT or acid-soluble product formation from 1-(/sup 14/C)-palmitoyl-CoA. MGBG inhibited mitochondrial state 3 oxidation rates of palmitoyl-CoA and palmitoylcarnitine, as well as of glutamate. However, the fatty acid substrates were considerably more sensitive than glutamate to MGBG inhibition. MGBG also increased hepatic mitochondrial aggregation which was reversed by 1-carnitine. Fluorescence polarization, using diphenylhexatriene as a probe, indicated that MGBG increased membrane rigidity in a dose dependent manner. This effect was not reversed by 1-carnitine. The authors conclude that MGBG exhibits competitive competition with 1-carnitine for CPT. However, MGBG also exhibits a number of effects which may be mediated through membrane interaction and which are not necessarily reversed by carnitine.

  16. Pathology of skeletal muscle in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drewes, A M; Andreasen, A; Schrøder, H D

    1993-01-01

    The value of muscle biopsy in fibromyalgia is still questioned. In this study we obtained 50 quadriceps biopsies from 20 patients and compared them blindly to 10 biopsies from five normal controls. Using light microscopy, histochemical and immunoenzymatic methods we found no definite evidence...

  17. Liver biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liver biopsy is not a routine procedure, but is performed when it is necessary to determine the presence of liver disease and to look for malignancy, cysts, parasites, or other pathology. The actual procedure is only slightly uncomfortable. ...

  18. Carpal tunnel biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tunnel Images Carpal tunnel syndrome Surface anatomy - normal palm Surface anatomy - normal wrist Carpal biopsy References Calandruccio ... CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. ...

  19. Mediastinoscopy with biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This procedure is also done for certain infections (tuberculosis, sarcoidosis) and autoimmune disorders . ... Biopsies of lymph node tissues are normal and do not show signs of cancer or infection.

  20. Biopsy in Musculoskeletal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharehdaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of bone tumors is based on careful evaluation of clinical, imaging and a pathologic findings. So the biopsy of bone and soft tissue sarcomas is the final step in evaluation and a fundamental step in the diagnosis of the lesion. It should not be performed as a shortcut to diagnosis (1. The biopsy should be performed in order to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate among few diagnoses after careful staged studies. Real and artificial changes in imaging studies will be superimposed after performing biopsy, which may alter the interpretation if done after biopsy is taken (1. The correct management of a sarcoma depends on the accurate diagnosis. Inadequate, inapprppriate, or inaccurate non-representative biopsy leads to poorer outcome in terms of survivorship and limb salvage. An incorrect, unplanned incision and biopsy may unnecessarily contaminate uninvolved compartments which may convert a salvageable limb to amputation. Anatomic approach along with the proper biopsy techniques may lead to success or catastrophe. It is clear that in patients with inappropriate biopsy, the chance of the need to change the treatment to more radical than would originally be expected is significantly higher. Also it is more probable to need to  convert curative to palliative treatment and to require adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with inappropriate biopsies. Patients with sarcoma are best served by early referral to a specialized center where staged investigations and biopsy can be performed with minimal morbidity (3. Open biopsy is still considered the gold standard; however, recent studies suggest comparable results with percutaneous core needle biopsy. Our study on 103 consecutive CNB and open biopsy showed comparable results as well. Surgeons need to answer to two questions prior to performing a biopsy: 1-          Where is the best part of the lesion to be biopsied? 2-          What is the safest route without contaminating

  1. The acute effects of a single session of expiratory muscle strength training on blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena eLaciuga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Expiratory Muscle Strength Training (EMST is a rehabilitative program that has been tested for outcomes related to respiratory muscle strength, cough, swallow and voice function in healthy young adult, elderly individuals, and in patients with progressive neurodegenerative disease. Because EMST has been used in patient care, the associated cardiovascular responses during EMST are of importance. This study investigated the changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, heart rate (HR, and oxygen saturation (SpO2 during one session of EMST in healthy, young adults as a preliminary study of device safety. Thirty-one participants completed a single session of 25 trials with the EMST device. Valsalva maneuvers were performed at the beginning and at the end of the EMST trials for task comparison. The SBP, DBP, HR, and SpO2 were recorded at the baseline prior to the EMST task and Valsalva, after 12 trials using the EMST device, and after five minutes of rest following the EMST session. A mixed linear model tested for changes across the six time points. The results indicated no significant change of SBP, DBP, HR, or SpO2 during or following the EMST trials or after performing the Valsalva maneuver. The results suggest that EMST does not elicit significant fluctuations of BP, HR, and SpO2 in healthy young adults even when considering the effects of covariates on the outcomes measures.

  2. Noradrenaline-induced increases in calcium and tension in skeletal muscle conductance and resistance arteries from rats with post-infarction heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trautner, Simon; Amtorp, Ole; Boesgaard, Soren

    2006-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that arterial reactivity to noradrenaline is augmented in congestive heart failure (CHF), which could contribute to the deleterious changes in peripheral vascular resistance and compliance in this condition. From male Wistar rats with post-infarction CHF and sham-operated......We tested the hypothesis that arterial reactivity to noradrenaline is augmented in congestive heart failure (CHF), which could contribute to the deleterious changes in peripheral vascular resistance and compliance in this condition. From male Wistar rats with post-infarction CHF and sham......-operated rats, skeletal muscle conductance and resistance arteries (mean lumen diameters: 514 and 186 microm) were isolated and mounted on wire myographs, and wall tension was recorded in response to cumulative application of acetylcholine and noradrenaline to the vessel segments. In a subset of experiments....... In the resistance arteries of CHF rats, the noradrenaline-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) were significantly enhanced (P=0.003). Despite the augmented [Ca(2+)](i) levels, the tension responses to noradrenaline were unaltered in these arteries. In the conductance arteries, there were no significant differences...

  3. Direct renin inhibitor ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin signaling and oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle from post-infarct heart failure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Arata; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsumoto, Junichi; Furihata, Takaaki; Mizushima, Wataru; Tsuda, Masaya; Yokota, Takashi; Matsushima, Shouji; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-15

    Insulin resistance can occur as a consequence of heart failure (HF). Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may play a crucial role in this phenomenon. We thus investigated the effect of a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, on insulin resistance in HF after myocardial infarction (MI). MI and sham operation were performed in male C57BL/6J mice. The mice were divided into 4 groups and treated with sham-operation (Sham, n=10), sham-operation and aliskiren (Sham+Aliskiren; 10mg/kg/day, n=10), MI (n=11), or MI and aliskiren (MI+Aliskiren, n=11). After 4 weeks, MI mice showed left ventricular dilation and dysfunction, which were not affected by aliskiren. The percent decrease of blood glucose after insulin load was significantly smaller in MI than in Sham (14±5% vs. 36±2%), and was ameliorated in MI+Aliskiren (34±5%) mice. Insulin-stimulated serine-phosphorylation of Akt and glucose transporter 4 translocation were decreased in the skeletal muscle of MI compared to Sham by 57% and 69%, and both changes were ameliorated in the MI+Aliskiren group (91% and 94%). Aliskiren administration in MI mice significantly inhibited plasma renin activity and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels. Moreover, (pro)renin receptor expression and local Ang II production were upregulated in skeletal muscle from MI and were attenuated in MI+Aliskiren mice, in tandem with a decrease in superoxide production and NAD(P)H oxidase activities. In conclusion, aliskiren ameliorated insulin resistance in HF by improving insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle, at least partly by inhibiting systemic and (pro)renin receptor-mediated local RAS activation, and subsequent NAD(P)H oxidase-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gold nanoparticles administration induces disarray of heart muscle, hemorrhagic, chronic inflammatory cells infiltrated by small lymphocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolization and congested and dilated blood vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite significant research efforts on cancer therapy, diagnostics and imaging, many challenges remain unsolved. There are many unknown details regarding the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs and biological systems. The structure and properties of gold nanoparticles (GNPs make them useful for a wide array of biological applications. However, for the application of GNPs in therapy and drug delivery, knowledge regarding their bioaccumulation and associated local or systemic toxicity is necessary. Information on the biological fate of NPs, including distribution, accumulation, metabolism, and organ specific toxicity is still minimal. Studies specifically dealing with the toxicity of NPs are rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal administration of GNPs on histological alterations of the heart tissue of rats in an attempt to identify and understand the toxicity and the potential role of GNPs as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool. Methods A total of 40 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats received 50 μl infusions of 10, 20 and 50 nm GNPs for 3 or 7 days. Animals were randomly divided into groups: 6 GNP-treated rats groups and one control group (NG. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received infusions of 50 μl GNPs of size 10 nm (3 or 7 days, 20 nm (3 or 7 days and 50 nm (3 or 7 days, respectively. Results In comparison with the respective control rats, exposure to GNPs doses produced heart muscle disarray with a few scattered chronic inflammatory cells infiltrated by small lymphocytes, foci of hemorrhage with extravasation of red blood cells, some scattered cytoplasmic vacuolization and congested and dilated blood vessels. None of the above alterations were observed in the heart muscle of any member of the control group. Conclusions The alterations induced by intraperitoneal administration of GNPs were size-dependent, with smaller ones inducing greater affects, and were also related to the time exposure to

  5. Intrathecal fentanyl blockade of afferent neural feedback from skeletal muscle during exercise in heart failure patients: Influence on circulatory power and pulmonary vascular capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iterson, Erik H; Snyder, Eric M; Joyner, Michael J; Johnson, Bruce D; Olson, Thomas P

    2015-12-15

    Secondary pulmonary hypertension is common in heart failure (HF) patients. We hypothesized that inhibition of feedback from locomotor muscle group III/IV neurons contributes to reduced pulmonary vascular pressures independent of changes in cardiac function during exercise in HF. 9 HF patients (ages, 60 ± 2; EF, 26.7 ± 1.9%; New York Heart Association classes, I-III) and 9 age/gender matched controls (ages, 63 ± 2) completed five-minutes of constant-load cycling (65% Workloadpeak) with intrathecal fentanyl or placebo on randomized separate days. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2), and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured at rest and exercise. Non-invasive surrogates for cardiac power (circulatory power, CircP=VO2 × MAP), stroke volume (oxygen pulse, O2pulse=VO2/HR), and pulmonary arterial pressure (GXCAP=O2pulse × PETCO2) were calculated. At rest and end-exercise, differences between fentanyl versus placebo were not significant for CircP in HF or controls. Differences between fentanyl versus placebo for GXCAP were not significant at rest in HF or controls. At end-exercise, GXCAP was significantly higher with fentanyl versus placebo in HF (691 ± 59 versus 549 ± 38 mL/beat × mmHg), but not controls (536 ± 59 versus 474 ± 43 mL/beat × mmHg). Slopes (rest to end-exercise) for GXCAP were significantly higher with fentanyl versus placebo in HF (95.1 ± 9.8 versus 71.6 ± 6.0 mL/beat × mmHg), but not controls (74.3 ± 9.5 versus 60.8 ± 6.5 mL/beat × mmHg). CircP slopes did not differ between fentanyl versus placebo in HF or controls (p>0.05). We conclude that feedback from locomotor muscle group III/IV neurons may evoke increases in pulmonary vascular pressures independent of changes in cardiac function during exercise in HF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pre-Biopsy Psychological Factors Predict Patient Biopsy Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. J.; Schnur, J. B.; Margolies, L.; Bolno, J.; Szabo, J.; Hermann, G.; Montgomery, G. H.; Sohl, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Excisional/surgical breast biopsy has been related to anticipatory emotional distress, and anticipatory distress has been associated with worse biopsy-related outcomes (e.g., pain, physical discomfort). The present study was designed to investigate: a) whether anticipatory distress before an image-guided breast biopsy would correlate with biopsy-related outcomes (pain and physical discomfort during the biopsy); and b) whether type of distress (i.e., general anxiety, worry about the procedure, worry about biopsy results) would differentially relate to biopsy-related outcomes. Methods 50 image-guided breast biopsy patients (mean age = 44.4 years) were administered questionnaires pre- and post-biopsy. Pre-biopsy, patients completed the Profile of Mood States-Tension/Anxiety subscale and two Visual Analog Scale items (worry about the biopsy procedure, worry about the biopsy results). Post-biopsy, patients completed two Visual Analog Scale items (pain and physical discomfort at their worst during the procedure). Results 1) Pre-biopsy worry about the procedure was significantly related to both pain (r=0.38, p=0.006) and physical discomfort (r=0.31, p=0.026); 2) Pre-biopsy general anxiety was significantly related to pain (r=0.36, p=0.009), but not to physical discomfort; and 3) Pre-biopsy worry about the biopsy results did not significantly relate to pain or physical discomfort. Conclusions Worry about the procedure was the only variable found to be significantly correlated with both biopsy-related outcomes (pain and physical discomfort). From a clinical perspective, this item could be used as a brief screening tool to identify patients who might be at risk for poorer biopsy experiences, and who might benefit from brief interventions to reduce pre-biopsy worry. PMID:23065421

  7. Measurement of the energy-generating capacity of human muscle mitochondria: diagnostic procedure and application to human pathology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.M.; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Wintjes, L.T.; Ruitenbeek, W.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Morava, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders usually requires a muscle biopsy to examine mitochondrial function. We describe our diagnostic procedure and results for 29 patients with mitochondrial disorders. METHODS: Muscle biopsies were from 43 healthy individuals and 29 patients with defects

  8. No need for biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Skindersoe, Mette E; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare three sampling techniques used in routine diagnostics to identify the microbiota in chronic venous leg ulcers. A total of 46 patients with persisting venous leg ulcers were included in the study. At inclusion, swab, biopsy and filter paper pad samples were...... collected. After 4 weeks, additional biopsy and filter paper pad samples were collected. Bacteria were isolated and identified at species level by standard methods. The most common bacterial species detected was Staphylococcus aureus found in 89% of the ulcers. No methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates...

  9. PERCUTANEOUS PLEURAL BIOPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahadori

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available I have carried out 22 biopsies in 20 Patients, in fifteen I used a Vim _ Silverman Needle, and in the remainder a curetting type Needle, In 12 cases (60% the diagnosis that was made; in 3 cases, inadequate tissue, was obtained; in two cases a fibromuscular tissue, in one case a fatty tissue and in one case the specimen was of hepatic tissue. Even with the small biopsy specimen obtained with the Needle it is easy to recognize malignant tissue if present.

  10. Color optical biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanlou, Ardieshir; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Snashall, Emma; Osanlou, Orod; Osanlou, Rostam

    2014-02-01

    Progress has been made towards the development of a flexible true color holographic imaging device for direct optical biopsy. This can potentially be used for surgical techniques employing direct visualization, including endoscopy and laparoscopy. A novel panchromatic `ultrahigh precision' recording media, with a thin layer of ultrafine grain of silver halide crystals of 10-20 nm average diameter, has been utilized. The significance of the development so far, has been the ability to emulate `color optical biopsy' providing useful information of `medical relevance'.

  11. Sarcocystis arieticanis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the heart muscles of the domestic sheep, Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), from K. S. A. on the basis of light and electron microscopic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Quraishy, Saleh; Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Ghaffar, Fathy Abdel; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the heteroxenous life cycle of Sarcocystis species from three strains of the slaughtered sheep at Al-Azizia and Al-Saada abattoirs in Riyadh city, K.S.A., was studied. Muscle samples of the oesophagus, diaphragm, tongue, skeletal and heart muscles were examined. Varied natural infection rates in the muscles of the examined sheep strains were recorded as 83% in Niemy, 81.5% in Najdy and 90% in Sawakny sheep. Muscles of the diaphragm showed the highest infection level above all organs except Najdy sheep in which oesophagus has the highest rate. Also, the heart was the lowest infected organ (40% Niemy, 44% Najdy and 53% Sawakny). Microscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis arieticanis are easily identified in sections through the heart muscles of the domestic sheep Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Cysts measured 38.5-64.4 μm (averaged 42.66 μm) in width and 62.4-173.6 μm (averaged 82.14 μm) in length. The validity of this species was confirmed by means of ultrastructural characteristics of the primary cyst wall (0.1-0.27 μm thick) which revealed the presence of irregularly shaped crowded and hairy-like projections underlined by a thin layer of ground substance. This layer consisted mainly of fine, dense homogenous granules enclosing the developing metrocytes and merozoites that usually contain nearly all the structures of the apical complex and fill the interior cavity of the cyst. Several septa derived from the ground substance divided the cyst into compartments. The merozoites were banana-shaped and measured 12-16 μm in length with centrally or posteriorly located nuclei. Experimental infection of carnivores by feeding heavily infected sheep muscles revealed that the dog, Canis familiaris, is the only final host of the present Sarcocystis species. Gamogony, sporogonic stages and characteristics of sporulated oocysts were also investigated.

  12. Nuclear receptor/microRNA circuitry links muscle fiber type to energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhenji; Rumsey, John; Hazen, Bethany C; Lai, Ling; Leone, Teresa C; Vega, Rick B; Xie, Hui; Conley, Kevin E; Auwerx, Johan; Smith, Steven R; Olson, Eric N; Kralli, Anastasia; Kelly, Daniel P

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural programs controlling muscle fitness and endurance are unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ was shown to activate muscle endurance programs in transgenic mice. In contrast, muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of the related nuclear receptor, PPARα, results in reduced capacity for endurance exercise. We took advantage of the divergent actions of PPARβ/δ and PPARα to explore the downstream regulatory circuitry that orchestrates the programs linking muscle fiber type with energy metabolism. Our results indicate that, in addition to the well-established role in transcriptional control of muscle metabolic genes, PPARβ/δ and PPARα participate in programs that exert opposing actions upon the type I fiber program through a distinct muscle microRNA (miRNA) network, dependent on the actions of another nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ). Gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies in mice, together with assessment of muscle biopsies from humans, demonstrated that type I muscle fiber proportion is increased via the stimulatory actions of ERRγ on the expression of miR-499 and miR-208b. This nuclear receptor/miRNA regulatory circuit shows promise for the identification of therapeutic targets aimed at maintaining muscle fitness in a variety of chronic disease states, such as obesity, skeletal myopathies, and heart failure.

  13. [Parameters of cardiac muscle repolarization on the electrocardiogram when changing anatomical and electric position of the heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaĭkovskiĭ, I A; Baum, O V; Popov, L A; Voloshin, V I; Budnik, N N; Frolov, Iu A; Kovalenko, A S

    2014-01-01

    While discussing the diagnostic value of the single channel electrocardiogram a set of theoretical considerations emerges inevitably, one of the most important among them is the question about dependence of the electrocardiogram parameters from the direction of electrical axis of heart. In other words, changes in what of electrocardiogram parameters are in fact liable to reflect pathological processes in myocardium, and what ones are determined by extracardiac factors, primarily by anatomic characteristics of patients. It is arguable that while analyzing electrocardiogram it is necessary to orient to such physiologically based informative indexes as ST segment displacement. Also, symmetry of the T wave shape is an important parameter which is independent of patients anatomic features. The results obtained are of interest for theoretical and applied aspects of the biophysics of the cardiac electric field.

  14. Expression of the irisin precursor FNDC5 in skeletal muscle correlates with aerobic exercise performance in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Stewart H; Zavin, Alexandra; Cao, Peirang; Arena, Ross; Allsup, Kelly; Daniels, Karla M; Joseph, Jacob; Schulze, P Christian; Forman, Daniel E

    2012-11-01

    Exercise-induced increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression has been shown to increase the expression of the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) gene and thereby its product, irisin, in mice. Given that exercise intolerance is a hallmark characteristic of heart failure (HF), and because PGC-1α and irisin promote exercise benefits in animals, we hypothesized that expression of these genes relates to aerobic performance in patients with HF. Systolic HF (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%) patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing to evaluate aerobic performance. High versus low aerobic performance was assessed using oxygen consumption (peak Vo(2) [>14 versus ≤14 mL O(2)·kg(-1)·min(-1)]) and ventilatory efficiency (VE/Vco(2) slope [aerobic performance in HF patients.

  15. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of muscles of ambulation in patients with chronic heart failure or COPD: a systematic review of the English-language literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillen, Maurice J H; Speksnijder, Caroline M; Eterman, Rose-Miek A; Janssen, Paul P; Wagers, Scott S; Wouters, Emiel F M; Uszko-Lencer, Nicole H M K; Spruit, Martijn A

    2009-07-01

    Despite optimal drug treatment, many patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) or COPD still experience disabling dyspnea, fatigue, and exercise intolerance. They also exhibit significant changes in body composition. Attempts to rehabilitate these patients are often futile because conventional exercise-training modalities are limited by the severity of exertional dyspnea. Therefore, there is substantial interest in new training modalities that do not evoke dyspnea, such as transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). In this article, we systematically review the literature that addresses the effects of NMES applied to the muscles of ambulation. We focused on the effects of NMES on strength, exercise capacity, and disease-specific health status in patients with CHF or COPD. We also address the methodological quality of the reported studies as well as the safety of NMES. Manuscripts published prior to December 2007 were identified by searching the Medline/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, CINAHL, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) databases. Fourteen trials were identified (nine trials that examined NMES in CHF patients, and five in COPD patients). PEDro scores for methodological quality of the trials were generally moderate to good. Many of the studies reported significant improvements in muscle strength, exercise capacity, and/or health status. Nonetheless, the limited number of studies, the disparity in patient populations, and the variability in NMES methodology prohibit the use of metaanalysis. Yet, from the viewpoint of a systematic review, NMES looks promising as a means of rehabilitating patients with CHF and COPD. There is at least sufficient evidence to warrant more large prospective, randomized, controlled trials.

