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Sample records for heart lung machine

  1. The Use of Tygon Tubing Sterilized by Gamma Radiation in Heart-Lung By-Pass Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alladine, M. F.; Gibbons, J. R. P. [London Chest Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1967-09-15

    Tygon tubing is a co-polymer polyvinyl chloride. This tubing is used throughout the circuit of our heart-lung by-pass machines and had been sterilized by autoclaving or exposure to ethylene oxide gas. Tubing sterilized by autoclaving was noted to have a decrease in tensile strength and the transparency of the tubing was affected. Sterilization by ethylene oxide had the disadvantage that gas was often present in the lumen of the tube when connected to the machine. Lengths of Tygon tubing were sterilized by gamma radiation at varying radiation levels and temperatures. Bacteriological studies were done on the tubing and estimation of tensile strength carried out. We have found that a level of radiation of 2. 5 to 3. 0 Mrad at 20°C produces little or no change in tensile strength and the tubing remains bacteriologically sterile. Tygon tubing sterilized in this way has now been used in over sixty heart-lung by-pass machine operations. (author)

  2. Fractional-Order Control of a Nonlinear Time-Delay System: Case Study in Oxygen Regulation in the Heart-Lung Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Sadati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractional-order controller will be proposed to regulate the inlet oxygen into the heart-lung machine. An analytical approach will be explained to satisfy some requirements together with practical implementation of some restrictions for the first time. Primarily a nonlinear single-input single-output (SISO time-delay model which was obtained previously in the literature is introduced for the oxygen generation process in the heart-lung machine system and we will complete it by adding some new states to control it. Thereafter, the system is linearized using the state feedback linearization approach to find a third-order time-delay dynamics. Consequently classical PID and fractional order controllers are gained to assess the quality of the proposed technique. A set of optimal parameters of those controllers are achieved through the genetic algorithm optimization procedure through minimizing a cost function. Our design method focuses on minimizing some famous performance criterions such as IAE, ISE, and ITSE. In the genetic algorithm, the controller parameters are chosen as a random population. The best relevant values are achieved by reducing the cost function. A time-domain simulation signifies the performance of controller with respect to a traditional optimized PID controller.

  3. Variations in battery life of a heart-lung machine using different pump speeds, pressure loads, boot material, centrifugal pump head, multiple pump usage, and battery age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Cornelius

    2012-02-03

    Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has previously been reported to occur in 1 of every 1500 cases. Most heart-lung machine pump consoles are equipped with built-in battery back-up units. Battery run times of these devices are variable and have not been reported. Different conditions of use can extend battery life in the event of electrical failure. This study was designed to examine the run time of a fully charged battery under various conditions of pump speed, pressure loads, pump boot material, multiple pump usage, and battery life. Battery life using a centrifugal pump also was examined. The results of this study show that battery life is affected by pump speed, circuit pressure, boot stiffness, and the number of pumps in service. Centrifugal pumps also show a reduced drain on battery when compared with roller pumps. These elements affect the longevity and performance of the battery. This information could be of value to the individual during power failure as these are variables that can affect the battery life during such a challenging scenario.

  4. Comparative study on the migration of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and tri-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate (TOTM) into blood from PVC tubing material of a heart-lung machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Elisabeth; Münch, Frank; Göen, Thomas; Purbojo, Ariawan; Müller, Johannes; Cesnjevar, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Medical devices like blood tubing often consist of PVC material that requires the addition of plasticizers. These plasticizers may migrate into the blood leading to an exposure of the patients. In this study the migration behavior of three different blood tubing sets (PVC material with two different plasticizers and silicone as control material) applied on a heart-lung machine standardly used for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in children was studied. We analyzed the total plasticizer migration by analysis of both, the parent compounds as well as their primary degradation products in blood. Additionally, the total mass loss of the tubing over perfusion time was examined. The PVC tubing plasticized with DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) was found to have the highest mass loss over time and showed a high plasticizer migration rate. In comparison, the migration of TOTM (tri-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate) and its primary degradation products was found to be distinctly lower (by a factor of approx. 350). Moreover, it was observed that the storage time of the tubing affects the plasticizer migration rates. In conclusion, the DEHP substitute TOTM promises to be an effective alternative plasticizer for PVC medical devices particularly regarding the decreased migration rate during medical procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lung perfusion scintigraphy in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Hiroshi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Oonishi, Takashi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1990-01-01

    Lung perfusion scintigrams were reviewed retrospectively in 28 patients with congenital heart disease, whose ages ranged from the first year to 16 years with an average age of 5 years and 6 months. Seventy four MBq (2 mCi), 111 MBq (2 mCi), and 185 MBq (5 mCi) of Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin were iv injected in the age groups of 0-3, 4-11, and more than 11 years, respectively. Five minutes later, images were obtained in six projections. Abnormal findings on lung perfusion scintigrams were observed in 13 patients (46%). Of these patients, 8 (29%) had a partially decreased blood flow and 5 (17%) had a decreased blood flow in the unilateral lung. No significant difference in the occurrence of abnormal findings was observed among the age groups, although they tended to occur in younger patients. Sex, underlying conditions, and hemodynamics were also independent of scintigraphically abnormal findings. Even when classifying the patients as having either cyanotic or non-cyanotic heart disease, no significant difference in hemodynamics was observed between the group of abnormal findings and the group of normal findings. Pulmonary arteriography available in all patients failed to reveal abnormal findings, with the exception of pulmonary artery stenosis in 2 patients that corresponded to a decreased blood flow in the unilateral lung. Pulmonary artery stenosis seemed to be responsible for abnormal pulmonary blood flow, although other causes remained uncertain. (N.K.)

  6. Diagnosing Coronary Heart Disease using Ensemble Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen H. Miao; Julia H. Miao; George J. Miao

    2016-01-01

    Globally, heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women. One in every four people is afflicted with and dies of heart disease. Early and accurate diagnoses of heart disease thus are crucial in improving the chances of long-term survival for patients and saving millions of lives. In this research, an advanced ensemble machine learning technology, utilizing an adaptive Boosting algorithm, is developed for accurate coronary heart disease diagnosis and outcome predictions. Th...

  7. Lung scan alterations in congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, R; Sanchez, J; Munoz, A; Lanaro, A E; Pico, A M

    1975-04-01

    This report analyzes the patterns in 54 lung scannings of 34 patients with altered pulmonary blood flow due to congenital heart disease. The technique and the results are presented. According to the images obtained, the patients are classified in three groups: Group I--normal distribution with more concentration of particles over the right lung and the bases. Group II--normal scannings found in left to right shunts unless there is pulmonary venous hypertension in which case the apex-base relationship was inverted. Group III--patients with right to left shunts of different types presenting various patterns according to severity, associated anomalies and palliative surgery. The hemodynamics created by cardiac defects and surgical procedures explain these alterations. This method is recommended in view of its advantages and accurate results.

  8. Machine learning in heart failure: ready for prime time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Saqib Ejaz; Sohel, Ferdous; Sanfilippo, Frank Mario; Bennamoun, Mohammed; Dwivedi, Girish

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this review is to present an up-to-date overview of the application of machine learning methods in heart failure including diagnosis, classification, readmissions and medication adherence. Recent studies have shown that the application of machine learning techniques may have the potential to improve heart failure outcomes and management, including cost savings by improving existing diagnostic and treatment support systems. Recently developed deep learning methods are expected to yield even better performance than traditional machine learning techniques in performing complex tasks by learning the intricate patterns hidden in big medical data. The review summarizes the recent developments in the application of machine and deep learning methods in heart failure management.

  9. Significant reductions in heart and lung doses using semi lateral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Various treatment techniques as breath hold techniques have been developed to spare the heart and lung in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy. Purpose: to compare the heart and lung dosimetric parameters of semi lateral decubitus technique with and without deep inspiration breath hold ...

  10. Preparado cardiopulmonar Heart and lung experimental preservatnio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Jakson Dinkhuysen

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um método de preservação do conjunto coraçâo-pulmâo isolado em condições fisiológicas. Após abertura do tórax, é instituída a autoperfusâo ex-corpore que se obtém pela canulação do tronco braquicefálico e veia cava superior, conectando-se a um reservatório situado a 1 metro de altura, de tal maneira que, pela contração ventricular esquerda, o sangue é impulsionado ao reservatório, retorna ao coração direito e segue as vias normais, passando pelos pulmões, onde é oxigenado. A seguir, sem qualquer interrupção dos batimentos e da ventilação, o bloco é retirado do tórax e acondicionado no Recipiente para Conservação e Transporte do Conjunto Cardiopulmonar à temperatura normal. Foram empregados 28 cães, com peso entre 18 e 28 kg, tendo sido feito 8 preservações, para se testar o método, e 10 preservações, para transplante cardiopulmonar em 10 cães receptores. Foram monitorizados, continuamente, eletrocardiograma, pressão intraórtica, pressão ventricular esquerda, DP/DT, índice tempo-tensáo e trabalho cardíaco que mostraram valores estáveis e satisfatórios, tanto na fase de preservação, quanto após o transplante. Os gases sangüíneos guardaram relação com as diferentes misturas administradas à ventilação. A análise microscópica de fragmentos do músculo cardíaco e tecido pulmonar retirado ao final dos procedimentos não revelou alterações significativas decorrentes do método.A simple method is presented which proved to be effective for maintaining the heart and lungs viable and functioning in good hemodynamic and metabolic conditions outside of the body, for a period of up to 7 hours. After this, the heart-lung preparation is transplanted to another animal which maintains good parameters also for 3 hours. The hemodynamic, biochemical and histological features of this preparation are presented. In conclusion, preservation of a heart-lung allograft in a dynamic state provides

  11. Limited-Access Heart Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the side of the chest. With traditional open heart surgery, the incision is usually 6 to 8 ... attached to a heart-lung machine. In traditional open heart surgery, patients would be connected to the heart- ...

  12. Physiological Interaction of Heart and Lung in Thoracic Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Veen, Sonja van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bartelds, Beatrijs [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Boer, Rudolf A. de [Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dickinson, Michael G. [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Faber, Hette; Niemantsverdriet, Maarten [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Berger, Rolf M.F. [Center for Congenital Heart Disease, Beatrix Children Hospital, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijk, Peter van, E-mail: p.van.luijk@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: The risk of early radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) limits the dose and efficacy of radiation therapy of thoracic tumors. In addition to lung dose, coirradiation of the heart is a known risk factor in the development RILT. The aim of this study was to identify the underlying physiology of the interaction between lung and heart in thoracic irradiation. Methods and Materials: Rat hearts, lungs, or both were irradiated to 20 Gy using high-precision proton beams. Cardiopulmonary performance was assessed using breathing rate measurements and F{sup 18}-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) scans biweekly and left- and right-sided cardiac hemodynamic measurements and histopathology analysis at 8 weeks postirradiation. Results: Two to 12 weeks after heart irradiation, a pronounced defect in the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in the left ventricle (LV) was observed. At 8 weeks postirradiation, this coincided with LV perivascular fibrosis, an increase in LV end-diastolic pressure, and pulmonary edema in the shielded lungs. Lung irradiation alone not only increased pulmonary artery pressure and perivascular edema but also induced an increased LV relaxation time. Combined irradiation of lung and heart induced pronounced increases in LV end-diastolic pressure and relaxation time, in addition to an increase in right ventricle end-diastolic pressure, indicative of biventricular diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, enhanced pulmonary edema, inflammation and fibrosis were also observed. Conclusions: Both lung and heart irradiation cause cardiac and pulmonary toxicity via different mechanisms. Thus, when combined, the loss of cardiopulmonary performance is intensified further, explaining the deleterious effects of heart and lung coirradiation. Our findings show for the first time the physiological mechanism underlying the development of a multiorgan complication, RILT. Reduction of dose to either of these organs offers new opportunities to

  13. Management of penetrating heart and accompanying lung injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekim, H.; Basel, H.; Odabasi, D.; Tuncer, M.; Gumrukcuoglu, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Penetrating heart injury is potentially a life threatening condition due to cardiac tamponade or exsanguinating hemorrhage. The aim of this study was to evaluate victims who were referred to our hospital with penetrating heart and accompanying lung injuries and to review our overall outcome with this type of combined injuries. Methodology: Twenty patients with combined penetrating heart and lung injuries were operated at Yuzuncu Yil University Research Hospital, between May 1999 and January 2010. The diagnosis of combined heart and lung injuries was proved by surgical exploration in all cases. The surgical procedures mainly included the relief of cardiac tamponade, control of bleeding, repair of cardiac and pulmonary lacerations, and coronary artery bypass grafting if required. Results: In this series of 20 patients; there were 18 males and two females between the age of 14 to 60 years, with a mean age of 34.8+-13.5 years. Seventeen victims sustained stab wounds, and the remaining three were injured by a gunshot wounds. In 20 patients there were 22 cardiac chamber injuries. The most commonly injured cardiac chamber was the right ventricle followed by the left ventricle. In addition to the injuries to heart muscle, injuries to the coronary arteries were found in two patients. The most commonly injured lung lobe was the left upper lobe. Conclusion: Our experience shows that early diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention are the main factors affecting patient survival after penetrating heart and lung injuries. Therefore, heart injury should always be kept in mind in victims with penetrating thoracic injuries. (author)

  14. Estimation of pulmonary hypertension in lung and valvular heart diseases by perfusion lung scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Allied Medical Sciences; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Kitabayashi, Hirosi; Koizumi, Tomonori; Kubo, Keisi; Sekiguchi, Morie; Yano, Kesato

    1999-06-01

    To estimate pulmonary hypertension, we measured postural differences in pulmonary blood flow for the lateral decubitus positions on perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99 m macro-aggregated albumin, applying the method devised by Tanaka et al (Eur J Nucl Med 17: 320-326, 1990). Utilizing a scintillation camera coupled to a minicomputer system, changes in the distribution of pulmonary blood flow caused by gravitational effects, namely, changes in the total count ratios for the right lung versus the left lung in the right and left lateral decubitus positions (R/L), were obtained for 44 patients with lung disease, 95 patients with valvular heart disease, and 23 normal subjects. Mean standard deviation in the R/L ratios was 3.09{+-}1.28 for the normal subjects, 1.97{+-}0.89 for the patients with lung disease, and 1.59{+-}0.59 for the patients with valvular heart disease. The R/L ratios correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardio-thoracic ratios in the lung disease and valvular heart disease groups, with pulmonary arteriolar resistance in the former, and with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in the latter. Defining pulmonary hypertension (>20 mmHg) as an R/L ratio of less than 1.81, which is the mean-1 standard deviation for normal subjects, the sensitivity and the specificity of the R/L ratio for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension were 62.9% and 76.2%, respectively, for the lung disease patients, and 80.3% and 61.8%, respectively, for the valvular heart disease patients. This method seems to be useful for the pathophysiologic evaluation of pulmonary perfusion in cases of lung disease and valvular heart disease. (author)

  15. Estimation of pulmonary hypertension in lung and valvular heart diseases by perfusion lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Kitabayashi, Hirosi; Koizumi, Tomonori; Kubo, Keisi; Sekiguchi, Morie; Yano, Kesato

    1999-01-01

    To estimate pulmonary hypertension, we measured postural differences in pulmonary blood flow for the lateral decubitus positions on perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99 m macro-aggregated albumin, applying the method devised by Tanaka et al (Eur J Nucl Med 17: 320-326, 1990). Utilizing a scintillation camera coupled to a minicomputer system, changes in the distribution of pulmonary blood flow caused by gravitational effects, namely, changes in the total count ratios for the right lung versus the left lung in the right and left lateral decubitus positions (R/L), were obtained for 44 patients with lung disease, 95 patients with valvular heart disease, and 23 normal subjects. Mean standard deviation in the R/L ratios was 3.09±1.28 for the normal subjects, 1.97±0.89 for the patients with lung disease, and 1.59±0.59 for the patients with valvular heart disease. The R/L ratios correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardio-thoracic ratios in the lung disease and valvular heart disease groups, with pulmonary arteriolar resistance in the former, and with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in the latter. Defining pulmonary hypertension (>20 mmHg) as an R/L ratio of less than 1.81, which is the mean-1 standard deviation for normal subjects, the sensitivity and the specificity of the R/L ratio for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension were 62.9% and 76.2%, respectively, for the lung disease patients, and 80.3% and 61.8%, respectively, for the valvular heart disease patients. This method seems to be useful for the pathophysiologic evaluation of pulmonary perfusion in cases of lung disease and valvular heart disease. (author)

  16. Estimation of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine lung uptake in heart and lung diseases. With reference to lung uptake ratio and decrease of lung uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Tomonori; Sekiguchi, Morie; Gomi, Tsutomu; Yano, Kesato; Itoh, Atsuko.

    1997-01-01

    123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 64 patients with heart and lung diseases. Distribution of MIBG in the chest was evaluated by planar images, using counts ratios of the heart to the mediastinum (H/M) and the unilateral lung to the mediastinum (Lu/M). Most of patients with heart diseases showed obvious lung uptake of MIBG. The ratios of H/M were 1.75±0.20 in the group without heart failure and 1.55±0.19 in the group with heart failure. The ratios of Lu/M in the right and left lung were 1.56±0.16 and 1.28±0.16 in the group without heart failure. And those were 1.45±0.16 and 1.19±0.15 in the group with heart failure. But 3 patients complicated with chronic pulmonary emphysema and one patient with interstitial pneumonia due to dermatomyositis showed markedly decreased lung uptake. The ratios of Lu/M in the right and left lung of these patients were 1.20, 1.17; 1.17, 1.13; 1.01, 0.97 and 1.27, 0.94, respectively. These results suggest that the lung uptake of MIBG may reflect the state of pulmonary endothelial cell function in clinical situations, considering that it has been demonstrated that MIBG may be useful as a marker of pulmonary endothelial cell function in the isolated rat lung. (author)

  17. Pulmonary Hypertension and Right Heart Dysfunction in Chronic Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirmasoud Zangiabadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Group 3 pulmonary hypertension (PH is a common complication of chronic lung disease (CLD, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, interstitial lung disease, and sleep-disordered breathing. Development of PH is associated with poor prognosis and may progress to right heart failure, however, in the majority of the patients with CLD, PH is mild to moderate and only a small number of patients develop severe PH. The pathophysiology of PH in CLD is multifactorial and includes hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, pulmonary vascular remodeling, small vessel destruction, and fibrosis. The effects of PH on the right ventricle (RV range between early RV remodeling, hypertrophy, dilatation, and eventual failure with associated increased mortality. The golden standard for diagnosis of PH is right heart catheterization, however, evidence of PH can be appreciated on clinical examination, serology, radiological imaging, and Doppler echocardiography. Treatment of PH in CLD focuses on management of the underlying lung disorder and hypoxia. There is, however, limited evidence to suggest that PH-specific vasodilators such as phosphodiesterase-type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, and prostanoids may have a role in the treatment of patients with CLD and moderate-to-severe PH.

  18. Cardiopulmonary physiology: why the heart and lungs are inextricably linked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeff, Kevin; Mitchell, Jamie R

    2017-09-01

    Because the heart and lungs are confined within the thoracic cavity, understanding their interactions is integral for studying each system. Such interactions include changes in external constraint to the heart, blood volume redistribution (venous return), direct ventricular interaction (DVI), and left ventricular (LV) afterload. During mechanical ventilation, these interactions can be amplified and result in reduced cardiac output. For example, increased intrathoracic pressure associated with mechanical ventilation can increase external constraint and limit ventricular diastolic filling and, therefore, output. Similarly, high intrathoracic pressures can alter blood volume distribution and limit diastolic filling of both ventricles while concomitantly increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, leading to increased DVI, which may further limit LV filling. While LV afterload is generally considered to decrease with increased intrathoracic pressure, the question arises if the reduced LV afterload is primarily a consequence of a reduced LV preload. A thorough understanding of the interaction between the heart and lungs can be complicated but is essential for clinicians and health science students alike. In this teaching review, we have attempted to highlight the present understanding of certain salient aspects of cardiopulmonary physiology and pathophysiology, as well as provide a resource for multidisciplined health science educators and students. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. The impact of central lung distance, maximal heart distance, and radiation technique on the volumetric dose of the lung and heart for intact breast radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, F.-M.; Klein, Eric E.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Mansur, David B.; Taylor, Marie E.; Perez, Carlos A.; Myerson, Robert J.; Harms, William B.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of radiographic parameter and radiation technique on the volumetric dose of lung and heart for intact breast radiation. Methods and Materials: Forty patients with both two-dimensional (2D) and computed tomographic (CT) simulations were enrolled in the study. Central lung distance (CLD), maximal heart distance (MHD), and maximal heart length (MHL) were measured under virtual simulation. Four plans were compared for each patient. Plan A used a traditional 2D tangential setup. Plan B used clinical target volume (CTV) based three-dimensional (3D) planning. Both plans C and D used a combination of a medial breast field with shallow tangents. Plan D is a further modification of plan C. Results: Under the traditional tangential setup, the mean ipsilateral lung dose and volume at 20, 30, and 40 Gy correlated linearly with CLD (R = 0.85∼0.91). The mean ipsilateral lung dose (Gy) approximated 4 times the CLD value (cm), whereas the percentage volume (%) of ipsilateral lung at 20, 30, and 40 Gy was about 10 times the CLD (cm). The mean heart dose and percentage volume at 20, 30, and 40 Gy correlated with MHD (R = 0.76∼0.80) and MHL (R 0.65∼0.75). The mean heart dose (Gy) approximated 3 times the MHD value (cm), and the percentage volume (%) of the heart at 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy was about 6 times MHD (cm). Radiation technique impacted lung and heart dose. The 3D tangential plan (plan B) failed to reduce the volumetric dose of lung and heart from that of the 2D plan (plan A). The medial breast techniques (plans C and D) significantly decreased the volume of lung and heart receiving high doses (30 and 40 Gy). Plan D further decreased the 20 Gy volumes. By use of the medial breast technique, the lung and heart dose were not impacted by original CLD and MHD/MHL. Therefore, the improvement from the tangential technique was more remarkable for patients with CLD ≥ 3.0 cm (p<0.001). Conclusions: The CLD and MHD impact the volumetric dose of

  20. Mycoplasma hominis periaortic abscess following heart-lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Yoshida, Hisao; Yamamoto, Norihisa; Kimura, Keigo; Ueda, Akiko; Nishi, Isao; Akeda, Yukihiro; Tomono, Kazunori

    2017-06-01

    We report the first case of Mycoplasma hominis periaortic abscess after heart-lung transplantation. The absence of sternal wound infection delayed the diagnosis, but the patient successfully recovered with debridement surgeries and long-term antibiotic therapy. Owing to the difficulty in detection and the intrinsic resistance to beta-lactams, M. hominis infections are prone to being misdiagnosed and undertreated. M. hominis should be suspected in cases where conventional microbiological identification and treatment approaches fail. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Interstitial Lung Disease due to Siderosis in a Lathe Machine Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothi, D; Satija, B; Kumar, S; Kaur, Omkar

    2015-01-01

    Since its first description in 1936, siderosis of lung has been considered a benign pneumoconiosis due to absence of significant clinical symptoms or respiratory impairment. Subsequently, authors have questioned the non-fibrogenic property of iron. However, siderosis causing interstitial lung disease with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern has not been described in the past. We report a case of UIP on high resolution computed tomography, proven to be siderosis on transbronchial lung biopsy in a lathe machine worker.

  2. Reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury with isoproterenol in non-heart-beating donor lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Hoffmann, S C; Sellars, M; Egan, T M

    1997-05-01

    Transplantation of lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors could expand the donor pool. Recent studies suggest that the ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) to the lung can be attenuated by increasing intracellular cAMP concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IRI on capillary permeability, as measured by Kfc, in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors and reperfused with or without isoproterenol (iso). Using an in situ isolated perfused lung model, lungs were retrieved from non-heart-beating donor rats ventilated with O2 or not at varying intervals after death. The lungs were reperfused with or without iso (10 microM). Kfc, lung viability, and pulmonary hemodynamics were measured, and tissue levels of adenine nucleotides and cAMP were measured by HPLC. Iso-reperfusion decreased Kfc significantly (P Kfc in non-iso-reperfused (r = 0.65) and iso-perfused (r = 0.84) lungs. cAMP levels increased significantly with iso-reperfusion. cAMP levels correlated with Kfc (r = 0.87) in iso-reperfused lungs. Iso-reperfusion of lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donor rats results in decreased capillary permeability and increased lung tissue cAMP levels. Pharmacologic augmentation of tissue TAN and cAMP levels may further ameliorate the increased capillary permeability seen in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors.

  3. 76 FR 58025 - National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Gene Therapy Resource Program LentiVirus Vector Production. Date: October...: Tony L Creazzo, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung..., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  4. Cardiopulmonary bypass: development of John Gibbon's heart-lung machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Passaroni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:To provide a brief review of the development of cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods:A review of the literature on the development of extracorporeal circulation techniques, their essential role in cardiovascular surgery, and the complications associated with their use, including hemolysis and inflammation.Results:The advancement of extracorporeal circulation techniques has played an essential role in minimizing the complications of cardiopulmonary bypass, which can range from various degrees of tissue injury to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Investigators have long researched the ways in which cardiopulmonary bypass may insult the human body. Potential solutions arose and laid the groundwork for development of safer postoperative care strategies.Conclusion:Steady progress has been made in cardiopulmonary bypass in the decades since it was first conceived of by Gibbon. Despite the constant evolution of cardiopulmonary bypass techniques and attempts to minimize their complications, it is still essential that clinicians respect the particularities of each patient's physiological function.

  5. Cardiopulmonary bypass: development of John Gibbon's heart-lung machine

    OpenAIRE

    Passaroni, Andréia Cristina; Silva, Marcos Augusto de Moraes; Yoshida, Winston Bonetti

    2015-01-01

    AbstractObjective:To provide a brief review of the development of cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods:A review of the literature on the development of extracorporeal circulation techniques, their essential role in cardiovascular surgery, and the complications associated with their use, including hemolysis and inflammation.Results:The advancement of extracorporeal circulation techniques has played an essential role in minimizing the complications of cardiopulmonary bypass, which can range from vari...

  6. Clinical significance of increased lung/heart ratio in 210Tl stress myocardial image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zaoli; Chang Fengqin; Zhang Fengge; Wang Xiaoyuan; Liu Liuhua

    1990-01-01

    230 cases were studied with 201 Tl stress image. The results showed that the lung/heart ratio closely correlated with the presence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD). Among them, 18 cases (7.8%) showed significantly elevated lung/heart ratio (> 0.50). It was confirmed that all of the 18 cases have severe CHD with left ventricular insufficiency. The author emphasizes that measurement of the lung/heart ratio during 201 Tl stress myocardial image may be useful for the assessment of the severity, evalation of the left ventricular function and judgement of prognosis in CHD

  7. Lung congestion in chronic heart failure: haemodynamic, clinical, and prognostic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melenovsky, Vojtech; Andersen, Mads Jønsson; Andress, Krystof

    2015-01-01

    AIMS:The goal of the study was to examine the prognostic impact, haemodynamic and clinical features associated with lung congestion in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS:HF patients (n = 186) and HF-free controls (n = 21) underwent right heart catheterization...... days (interquartile range 80-875), 59 patients (32%) died. Lung congestion was associated with reduced survival (P renal dysfunction. CONCLUSION:Interstitial lung oedema is associated with pulmonary vascular disease, RV overload...

  8. Non-heart-beating lung donation : How big is the pool?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Danielle M.; van der Bij, Wim; Verschuuren, Erik A. M.; Heemskerk, Martin B. A.; de Buijzer, Erwin; Erasmus, Michiel E.

    Lungs from non-heart-beating (NHB) donors are seldom used in The Netherlands despite the good quality of these organs. Based on a retrospective analysis of 162 NHB donor procedures we found that only 5% of the lungs were actually utilized, but that 30% of the lungs were suitable for transplantation.

  9. A model of mechanical interactions between heart and lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecave Jallon, Julie; Abdulhay, Enas; Calabrese, Pascale; Baconnier, Pierre; Gumery, Pierre-Yves

    2009-12-13

    To study the mechanical interactions between heart, lungs and thorax, we propose a mathematical model combining a ventilatory neuromuscular model and a model of the cardiovascular system, as described by Smith et al. (Smith, Chase, Nokes, Shaw & Wake 2004 Med. Eng. Phys.26, 131-139. (doi:10.1016/j.medengphy.2003.10.001)). The respiratory model has been adapted from Thibault et al. (Thibault, Heyer, Benchetrit & Baconnier 2002 Acta Biotheor. 50, 269-279. (doi:10.1023/A:1022616701863)); using a Liénard oscillator, it allows the activity of the respiratory centres, the respiratory muscles and rib cage internal mechanics to be simulated. The minimal haemodynamic system model of Smith includes the heart, as well as the pulmonary and systemic circulation systems. These two modules interact mechanically by means of the pleural pressure, calculated in the mechanical respiratory system, and the intrathoracic blood volume, calculated in the cardiovascular model. The simulation by the proposed model provides results, first, close to experimental data, second, in agreement with the literature results and, finally, highlighting the presence of mechanical cardiorespiratory interactions.

  10. Reduction of heart sound interference from lung sound signals using empirical mode decomposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ashok; Bhattacharya, P S; Saha, Goutam

    2011-01-01

    During the recording time of lung sound (LS) signals from the chest wall of a subject, there is always heart sound (HS) signal interfering with it. This obscures the features of lung sound signals and creates confusion on pathological states, if any, of the lungs. A novel method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique is proposed in this paper for reducing the undesired heart sound interference from the desired lung sound signals. In this, the mixed signal is split into several components. Some of these components contain larger proportions of interfering signals like heart sound, environmental noise etc. and are filtered out. Experiments have been conducted on simulated and real-time recorded mixed signals of heart sound and lung sound. The proposed method is found to be superior in terms of time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain representations and also in listening test performed by pulmonologist.

  11. Computational models for the study of heart-lung interactions in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Tal, Alona

    2012-01-01

    The operation and regulation of the lungs and the heart are closely related. This is evident when examining the anatomy within the thorax cavity, in the brainstem and in the aortic and carotid arteries where chemoreceptors and baroreceptors, which provide feedback affecting the regulation of both organs, are concentrated. This is also evident in phenomena such as respiratory sinus arrhythmia where the heart rate increases during inspiration and decreases during expiration, in other types of synchronization between the heart and the lungs known as cardioventilatory coupling and in the association between heart failure and sleep apnea where breathing is interrupted periodically by periods of no-breathing. The full implication and physiological significance of the cardiorespiratory coupling under normal, pathological, or extreme physiological conditions are still unknown and are subject to ongoing investigation both experimentally and theoretically using mathematical models. This article reviews mathematical models that take heart-lung interactions into account. The main ideas behind low dimensional, phenomenological models for the study of the heart-lung synchronization and sleep apnea are described first. Higher dimensions, physiology-based models are described next. These models can vary widely in detail and scope and are characterized by the way the heart-lung interaction is taken into account: via gas exchange, via the central nervous system, via the mechanical interactions, and via time delays. The article emphasizes the need for the integration of the different sources of heart-lung coupling as well as the different mathematical approaches. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Review of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Practice guidelines for management of heart failure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colan, Steven D

    2015-08-01

    In 2004, practice guidelines for the management of heart failure in children by Rosenthal and colleagues were published in conjunction with the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. These guidelines have not been updated or reviewed since that time. In general, there has been considerable controversy as to the utility and purpose of clinical practice guidelines, but there is general recognition that the relentless progress of medicine leads to the progressive irrelevance of clinical practice guidelines that do not undergo periodic review and updating. Paediatrics and paediatric cardiology, in particular, have had comparatively minimal participation in the clinical practice guidelines realm. As a result, most clinical practice guidelines either specifically exclude paediatrics from consideration, as has been the case for the guidelines related to cardiac failure in adults, or else involve clinical practice guidelines committees that include one or two paediatric cardiologists and produce guidelines that cannot reasonably be considered a consensus paediatric opinion. These circumstances raise a legitimate question as to whether the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation paediatric heart failure guidelines should be re-reviewed. The time, effort, and expense involved in producing clinical practice guidelines should be considered before recommending an update to the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Paediatric Heart Failure guidelines. There are specific areas of rapid change in the evaluation and management of heart failure in children that are undoubtedly worthy of updating. These domains include areas such as use of serum and imaging biomarkers, wearable and implantable monitoring devices, and acute heart failure management and mechanical circulatory support. At the time the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines were published, echocardiographic tissue Doppler, 3 dimensional

  13. Chocolate consumption is inversely associated with prevalent coronary heart disease: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoussé, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N; North, Kari E; Pankow, James S; Arnett, Donna K; Ellison, R Curtis

    2011-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested beneficial effects of flavonoids on cardiovascular disease. Cocoa and particularly dark chocolate are rich in flavonoids and recent studies have demonstrated blood pressure lowering effects of dark chocolate. However, limited data are available on the association of chocolate consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and prevalent CHD. We studied in a cross-sectional design 4970 participants aged 25-93 years who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study. Chocolate intake was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Compared to subjects who did not report any chocolate intake, odds ratios (95% CI) for CHD were 1.01 (0.76-1.37), 0.74 (0.56-0.98), and 0.43 (0.28-0.67) for subjects consuming 1-3 times/month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively (p for trend Consumption of non-chocolate candy was associated with a 49% higher prevalence of CHD comparing 5+/week vs. 0/week [OR = 1.49 (0.96-2.32)]. These data suggest that consumption of chocolate is inversely related with prevalent CHD in a general United States population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. 76 FR 11254 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel, New Strategies for Growing 3D Tissues... originally advertised for March 9-10, 2011. The meeting will take place on March 9, 2011 only. The meeting is...

  15. 76 FR 61720 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel, SBIR Topic 53 Phase II Review. Date: October 27, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National...

  16. 77 FR 64818 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Virtual Reality Technologies for Research and Education in Obesity and Diabetes. Date: November 14, 2012. Time: 6:00 p.m. to 9...