  16. Smooth Muscle Cells Derived From Second Heart Field and Cardiac Neural Crest Reside in Spatially Distinct Domains in the Media of the Ascending Aorta-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hisashi; Rateri, Debra L; Moorleghen, Jessica J; Majesky, Mark W; Daugherty, Alan

    2017-09-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the proximal thoracic aorta are embryonically derived from the second heart field (SHF) and cardiac neural crest (CNC). However, distributions of these embryonic origins are not fully defined. The regional distribution of SMCs of different origins is speculated to cause region-specific aortopathies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of SMCs of SHF and CNC origins in the proximal thoracic aorta. Mice with repressed LacZ in the ROSA26 locus were bred to those expressing Cre controlled by either the Wnt1 or Mef2c (myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2c) promoter to trace CNC- and SHF-derived SMCs, respectively. Thoracic aortas were harvested, and activity of β-galactosidase was determined. Aortas from Wnt1- Cre mice had β-galactosidase-positive areas throughout the region from the proximal ascending aorta to just distal of the subclavian arterial branch. Unexpectedly, β-galactosidase-positive areas in Mef2c- Cre mice extended from the aortic root throughout the ascending aorta. This distribution occurred independent of sex and aging. Cross and sagittal aortic sections demonstrated that CNC-derived cells populated the inner medial aspect of the anterior region of the ascending aorta and transmurally in the media of the posterior region. Interestingly, outer medial cells throughout anterior and posterior ascending aortas were derived from the SHF. β-Galactosidase-positive medial cells of both origins colocalized with an SMC marker, α-actin. Both CNC- and SHF-derived SMCs populate the media throughout the ascending aorta. The outer medial cells of the ascending aorta form a sleeve populated by SHF-derived SMCs. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Cardiac Electrophysiological Alterations in Heart/Muscle-Specific Manganese-Superoxide Dismutase-Deficient Mice: Prevention by a Dietary Antioxidant Polyphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Sunagawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac electrophysiological alterations induced by chronic exposure to reactive oxygen species and protective effects of dietary antioxidant have not been thoroughly examined. We recorded surface electrocardiograms (ECG and evaluated cellular electrophysiological abnormalities in enzymatically-dissociated left ventricular (LV myocytes in heart/muscle-specific manganese-superoxide dismutase-deficient (H/M-Sod2−/− mice, which exhibit dilated cardiomyopathy due to increased oxidative stress. We also investigated the influences of intake of apple polyphenols (AP containing mainly procyanidins with potent antioxidant activity. The QRS and QT intervals of ECG recorded in H/M-Sod2−/− mice were prolonged. The effective refractory period in the LV myocardium of H/M-Sod2−/− mice was prolonged, and susceptibility to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation induced by rapid ventricular pacing was increased. Action potential duration in H/M-Sod2−/− LV myocytes was prolonged, and automaticity was enhanced. The density of the inwardly rectifier K+ current (IK1 was decreased in the LV cells of H/M-Sod2−/− mice. The AP intake partially improved these electrophysiological alterations and extended the lifespan in H/M-Sod2−/− mice. Thus, chronic exposure of the heart to oxidative stress produces a variety of electrophysiological abnormalities, increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias, and action potential changes associated with the reduced density of IK1. Dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients may prevent oxidative stress-induced electrophysiological disturbances.

  18. Breast biopsy - stereotactic

    Science.gov (United States)

    The provider will ask about your medical history. A breast exam may be done. If you take medicines (including aspirin, supplements, or herbs), ask your doctor whether you need to stop taking these before the biopsy. Tell your doctor if you may be ...

  19. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species

    KAUST Repository

    O'Bryhim, Jason R.

    2017-01-31

    Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups. Total Hg concentrations were highest in the eight muscle regions with no significant differences in THg concentrations between the different muscle regions and muscle types (red and white). Results from tissue collected from any muscle region would be representative of all muscle sample locations. Total Hg concentrations were lowest in samples taken from the fin inner core of the first dorsal, pectoral, and caudal (lower lobe) fins. Mercury concentrations for samples taken from the trailing margin of the dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fins (upper and lower lobe) were also not significantly different from each other for both species. Significant relationships were found between THg concentrations in dorsal axial muscle tissue and the fin inner core, liver, kidney, spleen and heart for both species as well as the THg concentrations between the dorsal fin trailing margin and the heart for the silky shark and all other sampled tissue types for the bonnethead shark. Our results suggest that biopsy sampling of dorsal muscle can provide data that can effectively estimate THg concentrations in specific organs without using more invasive, or lethal methods.

  20. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryhim, Jason R; Adams, Douglas H; Spaet, Julia L Y; Mills, Gary; Lance, Stacey L

    2017-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups. Total Hg concentrations were highest in the eight muscle regions with no significant differences in THg concentrations between the different muscle regions and muscle types (red and white). Results from tissue collected from any muscle region would be representative of all muscle sample locations. Total Hg concentrations were lowest in samples taken from the fin inner core of the first dorsal, pectoral, and caudal (lower lobe) fins. Mercury concentrations for samples taken from the trailing margin of the dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fins (upper and lower lobe) were also not significantly different from each other for both species. Significant relationships were found between THg concentrations in dorsal axial muscle tissue and the fin inner core, liver, kidney, spleen and heart for both species as well as the THg concentrations between the dorsal fin trailing margin and the heart for the silky shark and all other sampled tissue types for the bonnethead shark. Our results suggest that biopsy sampling of dorsal muscle can provide data that can effectively estimate THg concentrations in specific organs without using more invasive, or lethal methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Formation of highly organized intracellular structure and energy metabolism in cardiac muscle cells during postnatal development of rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anmann, Tiia; Varikmaa, Minna; Timohhina, Natalja; Tepp, Kersti; Shevchuk, Igor; Chekulayev, Vladimir; Saks, Valdur; Kaambre, Tuuli

    2014-08-01

    Adult cardiomyocytes have highly organized intracellular structure and energy metabolism whose formation during postnatal development is still largely unclear. Our previous results together with the data from the literature suggest that cytoskeletal proteins, particularly βII-tubulin, are involved in the formation of complexes between mitochondria and energy consumption sites. The aim of this study was to examine the arrangement of intracellular architecture parallel to the alterations in regulation of mitochondrial respiration in rat cardiomyocytes during postnatal development, from 1 day to 6 months. Respirometric measurements were performed to study the developmental alterations of mitochondrial function. Changes in the mitochondrial arrangement and cytoarchitecture of βII- and αIV-tubulin were examined by confocal microscopy. Our results show that functional maturation of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria is completed much earlier than efficient feedback regulation is established between mitochondria and ATPases via creatine kinase system. These changes are accompanied by significant remodeling of regular intermyofibrillar mitochondrial arrays aligned along the bundles of βII-tubulin. Additionally, we demonstrate that formation of regular arrangement of mitochondria is not sufficient per se to provide adult-like efficiency in metabolic feed-back regulation, but organized tubulin networks and reduction in mitochondrial outer membrane permeability for ADP are necessary as well. In conclusion, cardiomyocytes in rat heart become mature on the level of intracellular architecture and energy metabolism at the age of 3 months. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Up-regulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin in cardiomyocytes from non-hypertrophic and non-failing transgenic mouse hearts expressing N-terminal truncated cardiac troponin I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kern

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a restrictive N-terminal truncation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI-ND is up-regulated in the heart in adaptation to hemodynamic stresses. Over-expression of cTnI-ND in the hearts of transgenic mice revealed functional benefits such as increased relaxation and myocardial compliance. In the present study, we investigated the subsequent effect on myocardial remodeling. The alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA isoform is normally expressed in differentiating cardiomyocytes and is a marker for myocardial hypertrophy in adult hearts. Our results show that in cTnI-ND transgenic mice of between 2 and 3 months of age (young adults, a significant level of α-SMA is expressed in the heart as compared with wild-type animals. Although blood vessel density was increased in the cTnI-ND heart, the mass of smooth muscle tissue did not correlate with the increased level of α-SMA. Instead, immunocytochemical staining and Western blotting of protein extracts from isolated cardiomyocytes identified cardiomyocytes as the source of increased α-SMA in cTnI-ND hearts. We further found that while a portion of the up-regulated α-SMA protein was incorporated into the sarcomeric thin filaments, the majority of SMA protein was found outside of myofibrils. This distribution pattern suggests dual functions for the up-regulated α-SMA as both a contractile component to affect contractility and as possible effector of early remodeling in non-hypertrophic, non-failing cTnI-ND hearts.

  3. Lifelong treatment with atenolol decreases membrane fatty acid unsaturation and oxidative stress in heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria and improves immunity and behavior, without changing mice longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Alexia; Sánchez-Roman, Ines; Gomez, Jose; Cruces, Julia; Mate, Ianire; Lopez-Torres, Mónica; Naudi, Alba; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald; De la Fuente, Monica; Barja, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The membrane fatty acid unsaturation hypothesis of aging and longevity is experimentally tested for the first time in mammals. Lifelong treatment of mice with the β1-blocker atenolol increased the amount of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase signaling protein and successfully decreased one of the two traits appropriately correlating with animal longevity, the membrane fatty acid unsaturation degree of cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria, changing their lipid profile toward that present in much more longer-lived mammals. This was mainly due to decreases in 22:6n-3 and increases in 18:1n-9 fatty acids. The atenolol treatment also lowered visceral adiposity (by 24%), decreased mitochondrial protein oxidative, glycoxidative, and lipoxidative damage in both organs, and lowered oxidative damage in heart mitochondrial DNA. Atenolol also improved various immune (chemotaxis and natural killer activities) and behavioral functions (equilibrium, motor coordination, and muscular vigor). It also totally or partially prevented the aging-related detrimental changes observed in mitochondrial membrane unsaturation, protein oxidative modifications, and immune and behavioral functions, without changing longevity. The controls reached 3.93 years of age, a substantially higher maximum longevity than the best previously described for this strain (3.0 years). Side effects of the drug could have masked a likely lowering of the endogenous aging rate induced by the decrease in membrane fatty acid unsaturation. We conclude that it is atenolol that failed to increase longevity, and likely not the decrease in membrane unsaturation induced by the drug. PMID:24612513

  4. Seasonal variations of anti-/apoptotic and antioxidant proteins in the heart and gastrocnemius muscle of the water frog Pelophylax ridibundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Anestis, Andreas; Michaelidis, Basile

    2013-10-01

    In the present work we investigated the seasonal variations of apoptotic and antioxidant proteins in the heart and gastrocnemius muscle of the amphibian Pelophylax ridibundus. Particularly processes studied included the evaluation of hypoxia through the levels of transcriptional factor Hif-1α, of apoptosis through the determination of Bcl-2 and Bax, ubiquitin conjugates levels and the antioxidant defense through the determination of the activity of enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Due to a general metabolic depression during overwintering, levels of the above mentioned proteins and enzymes are generally retained at low levels of expression and activity in the examined tissues of P. ridibundus. On the other hand recovery from overwintering induces oxidative stress, followed by increased levels of the specific proteins and enzymes. A milder up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes during overwintering probably prepares P. ridibundus for oxidative stress during arousal. The seasonal activation of these mechanisms seems to protect this species from these unfavourable conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute effects of low-level laser therapy irradiation on blood lactate and muscle fatigue perception in hospitalized patients with heart failure-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Caroline; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; Ramos, Rodrigo Santin; Assis, Livia; Sellera, Carlos Alberto Cyrillo; Trimer, Renata; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Arena, Ross; Guizilini, Solange

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the acute effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on functional capacity, perceived exertion, and blood lactate in hospitalized patients with heart failure (HF). Patients diagnosed with systolic HF (left ventricular ejection fraction laser and active LLLT group (n = 10)-subjects who were submitted to active laser. The 6-min walk test (6MWT) was performed, and blood lactate was determined at rest (before LLLT application and 6MWT), immediately after the exercise test (time 0) and recovery (3, 6, and 30 min). A multi-diode LLLT cluster probe (DMC, São Carlos, Brazil) was used. Both groups increased 6MWT distance after active or placebo LLLT application compared to baseline values (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively); however, no difference was observed during intergroup comparison. The active LLLT group showed a significant reduction in the perceived exertion Borg (PEB) scale compared to the placebo LLLT group (p = 0.006). In addition, the group that received active LLLT showed no statistically significant difference for the blood lactate level through the times analyzed. The placebo LLLT group demonstrated a significant increase in blood lactate between the rest and recovery phase (p irradiation on skeletal musculature were not able to improve the functional capacity of hospitalized patients with HF, although it may favorably modulate blood lactate metabolism and reduce perceived muscle fatigue.

  6. Renal biopsy in the management of lupus nephritis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T K; Gelber, A C; Witter, F R; Petri, M; Fine, D M

    2015-02-01

    The differential diagnosis of proteinuria and hematuria in pregnancy is broad and includes active lupus nephritis. Identification of the correct diagnosis often has a profound therapeutic impact on not only the mother but also the fetus. To date, relatively few reports exist on the role of renal biopsy during pregnancy among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We present a case series of 11 pregnant women with SLE who underwent a renal biopsy to evaluate a presumptive flare of lupus nephritis. The electronic medical record was retrospectively analyzed for pre-biopsy serum creatinine, proteinuria, hematuria, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), and antibodies to double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA); histologic findings on renal biopsy; and the clinical course of each mother and fetus. From 2001 to 2012, 11 pregnant women with SLE flares during pregnancy underwent a renal biopsy at an academic tertiary medical center. At the time of biopsy, median gestational age was 16 weeks (range 9 to 27), median serum creatinine was 0.6 mg/dl (interquartile range 0.5 to 0.9), six (55%) had hematuria, and all had proteinuria >500 mg/24 hours. Proliferative lupus nephritis was found in 10 (91%) of 11 biopsies (five with ISN/RPS Class III; five with ISN/RPS Class IV). All but one individual underwent a change in management guided by information gleaned from renal biopsy. No apparent biopsy-related complications occurred to mother or fetus. Three women elected to terminate their pregnancy; although many factors were involved, the findings on renal biopsy informed the decision-making process. Among the remaining cases, there were three pre-term deliveries, one fetus with complete heart block, one in utero demise, and one maternal death. Renal biopsy is helpful at informing the management of patients with lupus nephritis during pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  8. Epicardial mapping of ventricular fibrillation over the posterior descending artery and left posterior papillary muscle of the swine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Thomas D; Huang, Jian; Rogers, Jack M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that during ventricular fibrillation (VF) epicardial vessels may be a site of conduction block and the posterior papillary muscle (PPM) in the left ventricle (LV) may be the location of a "mother rotor." The goal of this study was to obtain evidence to support or refute these possibilities. Epicardial activation over the posterior LV and right ventricle (RV) was mapped during the first 20 s of electrically induced VF in six open-chest pigs with a 504 electrode plaque covering a 20 cm(2) area centered over the posterior descending artery (PDA). The locations of epicardial breakthrough as well as reentry clustered in time and space during VF. Spatially, reentry occurred significantly more frequently over the LV than the RV in all 48 episodes, and breakthrough clustered near the PPM (p < 0.001). Significant temporal clustering occurred in 79% of breakthrough episodes and 100% of reentry episodes. These temporal clusters occurred at different times so that there was significantly less breakthrough when reentry was present (p < 0.0001). Conduction block occurred significantly more frequently near the PDA than elsewhere. The PDA is a site of epicardial block which may contribute to VF maintenance. Epicardial breakthrough clusters near the PPM. Reentry also clusters in space but at a separate site. The fact that breakthrough and reentry cluster at different locations and at different times supports the possibility of a drifting filament at the PPM so that at times reentry is present on the surface but at other times the reentrant wavefront breaks through to the epicardium.

  9. Cycle of conception endometrial biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, A C; Herbert, C M; Maxson, W S; Hill, G A; Pittaway, D E

    1986-08-01

    Although controversial, the diagnosis of luteal phase inadequacy and its therapy may improve reproductive outcome, but an endometrial biopsy in the cycle of conception (COC) might theoretically interrupt an intrauterine pregnancy. Fifty-four biopsies obtained in the COC were identified, and patient outcome was documented. Eleven (20%) of the 54 women who underwent COC biopsy did not deliver viable infants. Two patients had ectopic pregnancies, and nine had early abortions, including one whose biopsy specimen contained an early implantation site and another with a trisomy 16 fetus. Although COC endometrial biopsy did not appear to increase the incidence of fetal wastage, biopsy information provided no predictive information suggestive of ultimate pregnancy outcome. Because no useful information is gained from a COC biopsy, we recommend either that pregnancy be avoided or a sensitive pregnancy test be employed for detection in a cycle in which a biopsy is to be performed.

  10. Histopathology of orodental biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue diagnosis is an essential step to come to a confirmed diagnosis in oral lesions where clinical examination alone can often be difficult and inaccurate. The aim of this study was to assess the use of histopathological services by the dental department and to correlate the clinicopathological diagnosis.Materials and Methods: This is an histopathological database analysis of dental biopsies in 23 years from 1989 to 2012 in Patan Hospital. The variables studied were age, sex, clinical and histopathological diagnosis. SPSS version 16 was used as an analytical tool.Results: Out of 396 dental biopsies 203 (51.3% were females and 193 (48.7% were males with  mean age 34.34 years and standard deviation of 17.9 years. The neoplastic and non neoplastic conditions were 44% and 56% respectively.Conclusion: Most diagnoses were benign in nature and had an inflammatory etiology.

  11. Dystrophinopathy diagnosis made easy: skin biopsy, an emerging novel tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Sharma, M C; Gulati, Sheffali; Kabra, Madhulika; Pandey, R M; Sarkar, Chitra

    2014-04-01

    Dystrophinopathies are diagnosed by genetic studies and muscle biopsy. Most centers have multiplex polymerase chain reaction facilities diagnosing 65% to 70% of dystrophinopathy cases. Muscle biopsy is a time-consuming, invasive procedure whereas skin biopsy is a simple procedure done under local anesthesia. The current study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of skin biopsy in dystrophinopathy. Overall, 119 confirmed cases of muscular dystrophy (111 males and 8 females) were included in the final analysis, of which 100 (all males) were dystrophinopathy. Skin biopsy diagnosed dystrophinopathy in suspected muscular dystrophy patients with a sensitivity of 98% (92.3%-99.7%), specificity of 99% (93.7%-99.9%), positive predictive value of 94.7% (71.9%-99.7%), and negative predictive value of 90% (66.9%-98.2%). Skin biopsy can be used for screening dystrophinopathy in muscular dystrophy patients (high sensitivity and positive predictive value). It being a simple and minimally invasive procedure, histopathologic and molecular markers of disease progression and response to novel treatment options can be assessed serially.

  12. Skeletal muscle fiber characteristics and oxidative capacity in hemiparetic stroke survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Kaare; Dalgas, Ulrik; Overgaard, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscle is changed after stroke, but conflicting data exist concerning muscle morphology and oxidative enzymatic capacity. METHODS: In 36 chronic stroke patients bilateral muscle biopsies were analysed, and fiber type proportions and cross sectional areas were determined by ...

  13. Stress and your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary heart disease - stress; Coronary artery disease - stress ... Your body responds to stress on many levels. First, it releases stress hormones that make you breathe faster. Your blood pressure goes up. Your muscles ...

  14. Pericardial tamponade: a rare complication of sternal bone marrow biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Santavy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Injury of the heart with concomitant pericardial tamponade as a result of sternal bone marrow biopsy is rare. An 80-year-old man was admitted with dehydration and non-specified abdominal pain to the regional hospital. Sternal aspiration biopsy was performed because of anemia and thrombocytopenia. Later on, because of the back pain, general weakness and blood pressure drop, an echocardiography examination was indicated. Pericardial fluid collection was found. Anticipated ascending aortic dissection was excluded on computed tomography scan, but pericardial fluid collection was confirmed. Transfer to our cardiac surgical facility ensued. Limited heart tamponade was affirmed on echocardiography and surgery was immediately indicated. Blood effusion was found in upper mediastinal fat tissue and 300 mL of blood were evacuated from opened pericardial space. Stab wound by sternal biopsy needle at the upper part of ascending aorta was repaired by pledgeted suture. Postoperative course was uneventful.

  15. Who Is at Risk for Heart Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects. Acquired heart block is more common than congenital heart block. Damage to the heart muscle or its electrical system causes acquired heart block. Diseases, surgery, or medicines can cause this damage. The three types of heart block are first degree, second degree, ...

  16. The accuracy of colposcopic biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoler, Mark H; Vichnin, Michelle D; Ferenczy, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the overall agreement between colposcopically directed biopsies and the definitive excisional specimens within the context of three clinical trials. A total of 737 women aged 16-45 who had a cervical biopsy taken within 6 months before their definitive therapy were included. Per......-protocol, colposcopists were to also obtain a representative cervical biopsy immediately before definitive therapy. Using adjudicated histological diagnoses, the initial biopsies and the same day biopsies were correlated with the surgically excised specimens. The overall agreement between the biopsies taken within 6...... degree of variance in the correlation, the overall agreement was 92% for CIN2-3/AIS. The overall agreement between the same day biopsy and definitive therapy specimen was 56% (weighted kappa = 0.41) (95% CI: 0.36-0.47), and the underestimation of CIN2-3/AIS was 57%. There were significant associations...

  17. A kinetic study of the oxidation by molecular oxygen of the cytochrome chain of intact yeast cells, Acetobacter suboxydans cells, and of particulate suspensions of heart muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, G D; Kuby, S A; Edelman, G M; Chance, B

    1983-01-01

    The pre-steady state kinetics of the cytochrome c oxidase reaction with oxygen were studied by a variation in the reaction time between approximately 6 and 25 ms at oxygen concentrations less than 6 mumol/l. For baker's yeast, a pseudo-first-order velocity constant of approximately 150 s-1 at 1.3 mumol/l O2 was obtained corresponding to a second-order reaction between O2 and a3 at a forward velocity constant (k+1) of approximately 3 X 10(7) liter equiv.-1s-1. Thus, the membrane-bound oxidase in the intact cell exhibits one of the most rapid enzyme-substrate reactions to be reported. The value is identical with that of Greenwood and Gibson on an isolated, solubilized cytochrome c oxidase. Similar values of k+1 are calculated from the turnover numbers [k+2 (a+2)] divided by the Km values (formula; see text) measured for these yeast preparations, which points to an almost negligible reverse reaction (k-1) compared to k+2(a+2). Similar calculations for the membrane-bound cytochrome c oxidase of heart muscle give a value of k+1 approximately equal to 10(7) liter equiv.-1s-1. The concordance of the different values of k+1 supports the view that the yeast cell wall does not impart a significant diffusion barrier to the transport of molecular oxygen. In contrast, Acetobacter suboxydans exhibits a much larger value for Km, and has a terminal oxidase of different kinetic parameters.

  18. Piscine Orthoreovirus from Western North America Is Transmissible to Atlantic Salmon and Sockeye Salmon but Fails to Cause Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A Garver

    Full Text Available Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI is a significant and often fatal disease of cultured Atlantic salmon in Norway. The consistent presence of Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV in HSMI diseased fish along with the correlation of viral load and antigen with development of lesions has supported the supposition that PRV is the etiologic agent of this condition; yet the absence of an in vitro culture system to demonstrate disease causation and the widespread prevalence of this virus in the absence of disease continues to obfuscate the etiological role of PRV with regard to HSMI. In this study, we explore the infectivity and disease causing potential of PRV from western North America-a region now considered endemic for PRV but without manifestation of HSMI-in challenge experiments modeled upon previous reports associating PRV with HSMI. We identified that western North American PRV is highly infective by intraperitoneal injection in Atlantic salmon as well as through cohabitation of both Atlantic and Sockeye salmon. High prevalence of viral RNA in peripheral blood of infected fish persisted for as long as 59 weeks post-challenge. Nevertheless, no microscopic lesions, disease, or mortality could be attributed to the presence of PRV, and only a minor transcriptional induction of the antiviral Mx gene occurred in blood and kidney samples during log-linear replication of viral RNA. Comparative analysis of the S1 segment of PRV identified high similarity between this North American sequence and previous sequences associated with HSMI, suggesting that factors such as viral co-infection, alternate PRV strains, host condition, or specific environmental circumstances may be required to cause this disease.

  19. Telepathology and Optical Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ferrer-Roca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to obtain information about the structure of tissue without taking a sample for pathology has opened the way for new diagnostic techniques. The present paper reviews all currently available techniques capable of producing an optical biopsy, with or without morphological images. Most of these techniques are carried out by physicians who are not specialized in pathology and therefore not trained to interpret the results as a pathologist would. In these cases, the use of telepathology or distant consultation techniques is essential.

  20. No need for biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Skindersoe, Mette E; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    collected. After 4 weeks, additional biopsy and filter paper pad samples were collected. Bacteria were isolated and identified at species level by standard methods. The most common bacterial species detected was Staphylococcus aureus found in 89% of the ulcers. No methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates...... were found. We did not find any significant differences regarding the bacterial species isolated between the three sampling techniques. However, using multiple techniques led to identification of more species. Our study suggests that it is sufficient to use swab specimens to identify the bacterial...

  1. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Should You Go to School? Breast Cancer Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles Print A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are ...

  2. Percutaneous transbiliary biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gustavo Vieira; Santos, Miguel Arcanjo; Meira, Marconi Roberto; Meira, Mateus Duarte

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous drainage of the bile ducts is an established procedure for malignant obstructions, in which a histological diagnosis is often not obtained. We describe the biopsy technique of obstructive lesions through biliary drainage access, using a 7F endoscopic biopsy forceps, widely available; some are even reusable. This technique applies to lesions of the hepatic ducts, of the common hepatic duct and of all extension of the common bile duct. RESUMO A drenagem percutânea das vias biliares é um procedimento estabelecido para obstruções malignas, nos quais, muitas vezes, não se consegue um diagnóstico histológico. Descrevemos a técnica de biópsia da lesão obstrutiva através do acesso de drenagem biliar, utilizando um fórcipe de biópsia endoscópica 7F, amplamente disponível e alguns reutilizáveis. Esta técnica aplica-se a lesões dos ductos hepáticos, do hepático comum e de toda extensão do colédoco.

  3. Enzymes and muscle diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Plebani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle disorders may result in release of muscle enzymes into the circulation and give increased serum enzyme activity. A variety of enzymes routinely determined in the clinical laboratory may be elevated, but creatine kinase is the enzyme present in the highest concentration in muscle, and in every variety of muscle disease is the serum enzyme which shows the greatest incidence and degree of elevation. Aspartate aminotransferase is the enzyme associated most significantly with inflammation. A diagnostic algorithm based on the combined measurement of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and aldolase has been found to discriminate muscular distrophies from polymyositis and other myopathies. This combination of laboratory tests has diagnostic application and thus allows the clinician to better select patients who need to have a skeletal muscle biopsy as a diagnostic procedure.

  4. Histological Value of Duodenal Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limci Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to see the value of histopathological diagnosis in management of patients with duodenal biopsies; to look for correlation of histology and serology in suspected cases of coeliac disease; the reasons for taking duodenal biopsies and whether proper adequate histories are provided on the forms sent with request for histopathological view on duodenal biopsies. Here are the observations of the study followed by the discussion.

  5. The influence of training status, age, and muscle fiber type on cycling efficiency and endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, James G; Coleman, Damian A; Gregson, Hannah C; Jobson, Simon A; Von der Haar, Tobias; Wiles, Jonathan; Passfield, Louis

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of age, training status, and muscle fiber-type distribution on cycling efficiency. Forty men were recruited into one of four groups: young and old trained cyclists, and young and old untrained individuals. All participants completed an incremental ramp test to measure their peak O2 uptake, maximal heart rate, and maximal minute power output; a submaximal test of cycling gross efficiency (GE) at a series of absolute and relative work rates; and, in trained participants only, a 1-h cycling time trial. Finally, all participants underwent a muscle biopsy of their right vastus lateralis muscle. At relative work rates, a general linear model found significant main effects of age and training status on GE (P type I muscle fibers was higher in the trained groups (P type and cycling efficiency at any work rate or cadence combination. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that muscle fiber type did not influence cycling performance (P > 0.05). Power output in the 1-h performance trial was predicted by average O2 uptake and GE, with standardized β-coefficients of 0.94 and 0.34, respectively, although some mathematical coupling is evident. These data demonstrate that muscle fiber type does not affect cycling efficiency and was not influenced by the aging process. Cycling efficiency and the percentage of type I muscle fibers were influenced by training status, but only GE at 120 revolutions/min was seen to predict cycling performance.

  6. New continuous-flow total artificial heart and vascular permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Cohn, William E; Parnis, Steven M; Sodha, Neel R; Clements, Richard T; Sellke, Nicholas; Frazier, O Howard; Sellke, Frank W

    2015-12-01

    We tested the short-term effects of completely nonpulsatile versus pulsatile circulation after ventricular excision and replacement with total implantable pumps in an animal model on peripheral vascular permeability. Ten calves underwent cardiac replacement with two HeartMate III continuous-flow rotary pumps. In five calves, the pump speed was rapidly modulated to impart a low-frequency pulse pressure in the physiologic range (10-25 mm Hg) at a rate of 40 pulses per minute (PP). The remaining five calves were supported with a pulseless systemic circulation and no modulation of pump speed (NP). Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before cardiac replacement (baseline) and on postoperative days (PODs) 1, 7, and 14. Skeletal muscle-tissue water content was measured, and morphologic alterations of skeletal muscle were assessed. VE-cadherin, phospho-VE-cadherin, and CD31 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. There were no significant changes in tissue water content and skeletal muscle morphology within group or between groups at baseline, PODs 1, 7, and 14, respectively. There were no significant alterations in the expression and/or distribution of VE-cadherin, phospho-VE-cadherin, and CD31 in skeletal muscle vasculature at baseline, PODs 1, 7, and 14 within each group or between the two groups, respectively. Although continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) with or without a pulse pressure caused slight increase in tissue water content and histologic damage scores at PODs 7 and 14, it failed to reach statistical significance. There was no significant adherens-junction protein degradation and phosphorylation in calf skeletal muscle microvasculature after CFTAH implantation, suggesting that short term of CFTAH with or without pulse pressure did not cause peripheral endothelial injury and did not increase the peripheral microvascular permeability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of transient, moderate dietary phosphorus deprivation on phosphorus metabolism, muscle content of different phosphorus-containing compounds, and muscle function in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberg, W; Scherpenisse, P; Dobbelaar, P; Idink, M J; Wijnberg, I D

    2015-08-01

    Hypophosphatemia is a common finding in periparturient and anorectic cattle. Although the clinical relevance of hypophosphatemia in cattle is uncertain, it has been empirically associated with persistent recumbency, specifically in periparturient dairy cows. The objective of the present study was to determine if transient dietary phosphorus (P) deprivation over a course of 5 wk, by feeding an approximately 40% P-deficient ration to lactating dairy cows, would result in altered muscle function or muscle P metabolism severe enough to present a risk for animal health and well-being. In addition, we wanted to determine the association between the plasma phosphate concentration ([Pi]) and muscle tissue P content to assess to what extent intracellular P deprivation of muscle cells could be extrapolated from subnormal plasma [Pi]. Ten healthy multiparous, mid-lactating dairy cows received a ration with a P content of 0.18% over a period of 5 wk. Following the P-deprivation phase, the same ration supplemented with P to obtain a dietary P content of 0.43% was fed for 2 wk. Blood and urine samples were collected regularly and muscle biopsies were obtained repeatedly to determine the P content in muscle tissue. Function of skeletal and heart muscles was evaluated by electrocardiography and electromyography conducted repeatedly throughout the study. Feeding the P-deficient ration resulted in the rapid development of marked hypophosphatemia. The lowest plasma [Pi] were measured after 9 d of P depletion and were, on average, 60% below predepletion values. Plasma [Pi] increased thereafter, despite ongoing dietary P depletion. None of the animals developed clinical signs commonly associated with hypophosphatemia or any other health issues. Urine analysis revealed increasing renal calcium, pyridinoline, and hydroxypyridinoline excretion with ongoing P deprivation. Biochemical muscle tissue analysis showed that dietary P depletion and hypophosphatemia were not associated with a

  8. Negative Biopsy after Referral for Biopsy-Proven Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Chung Hyun; Lee, Jun Haeng; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Repeat endoscopy with biopsy is often performed in patients with previously diagnosed gastric cancer to determine further treatment plans. However, biopsy results may differ from the original pathologic report. We reviewed patients who had a negative biopsy after referral for gastric cancer. Methods A total of 116 patients with negative biopsy results after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer were enrolled. Outside pathology slides were reviewed. Images of the first and second endoscopic examinations were reviewed. We reviewed the clinical history from referral to the final treatment. Results Eighty-eight patients (76%) arrived with information about the lesion from the referring physician. Among 96 patients with available outside slides, the rate of interobserver variation was 24%. Endoscopy was repeated at our institution; 85 patients (73%) were found to have definite lesions, whereas 31 patients (27%) had indeterminate lesions. In the group with definite lesions, 71% of the lesions were depressed in shape. The most common cause of a negative biopsy was mistargeting. In the group with indeterminate lesions, 94% had insufficient information. All patients with adequate follow-up were successfully treated based on the findings in the follow-up endoscopy. Conclusions A negative biopsy after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer is mainly caused by mistargeting and insufficient information during the referral. PMID:25963084

  9. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  10. Preservation of donor hearts using hypothermic oxygenated perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Sebastian G; La Muraglia, Glenn M; Madariaga, Maria Lucia L; Titus, James S; Selig, Martin K; Farkash, Evan A; Allan, James S; Anderson, Lisa M; Madsen, Joren C

    2014-08-20

    Hypothermic machine perfusion of donor hearts enables continuous aerobic metabolism and washout of toxic metabolic byproducts. We evaluated the effect of machine perfusion on cardiac myocyte integrity in hearts preserved for 4 h in a novel device that provides pulsatile oxygenated hypothermic perfusion (Paragonix Sherpa Perfusion™ Cardiac Transport System). Pig hearts were harvested and stored in Celsior® solution for 4 h using either conventional cold storage on ice (4-h CS, n=6) or the Sherpa device (4-h pulsatile perfusion (PP), n=6). After cold preservation, hearts were evaluated using a non-working heart Langendorff system. Controls (n=3) were reperfused immediately after organ harvest. Biopsies were taken from the apex of the left ventricle before storage, after storage, and after reperfusion to measure ATP content and endothelin-1 in the tissue. Ultrastructural analysis using electron microscopy was performed. Four-hour CS, 4-h PP, and control group did not show any significant differences in systolic or diastolic function (+dP/dt, -dP/dt, EDP). Four-hour PP hearts showed significantly more weight gain than 4-h CS after preservation, which shows that machine perfusion led to myocardial edema. Four-hour CS led to higher endothelin-1 levels after preservation, suggesting more endothelial dysfunction compared to 4-h PP. Electron microscopy revealed endothelial cell rupture and damaged muscle fibers in the 4-h CS group after reperfusion, but the cell structures were preserved in the 4-h PP group. Hypothermic pulsatile perfusion of donor hearts leads to a better-preserved cell structure compared to the conventional cold storage method. This may lead to less risk of primary graft failure after orthotopic heart transplantation.

  11. Further studies of oligosaccharide recognition by the soluble 13 kDa lectin of bovine heart muscle. Ability to accommodate the blood-group-H and -B-related sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, W M; Hounsell, E F; Feizi, T

    1988-01-01

    Oligosaccharide recognition by the 13 kDa soluble lectin from bovine heart muscle has been investigated by inhibition of binding of the 125I-labelled lectin to trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes. The results indicate that the Type 1 (Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc) and the Type 2 (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc) backbone structures are the basic recognition units, and that the blood-group-H structure, the blood-group-B structure, the 'B-like' structure [afucosyl-(blood group B)] and the alpha 2-3 sialylated analogu...

  12. [Biopsy technique and biopsy schemes for a first series of prostatic biopsies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villers, Arnauld; Mouton, Damien; Rébillard, Xavier; Chautard, Denis; Ruffion, Alain; Staerman, Frédéric; Cornud, François

    2004-04-01

    To define the modalities of prostatic biopsies in patients with suspected prostate cancer, particularly concerning prevention of complications, the number of biopsies and the biopsy schemes ensuring an optimal cancer detection rate, and recording of prognostic elements, all with an acceptable morbidity, Review of the literature. Information before biopsy: A preliminary visit with oral and written information is necessary before any biopsy procedure in order to: describe the modalities of the procedure to improve the patient's cooperation, detect contraindications, guide preparation, explain the risks and elements of surveillance, and describe the management in the case of complications (level of evidence: IV-3). PREPARATION BEFORE BIOPSY: A single dose of prophylactic antibiotic is necessary before the examination. Longer antibiotic prophylaxis is necessary in patients with risk factors for infection (level of evidence: II). A rectal enema is recommended (level of evidence: III). Routine urine bacteriology and blood coagulation tests are unnecessary (level of evidence: II). In patients taking anticoagulants, this treatment must be stopped before the examination (level of evidence: IV-2). BIOPSY TECHNIQUE: Local anaesthesia with 1% lidocaine by ultrasound-guided injection into the periprostatic spaces is recommended to improve tolerability, when the number of biopsies is > 6 (level of evidence: II-2). General anaesthesia may be necessary in a minority of cases, for local anatomical reasons or when preferred by the patient. Prostatic aspiration biopsies should be performed via a transrectal approach with ultrasound guidance, especially in the absence of a palpable lesion (level of evidence: IV-1). The examination must start with digital rectal examination and complete analysis of the echostructure of the prostate to identify suspicious zones that will also be aspirated. Biopsy scheme as a function of stage: In the case of palpable or visible lesion (stage T2 or T3

  13. Spatial distribution of "tissue-specific" antigens in the developing human heart and skeletal muscle. I. An immunohistochemical analysis of creatine kinase isoenzyme expression patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, A.; Vermeulen, J. L.; Virágh, S.; Kálmán, F.; Morris, G. E.; Man, N. T.; Lamers, W. H.; Moorman, A. F.

    1990-01-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies against the M and B subunit isoforms of creatine kinase (CK) we have investigated their distribution in developing human skeletal and cardiac muscle immunohistochemically. It is demonstrated that in skeletal muscle, a switch from CK-B to CK-M takes place around the week 8

  14. Cardiomyopathies with particular reference to the diagnostic relevance of endomyocardial biopsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, A. E.

    1988-01-01

    A distinction is made between heart muscle diseases with a known cause, or occurring as part of a systemic disease, and those of unknown cause. The first category is termed "specific heart muscle disease". The term "cardiomyopathy" is then limited to the latter category. Cardiomyopathies are

  15. [Improving of muscle mass and force in rehabilitation of heart-lung patients. Aerobic interval training, resistance-exercises, excentric exercises, vibration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apor, Péter; Tihanyi, József; Borka, Péter

    2005-09-18

    Improvement of muscle mass and force which got depleted by inactivity or pathological processes is one of the aims and also a prerequisite of a rehabilitative intervention. Metabolically active larger and stronger muscles diminish the cardiovascular risk, permit the aerobic preventive and rehabilitative activities and enables a higher quality of life. Interval forms of aerobic exercise improves also the muscles. The resistance training plays an important part in rehabilitation. Beside the traditional dynamic strength training with weights, gym machines, body weight etc. the excentric type of muscle activity potentiates higher muscle load with lesser energy consumption, therefore it is suitable in the case of smaller performance ability. Vibration of the whole body or parts of it by machines improves the co-activity of the motor units and results in force development with small metabolic involvement.

  16. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on postoperative muscle mass and protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinge, O; Edvardsen, L; Jensen, F

    1996-01-01

    In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein...... synthesis were assessed by computed tomography and ribosome analysis of percutaneous muscle biopsies before surgery and on the sixth postoperative day. The percentage of polyribosomes in the ribosome suspension decreased significantly (P ... muscle protein synthesis and muscle mass after abdominal surgery and should be evaluated in other catabolic states with muscle wasting....

  17. Muscle pathology in juvenile dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilson Eduardo Calore

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study muscle biopsies, using histochemistry, on ten children with infantile dermatomyositis. DESIGN: Series of ten patients (of whom eight patients had received treatment and two had not were submitted to muscle biopsy in order to diagnose possible inflammatory myopathy or to detect recurrences. PLACE OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE STUDY: Public Health Service of São Paulo State. PARTICIPANTS: children with clinical features of inflammatory myopathy. INTERVENTION: biopsies were performed on the vastus lateralis using local anesthetic. Histochemistry was performed according to standardized methods. RESULTS: Architectural changes of the muscle fibers, necrosis of variable intensity and accentuated evidence of regeneration were observed in patients who had not received treatment (2 cases and in one case where muscular weakness persisted in spite of corticosteroid therapy. Necrosis and regeneration were minimal or absent in cases treated for one year or more (4 cases. In 3 cases with clinical and laboratorial recurrences, muscle necrosis and architectural changes were detected. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that muscle biopsy could aid in diagnosing infantile dermatomyositis as well as in detecting recurrences even in cases without clinical activity of the disease.

  18. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-02

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event.

  19. Identification of proteins from 4200-year-old skin and muscle tissue biopsies from ancient Egyptian mummies of the first intermediate period shows evidence of acute inflammation and severe immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Ravishankar, Prathiba; Xavier, Dylan; Lim, Do Seon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Bianucci, Raffaella; Haynes, Paul A

    2016-10-28

    We performed proteomics analysis on four skin and one muscle tissue samples taken from three ancient Egyptian mummies of the first intermediate period, approximately 4200 years old. The mummies were first dated by radiocarbon dating of the accompany-\\break ing textiles, and morphologically examined by scanning electron microscopy of additional skin samples. Proteins were extracted, separated on SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) gels, and in-gel digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were analysed using nanoflow high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 230 unique proteins from the five samples, which consisted of 132 unique protein identifications. We found a large number of collagens, which was confirmed by our microscopy data, and is in agreement with previous studies showing that collagens are very long-lived. As expected, we also found a large number of keratins. We identified numerous proteins that provide evidence of activation of the innate immunity system in two of the mummies, one of which also contained proteins indicating severe tissue inflammation, possibly indicative of an infection that we can speculate may have been related to the cause of death.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy with severe heart failure overlapping with lipodystrophy in a patient with LMNA mutation p.Ser334del.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej-Pilarczyk, Agnieszka; Niezgoda, Adam; Janus, Magdalena; Wojnicz, Romuald; Marchel, Michał; Fidziańska, Anna; Grajek, Stefan; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, Irena

    2017-02-01

    Laminopathies, a group of heterogeneous disorders associated with lamin A/C gene (LMNA) mutations, encompass a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes, which may present as separate disease or as overlapping syndromes. We describe a 35-year-old female in whom a novel sporadic heterozygous mutation c.1001_1003delGCC (p.Ser334del) of the LMNA gene was found. The patient presented with overlapping syndrome of heart failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy, limb-girdle dystrophy and partial lipodystrophy. Endomyocardial biopsy revealed strong up-regulation of HLA classes I and II antigens on microvessels and induction of the class I antigens on cardiomyocytes. On muscle biopsy, a wide range of fiber sizes and small clusters of inflammatory infiltrations were found. In the rapid progression of heart failure with arrhythmias or conduction defect, accompanied with muscle atrophy and lipodystrophy, the genetic disease should be taken into consideration. In addition, undefined inflammatory response and fibrosis in the heart or skeletal muscle might further justify screening of the lamin A/C gene.