  17. Validity of PRV margins around lung and heart during left breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovski, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Planning organ at risk volumes (PRV) has a minor use in radiotherapy treatment planning. During left breast irradiation two critical volumes are of special importance the lung and the heart. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in volume doses after adding appropriate margins around these organs at risk and compare them with the effect that the systematic positioning error has on the volume doses. Methods: Treatment plans for 44 patients with left breast cancer were analyzed. Two changes for each plan were made, and dose-volume histogram values for hearts and lungs volumes were recorded. In the first case margins of 5 mm to hearts and lungs were added. Volumes that were enclosed by 30% isodose for hearts and volumes that were enclosed by 20% isodose of lungs were recorded. In the second case plans were made with a systematic error of 5 mm employed, depicting a translation of isocenter posterior and to the right. In this second case, monitor units were taken from the original plan. The critical volumes for hearts and lungs were recorded as in the first case. Results: Our policy for breast cancer irradiation demands that the lung volume receiving 20 Gy should be kept under 25% of the whole left-lung volume, and no more than 10% of the heart volume should receive more than 30 Gy. The first case simulation showed that 23% of the patients have a heart overdose while 11% of them have a lung overdose according to the criteria above. Simulation of the second kind showed that the systematic error in isocenter positioning of 5 mm gives bigger a volume of the heart (in average 0.69% of heart volume) to be enclosed in critical isodose than in PRV case. For the lung the situation was opposite; namely in PRV case the lung volume that is encompassed with critical isodose is greater (in average 1.47% of lung volume) than in a case of displaced isocenter. Conclusions: Adding PRV margins around the heart and the lung does not give straightforward and unambiguous result

  18. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Small Business Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt W. Marek, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small companies working to develop products in the cardiovascular space face numerous challenges, from regulatory, intellectual property, and reimbursement barriers to securing funds to keep the lights on and reach the next development milestone. Most small companies that spin out from universities have the scientific knowledge, but product development expertise and business acumen are also needed to be successful. Other challenges include reduced interest in early-stage technologies and limited deal flow for cardiovascular products. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI small business program is a comprehensive ecosystem designed to address these critical challenges and to provide resources and expertise to assist early-stage companies developing cardiovascular and other products within the institute’s mission. This article describes steps that NHLBI has taken to enhance our small business program to more effectively translate basic discoveries into commercial products to benefit patients and public health, including enhancing internal expertise and developing nonfinancial resources to assist small businesses as they develop their products and seek private sector investment and partnership.

  19. The prognostic importance of lung function in patients admitted with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper Karmark; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Akkan, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF).......The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF)....

  20. Lung and Heart Sounds Analysis: State-of-the-Art and Future Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Ortiz, Ana L; Ibarra, David

    2018-01-01

    Lung sounds, which include all sounds that are produced during the mechanism of respiration, may be classified into normal breath sounds and adventitious sounds. Normal breath sounds occur when no respiratory problems exist, whereas adventitious lung sounds (wheeze, rhonchi, crackle, etc.) are usually associated with certain pulmonary pathologies. Heart and lung sounds that are heard using a stethoscope are the result of mechanical interactions that indicate operation of cardiac and respiratory systems, respectively. In this article, we review the research conducted during the last six years on lung and heart sounds, instrumentation and data sources (sensors and databases), technological advances, and perspectives in processing and data analysis. Our review suggests that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are the most common respiratory diseases reported on in the literature; related diseases that are less analyzed include chronic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, congestive heart failure, and parenchymal pathology. Some new findings regarding the methodologies associated with advances in the electronic stethoscope have been presented for the auscultatory heart sound signaling process, including analysis and clarification of resulting sounds to create a diagnosis based on a quantifiable medical assessment. The availability of automatic interpretation of high precision of heart and lung sounds opens interesting possibilities for cardiovascular diagnosis as well as potential for intelligent diagnosis of heart and lung diseases.

  1. Heart Failure: Diagnosis, Severity Estimation and Prediction of Adverse Events Through Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanthia E. Tripoliti

    Full Text Available Heart failure is a serious condition with high prevalence (about 2% in the adult population in developed countries, and more than 8% in patients older than 75 years. About 3–5% of hospital admissions are linked with heart failure incidents. Heart failure is the first cause of admission by healthcare professionals in their clinical practice. The costs are very high, reaching up to 2% of the total health costs in the developed countries. Building an effective disease management strategy requires analysis of large amount of data, early detection of the disease, assessment of the severity and early prediction of adverse events. This will inhibit the progression of the disease, will improve the quality of life of the patients and will reduce the associated medical costs. Toward this direction machine learning techniques have been employed. The aim of this paper is to present the state-of-the-art of the machine learning methodologies applied for the assessment of heart failure. More specifically, models predicting the presence, estimating the subtype, assessing the severity of heart failure and predicting the presence of adverse events, such as destabilizations, re-hospitalizations, and mortality are presented. According to the authors' knowledge, it is the first time that such a comprehensive review, focusing on all aspects of the management of heart failure, is presented. Keywords: Heart failure, Diagnosis, Prediction, Severity estimation, Classification, Data mining

  2. Lung and heart dose volume analyses with CT simulator in tangential field irradiation of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Indra J.; Cheng, Elizabeth C.; Fowble, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Radiation pneumonitis and cardiac effects are directly related to the irradiated lung and heart volumes in the treatment fields. The central lung distance (CLD) from a tangential breast radiograph is shown to be a significant indicator of ipsilateral irradiated lung volume based on empirically derived functions which accuracy depends on the actual measured volume in treatment position. A simple and accurate linear relationship with CLD and retrospective analysis of the pattern of dose volume of lung and heart is presented with actual volume data from a CT simulator in the treatment of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: The heart and lung volumes in the tangential treatment fields were analyzed in 45 consecutive (22 left and 23 right breast) patients referred for CT simulation of the cone down treatment. All patients in this study were immobilized and placed on an inclined breast board in actual treatment setup. Both arms were stretched over head uniformly to avoid collision with the scanner aperture. Radiopaque marks were placed on the medial and lateral borders of the tangential fields. All patients were scanned in spiral mode with slice width and thickness of 3 mm each, respectively. The lung and heart structures as well as irradiated areas were delineated on each slice and respective volumes were accurately measured. The treatment beam parameters were recorded and the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated for the CLD and analysis. Results: Table 1 shows the volume statistics of patients in this study. There is a large variation in the lung and heart volumes among patients. Due to differences in the shape of right and left lungs the percent irradiated volume (PIV) are different. The PIV data have shown to correlate with CLD with 2nd and 3rd degree polynomials; however, in this study a simple straight line regression is used to provide better confidence than the higher order polynomial. The regression lines for the left and right

  3. Transplantes cardiopulmonar e pulmonar com doador em localidade distante Distant donor procurement for heart-lung and lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sérgio Fragomeni

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Em situações específicas, os transplantes clínicos cardiopulmonar e pulmonar são, hoje, formas estabelecidas de tratamento para estágio final de doença cardiopulmonar e pulmonar. A obtenção de doadores adequados permanece o maior problema e a remoção de órgãos em localidades distantes é, hoje, uma necessidade. Embora muitos métodos de preservação pulmonar possam ser empregados, para períodos isquémicos de até 5 horas, a hipotermia e o uso de solução cardioplégica com infusão da solução de Collins modificada no tronco pulmonar tem sido método simples e eficiente para preservação do bloco coração-pulmão. Descrevemos, aqui, o método corrente que empregamos, com o qual os transplantes cardiopulmonar e pulmonar combinados foram sucedidos de excelente função cárdio-respiratória.In special situations, clinical heart-lung and lung transplantation are today established methods of therapy for end stage cardiopulmonary and pulmonary disease. Adequate donor availability remains a major problem and distant organ procurement is today a necessity. Although many methods of lung preservation can be used, for periods of up to 5 hours, hypothermic storage with cardioplegic arrest and pulmonary artery flush with modified Collins solution has proven to be a simple and reliable method of heart-lung preservation. We here describe our current method of heart-lung block protection, in which heart-lung and double lung transplantation were performed followed by excelent cardiac and pulmonary function.

  4. Fitness to Fly Testing in Patients with Congenital Heart and Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoorenberg, Mandy E; van den Oord, Marieke H A H; Meeuwsen, Ted; Takken, Tim

    2016-01-01

    During commercial air travel passengers are exposed to a low ambient cabin pressure, comparable to altitudes of 5000 to 8000 ft (1524 to 2438 m). In healthy passengers this causes a fall in partial pressure of oxygen, which results in relative hypoxemia, usually without symptoms. Patients with congenital heart or lung disease may experience more severe hypoxemia during air travel. This systematic review provides an overview of the current literature focusing on whether it is safe for patients with congenital heart or lung disease to fly. The Pubmed database was searched and all studies carried out at an (simulated) altitude of 5000-8000 ft (1524-2438 m) for a short time period (several hours) and related to patients with congenital heart or lung disease were reviewed. Included were 11 studies. These studies examined patients with cystic fibrosis, neonatal (chronic) lung disease and congenital (a)cyanotic heart disease during a hypoxic challenge test, in a hypobaric chamber, during commercial air travel, or in the mountains. Peripheral/arterial saturation, blood gases, lung function, and/or the occurrence of symptoms were listed. Based on the current literature, it can be concluded that air travel is safe for most patients. However, those at risk of hypoxia can benefit from supplemental in-flight oxygen. Therefore, patients with congenital heart and lung disease should be evaluated carefully prior to air travel to select the patients at risk for hypoxia using the current studies and guidelines.

  5. Lung Function before and Two Days after Open-Heart Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Urell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced lung volumes and atelectasis are common after open-heart surgery, and pronounced restrictive lung volume impairment has been found. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing lung volumes on the second postoperative day. Open-heart surgery patients (n=107, 68 yrs, 80% male performed spirometry both before surgery and on the second postoperative day. The factors influencing postoperative lung volumes and decrease in lung volumes were investigated with univariate and multivariate analyses. Associations between pain (measured by numeric rating scale and decrease in postoperative lung volumes were calculated with Spearman rank correlation test. Lung volumes decreased by 50% and were less than 40% of the predictive values postoperatively. Patients with BMI >25 had lower postoperative inspiratory capacity (IC (33±14% pred. than normal-weight patients (39±15% pred., (P=0.04. More pain during mobilisation was associated with higher decreases in postoperative lung volumes (VC: r=0.33, P=0.001; FEV1: r=0.35, P≤0.0001; IC: r=0.25, P=0.01. Patients with high BMI are a risk group for decreased postoperative lung volumes and should therefore receive extra attention during postoperative care. As pain is related to a larger decrease in postoperative lung volumes, optimal pain relief for the patients should be identified.

  6. Lung Function before and Two Days after Open-Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urell, Charlotte; Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Hedenström, Hans; Janson, Christer; Emtner, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes and atelectasis are common after open-heart surgery, and pronounced restrictive lung volume impairment has been found. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing lung volumes on the second postoperative day. Open-heart surgery patients (n = 107, 68 yrs, 80% male) performed spirometry both before surgery and on the second postoperative day. The factors influencing postoperative lung volumes and decrease in lung volumes were investigated with univariate and multivariate analyses. Associations between pain (measured by numeric rating scale) and decrease in postoperative lung volumes were calculated with Spearman rank correlation test. Lung volumes decreased by 50% and were less than 40% of the predictive values postoperatively. Patients with BMI >25 had lower postoperative inspiratory capacity (IC) (33 ± 14% pred.) than normal-weight patients (39 ± 15% pred.), (P = 0.04). More pain during mobilisation was associated with higher decreases in postoperative lung volumes (VC: r = 0.33, P = 0.001; FEV(1): r = 0.35, P ≤ 0.0001; IC: r = 0.25, P = 0.01). Patients with high BMI are a risk group for decreased postoperative lung volumes and should therefore receive extra attention during postoperative care. As pain is related to a larger decrease in postoperative lung volumes, optimal pain relief for the patients should be identified.

  7. Lung and heart dose volume analyses with CT simulator in radiation treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Indra J.; Cheng, Elizabeth C.; Freedman, Gary; Fowble, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis and cardiac effects are directly related to the irradiated lung and heart volumes in the treatment fields. The central lung distance (CLD) from a tangential breast radiograph is shown to be a significant indicator of ipsilateral irradiated lung volume. Retrospective analysis of the pattern of dose volume of lung and heart with actual volume data from a CT simulator in the treatment of breast cancer is presented with respect to CLD. Methods and Materials: The heart and lung volumes in the tangential treatment fields were analyzed in 108 consecutive cases (52 left and 56 right breast) referred for CT simulation. All patients in this study were immobilized and placed on an inclined breast board in actual treatment setup. Both arms were stretched over head to avoid collision with the scanner aperture. Radiopaque marks were placed on the medial and lateral borders of the tangential fields. All patients were scanned in spiral mode with slice width and thickness of 3 mm each, respectively. The lung and heart structures as well as irradiated areas were delineated on each slice and respective volumes were accurately measured. The treatment beam parameters were recorded and the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated for the measurement of the CLD and analysis. Results: Using CT data the mean volume and standard deviation of left and right lungs were 1307.7 ± 297.7 cm 3 and 1529.6 ± 298.5 cm 3 , respectively. The magnitude of irradiated volume in left and right lung is nearly equal for the same CLD that produces different percent irradiated volumes (PIV). The left and right PIV lungs are 8.3 ± 4.7% and 6.6 ± 3.7%, respectively. The PIV data have shown to correlate with CLD with second- and third-degree polynomials; however, in this study a simple straight line regression is used to provide better confidence than the higher order polynomials. The regression lines for the left and right breasts are very different based on

  8. Machines versus medication for biventricular heart failure: focus on the total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabia, Francisco A; Moriguchi, Jaime D

    2014-09-01

    The medical/surgical management of advanced heart failure has evolved rapidly over the last few decades. With better understanding of heart failure pathophysiology, new pharmacological agents have been introduced that have resulted in improvements in survival. For those patients that fail to improve, mechanical circulatory support with left ventricular assist devices and total artificial hearts (TAHs) have served as a beneficial bridge to transplantation. The TAH has continued to play a significant role as a bridge to transplantation in patients with biventricular failure and more selected indications that could not be completely helped with left ventricular assist devices. Improved survival with the TAH has resulted in more patients benefiting from this technology. Improvements will eventually lead to a totally implantable device that will permanently replace the failing human heart.

  9. Measurement and classification of heart and lung sounds by using LabView for educational use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altrabsheh, B

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the design, development and implementation of a simple low-cost method of phonocardiography signal detection. Human heart and lung signals are detected by using a simple microphone through a personal computer; the signals are recorded and analysed using LabView software. Amplitude and frequency analyses are carried out for various phonocardiography pathological cases. Methods for automatic classification of normal and abnormal heart sounds, murmurs and lung sounds are presented. Various cases of heart and lung sound measurement are recorded and analysed. The measurements can be saved for further analysis. The method in this study can be used by doctors as a detection tool aid and may be useful for teaching purposes at medical and nursing schools.

  10. Non-Contact Monitoring of Heart and Lung Activity by Magnetic Induction Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In many clinical applications, the monitoring of heart and lung activity is of vital importance. State-of-the-art monitoring involves the use of electrodes or other contact based sensors (electrocardiogram (ECG, impedance cardiography (ICG, pulse oximetry or equivalent. With the equipment that is used, side effects like skin irritation, difficult application or additional cabling may occur. In contrast, this paper describes a method for non-contact monitoring of heart and lung activity, which is solely based on magnetic induction. This method allows simultaneous monitoring of heart and lung activity, and has the potential of an integrated application in a personal healthcare scenario. To illustrate the performance, a simple test-setup has been developed and the first results are presented here (some of which have been previously presented on the Poster 2008 [10]. 

  11. The relationship between J waves and contact of lung cancer with the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hideki; Wu, Qi; Horie, Minoru

    2017-09-01

    J waves result mainly from an increased density of transient outward current (I to ). Mechanical stretch to the heart activates multiple signal transduction pathways, in which I to may be involved. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mechanical contact of lung cancer with the heart may manifest J waves. We reviewed 12-lead electrocardiograms to examine whether J waves were associated with contact of lung cancer with the heart. J waves were defied as an elevation of ≥0.1 mV at the junction between QRS complex and ST segment with either notching or slurring morphology. The locational interaction between lung cancer and the heart was determined by computed tomography image. A total of 264 patients (176 men; mean 68.5 ± 10.7 years) with lung cancer were evaluated. The prevalence of J waves was 25.4% in the total population. J waves were present in 40 of 44 (90.9%) patients with the contact. In contrast, J waves were present in 25 of 220 (11.4%) patients without the contact. The sensitivity and specificity of the contact for J waves were 90.9% and 88.6%, respectively. The odds ratio of the contact with the heart to the presence of J waves was 78 (95% confidence interval 25.7-236.4). The appearance of J waves that coincided with the development of lung cancer was observed in 12 patients. The presence of J waves was associated with the contact of lung cancer with the heart. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Emerging Research Directions in Adult Congenital Heart Disease: A Report from a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/Adult Congenital Heart Association Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvitz, Michelle; Burns, Kristin M.; Brindis, Ralph; Broberg, Craig S.; Daniels, Curt J.; Fuller, Stephanie M.P.N.; Honein, Margaret A.; Khairy, Paul; Kuehl, Karen S.; Landzberg, Michael J.; Mahle, William T.; Mann, Douglas L.; Marelli, Ariane; Newburger, Jane W.; Pearson, Gail D.; Starling, Randall C.; Tringali, Glenn R.; Valente, Anne Marie; Wu, Joseph C.; Califf, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting about 0.8% of live births. Advances in recent decades have allowed >85% of children with CHD to survive to adulthood, creating a growing population of adults with CHD. Little information exists regarding survival, demographics, late outcomes, and comorbidities in this emerging group, and multiple barriers impede research in adult CHD (ACHD). The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Adult Congenital Heart Association convened a multidisciplinary Working Group to identify high-impact research questions in ACHD. This report summarizes the meeting discussions in the broad areas of CHD-related heart failure, vascular disease and multisystem complications. High-priority subtopics identified included heart failure in tetralogy of Fallot, mechanical circulatory support/transplantation, sudden cardiac death, vascular outcomes in coarctation of the aorta, late outcomes in single ventricle disease, cognitive and psychiatric issues, and pregnancy. PMID:27102511

  13. Heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity in bilateral lung transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontolliet, Timothée; Gianella, Pietro; Pichot, Vincent; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Gasche-Soccal, Paola; Ferretti, Guido; Lador, Frédéric

    2018-01-09

    The effects of lung afferents denervation on cardiovascular regulation can be assessed on bilateral lung transplantation patients. The high-frequency component of heart rate variability is known to be synchronous with breathing frequency. Then, if heart beat is neurally modulated by breathing frequency, we may expect disappearance of high frequency of heart rate variability in bilateral lung transplantation patients. On 11 patients and 11 matching healthy controls, we measured R-R interval (electrocardiography), blood pressure (Portapres ® ) and breathing frequency (ultrasonic device) in supine rest, during 10-min free breathing, 10-min cadenced breathing (0·25 Hz) and 5-min handgrip. We analysed heart rate variability and spontaneous variability of arterial blood pressure, by power spectral analysis, and baroreflex sensitivity, by the sequence method. Concerning heart rate variability, with respect to controls, transplant recipients had lower total power and lower low- and high-frequency power. The low-frequency/high-frequency ratio was higher. Concerning systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure variability, transplant recipients had lower total power (only for cadenced breathing), low frequency and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio during free and cadenced breathing. Baroreflex sensitivity was decreased. Denervated lungs induced strong heart rate variability reduction. The higher low-frequency/high-frequency ratio suggested that the total power drop was mostly due to high frequency. These results support the hypothesis that neural modulation from lung afferents contributes to the high frequency of heart rate variability. © 2018 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Lung scintiscanning in corrective surgery of congenital heart disease, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Kaoru

    1981-01-01

    Lung scintiscanning was performed to investigate the distribution of pulmonary blood flow before and after surgery in 30 patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Uniformity of lung scintigram and the derangement of the distribution pattern were observed preoperatively and postoperatively. The results were as follows: 1) Preoperatively, uniformity of lung scintigram was 27.7 - 100% (average 63.4%). It is more necessary to construct the outflow tract in most cases, when the PA/Ao diameter ratio was lower than 0.5 and uniformity of lung scintigram was under 50%. Besides, preoperative uniformity of lung scintigram correlated with the degree of polycythemia. In 3 cases who died after corrective surgery, the value of uniformity of lung scintigram was as low as 33.3 - 61.1%. 2) Preoperative pulmonary blood flow disturbances were found in 50% of 30 cases. In all of the cases without pulmonary blood flow disturbances, total correction was successfully performed. On the other hand, in cases with pulmonary blood flow disturbances, the result of total correction was not satisfactory. 3) In cases with the slight and moderately deranged distribution preoperatively, postoperative follow up study by scintiscanning at 1 to 2 months after surgery showed considerately more improvement of pulmonary blood flow. (author)

  15. Lung scintiscanning in corrective surgery of congenital heart diseases, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Kaoru

    1981-01-01

    External scintillation scanning of intravenously administered 131 I-MAA was employed to evaluate the distribution of pulmonary blood flow in 63 patients (42 VSD, 9 PDA, 5 VSD with PDA, 4 ECD, 2 VSD with MI and 1 A-P window) with pulmonary hypertension. 1) Preoperative uniformity of lung scintigram was 33.3 - 100% (average 73.0%) in VSD, 27.7 - 100% (68.8%) in PDA, 66.6 - 72.2% (68.2%) in VSD with PDA, 63.8 - 86.1% (78.4%) in ECD, 58.3 - 100% in VSD with MI and 88.8% in A-P window. 2) Preoperative uniformity of lung scintigram correlated with the pulmonary arterial systolic pressure and the ratio of pulmonary to systemic pressure in patients over 1 year of age, but not correlated with pulmonary hemodynamics in patients under 1 year of age. 3) Even though the value of uniformity of lung scintigram was low, pulmonary arterial pressure decreased evidently after corrective surgery in the cases under 1 year of age. However, its decrease was mild in the cases over 1 year of age. Operative death was found in 6 cases. Of these, the value of uniformity of lung scintigram was as low as 55.5 - 72.2% in VSD and PDA, on the other hand, it was as high as 80.5 - 83.3% in ECD. 4) Preoperative pulmonary blood flow disturbances were found in about 51% of the cases of VSD, PDA and VSD with PDA. In cases with the deranged distribution pattern in the left lung or both lungs, postoperative care in the acute stage must be done carefully. 5) In cases with the deranged distribution preoperatively, the postoperative changes of the lung scintigrams were studied at 1 to 2 months after surgery. Postoperative distribution pattern of the pulmonary flow has not improved sufficiently at this time. (author)

  16. The Impact of Heart Irradiation on Dose-Volume Effects in the Rat Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luijk, Peter van; Faber, Hette; Meertens, Harm; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Robert P. Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that heart irradiation increases the risk of a symptomatic radiation-induced loss of lung function (SRILF) and that this can be well-described as a modulation of the functional reserve of the lung. Methods and Materials: Rats were irradiated with 150-MeV protons. Dose-response curves were obtained for a significant increase in breathing frequency after irradiation of 100%, 75%, 50%, or 25% of the total lung volume, either including or excluding the heart from the irradiation field. A significant increase in the mean respiratory rate after 6-12 weeks compared with 0-4 weeks was defined as SRILF, based on biweekly measurements of the respiratory rate. The critical volume (CV) model was used to describe the risk of SRILF. Fits were done using a maximum likelihood method. Consistency between model and data was tested using a previously developed goodness-of-fit test. Results: The CV model could be fitted consistently to the data for lung irradiation only. However, this fitted model failed to predict the data that also included heart irradiation. Even refitting the model to all data resulted in a significant difference between model and data. These results imply that, although the CV model describes the risk of SRILF when the heart is spared, the model needs to be modified to account for the impact of dose to the heart on the risk of SRILF. Finally, a modified CV model is described that is consistent to all data. Conclusions: The detrimental effect of dose to the heart on the incidence of SRILF can be described by a dose dependent decrease in functional reserve of the lung

  17. 77 FR 59200 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel Mentored Career Transition Scientist Award. Date: October 18-19, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: The William F. Bolger... Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  18. Correlates of lung/heart ratio of thallium-201 in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, S.; Kaul, S.; Boucher, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    We studied 306 patients with chest pain (262 with coronary artery disease and 44 with no coronary artery disease) to determine which of 23 clinical, exercise, thallium, and angiographic variables best discriminate between patients with increased lung/heart ratios of thallium versus those with normal ratios. Normal lung/heart ratio values were defined using an additional 45 subjects with less than 1% probability of coronary artery disease. The number of diseased vessels was the best discriminator between patients with increased ratios versus those with normal ratios. Double product at peak exercise, number of segments with abnormal wall motion, patient gender, and duration of exercise were also significant discriminators. Using discriminant function analysis these variables could correctly identify 81% of cases with increased lung/heart ratios and 72% of cases with normal ratios. These results indicate that an increased lung/heart ratio of thallium reflects exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction and affords a better understanding of why this thallium parameter is a powerful prognostic indicator in patients with chest pain

  19. A case of horseshoe lung and complex congenital heart disease in a term newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeewa, Aamir; Culham, J.A.G.; Human, Derek G.

    2010-01-01

    We describe and illustrate a rare association of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, absent hilar left pulmonary artery, and an unusual bronchopulmonary malformation. This case highlights the utility of combination imaging of echocardiography and CT angiography in diagnosing a cyanotic newborn with a chest radiograph that is suspicious for lung hypoplasia. (orig.)

  20. A case of horseshoe lung and complex congenital heart disease in a term newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeewa, Aamir [British Columbia Children' s Hospital and University of British Columbia, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Vancouver (Canada); Culham, J.A.G. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); Human, Derek G. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital and University of British Columbia, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Vancouver (Canada); B.C. Children' s Hospital, Children' s Heart Centre, Vancouver (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    We describe and illustrate a rare association of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, absent hilar left pulmonary artery, and an unusual bronchopulmonary malformation. This case highlights the utility of combination imaging of echocardiography and CT angiography in diagnosing a cyanotic newborn with a chest radiograph that is suspicious for lung hypoplasia. (orig.)

  1. 78 FR 27411 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NHLBI Resource-Related Project for Stem Cells and Cardiomyopathy. Date: June 6, 2013. Time: 1:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837...

  2. 76 FR 20358 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Emphasis Panel; Career Enhancement Award for Stem Cell Research. Date: May 4, 2011. Time: 12:30 p.m. to 3 p... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and...

  3. 75 FR 65498 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Emphasis Panel, Career Enhancement Awards for Stem Cell Research. Date: November 10, 2010. Time: 12:30 p.m... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases...

  4. 77 FR 1941 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... Emphasis Panel; NHLBI Career Enhancement Grants for Stem Cell Research. Date: February 1, 2012. Time: 1 p.m... Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and Resources Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: January 6, 2012...

  5. 76 FR 68200 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NHLBI Career Enhancement Grants for Stem Cell Research. Date: November 29, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Hematology and Transfusion Medical Research Career Development...

  6. 78 FR 7795 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Emphasis Panel; Review of a resource grant application in rat embryonic stem cell lines. Date: February 21..., National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and Resources Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated...

  7. 77 FR 30542 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NHLBI Career Enhancement Grants for Stem Cell Research Date: June 13, 2012... Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and Resources Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 17...

  8. 75 FR 80831 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ...-Care Assay for Engraftment Potential of Umbilical Cord Stem Cells. Date: January 28, 2011. Time: 2 p.m... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and Resources Research...

  9. Brain, lung, and heart oxidative stress assessment of an over-the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the brain, lung, and heart oxidative stress in rats exposed to aerosol of an over-thecounter pyrethroid insecticide product in Nigeria. The experimental animals were randomly divided into four groups: group I (control) was not exposed to the insecticide aerosol, while groups II, III, and IV were exposed to 6.0 mL ...

  10. 78 FR 77477 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Emphasis Panel; Small Business Development of New Methods for Mitral Valve Repair. Date: January 10, 2014... Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and Resources Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated...

  11. 78 FR 7792 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SBIR Contract Proposal Passive MRI Guidewire. Date: February 27, 2013. Time: 3:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National... . Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; SBIR Contract...

  12. 75 FR 28260 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Investigator and Research Scientist Career Development Awards... . Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Planning Grants... Mechanisms of Arterial Stiffening and Its Relationship to Development of Hypertension. Date: June 17, 2010...

  13. 75 FR 50771 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NHLBI Nanotechnology Administrative Centers Contract Review. Date: August 20, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National...: Shelley S Sehnert, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood...

  14. Epidemiology, risk factors, and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection in heart and heart-lung transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruminhent, Jackrapong; Cawcutt, Kelly A; Thongprayoon, Charat; Petterson, Tanya M; Kremers, Walter K; Razonable, Raymund R

    2017-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is a major cause of diarrhea in thoracic organ transplant recipients. We investigated the epidemiology, risk factors, and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in heart and heart-lung transplant (HT) recipients. This is a retrospective study from 2004 to 2013. CDI was defined by diarrhea and a positive toxigenic C. difficile in stool measured by toxin enzyme immunoassay (2004-2006) or polymerase chain reaction (2007-2013). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the association of risk factors with time to CDI and survival with CDI following transplantation. There were 254 HT recipients, with a median age of 53 years (IQR, 45-60); 34% were female. During the median follow-up of 3.1 years (IQR, 1.3-6.1), 22 (8.7%) patients developed CDI. In multivariable analysis, risk factors for CDI were combined heart-lung transplant (HR 4.70; 95% CI, 1.30-17.01 [P=.02]) and retransplantation (HR 7.19; 95% CI, 1.61-32.12 [P=.01]). Acute cellular rejection was associated with a lower risk of CDI (HR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.11-0.94 [P=.04]). CDI was found to be an independent risk factor for mortality (HR 7.66; 95% CI, 3.41-17.21 [PClostridium difficile infection after HT is more common among patients with combined heart-lung and those undergoing retransplantation. CDI was associated with a higher risk of mortality in HT recipients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Digital subtraction angiography of the heart and lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moodie, D.S.; Yiannikas, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 12 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Physical Principles of Cardiac Digital Subtraction Angiography, The Use of Intravenous Digital Subtraction Angiography in Evaluating Patients with Complex Congenital Heart Disease, Exercise Intravenous Digital Subtraction Angiograpny, Cardiomyopathic and Cardiac Neoplastic Disease, Digital Subtraction Angiography in the Catheterization Laboratory, and Cardiac Digital Subtraction Angiography - Future Directions

  16. Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Gallardo-Casas, Carlos Angel; Ortiz-Butrón, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    It is known that a hypothyroidism-induced hypometabolic state protects against oxidative damage caused by toxins. However, some workers demonstrated that antithyroid drug-induced hypothyroidism can cause cellular damage. Our objective was to determine if methimazole (an antithyroid drug) or hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the liver, kidney, lung, spleen and heart. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: euthyroid, false thyroidectomy, thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism, methimazole-induced hypothyroidism (60 mg/kg), and treatment with methimazole (60 mg/kg) and a T₄ injection (20 μg/kg/d sc). At the end of the treatments (4 weeks for the pharmacological groups and 8 weeks for the surgical groups), the animals were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and they were transcardially perfused with 10% formaldehyde. The spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney were removed and were processed for embedding in paraffin wax. Coronal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. At the end of treatment, animals with both the methimazole- and thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism had a significant reduction of serum concentration of thyroid hormones. Only methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the kidney, lung, liver, heart, kidney and spleen. In addition, animals treated with methimazole and T₄ showed cellular damage in the lung, spleen and renal medulla with lesser damage in the liver, renal cortex and heart. The thyroidectomy only altered the lung structure. The alterations were prevented by T₄ completely in the heart and partially in the kidney cortex. These results indicate that tissue damage found in hypothyroidism is caused by methimazole. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Interactions of heart disease and lung disease on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierson, R.N. Jr.; Barrett, C.R. Jr.; Yamashina, A.; Friedman, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of heat diseases on lung anatomy, lung function, and pulmonary nuclear test procedures, and also the effects of lung diseases on cardiac function, with particular reference to radionuclide tests. Historically, pulmonary nuclear medicine has been focused on discovering and quantifying pulmonary embolism, but the potential of nuclear tracer techniques to carry out high-precision, regional, quantitative measurements of blood flow, air flow, and membrane transport promises a much more powerful and wide-ranging diagnostic application than the search for pulmonary emboli. The authors therefore define normal anatomy and function in a framework suitable to develop the relationships between cardiac and pulmonary function, with particular attention to regional differences in lung function, since regional measurements provide a special province for radionuclide lung studies

  18. Methods of stabilizing a permanent maglev rotator in heart pumps and other rotary machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kun-xi qian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Permanent maglev rotator in a rotary machine could be stabilized according to the author’s experiences, by use of a non-PM (permanent magnetic force acting together with the PM force, and a non-PM bearing functioning together with the PM bearing, or a so-called gyro-effect which can stabilize all rotators including permanent maglev rotator. This paper presents both axially and radially driven permanent maglev centrifugal heart pumps, as well as a permanent maglev turbine machine and an industrially used permanent maglev centrifugal pump. In all this devices permanent maglev rotators achieve stable equilibrium by different approaches described in detail. Finally, the principle exhibition of gyro-effect and the route chart to stabilization of permanent maglev rotator are presented.

  19. Profitability of our lung retrieval program from non heart beating donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Elena; Calatayud, Joaquín; Jarabo, José Ramón; Hernando, Florentino; Rodríguez, Olga; Gómez, Ana María; Soria, Ana; Del Río, Francisco

    2009-02-01

    In 2002 the first lung transplant from non heart beating (NHB) donors took place in Madrid. The objective of this study was to analyse our Maastricht type I NHB lung donors retrieval program and to check out its profitability. Based on the NHB lung donors retrieval program carried out at Hospital Clínico San Carlos (Madrid) in association with Hospital Puerta de Hierro (Madrid), all lung donors from the beginning of the program from June 2002 to December 2006 have been analysed. When faced with a case of sudden death, advanced life support manoeuvres are initiated before 15 min. If the patient meets a given set of criteria, code 0/9 is activated. Arrival time to the hospital cannot exceed 90 min. Femoral artery and vein are cannulated, extracorporeal circulation is started and lungs are preserved. After the relatives' and judicial authorisation lungs are retrieved. Out of a total of 322 occurrences of code 0/9, 43 lung retrievals and 25 implants were reported. A total of 95% of donors were male, with an average age of 41 years and 91% with blood group A or O. 2004 saw the highest number of retrievals (14). January, May and December showed the highest number of retrievals. Incidence of sudden deaths was higher from 7 to 10 a.m. and from 7 to 10 p.m. Twenty-three implants at Hospital Puerta de Hierro and three more at Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla (Santander) were reported. A considerable amount of preserved lungs, valid for transplant, were not retrieved because of a lack of an appropriate recipient at the time. A total of 58.1% of preserved lungs were implanted. The ratio of obtained lungs was 11.4% of actual donors and 7.7% of total occurrences. However, this percentage could have been higher if we take into account the number of valid lungs that were not transplanted because of the lack of recipients.