  1. Laparoscopic Biopsies in Pancreas Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uva, P D; Odorico, J S; Giunippero, A; Cabrera, I C; Gallo, A; Leon, L R; Minue, E; Toniolo, F; Gonzalez, I; Chuluyan, E; Casadei, D H

    2017-08-01

    As there is no precise laboratory test or imaging study for detection of pancreas allograft rejection, there is increasing interest in obtaining pancreas tissue for diagnosis. Pancreas allograft biopsies are most commonly performed percutaneously, transcystoscopically, or endoscopically, yet pancreas transplant surgeons often lack the skills to perform these types of biopsies. We have performed 160 laparoscopic pancreas biopsies in 95 patients. There were 146 simultaneous kidney-pancreas biopsies and 14 pancreas-only biopsies due to pancreas alone, kidney loss, or extraperitoneal kidney. Biopsies were performed for graft dysfunction (89) or per protocol (71). In 13 cases, an additional laparoscopic procedure was performed at the same operation. The pancreas diagnostic tissue yield was 91.2%; however, the pancreas could not be visualized in eight cases (5%) and in 6 cases the tissue sample was nondiagnostic (3.8%). The kidney tissue yield was 98.6%. There were four patients with intraoperative complications requiring laparotomy (2.5%) with two additional postoperative complications. Half of all these complications were kidney related. There were no episodes of pancreatic enzyme leak and there were no graft losses related to the procedure. We conclude that laparoscopic kidney and pancreas allograft biopsies can be safely performed with very high tissue yields. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Heart MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  3. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate ... MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? What is Ultrasound- and MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate ...

  4. Discordance Between Ureteroscopic Biopsy and Final Pathology for Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Ezra J; Matulay, Justin T; Li, Gen; Meng, Xiaosong; Chao, Brian; Vijay, Varun; Silver, Hayley; Clinton, Timothy N; Krabbe, Laura-Maria; Woldu, Solomon L; Singla, Nirmish; Bagrodia, Aditya; Margulis, Vitaly; Huang, William C; Bjurlin, Marc A; Shah, Ojas; Anderson, Christopher B

    2018-02-07

    We sought to evaluate the discordance between ureteroscopic biopsy and surgical pathology for grading and staging of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and to establish preoperative predictors of aggressive tumors. We performed a retrospective review of 314 patients who underwent ureteroscopic biopsy followed by surgical management for UTUC from 2000-2016 at three institutions. Our primary outcomes were muscle-invasive (≥pT2) disease at surgical pathology and upgrading of clinical low-grade (cLG) tumors to pathologic high-grade (pHG). At biopsy, 61% of patients had high-grade (cHG) tumors, and 21% had subepithelial connective tissue invasion (cT1+). On final pathology, 79% had pHG tumors, and 45% had stage ≥pT2. On multivariate analysis, advanced age, cHG, and cT1+ were independently associated with ≥pT2. The combined presence of cHG and cT1+ had a PPV of 86% for muscle invasion, and the combined absence of cHG and cT1+ had a NPV of 80%. The likelihood of missing invasion on biopsy in patients with muscle-invasive disease was increased when biopsy fragments were limited to ≤1mm. Among patients with cLG disease on biopsy, 51% were upgraded at surgery. The presence of positive urine cytology was associated with an increased risk of upgrading; however, this was not statistically significant. cHG, cT1+ on biopsy, and advanced patient age are independent risk factors for muscle-invasive UTUC. There is a significant risk of upgrading among patients with cLG tumors on biopsy, especially when urine cytology is positive. The predictive value of biopsy can likely be improved by more extensive ureteroscopic sampling. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Getting the Most Out of Liver Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidbury, Jonathan A

    2017-05-01

    Histopathologic evaluation of liver biopsy specimens yields information that is not otherwise obtainable and is frequently essential for diagnosing hepatic disease. Percutaneous needle biopsy, laparoscopic biopsy, and surgical biopsy each have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. Care should be taken to ensure an adequate amount of tissue is collected for meaningful histologic evaluation. Because sampling error is a limitation of hepatic biopsy, multiple liver lobes should be biopsied. This article discusses the indications for liver biopsy, associated risks, advantages and disadvantages of different biopsy techniques, and strategies to get the most useful information possible out of this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exercise training in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepoli, Massimo F

    2005-05-01

    The reduction of exercise capacity with early occurrence of fatigue and dyspnea is a hallmark of heart failure syndrome. There are objective similarities between heart failure and muscular deconditioning. Deficiencies in peripheral blood flow and skeletal muscle function, morphology, metabolism, and function are present. The protective effects of physical activity have been elucidated in many recent studies: training improves ventilatory control, skeletal muscle metabolism, autonomic nervous system, central and peripheral circulation, and heart function. These provide the physiologic basis to explain the benefits in terms of survival and freedom from hospitalization demonstrated by physical training also in heart failure.

  7. Expression and Complex Formation of MMP9, MMP2, NGAL, and TIMP1 in Porcine Myocardium but Not in Skeletal Muscles in Male Pigs with Tachycardia-Induced Systolic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiczak, Liliana; Tomaszek, Alicja; Bania, Jacek; Paslawska, Urszula; Zacharski, Maciej; Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Janiszewski, Adrian; Skrzypczak, Piotr; Ardehali, Hossein; Jankowska, Ewa A.; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the remodeling of extracellular matrix in various tissues. Their functioning could be related to the formation of complexes, containing MMP9, MMP2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type 1 (TIMP1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Such complexes have not been investigated in either myocardial or skeletal muscles. We examined 20 male pigs with heart failure (HF), and 5 sham-operated animals. There were no differences in the mRNA expression of MMP9, MMP2, TIMP1, and NGAL between diseased and healthy animals, in either left ventricle (LV) myocardium or skeletal muscles. In LV from both diseased and healthy animals, in nonreducing and nondenaturing conditions, we demonstrated the presence of high molecular weight (HMW) complexes (130, 170, and 220 kDa) containing MMP9, TIMP1, and NGAL (also MMP2 in 220 kDa complex) without proteolytic activity, and a proteolytically active 115 kDa MMP9 form together with 72 and 68 kDa bands (proMMP2 and MMP2). Proteolytically active bands were also spontaneously released from HMW complexes. In skeletal muscles from both diseased and healthy animals, in nonreducing and nondenaturing conditions, we found no HMW complexes, and proteolytic activity was associated with the presence of 72 and 68 kDa bands (proMMP2 and MMP2). PMID:23710440

  8. Expression and complex formation of MMP9, MMP2, NGAL, and TIMP1 in porcine myocardium but not in skeletal muscles in male pigs with tachycardia-induced systolic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiczak, Liliana; Tomaszek, Alicja; Bania, Jacek; Paslawska, Urszula; Zacharski, Maciej; Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Janiszewski, Adrian; Skrzypczak, Piotr; Ardehali, Hossein; Jankowska, Ewa A; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the remodeling of extracellular matrix in various tissues. Their functioning could be related to the formation of complexes, containing MMP9, MMP2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type 1 (TIMP1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Such complexes have not been investigated in either myocardial or skeletal muscles. We examined 20 male pigs with heart failure (HF), and 5 sham-operated animals. There were no differences in the mRNA expression of MMP9, MMP2, TIMP1, and NGAL between diseased and healthy animals, in either left ventricle (LV) myocardium or skeletal muscles. In LV from both diseased and healthy animals, in nonreducing and nondenaturing conditions, we demonstrated the presence of high molecular weight (HMW) complexes (130, 170, and 220 kDa) containing MMP9, TIMP1, and NGAL (also MMP2 in 220 kDa complex) without proteolytic activity, and a proteolytically active 115 kDa MMP9 form together with 72 and 68 kDa bands (proMMP2 and MMP2). Proteolytically active bands were also spontaneously released from HMW complexes. In skeletal muscles from both diseased and healthy animals, in nonreducing and nondenaturing conditions, we found no HMW complexes, and proteolytic activity was associated with the presence of 72 and 68 kDa bands (proMMP2 and MMP2).

  9. Expression and Complex Formation of MMP9, MMP2, NGAL, and TIMP1 in Porcine Myocardium but Not in Skeletal Muscles in Male Pigs with Tachycardia-Induced Systolic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Kiczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are involved in the remodeling of extracellular matrix in various tissues. Their functioning could be related to the formation of complexes, containing MMP9, MMP2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type 1 (TIMP1, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL. Such complexes have not been investigated in either myocardial or skeletal muscles. We examined 20 male pigs with heart failure (HF, and 5 sham-operated animals. There were no differences in the mRNA expression of MMP9, MMP2, TIMP1, and NGAL between diseased and healthy animals, in either left ventricle (LV myocardium or skeletal muscles. In LV from both diseased and healthy animals, in nonreducing and nondenaturing conditions, we demonstrated the presence of high molecular weight (HMW complexes (130, 170, and 220 kDa containing MMP9, TIMP1, and NGAL (also MMP2 in 220 kDa complex without proteolytic activity, and a proteolytically active 115 kDa MMP9 form together with 72 and 68 kDa bands (proMMP2 and MMP2. Proteolytically active bands were also spontaneously released from HMW complexes. In skeletal muscles from both diseased and healthy animals, in nonreducing and nondenaturing conditions, we found no HMW complexes, and proteolytic activity was associated with the presence of 72 and 68 kDa bands (proMMP2 and MMP2.

  10. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  11. Muscle MRI in pediatrics: clinical, pathological and genetic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cejas, Claudia P.; Serra, Maria M.; Galvez, David F.G. [Foundation for Neurological Research Dr. Raul Carrea (FLENI), Radiology Department, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cavassa, Eliana A.; Vazquez, Gabriel A.; Massaro, Mario E.L.; Schteinschneider, Angeles V. [Foundation for Neurological Research Dr. Raul Carrea (FLENI), Department of Neuropediatrics, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Taratuto, Ana L. [Foundation for Neurological Research Dr. Raul Carrea (FLENI), Neuropathology Consultant, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-05-15

    Pediatric myopathies comprise a very heterogeneous group of disorders that may develop at different ages and affect different muscle groups. Its diagnosis is sometimes difficult and must be confirmed by muscle biopsy and/or genetic analysis. In recent years, muscle involvement patterns observed on MRI have become a valuable tool, aiding clinical diagnosis and enriching pathological and genetic assessments. We selected eight myopathy cases from our institutional database in which the pattern of muscle involvement observed on MRI was almost pathognomonic and could therefore contribute to establishing diagnosis. Muscle biopsy, genetic diagnosis or both confirmed all cases. (orig.)

  12. Heart murmurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has 4 chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  13. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy: disuse and neurogenic. Disuse atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough . This type of atrophy can often be ...

  14. Muscle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  15. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  16. Renal biopsy in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Robaina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kidney disease is very common among the elderly. Over the last decades, the number of renal biopsies performed on these patients has increased. Objective: This study was carried out to examine the frequency and the clinical-pathological correlation of kidney disease in elderly patients who have had a renal biopsy done. Methods: The clinical presentation of kidney disease and the main histological findings were retrospectively analyzed in patients over 65 who had undergone renal biopsy (n=109 for a period of 12 years. Results: The total number of renal biopsies performed during this period was 871, out of which 109 (12.5% corresponded to patients over 65. The main indications for renal biopsies were nephrotic syndrome (37.6% and kidney failure (34.9%. Microscopic hematuria was found in 59.6% of the patients and high blood pressure in 62.4% of them. The most frequent histological diagnosis was membranous glomerulonephritis (21.1%, followed by extracapillary glomerulonephritis (20.2%. When clinical syndromes and histological findings were compared, the nephrotic syndrome was found to be the main feature of membranous nephropathy (78.3%, of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (55.6% and of diabetic nephropathy (66.7%. Kidney failure was present in 90% of the cases of extracapillary glomerulonephritis (95.5% pauciimmune or type 3. Microscopic hematuria was the main sign of mesangial prolifeative glomerulonephritis (83.3%. Conclusions: Nephrotic syndrome and kidney failure (especially rapidly progressive renal failure were the main renal biopsy results in this group of patients, bearing close relation to histological findings. The most common types of glomerulonephritis were membranous GN and pauciimmune extracapillary GN. Renal biopsy provides useful information for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of kidney disease in the elderly.

  17. CT-guided needle biopsy of lung lesions: A survey of severe complication based on 9783 biopsies in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduated School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: tomiyama@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yasuhara, Yoshifumi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Ehime National Hospital (Japan); Nakajima, Yasuo [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine (Japan); Adachi, Shuji [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Medical Center for Adults (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center (Japan); Kusumoto, Masahiko [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center (Japan); Eguchi, Kenji [Department of Oncology, Tokai University School of Medicine (Japan); Kuriyama, Keiko [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of the Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers (Japan); Sakai, Fumikazu [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan); Noguchi, Masayuki [Department of Pathology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Murata, Kiyoshi [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science (Japan); Murayama, Sadayuki [Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus (Japan); Mochizuki, Teruhito [Department of Radiology, Ehime University School of Medicine (Japan); Mori, Kiyoshi [Department of Thoracic Oncology, Tochigi Cancer Center (Japan); Yamada, Kozo [Department of Thoracic Oncology, Kanagawa Cancer Center (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to update the rate of severe complications following CT-guided needle biopsy in Japan via a mailed survey. Materials and methods: Postal questionnaires regarding CT-guided needle biopsy were sent out to multiple hospitals in Japan. The questions regarded: the total number and duration of CT-guided lung biopsies performed at each hospital, and the complication rates and numbers of pneumothorax, hemothorax, air embolism, tumor seeding, tension pneumothorax and other rare complications. Each severe complication was followed with additional questions. Results: Data from 9783 biopsies was collected from 124 centers. Pneumothorax was the most common complication, and occurred in 2412 (35%) of 6881 cases. A total of 39 (35%) hospitals reported 74 (0.75%) cases with severe complications. There were six cases (0.061%) with air embolism, six cases (0.061%) with tumor seeding at the site of the biopsy route, 10 cases (0.10%) with tension pneumothorax, six cases (0.061%) with severe pulmonary hemorrhage or hemoptysis, nine cases (0.092%) with hemothorax, and 27 cases (0.26%) with others, including heart arrest, shock, and respiratory arrest. From a total of 62 patients with severe complications, 54 patients (0.55%) recovered without sequela, however one patient (0.01%) recovered with hemiplegia due to cerebral infarction, and the remaining seven patients (0.07%) died. Conclusions: This is the first national study documenting severe complications with respect to CT-guided needle biopsy in Japan. The complication rate in Japan is comparable to internationally published figures. We believe this data will improve both clinicians as well as patients understanding of the risk versus benefit of CT-guided needle biopsy, resulting better decisions.

  18. Single cell morphology of muscle in patients with chronic muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Bartels, E M; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1991-01-01

    In 119 patients referred with suspected fibromyalgia, biopsies from the quadriceps muscle were analyzed for "rubber band" morphology, and isokinetic quadriceps strength was measured. Eighty-four fulfilled the criteria for fibromyalgia, 26 had chronic myofascial pain (CMP) and 9 had other diseases...... in biopsy score was found between the two matched groups (P = 0.003); median biopsy score in fibromyalgia was 0.42 and 0.25 in CMP. A cut-off value at 0.33 gave a specificity of 71% and a sensitivity of 63%. Isokinetic muscle strength did not differ in the fibromyalgia and CMP groups and was not related...

  19. Lessons from the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth; Birnbaum, Burton H.

    Learning about the relationship between heart rate and physical activity is an important aspect of fitness education. Use of a heart rate monitor (HRM) helps a student to understand how stretching and large muscle movements gradually increase the heart rate and blood flow, and enables students to measure their exercise heart rates and set goals…

  20. Ultrasound-guided forceps for pleural biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Agmy

    2014-04-01

    Clinical implications: Ultrasound-guided forceps for pleural biopsy can overcome many of the limitations of the conventional needle biopsy procedures, provides multiple biopsy specimens of the parietal pleura that are inaccessible to the biopsy needle, and can be carried out easily and safely even in sick and obese patients. The diagnostic yield is nearly similar to thoracoscopy.

  1. Commonly Asked Questions about Children and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an enlarged heart include weakness of the heart muscle (a condition called dilated cardiomyopathy), rheumatic fever (infrequent in the United States ), infection of the heart valves (called endocarditis), and a previously unknown congenital abnormality of the heart or blood vessels. Heart attacks, ...

  2. Striated muscle fiber size, composition and capillary density in diabetes in relation to neuropathy and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christer Swan; Jensen, Jacob Malte; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    study was to evaluate histologic properties and capillarization of diabetic skeletal muscle in relation to DPN and muscle strength. METHODS: Twenty type 1 and 20 type 2 diabetic (T1D and T2D, respectively) patients underwent biopsy of the gastrocnemic muscle, isokinetic dynamometry at the ankle......, electrophysiological studies, clinical examination, and quantitative sensory examinations. Muscle biopsies were stained immunohistochemically and muscle fiber diameter, fiber type distribution, and capillary density determined. Twenty control subjects were also included in the study. RESULTS: No relationship was found...... between muscle fiber diameter, muscle fiber type distribution, or capillary density and degree of neuropathy or muscle strength for either patient group. Muscle fiber diameter and the proportion of Type II fibers were greater for T1D patients than both T2D patients and controls. The T2D patients had fewer...

  3. A Novel Mannose-binding Lectin/Ficolin-associated Protein Is Highly Expressed in Heart and Skeletal Muscle Tissues and Inhibits Complement Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoedt, M.-o.; Hummelshoj, T.; Palarasah, Y.

    2010-01-01

    -terminal amino acids. By use of quantitative PCR and MAP-1-specific immunohistochemistry, we found that MAP-1 is highly expressed in myocardial and skeletal muscle tissues as well as in liver hepatocytes with a different expression profile than that observed for MASP-1 and MASP-3. MAP-1 co-precipitated from...

  4. Spatial distribution of "tissue-specific" antigens in the developing human heart and skeletal muscle. II. An immunohistochemical analysis of myosin heavy chain isoform expression patterns in the embryonic heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, A.; Vermeulen, J. L.; Virágh, S.; Kálmán, F.; Lamers, W. H.; Moorman, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    The spatial distribution of alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chain isoforms (MHCs) was investigated immunohistochemically in the embryonic human heart between the 4th and the 8th week of development. The development of the overall MHC isoform expression pattern can be outlined as follows: (1) In all

  5. Label-Free LC-MS Profiling of Skeletal Muscle Reveals Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Candidate Biomarker of Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Zulezwan Ab; Cobley, James N; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L; Edwards, Ben J; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Burniston, Jatin G

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its inability to resolve all proteins. In contrast, orthogonal separation by SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) affords deep mining of the muscle proteome, but differential analysis between samples is challenging due to the greater level of fractionation and the complexities of quantifying proteins based on the abundances of their tryptic peptides. Here we report simple, semi-automated and time efficient ( i.e ., 3 h per sample) proteome profiling of skeletal muscle by 1-dimensional RPLC electrospray ionisation tandem MS. Solei were analysed from rats (n = 5, in each group) bred as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively) that exhibited a 6.4-fold difference (1,625 ± 112 m vs . 252 ± 43 m, p ions, which spanned three orders of magnitude. In total, 207 proteins were analysed, which encompassed almost all enzymes of the major metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The most abundant protein detected was type I myosin heavy chain (RA = 5,843 ± 897) and the least abundant protein detected was heat shock 70 kDa protein (RA = 2 ± 0.5). Sixteen proteins were significantly ( p ion (551.21 m/z ) of the doubly-charged peptide SLGVGFATR (454.19 m/z ) of residues 23-31 of FABPH. SRM was conducted on technical replicates of each biological sample and exhibited a coefficient of variation of 20%. The abundance of FABPH measured by SRM was 2.84-fold greater ( p = 0.0095) in HCR muscle. In addition, SRM of FABPH was performed in vastus lateralis samples of young and elderly humans with different habitual activity levels (collected during a previous study) finding FABPH abundance was 2.23-fold greater ( p = 0.0396) in endurance-trained individuals regardless of differences in age. In summary, our findings in HCR/LCR rats provide protein-level confirmation for

  6. Effects of high-intensity interval training on central haemodynamics and skeletal muscle oxygenation during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, Ruud F.; Niemeijer, Victor M.; Wijn, Pieter F. F.; Doevendans, Pieter A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164248366; Kemps, Hareld M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background High-intensity interval training (HIT) improves exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Moreover, HIT was associated with improved resting cardiac function. However, the extent to which these improvements actually contribute to training-induced changes in exercise

  7. MRI-guided Wire Localization Surgical Biopsy in an Adolescent Patient with a Difficult to Diagnose Case of Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Scott M., E-mail: Thompson.scott@mayo.edu; Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Jondal, Danielle E. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); Rech, Karen L. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (United States); Mardini, Samir [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery (United States); Woodrum, David A. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-01-15

    A 17-year-old previously healthy female presented with a progressive soft tissue infiltrative process involving the neck and thorax. Extensive diagnostic evaluation including multiple imaging, laboratory, and biopsy studies was nondiagnostic. Due to an urgent need to establish a diagnosis and several previous nondiagnostic biopsies, she was referred to interventional radiology for MRI-guided wire localization immediately prior to open surgical biopsy. Under general anesthesia, wires were placed in the areas of increased T2 signal within the bilateral splenius capitis muscles using intermittent MRI-guidance followed by immediate surgical biopsy down to the wires. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  8. Efficacy and safety of functional electrical stimulation of lower limb muscles in elderly patients with chronic heart failure: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parissis, John; Karavidas, Apostolos; Farmakis, Dimitrios; Papoutsidakis, Nikolaos; Matzaraki, Vassiliki; Arapi, Sofia; Potamitis, Nikolaos; Nikolaou, Maria; Paraskevaidis, Ioannis; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Pyrgakis, Vlassios; Kremastinos, Dimitrios; Lekakis, John; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2015-07-01

    Exercise training is an established modality in chronic heart failure. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is an effective alternative mode of training in patients unwilling or unable to exercise; however, it has not been investigated in elderly patients. We sought to investigate the effects of FES on functional status, quality of life, emotional status and endothelial function in chronic heart failure patients aged 70 years or higher. Thirty patients with stable systolic chronic heart failure (mean age 75 ± 3 years, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II/III, 37%/63%) randomly underwent a six-week FES training programme or placebo. Questionnaires addressing quality of life (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), functional and overall) and emotional stress (Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)), as well as endothelial function (flow-mediated dilatation) were assessed at baseline and upon protocol completion. A significant improvement in NYHA class (p=0.005), KCCQ-functional (F=68.6, p for interaction<0.001), KCCQ-overall (F=66.9, p<0.001), BDI (F=66.3, p<0.001) and Zung SDS (F=95.1, p<0.001) was observed in the FES group compared to placebo. Patients in the FES group also had a significant increase in flow-mediated dilatation compared with placebo (F=59.1, p<0.01). FES-induced per cent change in flow-mediated dilatation was significantly correlated with respective per cent change in KCCQ functional (r=0.386, p=0.039). In this pilot study, FES effectively improved functional status, quality of life, motional stress and endothelial function in elderly chronic heart failure patients and warrants further investigation in this particular group of patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Exercise Intolerance in Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Gustafsson, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Exercise tolerance is affected in patients with heart failure (HF). Although the inability of the heart to pump blood to the working muscle has been the conventional mechanism proposed to explain the lowered capacity of patients with HF to exercise, evidence suggests that the pathophysiological...