  20. Automated system for lung nodules classification based on wavelet feature descriptor and support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero Orozco, Hiram; Vergara Villegas, Osslan Osiris; Cruz Sánchez, Vianey Guadalupe; Ochoa Domínguez, Humberto de Jesús; Nandayapa Alfaro, Manuel de Jesús

    2015-02-12

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide; it refers to the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lung. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the thorax is the most sensitive method for detecting cancerous lung nodules. A lung nodule is a round lesion which can be either non-cancerous or cancerous. In the CT, the lung cancer is observed as round white shadow nodules. The possibility to obtain a manually accurate interpretation from CT scans demands a big effort by the radiologist and might be a fatiguing process. Therefore, the design of a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system would be helpful as a second opinion tool. The stages of the proposed CADx are: a supervised extraction of the region of interest to eliminate the shape differences among CT images. The Daubechies db1, db2, and db4 wavelet transforms are computed with one and two levels of decomposition. After that, 19 features are computed from each wavelet sub-band. Then, the sub-band and attribute selection is performed. As a result, 11 features are selected and combined in pairs as inputs to the support vector machine (SVM), which is used to distinguish CT images containing cancerous nodules from those not containing nodules. The clinical data set used for experiments consists of 45 CT scans from ELCAP and LIDC. For the training stage 61 CT images were used (36 with cancerous lung nodules and 25 without lung nodules). The system performance was tested with 45 CT scans (23 CT scans with lung nodules and 22 without nodules), different from that used for training. The results obtained show that the methodology successfully classifies cancerous nodules with a diameter from 2 mm to 30 mm. The total preciseness obtained was 82%; the sensitivity was 90.90%, whereas the specificity was 73.91%. The CADx system presented is competitive with other literature systems in terms of sensitivity. The system reduces the complexity of classification by not performing the typical segmentation stage of most CADx

  1. Calculation of lung-heart ratios for single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, E.J.; King, M.A.; Glick, S.J.; Villegas, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The authors investigate the effectiveness of simple iterative reconstruction techniques in calculating lung-heart activity ratios (LHRs). The LHR has been shown to be an effective indicator of the severity of coronary artery disease in cardiac SPECT. A study was conducted with a mathematical cardiac torso phantom that modelled uptake of 201 Tl in the heart and lung regions. The projection data included only the effects of nonuniform photon attenuation. The data were first reconstructed with zeroth-order Chang and a variant of the Bellini method, both of which utilize information from the nonuniform attenuation map. This nonuniform (NU) Bellini method compensates exactly for attenuation in the heart region, but is incorrect for other regions in the medium. These reconstructions were then used as the initial estimates in the iterative Chang, variable step-size (VSS) Chang, and Morozumi methods,m for one and five iterations. The average heart count (AHC) and average lung count (ALC) were calculated using region-of-interest (ROI) templates derived from the true activity map. The population mean LHR was tabulated as the ratio of the ALC to AHC. Using the same reconstruction procedure, the authors also calculated the sample mean LHR and standard deviation from 21 noisy 3D reconstructions

  2. [Use of lung ultrasound as a prognostic tool in outpatients with heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo Villanueva, María Del Carmen; Fernández López, María; Canora Lebrato, Jesús; Satué Bartolomé, José Ángel; San Martín Prado, Alberto; Zapatero Gaviria, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    To assess the prognostic value of lung ultrasound for patients with chronic heart failure. Prospective observational cohort study, in which a lung ultrasound was performed on 54 patients at a heart failure outpatient consultation. Ultrasonography was classified as positive or negative for ultrasound interstitial syndrome depending on the number of B lines observed. Patients were followed up for six months; considering emergency visits, readmissions and deaths due to heart failure as markers of poor prognosis. 53.7% (29) of the patients had ultrasound interstitial syndrome. Among them, 48.3% (14) were readmitted, compared to 16% (4) of those without the syndrome (P=.012). Considering any of the events previously described as end points (readmissions, emergencies and deaths), we found that in the group of patients with ultrasound interstitial syndrome, 55.2% (16) had at least one of these complications, compared to 20% (5) of participants without the syndrome (P=.008). Lung ultrasound in the outpatient setting is useful in predicting which patients are at increased risk of heart failure decompensation in the mid-term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-mortem detection of gasoline residues in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahor, Kevin; Olson, Greg; Forbes, Shari L

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gasoline residues could be detected post-mortem in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims. The lungs and heart blood were investigated to determine whether they were suitable samples for collection and could be collected without contamination during an autopsy. Three sets of test subjects (pig carcasses) were investigated under two different fire scenarios. Test subjects 1 were anaesthetized following animal ethics approval, inhaled gasoline vapours for a short period and then euthanized. The carcasses were clothed and placed in a house where additional gasoline was poured onto the carcass post-mortem in one fire, but not in the other. Test subjects 2 did not inhale gasoline, were clothed and placed in the house and had gasoline poured onto them in both fires. Test subjects 3 were clothed but had no exposure to gasoline either ante- or post-mortem. Following controlled burns and suppression with water, the carcasses were collected, and their lungs and heart blood were excised at a necropsy. The headspace from the samples was analysed using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Gasoline was identified in the lungs and heart blood from the subjects that were exposed to gasoline vapours prior to death (test subjects 1). All other samples were negative for gasoline residues. These results suggest that it is useful to analyse for volatile ignitable liquids in lung tissue and blood as it may help to determine whether a victim was alive and inhaling gases at the time of a fire.

  4. E-cigarette smoke damages DNA and reduces repair activity in mouse lung, heart, and bladder as well as in human lung and bladder cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Park, Sung-Hyun; Weng, Mao-wen; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Huang, William C.; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Chen, Lung-Chi; Tang, Moon-shong

    2018-01-01

    Significance E-cigarette smoke (ECS) delivers nicotine through aerosols without burning tobacco. ECS is promoted as noncarcinogenic. We found that ECS induces DNA damage in mouse lung, bladder, and heart and reduces DNA-repair functions and proteins in lung. Nicotine and its nitrosation product 4-(methylnitrosamine)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone can cause the same effects as ECS and enhance mutations and tumorigenic cell transformation in cultured human lung and bladder cells. These results indica...

  5. Lung health and heart rate variability changes in salt workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad Mohesh, M I; Sundaramurthy, A

    2016-04-01

    India is the third largest salt producing country in the World, with a global annual production of 230 million tonnes. Large number of salt workers get employed in these salt milling plants risking their life from the effects of salt. Recent foreign evidences reported that these salt workers are exposed to aerosol salt particles that disturb their lung and cardiovascular autonomic control. To compare the status of lung health, cardiovascular autonomic control and biochemical changes in a group of salt industry workers with that of the age-matched normal subjects. Volunteers of both sexes (25-35 years) were divided into Group I (n=10) controls and Group II (n=10) non-brine salt workers in salt milling plants. From fasting blood sample, complete blood count, plasma electrolyte and lipid profile estimation were done. After resting for 15min, blood pressure and lead II ECG were recorded. Spirometry was done using RMS Helios spirometer. Data collected were later analysed using GraphPad Prism 5.0 with statistical significance set at p4.0, 112.8±1.7, pindustry has shown a little or no impact on the respiratory system, however there are changes in the blood and cardiovascular system, which need to be further studied to understand the long-term influences of salt in this population. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Markerless gating for lung cancer radiotherapy based on machine learning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Tong; Li Ruijiang; Tang Xiaoli; Jiang, Steve B; Dy, Jennifer G

    2009-01-01

    In lung cancer radiotherapy, radiation to a mobile target can be delivered by respiratory gating, for which we need to know whether the target is inside or outside a predefined gating window at any time point during the treatment. This can be achieved by tracking one or more fiducial markers implanted inside or near the target, either fluoroscopically or electromagnetically. However, the clinical implementation of marker tracking is limited for lung cancer radiotherapy mainly due to the risk of pneumothorax. Therefore, gating without implanted fiducial markers is a promising clinical direction. We have developed several template-matching methods for fluoroscopic marker-less gating. Recently, we have modeled the gating problem as a binary pattern classification problem, in which principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) are combined to perform the classification task. Following the same framework, we investigated different combinations of dimensionality reduction techniques (PCA and four nonlinear manifold learning methods) and two machine learning classification methods (artificial neural networks-ANN and SVM). Performance was evaluated on ten fluoroscopic image sequences of nine lung cancer patients. We found that among all combinations of dimensionality reduction techniques and classification methods, PCA combined with either ANN or SVM achieved a better performance than the other nonlinear manifold learning methods. ANN when combined with PCA achieves a better performance than SVM in terms of classification accuracy and recall rate, although the target coverage is similar for the two classification methods. Furthermore, the running time for both ANN and SVM with PCA is within tolerance for real-time applications. Overall, ANN combined with PCA is a better candidate than other combinations we investigated in this work for real-time gated radiotherapy.

  7. Measurement of lung density in congestive heart failure by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Masanori; Miyagi, Yutaka; Tachi, Keiji; Sakabe, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Hishida, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Yasushi; Sasaki, Fumio; Koga, Sukehiko

    1984-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) number within the region of interest (ROI) was used as a parameter to assess lung density in patients with congestive heart failure. Thirty-eight patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) and 34 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) were studied. Based on the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, 24 VHD patients were in class I or II (VHD I-II) and the other 14 were in NYHA class III or IV (VHD III-IV). Eighteen patients with IHD were in NYHA class I or II (IHD I-II) and 16 were in class III or IV (IHD III-IV). The CT number was measured bilaterally at the upper, middle and lower levels of the chest and compared with the corresponding value in 21 normal subjects (Group N). In a preliminary study on Group N, the CT numbers were insensitive to the size of the ROI, but were closely related to its location. In clinical applications, the mean values of the CT numbers in all six lung fields increased in the order of IHD I-II, to VHD I-II, IHD III-IV and VHD III-IV. Except for patients in IHD I-II, they were significantly larger than in Group N. The relationship between the CT number and the systolic and mean pulmonary arterial pressures and the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure were evaluated in 36 patients. Significant correlations were obtained in all six lung fields (r=0.65-0.78, p<0.001). The results suggest that measurement of lung density by CT is useful for the quantitative evaluation of the severity of disease in patients with congestive heart failure. (author)

  8. Measurement of lung density in congestive heart failure by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Masanori; Miyagi, Yutaka; Tachi, Keiji; Sakabe, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Hishida, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Yasushi; Sasaki, Fumio; Koga, Sukehiko [Fujita-Gakuen Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan)

    1984-11-01

    The computed tomography (CT) number within the region of interest (ROI) was used as a parameter to assess lung density in patients with congestive heart failure. Thirty-eight patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) and 34 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) were studied. Based on the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, 24 VHD patients were in class I or II (VHD I-II) and the other 14 were in NYHA class III or IV (VHD III-IV). Eighteen patients with IHD were in NYHA class I or II (IHD I-II) and 16 were in class III or IV (IHD III-IV). The CT number was measured bilaterally at the upper, middle and lower levels of the chest and compared with the corresponding value in 21 normal subjects (Group N). In a preliminary study on Group N, the CT numbers were insensitive to the size of the ROI, but were closely related to its location. In clinical applications, the mean values of the CT numbers in all six lung fields increased in the order of IHD I-II, to VHD I-II, IHD III-IV and VHD III-IV. Except for patients in IHD I-II, they were significantly larger than in Group N. The relationship between the CT number and the systolic and mean pulmonary arterial pressures and the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure were evaluated in 36 patients. Significant correlations were obtained in all six lung fields (r=0.65-0.78, p < 0.001). The results suggest that measurement of lung density by CT is useful for the quantitative evaluation of the severity of disease in patients with congestive heart failure.

  9. Lung capillary injury and repair in left heart disease: a new target for therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbar, Sayena; Dupuis, Jocelyn

    2014-07-01

    The lungs are the primary organs affected in LHD (left heart disease). Increased left atrial pressure leads to pulmonary alveolar-capillary stress failure, resulting in cycles of alveolar wall injury and repair. The reparative process causes the proliferation of MYFs (myofibroblasts) with fibrosis and extracellular matrix deposition, resulting in thickening of the alveolar wall. Although the resultant reduction in vascular permeability is initially protective against pulmonary oedema, the process becomes maladaptive causing a restrictive lung syndrome with impaired gas exchange. This pathological process may also contribute to PH (pulmonary hypertension) due to LHD. Few clinical trials have specifically evaluated lung structural remodelling and the effect of related therapies in LHD. Currently approved treatment for chronic HF (heart failure) may have direct beneficial effects on lung structural remodelling. In the future, novel therapies specifically targeting the remodelling processes may potentially be utilized. In the present review, we summarize data supporting the clinical importance and pathophysiological mechanisms of lung structural remodelling in LHD and propose that this pathophysiological process should be explored further in pre-clinical studies and future therapeutic trials.

  10. A novel approach in extracorporeal circulation: individual, integrated, and interactive heart-lung assist (I3-Assist).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Georg; Schlanstein, Peter; Fiehe, Sandra; Kaufmann, Tim; Kopp, Rüdger; Bensberg, Ralf; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2014-04-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a well-established technique for the treatment of different cardiac and pulmonary diseases, e.g., congenital heart disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Additionally, severely ill patients who cannot be weaned from the heart-lung machine directly after surgery have to be put on ECLS for further therapy. Although both systems include identical components, a seamless transition is not possible yet. The adaption of the circuit to the patients' size and demand is limited owing to the components available. The project I³-Assist aims at a novel concept for extracorporeal circulation. To better match the patient's therapeutic demand of support, an individual number of one-size oxygenators and heat exchangers will be combined. A seamless transition between cardiopulmonary bypass and ECLS will be possible as well as the exchange of components during therapy to enhance circuit maintenance throughout long-term support. Until today, a novel oxygenator and heat exchanger along with a simplified manufacturing protocol have been established. The first layouts of the unit to allow the spill- and bubble-free connection and disconnection of modules as well as improved cannulas and a rotational pump are investigated using computational fluid dynamics. Tests were performed according to current guidelines in vitro and in vivo. The test results show the feasibility and potential of the concept.

  11. Prediction of lung cancer patient survival via supervised machine learning classification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Chip M; Abdollahi, Behnaz; Fuqua, Joshua D; de Carlo, Alexandra R; Bartholomai, James A; Balgemann, Rayeanne N; van Berkel, Victor H; Frieboes, Hermann B

    2017-12-01

    Outcomes for cancer patients have been previously estimated by applying various machine learning techniques to large datasets such as the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program database. In particular for lung cancer, it is not well understood which types of techniques would yield more predictive information, and which data attributes should be used in order to determine this information. In this study, a number of supervised learning techniques is applied to the SEER database to classify lung cancer patients in terms of survival, including linear regression, Decision Trees, Gradient Boosting Machines (GBM), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and a custom ensemble. Key data attributes in applying these methods include tumor grade, tumor size, gender, age, stage, and number of primaries, with the goal to enable comparison of predictive power between the various methods The prediction is treated like a continuous target, rather than a classification into categories, as a first step towards improving survival prediction. The results show that the predicted values agree with actual values for low to moderate survival times, which constitute the majority of the data. The best performing technique was the custom ensemble with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value of 15.05. The most influential model within the custom ensemble was GBM, while Decision Trees may be inapplicable as it had too few discrete outputs. The results further show that among the five individual models generated, the most accurate was GBM with an RMSE value of 15.32. Although SVM underperformed with an RMSE value of 15.82, statistical analysis singles the SVM as the only model that generated a distinctive output. The results of the models are consistent with a classical Cox proportional hazards model used as a reference technique. We conclude that application of these supervised learning techniques to lung cancer data in the SEER database may be of use to estimate patient survival time

  12. Focused Sonographic Examination of the Heart, Lungs and Deep Veins in Acute Admitted Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Christian Borbjerg; Sloth, Erik; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg

    2012-01-01

    . Patients were included if one or more of the following symptoms or clinical findings were present: respiratory rate > 20, saturation chest pain. Within one hour after the primary evaluation, focused sonography of the heart, lungs and deep veins...

  13. Three-dimensional display of the heart, aorta, lungs, and airway using CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fram, E.K.; Godwin, J.D.; Putman, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    In previous studies of human anatomy, three-dimensional display of CT data has required laborious manual boundary tracking, except for high-contrast structures such as the spine. Automated boundary tracking techniques have been extended so that they can function well for both high-contrast and soft-tissue interfaces. These methods have been applied to the in vivo study of human lungs, heart, aorta, and larynx in this paper

  14. Dietary vitamin K2 supplement improves bone status after lung and heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forli, Liv; Bollerslev, Jens; Simonsen, Svein; Isaksen, Gunhild A; Kvamsdal, Kari E; Godang, Kristin; Gadeholt, Gaut; Pripp, Are H; Bjortuft, Oystein

    2010-02-27

    Osteoporosis is a problem after transplantation. Studies since the last year indicate that vitamin K plays a role in optimal bone health. The aim of this randomized, double blind, prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the effect of a dietary supplement with vitamin K2 (180 microg menakinon-7) on bone mass, the first year after lung and heart transplantation. After preoperative baseline investigation of bone mass and bone-related biochemistry, 35 lung and 59 heart recipients were postoperatively randomized to vitamin K2 or placebo and reinvestigated the following year. In all recipients, 1 year after solid organ transplantation, the difference between vitamin K2 and placebo for the lumbar spine (L2-L4) bone mineral density (BMD) was 0.028 (SE 0.014) g/cm(2), P=0.055 and for L2 to L4 bone mineral content was 1.33 (SE 1.91) g/cm(2) (P=0.5). In lung recipients separately, the difference for bone mineral content was 3.39 g (SE 1.65), P=0.048 and in heart recipients 0.45 (SE 0.02) g, P=0.9 after controlling for baseline measures. In a forward stepwise linear regression analysis fitted to model differences in the L2 to L4 BMD, controlled for possible confounding variables (including use of bisphosphonate), and the only significant predictors were organ (B=-0.065 g/cm(2), P<0.001) and vitamin K2 (B=0.034 g/cm(2), P=0.019). Insufficient vitamin D status was common, and the parathyroid hormone was highest in the K2 group indicating a higher need for vitamin D. One year of vitamin K2 supplement suggest a favorable effect on lumbar spine BMD with different response in lung and heart recipients. Vitamin D status should receive more attention.

  15. Diagnosis by Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath from Lung Cancer Patients Using Support Vector Machine Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakumura, Yuichi; Koyama, Yutaro; Tokutake, Hiroaki; Hida, Toyoaki; Sato, Kazuo; Itoh, Toshio; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Shin, Woosuck

    2017-02-04

    Monitoring exhaled breath is a very attractive, noninvasive screening technique for early diagnosis of diseases, especially lung cancer. However, the technique provides insufficient accuracy because the exhaled air has many crucial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at very low concentrations (ppb level). We analyzed the breath exhaled by lung cancer patients and healthy subjects (controls) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and performed a subsequent statistical analysis to diagnose lung cancer based on the combination of multiple lung cancer-related VOCs. We detected 68 VOCs as marker species using GC/MS analysis. We reduced the number of VOCs and used support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to classify the samples. We observed that a combination of five VOCs (CHN, methanol, CH₃CN, isoprene, 1-propanol) is sufficient for 89.0% screening accuracy, and hence, it can be used for the design and development of a desktop GC-sensor analysis system for lung cancer.

  16. Diagnosis by Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath from Lung Cancer Patients Using Support Vector Machine Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Sakumura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring exhaled breath is a very attractive, noninvasive screening technique for early diagnosis of diseases, especially lung cancer. However, the technique provides insufficient accuracy because the exhaled air has many crucial volatile organic compounds (VOCs at very low concentrations (ppb level. We analyzed the breath exhaled by lung cancer patients and healthy subjects (controls using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, and performed a subsequent statistical analysis to diagnose lung cancer based on the combination of multiple lung cancer-related VOCs. We detected 68 VOCs as marker species using GC/MS analysis. We reduced the number of VOCs and used support vector machine (SVM algorithm to classify the samples. We observed that a combination of five VOCs (CHN, methanol, CH3CN, isoprene, 1-propanol is sufficient for 89.0% screening accuracy, and hence, it can be used for the design and development of a desktop GC-sensor analysis system for lung cancer.

  17. Breast radiotherapy in the lateral decubitus position: A technique to prevent lung and heart irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Francois; Kirova, Youlia M.; Rosenwald, Jean-Claude; Dendale, Remi; Vilcoq, Jacques R.; Dreyfus, Helene; Fourquet, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present an original technique for breast radiotherapy, with the aim of limiting lung and heart irradiation, satisfying quality assurance criteria. Methods and Material: An original radiotherapy technique for breast irradiation has been developed at the Institute Curie in January 1996. It consists of isocentric breast irradiation in the lateral decubitus position (isocentric lateral decubitus [ILD]). This technique is indicated for voluminous or pendulous breasts needing breast irradiation only. Thin carbon fiber supports and special patient positioning devices have been developed especially for this technique. In vivo measurements were performed to check the dose distribution before the routine use of the technique. Results: ILD has been successfully implemented in routine practice, and 500 patients have been already treated. Breast radiotherapy is performed using a dose of 50 Gy at ICRU point in 25 fractions. ILD shows good homogeneity of the dose in breast treatment volume, treatment fields are perpendicular to the skin ensuring its protection, and extremely low dose is delivered to the underlying lung and heart. Conclusion: In cases of voluminous breasts or patients with a history of lung and heart disease, our technique provides several advantages over the conventional technique with opposing tangential fields. This technique improves the dose homogeneity according to the ICRU recommendations

  18. Cigarettes, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease: the effects of inhalation and tar yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higenbottam, T; Shipley, M J; Rose, G

    1982-06-01

    Ten-year mortality rates for lung cancer and coronary heart disease have been related to cigarette smoking habits in 17 475 male civil servants aged 40-64 and in sample of 8089 male British residents aged 35-69. Both diseases were more frequent in smokers. Lung cancer rates were higher overall for "non-inhalers", particularly in heavy smokers. Tar yield correlated with the risk of lung cancer in non-inhalers but less so in inhalers. Conversely, coronary deaths were more common among inhalers, and the effect of tar/nicotine yield (such as it was) was confined to inhalers. It appears that there are subtle interactions between the amount smoked, the tar/nicotine yield of the cigarette, and the style of smoking. Thus the effects of a change in cigarette characteristics are hard to predict, and they may be different for respiratory and cardiovascular disease.

  19. Downregulation of aquaporin-1 in alveolar microvessels in lungs adapted to chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllertz, Katrine M; Strøm, Claes; Trautner, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The threshold pressure for lung edema formation is increased in severe chronic heart failure (CHF) due to reduced microvascular permeability. The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is present in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and a number of studies suggest the importance of AQP1 as a mol......The threshold pressure for lung edema formation is increased in severe chronic heart failure (CHF) due to reduced microvascular permeability. The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is present in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and a number of studies suggest the importance of AQP1...... as a molecular determinant of pulmonary microvascular water transport. The present study examined the abundance and localization of AQP1 in lungs from rats with CHF. We used two different models of CHF: ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD ligation) and aorta-banding (AB). Sham......-operated rats served as controls. Echocardiographic verification of left ventricular dysfunction, enhanced left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and right ventricular hypertrophy confirmed the presence of CHF. Western blotting of whole-lung homogenates revealed significant downregulation of AQP1 in LAD...

  20. Phantom Tumor of the Lung: Localized Interlobar Effusion in Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mislav Lozo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized interlobar effusions in congestive heart failure (phantom or vanishing lung tumor/s is/are uncommon but well known entities. An 83-year-old man presented with shortness of breath, swollen legs, and dry cough enduring five days. Chest-X-ray (CXR revealed massive sharply demarked round/oval homogeneous dense shadow 10 × 7 cm in size in the right inferior lobe. The treatment with the loop diuretics and fluid intake reduction resulted in complete resolution of the observed round/oval tumor-like image on the control CXR three days later. Radiologic appearance of such a mass-like configuration in patients with congestive heart failure demands correction of the underlying heart condition before further diagnostic investigation is performed to avoid unnecessary, expensive, and possibly harmful diagnostic and treatment errors.

  1. Application of machine learning methodology for pet-based definition of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerhet, A.; Small, C.; Quon, H.; Riauka, T.; Schrader, L.; Greiner, R.; Yee, D.; McEwan, A.; Roa, W.

    2010-01-01

    We applied a learning methodology framework to assist in the threshold-based segmentation of non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) tumours in positron-emission tomography–computed tomography (pet–ct) imaging for use in radiotherapy planning. Gated and standard free-breathing studies of two patients were independently analysed (four studies in total). Each study had a pet–ct and a treatment-planning ct image. The reference gross tumour volume (gtv) was identified by two experienced radiation oncologists who also determined reference standardized uptake value (suv) thresholds that most closely approximated the gtv contour on each slice. A set of uptake distribution-related attributes was calculated for each pet slice. A machine learning algorithm was trained on a subset of the pet slices to cope with slice-to-slice variation in the optimal suv threshold: that is, to predict the most appropriate suv threshold from the calculated attributes for each slice. The algorithm’s performance was evaluated using the remainder of the pet slices. A high degree of geometric similarity was achieved between the areas outlined by the predicted and the reference suv thresholds (Jaccard index exceeding 0.82). No significant difference was found between the gated and the free-breathing results in the same patient. In this preliminary work, we demonstrated the potential applicability of a machine learning methodology as an auxiliary tool for radiation treatment planning in nsclc. PMID:20179802

  2. AUTOMATIC LUNG NODULE DETECTION BASED ON STATISTICAL REGION MERGING AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Aghabalaei Khordehchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common diseases in the world that can be treated if the lung nodules are detected in their early stages of growth. This study develops a new framework for computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules thorough a fully-automatic analysis of Computed Tomography (CT images. In the present work, the multi-layer CT data is fed into a pre-processing step that exploits an adaptive diffusion-based smoothing algorithm in which the parameters are automatically tuned using an adaptation technique. After multiple levels of morphological filtering, the Regions of Interest (ROIs are extracted from the smoothed images. The Statistical Region Merging (SRM algorithm is applied to the ROIs in order to segment each layer of the CT data. Extracted segments in consecutive layers are then analyzed in such a way that if they intersect at more than a predefined number of pixels, they are labeled with a similar index. The boundaries of the segments in adjacent layers which have the same indices are then connected together to form three-dimensional objects as the nodule candidates. After extracting four spectral, one morphological, and one textural feature from all candidates, they are finally classified into nodules and non-nodules using the Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier. The proposed framework has been applied to two sets of lung CT images and its performance has been compared to that of nine other competing state-of-the-art methods. The considerable efficiency of the proposed approach has been proved quantitatively and validated by clinical experts as well.

  3. Prenatal and Perinatal Determinants of Lung Health and Disease in Early Life: A National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuck, Tracy A; Levy, Philip T; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia; Jobe, Alan H; Blaisdell, Carol J

    2016-05-02

    Human lung growth and development begins with preconception exposures and continues through conception and childhood into early adulthood. Numerous environmental exposures (both positive and negative) can affect lung health and disease throughout life. Infant lung health correlates with adult lung function, but significant knowledge gaps exist regarding the influence of preconception, perinatal, and postnatal exposures on general lung health throughout life. On October 1 and 2, 2015, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a group of extramural investigators to develop their recommendations for the direction(s) for future research in prenatal and perinatal determinants of lung health and disease in early life and to identify opportunities for scientific advancement. They identified that future investigations will need not only to examine abnormal lung development, but also to use developing technology and resources to better define normal and/or enhanced lung health. Birth cohort studies offer key opportunities to capture the important influence of preconception and obstetric risk factors on lung health, development, and disease. These studies should include well-characterized obstetrical data and comprehensive plans for prospective follow-up. The importance of continued basic science, translational, and animal studies for providing mechanisms to explain causality using new methods cannot be overemphasized. Multidisciplinary approaches involving obstetricians, neonatologists, pediatric and adult pulmonologists, and basic scientists should be encouraged to design and conduct comprehensive and impactful research on the early stages of normal and abnormal human lung growth that influence adult outcome.

  4. Lung and heart pathology in fatal drug addiction. A consecutive autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringsholm, B; Christoffersen, P

    1987-01-01

    Lung and heart sections from 33 drug addicts submitted for medico-legal autopsy at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen were studied together with tissue sections from 20 'normal' persons. In the drug addict cases focal bleedings in lung tissue were found in 94%, signs of earlier bleedings, haemosiderin containing histiocytes, were seen in 91%, and focal fibrosis in 46%. The bleeding episodes may be due to hypoxia in connection with heroin intake. In 94% of the drug addicts birefringent material in lung tissue was demonstrated, in 58% in granulomas and giant cells, in 27% in giant cells only and in 9% in isolated histiocytes. The material was localized in the wall of pulmonar arteries and/or in the interstitial tissue, undoubtedly depending on the duration of the abuse. In 18% angiothrombosis was seen, in all cases granulomas/giant cells were observed in the wall of the vessel concerned. The results indicate periodical intravenous injection of dissolved tablets in addition to heroin. Histological signs of pulmonary hypertension were not seen, possibly due to the fact that abuse of central stimulants is very rare in Denmark. Regarding heart alterations no significant differences were demonstrated between drug addicts and controls. The only note-worthy finding was focal infiltration of lymphocytes in the atrio-ventricular bundle in two drug addicts, the meaning of which is uncertain.

  5. Heart and lung organ offer acceptance practices of transplant programs are associated with waitlist mortality and organ yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Andrew; Valapour, Maryam; Skeans, Melissa A; Salkowski, Nicholas; Colvin, Monica; Kasiske, Bertram L; Israni, Ajay K; Snyder, Jon J

    2018-04-19

    Variation in heart and lung offer acceptance practices may affect numbers of transplanted organs and create variability in waitlist mortality. To investigate these issues, offer acceptance ratios, or adjusted odds ratios, for heart and lung transplant programs individually and for all programs within donation service areas (DSAs) were estimated using offers from donors recovered July 1, 2016-June 30, 2017. Logistic regressions estimated the association of DSA-level offer acceptance ratios with donor yield and local placement of organs recovered in the DSA. Competing risk methodology estimated the association of program-level offer acceptance ratios with incidence and rate of waitlist removals due to death or becoming too sick to undergo transplant. Higher DSA-level offer acceptance was associated with higher yield (odds ratios [ORs]: lung, 1.04 1.11 1.19 ; heart, 1.09 1.21 1.35 ) and more local placement of transplanted organs (ORs: lung, 1.01 1.12 1.24 ; heart, 1.47 1.69 1.93 ). Higher program-level offer acceptance was associated with lower incidence of waitlist removal due to death or becoming too sick to undergo transplant (hazard ratios [HRs]: heart, 0.80 0.86 0.93 ; lung, 0.67 0.75 0.83 ), but not with rate of waitlist removal (HRs: heart, 0.91 0.98 1.06 ; lung, 0.89 0.99 1.10 ). Heart and lung offer acceptance practices affected numbers of transplanted organs and contributed to program-level variability in the probability of waitlist mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical value of 201Tl lung/heart ratio during exercise in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wei; He Guorong; Liu Jinhua; Huang Yuying

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between 201 Tl lung/heart ratio during exercise and left ventricular diastolic function and its diagnostic value on severity of coronary artery disease. Methods: One hundred and two patients with documented coronary artery disease were divided into three groups, including no hypertension, hypertension without or with left ventricular hypertrophy groups. Exercise/delay 201 Tl myocardial perfusion tomography was performed on all patients included. Lung/heart ratio was defined on the anterior planar image obtained during exercise tomography. Results: The lung/heart ratios during exercise in no hypertension (0.43 +- 0.09, P 0.05). The lung/heart ratios of multi-vessel disease subgroup in no hypertension (0.46 +- 0.10 vs 0.40 +- 0.09, P 0.05). When lung/heart ratio was≥0.45, the sensitivities for predicting the presence of multi-vessel disease were 82%, 90%, 40% and specificities were 75%, 75%, 45%, respectively, in no hypertension, hypertension without and with hypertrophy groups. In no hypertension (r=0.402, P 0.05). In no hypertension (r=-0.413, P<0.01), hypertension without (r=-0.662, P<0.01) and with hypertrophy groups (r=-0.408, P<0.05), lung/heart ratios all showed a significant reverse correlation with correspondent E/A ratios. Conclusions: The exercise lung/heart ratios has a better diagnostic value for multi-vessel disease and left ventricular diastolic function abnormalities of coronary artery disease with or without hypertension, but not for multi-vessel disease in hypertension patients complicated with myocardial hypertrophy

  7. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome and the nutmeg lung pattern in utero: a cause and effect relationship or prognostic indicator?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saul, David; Johnson, Ann M.; Victoria, Teresa [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Degenhardt, Karl; Rychik, Jack [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Cardiac Center and Fetal Heart Program, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Iyoob, Suzanne D.; Johnson, Mark P. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Surrey, Lea F. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pathology Department, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is the third most common cause of critical congenital heart disease in newborns, and one of the most challenging forms to treat. Secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia has been recognized in association with HLHS, an appearance described on fetal MRI as the ''nutmeg lung.'' To investigate the association of fetal nutmeg lung with HLHS survival. A retrospective search of the fetal MRI database was performed. The nutmeg lung pattern was defined as T2 heterogeneous signal with tubular structures radiating peripherally from the hila. Postnatal echocardiograms and charts were reviewed. Forty-four fetal MR studies met inclusion criteria, of which 4 patients (9%) had the nutmeg lung pattern and 3 of whom also had restrictive lesions. Mortality in this nutmeg lung group was 100% by 5 months of age. Of the 40 patients without nutmeg lung, mortality/orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) was 35%. Of these 40 patients without nutmeg lung, 5 had restriction on echo, 3 of whom died/had OHT before 5 months of age (60% of patients with restriction and non-nutmeg lung). There was a significantly higher incidence of restrictive lesions (P = 0.02) and mortality/OHT (P = 0.02) in patients with nutmeg lung compared to those without. The nutmeg lung MR appearance in HLHS fetuses is associated with increased mortality/OHT (100% in the first 5 months of life compared to 35% with HLHS alone). Not all patients with restrictive lesions develop nutmeg lung, and outcome is not as poor when restriction is present in isolation. Dedicated evaluation for nutmeg lung pattern on fetal MR studies may be useful to guide prognostication and aid clinicians in counseling parents of fetuses with HLHS. (orig.)

  8. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome and the nutmeg lung pattern in utero: a cause and effect relationship or prognostic indicator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, David; Johnson, Ann M.; Victoria, Teresa; Degenhardt, Karl; Rychik, Jack; Iyoob, Suzanne D.; Johnson, Mark P.; Surrey, Lea F.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is the third most common cause of critical congenital heart disease in newborns, and one of the most challenging forms to treat. Secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia has been recognized in association with HLHS, an appearance described on fetal MRI as the ''nutmeg lung.'' To investigate the association of fetal nutmeg lung with HLHS survival. A retrospective search of the fetal MRI database was performed. The nutmeg lung pattern was defined as T2 heterogeneous signal with tubular structures radiating peripherally from the hila. Postnatal echocardiograms and charts were reviewed. Forty-four fetal MR studies met inclusion criteria, of which 4 patients (9%) had the nutmeg lung pattern and 3 of whom also had restrictive lesions. Mortality in this nutmeg lung group was 100% by 5 months of age. Of the 40 patients without nutmeg lung, mortality/orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) was 35%. Of these 40 patients without nutmeg lung, 5 had restriction on echo, 3 of whom died/had OHT before 5 months of age (60% of patients with restriction and non-nutmeg lung). There was a significantly higher incidence of restrictive lesions (P = 0.02) and mortality/OHT (P = 0.02) in patients with nutmeg lung compared to those without. The nutmeg lung MR appearance in HLHS fetuses is associated with increased mortality/OHT (100% in the first 5 months of life compared to 35% with HLHS alone). Not all patients with restrictive lesions develop nutmeg lung, and outcome is not as poor when restriction is present in isolation. Dedicated evaluation for nutmeg lung pattern on fetal MR studies may be useful to guide prognostication and aid clinicians in counseling parents of fetuses with HLHS. (orig.)

  9. A computer simulation model of the cost-effectiveness of routine Staphylococcus aureus screening and decolonization among lung and heart-lung transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, C J; Bartsch, S M; Nguyen, M H; Stuckey, D R; Shields, R K; Lee, B Y

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to model the cost-effectiveness and economic value of routine peri-operative Staphylococcus aureus screening and decolonization of lung and heart-lung transplant recipients from hospital and third-party payer perspectives. We used clinical data from 596 lung and heart-lung transplant recipients to develop a model in TreeAge Pro 2009 (Williamsport, MA, USA). Sensitivity analyses varied S. aureus colonization rate (5-15 %), probability of infection if colonized (10-30 %), and decolonization efficacy (25-90 %). Data were collected from the Cardiothoracic Transplant Program at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Consecutive lung and heart-lung transplant recipients from January 2006 to December 2010 were enrolled retrospectively. Baseline rates of S. aureus colonization, infection and decolonization efficacy were 9.6 %, 36.7 %, and 31.9 %, respectively. Screening and decolonization was economically dominant for all scenarios tested, providing more cost savings and health benefits than no screening. Savings per case averted (2012 $US) ranged from $73,567 to $133,157 (hospital perspective) and $10,748 to $16,723 (third party payer perspective), varying with the probability of colonization, infection, and decolonization efficacy. Using our clinical data, screening and decolonization led to cost savings per case averted of $240,602 (hospital perspective) and averted 6.7 S. aureus infections (4.3 MRSA and 2.4 MSSA); 89 patients needed to be screened to prevent one S. aureus infection. Our data support routine S. aureus screening and decolonization of lung and heart-lung transplant patients. The economic value of screening and decolonization was greater than in previous models of other surgical populations.

  10. Dietary linolenic acid and fasting glucose and insulin: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoussé, Luc; Hunt, Steven C; Tang, Weihong; Eckfeldt, John H; Province, Michael A; Ellison, R Curtis

    2006-02-01

    To assess whether dietary linolenic acid is associated with fasting insulin and glucose. In a cross-sectional design, we studied 3993 non-diabetic participants of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study 25 to 93 years of age. Linolenic acid was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire, and laboratory data were obtained after at least a 12-hour fast. We used generalized linear models to calculate adjusted means of insulin and glucose across quartiles of dietary linolenic acid. From the lowest to the highest sex-specific quartile of dietary linolenic acid, means +/- standard error for logarithmic transformed fasting insulin were 4.06 +/- 0.02 (reference), 4.09 +/- 0.02, 4.13 +/- 0.02, and 4.17 +/- 0.02 pM, respectively (trend, p continuous variable, the multivariable adjusted regression coefficient was 0.42 +/- 0.08. There was no association between dietary linolenic acid and fasting glucose (trend p = 0.82). Our data suggest that higher consumption of dietary linolenic acid is associated with higher plasma insulin, but not glucose levels, in non-diabetic subjects. Additional studies are needed to assess whether higher intake of linolenic acid results in an increased insulin secretion and improved glucose use in vivo.

  11. SU-F-I-50: Finite Element-Based Deformable Image Registration of Lung and Heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penjweini, R [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kim, M [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhu, T [University Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used after surgical resection to treat the microscopic disease for malignant pleural mesothelioma and to increase survival rates. Although accurate light delivery is imperative to PDT efficacy, the deformation of the pleural volume during the surgery impacts the delivered light dose. To facilitate treatment planning, we use a finite-element-based (FEM) deformable image registration to quantify the anatomical variation of lung and heart volumes between CT pre-(or post-) surgery and surface contours obtained during PDT using an infrared camera-based navigation system (NDI). Methods: NDI is used during PDT to obtain the information of the cumulative light fluence on every cavity surface point that is being treated. A wand, comprised of a modified endotrachial tube filled with Intralipid and an optical fiber inside the tube, is used to deliver the light during PDT. The position of the treatment is tracked using an attachment with nine reflective passive markers that are seen by the NDI system. Then, the position points are plotted as three-dimensional volume of the pleural cavity using Matlab and Meshlab. A series of computed tomography (CT) scans of the lungs and heart, in the same patient, are also acquired before and after the surgery. The NDI and CT contours are imported into COMSOL Multiphysics, where the FEM-based deformable image registration is obtained. The NDI and CT contours acquired during and post-PDT are considered as the reference, and the Pre-PDT CT contours are used as the target, which will be deformed. Results: Anatomical variation of the lung and heart volumes, taken at different times from different imaging devices, was determined by using our model. The resulting three-dimensional deformation map along x, y and z-axes was obtained. Conclusion: Our model fuses images acquired by different modalities and provides insights into the variation in anatomical structures over time.

  12. Measuring irradiated lung and heart area in breast tangential fields using a simulator-based computerized tomography device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, Raj; Fowler, Allan; Hunt, Peter

    1995-01-15

    Purpose: To illustrate the use of a simulator based computerized tomography system (SIMCT) in the simulation and planning of tangential breast fields. Methods and Materials: Forty-five consecutive patients underwent treatment planning using a radiotherapy simulator with computerized tomography attachment. One to three scans were obtained for each patient, calculations were made on the central axis scan. Due to the wide aperture of this system all patients were able to be scanned in the desired treatment position with arm abducted 90 deg. . Using available software tools the area of lung and/or heart included within the tangential fields was calculated. The greatest perpendicular distance (GPD) from the chest wall to posterior field edge was also measured. Results: The mean GPD for the group was 25.40 mm with 71% of patients having GPDs of {<=} 30 mm. The mean area of irradiated lung was 1780 sq mm which represented 18.0% of the total ipsilateral lung area seen in the central axis. Seven of the patients with left sided tumors had an average 1314 sq mm heart irradiated in the central axis. This represented 11.9% of total heart area in these patients. Conclusion: Measurements of irradiated lung and heart area can be easily and accurately made using a SIMCT device. Such measurements may help identify those patients potentially at risk for lung or heart toxicity as a consequence of their treatment. A major advantage of this device is the ability to scan patients in the actual treatment position.

  13. Measuring irradiated lung and heart area in breast tangential fields using a simulator-based computerized tomography device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, Raj; Fowler, Allan; Hunt, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the use of a simulator based computerized tomography system (SIMCT) in the simulation and planning of tangential breast fields. Methods and Materials: Forty-five consecutive patients underwent treatment planning using a radiotherapy simulator with computerized tomography attachment. One to three scans were obtained for each patient, calculations were made on the central axis scan. Due to the wide aperture of this system all patients were able to be scanned in the desired treatment position with arm abducted 90 deg. . Using available software tools the area of lung and/or heart included within the tangential fields was calculated. The greatest perpendicular distance (GPD) from the chest wall to posterior field edge was also measured. Results: The mean GPD for the group was 25.40 mm with 71% of patients having GPDs of ≤ 30 mm. The mean area of irradiated lung was 1780 sq mm which represented 18.0% of the total ipsilateral lung area seen in the central axis. Seven of the patients with left sided tumors had an average 1314 sq mm heart irradiated in the central axis. This represented 11.9% of total heart area in these patients. Conclusion: Measurements of irradiated lung and heart area can be easily and accurately made using a SIMCT device. Such measurements may help identify those patients potentially at risk for lung or heart toxicity as a consequence of their treatment. A major advantage of this device is the ability to scan patients in the actual treatment position

  14. Heart and Lungs Protection Technique for Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pichugin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardioplegic cardiac arrest with subsequent ischemic-reperfusion injuries can lead to the development of inflammation of the myocardium, leucocyte activation, and release of cardiac enzymes. Flow reduction to the bronchial arteries, causing low-flow lung ischemia, leads to the development of a pulmonary regional inflammatory response. Hypoventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB is responsible for development of microatelectasis, hydrostatic pulmonary edema, poor compliance, and a higher incidence of infection. Based on these facts, prevention methods of these complications were developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate constant coronary perfusion (CCP and the “beating heart” in combination with pulmonary artery perfusion (PAP and “ventilated lungs” technique for heart and lung protection in cardiac surgery with CPB.Methods. After ethical approval and written informed consent, 80 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with normothermic CPB were randomized in three groups. In the first group (22 patients, the crystalloid cardioplegia without lung ventilation/perfusion techniques were used. In the second group (30 patients, the CCP and “beating heart” without lung ventilation/perfusion techniques were used. In the third group (28 patients, the CCP with PAP and lung ventilation techniques were used. Clinical, functional parameters, myocardial damage markers (CK MB level, oxygenation index, and lung compliance were investigated.Results. There were higher rates of spontaneous cardiac recovery and lower doses of inotrops in the second and third groups. Myocardial contractility function was better preserved in the second and third groups. The post-operative levels of CK-MB were lower than in control group.  Three hours after surgery CK-MB levels in the second and third  groups were lower by 38.1% and 33.3%, respectively. Eight hours after surgery, CK-MB levels were lower in the second and third groups by 45.9% and

  15. Center for Fetal Monkey Gene Transfer for Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases: An NHLBI Resource for the Gene Therapy Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlatos, Sonia I.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The goals of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Center for Fetal Monkey Gene Transfer for Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases are to conduct gene transfer studies in monkeys to evaluate safety and efficiency; and to provide NHLBI-supported investigators with expertise, resources, and services to actively pursue gene transfer approaches in monkeys in their research programs. NHLBI-supported projects span investigators throughout the United States and have addressed novel approaches to gene delivery; “proof-of-principle”; assessed whether findings in small-animal models could be demonstrated in a primate species; or were conducted to enable new grant or IND submissions. The Center for Fetal Monkey Gene Transfer for Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases successfully aids the gene therapy community in addressing regulatory barriers, and serves as an effective vehicle for advancing the field. PMID:22974119

  16. Certain biochemical changes in the trachea, lungs, and heart of squirrels exposed to three principal air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, S V; Gautam, R K; Agrawal, V P

    1979-01-01

    The fate of total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in the trachea, lungs, and heart of the common ground squirrel, Funambulus pennanti, have been determined after separate exposure to three principal air pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/). Exposure to all of these gases produced edematous conditions; however, the moisture content of heart muscle was reduced. Carbon monoxide (CO) and NO/sub 2/ are more toxic to pulmonary lipids than SO/sub 2/. The lipid of the heart decreased, least effects noted with SO/sub 2/ treatment. Mechanical properties of the lungs were changed by alteration of the lung lipids causing changes in the surface tension. Changes in protein content were caused by altered membrane permeability. Comparative data on the carbohydrates indicated adverse effects by the pollutants.

  17. Melatonin Protects the Heart, Lungs and Kidneys from Oxidative Stress under Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G Farías

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine is the main secretory product of the pineal gland in all mammals including humans, but it is also produced in other organs. It has been previously demonstrated to be a powerful organ-protective substance under oxidative stress conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of melatonin in several organs such as heart, lung, kidney, and of the reproductive system, such as testis and epididymis in animals exposed to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and therefore exposed to oxidative stress and analyzed by lipid peroxidation. Ten-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups for 96 hours during 32 days under: 1 Normobaric conditions, 2 plus physiologic solution, 3 plus melatonin, 4 intermittent hypobaric hypoxia, 5 plus physiologic solution and 6 plus melatonin. The animals were injected with melatonin (10 mg/kg body weight at an interval of 96 hours during 32 days. Results indicated that melatonin decreased lipid peroxidation in heart, kidneys and lung under intermittent hypobaric hypoxia conditions. However, it did not exhibit any protective effect in liver, testis, epididymis and sperm count.

  18. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the translation of cardiovascular discoveries into therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galis, Zorina S; Black, Jodi B; Skarlatos, Sonia I

    2013-04-26

    The molecular causes of ≈4000 medical conditions have been described, yet only 5% have associated therapies. For decades, the average time for drug development through approval has taken 10 to 20 years. In recent years, the serious challenges that confront the private sector have made it difficult to capitalize on new opportunities presented by advances in genomics and cellular therapies. Current trends are disturbing. Pharmaceutical companies are reducing their investments in research, and biotechnology companies are struggling to obtain venture funds. To support early-stage translation of the discoveries in basic science, the National Institutes of Health and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute have developed new approaches to facilitating the translation of basic discoveries into clinical applications and will continue to develop a variety of programs that create teams of academic investigators and industry partners. The goal of these programs is to maximize the public benefit of investment of taxpayer dollars in biomedical research and to lessen the risk required for industry partners to make substantial investments. This article highlights several examples of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-initiated translational programs and National Institutes of Health translational resources designed to catalyze and enable the earliest stages of the biomedical product development process. The translation of latest discoveries into therapeutic approaches depends on continued federal funding to enhance the early stages of the product development process and to stimulate and catalyze partnerships between academia, industry, and other sources of capital.

  19. Guardians of 'the gift': the emotional challenges of heart and lung transplant professionals in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anja M B

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the emotional challenges encountered by doctors and nurses caring for heart and lung transplant patients. Organ transplantation enables body parts from the dead to become usable in patients with no other life-saving option. These exchanges are not possible without transplant professionals carefully selecting, guiding and interacting with organ recipients before, during and after the transplant. Based on anthropological fieldwork at a Danish heart and lung transplant unit, the paper explores how doctors and nurses experience and handle the emotional challenges of their working life. By focusing on the everyday life of the transplant unit which, contrary to public understanding of transplant miracles, is sometimes characterised by sad cases and devastation, this paper argues that transplant professionals operate in the presence of death. Medically and emotionally they are at risk. They must take the difficult decisions of whether to admit critically ill patients onto the organ waiting list; face the distress of post-transplant sufferings and deaths; and deal with organ recipients who do not behave according to post-transplant recommendations. Drawing on a familiar metaphor for donated organs, it is suggested that transplant doctors and nurses are 'guardians of the gift'. Attention to the emotional burdens and rewards of this particular position enables new understandings of the practices of transplant medicine, of gift exchange theory, and of the role of emotion in medical practice.

  20. Telomere elongation protects heart and lung tissue cells from fatal damage in rats exposed to severe hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Zhao, Zhen; Zhu, Zhiyong; Li, Pingying; Li, Xiaolin; Xue, Xiaohong; Duo, Jie; Ma, Yingcai

    2018-02-17

    The effects of acute hypoxia at high altitude on the telomere length of the cells in the heart and lung tissues remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the change in telomere length of rat heart and lung tissue cells in response to acute exposure to severe hypoxia and its role in hypoxia-induced damage to heart and lung tissues. Forty male Wistar rats (6-week old) were randomized into control group (n = 10) and hypoxia group (n = 30). Rats in control group were kept at an altitude of 1500 m, while rats in hypoxia group were exposed to simulated hypoxia with an altitude of 5000 m in a low-pressure oxygen chamber for 1, 3, and 7 days (n = 10). The left ventricular and right middle lobe tissues of each rat were collected for measurement of telomere length and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and the mRNA and protein levels of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), hypoxia-inducible factor1α (HIF-1α), and hypoxia-inducible factor1α (HIF-2α). Increased exposure to hypoxia damaged rat heart and lung tissue cells and increased ROS production and telomere length. The mRNA and protein levels of TERT and HIF-1α were significantly higher in rats exposed to hypoxia and increased with prolonged exposure; mRNA and protein levels of HIF-2α increased only in rats exposed to hypoxia for 7 days. TERT was positively correlated with telomere length and the levels of HIF-1α but not HIF-2α. Acute exposure to severe hypoxia causes damage to heart and lung tissues due to the production of ROS but promotes telomere length and adaptive response by upregulating TERT and HIF-1α, which protect heart and lung tissue cells from fatal damage.

  1. Prediction and early detection of delirium in the intensive care unit by using heart rate variability and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jooyoung; Cho, Dongrae; Park, Jaesub; Na, Se Hee; Kim, Jongin; Heo, Jaeseok; Shin, Cheung Soo; Kim, Jae-Jin; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Boreom

    2018-03-27

    Delirium is an important syndrome found in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), however, it is usually under-recognized during treatment. This study was performed to investigate whether delirious patients can be successfully distinguished from non-delirious patients by using heart rate variability (HRV) and machine learning. Electrocardiography data of 140 patients was acquired during daily ICU care, and HRV data were analyzed. Delirium, including its type, severity, and etiologies, was evaluated daily by trained psychiatrists. HRV data and various machine learning algorithms including linear support vector machine (SVM), SVM with radial basis function (RBF) kernels, linear extreme learning machine (ELM), ELM with RBF kernels, linear discriminant analysis, and quadratic discriminant analysis were utilized to distinguish delirium patients from non-delirium patients. HRV data of 4797 ECGs were included, and 39 patients had delirium at least once during their ICU stay. The maximum classification accuracy was acquired using SVM with RBF kernels. Our prediction method based on HRV with machine learning was comparable to previous delirium prediction models using massive amounts of clinical information. Our results show that autonomic alterations could be a significant feature of patients with delirium in the ICU, suggesting the potential for the automatic prediction and early detection of delirium based on HRV with machine learning.

  2. Central nervous system granulomastous phlebitis with limited extracranial involvement of the heart and lungs: An autopsy case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Jernej; Zorman, Jerneja Videčnik; Matičič, Mojca; Vrabec, Matej; Alibegović, Armin; Popović, Mara

    2016-02-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a rare condition, usually with an insidious onset. There is a wide variety of histological types (granulomatous, lymphocytic or necrotizing vasculitis) and types of vessel involved (arteries, veins or both). Most cases are idiopathic. We describe a first case of idiopathic granulomatous central nervous system phlebitis with additional limited involvement of the heart and lung, exclusively affecting small and medium sized veins in a 22-year-old woman, presenting as a sub acute headache. The reasons for this peculiar limitation of inflammation to the veins and the involvement of the heart and lungs are unknown. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  3. Arteriosclerotic changes in the myocardium, lung, and kidney in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure and myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Bo Torkel; Jönsson, Lennart; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2006-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of small vessel arteriosclerosis in the myocardium, kidney, and lung in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease has not been previously investigated systematically. Methods: Twenty-one dogs with naturally occurring congestive heart failure and 21 age......-matched, sex-matched, and weight-matched control dogs underwent extensive pathological and histopathological examination. Morphometry and scoring of tissue sections were used to measure arterial narrowing and fibrosis in the myocardium, kidney, and lung; and intimal thickness and plaque formation in the aorta...... and pulmonary artery. Results: Dogs with congestive heart failure had significantly more arterial narrowing in the left ventricle (Pdogs. However...

  4. Risks for heart disease and lung cancer from passive smoking by workers in the catering industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Anthony J; McGhee, Sarah M; Repace, James L; Wong, Lai-Chin; Yu, Marcus Y S; Wong, Tze-Wai; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2006-04-01

    Workers in the catering industry are at greater risk of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) when smoke-free workplace policies are not in force. We determined the exposure of catering workers to SHS in Hong Kong and their risk of death from heart disease and lung cancer. Nonsmoking catering workers were provided with screening at their workplaces and at a central clinic. Participants reported workplace, home, and leisure time exposure to SHS. Urinary cotinine was estimated by enzyme immunoassay. Catering facilities were classified into three types: nonsmoking, partially restricted smoking (with nonsmoking areas), and unrestricted smoking. Mean urinary cotinine levels ranged from 3.3 ng/ml in a control group of 16 university staff through 6.4 ng/ml (nonsmoking), 6.1 ng/ml (partially restricted), and 15.9 ng/ml (unrestricted smoking) in 104 workers who had no exposures outside of work. Workers in nonsmoking facilities had exposures to other smoking staff. We modeled workers' mortality risks using average cotinine levels, estimates of workplace respirable particulates, risk data for cancer and heart disease from cohort studies, and national (US) and regional (Hong Kong) mortality for heart disease and lung cancer. We estimated that deaths in the Hong Kong catering workforce of 200,000 occur at the rate of 150 per year for a 40-year working-lifetime exposure to SHS. When compared with the current outdoor air quality standards for particulates in Hong Kong, 30% of workers exceeded the 24-h and 98% exceeded the annual air quality objectives due to workplace SHS exposures.

  5. Evidence for thyroxine transport by the lung and heart capillary endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heltianu, C.; Dobrila, L.; Antohe, F.; Simionescu, M.

    1989-01-01

    The uptake and transport of carrier-bound thyroxine by the endothelium were investigated by perfusing through the heart and lung of young rats radiolabeled thyroxine bound to prealbumin ([125I]T4Pa) or serum ([125I]T4S). In addition these complexes were tagged to 5-nm gold particles to obtain quantitative (radioassay) and qualitative (autoradiography) data from the same experiment. The complexes (prewarmed at 37 degrees) were perfused in situ at various concentrations (1 to 50 muCi/ml) for time intervals ranging from 5 to 30 min. After thorough washing of the unbound probe, tissue fragments were either measured for total uptake in a gamma counter or processed for electron microscopy autoradiography. The results showed that both the lung and heart take up [125I]T4 complexes by a process that is saturable at low hormone concentration; uptake is completed by free T4 and Pa. In specimens perfused with double-labeled complexes (iodinated and tagged to gold) autoradiography revealed that silver grains and gold particles colocalize predominantly on endothelial plasmalemmal vesicles. The probe appeared first in vesicles open to the capillary lumen (5 min) and further on in vesicles apparently free within the cytoplasm or open to the abluminal front. At 30 min, only silver grains seem to be present in the pericapillary space, on the alveolar epithelial cells, as well as on the nucleus and mitochondria of heart myocytes. The findings suggest that (1) T4Pa uptake by the endothelial cell (EC) is a specific process (possibly via specific binding sites); (2) T4Pa is taken up and transported across capillary EC by plasmalemmal vesicles; (3) in the pericapillary space T4 seems to dissociate from its carrier

  6. Maintenance of cAMP in non-heart-beating donor lungs reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, S C; Bleiweis, M S; Jones, D R; Paik, H C; Ciriaco, P; Egan, T M

    2001-06-01

    Studies suggest that pulmonary vascular ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) can be attenuated by increasing intracellular cAMP concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IRI on capillary permeability, assessed by capillary filtration coeficient (Kfc), in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) and reperfused with the addition of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (iso), and rolipram (roli), a phosphodiesterase (type IV) inhibitor. Using an in situ isolated perfused lung model, lungs were retrieved from NHBD rats at varying intervals after death and either ventilated with O(2) or not ventilated. The lungs were reperfused with Earle's solution with or without a combination of iso (10 microM) and roli (2 microM). Kfc, lung viability, and pulmonary hemodynamics were measured. Lung tissue levels of adenine nucleotides and cAMP were measured by HPLC. Combined iso and roli (iso/roli) reperfusion decreased Kfc significantly (p Kfc in non-iso/roli-reperfused (r = 0.89) and iso/roli-reperfused (r = 0.97) lungs. cAMP levels correlated with Kfc (r = 0.93) in iso/roli-reperfused lungs. Pharmacologic augmentation of tissue TAN and cAMP levels might ameliorate the increased capillary permeability observed in lungs retrieved from NHBDs.

  7. Relationship between the autoantibody and expression of β3-adrenoceptor in lung and heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobin Miao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidences suggest that β3 -adrenoceptor (β3-AR plays an important role in heart failure (HF, although no data is reported indicating how these effects may change with the increasing age. Pulmonary congestion and edema are the major life-threatening complications associated with HF. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the anti-β3-AR autoantibody and the expression of β3-AR in the lungs and heart for both aged patients and rats with HF. METHODS: Synthetic β3-AR peptides served as the target antigens in ELISA were used to screen the anti-β3-AR autoantibody in aged patients and rats. Two aged rat models were constructed based on aortic banding and sham-operation. The expression of β3-AR mRNA and protein in the lung and heart was measured in intervention and non-intervention groups by Western blot analysis at the baseline, 5(th, 7(th, 9(th and 11(th week, respectively. RESULTS: The frequency and titer of anti-β3-AR autoantibody in aged patients and rats with HF were higher than those in the control group (p<0.05. The expression of β3-AR mRNA and protein in pulmonary tissues decreased continually from the 7(th week (p<0.05, followed by HF observed during the 9(th week. The expression of β3-AR in myocardial tissues continued to increase after the 9(th week (p<0.05, and the expression of both β3-AR mRNA and protein in the BRL group [HF group with BRL37344 (4-[-[2-hydroxy-(3-chlorophenylethyl-amino] phenoxyacetic acid (a β3-AR agonist injection] was positively correlated with BRL37344 when compared with non-BRL group (HF group without BRL37344 injection (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Anti-β3-AR autoantibody was detected in aged patients and rats with HF. The expression of β3-AR mRNA and protein in pulmonary tissues decreased continually, and began earlier than in the heart, but its expression in myocardial tissues increased continually and could be further promoted by β3-AR agonist.

  8. 2015 proceedings of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine symposium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitalnik, Steven L.; Triulzi, Darrell; Devine, Dana V.; Dzik, Walter H.; Eder, Anne F.; Gernsheimer, Terry; Josephson, Cassandra D.; Kor, Daryl J.; Luban, Naomi L. C.; Roubinian, Nareg H.; Mondoro, Traci; Welniak, Lisbeth A.; Zou, Shimian; Glynn, Simone; Hendrickson, Jeanne; Zimring, James C.; Yazdanbakhsh, Karina; Delaney, Megan; Ware, Russell E.; Tinmouth, Alan; Doctor, Allan; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Fergusson, Dean A.; Widness, John A.; Carson, Jeffrey L.; Hess, John; Roback, John D.; Waters, Jonathan H.; Cancelas, Jose A.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Rogers, Mary A. M.; Ness, Paul M.; Rao, Sunil; Watkins, Timothy R.; Spinella, Philip C.; Kaufman, Richard M.; Slichter, Sherrill J.; McCullough, Jeffrey; Blumberg, Neil; Webert, Kathryn E.; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Shander, Aryeh; Corash, Laurence M.; Murphy, Michael; Silberstein, Leslie E.; Dumont, Larry J.; Mitchell, W. Beau; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.; de Kort, Wim

    2015-01-01

    On March 25 and 26, 2015, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute sponsored a meeting on the State of the Science in Transfusion Medicine on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) campus in Bethesda, Maryland, which was attended by a diverse group of 330 registrants. The meeting's goal was to

  9. Effects of septum and pericardium on heart-lung interactions in a cardiopulmonary simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamolegkos, Nikolaos; Albanese, Antonio; Chbat, Nicolas W

    2017-07-01

    Mechanical heart-lung interactions are often overlooked in clinical settings. However, their impact on cardiac function can be quite significant. Mechanistic physiology-based models can provide invaluable insights into such cardiorespiratory interactions, which occur not only under external mechanical ventilatory support but in normal physiology as well. In this work, we focus on the cardiac component of a previously developed mathematical model of the human cardiopulmonary system, aiming to improve the model's response to the intrathoracic pressure variations that are associated with the respiratory cycle. Interventricular septum and pericardial membrane are integrated into the existing model. Their effect on the overall cardiac response is explained by means of comparison against simulation results from the original model as well as experimental data from literature.

  10. Fluoroscopic gating without implanted fiducial markers for lung cancer radiotherapy based on support vector machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Ying; Dy, Jennifer G; Alexander, Brian; Jiang, Steve B

    2008-01-01

    Various problems with the current state-of-the-art techniques for gated radiotherapy have prevented this new treatment modality from being widely implemented in clinical routine. These problems are caused mainly by applying various external respiratory surrogates. There might be large uncertainties in deriving the tumor position from external respiratory surrogates. While tracking implanted fiducial markers has sufficient accuracy, this procedure may not be widely accepted due to the risk of pneumothorax. Previously, we have developed a technique to generate gating signals from fluoroscopic images without implanted fiducial markers using template matching methods (Berbeco et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4481-90, Cui et al 2007b Phys. Med. Biol. 52 741-55). In this note, our main contribution is to provide a totally different new view of the gating problem by recasting it as a classification problem. Then, we solve this classification problem by a well-studied powerful classification method called a support vector machine (SVM). Note that the goal of an automated gating tool is to decide when to turn the beam ON or OFF. We treat ON and OFF as the two classes in our classification problem. We create our labeled training data during the patient setup session by utilizing the reference gating signal, manually determined by a radiation oncologist. We then pre-process these labeled training images and build our SVM prediction model. During treatment delivery, fluoroscopic images are continuously acquired, pre-processed and sent as an input to the SVM. Finally, our SVM model will output the predicted labels as gating signals. We test the proposed technique on five sequences of fluoroscopic images from five lung cancer patients against the reference gating signal as ground truth. We compare the performance of the SVM to our previous template matching method (Cui et al 2007b Phys. Med. Biol. 52 741-55). We find that the SVM is slightly more accurate on average (1-3%) than

  11. The prognostic importance of lung function in patients admitted with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Kasper Karmark; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Akkan, Dilek; Kober, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hassager, Christian; Vestbo, Jorgen; Kjoller, Erik

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF). This was a prospective prognostic study performed as part of the EchoCardiography and Heart Outcome Study (ECHOS). This analysis included 532 patients admitted with a clinical diagnosis of HF. All patients underwent spirometry and echocardiography and the diagnosis of HF was made according to established criteria. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) was 65% of the predicted value [95% confidence interval (CI) 63-67%], mean forced vital capacity (FVC) was 71% of predicted (95% CI 69-72%), and FEV(1)/FVC was 0.72 (95% CI 0.71-0.73). FEV(1), FVC, and FEV(1)/FVC were all significant prognostic factors for all-cause mortality in univariate analyses. In a multivariate analysis, FEV(1) had independent prognostic value (hazard ratio 0.86 per 10% change, P information for all-cause mortality in patients admitted with HF. Spirometry therefore seems to be worth considering for all patients admitted with HF in order to identify patients at high risk.

  12. Usefulness of the second heart sound for predicting pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra de Barros Cobra

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: P2 hyperphonesis is considered to be a valuable finding in semiological diagnoses of pulmonary hypertension (PH. The aim here was to evaluate the accuracy of the pulmonary component of second heart sounds for predicting PH in patients with interstitial lung disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at the University of Brasilia and Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal. METHODS: Heart sounds were acquired using an electronic stethoscope and were analyzed using phonocardiography. Clinical signs suggestive of PH, such as second heart sound (S2 in pulmonary area louder than in aortic area; P2 > A2 in pulmonary area and P2 present in mitral area, were compared with Doppler echocardiographic parameters suggestive of PH. Sensitivity (S, specificity (Sp and positive (LR+ and negative (LR- likelihood ratios were evaluated. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between S2 or P2 amplitude and PASP (pulmonary artery systolic pressure (P = 0.185 and 0.115; P= 0.13 and 0.34, respectively. Higher S2 in pulmonary area than in aortic area, compared with all the criteria suggestive of PH, showed S = 60%, Sp= 22%; LR+ = 0.7; LR- = 1.7; while P2> A2 showed S= 57%, Sp = 39%; LR+ = 0.9; LR- = 1.1; and P2 in mitral area showed: S= 68%, Sp = 41%; LR+ = 1.1; LR- = 0.7. All these signals together showed: S= 50%, Sp = 56%. CONCLUSIONS: The semiological signs indicative of PH presented low sensitivity and specificity levels for clinically diagnosing this comorbidity.

  13. Machine Learning Algorithms Utilizing Quantitative CT Features May Predict Eventual Onset of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome After Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Eduardo J Mortani; Lanclus, Maarten; Vos, Wim; Van Holsbeke, Cedric; De Backer, William; De Backer, Jan; Lee, James

    2018-02-19

    Long-term survival after lung transplantation (LTx) is limited by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), defined as a sustained decline in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV 1 ) not explained by other causes. We assessed whether machine learning (ML) utilizing quantitative computed tomography (qCT) metrics can predict eventual development of BOS. Paired inspiratory-expiratory CT scans of 71 patients who underwent LTx were analyzed retrospectively (BOS [n = 41] versus non-BOS [n = 30]), using at least two different time points. The BOS cohort experienced a reduction in FEV 1 of >10% compared to baseline FEV 1 post LTx. Multifactor analysis correlated declining FEV 1 with qCT features linked to acute inflammation or BOS onset. Student t test and ML were applied on baseline qCT features to identify lung transplant patients at baseline that eventually developed BOS. The FEV 1 decline in the BOS cohort correlated with an increase in the lung volume (P = .027) and in the central airway volume at functional residual capacity (P = .018), not observed in non-BOS patients, whereas the non-BOS cohort experienced a decrease in the central airway volume at total lung capacity with declining FEV 1 (P = .039). Twenty-three baseline qCT parameters could significantly distinguish between non-BOS patients and eventual BOS developers (P machine), we could identify BOS developers at baseline with an accuracy of 85%, using only three qCT parameters. ML utilizing qCT could discern distinct mechanisms driving FEV 1 decline in BOS and non-BOS LTx patients and predict eventual onset of BOS. This approach may become useful to optimize management of LTx patients. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Classification of caesarean section and normal vaginal deliveries using foetal heart rate signals and advanced machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Paul; Hussain, Abir; Al-Jumeily, Dhiya; Huang, De-Shuang; Bouguila, Nizar

    2017-07-06

    Visual inspection of cardiotocography traces by obstetricians and midwives is the gold standard for monitoring the wellbeing of the foetus during antenatal care. However, inter- and intra-observer variability is high with only a 30% positive predictive value for the classification of pathological outcomes. This has a significant negative impact on the perinatal foetus and often results in cardio-pulmonary arrest, brain and vital organ damage, cerebral palsy, hearing, visual and cognitive defects and in severe cases, death. This paper shows that using machine learning and foetal heart rate signals provides direct information about the foetal state and helps to filter the subjective opinions of medical practitioners when used as a decision support tool. The primary aim is to provide a proof-of-concept that demonstrates how machine learning can be used to objectively determine when medical intervention, such as caesarean section, is required and help avoid preventable perinatal deaths. This is evidenced using an open dataset that comprises 506 controls (normal virginal deliveries) and 46 cases (caesarean due to pH ≤ 7.20-acidosis, n = 18; pH > 7.20 and pH machine-learning algorithms are trained, and validated, using binary classifier performance measures. The findings show that deep learning classification achieves sensitivity = 94%, specificity = 91%, Area under the curve = 99%, F-score = 100%, and mean square error = 1%. The results demonstrate that machine learning significantly improves the efficiency for the detection of caesarean section and normal vaginal deliveries using foetal heart rate signals compared with obstetrician and midwife predictions and systems reported in previous studies.