  10. Anti-fibrotic effect of pirfenidone in muscle derived-fibroblasts from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Simona; Bragato, Cinzia; Zucchella, Andrea; Maggi, Lorenzo; Mantegazza, Renato; Morandi, Lucia; Mora, Marina

    2016-01-15

    Tissue fibrosis, characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, is the end point of diseases affecting the kidney, bladder, liver, lung, gut, skin, heart and muscle. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), connective fibrotic tissue progressively substitutes muscle fibers. So far no specific pharmacological treatment is available for muscle fibrosis. Among promising anti-fibrotic molecules, pirfenidone has shown anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory activity in animal and cell models, and has already been employed in clinical trials. Therefore we tested pirfenidone anti-fibrotic properties in an in vitro model of muscle fibrosis. We evaluated effect of pirfenidone on fibroblasts isolated from DMD muscle biopsies. These cells have been previously characterized as having a pro-fibrotic phenotype. We tested cell proliferation and migration, secretion of soluble collagens, intracellular levels of collagen type I and fibronectin, and diameter of 3D fibrotic nodules. We found that pirfenidone significantly reduced proliferation and cell migration of control and DMD muscle-derived fibroblasts, decreased extracellular secretion of soluble collagens by control and DMD fibroblasts, as well as levels of collagen type I and fibronectin, and, in DMD fibroblasts only, reduced synthesis and deposition of intracellular collagen. Furthermore, pirfenidone was able to reduce the diameter of fibrotic-nodules in our 3D model of in vitro fibrosis. These pre-clinical results indicate that pirfenidone has potential anti-fibrotic effects also in skeletal muscle fibrosis, urging further studies in in vivo animal models of muscular dystrophy in order to translate the drug into the treatment of muscle fibrosis in DMD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of Biopsy in Pediatric Dermatopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Şule Afşa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Pediatric dermatology is characterized by skin disorders which have frequencies different from those in adults. Skin biopsies are necessary for differential diagnosis and clinicopathologic correlation is very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the pediatric dermatology cases in whom biopsy was performed for differential diagnosis and to investigate the contribution of biopsy to diagnosis of skin disorders. Material and Methods: The cases from whom biopsy was taken in the pediatric dermatology clinic during a three-year period were evaluated retrospectively for pre-diagnoses, biopsy diagnoses, and success of biopsies.Results: Two hundred thirteen (1.7% skin biopsies had been taken from a total of 12420 patients. Henoch-Schönlein purpura, psoriasis, pityriasis lichenoides, pityriasis rosea, lichen planus, pityriasis rubra pilaris, erythema multiforme, atopic dermatitis, granuloma annulare, and pigmented purpuric dermatosis were the most frequent skin disorders diagnosed dermatopathologically. In a total of 120 (56.3% cases, the biopsy diagnosis was within the pre-diagnosis and a biopsy consistency was present. In 25 (11.7% cases, biopsy had no contribution to the differential diagnosis. An absolutely different diagnosis which was incompatible with the pre-diagnosis had been reported in 10 (4.6% cases. Conclusion: In pediatric dermatology, skin biopsy is very helpful for the differential diagnosis. An easy biopsy procedure for the patient, an effective designation of biopsy indication, a good dermatopathologic correlation and an experienced team of pediatric dermatopathology increase the success of skin biopsies.

  12. [Magnetic resonance imaging in chronic Chagas cardiopathy. Correlation with endomyocardial biopsy findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, R; Bocchi, E A; Ferreira, B M; de Lourdes Higuchi, M; Lopes, N H; Magalhães, A C; Mady, C; Pereira Barretto, A C; Albuquerque, C P; Bellotti, G

    1995-11-01

    To study the correlation between magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and right ventricle endomyocardial biopsy results in chronic Chagas' heart disease. Ten patients with Chagas' disease, mean age 47 +/- 7 years, all males, in congestive heart failure with New York Heart Association class II (2 patients), III (6) and IV (2) were studied. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was at echocardiogram 36 +/- 6%. The patients were submitted to right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy and magnetic resonance imaging of the heart. The results of this group were compared with a control group of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, with mean age of 46 +/- 10 years and left ventricular ejection fraction of 30 +/- 4%, in heart failure with functional class II (1 patient), III (5) and IV (1). All patients with Chagas' heart disease presented an increase in magnetic ressonance imaging signal of the heart after gadolinium use. The septal signal intensity changed from 0.87 +/- 0.06 to 1.54 +/- 0.16 (p magnetic resonance imaging of the heart seems a promising alternative method for the diagnosis of an inflammatory process in Chagas' heart disease.

  13. First Description of a New Disease in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)) Similar to Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI) and Detection of a Gene Sequence Related to Piscine Orthoreovirus (PRV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anne Berit; Hjortaas, Monika; Tengs, Torstein; Hellberg, Hege; Johansen, Renate

    2015-01-01

    In fall 2013, anorexia, lethargy and mortalities up to 10-12,000 dead fish per week were observed in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in three fresh water hatcheries (salinity 0-1 ‰) on the west coast of Norway. The fish (25-100 g) showed signs of circulatory failure with haemorrhages, ascites and anaemia. The histopathological findings comprised inflammation of the heart and red muscle and liver necrosis. The affected fish had a common origin. Disease and mortalities were also observed up to four months after sea water transfer. Microbiological examination did not reveal presence of any known pathogens. Based on histopathological similarities to heart and skeletal inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon, associated with piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), extended investigations to detect a virus within the family Reoviridae were conducted. By the use of primer sets targeting the PRV genome, a sequence with 85% identity to a part of segment S1 of PRV was obtained. Further analysis showed that the virus sequence could only be aligned with PRV and no other reoviruses both on amino acid and nucleotide level. Two PCR assays were developed for specific detection of the virus. High amounts of the virus were detected in diseased fish at all affected farms and low amounts were detected in low prevalence at the broodfish farms. Further investigations are needed to determine if the virus is associated with the new disease in rainbow trout and to further characterize the virus with respect to classification, relationship with PRV, virulence, pathology and epidemiology.

  14. Muscle-derived interleukin-6: lipolytic, anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Steensberg, Adam; Keller, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced locally in working skeletal muscle and can account for the exercise-induced increase in plasma IL-6. The transcription rate for IL-6 in muscle nuclei isolated from muscle biopsies during exercise is very high and is enhanced further when muscle glycogen content...

  15. Tissue-specific and substrate-specific mitochondrial bioenergetics in feline cardiac and skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Dela, Flemming; Koch, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    fibers. Biopsies of left ventricular cardiac muscle and soleus muscle, a type I-rich oxidative skeletal muscle, were obtained from 15 healthy domestic cats. Enzymatic activity of citrate synthase (CS), a biomarker of mitochondrial content, was measured. Mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity with various kinds......-specific quantitative and qualitative differences in mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity between the different types of oxidative muscles from cats....

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrugia, M.E. [Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.e.farrugia@doctors.org.uk; Bydder, G.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103-8226 (United States); Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D. [OCMR, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders.

  17. Oral Biopsy: A Dental Gawk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the oral cavity is a safe and useful technique that can be easily employed by dermatologists. Biopsies should be kept superficial, and neurovascular structures must be avoided to prevent complications. The primary step in oral cancer detection and diagnosis is patient history and thorough soft-tissue examination.

  18. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous, suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies.

  19. Expression of interleukin-15 in human skeletal muscle effect of exercise and muscle fibre type composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rinnov; Mounier, Remi; Plomgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    lateralis quadriceps and soleus muscle biopsies were obtained from normally physically active, healthy, young male volunteers (n = 14), because these muscles are characterized by having different fibre-type compositions. In addition, healthy, normally physically active male subjects (n = 8) not involved...... in any kind of resistance exercise underwent a heavy resistance exercise protocol that stimulated the vastus lateralis muscle and biopsies were obtained from this muscle pre-exercise as well as 6, 24 and 48 h post-exercise. IL-15 mRNA levels were twofold higher in the triceps (type 2 fibre dominance......The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) has been demonstrated to have anabolic effects in cell culture systems. We tested the hypothesis that IL-15 is predominantly expressed by type 2 skeletal muscle fibres, and that resistance exercise regulates IL-15 expression in muscle. Triceps brachii, vastus...

  20. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology in ACTA1-related congenital nemaline myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Claudia; Cassandrini, Denis; Fattori, Fabiana; Bellacchio, Emanuele; D'Amico, Adele; Alvarez, Karin; Gejman, Roger; Diaz, Jorge; Santorelli, Filippo M; Romero, Norma B; Bertini, Enrico; Bevilacqua, Jorge A

    2014-12-01

    Muscle biopsy is usually diagnostic in nemaline myopathy (NM), but some patients may show nonspecific findings, leading to pitfalls in diagnosis. Muscle MRI is a helpful complementary tool. We assessed the clinical, histopathological, MRI, and molecular findings in a 19-year-old patient with NM in whom 2 muscle biopsies with ultrastructural examination showed no nemaline bodies. We analyzed the degree and pattern of muscle MRI involvement of the entire body, including the tongue and pectoral muscles. Muscle MRI abnormalities in sartorius, adductor magnus, and anterior compartment muscles of the leg suggested NM. A previously unreported fatty infiltration of the tongue was found. A third biopsy after the muscle MRI showed scant nemaline bodies. A novel heterozygous de novo ACTA1 c.611C>T/p.Thr204Ile mutation was detected. We highlight the contribution of muscle imaging in addressing the genetic diagnosis of ACTA1-related NM. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cardiac BIN1 (cBIN1) is a regulator of cardiac contractile function and an emerging biomarker of heart muscle health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kang; Hong, Tingting

    2017-03-01

    In recent decades, a cardiomyocyte membrane scaffolding protein bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) has emerged as a critical multifunctional regulator of transverse-tubule (t-tubule) function and calcium signaling in cardiomyocytes. Encoded by a single gene with 20 exons that are alternatively spliced, more than ten BIN1 protein isoforms are expressed with tissue and disease specificity. The recently discovered cardiac alternatively spliced isoform BIN1 (cBIN1 or BIN1+13+17)plays a crucial role in organizing membrane microfolds within cardiac t-tubules. These cBIN1-induced microfolds form functional dyad microdomains by trafficking L-type calcium channels (LTCC) to t-tubule membrane and recruiting ryanodine receptors (RyR) to junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. When cBIN1 is transcriptionally reduced as occurs in heart failure, cBIN1-microfolds are disrupted and fail to form LTCC and RyR couplons. As a result, impaired dyad formation limits excitation-contraction coupling thus cardiac contractility, and accumulation of orphaned leaky RyRs outside of dyads increases ventricular arrhythmias. Reduced myocardial BIN1 in heart failure is also detectable at the blood level, and plasma BIN1 level predicts heart failure progression and future arrhythmias in cardiomyopathy patients. Here we will review the recent progress in BIN1-related cardiomyocyte biology studies and discuss the diagnostic and predictive values of cBIN1 in future clinical use.

  2. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type of heart disease you have. Symptoms of heart disease in your blood vessels (atherosclerotic disease) Cardiovascular disease ... can sometimes be found early with regular evaluations. Heart disease symptoms caused by abnormal heartbeats (heart arrhythmias) A ...

  3. Retroperitoneoscopic renal biopsy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Jesus

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We present our experience in a series of 17 consecutive pediatric patients submitted to retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy (LRB was performed in 5 boys and 12 girls. Mean age was 8.1 years and age range from 2 to 12. Two or three trocars were used to expose the inferior pole of the kidney, remove enough cortical parenchymal specimen and fulgurate the biopsy site. Assessment included surgical time, estimated blood loss, hospitalization period, analgesia requirements, complications and number of glomeruli present in the specimen. RESULTS: LRB was successfully performed in all 15 patients (88%. In two cases, LRB was not possible to be performed. One patient was converted to a transperitoneal laparoscopy due to tear in the peritoneum. The other patient had had previous abdominal surgery and, during retroperitoneal balloon dilation, the peritoneum was opened and the open biopsy was performed. A third patient had postoperatively a perirenal hematoma, which was solved spontaneously. Complication rate was 17.6% (3/17 cases. Mean operative time was 65 minutes, while mean estimated blood loss was 52 mL, mean hospital stay was 2.2 days and mean analgesic requirement was 100 mg of tramadol. The mean number of glomeruli present in the specimen was 60. CONCLUSION: Retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy in children is a simple, safe. Bleeding is still the most common complication. However, direct vision usually allows a safe control of this drawback. In our institution, laparoscopic approach is the chosen procedure in pediatric patients older than one - year - old.

  4. When to biopsy seminal vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panach-Navarrete, J; García-Morata, F; Hernández-Medina, J A; Martínez-Jabaloyas, J M

    2015-05-01

    The involvement of seminal vesicles in prostate cancer can affect the prognosis and determine the treatment. The objective of this study was to determine whether we could predict its infiltration at the time of the prostate biopsy to know when to indicate the biopsy of the seminal vesicles. observational retrospective study of 466 patients who underwent seminal vesicle biopsy. The indication for this biopsy was a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level greater than 10 ng/ml or an asymmetric or obliterated prostatoseminal angle. The following variables were included in the analysis: PSA level, PSA density, prostate volume, number of cores biopsied, suspicious rectal examination, and preservation of the prostatoseminal angle, studying its relationship with the involvement of the seminal vesicles. Forty-one patients (8.8%) had infiltrated seminal vesicles and 425 (91.2%) had no involvement. In the univariate analysis, the cases with infiltration had a higher mean PSA level (P 19.60 ng/dL (P < .01) and 2.95 times higher if there is a suspicious rectal examination (P = .014). Furthermore, this probability increases by 1.04 times for each unit of prostate volume lower (P < .01). The ROC curves showed maximum sensitivity and specificity at 19.6 ng/mL for PSA and 0.39 for PSA density. In this series, greater involvement of seminal vesicles was associated with a PSA level ≥20 ng/ml, a suspicious rectal examination and a lack of prostatoseminal angle preservation. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. One 10-core prostate biopsy is superior to two sets of sextant prostate biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, K G; Hutarew, G; Pytel, A; Esterbauer, B; Jungwirth, A; Dietze, O; Schmeller, N T

    2003-09-01

    To compare the efficiency of different transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy techniques for detecting prostate cancer. In all, 81 prostates from radical prostatectomy were used and two consecutive sets of sextant biopsies and one 10-core biopsy taken in each specimen. The 10-core biopsy consisted of a sextant biopsy and four cores from the far lateral areas of the prostate. To simulate a transrectal biopsy procedure, all biopsies were taken under TRUS guidance. In the first set of sextant biopsies 44 prostate cancers (54%) were detected and in the second set 51 (63%). Combining both sets of sextant biopsies 57 (70%) of the carcinomas were detected. One set of 10-core biopsies detected 66 (82%) of all prostate cancers. Overall, with the 10-core biopsies 16% more prostate tumours were diagnosed than with two consecutive sets of sextant biopsies. To find the same number of prostate cancers as with the 10-core technique, 14% of patients undergoing sextant biopsy would require a second set and 11% at least a third set of biopsies. The 10-core prostate biopsy technique is superior to the commonly used sextant technique and could spare patients unnecessary repeated biopsy. Even after including a second set of sextant biopsies, the total detection rate with these 12 biopsies was inferior to the 10-core technique.

  6. Changes in muscle strength and morphology after muscle unloading in Special Forces missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, J B; Jakobsen, O; Madsen, T

    2011-01-01

    ) and immediately after (post1) an 8-day simulated special support and reconnaissance (SSR) mission and after 3 h of active recovery (post2). Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) were measured along with maximal counter movement jump height (JH). Muscle biopsies were obtained from...... the vastus lateralis at pre and post1. Acute reductions were found in MVC (11%), JH (10%) and RFD (17-22%) after 8 days of muscle unloading (post1) (P...

  7. Clinical course correlates poorly with muscle pathology in nemaline myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, MM; Ilkovski, B; Strickland, CD; Schnell, C; Sanoudou, D; Midgett, C; Houston, R; Muirhead, D; Dermett, [No Value; Shield, LK; De Girolami, U; Iannaccone, ST; Laing, NG; North, KN; Beggs, AH

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To report pathologic findings in 124 Australian and North American cases of primary nemaline myopathy. Methods: Results of 164 muscle biopsies from 124 Australian and North American patients with primary nemaline myopathy were reviewed, including biopsies from 19 patients with nemaline

  8. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  9. Twelve-Hour Hypothermic Machine Perfusion for Donor Heart Preservation Leads to Improved Ultrastructural Characteristics Compared to Conventional Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Sebastian G; La Muraglia, Glenn M; Madariaga, Maria Lucia L; Titus, James S; Selig, Martin K; Farkash, Evan A; Allan, James S; Anderson, Lisa M; Madsen, Joren C

    2015-08-11

    BACKGROUND Hypothermic machine perfusion of donor hearts has the theoretical advantage of continuous aerobic metabolism and washes out toxic metabolic byproducts. Here, we studied the effect of hypothermic machine perfusion on cardiac myocyte integrity when hearts are preserved for longer ischemic times (12 hours). MATERIAL AND METHODS Pig hearts were harvested and stored in Celsior® solution for 12 hours using either conventional cold storage on ice (12 h CS, n=3) or pulsatile perfusion with the Paragonix Sherpa Perfusion™ Cardiac Transport System at different flow rates (12 h PP, n=3 or 12 h PP low flow, n=2). After cold preservation, hearts were reperfused using an LV isovolumic Langendorff system. Controls (n=3) were reperfused immediately after organ harvest. Biopsies were taken from the apex of the left ventricle before storage, after storage and after reperfusion to measure ATP and endothelin-1 content in the tissue. TUNEL staining for signs of apoptosis and electron microscopy of the donor hearts were performed. RESULTS 12 h PP hearts showed significantly more weight gain than 12 h CS and controls after preservation. Pulsatile perfused hearts showed less ATP depletion, lower endothelin-1 levels and less apoptosis after preservation compared to CS. Electron microscopy showed damaged muscle fibers, endothelial cell rupture, and injury of mitochondria in the 12 h CS group, while machine perfusion could preserve the cell structures. CONCLUSIONS Hypothermic machine perfusion of donor hearts can preserve the cell structures better than conventional cold storage in prolonged ischemic times. Hypothermic pulsatile perfusion may therefore enable longer preservation times of donor hearts. Whether this method is able to avoid primary graft failure after orthotopic heart transplantation remains to be evaluated in further studies.

  10. Muscle disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  11. Music for reducing the anxiety and pain of patients undergoing the biopsy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingzhi; Li, Nanyang; Zhang, Xianbin; Shang, Yuru; Yan, Litao; Chu, Jin; Sun, Ran; Xu, Yun

    2017-11-23

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of music therapy for reducing the anxiety and pain of patients who underwent the biopsy. Music can affect human anxiety and pain by triggering a neuroendocrine effect. Clinical study results indicated that music can influence the anxiety and pain caused by invasive procedures. There is no effective solution for anxiety and pain arising from a biopsy. Although researchers in this field have different views, music still holds promise in reducing the anxiety and pain in patients undergoing the biopsy. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Systematic searches were conducted in Pubmed, Embase, Medline and Cochrane databases for studies reported in the English language. The review period covered 2000 - December 2016. The outcome measure of interest was anxiety and pain. This review followed Cochrane methods. Studies were selected according to the PICOS framework. The methodological quality of studies was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A systematic review of effectiveness was conducted by using GRADE approach. Nine randomized controlled trials with a total of 326 participants in the music intervention group and 323 controls met the inclusion criteria. Music had a tendency towards decreasing systolic blood pressure before the biopsy, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores after the biopsy, diastolic blood pressure after the biopsy and heart rate after the biopsy. Similarly, music also tended to be more effective for controlling pain after the biopsy. There was moderate quality evidence for the outcome: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores after the biopsy; and low or very low quality evidence for other outcomes. Music can be used for patients before and during the biopsy procedure. This approach may be performed by nurses to promote the recovery of patients after the biopsy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  12. Melanoma Biopsy Results Can Differ, Worrying Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166955.html Melanoma Biopsy Results Can Differ, Worrying Patients Doctor discovers ... her dermatologist said her skin biopsy indicated possible melanoma, she knew just what to do -- get a ...

  13. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various ...

  14. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various other investigations ...