  15. Super liquid-repellent gas membranes for carbon dioxide capture and heart-lung machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paven, Maxime; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Schöttler, Susanne; Deng, Xu; Mailänder, Volker; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    In a gas membrane, gas is transferred between a liquid and a gas through a microporous membrane. The main challenge is to achieve a high gas transfer while preventing wetting and clogging. With respect to the oxygenation of blood, haemocompatibility is also required. Here we coat macroporous meshes with a superamphiphobic-or liquid repellent-layer to meet this challenge. The superamphiphobic layer consists of a fractal-like network of fluorinated silicon oxide nanospheres; gas trapped between the nanospheres keeps the liquid from contacting the wall of the membrane. We demonstrate the capabilities of the membrane by capturing carbon dioxide gas into a basic aqueous solution and in addition use it to oxygenate blood. Usually, blood tends to clog membranes because of the abundance of blood cells, platelets, proteins and lipids. We show that human blood stored in a superamphiphobic well for 24 h can be poured off without leaving cells or adsorbed protein behind.

  16. Influence of heart failure on resting lung volumes in patients with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Aline Soares; Sperandio, Priscila Abreu; Mazzuco, Adriana; Alencar, Maria Clara; Arbex, Flávio Ferlin; de Oliveira, Mayron Faria; O'Donnell, Denis Eunan; Neder, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the influence of chronic heart failure (CHF) on resting lung volumes in patients with COPD, i.e., inspiratory fraction-inspiratory capacity (IC)/TLC-and relative inspiratory reserve-[1 − (end-inspiratory lung volume/TLC)]. Methods: This was a prospective study involving 56 patients with COPD-24 (23 males/1 female) with COPD+CHF and 32 (28 males/4 females) with COPD only-who, after careful clinical stabilization, underwent spirometry (with forced and slow maneuvers) and whole-body plethysmography. Results: Although FEV1, as well as the FEV1/FVC and FEV1/slow vital capacity ratios, were higher in the COPD+CHF group than in the COPD group, all major "static" volumes-RV, functional residual capacity (FRC), and TLC-were lower in the former group (p < 0.05). There was a greater reduction in FRC than in RV, resulting in the expiratory reserve volume being lower in the COPD+CHF group than in the COPD group. There were relatively proportional reductions in FRC and TLC in the two groups; therefore, IC was also comparable. Consequently, the inspiratory fraction was higher in the COPD+CHF group than in the COPD group (0.42 ± 0.10 vs. 0.36 ± 0.10; p < 0.05). Although the tidal volume/IC ratio was higher in the COPD+CHF group, the relative inspiratory reserve was remarkably similar between the two groups (0.35 ± 0.09 vs. 0.44 ± 0.14; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Despite the restrictive effects of CHF, patients with COPD+CHF have relatively higher inspiratory limits (a greater inspiratory fraction). However, those patients use only a part of those limits, probably in order to avoid critical reductions in inspiratory reserve and increases in elastic recoil. PMID:27832235

  17. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy. (orig.)

  18. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub

    2017-01-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy. (orig.)

  19. Heart failure services in the United Kingdom: rethinking the machine bureaucracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Nathaniel M; Wright, David J; Capewell, Simon

    2013-01-20

    Poor outcomes and poor uptake of evidence based therapies persist for patients with heart failure in the United Kingdom. We offer a strategic analysis of services, defining the context, organization and objectives of the service, before focusing on implementation and performance. Critical flaws in past service development and performance are apparent, a consequence of failed performance management, policy and political initiative. The barriers to change and potential solutions are common to many health care systems. Integration, information, financing, incentives, innovation and values: all must be challenged and improved if heart failure services are to succeed. Modern healthcare requires open adaptive systems, continually learning and improving. The system also needs controls. Performance indicators should be simple, clinically relevant, and outcome focused. Heart failure presents one of the greatest opportunities to improve symptoms and survival with existing technology. To do so, heart failure services require radical reorganization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated Classification of Radiology Reports for Acute Lung Injury: Comparison of Keyword and Machine Learning Based Natural Language Processing Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solti, Imre; Cooke, Colin R; Xia, Fei; Wurfel, Mark M

    2009-11-01

    This paper compares the performance of keyword and machine learning-based chest x-ray report classification for Acute Lung Injury (ALI). ALI mortality is approximately 30 percent. High mortality is, in part, a consequence of delayed manual chest x-ray classification. An automated system could reduce the time to recognize ALI and lead to reductions in mortality. For our study, 96 and 857 chest x-ray reports in two corpora were labeled by domain experts for ALI. We developed a keyword and a Maximum Entropy-based classification system. Word unigram and character n-grams provided the features for the machine learning system. The Maximum Entropy algorithm with character 6-gram achieved the highest performance (Recall=0.91, Precision=0.90 and F-measure=0.91) on the 857-report corpus. This study has shown that for the classification of ALI chest x-ray reports, the machine learning approach is superior to the keyword based system and achieves comparable results to highest performing physician annotators.

  1. Implementation of a forearm support to reduce the amount of irradiated lung and heart in radiation therapy of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, Coen W.; Borger, Jacques H.; Giersbergen, Aline van; Cho, John; Mijnheer, Ben J.

    2001-01-01

    We compared simulator images of medial tangential fields taken in two positions: (1) with the ipsilateral arm abducted, holding a 'L-bar' armrest and (2) with both arms extended above the head in a forearm support. The average maximum heart distance as well as the central lung distance decreased significantly by 3.4 (SE 0.9) and 4.7 (SE 1.1) mm, respectively, when the new forearm support was used. The estimated normal tissue complication probability for excess cardiac mortality decreased by on average 3.1% (SE 1.3%). For some patients, a greater amount of the axilla was included in the field. We recommend the use of the forearm support during breast cancer treatment with tangential fields to decrease the amount of heart and lung inside the fields

  2. Refining Current Scientific Priorities and Identifying New Scientific Gaps in HIV-Related Heart, Lung, Blood, and Sleep Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Homer L; Crystal, Ronald; Currier, Judith; Ridker, Paul; Berliner, Nancy; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Rutherford, George; Zou, Shimian; Glynn, Simone; Wong, Renee; Peprah, Emmanuel; Engelgau, Michael; Creazzo, Tony; Colombini-Hatch, Sandra; Caler, Elisabet

    2017-09-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) AIDS Program's goal is to provide direction and support for research and training programs in areas of HIV-related heart, lung, blood, and sleep (HLBS) diseases. To better define NHLBI current HIV-related scientific priorities and with the goal of identifying new scientific priorities and gaps in HIV-related HLBS research, a wide group of investigators gathered for a scientific NHLBI HIV Working Group on December 14-15, 2015, in Bethesda, MD. The core objectives of the Working Group included discussions on: (1) HIV-related HLBS comorbidities in the antiretroviral era; (2) HIV cure; (3) HIV prevention; and (4) mechanisms to implement new scientific discoveries in an efficient and timely manner so as to have the most impact on people living with HIV. The 2015 Working Group represented an opportunity for the NHLBI to obtain expert advice on HIV/AIDS scientific priorities and approaches over the next decade.

  3. Clinical value of lung uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a myocardial sympathetic nerve imaging agent, in patients with chronic heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Xiuli; Hasegawa, Shinji; Yoshioka, Jun [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine] (and others)

    2001-10-01

    This study investigated the clinical value of I-123 MIBG pulmonary accumulation and washout in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Nineteen patients with CHF and 15 normal volunteers (NL) were included. The uptake ratio of heart to mediastinum (H/M), that of lung fields to mediastinum (L/M), and washout rate (WR) of the heart and lung fields were calculated in anterior planar images and compared with results of echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. In the CHF group, the lung uptake in delayed images increased and lung WR was decreased, suggesting pulmonary endothelial lesions. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between right and left lung WR and pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure (PA(D)) and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PA(S)) in the CHF group. Since the WR of MIBG reflected PA, it may be used as an index of severity of cardiac dysfunction. (author)

  4. Relationship between the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter and lung-heart ratio in 99mTc myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salihin Yusoff, M. N.; Zakaria, A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the lung-heart ratio parameter can be used to identify the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter in 99m Tc myocardial SPECT imaging. Materials and Methods: This study involved a cardiac phantom system consisting of cardiac insert in which 1.10 cm cold defect was inserted into its myocardium wall and filled with 4.0 μCi/ml (0.148 MBq/ml) 99m Tc concentration. The cardiac insert was then put into a cylindrical tank which filled with six different 99m Tc concentrations as background. Thus, six target background concentrations ratios (T/B) were carried out. The lung-heart ratio was determined for every SPECT raw image obtained corresponding to each T/B. Then, 130 different combinations of filter parameters from Butter worth filter were utilized to reconstruct each SPECT raw image. The determination of count in myocardium, background, and defect regions of interest were performed for every reconstructed image. All the count values were then used to calculate contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, and defect size. Each criterion was graded (1 to 100) and then summed together to obtain total grade. The optimum cut off frequency for each lung-heart ratio was determined from the total grade. The relation between optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter and lung-heart ratio was established using linear regression. Results: There were good relationship between the optimum Butter worth cut off frequency and lung-heart ratio (R 2 = 0.864, p<0.01). The optimal cut off frequency correspond to the change in lung-heart ratio can be expressed by the equation: Optimum cut off frequency=0.715*lung-heart ratio + 0.227. Conclusion: This study suggests that the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter should be determined by referring to lung-heart ratio in each patient study.

  5. Combining generative and discriminative representation learning for lung CT analysis with convolutional restricted Boltzmann machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Tulder, Gijs; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The choice of features greatly influences the performance of a tissue classification system. Despite this, many systems are built with standard, predefined filter banks that are not optimized for that particular application. Representation learning methods such as restricted Boltzmann machines may...... outperform these standard filter banks because they learn a feature description directly from the training data. Like many other representation learning methods, restricted Boltzmann machines are unsupervised and are trained with a generative learning objective; this allows them to learn representations from...... unlabeled data, but does not necessarily produce features that are optimal for classification. In this paper we propose the convolutional classification restricted Boltzmann machine, which combines a generative and a discriminative learning objective. This allows it to learn filters that are good both...

  6. Relationship between linear and nonlinear dynamics of heart rate and impairment of lung function in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzuco A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Mazzuco,1 Wladimir Musetti Medeiros,2 Milena Pelosi Rizk Sperling,1 Aline Soares de Souza,2 Maria Clara Noman Alencar,2 Flávio Ferlin Arbex,2 José Alberto Neder,2,3 Ross Arena,4 Audrey Borghi-Silva1 1Cardiopulmonary Physiotherapy Laboratory, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, 2Pulmonary Function and Clinical Exercise Physiology Unit, Respiratory Division, Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Clinical Exercise Physiology, Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada; 4Department of Physical Therapy and Integrative Physiology Laboratory, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Background: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, functional and structural impairment of lung function can negatively impact heart rate variability (HRV; however, it is unknown if static lung volumes and lung diffusion capacity negatively impacts HRV responses. We investigated whether impairment of static lung volumes and lung diffusion capacity could be related to HRV indices in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Methods: Sixteen sedentary males with COPD were enrolled in this study. Resting blood gases, static lung volumes, and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO were measured. The RR interval (RRi was registered in the supine, standing, and seated positions (10 minutes each and during 4 minutes of a respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (M-RSA. Delta changes (Δsupine-standing and Δsupine-M-RSA of the standard deviation of normal RRi, low frequency (LF, normalized units [nu] and high frequency (HF [nu], SD1, SD2, alpha1, alpha2, and approximate entropy (ApEn indices were calculated. Results: HF, LF, SD1, SD2, and alpha1 deltas significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second, DLCO, airway resistance, residual volume, inspiratory

  7. Myocardial Infarction Injury in Patients with Chronic Lung Disease Entering Pulmonary Rehabilitation: Frequency and Association with Heart Rate Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Carmen A; Lau, Benny C; Taylor, Carolyn M; van Eeden, Stephan F; Reid, W Darlene; Sheel, Andrew W; Kirkham, Ashley R; Camp, Pat G

    2018-03-14

    Myocardial infarction (MI) remains under-recognized in chronic lung disease (CLD) patients. Rehabilitation health professionals need accessible clinical measurements to identify the presence of prior MI in order to determine appropriate training prescription. To estimate prior MI in CLD patients entering a pulmonary rehabilitation program, as well as its association with heart rate parameters such as resting heart rate and chronotropic response index. Retrospective cohort design. Pulmonary rehabilitation outpatient clinic in a tertiary care university-affiliated hospital. Eighty-five CLD patients were studied. Electrocardiograms at rest and peak cardiopulmonary exercise testing, performed before pulmonary rehabilitation, were analyzed. Electrocardiographic evidence of prior MI, quantified by the Cardiac Infarction Injury Score (CIIS), was contrasted with reported myocardial events and then correlated with resting heart rate and chronotropic response index parameters. CIIS, resting heart rate, and chronotropic response index. Sixteen CLD patients (19%) demonstrated electrocardiographic evidence of prior MI, but less than half (8%) had a reported MI history (P CLD patients with a resting heart rate higher than 80 beats/min had approximately 5 times higher odds of having prior MI, as evidenced by a CIIS ≥20. CLD patients entering pulmonary rehabilitation are at risk of unreported prior MI. Elevated resting heart rate seems to be an indicator of prior MI in CLD patients; therefore, careful adjustment of training intensity such as intermittent training is recommended under these circumstances. III. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of heart failure on resting lung volumes in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Aline Soares de; Sperandio, Priscila Abreu; Mazzuco, Adriana; Alencar, Maria Clara; Arbex, Flávio Ferlin; Oliveira, Mayron Faria de; O'Donnell, Denis Eunan; Neder, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of chronic heart failure (CHF) on resting lung volumes in patients with COPD, i.e., inspiratory fraction-inspiratory capacity (IC)/TLC-and relative inspiratory reserve-[1 - (end-inspiratory lung volume/TLC)]. This was a prospective study involving 56 patients with COPD-24 (23 males/1 female) with COPD+CHF and 32 (28 males/4 females) with COPD only-who, after careful clinical stabilization, underwent spirometry (with forced and slow maneuvers) and whole-body plethysmography. Although FEV1, as well as the FEV1/FVC and FEV1/slow vital capacity ratios, were higher in the COPD+CHF group than in the COPD group, all major "static" volumes-RV, functional residual capacity (FRC), and TLC-were lower in the former group (p grupo DPOC+ICC; 23 homens/1 mulher) e 32 (28 homens/4 mulheres) com DPOC isolada foram submetidos à espirometria forçada e lenta e pletismografia de corpo inteiro. Os pacientes do grupo DPOC+ICC apresentaram maior VEF1, VEF1/CVF e VEF1/capacidade vital lenta; porém, todos os principais volumes "estáticos" - VR, capacidade residual funcional (CRF) e CPT - foram menores que aqueles do grupo DPOC (p grupo DPOC+ICC que no grupo DPOC. Houve redução relativamente proporcional da CRF e da CPT nos dois grupos; logo, a CI também foi similar. Consequentemente, a fração inspiratória no grupo DPOC+ICC foi maior que no grupo DPOC (0,42 ± 0,10 vs. 0,36 ± 0,10; p grupo DPOC+ICC, a reserva inspiratória relativa foi notadamente similar entre os grupos (0,35 ± 0,09 vs. 0,44 ± 0,14; p < 0,05). Apesar dos efeitos restritivos da ICC, pacientes com DPOC+ICC apresentam elevações relativas dos limites inspiratórios (maior fração inspiratória). Entretanto, esses pacientes utilizam apenas parte desses limites, com o provável intuito de evitar reduções críticas da reserva inspiratória e maior trabalho elástico.

  9. Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors Near the Heart: A Retrospective Review of Short-Term Procedural Safety in Ten Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Aaron W P; Healey, Terrance T; Dupuy, Damian E

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the rate of short-term complications associated with microwave ablation of lung tumors located near the heart. This HIPAA-compliant study was performed with a waiver for informed consent. Patients who underwent microwave ablation of lung tumors located 10 mm or less from the heart were identified by retrospective chart review. Both primary and metastatic tumors were included. Only tumors directly adjacent to one of the four cardiac chambers were included. All patients were treated in a single session using CT guidance with continuous electrocardiographic monitoring. Rates of new-onset arrhythmia and myocardial infarction (MI) within 90 days of the procedure were quantified, and evidence of cardiac or pericardiac injury was assessed for using post-ablation contrast-enhanced chest CT, electrocardiography (EKG), and-when available-echocardiography. Complications were graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) system. Ten patients (four males, six females; mean age 73.1 ± 9.5 years) met all inclusion criteria. Mean tumor distance from the heart was 3 mm (range, 0-6 mm). New-onset arrhythmia was not observed during or following any of the microwave ablation treatments, and there were no documented 90-day MI events. CTCAE Grade 1 complications were observed by CT in eight patients, most commonly mild focal pericardial thickening. EKG and echocardiography were normal in all patients. No major complications (CTCAE Grade 3 or greater) were observed. Microwave ablation of lung tumors located 10 mm or less from the heart appears to have low associated short-term morbidity and may be appropriate in selected patients.

  10. Drug repositioning for non-small cell lung cancer by using machine learning algorithms and topological graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hung; Chang, Peter Mu-Hsin; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Ng, Ka-Lok

    2016-01-11

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the leading causes of death globally, and research into NSCLC has been accumulating steadily over several years. Drug repositioning is the current trend in the pharmaceutical industry for identifying potential new uses for existing drugs and accelerating the development process of drugs, as well as reducing side effects. This work integrates two approaches--machine learning algorithms and topological parameter-based classification--to develop a novel pipeline of drug repositioning to analyze four lung cancer microarray datasets, enriched biological processes, potential therapeutic drugs and targeted genes for NSCLC treatments. A total of 7 (8) and 11 (12) promising drugs (targeted genes) were discovered for treating early- and late-stage NSCLC, respectively. The effectiveness of these drugs is supported by the literature, experimentally determined in-vitro IC50 and clinical trials. This work provides better drug prediction accuracy than competitive research according to IC50 measurements. With the novel pipeline of drug repositioning, the discovery of enriched pathways and potential drugs related to NSCLC can provide insight into the key regulators of tumorigenesis and the treatment of NSCLC. Based on the verified effectiveness of the targeted drugs predicted by this pipeline, we suggest that our drug-finding pipeline is effective for repositioning drugs.

  11. Beyond cancer treatment – a review of total lymphoid irradiation for heart and lung transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, Clare, E-mail: clmck7@student.monash.edu; Knight, Kellie A; Wright, Caroline [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Immunosuppressive drugs used in the management of heart and lung transplants have a large monetary and quality of life cost due to their side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is one method of minimising the need for or replacing post-operative immunosuppressive drugs. A literature review was conducted on electronic databases using defined search terms. The aim was to establish the indications for the use of TLI, its advantages and disadvantages and the weaknesses associated with the methods used in related research. Eight articles were located that focused on TLI usage in combating organ rejection. These studies identified that the use of TLI resulted in a reduction in early rejection. One study reported a drop in rejection episodes from 0.46 to 0.14 episodes per patient per month once the TLI was complete. While the short-term prognosis is excellent, the long-term outlook is less positive with an increased risk of organ rejection and myelodysplasia 3.5 years post-TLI. This review reminds us that radiation therapy (RT) is not exclusively indicated for cancer treatment. While TLI cannot replace immunosuppressive drug therapy, it can offer a treatment option for people that cannot tolerate immunosuppressive drugs, or when conventional anti-rejection treatment is no longer viable. Reported long-term complications suggest that TLI should be used with caution. However, this modality should not be overlooked in cases of chronic rejection. Further research is required to establish the efficacy of RT in the treatment of transplant patients who are unsuitable for drug-based anti-rejection therapies.

  12. Prognostic value of heart valve calcifications for cardiovascular events in a lung cancer screening population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemink, Martin J; Takx, Richard A P; Išgum, Ivana; de Koning, Harry J; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Mali, Willem P Th M; Budde, Ricardo P J; Leiner, Tim; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; de Jong, Pim A

    2015-08-01

    To assess the prognostic value of aortic valve and mitral valve/annulus calcifications for cardiovascular events in heavily smoking men without a history of cardiovascular disease. Heavily smoking men without a cardiovascular disease history who underwent non-contrast-enhanced low-radiation-dose chest CT for lung cancer screening were included. Non-imaging predictors (age, smoking status and pack-years) were collected and imaging-predictors (calcium volume of the coronary arteries, aorta, aortic valve and mitral valve/annulus) were obtained. The outcome was the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to calculate hazard-ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Subsequently, concordance-statistics were calculated. In total 3111 individuals were included, of whom 186 (6.0%) developed a cardiovascular event during a follow-up of 2.9 (Q1-Q3, 2.7-3.3) years. If aortic (n = 657) or mitral (n = 85) annulus/valve calcifications were present, cardiovascular event incidence increased to 9.0% (n = 59) or 12.9% (n = 11), respectively. HRs of aortic and mitral valve/annulus calcium volume for cardiovascular events were 1.46 (95% CI, 1.09-1.84) and 2.74 (95% CI, 0.92-4.56) per 500 mm(3). The c-statistic of a basic model including age, pack-years, current smoking status, coronary and aorta calcium volume was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.63-0.72), which did not change after adding heart valve calcium volume. Aortic valve calcifications are predictors of future cardiovascular events. However, there was no added prognostic value beyond age, number of pack-years, current smoking status, coronary and aorta calcium volume for short term cardiovascular events.

  13. Beyond cancer treatment – a review of total lymphoid irradiation for heart and lung transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Clare; Knight, Kellie A; Wright, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs used in the management of heart and lung transplants have a large monetary and quality of life cost due to their side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is one method of minimising the need for or replacing post-operative immunosuppressive drugs. A literature review was conducted on electronic databases using defined search terms. The aim was to establish the indications for the use of TLI, its advantages and disadvantages and the weaknesses associated with the methods used in related research. Eight articles were located that focused on TLI usage in combating organ rejection. These studies identified that the use of TLI resulted in a reduction in early rejection. One study reported a drop in rejection episodes from 0.46 to 0.14 episodes per patient per month once the TLI was complete. While the short-term prognosis is excellent, the long-term outlook is less positive with an increased risk of organ rejection and myelodysplasia 3.5 years post-TLI. This review reminds us that radiation therapy (RT) is not exclusively indicated for cancer treatment. While TLI cannot replace immunosuppressive drug therapy, it can offer a treatment option for people that cannot tolerate immunosuppressive drugs, or when conventional anti-rejection treatment is no longer viable. Reported long-term complications suggest that TLI should be used with caution. However, this modality should not be overlooked in cases of chronic rejection. Further research is required to establish the efficacy of RT in the treatment of transplant patients who are unsuitable for drug-based anti-rejection therapies

  14. Preferred Place of Care and Death in Terminally Ill Patients with Lung and Heart Disease Compared to Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skorstengaard, Marianne H; Neergaard, Mette A; Andreassen, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    with these diagnoses. Background: Previous research on end-of-life preferences focuses on cancer patients, most of whom identify home as their PPOC and PPOD. These preferences may, however, not mirror those of patients suffering from nonmalignant fatal diseases. Design: The study was designed as a cross......, all patients had a higher level of anxiety than the average Danish population; patients with heart diseases had a much higher level of anxiety than patients with lung diseases and cancer. Conclusion: Patient preferences for PPOC and PPOD vary according to their diagnoses; tailoring palliative needs...

  15. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub

    2017-11-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy.

  16. Lung cancer gene expression database analysis incorporating prior knowledge with support vector machine-based classification method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Desheng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reliable and precise classification is essential for successful diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Gene expression microarrays have provided the high-throughput platform to discover genomic biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Rational use of the available bioinformation can not only effectively remove or suppress noise in gene chips, but also avoid one-sided results of separate experiment. However, only some studies have been aware of the importance of prior information in cancer classification. Methods Together with the application of support vector machine as the discriminant approach, we proposed one modified method that incorporated prior knowledge into cancer classification based on gene expression data to improve accuracy. A public well-known dataset, Malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma gene expression database, was used in this study. Prior knowledge is viewed here as a means of directing the classifier using known lung adenocarcinoma related genes. The procedures were performed by software R 2.80. Results The modified method performed better after incorporating prior knowledge. Accuracy of the modified method improved from 98.86% to 100% in training set and from 98.51% to 99.06% in test set. The standard deviations of the modified method decreased from 0.26% to 0 in training set and from 3.04% to 2.10% in test set. Conclusion The method that incorporates prior knowledge into discriminant analysis could effectively improve the capacity and reduce the impact of noise. This idea may have good future not only in practice but also in methodology.

  17. Lack of association of apolipoprotein E (Apo E) polymorphism with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lana Y H; Petrone, Andrew B; Pankow, James S; Arnett, Donna K; North, Kari E; Ellison, R Curtis; Hunt, Steven C; Rosenzweig, James L; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, elevated blood pressure and insulin resistance, is a major public health concern in the United States. The effects of apolipoprotein E (Apo E) polymorphism on MetS are not well established. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of 1551 participants from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Family Heart Study to assess the relation of Apo E polymorphism with the prevalence of MetS. MetS was defined according to the American Heart Association-National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute-International Diabetes Federation-World Health Organization harmonized criteria. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for prevalent MetS and the Bonferroni correction to account for multiple testing in the secondary analysis. Our study population had a mean age (standard deviation) of 56.5 (11.0) years, and 49.7% had MetS. There was no association between the Apo E genotypes and the MetS. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) were 1.00 (reference), 1.26 (0.31-5.21), 0.89 (0.62-1.29), 1.13 (0.61-2.10), 1.13 (0.88-1.47) and 1.87 (0.91-3.85) for the Ɛ3/Ɛ3, Ɛ2/Ɛ2, Ɛ2/Ɛ3, Ɛ2/Ɛ4, Ɛ3/Ɛ4 and Ɛ4/Ɛ4 genotypes, respectively. In a secondary analysis, Ɛ2/Ɛ3 genotype was associated with 41% lower prevalence odds of low high-density lipoprotein [multivariable adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) = 0.59 (0.36-0.95)] compared with Ɛ3/Ɛ3 genotype. Our findings do not support an association between Apo E polymorphism and MetS in a multicentre population-based study of predominantly White US men and women. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Precision machining, sheet-metal work and welding at the heart of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From the writing of specifications and the production of high-tech components, to technology transfer and call-out work on-site, the MF group in EST Division offers CERN users a wide variety of services. Its full range of activities is presented in a new brochure. In addition to its many physicists and engineers, CERN also has teams of mechanics, welders and sheet-metalworkers whose expertise is a precious asset for the Organization. Within the MF Group (Manufacturing Facilities, EST Division) these teams perform precision machining, sheet-metal work and welding. As an example, the Group has been responsible for producing radiofrequency accelerating cells to a precision of the order of 1/100th mm and with a surface roughness of only 0.1 micron. The Group's workshops also manufactured the stainless steel vacuum chamber for the brand new n-TOF experiment (Bulletin n°47/2000), a 200-m long cylindrical chamber with a diameter of just 800 millimetres! The MF Group is assisted in its task of providing me...

  19. Epac Function and cAMP Scaffolds in the Heart and Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Laudette

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence collected over the last ten years indicates that Epac and cAMP scaffold proteins play a critical role in integrating and transducing multiple signaling pathways at the basis of cardiac and lung physiopathology. Some of the deleterious effects of Epac, such as cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and arrhythmia, initially described in vitro, have been confirmed in genetically modified mice for Epac1 and Epac2. Similar recent findings have been collected in the lung. The following sections will describe how Epac and cAMP signalosomes in different subcellular compartments may contribute to cardiac and lung diseases.

  20. 75 FR 70273 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering to Prevent Heart Attack Trial... Research Demonstration and Dissemination Projects. Date: December 14, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda... Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular...

  1. Value of heart-lung ratio of 99Tcm N-NOET in detection of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanchun; Li Sijin; Liu Jianzhong; Hu Guang; Wang Jin; Lv Jiyuan

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the heart-lung ratio (HLR) assessed with exercise 99 Tc m N-NOET myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary artery disease (CAD), 10 normal volunteers (7 male and 3 female, aged 40.0 ± 5.8 years), and 40 suspected CAD patients (21 male and 19 female, aged 55.2 ± 8.5 years) underwent exercise (30 min)-delayed (2 and 4 h postinjection) 99 Tc m -NOET gated myocardial perfusion imaging, and the HLR at different time was calculated. 13 patients among them took the coronary angiography in two months. According to the exercise heart-lung ratio (EXHLR), 50 subjects were divided into two groups. G1(n=36, EXHLR≥2) included 10 normal volunteers, 5 patients with normal coronary arteries, and the rest 21 patients had no relevant symptom and cardiac event in the follow-up period of 4 to 12 months. The image was normal in all of the subjects in G1. In G2 (n=14, EXHLR 99 Tc m N-NOET may be useful as a diagnostic index in CAD because it is more sensitive than myocardial perfusion imaging. (authors)

  2. Quantitative assessment of thallium myocardial washout rate: Importance of peak heart rate and lung thallium uptake in defining normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Kozuka, Takahiro; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka

    1987-01-01

    Traditionally, the results of exercise thallium scintigraphy were interpreted by transient defect analysis using initial and delayed images. Recently, washout rate analysis has been used for the relative quantification of exercise thallium scintigraphy. A diffuse slow washout from all myocardial regions has been defined as the indicator of extensive coronary artery disease. However, slow washout has occasionally been observed in normal cases and in healthy myocardial segments which are not supplied by a stenosed artery in patients with single or double vessel disease. We evaluate the factors influencing washout rate in 100 normal patients and 63 patients with angina pectoris (33 cases of single vessel disease and 30 cases of double vessel disease). The washout rates were calculated using circumferential profile analysis. In normal patients, washout rate was closely related to peak heart rate (r=0.72) and inversely related to lung thallium uptake (r=-0.56). A diffuse slow washout was observed in seven (7%) of 100 normal patients, six (18%) of 33 cases of single vessel disease and eight (24%) of 30 cases of double vessel disease. The patients with diffuse slow washout showed significantly higher lung thallium uptake values and lower peak heart rates than those without diffuse slow washout (P<0.01). Thus, this false positive slow washout should be considered in the interpretation of quantitative exercise thallium scintigraphy. (orig.)

  3. Intraperitoneal curcumin decreased lung, renal and heart injury in abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion model in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Caliskan, Ahmet; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kocarslan, Sezen; Yildiz, Ali; Günay, Samil; Savik, Emin; Hazar, Abdussemet; Yalcin, Funda

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin (CUR) has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs. We aimed to determine whether CUR has favorable effects on tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham, control and treatment (CUR) group. Control and CUR groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 60 min followed by a 120 min period of reperfusion. In the CUR group, CUR was given 5 min before reperfusion at a dose of 200 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured, and lung, renal and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. TOS and OSI activity in blood samples were statistically decreased in sham and CUR groups compared to the control group (p OSI). Renal, lung, heart injury scores of sham and CUR groups were statistically decreased compared to control group (p model. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigating the value of right heart echocardiographic metrics for detection of pulmonary hypertension in patients with advanced lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsallem, Myriam; Boulate, David; Kooreman, Zoe; Zamanian, Roham T; Fadel, Guillaume; Schnittger, Ingela; Fadel, Elie; McConnell, Michael V; Dhillon, Gundeep; Mercier, Olaf; Haddad, François

    2017-06-01

    This study determined whether novel right heart echocardiography metrics help to detect pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with advanced lung disease (ALD). We reviewed echocardiography and catheterization data of 192 patients from the Stanford ALD registry and echocardiograms of 50 healthy controls. Accuracy of echocardiographic right heart metrics to detect PH was assessed using logistic regression and area under the ROC curves (AUC) analysis. Patients were divided into a derivation (n = 92) and validation cohort (n = 100). Experimental validation was assessed in a piglet model of mild PH followed longitudinally. Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was not interpretable in 52% of patients. In the derivation cohort, right atrial maximal volume index (RAVI), ventricular end-systolic area index (RVESAI), free-wall longitudinal strain and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) differentiated patients with and without PH; 20% of patients without PH had moderate to severe RV enlargement by RVESAI. On multivariate analysis, RAVI and TAPSE were independently associated with PH (AUC = 0.77, p heart metrics abnormalities did not improve detection of PH in patients with interpretable TR (p > 0.05) and provided moderate detection value in patients without TR. Only two patients with more severe PH (mean pulmonary pressure 35 and 36 mmHg) were missed. The animal model confirmed that right heart enlargement discriminated best pigs with PH from shams. This study highlights the frequency of right heart enlargement and dysfunction in ALD irrespectively from presence of PH, therefore limiting their use for detection of PH.

  5. Focused sonographic examination of the heart, lungs and deep veins in an unselected population of acute admitted patients with respiratory symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Christian Borbjerg; Sloth, Erik; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg

    2012-01-01

    symptoms, can be diagnosed with sonography. The protocol describes a prospective, blinded, randomised controlled trial that aims to assess the diagnostic impact of a pragmatic implementation of focused sonography of the heart, lungs and deep veins as a diagnostic modality in acute admitted patients...... diagnostic work up is supplemented by focused sonographic examination of the heart, lungs and deep veins of the legs. In the control group, usual diagnostic work up is performed. The χ(2) test, alternatively the Fischer exact test will be used, to establish whether there is a difference in the distribution...