  15. Evaluation of transition zone and lateral sextant biopsies for prostate cancer detection after initial sextant biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Klaus G; Hutarew, Georg; Esterbauer, Brigitte; Pytel, Akos; Jungwirth, Andreas; Dietze, Otto; Schmeller, Nikolaus T

    2003-04-01

    To assess the value of transition zone and lateral sextant biopsies for the detection of prostate cancer after a previous sextant biopsy was negative. A total of 74 prostates after radical prostatectomy were used to perform biopsies ex vivo. First, a sextant biopsy was taken, then two different rebiopsy techniques were performed. Rebiopsy technique A consisted of a laterally placed sextant biopsy and two cores per side of the transition zones only. Rebiopsy technique B included a standard sextant biopsy and two cores per side from the lateral areas of the prostate. The biopsies were taken using ultrasound guidance to sample the areas of interest precisely. The initial sextant biopsy found 39 prostate cancers. Rebiopsy technique A found 12 cancers (34%). In this group, a laterally placed sextant biopsy found 12 cancers; transition zone biopsies revealed cancer in 5 cases, but no additional tumor was found. Rebiopsy technique B detected 23 prostate cancers (66%). Fourteen tumors were found after a second standard sextant biopsy, and nine additional tumors were found in the lateral areas. Sextant biopsy has a low sensitivity of only 53%. A biopsy including the transition zones is not the ideal technique for detecting the remaining tumors. Therefore, transition zone biopsies should be reserved for patients with multiple previous negative biopsies of the peripheral zone. A subsequent sextant biopsy with additional cores from the lateral areas of the prostate is favorable if rebiopsy is necessary after a negative sextant biopsy.

  16. Relationship of Pre-biopsy Multiparametric MRI and Biopsy Indication with MRI-US Fusion-Targeted Prostate Biopsy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaosong; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Mendhiratta, Neil; Fenstermaker, Michael; Huang, Richard; Wysock, James S.; Bjurlin, Marc; Marshall, Susan; Deng, Fang-Ming; Zhou, Ming; Melamed, Jonathan; Huang, William C.; Lepor, Herbert; Taneja, Samir S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increasing evidence supports the use of MRI-ultrasound fusion-targeted prostate biopsy (MRF-TB) to improve the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa) while limiting detection of indolent disease compared to systematic 12-core biopsy (SB). OBJECTIVE We report results of MRF-TB and SB and the relationship between biopsy outcomes and pre-biopsy MRI in 601 men presenting to our center. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Retrospective analysis of a prospectively acquired cohort of men presenting for prostate biopsy over a 26-month period. A total of 601 of 803 consecutively eligible men were included. INTERVENTIONS All men were offered pre-biopsy MRI and assigned a maximum MRI suspicion score (mSS). Men with an MRI abnormality underwent combined MRF-TB and SB. OUTCOMES Detection rate of all PCa and high-grade PCa (Gleason score (GS)≥7) were compared by McNemar's test. RESULTS MRF-TB detected fewer GS6 PCa (75 vs 121, pbiopsy history. Compared to SB, MRF-TB identified more GS≥7 cancer in men with no prior biopsy (88 vs 72, p=0.012), with prior negative biopsy (28 vs 16, p=0.010), and with prior cancer diagnosis (42 vs 29, p=0.043). MRF-TB detected fewer GS6 cancers in men with no prior biopsy (32 vs 60, pbiopsy detects more high-grade cancer than systematic biopsy while limiting detection of GS6 cancer in men presenting for prostate biopsy. These findings suggest that pre-biopsy mpMRI and MRF-TB should be considered in all men undergoing prostate biopsy and, in conjunction with biopsy indication, mSS may ultimately help identify a select group of men at low risk of high-grade cancer in whom prostate biopsy may not be warranted. PMID:26112001

  17. Emerging concepts in liquid biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Samantha; Speicher, Michael R

    2017-04-06

    Characterizing and monitoring tumor genomes with blood samples could achieve significant improvements in precision medicine. As tumors shed parts of themselves into the circulation, analyses of circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, and tumor-derived exosomes, often referred to as "liquid biopsies", may enable tumor genome characterization by minimally invasive means. Indeed, multiple studies have described how molecular information about parent tumors can be extracted from these components. Here, we briefly summarize current technologies and then elaborate on emerging novel concepts that may further propel the field. We address normal and detectable mutation levels in the context of our current knowledge regarding the gradual accumulation of mutations during aging and in light of technological limitations. Finally, we discuss whether liquid biopsies are ready to be used in routine clinical practice.

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Curved Biopsy Device for CT-Guided Biopsy of Lesions Unreachable Using Standard Straight Needle Trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Hagen, Maximilian Franz, E-mail: mschulze@ukaachen.de; Pfeffer, Jochen; Zimmermann, Markus; Liebl, Martin [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Stillfried, Saskia Freifrau von [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Pathology (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane; Bruners, Philipp; Isfort, Peter [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the feasibility of a novel curved CT-guided biopsy needle prototype with shape memory to access otherwise not accessible biopsy targets.Methods and MaterialsA biopsy needle curved by 90° with specific radius was designed. It was manufactured using nitinol to acquire shape memory, encased in a straight guiding trocar to be driven out for access of otherwise inaccessible targets. Fifty CT-guided punctures were conducted in a biopsy phantom and 10 CT-guided punctures in a swine corpse. Biposies from porcine liver and muscle tissue were separately gained using the biopsy device, and histological examination was performed subsequently.ResultsMean time for placement of the trocar and deployment of the inner biopsy needle was ~205 ± 69 and ~93 ± 58 s, respectively, with a mean of ~4.5 ± 1.3 steps to reach adequate biopsy position. Mean distance from the tip of the needle to the target was ~0.7 ± 0.8 mm. CT-guided punctures in the swine corpse took relatively longer and required more biopsy steps (~574 ± 107 and ~380 ± 148 s, 8 ± 2.6 steps). Histology demonstrated appropriate tissue samples in nine out of ten cases (90%).ConclusionsTargets that were otherwise inaccessible via standard straight needle trajectories could be successfully reached with the curved biopsy needle prototype. Shape memory and preformed size with specific radius of the curved needle simplify the target accessibility with a low risk of injuring adjacent structures.

  19. Contribution of nasal biopsy to leprosy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Naves, Marcell; Gomes Patrocinio, Lucas; Patrocinio, José Antonio; Naves Mota, Flávia Marques; Diniz de Souza, Antônio; Negrão Fleury, Raul; Bernardes Goulart, Isabela Maria

    2009-01-01

    The nasal mucosa plays the main role as the entry and the exit of leprosy bacilli and the nasal involvement may precede the skin lesions by several years. Nasal biopsy has been used in research but its clinical application has not been described. We evaluated the contribution of the nasal biopsy for the diagnosis of leprosy and its correlation to skin biopsy and skin smear in untreated patients. We evaluated changes in nasal biopsy in 227 leprosy patients. Patients were clinically classified and skin and nasal biopsies and skin smear were performed. Nasal biopsy showed positivity in 100% of the lepromatous spectrum decreasing toward the tuberculoid (TT) pole. Patients with TT or indeterminate forms did not present any nasal alterations, showing that they are the true paucibacillary forms. Also, the nasal biopsies of two patients were the only exam to show positivity. The bacillary index of the nasal biopsy was strongly correlated to skin biopsy and slit-skin smear. Additionally, the agreement among the exams was good, revealing the reliability of the nasal biopsy in leprosy diagnosis. The present study showed a rate of 48% of positivity in nasal biopsy of untreated patients, correlating well with skin biopsy and skin smear. Thus, the method in leprosy diagnosis and clinical form classification has shown great reliability.

  20. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Autopsy; biopsy. 718.106 Section 718.106... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in connection with a claim shall include a detailed gross macroscopic and...

  1. Freehand biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, C; Nielsen, Marie Kristina Rue; Nielsen, M Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking....

  2. Percutaneous lung biopsy: technique, efficacy, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Ronald S; Pua, Bradley B; Sullivan, Brian W; Madoff, David C

    2013-06-01

    Computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung is an indispensable tool in the evaluation of pulmonary abnormalities due to its high diagnostic accuracy in the detection of malignancy. Percutaneous biopsy in the lung plays a critical role in obtaining pathologic proof of malignancy, guiding staging and planning treatment. This article reviews biopsy techniques and their related efficacy and complications.

  3. Breast magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Bo La; Kim, Sun Mi; Jang, Mi Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Despite the high sensitivity of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathologic confirmation by biopsy is essential because of limited specificity. MRI-guided biopsy is required in patients with lesions only seen on MRI. We review preprocedural considerations and the technique of MRI-guided biopsy, challenging situations and trouble-shooting, and correlation of radiologic and pathologic findings.

  4. High risk of ischemic heart disease in patients with lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Starklint, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a cohort of 104 Danish patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis (LN).......To investigate the occurrence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a cohort of 104 Danish patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis (LN)....

  5. Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the FOD? Foundation Levels of Giving Governance By-Laws Committees Committee Service Conflict of Interest ... Meeting OMED 2017 AOCD Session Meeting Feedback Sponsors Corporate Members Exhibitors Information for Corporate Members Publications DermLine ...

  6. Parotid gland biopsy compared with labial biopsy in the diagnosis of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, J.; Kalk, W. W. I.; van der Wal, J. E.; Vissink, A.; Kluin, Ph. M.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.; Bootsma, H.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.

    Objective. To assess the value of the parotid biopsy as a diagnostic tool for primary Sjogren's syndrome ( pSS), and to compare the parotid biopsy and the labial biopsy with regard to diagnostic value and biopsy-related morbidity. Methods. In 15 consecutive patients with pSS and 20 controls, the

  7. [The advance of ultrasound guided prostate biopsy--comparison between 4 quadrant and 6 sextant biopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitoya, S; Maeda, H; Arai, Y

    1998-08-01

    Although systematic biopsy has increased the detection rate of prostate cancer, the optimal method of biopsy has not yet been fully established. The number and site of cores, and the biopsy route are controversial in terms of cancer detection and complication. We briefly review the advances in prostate biopsy, and present the results of our biopsy methods. Our study showed that the difference of cancer detection rate between 4 quadrant and 6 sextant biopsy was not significant. There was little value in systematic transition zone biopsies. However, such biopsies proved useful in patients whose first systematic biopsies was negative and who have persistently elevated PSA values. It is recommended that the biopsy protocol for routine prostate cancer detection be targeted to the peripheral zone.

  8. Muscle irisin response to aerobic vs HIIT in overweight female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archundia-Herrera, Carolina; Macias-Cervantes, Maciste; Ruiz-Muñoz, Bernardo; Vargas-Ortiz, Katya; Kornhauser, Carlos; Perez-Vazquez, Victoriano

    2017-01-01

    Exercise stimulates the production of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), which is cleaved to release a protein called irisin. This protein induces browning of white adipose tissue resulting in increased thermogenesis. Different studies have measured circulating irisin at baseline and in response to exercise among a wide variety of individuals; yet, regarding the effect of different exercise intensities in obese adolescent girls, limited insight is available. This study compares the effect of acute aerobic exercise of moderate intensity and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on irisin levels in skeletal muscle and plasma of sedentary overweight or obese female adolescents. The aerobic group (n = 15) and HIIT group (n = 15) underwent anthropometric and metabolic measurements, electrocardiogram, peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ), and two vastus lateralis muscle biopsies before and after session of workout. The session of aerobic exercise included cycling at 65% of their peak heart rate (HRpeak) for 40 min. In the HIIT group, exercise included six bouts of 1 min at 85-95% HRpeak separated by 1 min of recovery. Irisin levels were evaluated in samples of skeletal muscle (western blot) and plasma (ELISA). The levels of expression of irisin in skeletal muscle increased significantly after a session of HIIT (p HIIT session. No increases in plasma irisin concentration were observed.

  9. The Application of a Massively Parallel Computer to the Simulation of Electrical Wave Propagation Phenomena in the Heart Muscle Using Simplified Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpoukhin, Mikhii G.; Kogan, Boris Y.; Karplus, Walter J.

    1995-01-01

    The simulation of heart arrhythmia and fibrillation are very important and challenging tasks. The solution of these problems using sophisticated mathematical models is beyond the capabilities of modern super computers. To overcome these difficulties it is proposed to break the whole simulation problem into two tightly coupled stages: generation of the action potential using sophisticated models. and propagation of the action potential using simplified models. The well known simplified models are compared and modified to bring the rate of depolarization and action potential duration restitution closer to reality. The modified method of lines is used to parallelize the computational process. The conditions for the appearance of 2D spiral waves after the application of a premature beat and the subsequent traveling of the spiral wave inside the simulated tissue are studied.

  10. Impaired muscle glycogen resynthesis after a marathon is not caused by decreased muscle GLUT-4 content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, S; Rohde, T; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate whether the slow rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis after a competitive marathon is associated with a decrease in the total muscle content of the muscle glucose transporter (GLUT-4). Seven well-trained marathon runners participated in the study, and muscle biopsies...... were obtained from the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle before, immediately after, and 1, 2, and 7 days after the marathon, as were venous blood samples. Muscle GLUT-4 content was unaltered over the experimental period. Muscle glycogen concentration was 758 +/- 53 mmol/kg dry weight before......-race levels 7 days after the race. We conclude that the total GLUT-4 protein content is unaltered in the lateral gastrocnemius after a competitive marathon and that the slow recovery of muscle glycogen after the race apparently involves factors other than changes in the total content of this protein....

  11. Morphological re-description and molecular characterization of Kudoa pagrusi (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) infecting the heart muscles of the common sea bream fish Pagrus pagrus (Perciformes: Sparidae) from the Red Sea, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Maher, Sherein; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, 100 samples of different sizes of the common sea bream fish Pagrus pagrus were collected from the Egyptian water along the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea and examined for the prevalence of myxosporidian parasites in general and Kudoa spp. in particular. Fish samples were thoroughly externally examined. After dissection, all the internal organs were removed and examined. A total of 60 out of 100 fish specimens were found to be infected with Kudoa stages. Parasitic infection was restricted to the heart muscles of the examined fish. None of the other organs was found to be infected. Macroscopic cysts (plasmodia) heavily infested the different parts of the heart muscles. Each plasmodium measured 1.2-2.5 (1.53 ± 0.2) mm × 0.63-0.80 (0.65 ± 0.2) mm. Mature spores are quadratic in shape in the apical view showing four equal valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. Fresh spores were 5.0-7.1 (5.7 ± 0.2) μm long × 5.4-8.5 (6.1 ± 0.3) μm wide. On the basis of spore morphology, the present species was identified as Kudoa pagrusi. Morphometric characterization revealed that the relatively small size of this Kudoa species was the distinctive feature that separates it from all previously described species. Molecular analysis based on small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences revealed that the highest percentage of identity was observed with K. scomberomori and followed by K. shiomitsui, K. hypoepicarclialis, K. amamiensis, and K. kenti. The kudoid spores showed morphometric variations to some extents but had essentially identical nucleotide sequences of the SSU rDNA gene sequences closest to those of K. scomberomori and K. shiomitsui recorded from elasmobranchs in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The present findings support the identification of an ancestral marine origin of the present Kudoa species.

  12. Pulse pressure as a haemodynamic variable in systolic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrie, Colin James

    2016-01-01

    In patients with heart failure, the heart is unable to pump enough blood to satisfy the requirements of the body. Explanations for this include heart muscle damage after a heart attack. This could be very recently, or in the past, sometimes dating back many years. In other cases the explanation for

  13. [Application of acupuncture-assisted anesthesia in prostate biopsy via the perineum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Fang, Jian-Qiao

    2010-12-01

    To explore acupuncture-assisted anesthesia in transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy via the perineum. One hundred and five cases of prostate biopsy were randomly divided into two groups. For 51 cases in observation group (group A), the periprostatic nerve plexus block and acupuncture on bilateral Zusanli (ST 36) were applied. For 54 cases in control group (group B), the simple periprostatic nerve plexus block was adopted. Visual Analogue Score (VAS) was used to evaluate the pain extent after biopsy and blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before, during and after operation, separately. VAS scores were 0.9 +/- 0.8 and 2.8 +/- 1.0 in group A and group B, separately, indicating statistical significant difference in comparison (P perineum in patients and ensures the stability of blood pressure and heart rate.

  14. High sensitivity of late gadolinium enhancement for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Konno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myocardial scarring can be assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement and by endomyocardial biopsy. However, accuracy of late gadolinium enhancement for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens remains unknown in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We investigated whether late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart reflects microscopic myocardial scarring in the small biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-one consecutive patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who were examined both by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and by endomyocardial biopsy were retrospectively studied. The right interventricular septum was the target site for endomyocardial biopsy in all patients. Late gadolinium enhancement in the ventricular septum had an excellent sensitivity (100% with a low specificity (40% for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens. The sensitivity of late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart remained 100% with a specificity of 27% for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens. Quantitative assessments of fibrosis revealed that the extent of late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart was the only independent variable related to the microscopic collagen fraction in biopsied specimens (β  =  0.59, 95% confident interval: 0.15 - 1.0, p  =  0.012. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was a compromise in the specificity, the sensitivity of late gadolinium enhancement was excellent for prediction of microscopic myocardial scarring in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Moreover, the severity of late gadolinium enhancement was independently associated with the quantitative collagen fraction in biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. These findings indicate that late gadolinium enhancement can reflect both the presence and the extent of microscopic myocardial scarring in the small

  15. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  16. Computational estimation of tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes using noisy NMR data from cardiac biopsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Hettling (Hannes); D.J. C. Alders (David); M.P. Heringa (Martijn); T.W. Binsl (Thomas); A.B.J. Groeneveld (Johan); J.H.G.M. van Beek (Johannes)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The aerobic energy metabolism of cardiac muscle cells is of major importance for the contractile function of the heart. Because energy metabolism is very heterogeneously distributed in heart tissue, especially during coronary disease, a method to quantify metabolic fluxes in

  17. Mobile in vivo biopsy and camera robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentschler, Mark E; Dumpert, Jason; Platt, Stephen R; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2006-01-01

    A mobile in vivo biopsy robot has been developed to perform a biopsy from within the abdominal cavity while being remotely controlled. This robot provides a platform for effectively sampling tissue. The robot has been used in vivo in a porcine model to biopsy portions of the liver and mucosa layer of the bowel. After reaching the specified location, the grasper was actuated to biopsy the tissue of interest. The biopsy specimens were gathered from the grasper after robot retraction from the abdominal cavity. This paper outlines the steps towards the successful design of an in vivo biopsy robot. The clamping forces required for successful biopsy are presented and in vivo performance of this robot is addressed.

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy uses sound waves ... Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the ...

  19. Striated Muscle Function, Regeneration, and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrin, I.Y.; Khodabukus, A.; Bursac, N.

    2016-01-01

    As the only striated muscle tissues in the body, skeletal and cardiac muscle share numerous structural and functional characteristics, while exhibiting vastly different size and regenerative potential. Healthy skeletal muscle harbors a robust regenerative response that becomes inadequate after large muscle loss or in degenerative pathologies and aging. In contrast, the mammalian heart loses its regenerative capacity shortly after birth, leaving it susceptible to permanent damage by acute injury or chronic disease. In this review, we compare and contrast the physiology and regenerative potential of native skeletal and cardiac muscles, mechanisms underlying striated muscle dysfunction, and bioengineering strategies to treat muscle disorders. We focus on different sources for cellular therapy, biomaterials to augment the endogenous regenerative response, and progress in engineering and application of mature striated muscle tissues in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we discuss the challenges and perspectives in translating muscle bioengineering strategies to clinical practice. PMID:27271751

  20. Single cell morphology of muscle in patients with chronic muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Bartels, E M; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1991-01-01

    In 119 patients referred with suspected fibromyalgia, biopsies from the quadriceps muscle were analyzed for "rubber band" morphology, and isokinetic quadriceps strength was measured. Eighty-four fulfilled the criteria for fibromyalgia, 26 had chronic myofascial pain (CMP) and 9 had other diseases...... to the biopsy score. "Rubber band" morphology is seen more often in fibromyalgia patients than in CMP patients. The exact genesis of this phenomenon is still unknown but theories connected with the possible pathogenesis of the syndrome are presented....

  1. Heart Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kilometers), which is far enough to circle the earth more than twice! See also on other sites: ... For the Public Heart Information Center Project Heart Women’s Heart Health Clinical Trials 6770 Bertner Avenue Houston, ...

  2. Heart Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your transplanted heart. You should also have routine medical checkups to maintain overall health. Activity Restrictions Heart transplant recipients have no specific activity restrictions. Discuss activity ideas with your ... to some medical and dental procedures to prevent endocarditis, most heart ...

  3. [Study of the physico-chemical properties of troponins I and T from the heart and skeletal muscles using protein fluorescence and calorimetry methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, L A; Gusev, N B; Shnyrov, V L; Permiakov, E A

    1988-04-01

    Physico-chemical properties of troponin I and troponin T subunits from cardiac and skeletal muscles were studied, using intrinsic protein fluorescence and differential scanning microcalorimetry. The effects of temperature, pH, urea and ionic strength were analyzed. Similar skeletal and cardiac components were shown to possess similar properties. Alkali produced structural changes in both troponins I which seems to be initiated by deprotonation of histidyl side chains within the pH range of 6.5-9.0. An increase of pH from 9 to 12 results in alkaline denaturation transitions in both troponin I subunits, which might be due to deprotonation of tyrosyl side chains. A decrease of pH from 6 to 4 causes aggregation of both troponin T subunits. Cardiac troponin T is more stable to alkali and urea denaturation than the skeletal one. Heating up to 100 degrees C does not cause any cooperative denaturation transitions in troponins I and troponins T. These results suggest that cardiac and skeletal troponins I and troponins T possess a rather open, not highly ordered structure in solution.