  6. Lung scintiscanning in corrective surgery of congenital heart disease, 2. Tetralogy of Fallot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, K. (Iwate Medical Coll., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-06-01

    Lung scintiscanning was performed to investigate the distribution of pulmonary blood flow before and after surgery in 30 patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Uniformity of lung scintigram and the derangement of the distribution pattern were observed preoperatively and postoperatively. The results were as follows: 1) Preoperatively, uniformity of lung scintigram was 27.7 - 100% (average 63.4%). It is more necessary to construct the outflow tract in most cases, when the PA/Ao diameter ratio was lower than 0.5 and uniformity of lung scintigram was under 50%. Besides, preoperative uniformity of lung scintigram correlated with the degree of polycythemia. In 3 cases who died after corrective surgery, the value of uniformity of lung scintigram was as low as 33.3 - 61.1%. 2) Preoperative pulmonary blood flow disturbances were found in 50% of 30 cases. In all of the cases without pulmonary blood flow disturbances, total correction was successfully performed. On the other hand, in cases with pulmonary blood flow disturbances, the result of total correction was not satisfactory. 3) In cases with the slight and moderately deranged distribution preoperatively, postoperative follow up study by scintiscanning at 1 to 2 months after surgery showed considerately more improvement of pulmonary blood flow.

  7. Cardiac toxicity and radiation dose to the heart in definitive treated non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schytte, Tine; Hansen, Olfred; Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine; Brink, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In this retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of NSCLC patients treated with definitive radiotherapy, we did not find a correlation between high mean-dose to three different volumes of the heart (left ventricle, both ventricles or whole heart) and cardiac toxicity defined as having an cardiac event after radiotherapy start. This is not as shown in studies with other diseases treated with radiotherapy. Darby et al. recently published a review concerning radiation related heart disease. They reported a significantly worse survival beyond ten years for breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Some studies reported mortality from heart disease increased by 27%. In Hodgkin lymphoma patients an increased risk value of three to five for cardiac morbidity in general compared to general population and relative risk of death from myocardial infarction compared with general population in range 2 to 4. There may be several possible reasons why we did not experience a significant toxicity despite the high doses we delivered to the heart compared with patients receiving RT for breast cancer and lymphoma. Only relative few NSCLC patients live long enough to experience cardiac disease either due to lung cancer itself or comorbidity as a competitive risk factor. In our study the five year survival was 15% leaving very few patients at risk for developing cardiac disease. Without long-term survivors cardiac toxicity does not seem to be a problem, and this suggests that we should aim to increase tumour control by administrating larger doses of radiotherapy to the tumour and/or by adding concurrent chemotherapy. However, the latter may increase the risk of cardiac toxicity by itself, and the results given in present study, may not be extrapolated to this situation. Another reason might be that if NSCLC patients develop dyspnoea, chest pain, etc. it is interpreted as being due to a relapse of lung cancer and not cardiac disease. There are several studies indicating that

  8. Non-contact procedure to measure heart and lung activities in preterm pediatric patients with skin disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionni, P.; Scalise, L.; Antognoli, L.; Nobile, S.; Carnielli, V. P.

    2018-04-01

    Preterm patients can have an higher risk of fatalities and can be subjected to long-term disability. With many organs still in the phase of development, the earlier the delivery, the higher the risk and they are therefore hospitalized in specialized neonatal intensive care units) where heart rate and lungs activity are continuously assessed. These are mostly monitored by set of electrodes placed in contact with skin (two in thorax area and one in abdominal area). This paper address the problem of preterm cardiac and respiratory monitoring in a patient with severe skin disorders who can not monitored with standard electrodes because of his dry, thickened, scaly skin. As a solution, we propose a fully non-contact measurement method, based on laser Doppler vibrometry, able to continuously record the movements of wall-chest and extract from this signal, the heart rate and the respiratory activity of the patient. The results show a good agreement between the standard contact measurement methods and the proposed one (no statistical difference between data) with a data uncertainty of 2.9% for the heart rate data and of 9.5% for the respiration rate (k=2), in line with the classical measurement methods.

  9. Left-sided breast cancer and risks of secondary lung cancer and ischemic heart disease. Effects of modern radiotherapy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Stefanie; Ballhausen, Hendrik; Weingandt, Helmut; Freislederer, Philipp; Schoenecker, Stephan; Niyazi, Maximilian; Belka, Claus [University Hospital, LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Simonetto, Cristoforo; Eidemueller, Markus [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Ganswindt, Ute [University Hospital, LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2018-03-15

    Modern breast cancer radiotherapy techniques, such as respiratory-gated radiotherapy in deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) or volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) have been shown to reduce the high dose exposure of the heart in left-sided breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to comparatively estimate the excess relative and absolute risks of radiation-induced secondary lung cancer and ischemic heart disease for different modern radiotherapy techniques. Four different treatment plans were generated for ten computed tomography data sets of patients with left-sided breast cancer, using either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or VMAT, in free-breathing (FB) or DIBH. Dose-volume histograms were used for organ equivalent dose (OED) calculations using linear, linear-exponential, and plateau models for the lung. A linear model was applied to estimate the long-term risk of ischemic heart disease as motivated by epidemiologic data. Excess relative risk (ERR) and 10-year excess absolute risk (EAR) for radiation-induced secondary lung cancer and ischemic heart disease were estimated for different representative baseline risks. The DIBH maneuver resulted in a significant reduction of the ERR and estimated 10-year excess absolute risk for major coronary events compared to FB in 3D-CRT plans (p = 0.04). In VMAT plans, the mean predicted risk reduction through DIBH was less pronounced and not statistically significant (p = 0.44). The risk of radiation-induced secondary lung cancer was mainly influenced by the radiotherapy technique, with no beneficial effect through DIBH. VMAT plans correlated with an increase in 10-year EAR for radiation-induced lung cancer as compared to 3D-CRT plans (DIBH p = 0.007; FB p = 0.005, respectively). However, the EARs were affected more strongly by nonradiation-associated risk factors, such as smoking, as compared to the choice of treatment technique. The results indicate that 3D-CRT plans in DIBH pose the lowest

  10. Association of lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 cardiovascular health metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenjun; Lee, Hwa; Lee, Angela; Kieu, Chi; Wong, Nathan D

    2017-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. There is a strong association between COPD and cardiovascular (CV) disease; however, the relation between COPD and CV health factors is not well defined. We examined the relation between lung function and CV health factors defined by American Heart Association's (AHA) Life's Simple 7 (LS7). We studied 6352 adults aged ≥20 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2012. Analysis of variance was used to compare mean FEV1% of predicted across levels of each LS7 metric and population attributable risk was calculated based on COPD prevalence. We also conducted linear regression and logistic regression analyses to determine the association between lung function, COPD and LS7 score. Overall 19.9% of subjects were defined as having COPD. Subjects in the highest categories of the LS7 metrics had the highest mean values of FEV1% of predicted (p < 0.0001 except for total cholesterol). Current smoking and hypertension had a population attributed risk of 21.8% and 21.1% of COPD, respectively. Compared to subjects with 0 ideal health factors, the gender and ethnicity-adjusted odds (95% CI) for COPD were 0.45 (0.22-0.93), 0.22 (0.11-0.43) for those with 4 and 5-7 factors, but adjustment for age attenuated this relation. LS7 score is associated with lung function as well as the odds of COPD that is largely explained by age. Studies are needed to show if promotion of CV health will preserve healthy lung function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of pulmonary hypertension of congenital heart diseases in children by lung perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jinghao; Zhang Shantong; Zeng Jiye; Jia Hongli; Ji Zhiying; Chen Siyi

    1993-01-01

    The authors report that changes in the distribution of pulmonary perfusion caused by gravitation effect, namely, changes in the total count ratios of the right against the left lung between right and left lateral decubitus positions (rt/lt) could estimate pulmonary hypertension using lung perfusion scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin. The results showed: rt/lt was inversely related to mean pulmonary arterial pressure. It is concluded that the method is simple, safe, reproducible, unaffected by cardiac structural abnormality and valuable as a noninvasive approach for the estimation of pulmonary hypertension

  12. Differentiation of several interstitial lung disease patterns in HRCT images using support vector machine: role of databases on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Mandar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Dash, Jatindra K.; Garg, Mandeep; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is complicated group of pulmonary disorders. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) considered to be best imaging technique for analysis of different pulmonary disorders. HRCT findings can be categorised in several patterns viz. Consolidation, Emphysema, Ground Glass Opacity, Nodular, Normal etc. based on their texture like appearance. Clinician often find it difficult to diagnosis these pattern because of their complex nature. In such scenario computer-aided diagnosis system could help clinician to identify patterns. Several approaches had been proposed for classification of ILD patterns. This includes computation of textural feature and training /testing of classifier such as artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM) etc. In this paper, wavelet features are calculated from two different ILD database, publically available MedGIFT ILD database and private ILD database, followed by performance evaluation of ANN and SVM classifiers in terms of average accuracy. It is found that average classification accuracy by SVM is greater than ANN where trained and tested on same database. Investigation continued further to test variation in accuracy of classifier when training and testing is performed with alternate database and training and testing of classifier with database formed by merging samples from same class from two individual databases. The average classification accuracy drops when two independent databases used for training and testing respectively. There is significant improvement in average accuracy when classifiers are trained and tested with merged database. It infers dependency of classification accuracy on training data. It is observed that SVM outperforms ANN when same database is used for training and testing.

  13. 75 FR 36427 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ..., Career Enhancement Award for Stem Cell Research. Date: July 27, 2010. Time: 10:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Resource Related Research Project in National Biological Sample Data... Special Emphasis Panel, Resource Related Research Project in Lung Disease BioRepository. Date: July 15...

  14. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National Asthma Education and Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.aanma.org American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 414–272–6071 www.aaaai.org American Academy ... www.aasa.org American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 847–427–1200 www.acaai.org American Lung ...

  15. Detection of Driver Drowsiness Using Wavelet Analysis of Heart Rate Variability and a Support Vector Machine Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Driving while fatigued is just as dangerous as drunk driving and may result in car accidents. Heart rate variability (HRV analysis has been studied recently for the detection of driver drowsiness. However, the detection reliability has been lower than anticipated, because the HRV signals of drivers were always regarded as stationary signals. The wavelet transform method is a method for analyzing non-stationary signals. The aim of this study is to classify alert and drowsy driving events using the wavelet transform of HRV signals over short time periods and to compare the classification performance of this method with the conventional method that uses fast Fourier transform (FFT-based features. Based on the standard shortest duration for FFT-based short-term HRV evaluation, the wavelet decomposition is performed on 2-min HRV samples, as well as 1-min and 3-min samples for reference purposes. A receiver operation curve (ROC analysis and a support vector machine (SVM classifier are used for feature selection and classification, respectively. The ROC analysis results show that the wavelet-based method performs better than the FFT-based method regardless of the duration of the HRV sample that is used. Finally, based on the real-time requirements for driver drowsiness detection, the SVM classifier is trained using eighty FFT and wavelet-based features that are extracted from 1-min HRV signals from four subjects. The averaged leave-one-out (LOO classification performance using wavelet-based feature is 95% accuracy, 95% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This is better than the FFT-based results that have 68.8% accuracy, 62.5% sensitivity, and 75% specificity. In addition, the proposed hardware platform is inexpensive and easy-to-use.

  16. 77 FR 2738 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ..., 2012. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National...: David A. Wilson, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review/DERA, National Heart... Panel; K99s Mentored Career Transition Scientist Award. Date: February 9-10, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 1 p.m...

  17. 77 FR 59935 - National Heart, Lung, And Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NHLBI Resource-Related Research Project for Stem Cells and Cardiomyopathy...; Excellence in Hemoglobinopathies Research. Date: October 22-23, 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To.... 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research...

  18. 75 FR 28032 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NHLBI DNA Resequencing and Genotyping (RS&G) Service: Administrative..., NHLBI DNA Resequencing and Genotyping (RS&G) Service: Laboratory Center(s). Date: June 4, 2010. Time: 2... Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases...

  19. The cardiopulmonary continuum systemic inflammation as 'common soil' of heart and lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ukena, Christian; Mahfoud, Felix; Kindermann, Michael; Kindermann, Ingrid; Bals, Robert; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Boehm, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD), chronic heart failure (CHF) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occur commonly in the presence of each other and are associated with similar systemic inflammatory reactions. Inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. C-reactive

  20. Lung beta-adrenoceptors in pulmonary hypertension. A study of biopsy specimens in children with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, A.A.; Liberato, M.H.; Brentani, M.M.; Aiello, V.D.; Riso, A.A.; Ebaid, M.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of beta-adrenoceptors were analyzed using radioligand-binding techniques with 3H-dihydroalprenolol in lung specimens from 11 children with pulmonary hypertension (median age, three years) undergoing surgical repair of congenital heart defects and four pediatric control subjects (median age, five years) undergoing thoracotomy for removal of neoplasms or cysts. Scatchard analysis of 3H-DHA binding to lung membranes showed similar values of the dissociation constant in both groups (Kd = 0.72 +/- 0.22 nM in patients vs 1.22 +/- 0.22 nM in controls; p = NS). The receptor density was significantly increased in patients in comparison with controls, with respective values of 164 +/- 19 and 95 +/- 13 fmol/mg of protein (p less than 0.025), and correlated directly with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (r = 0.82; p less than 0.0005). No significant relationship was observed between receptor number and pulmonary arterial medial thickness. Thus, the increase in receptor density in these patients may be related to adaptative changes in cells other than vascular smooth muscle

  1. Prognostic value of heart valve calcifications for cardiovascular events in a lung cancer screening population

    OpenAIRE

    Willemink, Martin J.; Takx, Richard A. P.; I?gum, Ivana; de Koning, Harry J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Budde, Ricardo P. J.; Leiner, Tim; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; de Jong, Pim A.

    2015-01-01

    textabstractTo assess the prognostic value of aortic valve and mitral valve/annulus calcifications for cardiovascular events in heavily smoking men without a history of cardiovascular disease. Heavily smoking men without a cardiovascular disease history who underwent non-contrast-enhanced low-radiation-dose chest CT for lung cancer screening were included. Non-imaging predictors (age, smoking status and pack-years) were collected and imaging-predictors (calcium volume of the coronary arteries...

  2. DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE OF HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS TO UPHILL AND DOWNHILL EXERCISE IN HEART, SKELETAL MUSCLE, LUNG AND KIDNEY TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo C. B. Lollo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Running on a horizontal plane is known to increase the concentration of the stress biomarker heat-shock protein (HSP, but no comparison of the expression of HSP70 has yet been established between the uphill (predominantly concentric and downhill (predominantly eccentric muscle contractions exercise. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between eccentric and concentric contractions on the HSP70 response of the lung, kidney, gastrocnemius, soleus and heart. Twenty-four male Wistar weanling rats were divided into four groups: non-exercised and three different grades of treadmill exercise groups: horizontal, uphill (+7% and downhill (-7% of inclination. At the optimal time-point of six hours after the exercise, serum uric acid, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined by standard methods and HSP70 by the Western blot analysis. HSP70 responds differently to different types of running. For kidney, heart, soleus and gastrocnemius, the HSP70 expression increased, 230, 180, 150 and 120% respectively of the reference (horizontal. When the contraction was concentric (uphill and compared to downhill the increase in response of HSP70 was greater in 80% for kidney, 75% for gastrocnemius, 60% for soleus and 280% for the heart. Uric acid was about 50% higher (0.64 ± 0.03 mg·dL-1 in the uphill group as compared to the horizontal or downhill groups. Similarly, the activities of serum CK and LDH were both 100% greater for both the uphill and downhill groups as compared to the horizontal group (2383 ± 253 and 647.00 ± 73 U/L, respectively. The responsiveness of HSP70 appeared to be quite different depending on the type of tissue, suggesting that the impact of exercise was not restricted to the muscles, but extended to the kidney tissue. The uphill exercise increases HSP70 beyond the eccentric type and the horizontal running was a lower HSP70 responsive stimulus

  3. Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Lung Function in the Framingham Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Petter L.; Wilker, Elissa H.; Gold, Diane R.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Koutrakis, Petros; Washko, George R.; O’Connor, George T.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with lower lung function. Few studies have examined whether these associations are detectable at relatively low levels of pollution within current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Objectives: To examine exposure to ambient air pollutants within EPA standards and lung function in a large cohort study. Methods: We included 3,262 participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts living within 40 km of the Harvard Supersite monitor in Boston, Massachusetts (5,358 examinations, 1995–2011) who were not current smokers, with previous-day pollutant levels in compliance with EPA standards. We compared lung function (FEV1 and FVC) after previous-day exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) in the “moderate” range of the EPA Air Quality Index to exposure in the “good” range. We also examined linear relationships between moving averages of pollutant concentrations 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days before spirometry and lung function. Measurements and Main Results: Exposure to pollutant concentrations in the “moderate” range of the EPA Air Quality Index was associated with a 20.1-ml lower FEV1 for PM2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], −33.4, −6.9), a 30.6-ml lower FEV1 for NO2 (95% CI, −60.9, −0.2), and a 55.7-ml lower FEV1 for O3 (95% CI, −100.7, −10.8) compared with the “good” range. The 1- and 2-day moving averages of PM2.5, NO2, and O3 before testing were negatively associated with FEV1 and FVC. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to PM2.5, NO2, and O3 within current EPA standards was associated with lower lung function in this cohort of adults. PMID:24200465

  4. Strategic transformation of population studies: recommendations of the working group on epidemiology and population sciences from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council and Board of External Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Véronique L; Boerwinkle, Eric; Crapo, James D; Douglas, Pamela S; Epstein, Jonathan A; Granger, Christopher B; Greenland, Philip; Kohane, Isaac; Psaty, Bruce M

    2015-03-15

    In 2013, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute assembled a working group on epidemiology and population sciences from its Advisory Council and Board of External Experts. The working group was charged with making recommendations to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council about how the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute could take advantage of new scientific opportunities and delineate future directions for the epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases. Seven actionable recommendations were proposed for consideration. The themes included 1) defining the compelling scientific questions and challenges in population sciences and epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases; 2) developing methods and training mechanisms to integrate "big data" science into the practice of epidemiology; 3) creating a cohort consortium and inventory of major studies to optimize the efficient use of data and specimens; and 4) fostering a more open, competitive approach to evaluating large-scale longitudinal epidemiology and population studies. By building on the track record of success of the heart, lung, blood, and sleep cohorts to leverage new data science opportunities and encourage broad research and training partnerships, these recommendations lay a strong foundation for the transformation of heart, lung, blood, and sleep epidemiology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Using methods from the data mining and machine learning literature for disease classification and prediction: A case study examining classification of heart failure sub-types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C.; Tu, Jack V.; Ho, Jennifer E.; Levy, Daniel; Lee, Douglas S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Physicians classify patients into those with or without a specific disease. Furthermore, there is often interest in classifying patients according to disease etiology or subtype. Classification trees are frequently used to classify patients according to the presence or absence of a disease. However, classification trees can suffer from limited accuracy. In the data-mining and machine learning literature, alternate classification schemes have been developed. These include bootstrap aggregation (bagging), boosting, random forests, and support vector machines. Study design and Setting We compared the performance of these classification methods with those of conventional classification trees to classify patients with heart failure according to the following sub-types: heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) vs. heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). We also compared the ability of these methods to predict the probability of the presence of HFPEF with that of conventional logistic regression. Results We found that modern, flexible tree-based methods from the data mining literature offer substantial improvement in prediction and classification of heart failure sub-type compared to conventional classification and regression trees. However, conventional logistic regression had superior performance for predicting the probability of the presence of HFPEF compared to the methods proposed in the data mining literature. Conclusion The use of tree-based methods offers superior performance over conventional classification and regression trees for predicting and classifying heart failure subtypes in a population-based sample of patients from Ontario. However, these methods do not offer substantial improvements over logistic regression for predicting the presence of HFPEF. PMID:23384592

  6. Stimulating high impact HIV-related cardiovascular research: recommendations from a multidisciplinary NHLBI Working Group on HIV-related heart, lung, and blood disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Monica R; Cook, Nakela; Wong, Renee; Hsue, Priscilla; Ridker, Paul; Currier, Judith; Shurin, Susan

    2015-02-24

    The clinical challenges confronting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shifted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses to chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, chronic lung disease, and chronic anemia. With the growing burden of HIV-related heart, lung, and blood (HLB) disease, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recognizes it must stimulate and support HIV-related HLB research. Because HIV offers a natural, accelerated model of common pathological processes, such as inflammation, HIV-related HLB research may yield important breakthroughs for all patients with HLB disease. This paper summarizes the cardiovascular recommendations of an NHLBI Working Group, Advancing HIV/AIDS Research in Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases, charged with identifying scientific priorities in HIV-related HLB disease and developing recommendations to promote multidisciplinary collaboration among HIV and HLB investigators. The working group included multidisciplinary sessions, as well as HLB breakout sessions for discussion of disease-specific issues, with common themes about scientific priorities and strategies to stimulate HLB research emerging in all 3 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasonography evaluation during the weaning process: the heart, the diaphragm, the pleura and the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, P; Volpicelli, G; Lerolle, N; Schreiber, A; Doelken, P; Vieillard-Baron, A

    2016-07-01

    On a regular basis, the intensivist encounters the patient who is difficult to wean from mechanical ventilatory support. The causes for failure to wean from mechanical ventilatory support are often multifactorial and involve a complex interplay between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction. A potential application of point of care ultrasonography relates to its utility in the process of weaning the patient from mechanical ventilatory support. This article reviews some applications of ultrasonography that may be relevant to the process of weaning from mechanical ventilatory support. The authors have divided these applications of ultrasonography into four separate categories: the assessment of cardiac, diaphragmatic, and lung function; and the identification of pleural effusion; which can all be evaluated with ultrasonography during a dynamic process in which the intensivist is uniquely positioned to use ultrasonography at the point of care. Ultrasonography may have useful application during the weaning process from mechanical ventilatory support.

  8. Differential response of heat shock proteins to uphill and downhill exercise in heart, skeletal muscle, lung and kidney tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollo, Pablo C B; Moura, Carolina S; Morato, Priscila N; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Running on a horizontal plane is known to increase the concentration of the stress biomarker heat-shock protein (HSP), but no comparison of the expression of HSP70 has yet been established between the uphill (predominantly concentric) and downhill (predominantly eccentric) muscle contractions exercise. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between eccentric and concentric contractions on the HSP70 response of the lung, kidney, gastrocnemius, soleus and heart. Twenty-four male Wistar weanling rats were divided into four groups: non-exercised and three different grades of treadmill exercise groups: horizontal, uphill (+7%) and downhill (-7% of inclination). At the optimal time-point of six hours after the exercise, serum uric acid, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by standard methods and HSP70 by the Western blot analysis. HSP70 responds differently to different types of running. For kidney, heart, soleus and gastrocnemius, the HSP70 expression increased, 230, 180, 150 and 120% respectively of the reference (horizontal). When the contraction was concentric (uphill) and compared to downhill the increase in response of HSP70 was greater in 80% for kidney, 75% for gastrocnemius, 60% for soleus and 280% for the heart. Uric acid was about 50% higher (0.64 ± 0.03 mg·dL(-1)) in the uphill group as compared to the horizontal or downhill groups. Similarly, the activities of serum CK and LDH were both 100% greater for both the uphill and downhill groups as compared to the horizontal group (2383 ± 253 and 647.00 ± 73 U/L, respectively). The responsiveness of HSP70 appeared to be quite different depending on the type of tissue, suggesting that the impact of exercise was not restricted to the muscles, but extended to the kidney tissue. The uphill exercise increases HSP70 beyond the eccentric type and the horizontal running was a lower HSP70 responsive stimulus. Key PointsExercise can induce increases in HSP70 in

  9. Publication Speed, Reporting Metrics, and Citation Impact of Cardiovascular Trials Supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David; Cooper-Arnold, Katharine; Lauer, Michael

    2015-07-31

    We previously demonstrated that cardiovascular (CV) trials funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) were more likely to be published in a timely manner and receive high raw citation counts if they focused on clinical endpoints. We did not examine the metrics of trial reports, and our citation measures were limited by failure to account for topic-related citation behaviors. Of 244 CV trials completed between 2000 and 2011, we identified 184 whose main results were published by August 20, 2014. One investigator who was blinded to rapidity of publication and citation data read each publication and characterized it according to modified Delphi criteria. There were 46 trials (25%) that had Delphi scores of 8 or 9 (of a possible 9); these trials published faster (median time from trial completion to publication, 12.6 [interquartile range {IQR}, 6.7 to 23.3] vs. 21.8 [IQR, 12.1 to 34.9] months; Pcitation impact (median citation percentile for topic and date of publication, with 0 best and 100 worst, 1.92 [IQR, 0.64 to 7.83] vs. 8.41 [IQR, 1.80 to 24.75]; P=0.002). By random forest regression, we found that the 3 most important predictors of normalized citation percentile values were total costs, intention-to-treat analyses (as a modified Delphi quality measure), and focus on clinical (not surrogate) endpoints. NHLBI CV trials were more likely to publish results quickly and yield higher topic-normalized citation impact if they reported results according to well-defined metrics, along with focus on clinical endpoints. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. Second Hand Smoke Exposure and Excess Heart Disease and Lung Cancer Mortality among Hospital Staff in Crete, Greece: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kafatos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS is a serious threat to public health, and a significant cause of lung cancer and heart disease among non-smokers. Even though Greek hospitals have been declared smoke free since 2002, smoking is still evident. Keeping the above into account, the aim of this study was to quantify the levels of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and to estimate the attributed lifetime excess heart disease and lung cancer deaths per 1000 of the hospital staff, in a large Greek public hospital. Environmental airborne respirable suspended particles (RSP of PM2.5 were performed and the personnel’s excess mortality risk was estimated using risk prediction formulas. Excluding the intensive care unit and the operating theatres, all wards and clinics were polluted with environmental tobacco smoke. Mean SHS-RSP measurements ranged from 11 to 1461 μg/m3 depending on the area. Open wards averaged 84 μg/m3 and the managing wards averaged 164 μg/m3 thus giving an excess lung cancer and heart disease of 1.12 (range 0.23-1.88 and 11.2 (range 2.3–18.8 personnel in wards and 2.35 (range 0.55-12.2 and 23.5 (range 5.5–122 of the managing staff per 1000 over a 40-year lifespan, respectively. Conclusively, SHS exposure in hospitals in Greece is prevalent and taking into account the excess heart disease and lung cancer mortality risk as also the immediate adverse health effects of SHS exposure, it is clear that proper implementation and enforcement of the legislation that bans smoking in hospitals is imperative to protect the health of patients and staff alike.

  11. American Thoracic Society and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Implementation Research Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Bruce G; Krishnan, Jerry A; Chambers, David A; Cloutier, Michelle M; Riekert, Kristin A; Rand, Cynthia S; Schatz, Michael; Thomson, Carey C; Wilson, Sandra R; Apter, Andrea; Carson, Shannon S; George, Maureen; Gerald, Joe K; Gerald, Lynn; Goss, Christopher H; Okelo, Sande O; Mularski, Richard A; Nguyen, Huong Q; Patel, Minal R; Szefler, Stanley J; Weiss, Curtis H; Wilson, Kevin C; Freemer, Michelle

    2015-12-01

    To advance implementation research (IR) in respiratory, sleep, and critical care medicine, the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases from the NHLBI cosponsored an Implementation Research Workshop on May 17, 2014. The goals of IR are to understand the barriers and facilitators of integrating new evidence into healthcare practices and to develop and test strategies that systematically target these factors to accelerate the adoption of evidence-based care. Throughout the workshop, presenters provided examples of IR that focused on the rate of adoption of evidence-based practices, the feasibility and acceptability of interventions to patients and other stakeholders who make healthcare decisions, the fidelity with which practitioners use specific interventions, the effects of specific barriers on the sustainability of an intervention, and the implications of their research to inform policies to improve patients' access to high-quality care. During the discussions that ensued, investigators' experience led to recommendations underscoring the importance of identifying and involving key stakeholders throughout the research process, ensuring that those who serve as reviewers understand the tenets of IR, managing staff motivation and turnover, and tackling the challenges of scaling up interventions across multiple settings.

  12. Factors in creating sustainable intersectoral community mobilization for prevention of heart and lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdages, Josée; Sauvageau, Lyne; Lepage, Céline

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes factors facilitating and working against successful community mobilization in the implementation of an integrated prevention programme for cardiovascular disease and lung cancer in four community settings in Québec, Canada. Implementation evaluation data from several sources showed that over the 3-year period, mobilization was partly achieved in all four communities, although the degree of success varied. The data support those of previous studies showing that several factors are key to effective intersectoral community mobilization: (i) involvement of concerned and influential community members with a commitment to shared goals and a visible community focus; (ii) formation of multi-organization systems among appropriate organizations, recognizing their strengths, resources and competencies, and preserving both their autonomy and interdependence with an appreciation of divergent perspectives; (iii) development of decision-making mechanisms through the setting up of formal structural arrangements to facilitate decisions with clear leadership; (iv) clear definition of objectives, tasks, roles and responsibilities; and (v) official support and legitimization from participating agencies, government authorities, and organizations with adequate resources devoted to partnership building. This study also replicated a number of barriers to the creation of sustainable intersectoral community mobilization, notably the potentially destructive role of power conflicts among the key institutional partners.

  13. Novel Insights into miRNA in Lung and Heart Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kishore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are noncoding regulatory sequences that govern posttranscriptional inhibition of genes through binding mainly at regulatory regions. The regulatory mechanism of miRNAs are influenced by complex crosstalk among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within miRNA seed region and epigenetic modifications. Circulating miRNAs exhibit potential characteristics as stable biomarker. Functionally, miRNAs are involved in basic regulatory mechanisms of cells including inflammation. Thus, miRNA dysregulation, resulting in aberrant expression of a gene, is suggested to play an important role in disease susceptibility. This review focuses on the role of miRNA as diagnostic marker in pathogenesis of lung inflammatory diseases and in cardiac remodelling events during inflammation. From recent reports, In this context, the information about the models in which miRNAs expression were investigated including types of biological samples, as well as on the methods for miRNA validation and prediction/definition of their gene targets are emphasized in the review. Besides disease pathogenesis, promising role of miRNAs in early disease diagnosis and prognostication is also discussed. However, some miRNAs are also indicated with protective role. Thus, identifications and usage of such potential miRNAs as well as disruption of disease susceptible miRNAs using antagonists, antagomirs, are imperative and may provide a novel therapeutic approach towards combating the disease progression.

  14. Diagnosis of major depressive disorder by combining multimodal information from heart rate dynamics and serum proteomics using machine-learning algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Min Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Ha, Kyooseob; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Ahn, Yong Min

    2017-06-02

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a systemic and multifactorial disorder that involves abnormalities in multiple biochemical pathways and the autonomic nervous system. This study applied a machine-learning method to classify MDD and control groups by incorporating data from serum proteomic analysis and heart rate variability (HRV) analysis for the identification of novel peripheral biomarkers. The study subjects consisted of 25 drug-free female MDD patients and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. First, quantitative serum proteome profiles were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using pooled serum samples from 10 patients and 10 controls. Next, candidate proteins were quantified with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in 50 subjects. We also analyzed 22 linear and nonlinear HRV parameters in 50 subjects. Finally, we identified a combined biomarker panel consisting of proteins and HRV indexes using a support vector machine with recursive feature elimination. A separation between MDD and control groups was achieved using five parameters (apolipoprotein B, group-specific component, ceruloplasmin, RMSSD, and SampEn) at 80.1% classification accuracy. A combination of HRV and proteomic data achieved better classification accuracy. A high classification accuracy can be achieved by combining multimodal information from heart rate dynamics and serum proteomics in MDD. Our approach can be helpful for accurate clinical diagnosis of MDD. Further studies using larger, independent cohorts are needed to verify the role of these candidate biomarkers for MDD diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of increased lung/heart ratio of thallium-201 during dipyridamole stress imaging for suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, F.S.; Kaul, S.; Smith, W.H.; Watson, D.D.; Varma, S.K.; Beller, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is little information concerning the prevalence and clinical correlates of increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake during dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics and quantitative thallium-201 findings were correlated with quantitative lung/heart thallium-201 ratio in 87 patients undergoing dipyridamole thallium-201 stress testing. Nineteen patients (22%) had an elevated ratio (greater than 0.51). These patients were more likely to have had an infarction, to be taking beta blockers, and have a lower rate-pressure product after dipyridamole administration than those with a normal ratio (p less than 0.03). An elevated ratio was associated with a greater likelihood of initial, redistribution and persistent defects, as well as left ventricular cavity dilatation on thallium-201 imaging (p less than 0.05). In addition, the number of myocardial segments demonstrating initial, redistribution and persistent defects was also greater in patients with increased ratios (p less than 0.03). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of redistribution and left ventricular cavity dilatation were the most significant correlates of lung/heart thallium-201 ratio. It is concluded that the prevalence of increased lung/heart thallium-201 ratio with dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging is similar to that seen with exercise stress imaging. As with exercise thallium-201 imaging, increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake may be a marker of functionally more significant coronary artery disease

  16. Pulmonary atelectasis in patients with neurological or muscular disease. Gravity-related lung compression by the heart and intra-abdominal organs on persistent supine position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoshima, Mitsuo; Maeoka, Yukinori; Kawahara, Hitoshi; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Kousaku

    2006-01-01

    We report 10 cases of pulmonary atelectasis diagnosed by chest computed tomography in patients with neurological or muscular disease. Atelectasis was frequently seen in hypotonic patients who could not roll over on their own. The atelectases located mostly in the dorsal bronchopulmonary segments, adjacent to the heart or diaphragm. Atelectasis diminished in two patients after they became able to roll themselves over. Gravity-related lung compression by the heart and intra-abdominal organs on persistent supine position can cause pulmonary atelectasis in patients with neurological or muscular disease who can not roll over by their own power. To confirm that the prone position reduces compression of the lungs, chest computed tomography was performed in both the supine and the prone position in three patients. Sagittal images with three-dimensional computed tomographic reconstruction revealed significant sternad displacements of the heart and caudal displacements of the dorsal portion of the diaphragm on prone position compared with supine position. The prone position, motor exercises for rolling over, and biphasic cuirass ventilation are effective in reducing gravity-related lung compression. Some patients with intellectual disabilities were also able to cooperate in chest physiotherapy. Chest physiotherapy is useful in preventing atelectasis in patients with neurological or muscular disease. (author)

  17. Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, G.L.; Blankenship, W.J.; Burdine, J.A. Jr.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    At present no simple statement can be made relative to the role of radionuclidic lung studies in the pediatric population. It is safe to assume that they will be used with increasing frequency for research and clinical applications because of their sensitivity and ready applicability to the pediatric patient. Methods comparable to those used in adults can be used in children older than 4 years. In younger children, however, a single injection of 133 Xe in solution provides an index of both regional perfusion and ventilation which is easier to accomplish. This method is particularly valuable in infants and neonates because it is rapid, requires no patient cooperation, results in a very low radiation dose, and can be repeated in serial studies. Radionuclidic studies of ventilation and perfusion can be performed in almost all children if the pediatrician and the nuclear medicine specialist have motivation and ingenuity. S []ontaneous pulmonary vascular occlusive disease which occurs in infants and pulmonary emboli in children are easily detected using radionuclides. The pathophysiologic defects of pulmonary agenesis, bronchopulmonary sequestration, and foreign body aspiration may be demonstrated by these techniques. These techniques also appear to be useful in following patients with bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital emphysema, and postinfection pulmonary abnormalities. (auth)

  18. Cardiovascular genomics, personalized medicine, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: part I: the beginning of an era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Christopher J; Nabel, Elizabeth G

    2008-10-01

    The inaugural issue of Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics arrives at a remarkable time in the history of genetic research and cardiovascular medicine. Despite tremendous progress in knowledge gained, cardiovascular disease(CVD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States,1 and it has overcome infectious diseases as the leading cause of death worldwide.2 In addition, rates of CVD remain higher in black and Hispanic populations in the United States.1 The recent Strategic Plan of the National Heart, Lung,and Blood Institute (NHLBI) emphasizes research areas to fill the significant knowledge gaps needed to improve the diagnosis,treatment, and control of known risk factors and clinically apparent disease. Simultaneously, the NHLBI Strategic Plan recognizes a tremendous opportunity that is available for use of genetic and genomic research to generate new knowledge that might reduce the morbidity and mortality from CVD in US populations.3 Public availability of vast amounts of detailed sequence information about the human genome, completed sequence data on dozens of other animal genomes, and private sector development of high-throughput genetic technologies has transformed in a few short years the conduct of cardiovascular genetics and genomics research from a primary focus on mendelian disorders to a current emphasis on genome-wide association studies (GWAS; Figure1). In this review, we describe the rationale for the current emphasis on large-scale genomic studies, summarize the evolving approaches and progress to date, and identify immediate-term research needs. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the NHLBI are supporting a portfolio of large-scale genetic and genomic programs in diverse US populations with the longer-term objective of translating knowledge into the prediction, prevention, and preemption of CVD, as well as lung, sleep, and blood disorders. Underlying this portfolio is a strong commitment to make available participant-level data and

  19. Localized thin-section CT with radiomics feature extraction and machine learning to classify early-detected pulmonary nodules from lung cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-Ju; Wang, Chih-Wei; Pan, Kuang-Tse; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Wu, Chen-Te

    2018-03-01

    Lung cancer screening aims to detect small pulmonary nodules and decrease the mortality rate of those affected. However, studies from large-scale clinical trials of lung cancer screening have shown that the false-positive rate is high and positive predictive value is low. To address these problems, a technical approach is greatly needed for accurate malignancy differentiation among these early-detected nodules. We studied the clinical feasibility of an additional protocol of localized thin-section CT for further assessment on recalled patients from lung cancer screening tests. Our approach of localized thin-section CT was integrated with radiomics features extraction and machine learning classification which was supervised by pathological diagnosis. Localized thin-section CT images of 122 nodules were retrospectively reviewed and 374 radiomics features were extracted. In this study, 48 nodules were benign and 74 malignant. There were nine patients with multiple nodules and four with synchronous multiple malignant nodules. Different machine learning classifiers with a stratified ten-fold cross-validation were used and repeated 100 times to evaluate classification accuracy. Of the image features extracted from the thin-section CT images, 238 (64%) were useful in differentiating between benign and malignant nodules. These useful features include CT density (p  =  0.002 518), sigma (p  =  0.002 781), uniformity (p  =  0.032 41), and entropy (p  =  0.006 685). The highest classification accuracy was 79% by the logistic classifier. The performance metrics of this logistic classification model was 0.80 for the positive predictive value, 0.36 for the false-positive rate, and 0.80 for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Our approach of direct risk classification supervised by the pathological diagnosis with localized thin-section CT and radiomics feature extraction may support clinical physicians in determining

  20. Machine Learning Methods Improve Prognostication, Identify Clinically Distinct Phenotypes, and Detect Heterogeneity in Response to Therapy in a Large Cohort of Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tariq; Lund, Lars H; Rao, Pooja; Ghosh, Rohit; Warier, Prashant; Vaccaro, Benjamin; Dahlström, Ulf; O'Connor, Christopher M; Felker, G Michael; Desai, Nihar R

    2018-04-12

    Whereas heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome, conventional approaches to its management have treated it as a singular disease, leading to inadequate patient care and inefficient clinical trials. We hypothesized that applying advanced analytics to a large cohort of HF patients would improve prognostication of outcomes, identify distinct patient phenotypes, and detect heterogeneity in treatment response. The Swedish Heart Failure Registry is a nationwide registry collecting detailed demographic, clinical, laboratory, and medication data and linked to databases with outcome information. We applied random forest modeling to identify predictors of 1-year survival. Cluster analysis was performed and validated using serial bootstrapping. Association between clusters and survival was assessed with Cox proportional hazards modeling and interaction testing was performed to assess for heterogeneity in response to HF pharmacotherapy across propensity-matched clusters. Our study included 44 886 HF patients enrolled in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry between 2000 and 2012. Random forest modeling demonstrated excellent calibration and discrimination for survival (C-statistic=0.83) whereas left ventricular ejection fraction did not (C-statistic=0.52): there were no meaningful differences per strata of left ventricular ejection fraction (1-year survival: 80%, 81%, 83%, and 84%). Cluster analysis using the 8 highest predictive variables identified 4 clinically relevant subgroups of HF with marked differences in 1-year survival. There were significant interactions between propensity-matched clusters (across age, sex, and left ventricular ejection fraction and the following medications: diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, and nitrates, P <0.001, all). Machine learning algorithms accurately predicted outcomes in a large data set of HF patients. Cluster analysis identified 4 distinct phenotypes that differed significantly in outcomes and in

  1. A Perspective on Promoting Diversity in the Biomedical Research Workforce: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's PRIDE Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyington, Josephine E A; Maihle, Nita J; Rice, Treva K; Gonzalez, Juan E; Hess, Caryl A; Makala, Levi H; Jeffe, Donna B; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Rao, Dabeeru C; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Pace, Betty S; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Boutjdir, Mohamed

    2016-07-21

    Aspiring junior investigators from groups underrepresented in the biomedical sciences face various challenges as they pursue research independence. However, the biomedical research enterprise needs their participation to effectively address critical research issues such as health disparities and health inequities. In this article, we share a research education and mentoring initiative that seeks to address this challenge: Programs to Increase Diversity among Individuals Engaged in Health Related Research (PRIDE), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). This longitudinal research-education and mentoring program occurs through summer institute programs located at US-based academic institutions. Recruited participants are exposed to didactic and lab-based research-skill enhancement experiences, with year-round mentoring over the course of two years. Mentor-mentee matching is based on shared research interests to promote congruence and to enhance skill acquisition. Program descriptions and sample narratives of participants' perceptions of PRIDE's impact on their career progress are showcased. Additionally, we highlight the overall program design and structure of four of seven funded summer institutes that focus on cardiovascular disease, related conditions, and health disparities. Mentees' testimonials about the value of the PRIDE mentoring approach in facilitating career development are also noted. Meeting the clinical and research needs of an increasingly diverse US population is an issue of national concern. The PRIDE initiative, which focuses on increasing research preparedness and professional development of groups underrepresented in the biomedical research workforce, with an emphasis on mentoring as the critical approach, provides a robust model that is impacting the careers of future investigators.

  2. Lung Ultrasound-Implemented Diagnosis of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in the ED: A SIMEU Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetta, Emanuele; Goffi, Alberto; Lupia, Enrico; Tizzani, Maria; Porrino, Giulio; Ferreri, Enrico; Volpicelli, Giovanni; Balzaretti, Paolo; Banderali, Alessandra; Iacobucci, Antonello; Locatelli, Stefania; Casoli, Giovanna; Stone, Michael B; Maule, Milena M; Baldi, Ileana; Merletti, Franco; Cibinel, Gian Alfonso; Baron, Paolo; Battista, Stefania; Buonafede, Giuseppina; Busso, Valeria; Conterno, Andrea; Del Rizzo, Paola; Ferrera, Patrizia; Pecetto, Paolo Fascio; Moiraghi, Corrado; Morello, Fulvio; Steri, Fabio; Ciccone, Giovannino; Calasso, Cosimo; Caserta, Mimma A; Civita, Marina; Condo', Carmen; D'Alessandro, Vittorio; Del Colle, Sara; Ferrero, Stefania; Griot, Giulietta; Laurita, Emanuela; Lazzero, Alberto; Lo Curto, Francesca; Michelazzo, Marianna; Nicosia, Vincenza; Palmari, Nicola; Ricchiardi, Alberto; Rolfo, Andrea; Rostagno, Roberto; Bar, Fabrizio; Boero, Enrico; Frascisco, Mauro; Micossi, Ilaria; Mussa, Alessandro; Stefanone, Valerio; Agricola, Renzo; Cordero, Gabriele; Corradi, Federica; Runzo, Cristina; Soragna, Aldo; Sciullo, Daniela; Vercillo, Domenico; Allione, Attilio; Artana, Nicoletta; Corsini, Fabrizio; Dutto, Luca; Lauria, Giuseppe; Morgillo, Teresa; Tartaglino, Bruno; Bergandi, Daniela; Cassetta, Ilaria; Masera, Clotilde; Garrone, Mario; Ghiselli, Gianluca; Ausiello, Livia; Barutta, Letizia; Bernardi, Emanuele; Bono, Alessia; Forno, Daniela; Lamorte, Alessandro; Lison, Davide; Lorenzati, Bartolomeo; Maggio, Elena; Masi, Ilaria; Maggiorotto, Matteo; Novelli, Giulia; Panero, Francesco; Perotto, Massimo; Ravazzoli, Marco; Saglio, Elisa; Soardo, Flavia; Tizzani, Alessandra; Tizzani, Pietro; Tullio, Mattia; Ulla, Marco; Romagnoli, Elisa

    2015-07-01

    Lung ultrasonography (LUS) has emerged as a noninvasive tool for the differential diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. However, its use for the diagnosis of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) still raises some concerns. We tested the hypothesis that an integrated approach implementing LUS with clinical assessment would have higher diagnostic accuracy than a standard workup in differentiating ADHF from noncardiogenic dyspnea in the ED. We conducted a multicenter, prospective cohort study in seven Italian EDs. For patients presenting with acute dyspnea, the emergency physician was asked to categorize the diagnosis as ADHF or noncardiogenic dyspnea after (1) the initial clinical assessment and (2) after performing LUS ("LUS-implemented" diagnosis). All patients also underwent chest radiography. After discharge, the cause of each patient's dyspnea was determined by independent review of the entire medical record. The diagnostic accuracy of the different approaches was then compared. The study enrolled 1,005 patients. The LUS-implemented approach had a significantly higher accuracy (sensitivity, 97% [95% CI, 95%-98.3%]; specificity, 97.4% [95% CI, 95.7%-98.6%]) in differentiating ADHF from noncardiac causes of acute dyspnea than the initial clinical workup (sensitivity, 85.3% [95% CI, 81.8%-88.4%]; specificity, 90% [95% CI, 87.2%-92.4%]), chest radiography alone (sensitivity, 69.5% [95% CI, 65.1%-73.7%]; specificity, 82.1% [95% CI, 78.6%-85.2%]), and natriuretic peptides (sensitivity, 85% [95% CI, 80.3%-89%]; specificity, 61.7% [95% CI, 54.6%-68.3%]; n = 486). Net reclassification index of the LUS-implemented approach compared with standard workup was 19.1%. The implementation of LUS with the clinical evaluation may improve accuracy of ADHF diagnosis in patients presenting to the ED. Clinicaltrials.gov; No.: NCT01287429; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  3. Relationship between lung-to-heart uptake ratio of technetium-99m-tetrofosmin during exercise myocardial single photon emission computed tomographic imaging and the number of diseased coronary arteries in patients with effort angina pectoris without myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Toshiya; Ueshima, Kenji; Nishiyama, Osamu; Ogawa, Muneyoshi; Ohuchi, Mami; Saitoh, Masahiko; Hiramori, Katsuhiko

    2004-01-01

    Increased lung uptake of thallium-201 in exercise myocardial perfusion imaging is a reliable marker of multivessel disease in patients with ischemic heart disease. This study investigated whether the lung-to-heart uptake ratio with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc)-tetrofosmin also provides valuable information to detect patients with multivessel disease. Fifty-three consecutive patients (35 men, 18 women, mean age 66±11 years; single-vessel disease: 29, double-vessel disease: 16, triple-vessel disease: 8) with stable effort angina pectoris without prior myocardial infarction and 17 control subjects (12 men, 5 women, mean age 62±9 years) underwent exercise myocardial perfusion imaging with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and coronary angiography in January 2000 to December 2002. The lung-to-heart uptake ratio was calculated on an anterior projection before reconstruction of the exercise single photon emission computed tomographic images. The mean lung-to-heart uptake ratio was 0.34±0.04, 0.38±0.07, 0.41±0.05, and 0.46±0.09, in patients with normal coronary, single-vessel disease, double-vessel disease, and triple-vessel disease, respectively. Significantly higher lung-to-heart uptake ratio was associated with more diseased vessels (p 99m Tc-tetrofosmin can provide clinically useful information to detect multivessel disease in patients with ischemic heart disease. (author)

  4. [Retrospective evaluation of sarcoidosis patients 1970-1979 at the Bad Berka Central Clinic for Heart and Lung Diseases for the detection of possible heart involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, D; Schaedel, H; Kessler, G

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac involvement in pulmonary sarcoidosis was found in a higher percentage than formerly reported, by careful observation. In a retrospective analysis of 1 236 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis we found a possible cardiac involvement in 15.1%. In cases of pulmonary sarcoidosis or lymph node sarcoidosis combined with sarcoid lesions in other organs (liver, eyes, skin etc.) cardiac involvement is possible. Heart sarcoidosis was found in all roentgenographic stages and without sex difference. Patients with possible heart sarcoidosis suffer from dyspnoe , thoracical pain, heart discomfort, or angina pectoris in a higher part than without it. Enlargement of the heart and/or cardiac failure are signs of sarcoid involvement in patient with sarcoidosis, also in elderly patients. There are some difficulties in differential diagnosis of sarcoid cardiac involvement and ischaemic heart disease.

  5. Successful Semi-Ambulatory Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Bridge to Heart-Lung Transplantation in a Very Small Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J Y W; Buchholz, H; Ryerson, L; Conradi, A; Adatia, I; Dyck, J; Rebeyka, I; Lien, D; Mullen, J

    2015-08-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) may be denied for children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to high risk of cerebral hemorrhage. Rarely has successful LTx been reported in children over 10 years of age receiving awake or ambulatory veno-venous ECMO. LTx following support with ambulatory veno-arterial ECMO (VA ECMO) in children has never been reported to our knowledge. We present the case of a 4-year-old, 12-kg child with heritable pulmonary artery hypertension and refractory right ventricular failure. She was successfully bridged to heart-lung transplantation (HLTx) using ambulatory VA ECMO. Initial resuscitation with standard VA ECMO was converted to an ambulatory circuit using Berlin heart cannulae. She was extubated and ambulating around her bed while on VA ECMO for 40 days. She received an HLTx from an oversized marginal lung donor. Despite a cardiac arrest and Grade 3 primary graft dysfunction, she made a full recovery without neurological deficits. She achieved 104% force expiratory volume in 1 s 33 months post-HLTx. Ambulatory VA ECMO may be a useful strategy to bridge very young children to LTx or HLTx. Patient tailored ECMO cannulation, minimization of hemorrhage, and thrombosis risks while on ECMO contributed to a successful HLTx in our patient. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rule out conditions such as asthma , cystic fibrosis , acid reflux, heart disease, neuromuscular disease, and immune deficiency. Various ... a lung infection. Acid-blocking medicines can prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A ...

  7. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop Summary: Enhancing Opportunities for Training and Retention of a Diverse Biomedical Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Gregg A; Lockett, Angelia; Villegas, Leah R; Almodovar, Sharilyn; Gomez, Jose L; Flores, Sonia C; Wilkes, David S; Tigno, Xenia T

    2016-04-01

    Committed to its mission of conducting and supporting research that addresses the health needs of all sectors of the nation's population, the Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health (NHLBI/NIH) seeks to identify issues that impact the training and retention of underrepresented individuals in the biomedical research workforce. Early-stage investigators who received grant support through the NIH Research Supplements to Promote Diversity in Health Related Research Program were invited to a workshop held in Bethesda, Maryland in June, 2015, in order to (1) assess the effectiveness of the current NHLBI diversity program, (2) improve its strategies towards achieving its goal, and (3) provide guidance to assist the transition of diversity supplement recipients to independent NIH grant support. Workshop participants participated in five independent focus groups to discuss specific topics affecting underrepresented individuals in the biomedical sciences: (1) Socioeconomic barriers to success for diverse research scientists; (2) role of the academic research community in promoting diversity; (3) life beyond a research project grant: non-primary investigator career paths in research; (4) facilitating career development of diverse independent research scientists through NHLBI diversity programs; and (5) effectiveness of current NHLBI programs for promoting diversity of the biomedical workforce. Several key issues experienced by young, underrepresented biomedical scientists were identified, and solutions were proposed to improve on training and career development for diverse students, from the high school to postdoctoral trainee level, and address limitations of currently available diversity programs. Although some of the challenges mentioned, such as cost of living, limited parental leave, and insecure extramural funding, are also likely faced by nonminority scientists, these issues are magnified among diversity

  8. Comparison of machine learning methods for classifying mediastinal lymph node metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer from 18F-FDG PET/CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongkai; Zhou, Zongwei; Li, Yingci; Chen, Zhonghua; Lu, Peiou; Wang, Wenzhi; Liu, Wanyu; Yu, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to compare one state-of-the-art deep learning method and four classical machine learning methods for classifying mediastinal lymph node metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from 18 F-FDG PET/CT images. Another objective was to compare the discriminative power of the recently popular PET/CT texture features with the widely used diagnostic features such as tumor size, CT value, SUV, image contrast, and intensity standard deviation. The four classical machine learning methods included random forests, support vector machines, adaptive boosting, and artificial neural network. The deep learning method was the convolutional neural networks (CNN). The five methods were evaluated using 1397 lymph nodes collected from PET/CT images of 168 patients, with corresponding pathology analysis results as gold standard. The comparison was conducted using 10 times 10-fold cross-validation based on the criterion of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy (ACC), and area under the ROC curve (AUC). For each classical method, different input features were compared to select the optimal feature set. Based on the optimal feature set, the classical methods were compared with CNN, as well as with human doctors from our institute. For the classical methods, the diagnostic features resulted in 81~85% ACC and 0.87~0.92 AUC, which were significantly higher than the results of texture features. CNN's sensitivity, specificity, ACC, and AUC were 84, 88, 86, and 0.91, respectively. There was no significant difference between the results of CNN and the best classical method. The sensitivity, specificity, and ACC of human doctors were 73, 90, and 82, respectively. All the five machine learning methods had higher sensitivities but lower specificities than human doctors. The present study shows that the performance of CNN is not significantly different from the best classical methods and human doctors for classifying mediastinal lymph node metastasis of NSCLC from PET/CT images

  9. Significance of increased lung thallium-201 activity on serial cardiac images after dipyridamole treatment in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Dai, Y.H.; Boucher, C.A.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Increased lung thallium-201 (Tl-201) activity occurs in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) on initial postexercise images. To determine the significance of assessing lung Tl-201 on serial imaging after dipyridamole therapy, initial and delayed (2 to 3 hours) Tl-201 imaging was performed in 40 patients with CAD and 26 normal control subjects. Lung Tl-201 activity was quantitated as a percentage of maximal myocardial activity for each imaging time (lung Tl-201 index). The mean initial lung Tl-201 activity was 42 +/- 2% (+/- standard error of the mean) in 26 control subjects, 56 +/- 2% in 25 patients with 2- or 3-vessel CAD (p less than 0.001) and 53 +/- 2% in 15 patients with 1-vessel CAD (p less than 0.005 compared with control subjects) (difference not significant between 1-vessel and multivessel CAD). Dipyridamole lung Tl-201 activity decreased relative to the myocardium from initial to delayed images (p less than 0.001) in patients with CAD but not in control subjects. When a dipyridamole lung Tl-201 index of 58% (mean +/- 2 standard deviations for control subjects) was chosen as the upper limit of normal, 14 of 40 of the CAD patients (35%) had abnormal values and all control patients had values within normal limits. These 14 patients with CAD and abnormal initial lung Tl-201 indexes had rest ejection fractions that were not significantly different from those in patients with CAD, and normal initial dipyridamole lung Tl-201 index (58 +/- 4% and 63 +/- 2%, respectively)

  10. Cyclosporine C2 levels have impact on incidence of rejection in de novo lung but not heart transplant recipients: the NOCTURNE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin; Nilsson, Folke; Sipponen, Jorma

    2009-01-01

    . Abbreviated AUC (AUC(0-4)) was measured at 7 days and 3 months. Primary outcome was C2 relation to the frequency of acute cellular rejection (ACR) needing treatment and possible decline in measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR). Recipients were divided into lower, middle and upper third C2 groups based...... monitoring, but should be further explored in thoracic organ recipients. METHODS: In a 12-month study we included de novo lung (n = 95) and heart (n = 96) recipients. All participants received cyclosporine (Sandimmun Neoral) monitored by C0 and blood was collected for analysis of C2 retrospectively...... on 2-week post-operative values (tertiles T1 to T3). RESULTS: C2 was the most robust substitute for AUC(0-4) in the group of patients studied. For lung, but not heart, recipients there were differences in mean number of ACRs (p = 0.05), incidence of any rejections (p = 0.04), mean number of any...

  11. Comparison of Bayesian network and support vector machine models for two-year survival prediction in lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasurya, K.; Fung, G.; Yu, S.; Dehing-Oberije, C.; De Ruysscher, D.; Hope, A.; De Neve, W.; Lievens, Y.; Lambin, P.; Dekker, A. L. A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Classic statistical and machine learning models such as support vector machines (SVMs) can be used to predict cancer outcome, but often only perform well if all the input variables are known, which is unlikely in the medical domain. Bayesian network (BN) models have a natural ability to reason under uncertainty and might handle missing data better. In this study, the authors hypothesize that a BN model can predict two-year survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients as accurately as SVM, but will predict survival more accurately when data are missing. Methods: A BN and SVM model were trained on 322 inoperable NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy from Maastricht and validated in three independent data sets of 35, 47, and 33 patients from Ghent, Leuven, and Toronto. Missing variables occurred in the data set with only 37, 28, and 24 patients having a complete data set. Results: The BN model structure and parameter learning identified gross tumor volume size, performance status, and number of positive lymph nodes on a PET as prognostic factors for two-year survival. When validated in the full validation set of Ghent, Leuven, and Toronto, the BN model had an AUC of 0.77, 0.72, and 0.70, respectively. A SVM model based on the same variables had an overall worse performance (AUC 0.71, 0.68, and 0.69) especially in the Ghent set, which had the highest percentage of missing the important GTV size data. When only patients with complete data sets were considered, the BN and SVM model performed more alike. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the hypothesis is supported that BN models are better at handling missing data than SVM models and are therefore more suitable for the medical domain. Future works have to focus on improving the BN performance by including more patients, more variables, and more diversity.

  12. Joint Effects of Smoking and Sedentary Lifestyle on Lung Function in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Addison, Clifton; White, Monique S.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; White, Wendy; Burchfiel, Cecil

    2014-01-01

    This study examined: (a) differences in lung function between current and non current smokers who had sedentary lifestyles and non sedentary lifestyles and (b) the mediating effect of sedentary lifestyle on the association between smoking and lung function in African Americans. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as the lowest quartile of the total physical activity score. The results of linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that non smokers with non sedentary lifestyles had the highes...

  13. Relationships between the lung-heart ratio assessed from post-exercise thallium-201 myocardial tomograms, myocardial ischemia and the extent of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilmer, B.; Reijs, A.E.; Reiber, J.H.; Bakker, W.; Fioretti, P.

    1990-01-01

    Uptake of thallium (Tl)-201 in the lungs has been proposed as a measure of left ventricular dysfunction. In this study we were interested in pursuing two goals: (1) to assess possible relationships between the post-exercise Tl-201 lung-heart (LH)-ratio determined from the anterior view during SPECT-acquisition, myocardial ischemia and the extent of coronary artery disease; and (2) to explore the effects of coronary revascularisation procedures on the LH-ratio. The study group consisted of 145 patients with early and late postexercise Tl-201 tomograms, including 32 PTCA-patients with pre- and post-PTCA studies and 20 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) with corresponding pre- and post-CABG studies. Ischemia was defined as evoked angina during the exercise test in combination with greater than or equal to 1 mm horizontal or downsloping ST-depression on the ECG. The severity of coronary obstructions was assessed from coronary angiograms with a PC-based digital caliper technique; a stenosis was defined to be significant when its severity exceeded 50% diameter stenosis. The LH-ratio was defined by the ratio of the mean pulmonary counts and the mean myocardial counts assessed from corresponding regions of interest (ROI's) positioned over the left lung and the heart, respectively in the anterior view of a tomographic data acquisition procedure. Our results made clear that the LH-ratio was not significantly different between patients with and without ischemia during exercise, and between patients with single vs. multiple vessel disease

  14. Joint effects of smoking and sedentary lifestyle on lung function in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Sarpong, Daniel F; Addison, Clifton; White, Monique S; Hickson, Demarc A; White, Wendy; Burchfiel, Cecil

    2014-01-28

    This study examined: (a) differences in lung function between current and non current smokers who had sedentary lifestyles and non sedentary lifestyles and (b) the mediating effect of sedentary lifestyle on the association between smoking and lung function in African Americans. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as the lowest quartile of the total physical activity score. The results of linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that non smokers with non sedentary lifestyles had the highest level of lung function, and smokers with sedentary lifestyles had the lowest level. The female non-smokers with sedentary lifestyles had a significantly higher FEV1% predicted and FVC% predicted than smokers with non sedentary lifestyles (93.3% vs. 88.6%; p = 0.0102 and 92.1% vs. 86.9%; p = 0.0055 respectively). FEV1/FVC ratio for men was higher in non smokers with sedentary lifestyles than in smokers with non sedentary lifestyles (80.9 vs. 78.1; p = 0.0048). Though smoking is inversely associated with lung function, it seems to have a more deleterious effect than sedentary lifestyle on lung function. Physically active smokers had higher lung function than their non physically active counterparts.

  15. SU-D-204-01: A Methodology Based On Machine Learning and Quantum Clustering to Predict Lung SBRT Dosimetric Endpoints From Patient Specific Anatomic Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafata, K; Ren, L; Wu, Q; Kelsey, C; Hong, J; Cai, J; Yin, F [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a data-mining methodology based on quantum clustering and machine learning to predict expected dosimetric endpoints for lung SBRT applications based on patient-specific anatomic features. Methods: Ninety-three patients who received lung SBRT at our clinic from 2011–2013 were retrospectively identified. Planning information was acquired for each patient, from which various features were extracted using in-house semi-automatic software. Anatomic features included tumor-to-OAR distances, tumor location, total-lung-volume, GTV and ITV. Dosimetric endpoints were adopted from RTOG-0195 recommendations, and consisted of various OAR-specific partial-volume doses and maximum point-doses. First, PCA analysis and unsupervised quantum-clustering was used to explore the feature-space to identify potentially strong classifiers. Secondly, a multi-class logistic regression algorithm was developed and trained to predict dose-volume endpoints based on patient-specific anatomic features. Classes were defined by discretizing the dose-volume data, and the feature-space was zero-mean normalized. Fitting parameters were determined by minimizing a regularized cost function, and optimization was performed via gradient descent. As a pilot study, the model was tested on two esophageal dosimetric planning endpoints (maximum point-dose, dose-to-5cc), and its generalizability was evaluated with leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: Quantum-Clustering demonstrated a strong separation of feature-space at 15Gy across the first-and-second Principle Components of the data when the dosimetric endpoints were retrospectively identified. Maximum point dose prediction to the esophagus demonstrated a cross-validation accuracy of 87%, and the maximum dose to 5cc demonstrated a respective value of 79%. The largest optimized weighting factor was placed on GTV-to-esophagus distance (a factor of 10 greater than the second largest weighting factor), indicating an intuitively strong

  16. Using machine learning to predict radiation pneumonitis in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Gilmer; Solberg, Timothy D.; Heskel, Marina; Ungar, Lyle; Simone, Charles B., II

    2016-08-01

    To develop a patient-specific ‘big data’ clinical decision tool to predict pneumonitis in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). 61 features were recorded for 201 consecutive patients with stage I NSCLC treated with SBRT, in whom 8 (4.0%) developed radiation pneumonitis. Pneumonitis thresholds were found for each feature individually using decision stumps. The performance of three different algorithms (Decision Trees, Random Forests, RUSBoost) was evaluated. Learning curves were developed and the training error analyzed and compared to the testing error in order to evaluate the factors needed to obtain a cross-validated error smaller than 0.1. These included the addition of new features, increasing the complexity of the algorithm and enlarging the sample size and number of events. In the univariate analysis, the most important feature selected was the diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO adj%). On multivariate analysis, the three most important features selected were the dose to 15 cc of the heart, dose to 4 cc of the trachea or bronchus, and race. Higher accuracy could be achieved if the RUSBoost algorithm was used with regularization. To predict radiation pneumonitis within an error smaller than 10%, we estimate that a sample size of 800 patients is required. Clinically relevant thresholds that put patients at risk of developing radiation pneumonitis were determined in a cohort of 201 stage I NSCLC patients treated with SBRT. The consistency of these thresholds can provide radiation oncologists with an estimate of their reliability and may inform treatment planning and patient counseling. The accuracy of the classification is limited by the number of patients in the study and not by the features gathered or the complexity of the algorithm.

  17. Modulation of the Rho/ROCK pathway in heart and lung after thorax irradiation reveals targets to improve normal tissue toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, Virginie; Pasinetti, Nadia; Schupp, Charlotte; Pouzoulet, Fred; Opolon, Paule; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine

    2010-11-01

    The medical options available to prevent or treat radiation-induced injury are scarce and developing effective countermeasures is still an open research field. In addition, more than half of cancer patients are treated with radiation therapy, which displays a high antitumor efficacy but can cause, albeit rarely, disabling long-term toxicities including radiation fibrosis. Progress has been made in the definition of molecular pathways associated with normal tissue toxicity that suggest potentially effective therapeutic targets. Targeting the Rho/ROCK pathway seems a promising anti-fibrotic approach, at least in the gut; the current study was performed to assess whether this target was relevant to the prevention and/or treatment of injury to the main thoracic organs, namely heart and lungs. First, we showed activation of two important fibrogenic pathways (Smad and Rho/ROCK) in response to radiation-exposure to adult cardiomyocytes; we extended these observations in vivo to the heart and lungs of mice, 15 and 30 weeks post-irradiation. We correlated this fibrogenic molecular imprint with alteration of heart physiology and long-term remodelling of pulmonary and cardiac histological structures. Lastly, cardiac and pulmonary radiation injury and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis were successfully modulated using Rho/ROCK inhibitors (statins and Y-27632) and this was associated with a normalization of fibrogenic markers. In conclusion, the present paper shows for the first time, activation of Rho/ROCK and Smad pathways in pulmonary and cardiac radiation-induced delayed injury. Our findings thereby reveal a safe and efficient therapeutic opportunity for the abrogation of late thoracic radiation injury, potentially usable either before or after radiation exposure; this approach is especially attractive in (1) the radiation oncology setting, as it does not interfere with prior anti-cancer treatment and in (2) radioprotection, as applicable to the treatment of established

  18. Modulation of the ρ/rock pathway in heart and lung after thorax irradiation reveals targets to improve normal tissue toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monceau, V.; Pasinetti, N.; Schupp, C.; Pouzoulet, F.; Opolon, P.; Vozenin, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The medical options available to prevent or treat radiation-induced injury are scarce and developing effective countermeasures is still an open research field. In addition, more than half of cancer patients are treated with radiation therapy, which displays a high antitumor efficacy but can cause, albeit rarely, disabling long-term toxicities including radiation fibrosis. Progress has been made in the definition of molecular pathways associated with normal tissue toxicity that suggest potentially effective therapeutic targets. Targeting the Rho/ROCK pathway seems a promising anti-fibrotic approach, at least in the gut; the current study was performed to assess whether this target was relevant to the prevention and/or treatment of injury to the main thoracic organs, namely heart and lungs. First, we showed activation of two important fibro-genic pathways (Smad and Rho/ROCK) in response to radiation-exposure to adult cardio-myocytes; we extended these observations in vivo to the heart and lungs of mice, 15 and 30 weeks post-irradiation. We correlated this fibro-genic molecular imprint with alteration of heart physiology and long-term remodelling of pulmonary and cardiac histological structures. Lastly, cardiac and pulmonary radiation injury and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis were successfully modulated using Rho/ROCK inhibitors (statins and Y-27632) and this was associated with a normalization of fibro-genic markers. In conclusion, the present paper shows for the first time, activation of Rho/ROCK and Smad pathways in pulmonary and cardiac radiation-induced delayed injury. Our findings thereby reveal a safe and efficient therapeutic opportunity for the abrogation of late thoracic radiation injury, potentially usable either before or after radiation exposure; this approach is especially attractive in (1) the radiation oncology setting, as it does not interfere with prior anti-cancer treatment and in (2) radioprotection, as applicable to the treatment of

  19. How the Heart Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... direction that blood flows through your heart. The light blue arrow shows that blood enters the right atrium of your heart from ... to your lungs through the pulmonary arteries. The light red arrow shows oxygen-rich blood coming from your lungs through the pulmonary veins ...