  4. Evaluation of the rabbit as a model for Chagas disease - II: histopathologic studies of the heart, digestive tract and skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Moreira da Silva

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the value of the rabbit as an experimental model for Chagas' disease, seventy one animals were inoculated with different Trypanosoma cruzi strains and routes. The rabbits were submitted to necropsy in acute (earlier than three months of infection, recent chronic (three to six months and late chronic (later than six months phases. Myocarditis, generally focal and endomysial, occurred in 94.1%, 66.7% and 70.8% of the infected rabbits respectively in the acute, recent chronic and late chronic phases. The myocardial inflammatory exudate was composed by mononuclear cells, and also polymorphonuclear cells in the acute phase. In most cases of the late chronic phase, the myocarditis was similar to that described in the indeterminate form of human chagasic patients. Initial fibrosis occurred in the three phases but was more severe and frequent in the early chronic. Advanced fibrosis occurred only in the late chronic phase. Tissue parasites occurred only in the acute phase. The digestive tract and skeletal muscles showed mild and occasional lesions. Our data indicate that experimentally infected chagasic rabbits repeat some lesions similar to that of humans chagasic patients, specially that of the indeterminate form. So, it may be a useful, however not an ideal, model.

  5. Time- and state-dependent effects of methanethiosulfonate ethylammonium (MTSEA) exposure differ between heart and skeletal muscle voltage-gated Na(+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, John P; Shockett, Penny E

    2012-03-01

    The substituted-cysteine scanning method (SCAM) is used to study conformational changes in proteins. Experiments using SCAM involve site-directed mutagenesis to replace native amino acids with cysteine and subsequent exposure to a methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagent such as methanethiosulfonate ethylammonium (MTSEA). These reagents react with substituted-cysteines and can provide functional information about relative positions of amino acids within a protein. In the human heart voltage-gated Na(+) channel hNav1.5 there is a native cysteine at position C373 that reacts rapidly with MTS reagents resulting in a large reduction in whole-cell Na(+) current (I(Na)). Therefore, in order to use SCAM in studies in this isoform, this native cysteine is mutated to a non-reactive residue, e.g., tyrosine. This mutant, hNav1.5-C373Y, is resistant to the MTS-mediated decrease in I(Na). Here we show that this resistance is time- and state-dependent. With relatively short exposure times to MTSEA (native tyrosine at the homologous site C407. We conclude that differences in molecular determinants of inactivation between hNav1.4 and hNav1.5 underlie the difference in response to MTSEA exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transoesophageal detection of heart graft rejection by electrical impedance: Using finite element method simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, G.; Ribas, N.; Cinca, J.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to evaluate heart graft rejection level using a bioimpedance technique by means of an intracavitary catheter. However, this technique does not present relevant advantages compared to the gold standard for the detection of a heart rejection, which is the biopsy of the endomyocardial tissue. We propose to use a less invasive technique that consists in the use of a transoesophageal catheter and two standard ECG electrodes on the thorax. The aim of this work is to evaluate different parameters affecting the impedance measurement, including: sensitivity to electrical conductivity and permittivity of different organs in the thorax, lung edema and pleural water. From these results, we deduce the best estimator for cardiac rejection detection, and we obtain the tools to identify possible cases of false positive of heart rejection due to other factors. To achieve these objectives we have created a thoracic model and we have simulated, with a FEM program, different situations at the frequencies of 13, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 kHz. Our simulation demonstrates that the phase, at 100 and 300 kHz, has the higher sensitivity to changes in the electrical parameters of the heart muscle.

  7. NEEDLE BIOPSY IN DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATIC CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joseph J.; Rosenthal, Milton; Goodwin, Willard E.

    1954-01-01

    Four methods available for the diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate—digital rectal evaluation, prostatic smear, needle biopsy and open perineal or transurethral biopsy—were studied and correlated. One hundred ten patients with clinical indications of cancer of the prostate were subjected to needle biopsy and open perineal or transurethral biopsy. Seventy of the same patients had prostatic smear examination. Using the open perineal biopsy or the positive transurethral biopsy as the standard, the accuracy of prostatic palpation, prostatic smear and needle biopsy were obtained. A high degree of correlation (74 per cent) was demonstrated between digital rectal evaluation and positive surgical biopsies in both early and late cases. There were 17 false positive clinical diagnoses. The prostatic smear showed an overall correlation of 45 per cent when compared with the results of positive surgical biopsy. The overall accuracy of needle biopsy was 73 per cent. However, in the last 39 cases, including eight in which the carcinomas were of groups A and B (curable), the needle accuracy was 100 per cent. When there is clinical indication of malignant disease of the prostate, needle biopsy of the lesion is warranted and should be done before definitive or palliative treatment is undertaken. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:13209358

  8. Clinicopathological Spectrum of Renal Biopsies in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A K; Kanitkar, M; Venkateshwar, V

    2010-07-01

    Renal biopsy has revolutionized the study of glomerular diseases. A retrospective analysis of 104 consecutive renal biopsies performed in children at a tertiary care referral centre over five years is presented. All the biopsies were performed non-ultrasound guided by a single consultant nephrologist. Trucut needles were used in the initial few years and a Magnum biopsy gun (Bard) over subsequent three years. There were 66 boys and 38 girls. A male predominance occurred in the older and younger patients. The male: female ratio was 2.2:1, 1:1, and 2.7:1 for the age groups below five years, 5-10 years and above 10 years respectively. All patients tolerated the biopsy well and success rate was 94%. There were minimal complications in the form of post biopsy haematuria (33.3%). Haematuria was mild in most of the cases and settled down within 24 hours. None required transfusion. However, 60% patients had mild discomfort in the form of local pain. There was no mortality, infection or renal loss. The most common indication for a kidney biopsy was nephrotic syndrome. Out of 104 biopsies, 85 were in children with nephrotic syndrome. The commonest primary renal pathology was mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (38%), minimal change disease (19%), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (15%) and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (7%). Renal biopsy is a safe procedure in experienced hands and the commonest indication for a biopsy in children remains nephrotic syndrome.

  9. The Muscle Metabolome Differs between Healthy and Frail Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelzadeh, P.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Tieland, M.; de Groot, C.P.G.M.; Verdijk, L.B.; van Loon, L.J.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Alves, R.D.A.M.; Vervoort, J.; Müller, M.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy

  10. The muscle metabolome differs between healthy and frail older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelzadeh, P.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Tieland, C.A.B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Verdijk, L.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Alves Rolo, Rodrigo; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Müller, M.R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy

  11. Biopsy Needle Localization and Tracking Using ROI-RK Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ROI-RK method is a biopsy needle localization and tracking method. Previous research work has proved that it has a robust performance on different series of simulated 3D US volumes. Unfortunately, in real situations, because of the strong speckle noise of the ultrasound image and the different echogenic properties of the tissues, the real 3D US volumes have more complex background than the simulated images used previously. In this paper, to adapt the ROI-RK method in real 3D US volumes, a line-filter enhancement calculation only in the ROI is added to increase the contrast between the needle and background tissue, decreasing the phenomenon of expansion of the biopsy needle due to reverberation of ultrasound in the needle. To make the ROI-RK method more stable, a self-correction system is also implemented. Real data have been acquired on an ex vivo heart of lamb. The result of the ROI-RK method shows that it is capable to localize and track the biopsy needle in real situations, and it satisfies the demand of real-time application.

  12. Muscle Fiber Conduction Velocity, Muscle Fiber Composition, and Power Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methenitis, Spyridon; Karandreas, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Zaras, Nikolaos; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV), fiber type composition, and power performance in participants with different training background. Thirty-eight young males with different training background participated: sedentary (n = 10), endurance runners (n = 9), power trained (n = 10), and strength trained (n = 9). They performed maximal countermovement jumps (CMJ) and maximal isometric leg press for the measurement of the rate of force development (RFD). Resting vastus lateralis MFCV was measured with intramuscular microelectrodes on a different occasion, whereas muscle fiber type and cross-sectional area (CSA) of vastus lateralis were evaluated through muscle biopsies 1wk later. MFCV, CMJ power, RFD, and % CSA of type II and type IIx fibers were higher for the power-trained group (P power participants. Close correlations were found between MFCV and fiber CSA as well as the % CSA of all fiber types as well as with RFD and CMJ power (r = 0.712-0.943, P power performance. Significant models for the prediction of the % CSA of type IIa and type II as well as the CSA of all muscle fibers based upon MFCV, RFD, and CMJ were revealed (P = 0.000). MFCV is closely associated with muscle fiber % CSA. RFD and jumping power are associated with the propagation of the action potentials along the muscle fibers. This link is regulated by the size and the distribution of type II, and especially type IIx muscle fibers.

  13. Stereotactic breast biopsy: pitfalls and pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Monica L; Adrada, Beatriz E; Candelaria, Rosalind; Thames, Deborah; Dawson, Debora; Yang, Wei T

    2014-03-01

    Stereotactic breast biopsies have become indispensable and the standard of care for patients in whom screening mammography or tomosynthesis reveals breast lesions suggestive of malignancy. A variety of stereotactic biopsy systems and needle types are now available, which allow more accurate sampling of lesions as well as successful biopsy of lesions in difficult locations in patients of all body habitus. We discuss how to plan, perform, and follow up stereotactic biopsies. Most importantly, we offer suggestions on how to avoid problems and complications and detail how to achieve technical success even in the most challenging cases. Stereotactic biopsy has proven over time to be an accurate and acceptable alternative to surgical biopsy for histopathologic diagnosis of breast abnormalities. Successful performance of this minimally invasive procedure spares women from undergoing potentially deforming and expensive procedures to diagnose breast disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Limitations of Elastography Based Prostate Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffmann, Jonas; Grindei, Mircea; Tian, Zhe; Yassin, Dany-Jan; Steinwender, Tobias; Leyh-Bannurah, Sami-Ramzi; Randazzo, Marco; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Hammerer, Peter; Manka, Lukas

    2016-06-01

    The role of elastography in patients initially and at repeat prostate biopsy is still indeterminate. The existing literature is sparse and controversial. We studied patients who underwent elastography based and systematic biopsy between October 2009 and February 2015 at Braunschweig Prostate Cancer Center. Patients were separated according to first vs repeat biopsy setting. Each prostate sextant was considered an individual case. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of elastography to predict biopsy results were analyzed. The 95% CIs were determined by bootstrapping analysis of 2,000 samples. Overall 679 men and a total of 4,074 sextants were identified. Of the 679 men 160 (23.6%) underwent first biopsy and 519 (76.4%) underwent repeat biopsy. In the 160 men at first biopsy sensitivity was 18.0% (95% CI 14.5-21.3), specificity was 87.7% (95% CI 85.3-89.9), positive predictive value was 36.6% (95% CI 28.4-45.4), negative predictive value was 73.0% (95% CI 67.5-77.9) and accuracy was 67.9% (95% CI 63.4-72.2). Results in 519 men (76.4%) at repeat biopsy were 19.8% (95% CI 16.0-23.7), 90.9% (95% CI 89.9-91.9), 20.1% (95% CI 15.8-24.8), 90.7% (95% CI 89.0-92.3) and 83.5% (95% CI 81.6-85.2), respectively. We found limited reliability of elastography prediction at prostate biopsy in patients at first and repeat biopsies. Based on our analyses we cannot recommend a variation of well established systematic biopsy patterns or a decrease in biopsy cores based on elastography. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spasm. Muscle cramps can occur while you play tennis or golf, bowl, swim, or do any other exercise. They can also be triggered by: Alcoholism Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) Kidney failure Medicines Menstruation Pregnancy Home Care If you have a muscle ...

  16. The Effects of High Doses of Nandrolone Decanoate on Cardiac Muscle Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sretenovic Jasmina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, steroid abuse has become very popular and widespread among professional and recreational athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the chronic effects of training combined with high doses of nandrolone decanoate on cardiac muscle tissue. The study included 32 Wistar albino rats divided into 4 groups: control (T-N-, steroid (T-N+, exercisetraining (T+N- and exercise plus steroid (T+N+ groups. The T+N- and T+N+ group swam for 4 weeks, 1 hour per day, 5 days per week. The N+ (nandrolone positive groups received nandrolone decanoate (20 mg/kg once per week, subcutaneously. After 4 weeks of training, the rats were sacrificed. Heart biopsy specimens were routinely fixed and embedded in paraffin. Fivemicrometre thick sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H/E and Masson-Trichrome dyes. Captured microscopic images were processed by special software for image analysis to quantify results. Our results showed that the combination of nandrolone and training causes left ventricular wall thickening of 30%. Average cardiac muscle cell longitudinal diameter was increased by 6% in the T-N+ group, by 16% in the T+N- group and by 25% in the T+N+ group. The cross sectional muscle cell area was increased in the T+N+ group by 33%. Heart collagen content was increased in the nandrolone group compared to the control group by 261%. Collagen content was decreased in the T+N+ group by 34%. High doses of AAS induced left ventricle hypertrophy and excessive heart collagen deposition.

  17. Prostate Biopsy: Current Status and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Joseph C

    2007-01-01

    The technique of prostate biopsy has evolved over the past 10 years to improve our ability to detect prostate cancer. Extended biopsy schemes can be performed in the office under local anesthesia and are well tolerated. In addition to detection, the role of extended biopsy schemes in refining tumor grading and risk assessment has become better defined. This review discusses the evolution of prostate biopsy techniques from the sextant scheme to the extended scheme and demonstrates the latter’s utility in clinical decision making. PMID:17934565

  18. The diagnostic value of liver biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Arthur

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the introduction of molecular diagnostic tools such as markers for hepatitis C and different autoimmune diseases, liver biopsy is thought to be useful mainly for staging but not for diagnostic purposes. The aim was to review the liver biopsies for 5 years after introduction of testing for hepatitis C, in order to evaluate what diagnostic insights – if any – remain after serologic testing. Methods Retrospective review of all liver biopsies performed between 1.1.1995 and 31.12.1999 at an academic outpatient hepatology department. The diagnoses suspected in the biopsy note were compared with the final diagnosis arrived at during a joint meeting with the responsible clinicians and a hepatopathologist. Results In 365 patients, 411 diagnoses were carried out before biopsy. 84.4 % were confirmed by biopsy but in 8.8 %, 6.8 % and 10.5 % the diagnosis was specified, changed or a diagnosis added, respectively. Additional diagnoses of clinical relevance were unrecognized biliary obstruction and additional alcoholic liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Liver biopsy led to change in management for 12.1 % of patients. Conclusion Even in the era of advanced virological, immunological and molecular genetic testing, liver biopsy remains a useful diagnostic tool. The yield is particularly high in marker negative patients but also in patients with a clear-cut prebiopsy diagnosis, liver biopsy can lead to changes in patient management.

  19. Robotic Prostate Biopsy in Closed MRI Scanner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    .... This work enables prostate brachytherapy and biopsy procedures in standard high-field diagnostic MRI scanners through the development of a robotic needle placement device specifically designed...

  20. Nerve Biopsy In The Diagnosis Of Leporsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazra B

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin and nerve biopsies were done in 33 cases of different clinical types of leprosy selected from Dermatology OPD of Medical College and Hospitals, Calcutta during 1994-95. Histopathological results were compared with emphasis on the role of nerve biopsies in detection of patients with multibacillary leprosy. The evident possibility of having patients with multibacillary leprosy in peripheral leprosy with multiple drugs. It is found that skin and nerve biopsy are equally informative in borderline and lepromatour leprosy and is the only means to diagnose polyneuritic leprosy. Nerve biopsy appears to be more informative in the diagnosis of all clinical types of leprosy.

  1. 'Microerosions' in rectal biopsies in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    . Granulomas were identified in 62% of the biopsies with microerosions and by examination of two consecutive biopsies from each of these patients, in 85% indicating a positive correlation. In patients with microerosions and a primary diagnosis of UC, granulomas were found in 38% and by examination of two...... biopsies in 54%. Patients with granulomas and a few other patients were reclassified as CD, but there still remained some patients with microerosions, who most probably had UC. In conclusion, microerosions are observed mainly in CD with colonic involvement. There is a high incidence of granulomas in biopsy...

  2. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  3. Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  4. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year almost 800,000 Americans have a heart attack. A heart attack happens when blood flow to the heart suddenly ... it's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if you or ...

  5. Muscle connective tissue content of endurance-trained and inactive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Donnelly, A E; Roper, H P

    2005-01-01

    Although it is known that exercise exerts a positive regulatory effect on collagen synthesis, the effects of endurance training on muscle endomysial connective tissue in man are not so well documented. To investigate this, a single muscle biopsy was collected from two groups of volunteers...... capacity and the intensity of staining for types III and IV collagen in muscle endomysium....

  6. Modeling Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  7. Muscle pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of muscle or tendons.4,14. Management of muscle pain. Non-Pharmacological Management. The non-pharmacological treatments for muscle pain are illustrated in Figure 1. Treatment modalities include the following. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS). TENS is a non-invasive procedure used in rehabilitation to.

  8. Muscle aches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most often related to tension, overuse, or muscle injury from exercise or hard physical work. The pain ... common causes of muscle aches and pains are: Injury or trauma, including sprains and strains Overuse including using a muscle too much, too soon before warming up, or ...

  9. [Obesity and heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svačina, Štěpán

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular complications of obesity are traditionally considered an important complication of obesity. Obesity itself is probably not direct cause of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease. This may occur indirectly in metabolic complications of obesity, especially diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, thrombogenicity potential of obesity contributes to embolism and atherosclerosis development. In cardiology is well-known a phenomenon of obesity paradox when obese patients have better prognosis than thin. This is the case of heart failure and some other cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a new concept has emerged of myokines - hormones from muscle tissue that have extensive protective effects on organism and probably on heart. Whether heart is a source of myokines is uncertain. However, undoubted importance has epicardial and pericardial fatty tissue. The epicardial fatty tissue has mainly protective effects on myocardium. This fatty tissue may produce factors of inflammation affecting the myocardium. Relationship between amount of epicardial fatty tissue and coronary heart disease is rather pathogenic. Currently, it is certain that obesity brings more metabolic and cancer complications than cardiovascular and accurate contribution to pathogenic or protective character of fatty tissue in cardiology requires further research. Nevertheless, the conclusion is that adipose tissue of organism and around the heart may be in some circumstances beneficial.

  10. Carcinoid heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Saamir A; Banchs, Jose; Iliescu, Cezar; Dasari, Arvind; Lopez-Mattei, Juan; Yusuf, Syed Wamique

    2017-10-01

    Rare neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) that most commonly arise in the gastrointestinal tract can lead to carcinoid syndrome and carcinoid heart disease. Patients with carcinoid syndrome present with vasomotor changes, hypermotility of the gastrointestinal system, hypotension and bronchospasm. Medical therapy for carcinoid syndrome, typically with somatostatin analogues, can help control symptoms, inhibit tumour progression and prolong survival. Carcinoid heart disease occurs in more than 50% of these patients and is the initial presentation of carcinoid syndrome in up to 20% of patients. Carcinoid heart disease has characteristic findings of plaque-like deposits composed of smooth muscle cells, myofibroblasts, extracellular matrix and an overlying endothelial layer which can lead to valve dysfunction. Valvular dysfunction can lead to oedema, ascites and right-sided heart failure. Medical therapy of carcinoid heart disease is limited to symptom control and palliation. Valve surgery for carcinoid heart disease should be considered for symptomatic patients with controlled metastatic carcinoid syndrome. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to guide optimal management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Paravertebral muscles in disease of the cervical spine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wharton, S. B.; Chan, K. K.; Pickard, J D; Anderson, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cervical spine disorders are common in the older population. The paravertebral muscles are essential to the support and stabilisation of the cervical spine but have been little studied. The aim was to determine whether pathological changes develop in these muscles in patients with severe cervical spine disease, which, if present, might contribute to the pathogenesis and symptomatology of their disorder. METHODS: Open biopsies of superficial and deep paravertebral muscles were obta...

  12. Chronic heart disease caused by irradiation. A study of five cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horimoto, Masashi; Matsuhashi, Hironobu; Nakano, Hiroshi; Honda, Hajime; Sekiguchi, Morie.

    1988-06-01

    An analysis was made of 5 patients who had chronic heart disease 18 months to 13 years after radiation therapy for breast cancer or rib osteoblastoma. A total dose of X-ray or electron beam was >-50 Gy for each patient. Computed tomography of the chest and cardiac catheterization led to the diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis with chronic pericardial effusion in one patient and chronic effusive pericarditis in the other three patients. Complete or incomplete right bundle branch block was observed on ECG in 3 patients. Endomyocardial biopsy of the right ventricle for 4 patients revealed nonspecific pathological findings, such as hypertrophy, disarray of cardiac muscle cells, various sized cell nuclei, rarefaction of myofibrils, and slight interstitial fibrosis with infrequent cellular infiltration. The results may implicate radiation-induced myocardial disturbance. Long-term follow-up is mandatory for the management of patients treated with radiation. (Namekawa, K.).

  13. Spatial Distribution of Transgenic Protein After Gene Electrotransfer to Porcine Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanggaard, Iben; Corydon, Thomas; Hojman, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    electrotransfer to muscle in a large animal model has not yet been investigated. In this study, 17 different doses of plasmid DNA (1-1500 μg firefly luciferase pCMV-Luc) were delivered in vivo to porcine gluteal muscle using electroporation. Forty-eight hours post treatment several biopsies were obtained from...... each transfection site in order to examine the spatial distribution of the transgenic product. We found a significantly higher luciferase activity in biopsies from the center of the transfection site compared to biopsies taken adjacent to the center, 1 and 2 cm along muscle fiber orientation (p...

  14. Pain-related behavior was not observed in dairy cattle in the days after liver biopsy, regardless of whether NSAIDs were administered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lorelle A; Beausoleil, Ngaio J; Benschop, Jackie; Stafford, Kevin J

    2016-02-01

    For liver biopsy in cattle, it is routine practice to only provide local anesthesia (LA) to the skin and muscle layers, with visceral tissues remaining unanesthetized. Cattle being biopsied may therefore benefit from additional analgesia. This study aimed to determine if non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs would decrease post-biopsy pain in cattle. Twenty-four dairy cows were allocated into four treatment groups: biopsy under LA only; biopsy under LA with ketoprofen; biopsy under LA with meloxicam; and a sham-biopsied control group. Behavior was observed for 4h immediately following biopsy, and for 2h each day for the first three days after biopsy. No significant differences in behavior were found between any treatment groups on any day. This suggests that any post-biopsy pain present was not of enough significance to alter the cows' normal behavior patterns. Without identifying post-biopsy pain, it is not possible to determine what effect NSAID analgesia may have had on alleviating it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Muscle specific microRNAs are regulated by endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Scheele, Camilla; Yfanti, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Muscle specific miRNAs, myomiRs, have been shown to control muscle development in vitro and are differentially expressed at rest in diabetic skeletal muscle. Therefore, we investigated the expression of these myomiRs, including miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-206 in muscle biopsies from vastus...... lateralis of healthy young males (n = 10) in relation to a hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp as well as acute endurance exercise before and after 12 weeks of endurance training. The subjects increased their endurance capacity, VO2max (l min-1) by 17.4% (P ...% (P training. In resting biopsies, endurance training for 12 weeks decreased basal expression...

  16. Muscle structural changes in mitochondrial myopathy relate to genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, David B.; Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Ørngreen, Mette C.

    2003-01-01

    typically not been associated with mitochondrial disease. We investigated gross and microscopic muscle morphology in thigh muscles by muscle biopsy and MRI in 16 patients with MM, and compared findings with those obtained in muscular dystrophy patients and healthy subjects. Changes of muscle architecture......, similar to those found in the group of muscular dystrophy patients occurred consistently in patients with a high mutation load for single, largescale deletions of mtDNA, but were absent in all patients with the 3243A-->G mtDNA point mutation. Dystrophic changes of muscle architecture were also present...

  17. Cost comparison between stereotactic large-core-needle biopsy versus surgical excision biopsy in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs-van der Woude, T.; Verkooijen, H. M.; Pijnappel, R. M.; Klinkenbijl, J. H.; Borel Rinkes, I. H.; Peeters, P. H.; Buskens, E.

    2001-01-01

    Yearly, approximately 7200 Dutch women with non-palpable breast lesions are referred for a diagnostic surgical excision biopsy. Recently, less invasive alternatives such as stereotactic large-core-needle biopsy have emerged. The aim of this study was to compare the costs of surgical excision biopsy

  18. Effectiveness of stress management in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Li-Pin; Tung, Heng-Hsin; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Lai, Yu-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Saint Shiou-Sheng; Chiu, Allen W

    2016-01-01

    To assess the utilization of stress management in relieving anxiety and pain among patients who undergo transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy of the prostate. Eighty-two patients admitted to a community hospital for a TRUS biopsy of the prostate participated in this case-controlled study. They were divided into an experimental group that was provided with stress management and a control group that received only routine nursing care. Stress management included music therapy and one-on-one simulation education. Before and after the TRUS biopsy, the patients' state-anxiety inventory score, pain visual analogue scale (VAS), respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained. There were no differences in baseline and disease characteristics between the two groups. The VAS in both groups increased after the TRUS biopsy, but the difference in pre- and postbiopsy VAS scores was significantly lower in the experimental group (P=0.03). Patients in both groups experienced mild anxiety before and after the biopsy, but those in the experimental group displayed a significantly greater decrease in postbiopsy state-anxiety inventory score compared to the control group (P=0.02). Stress management can alleviate anxiety and pain in patients who received a TRUS biopsy of the prostate under local anesthesia.

  19. Effectiveness of stress management in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Li-Pin; Tung, Heng-Hsin; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Lai, Yu-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Saint Shiou-Sheng; Chiu, Allen W

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the utilization of stress management in relieving anxiety and pain among patients who undergo transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy of the prostate. Methods Eighty-two patients admitted to a community hospital for a TRUS biopsy of the prostate participated in this case-controlled study. They were divided into an experimental group that was provided with stress management and a control group that received only routine nursing care. Stress management included music therapy and one-on-one simulation education. Before and after the TRUS biopsy, the patients’ state-anxiety inventory score, pain visual analogue scale (VAS), respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained. Results There were no differences in baseline and disease characteristics between the two groups. The VAS in both groups increased after the TRUS biopsy, but the difference in pre- and postbiopsy VAS scores was significantly lower in the experimental group (P=0.03). Patients in both groups experienced mild anxiety before and after the biopsy, but those in the experimental group displayed a significantly greater decrease in postbiopsy state-anxiety inventory score compared to the control group (P=0.02). Conclusion Stress management can alleviate anxiety and pain in patients who received a TRUS biopsy of the prostate under local anesthesia. PMID:26929606

  20. Laser acupuncture reduces pain in pediatric kidney biopsies: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Aris; Benedict, Kelly A; Sun, Karen; Brakeman, Paul R; Lim, Jessica; Kim, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Evaluate laser acupuncture (LA) as an adjuvant therapy in pain management during percutaneous kidney biopsy procedure in children and adolescents. This prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial enrolled patients aged 7 to 26 years admitted to a children's hospital for percutaneous kidney biopsy. Patients received LA to treatment points (acupuncture group) or sham points (control group) before the procedure. The laser delivered a dose of 42 J/cm over 10 acupoints. Patients and parents rated the pain during and after the biopsy, and change in pain scores were calculated for each patient. Anxiety, vital signs, sedation medication, and patient's biopsy experience were secondary outcomes. Sixty-nine treatments (33 in the acupuncture group and 36 in the control group) were eligible for analysis. Patients in the acupuncture group reported a significantly improved change in the pain score after the biopsy compared with the controls (0.8 vs -0.5, P = 0.044). Patients in the acupuncture group had a statistically significant decrease in procedure vital signs including heart rate (-1.8 vs 5.6, P = 0.043) and respiratory rate (-2.4 vs 0.4, P = 0.045) when compared with controls. Parents also perceived a correspondingly greater improvement in their child's pain for those in the acupuncture group compared with the controls (2.3 vs 0.3, P = 0.04). Adjunctive LA significantly improved pain after pediatric percutaneous kidney biopsies.

  1. Pain and Anxiety During Bone Marrow Biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanasale, Betty; Kits, Jenne; Kluin, Philip M.; Trip, Albert; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2013-01-01

    A bone marrow biopsy is considered to be painful, often causing anxiety. We observed large differences between patients and wondered which factors cause pain and anxiety. In a prospective study, 202 patients were analyzed. Experienced hematologists and fellows in training (17% of biopsies) performed

  2. Multiple biopsy passes and the risk of complications of percutaneous liver biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Heng; Hansen, Bettina E; Tang, Wing Yin; Schouten, Jeoffrey N L; Sprengers, Dave; Taimr, Pavel; Janssen, Harry L A; de Knegt, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    To minimize the sample variability of liver biopsy, the tissue length should be at least 25 mm. Consequently, more than one biopsy pass is needed with cutting biopsy needles. We aimed to investigate the risk factors of biopsy-related complication, including the number of biopsy passes. All consecutive liver biopsies performed between 2005 and 2014 were included. Biopsies were ultrasound assisted and performed with cutting biopsy needles. A complication was an event where the patient visited a healthcare provider because of biopsy-related complaints. Complications followed by hospitalization 2 or more days or intervention were considered severe. In total, 1806 liver biopsies were analyzed. Overall, 102 (5.6%) complications were observed, of which 31 (1.7%) were severe. One (0.06%) patient died. Common complications were pain (n=75/102; 74%) and bleeding (n=34/102; 33%). Two biopsy passes were not associated with an increased risk of complications compared with one biopsy pass [odds ratio (OR): 1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83-3.04; P=0.16], whereas three or more biopsy passes increased this risk compared with one (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.38-6.42; P=0.005) or two biopsy passes (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.10-3.19; P=0.021). The risk of severe complications was not influenced by the number of biopsy passes (P>0.24). Hepatic malignancy (OR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.18-8.73; P=0.022) and international normalized ratio 1.4 or more (OR: 7.03; 95% CI: 2.74-18.08; Pbiopsy passes was not associated with severe complications, whereas hepatic malignancy or elevated international normalized ratio were associated with an increased risk.

  3. Transjugular liver biopsy: indications, technique and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, A; Guerrache, Y; Boudiaf, M; Gavini, J-P; Kaci, R; Soyer, P

    2014-01-01

    Transjugular liver biopsy is a safe, effective and well-tolerated technique to obtain liver tissue specimens in patients with diffuse liver disease associated with severe coagulopathies or massive ascites. Transjugular liver biopsy is almost always feasible. The use of ultrasonographic guidance for percutaneous puncture of the right internal jugular vein is recommended to decrease the incidence of local cervical minor complications. Semiautomated biopsy devices are very effective in obtaining optimal tissue samples for a precise and definite histological diagnosis with a very low rate of complication. The relative limitations of transjugular liver biopsy are the cost, the radiation dose given to the patient, the increased procedure time by comparison with the more common percutaneous liver biopsy, and the need of a well-trained interventional radiologist. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Limited Role of Random Skin Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Intravascular Lymphoma in Adult Patients with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunje G; Sheu, Sarah L; Kuo, Karen Y; Ally, Mina S; Bailey, Elizabeth E; Kim, Jinah; Kwong, Bernice Y

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of random normal skin biopsy in the diagnosis of intravascular lymphoma (IVL) in adult Western patients with clinically diagnosed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). In a retrospective chart review study, we analyzed a total of 59 skin biopsies that were performed to diagnose IVL in 21 adult patients with HLH seen at Stanford Hospital between 2004 and 2016. Out of the 59 skin biopsies, 42 were taken from clinically normal-appearing skin and 17 from clinically abnormal-appearing skin. None of the 59 biopsies revealed a diagnosis of primary or metastatic malignancy, regardless of the malignancy history, clinical presentation, and biopsy and histopathologic characteristics. A review of 8 positive IVL cases at Stanford Hospital including 1 case associated with HLH showed 1 positive diagnosis by a targeted skin biopsy and other positive diagnoses by bone marrow (n = 4), lung (n = 2), brain (n = 2), muscle (n = 1), and nerve (n = 1). Random skin biopsies have a limited role in diagnosing IVL in adult patients with HLH, in the setting of a single academic institution in the USA. A review of the literature emphasizes the role of a full body skin exam with a selective skin biopsy in these patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Differences in muscle pain and plasma creatine kinase activity after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for a complete 30-second increment prior to fatigue. HRmax was recorded as the highest heart rate during the last 30 seconds of the treadmill test. Muscle pain. Muscle pain was measured daily for 1 day before, and for 7 days after the Comrades marathon. Muscle pain was measured subjec- tively, where subjects rated ...

  6. Anabolic Steroids May Tax the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165824.html Anabolic Steroids May Tax the Heart Weight-lifters using the ... HealthDay News) -- Long-term use of muscle-building anabolic steroids may take a toll on the heart, researchers ...

  7. Muscle histochemistry in chronic alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Ferraz

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two chronic acoholic patients were assessed by neurologic examination and muscle biopsy. The patients manifested proximal muscular weakness to a variable extent. One case presented as an acute bout of myopathy, according to the Manual Muscle Test, MMT. The most prominent histologic feature observed was muscle atrophy (95.3% better evidenced through the ATPase stain with the predominance of type II A fibers (71.4%. Lack of the mosaic pattern (type grouping seen in 76% of the cases and an important mitochondrial proliferation with intrasarcoplasmatic lipid accumulation in 63% of the patients. In case of acute presentation of muscle weakness the. pathological substrate is quite different, i.e. presence of myositis mainly interstitial characterized by lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate and several spots of necrosis like Zencker degeneration. Based on histologic criteria, our data suggest that: the main determinant of muscle weakness seen in chronic alcoholic patients is neurogenic in origin (alcoholic polineuropathy; the direct toxic action of ethanol under the skeletal muscle is closely related to the mitochondrial metabolism; the so-called acute alcoholic myopathy has probably viral etiology.

  8. Results of the 5 region prostate biopsy method: the repeat biopsy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, Jeffrey C; Matlaga, Brian R; McCullough, David L

    2002-08-01

    The decision to repeat prostate biopsy in a patient in whom the first biopsy did not detect prostate cancer poses a challenge to urologists. Many published series show a low yield on repeat biopsy using standard techniques. We reviewed our data on the 5 region prostate biopsy method to evaluate its yield in the repeat biopsy population. A total of 125 repeat transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsy sessions were done in 110 patients for standard indications using the 5 region method. Pathological findings were reviewed and the yield of the additional regions was analyzed. Patients were categorized with respect to the initial biopsy technique. In those who underwent 1 and more than 1 previous sextant biopsy the relative increase in yield of the 5 region technique over the standard sextant technique was 31% and 33%, respectively. In the cohort that underwent previous 5 region biopsy the relative increase in yield of the 5 region technique over the standard sextant technique was 38%. In the setting of repeat biopsy the 5 region method results in an increased yield over the sextant method. It is true in patients who have previously undergone biopsies with the sextant or 5 region technique.

  9. Rectal biopsies obtained with jumbo biopsy forceps in the evaluation of Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Barry Z; Angelides, Anastasios G; Goode, Susan P; Garb, Jane L

    2011-04-01

    Refractory constipation is an extremely common problem in infants and children. The diagnostic suspicion of Hirschsprung disease often arises in this clinical setting. Diagnosing Hirschsprung disease can be difficult; however, excluding the diagnosis is much easier, only requiring the demonstration of ganglion cells in the distal rectum. The most common method for obtaining tissue from the rectum involves a blind suction biopsy. This technique has been complicated by serious adverse events, equipment malfunction, and inadequate specimens. Our goal was to evaluate the adequacy of specimens obtained with a flexible endoscope and jumbo biopsy forceps to rule out Hirschsprung disease in the child outside the newborn period. We retrospectively reviewed 668 rectal biopsies taken during 167 endoscopies on 156 patients being evaluated for Hirschsprung disease from 2001 to 2008 at the Baystate Medical Center Children's Hospital. Four biopsies were taken from each patient approximately 2.5 cm from the anal verge. Biopsies were obtained using a flexible endoscope and jumbo biopsy forceps. During the first 6 years the Olympus FB-50U-1 large cup fenestrated biopsy forceps was used. During the last 2 years the Boston Scientific Radial Jaw 4 Jumbo biopsy forceps was used instead. The Boston Scientific Radial Jaw 4 Jumbo biopsy forceps yielded adequate specimens 93% of the time, which surpassed most published results of other techniques. There were no complications reported. Obtaining rectal biopsies with a flexible endoscope and jumbo biopsy forceps is a safe and effective means to rule out the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease in children.

  10. Portal and sinusoidal fibrosis are common on liver biopsy after Fontan surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Matthew C; Sullivan, Lisa M; Glatz, Andrew C; Rand, Elizabeth; Russo, Pierre; Goldberg, David J; Rome, Jonathan J; Cohen, Meryl S

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is an important complication after Fontan surgery in patients with single-ventricle congenital heart disease. Few reports of hepatic histology in these patients exist, and sinusoidal fibrosis has been described. We aimed to characterize fibrosis at liver biopsy procedure in patients with previous Fontan surgery and to identify patient variables associated with the degree of fibrosis. All patients who had previous Fontan surgery and who subsequently underwent liver biopsy at our institution between January 1990 and July 2010 were identified. For each biopsy specimen, portal and sinusoidal fibrosis were graded and medical records reviewed. Biopsy specimens from 13 patients were examined; the median time from Fontan surgery to liver biopsy procedure was 16.9 years (range 6.9-25). At the most recent biopsy procedure, 12 patients (92 %) had evidence of portal fibrosis, including 1 patient with portal-based cirrhosis. Thirteen patients (100 %) had at least some degree of sinusoidal fibrosis, including 1 patient with centrilobular-based cirrhosis. Lower platelet count was associated with greater degree of portal fibrosis by ordinal regression (odds ratio 0.84, P = 0.04), and patients with no or mild portal fibrosis had significantly higher platelet counts compared with those with moderate or severe portal disease (278 ± 78 K vs. 160 ± 46 K, P = 0.005). Four patients underwent serial biopsy procedures; portal fibrosis was progressed in 3 patients, and sinusoidal fibrosis was progressed in 3 patients. After Fontan surgery, portal and sinusoidal fibrosis are common at liver biopsy and can progress over time. Lower platelet count may represent a marker of portal-based disease in these patients.

  11. Muscle-specific expression of hypoxia-inducible factor in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mounier, Rémi; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Plomgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    fibres that possess unique patterns of protein and gene expression, producing different capillarization and energy metabolism systems. In this work, we analysed HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein expression related to the fibre-type composition in untrained human skeletal muscle by obtaining muscle biopsies......Skeletal muscle is well known to exhibit a high degree of plasticity depending on environmental changes, such as various oxygen concentrations. Studies of the oxygen-sensitive subunit alpha of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) are difficult owing to the large variety of functionally diverse muscle......alpha mRNA and protein owing to their higher oxidative capacity. We have shown, in normoxic conditions, a higher HIF-1alpha protein expression in predominantly oxidative muscles than in predominantly glycolytic muscles. However, the HIF-1alpha mRNA expression pattern was not in agreement with the HIF-1...

  12. Separation of myoglobin and hemoglobin in isolated perfused pig heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Robert; Hiller, Michael; Trinks, Tobias; Kessler, Manfred D.

    2001-10-01

    For the quantitative determination of hemoglobin concentration in heart muscle it is important to distinguish between myoglobin and hemoglobin, two dyes with very similar optical absorption properties. With an isolated perfused pig heart model and EMPHO II SSK we measured tissue spectra in the visible range before and after adding erythrocytes to the perfusate. By calculating light intensity differences we were able to show spatial hemoglobin distribution in heart muscle.

  13. Heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen; Slaughter, Mark S

    2014-08-01

    Heart failure remains a major global problem with approximately 6 million individuals suffering from heart failure in the United States alone. The surgical technique of heart transplantation, popularized by Dr. Norman Shumway, has led to its success and currently remains the best treatment options for patients with end-stage. However, with the continued limitation of donor organs and the rapid development of ventricular assist device technology, the number of patients bridged to transplant with mechanical circulatory support has increased significantly. This has created some new technical challenges for heart transplantation. Therefore, it is now important to be familiar with multiple new technical challenges associated with the surgical techniques of heart transplantation with an ultimate goal in reducing donor heart ischemic time, recipient cardiopulmonary bypass time and post-operative complications. In this review, we described our technique of heart transplantation including the timing of the operation, recipient cardiectomy and donor heart implantation.

  14. Enlarged Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the valves are damaged by conditions such as rheumatic fever, a heart defect, infections (infectious endocarditis), connective tissue disorders, certain medications or radiation treatments for cancer, your heart may ...

  15. Heart Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health! Get a free badge or banner to post to your website or blog. Are you at risk for heart disease? Here's how to find out . Planning to use The Heart Truth logo? Check out our logo guidelines and downloads. ...

  16. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart failure due to systolic dysfunction. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 26, 2014. Colucci WS. ... patient with heart failure or cardiomyopathy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 26, 2014. Colucci WS. ...

  17. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... and adipose tissue leptin release in vivo. We recruited 16 healthy male human participants. Catheters were inserted into the femoral artery and vein draining skeletal muscle, as well as an epigastric vein draining the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. By combining the veno-arterial differences in plasma...... leptin with measurements of blood flow, leptin release from both tissues was quantified. To induce changes in leptin, the participants were infused with either saline or adrenaline in normo-physiological concentrations. The presence of leptin in skeletal muscle was confirmed by western blotting. Leptin...

  18. Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, Anders; Wiggers, Henrik; McMurray, John J V

    2018-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the epidemiology of heart failure and diabetes and summarizes the key findings from the recent cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, with a focus on heart failure as an endpoint.......This article briefly discusses the epidemiology of heart failure and diabetes and summarizes the key findings from the recent cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, with a focus on heart failure as an endpoint....

  19. Muscle structural changes in mitochondrial myopathy relate to genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, David B.; Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Ørngreen, Mette C.

    2003-01-01

    typically not been associated with mitochondrial disease. We investigated gross and microscopic muscle morphology in thigh muscles by muscle biopsy and MRI in 16 patients with MM, and compared findings with those obtained in muscular dystrophy patients and healthy subjects. Changes of muscle architecture......It is well known that morphological changes at the cellular level occur in muscle of patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM), but changes in muscle structure with fat infiltration and gross variation of muscle fiber size with giant fibers, normally encountered in the muscular dystrophies, have......, similar to those found in the group of muscular dystrophy patients occurred consistently in patients with a high mutation load for single, largescale deletions of mtDNA, but were absent in all patients with the 3243A-->G mtDNA point mutation. Dystrophic changes of muscle architecture were also present...

  20. Muscle structural changes in mitochondrial myopathy relate to genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, David B.; Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Ørngreen, Mette C.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that morphological changes at the cellular level occur in muscle of patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM), but changes in muscle structure with fat infiltration and gross variation of muscle fiber size with giant fibers, normally encountered in the muscular dystrophies, have...... typically not been associated with mitochondrial disease. We investigated gross and microscopic muscle morphology in thigh muscles by muscle biopsy and MRI in 16 patients with MM, and compared findings with those obtained in muscular dystrophy patients and healthy subjects. Changes of muscle architecture......, similar to those found in the group of muscular dystrophy patients occurred consistently in patients with a high mutation load for single, largescale deletions of mtDNA, but were absent in all patients with the 3243A-->G mtDNA point mutation. Dystrophic changes of muscle architecture were also present...