  20. TU-H-CAMPUS-JeP2-03: Machine-Learning-Based Delineation Framework of GTV Regions of Solid and Ground Glass Opacity Lung Tumors at Datasets of Planning CT and PET/CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, K; Arimura, H; Jin, Z; Yabuuchi, H; Sasaki, T; Honda, H; Sasaki, M [Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Kuwazuru, J [Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Shioyama, Y [Saga Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Tosu, Tosu, Saga (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In radiation treatment planning, delineation of gross tumor volume (GTV) is very important, because the GTVs affect the accuracies of radiation therapy procedure. To assist radiation oncologists in the delineation of GTV regions while treatment planning for lung cancer, we have proposed a machine-learning-based delineation framework of GTV regions of solid and ground glass opacity (GGO) lung tumors following by optimum contour selection (OCS) method. Methods: Our basic idea was to feed voxel-based image features around GTV contours determined by radiation oncologists into a machine learning classifier in the training step, after which the classifier produced the degree of GTV for each voxel in the testing step. Ten data sets of planning CT and PET/CT images were selected for this study. The support vector machine (SVM), which learned voxel-based features which include voxel value and magnitudes of image gradient vector that obtained from each voxel in the planning CT and PET/CT images, extracted initial GTV regions. The final GTV regions were determined using the OCS method that was able to select a global optimum object contour based on multiple active delineations with a level set method around the GTV. To evaluate the results of proposed framework for ten cases (solid:6, GGO:4), we used the three-dimensional Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), which denoted the degree of region similarity between the GTVs delineated by radiation oncologists and the proposed framework. Results: The proposed method achieved an average three-dimensional DSC of 0.81 for ten lung cancer patients, while a standardized uptake value-based method segmented GTV regions with the DSC of 0.43. The average DSCs for solid and GGO were 0.84 and 0.76, respectively, obtained by the proposed framework. Conclusion: The proposed framework with the support vector machine may be useful for assisting radiation oncologists in delineating solid and GGO lung tumors.

  1. Non-Contact Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Estimations from Video Analysis and Machine Learning Modelling Applied to Food Sensory Responses: A Case Study for Chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Viejo, Claudia; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Torrico, Damir D; Dunshea, Frank R

    2018-06-03

    Traditional methods to assess heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) are intrusive and can affect results in sensory analysis of food as participants are aware of the sensors. This paper aims to validate a non-contact method to measure HR using the photoplethysmography (PPG) technique and to develop models to predict the real HR and BP based on raw video analysis (RVA) with an example application in chocolate consumption using machine learning (ML). The RVA used a computer vision algorithm based on luminosity changes on the different RGB color channels using three face-regions (forehead and both cheeks). To validate the proposed method and ML models, a home oscillometric monitor and a finger sensor were used. Results showed high correlations with the G color channel (R² = 0.83). Two ML models were developed using three face-regions: (i) Model 1 to predict HR and BP using the RVA outputs with R = 0.85 and (ii) Model 2 based on time-series prediction with HR, magnitude and luminosity from RVA inputs to HR values every second with R = 0.97. An application for the sensory analysis of chocolate showed significant correlations between changes in HR and BP with chocolate hardness and purchase intention.

  2. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, K G M M; Eckel, Robert H; Grundy, Scott M; Zimmet, Paul Z; Cleeman, James I; Donato, Karen A; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; James, W Philip T; Loria, Catherine M; Smith, Sidney C

    2009-10-20

    A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. Most recently, these have come from the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The main difference concerns the measure for central obesity, with this being an obligatory component in the International Diabetes Federation definition, lower than in the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, and ethnic specific. The present article represents the outcome of a meeting between several major organizations in an attempt to unify criteria. It was agreed that there should not be an obligatory component, but that waist measurement would continue to be a useful preliminary screening tool. Three abnormal findings out of 5 would qualify a person for the metabolic syndrome. A single set of cut points would be used for all components except waist circumference, for which further work is required. In the interim, national or regional cut points for waist circumference can be used.

  3. INDEXES OF OBESITY AND COMPARISONS WITH PREVIOUS NATIONAL SURVEY DATA IN 9-YEAR-OLD AND 10-YEAR-OLD BLACK-AND-WHITE GIRLS - THE NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GROWTH AND HEALTH STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CAMPAIGNE, BN; MORRISON, JA; SCHUMANN, BC; FALKNER, F; LAKATOS, E; SPRECHER, D; SCHREIBER, GB

    Objective: To (I) describe anthropometric and body-size measurements in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) population at baseline and (2) examine potential secular trends in the prevalence of obesity in young black and white girls by comparing NGHS baseline

  4. Support Vector Machine-Based Prediction of Local Tumor Control After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klement, Rainer J.; Allgäuer, Michael; Appold, Steffen; Dieckmann, Karin; Ernst, Iris; Ganswindt, Ute; Holy, Richard; Nestle, Ursula; Nevinny-Stickel, Meinhard; Semrau, Sabine; Sterzing, Florian; Wittig, Andrea; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several prognostic factors for local tumor control probability (TCP) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been described, but no attempts have been undertaken to explore whether a nonlinear combination of potential factors might synergistically improve the prediction of local control. Methods and Materials: We investigated a support vector machine (SVM) for predicting TCP in a cohort of 399 patients treated at 13 German and Austrian institutions. Among 7 potential input features for the SVM we selected those most important on the basis of forward feature selection, thereby evaluating classifier performance by using 10-fold cross-validation and computing the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The final SVM classifier was built by repeating the feature selection 10 times with different splitting of the data for cross-validation and finally choosing only those features that were selected at least 5 out of 10 times. It was compared with a multivariate logistic model that was built by forward feature selection. Results: Local failure occurred in 12% of patients. Biologically effective dose (BED) at the isocenter (BED ISO ) was the strongest predictor of TCP in the logistic model and also the most frequently selected input feature for the SVM. A bivariate logistic function of BED ISO and the pulmonary function indicator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) yielded the best description of the data but resulted in a significantly smaller AUC than the final SVM classifier with the input features BED ISO , age, baseline Karnofsky index, and FEV1 (0.696 ± 0.040 vs 0.789 ± 0.001, P<.03). The final SVM resulted in sensitivity and specificity of 67.0% ± 0.5% and 78.7% ± 0.3%, respectively. Conclusions: These results confirm that machine learning techniques like SVMs can be successfully applied to predict treatment outcome after SBRT. Improvements over traditional TCP modeling are

  5. Support Vector Machine-Based Prediction of Local Tumor Control After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klement, Rainer J., E-mail: rainer_klement@gmx.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Würzburg (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Leopoldina Hospital, Schweinfurt (Germany); Allgäuer, Michael [Department of Radiotherapy, Barmherzige Brüder Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Appold, Steffen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Technische Universität Dresden (Germany); Dieckmann, Karin [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Ernst, Iris [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Münster (Germany); Ganswindt, Ute [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwigs-Maximilians-University Munich, München (Germany); Holy, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Nestle, Ursula [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg i Br (Germany); Nevinny-Stickel, Meinhard [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Semrau, Sabine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Sterzing, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany); Wittig, Andrea [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Philipps-University Marburg (Germany); Andratschke, Nicolaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Technische Universität München (Germany); Guckenberger, Matthias [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Würzburg (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    Background: Several prognostic factors for local tumor control probability (TCP) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been described, but no attempts have been undertaken to explore whether a nonlinear combination of potential factors might synergistically improve the prediction of local control. Methods and Materials: We investigated a support vector machine (SVM) for predicting TCP in a cohort of 399 patients treated at 13 German and Austrian institutions. Among 7 potential input features for the SVM we selected those most important on the basis of forward feature selection, thereby evaluating classifier performance by using 10-fold cross-validation and computing the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The final SVM classifier was built by repeating the feature selection 10 times with different splitting of the data for cross-validation and finally choosing only those features that were selected at least 5 out of 10 times. It was compared with a multivariate logistic model that was built by forward feature selection. Results: Local failure occurred in 12% of patients. Biologically effective dose (BED) at the isocenter (BED{sub ISO}) was the strongest predictor of TCP in the logistic model and also the most frequently selected input feature for the SVM. A bivariate logistic function of BED{sub ISO} and the pulmonary function indicator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) yielded the best description of the data but resulted in a significantly smaller AUC than the final SVM classifier with the input features BED{sub ISO}, age, baseline Karnofsky index, and FEV1 (0.696 ± 0.040 vs 0.789 ± 0.001, P<.03). The final SVM resulted in sensitivity and specificity of 67.0% ± 0.5% and 78.7% ± 0.3%, respectively. Conclusions: These results confirm that machine learning techniques like SVMs can be successfully applied to predict treatment outcome after SBRT. Improvements over traditional TCP

  6. Reducing Health Inequities in the United States: Insights and Recommendations from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Health Inequities Think Tank Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Uchechukwu K.A.; Kaplan, Robert M.; Cooper, Richard S.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Marks, James S.; Engelgau, Michael M.; Peprah, Emmanuel; Mishoe, Helena; Boulware, L. Ebony; Felix, Kaytura L.; Califf, Robert M.; Flack, John M.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Gracia, J. Nadine; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Davidson, Karina W.; Krishnan, Jerry A.; Lewis, Tené T.; Sanchez, Eduardo; Luban, Naomi L.; Vaccarino, Viola; Wong, Winston F.; Wright, Jackson T.; Meyers, David; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga G.; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia; Chambers, David A.; Belis, Deshirée; Bennett, Glen C.; Boyington, Josephine E; Creazzo, Tony L.; de Jesus, Janet M.; Krishnamurti, Chitra; Lowden, Mia R.; Punturieri, Antonello; Shero, Susan T.; Young, Neal S.; Zou, Shimian; Mensah, George A.

    2016-01-01

    The National, Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a Think Tank meeting to obtain insight and recommendations regarding the objectives and design of the next generation of research aimed at reducing health inequities in the United States. The panel recommended several specific actions, including: 1) Embrace broad and inclusive research themes; 2) Develop research platforms that optimize the ability to conduct informative and innovative research, and promote systems science approaches; 3) Develop networks of collaborators and stakeholders, and launch transformative studies that can serve as benchmarks; 4) Optimize the use of new data sources, platforms, and natural experiments; and 5) develop unique transdisciplinary training programs to build research capacity. Confronting health inequities will require engaging multiple disciplines and sectors (including communities), using systems science, and intervening through combinations of individual, family, provider, health system, and community-targeted approaches. Details of the panel’s remarks and recommendations are provided in this report. PMID:27470459

  7. Designing clinical trials to address the needs of childhood and adult asthma: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's AsthmaNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, E Rand; Busse, William W

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute announced its intent to support a new asthma network known as AsthmaNet. This clinical trials consortium, now in its fifth year, has been charged with developing and executing clinical trials to address the most important asthma management questions and identify new treatment approaches in pediatric and adult patients. This review will discuss the organization of AsthmaNet and the scientific context in which the network was developed and began its work, report the results of an internal priority-setting exercise designed to guide the network's scientific strategy, and highlight the portfolio of clinical trials, proof-of-concept studies, and mechanistic studies planned for the 7-year period of the network to update the global asthma community regarding the progress and processes of the network. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of electromagnetic pulse on the protein levels of tight junction associated-proteins in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, heart, lung, and testis of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, LianBo; Chen, Chen; Ding, GuiRong; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, MengYao

    2011-08-01

    To investigate changes in the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, heart, lung, and testes of rats after exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Eighteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham and exposure groups. The exposure groups received EMP at 200 kV/m for 200 pulses with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. The expression of TJ proteins (ZO-1, occludin, actin) in the several organs was examined by western blotting. ZO-1 levels in the cerebral cortex decreased 1 h and 3 h after EMP exposure compared with sham group (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed for occludin and actin. ZO-1 levels in the hippocampus increased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), and occludin decreased after 3 h (P<0.05); however, actin was unaffected. ZO-1 levels in the heart increased 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), occludin decreased 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), and actin increased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05). ZO-1, occludin and actin levels in the lung decreased compared with those in the sham group (P<0.05). ZO-1 and occludin levels in the testes decreased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), but actin showed no significant change. Exposure to EMP altered the expression levels of TJ proteins, particularly ZO-1, in the organs of adult male rats, which may induce changes in barrier structure and function. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Model-based approach for quantitative estimates of skin, heart, and lung toxicity risk for left-side photon and proton irradiation after breast-conserving surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, Francesco; Durante, Marco; D'Avino, Vittoria; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Conson, Manuel; Farace, Paolo; Palma, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Marco; Cella, Laura; Pacelli, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Proton beam therapy represents a promising modality for left-side breast cancer (BC) treatment, but concerns have been raised about skin toxicity and poor cosmesis. The aim of this study is to apply skin normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) optimization in left-side BC. Ten left-side BC patients undergoing photon irradiation after breast-conserving surgery were randomly selected from our clinical database. Intensity modulated photon (IMRT) and IMPT plans were calculated with iso-tumor-coverage criteria and according to RTOG 1005 guidelines. Proton plans were computed with and without skin optimization. Published NTCP models were employed to estimate the risk of different toxicity endpoints for skin, lung, heart and its substructures. Acute skin NTCP evaluation suggests a lower toxicity level with IMPT compared to IMRT when the skin is included in proton optimization strategy (0.1% versus 1.7%, p < 0.001). Dosimetric results show that, with the same level of tumor coverage, IMPT attains significant heart and lung dose sparing compared with IMRT. By NTCP model-based analysis, an overall reduction in the cardiopulmonary toxicity risk prediction can be observed for all IMPT compared to IMRT plans: the relative risk reduction from protons varies between 0.1 and 0.7 depending on the considered toxicity endpoint. Our analysis suggests that IMPT might be safely applied without increasing the risk of severe acute radiation induced skin toxicity. The quantitative risk estimates also support the potential clinical benefits of IMPT for left-side BC irradiation due to lower risk of cardiac and pulmonary morbidity. The applied approach might be relevant on the long term for the setup of cost-effectiveness evaluation strategies based on NTCP predictions.

  10. Changes in Cross-Sectional Area and Transverse Diameter of the Heart on Inspiratory and Expiratory Chest CT: Correlation with Changes in Lung Size and Influence on Cardiothoracic Ratio Measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Tomita

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physiological changes in cardiac area and diameters between inspiratory and expiratory chest computed tomography (CT, and to assess their correlation with lung size change and influence on cardiothoracic ratio (CTR measurements.The institutional review board of our institution approved this study, and informed consent was waived. Forty-three subjects underwent inspiratory and expiratory chest CT as part of routine clinical care. On both inspiratory and expiratory scans, lung volumes and maximum lung diameters (transverse and vertical directions were measured. The maximum cardiac cross-sectional area (CSA and the maximum transverse cardiac diameter were measured on both scans, and the CT-based CTR was calculated. Changes in the lung and cardiac measurements were expressed as the expiratory/inspiratory (E/I ratios. Comparisons between inspiratory and expiratory measurements were made by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Correlations between the E/I ratios of lung and heart measurements were evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation analysis.Cardiac CSA and transverse cardiac diameter was significantly larger on expiratory than on inspiratory CT (p < 0.0001. Significant negative correlations were found between the E/I ratios of these cardiac measurements and the E/I ratios of lung volume and vertical lung diameter (p < 0.01. CT-based CTR was significantly larger on expiration than on inspiration (p < 0.0001.Heart size on chest CT depends on the phase of ventilation, and is correlated with changes in lung volume and craniocaudal lung diameter. The CTR is also significantly influenced by ventilation.

  11. Target-specific support vector machine scoring in structure-based virtual screening: computational validation, in vitro testing in kinases, and effects on lung cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liwei; Khanna, May; Jo, Inha; Wang, Fang; Ashpole, Nicole M; Hudmon, Andy; Meroueh, Samy O

    2011-04-25

    We assess the performance of our previously reported structure-based support vector machine target-specific scoring function across 41 targets, 40 among them from the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). The area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic plots (ROC-AUC) revealed that scoring with SVM-SP resulted in consistently better enrichment over all target families, outperforming Glide and other scoring functions, most notably among kinases. In addition, SVM-SP performance showed little variation among protein classes, exhibited excellent performance in a test case using a homology model, and in some cases showed high enrichment even with few structures used to train a model. We put SVM-SP to the test by virtual screening 1125 compounds against two kinases, EGFR and CaMKII. Among the top 25 EGFR compounds, three compounds (1-3) inhibited kinase activity in vitro with IC₅₀ of 58, 2, and 10 μM. In cell cultures, compounds 1-3 inhibited nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (H1299) cancer cell proliferation with similar IC₅₀ values for compound 3. For CaMKII, one compound inhibited kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner among 20 tested with an IC₅₀ of 48 μM. These results are encouraging given that our in-house library consists of compounds that emerged from virtual screening of other targets with pockets that are different from typical ATP binding sites found in kinases. In light of the importance of kinases in chemical biology, these findings could have implications in future efforts to identify chemical probes of kinases within the human kinome.

  12. Pneumoproteins as a lung-specific biomarker of alveolar permeability in conventional on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery vs mini-extracorporeal circuit - A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boven, WJP; Gerritsen, WBM; Zanen, P; Grutters, JC; van Dongen, HPA; Bernard, A; Aarts, LPHJ

    Background: Despite improvements of the heart-lung machine (HLM), oxidative stress and subsequent damage to the alveolar capillary membrane still occur after conventional on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CCABG) surgery. In an attempt to further improve the conventional HLM, a

  13. A support vector machine classifier reduces interscanner variation in the HRCT classification of regional disease pattern in diffuse lung disease: Comparison to a Bayesian classifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yongjun; Lim, Jonghyuck; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lynch, David A. [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado 80206 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of using different computed tomography (CT) scanners on the accuracy of high-resolution CT (HRCT) images in classifying regional disease patterns in patients with diffuse lung disease, support vector machine (SVM) and Bayesian classifiers were applied to multicenter data. Methods: Two experienced radiologists marked sets of 600 rectangular 20 Multiplication-Sign 20 pixel regions of interest (ROIs) on HRCT images obtained from two scanners (GE and Siemens), including 100 ROIs for each of local patterns of lungs-normal lung and five of regional pulmonary disease patterns (ground-glass opacity, reticular opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and consolidation). Each ROI was assessed using 22 quantitative features belonging to one of the following descriptors: histogram, gradient, run-length, gray level co-occurrence matrix, low-attenuation area cluster, and top-hat transform. For automatic classification, a Bayesian classifier and a SVM classifier were compared under three different conditions. First, classification accuracies were estimated using data from each scanner. Next, data from the GE and Siemens scanners were used for training and testing, respectively, and vice versa. Finally, all ROI data were integrated regardless of the scanner type and were then trained and tested together. All experiments were performed based on forward feature selection and fivefold cross-validation with 20 repetitions. Results: For each scanner, better classification accuracies were achieved with the SVM classifier than the Bayesian classifier (92% and 82%, respectively, for the GE scanner; and 92% and 86%, respectively, for the Siemens scanner). The classification accuracies were 82%/72% for training with GE data and testing with Siemens data, and 79%/72% for the reverse. The use of training and test data obtained from the HRCT images of different scanners lowered the classification accuracy compared to the use of HRCT images from the same scanner. For

  14. Direct recording of cardiac output- and venous return-curves in the dog heart-lung preparation for a graphical analysis of the effects of cardioactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, N; Taki, K; Hojo, Y; Hagino, Y; Shigei, T

    1978-09-01

    The dog heart-lung preparations were prepared. The "equilibrium point", which could be defined as the point at which the cardiac output (CO)-curve and the venous return (VR)-curve crossed, when the CO and VR were plotted against the right atrial pressure, was recorded directly by utilizing an X-Y recorder. The CO-curve was obtained, as a locus of the equilibrium point, by raising and lowering the level of blood in the venous reservoir (competence test). The meaning of the procedure was shown to increase or decrease the mean systemic pressure, and to cause the corresponding parallel shift in the VR-curve. The VR-curve was obtained by changing myocardial contractility. When heart failure was induced by pentobarbital or by chloroform, the equilibrium point shifted downwards to the right, depicting the VR-curve. During development of the failure, the slopes of CO-curves decreased gradually. Effects of cinobufagin and norepinephrine were also analyzed. Utilization of the X-Y recorder enabled us to settle the uniform experimental conditions more easily, and to follow the effects of drugs continuously on a diagram equating the CO- and VR-curves (Gyton's scheme).

  15. Response of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope to orthotopic heart transplantation: lack of correlation with changes in central hemodynamic parameters and resting lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laethem, Christophe; Goethals, Marc; Verstreken, Sofie; Walravens, Maarten; Wellens, Francis; De Proft, Margot; Bartunek, Jozef; Vanderheyden, Marc

    2007-09-01

    Recently, a new linear measure of ventilatory response to exercise, the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), was proposed in the evaluation of heart failure patients. No data are available on the response of the OUES after orthotopic heart transplantation (HTx). Thirty patients who underwent HTx between 1999 and 2003 were included in the study. Data from maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test, resting pulmonary function and hemodynamic assessment were collected before the transplant at time of screening and 1 year after HTx. During the first year after HTx, OUES and normalized OUES for body weight (OUES/kg) increased significantly from 15.6 +/- 4.9 to 19.7 +/- 4.8 (p volumes or capacities and measures of central hemodynamic function after HTx. OUES improved significantly after HTx, but, similar to other exercise parameters, remained considerably impaired. The changes in OUES were highly correlated with the improvements in other exercise variables, but did not correlate with marked improvements in central hemodynamics or resting lung function.

  16. Screening for PTLD in lung and heart-lung transplant recipients by measuring EBV DNA load in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Peter; Watkins, Bradley; Webber, Steven A; Wadowsky, Robert; Michaels, Marian G

    2008-06-01

    Pediatric L-HLTx recipients are at risk for developing PTLD with the lung being a primary site of disease. We hypothesized that BALF is a better sample than peripheral blood for measuring EBV DNA load in this high-risk population. Archived BALF specimens from pediatric L-HLTx recipients with and without PTLD were assayed for EBV DNA load using a quantitative real time TaqMan PCR assay. These values were compared with values determined in peripheral blood by a competitive PCR assay. Fifty-five BALF specimens from 16 L-HLTx patients were evaluated. Three patients with PTLD had mean BALF EBV DNA load values almost 50-fold higher than subjects without PTLD (4.6 x 10(5) copies/mL vs. 1.0 x 10(4) copies/mL). Patients who were EBV seronegative pretransplantation (i.e., high risk for PTLD) had elevated EBV DNA load values vs. patients who were EBV seropositive pretransplantation, regardless of the diagnosis of PTLD (mean values of 3.2 x 10(5) copies/mL vs. 1.1 x 10(4) copies/mL). Lastly, BALF analysis identified all subjects with PTLD, whereas peripheral blood analysis identified only one of these cases. Therefore, it can be concluded that monitoring EBV DNA load in BALF following L-HLTx facilitates detection of PTLD in high-risk patients and may be superior to peripheral blood assays.

  17. Chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Ingrid; Easton, Kellie

    2017-01-01

    1. The common symptoms and signs of chronic heart failure are dyspnoea, ankle swelling, raised jugular venous pressure and basal crepitations. Other conditions may be confused with chronic heart failure, including dependent oedema or oedema due to renal or hepatic disease. Shortness of breath may be due to respiratory disease or severe anaemia. Heart failure secondary to lung disease (cor pulmonale) should be distinguished from congestive cardiac failure. Heart failure may also present with l...

  18. A support vector machine classifier reduces interscanner variation in the HRCT classification of regional disease pattern in diffuse lung disease: Comparison to a Bayesian classifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yongjun; Lim, Jonghyuck; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Lynch, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of using different computed tomography (CT) scanners on the accuracy of high-resolution CT (HRCT) images in classifying regional disease patterns in patients with diffuse lung disease, support vector machine (SVM) and Bayesian classifiers were applied to multicenter data. Methods: Two experienced radiologists marked sets of 600 rectangular 20 × 20 pixel regions of interest (ROIs) on HRCT images obtained from two scanners (GE and Siemens), including 100 ROIs for each of local patterns of lungs—normal lung and five of regional pulmonary disease patterns (ground-glass opacity, reticular opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and consolidation). Each ROI was assessed using 22 quantitative features belonging to one of the following descriptors: histogram, gradient, run-length, gray level co-occurrence matrix, low-attenuation area cluster, and top-hat transform. For automatic classification, a Bayesian classifier and a SVM classifier were compared under three different conditions. First, classification accuracies were estimated using data from each scanner. Next, data from the GE and Siemens scanners were used for training and testing, respectively, and vice versa. Finally, all ROI data were integrated regardless of the scanner type and were then trained and tested together. All experiments were performed based on forward feature selection and fivefold cross-validation with 20 repetitions. Results: For each scanner, better classification accuracies were achieved with the SVM classifier than the Bayesian classifier (92% and 82%, respectively, for the GE scanner; and 92% and 86%, respectively, for the Siemens scanner). The classification accuracies were 82%/72% for training with GE data and testing with Siemens data, and 79%/72% for the reverse. The use of training and test data obtained from the HRCT images of different scanners lowered the classification accuracy compared to the use of HRCT images from the same scanner. For integrated ROI

  19. Selective Heart, Brain and Body Perfusion in Open Aortic Arch Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Sven; Kari, Fabian; Rylski, Bartosz; Siepe, Matthias; Benk, Christoph; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2016-09-01

    Open aortic arch replacement is a complex and challenging procedure, especially in post dissection aneurysms and in redo procedures after previous surgery of the ascending aorta or aortic root. We report our experience with the simultaneous selective perfusion of heart, brain, and remaining body to ensure optimal perfusion and to minimize perfusion-related risks during these procedures. We used a specially configured heart-lung machine with a centrifugal pump as arterial pump and an additional roller pump for the selective cerebral perfusion. Initial arterial cannulation is achieved via femoral artery or right axillary artery. After lower body circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion for the distal arch anastomosis, we started selective lower body perfusion simultaneously to the selective antegrade cerebral perfusion and heart perfusion. Eighteen patients were successfully treated with this perfusion strategy from October 2012 to November 2015. No complications related to the heart-lung machine and the cannulation occurred during the procedures. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 239 ± 33 minutes, the simultaneous selective perfusion of brain, heart, and remaining body lasted 55 ± 23 minutes. One patient suffered temporary neurological deficit that resolved completely during intensive care unit stay. No patient experienced a permanent neurological deficit or end-organ dysfunction. These high-risk procedures require a concept with a special setup of the heart-lung machine. Our perfusion strategy for aortic arch replacement ensures a selective perfusion of heart, brain, and lower body during this complex procedure and we observed excellent outcomes in this small series. This perfusion strategy is also applicable for redo procedures.

  20. High affinity complexes of pannexin channels and L-type calcium channel splice-variants in human lung: Possible role in clevidipine-induced dyspnea relief in acute heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard P. Dahl

    2016-08-01

    Research in Context: Clevidipine lowers blood pressure by inhibiting calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle. In patients with acute heart failure, clevidipine was shown to relieve breathing problems. This was only partially related to the blood pressure lowering actions of clevidipine and not conferred by another calcium channel inhibitor. We here found calcium channel variants in human lung that are more selectively inhibited by clevidipine, especially when associated with pannexin channels. This study gives a possible mechanism for clevidipine's relief of breathing problems and supports future clinical trials testing the role of clevidipine in the treatment of acute heart failure.

  1. Cys34 Adductomes Differ between Patients with Chronic Lung or Heart Disease and Healthy Controls in Central London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sa; Grigoryan, Hasmik; Edmands, William M B; Dagnino, Sonia; Sinharay, Rudy; Cullinan, Paul; Collins, Peter; Chung, Kian Fan; Barratt, Benjamin; Kelly, Frank J; Vineis, Paolo; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2018-02-20

    Oxidative stress generates reactive species that modify proteins, deplete antioxidant defenses, and contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). To determine whether protein modifications differ between COPD or IHD patients and healthy subjects, we performed untargeted analysis of adducts at the Cys34 locus of human serum albumin (HSA). Biospecimens were obtained from nonsmoking participants from London, U.K., including healthy subjects (n = 20) and patients with COPD (n = 20) or IHD (n = 10). Serum samples were digested with trypsin and analyzed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Effects of air pollution on adduct levels were also investigated based on estimated residential exposures to PM 2.5 , O 3 and NO 2 . For the 39 adducts with sufficient data, levels were essentially identical in blood samples collected from the same subjects on two consecutive days, consistent with the 28 day residence time of HSA. Multivariate linear regression revealed 21 significant associations, mainly with the underlying diseases but also with air-pollution exposures (p-value < 0.05). Interestingly, most of the associations indicated that adduct levels decreased with the presence of disease or increased pollutant concentrations. Negative associations of COPD and IHD with the Cys34 disulfide of glutathione and two Cys34 sulfoxidations, were consistent with previous results from smoking and nonsmoking volunteers and nonsmoking women exposed to indoor combustion of coal and wood.

  2. Radiodiagnosis of lung picture changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenetskij, M.S.; Lezova, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    The roentgenological picture of changes of the lung picture in the case of different pathological states in the lungs and the heart, is described. A developed diagnostic algorithm for the syndrome of lung picture change and the rules of its application are given. 5 refs.; 9 figs

  3. A Perspective on Promoting Diversity in the Biomedical Research Workforce: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s PRIDE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyington, Josephine E.A.; Maihle, Nita J.; Rice, Treva K.; Gonzalez, Juan E.; Hess, Caryl A.; Makala, Levi H.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Dávila-Román, Victor G.; Pace, Betty S.; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Boutjdir, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Aspiring junior investigators from groups underrepresented in the biomedical sciences face various challenges as they pursue research independence. However, the biomedical research enterprise needs their participation to effectively address critical research issues such as health disparities and health inequities. In this article, we share a research education and mentoring initiative that seeks to address this challenge: Programs to Increase Diversity among Individuals Engaged in Health Related Research (PRIDE), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). This longitudinal research-education and mentoring program occurs through summer institute programs located at US-based academic institutions. Recruited participants are exposed to didactic and lab-based research-skill enhancement experiences, with year-round mentoring over the course of two years. Mentor-mentee matching is based on shared research interests to promote congruence and to enhance skill acquisition. Program descriptions and sample narratives of participants’ perceptions of PRIDE’s impact on their career progress are showcased. Additionally, we highlight the overall program design and structure of four of seven funded summer institutes that focus on cardiovascular disease, related conditions, and health disparities. Mentees’ testimonials about the value of the PRIDE mentoring approach in facilitating career development are also noted. Meeting the clinical and research needs of an increasingly diverse US population is an issue of national concern. The PRIDE initiative, which focuses on increasing research preparedness and professional development of groups underrepresented in the biomedical research workforce, with an emphasis on mentoring as the critical approach, provides a robust model that is impacting the careers of future investigators. PMID:27440978

  4. Midlife moderation-quantified healthy diet and 40-year mortality risk from CHD: the prospective National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Krasnow, Ruth E; Reed, Terry

    2016-07-01

    It is unknown whether influences of midlife whole diet on the long-term CHD mortality risk are independent of genetic and common environmental factors or familial predisposition. We addressed this question prospectively using data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study. We included 910 male twins who were middle-aged and had usual diet assessed with nutritionist-administered, cross-checked dietary history interview at baseline (1969-1973). Moderation-quantified healthy diet (MQHD), a dietary pattern, was created to evaluate a whole diet. Primary outcome was time-to-CHD death. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using frailty survival model. Known CHD risk factors were controlled. During the follow-up of 40 years through 31 December 2009, 113 CHD deaths, 198 total cardiovascular deaths and 610 all-cause deaths occurred. In the entire cohort, the multivariable-adjusted HR for the overall association (equivalent to a general population association) was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·66, 0·88) per 10-unit increment in the MQHD score for CHD, and the multivariable-adjusted HR for a twin with a MQHD score ten units higher than his co-twin brother was 0·79 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·96, P=0·02) for CHD independent of familial predisposition. Similar results were found for a slightly more food-specified alternative moderation-quantified healthy diet (aMQHD). The between-pair association (reflecting familial influence) was significant for CHD for both MQHD and aMQHD. It is concluded that associations of MQHD and aMQHD with a lower long-term CHD mortality risk are both nutritionally and familially affected, supporting their use for dietary planning to prevent CHD mortality.

  5. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III): A research program striving to improve blood donor and transfusion recipient outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Shan, Hua; Ness, Paul; Glynn, Simone A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study -III (REDS-III) is a 7-year multicenter transfusion safety research initiative launched in 2011 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Study design The domestic component involves 4 blood centers, 12 hospitals, a data coordinating center, and a central laboratory. The international component consists of distinct programs in Brazil, China, and South Africa which involve US and in-country investigators. Results REDS-III is using two major methods to address key research priorities in blood banking/transfusion medicine. First, there will be numerous analyses of large “core” databases; the international programs have each constructed a donor/donation database while the domestic program has established a detailed research database that links data from blood donors and their donations, the components made from these donations, and data extracts from the electronic medical records of the recipients of these components. Secondly, there are more than 25 focused research protocols involving transfusion recipients, blood donors, or both that are either in progress or scheduled to begin within the next 3 years. Areas of study include transfusion epidemiology and blood utilization; transfusion outcomes; non-infectious transfusion risks; HIV-related safety issues (particularly in the international programs); emerging infectious agents; blood component quality; donor health and safety; and other donor issues. Conclusions It is intended that REDS-III serve as an impetus for more widespread recipient and linked donor-recipient research in the US as well as to help assure a safe and available blood supply in the US and in international locations. PMID:24188564

  6. Midlife moderation-quantified healthy diet and 40-year mortality risk from CHD: the prospective National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Krasnow, Ruth E.; Reed, Terry

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown whether influences of midlife whole diet on the long-term CHD mortality risk are independent of genetic and common environmental factors or familial predisposition. We addressed this question prospectively using data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study. We included 910 male twins who were middle-aged and had usual diet assessed with nutritionist-administered, crosschecked dietary history interview at baseline (1969–1973). Moderation-quantified healthy diet (MQHD), a dietary pattern, was created to evaluate a whole diet. Primary outcome was time-to-CHD death. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using frailty survival model. Known CHD risk factors were controlled. During the follow-up of 40 years through 31 December 2009, 113 CHD deaths, 198 total cardiovascular deaths and 610 all-cause deaths occurred. In the entire cohort, the multivariable-adjusted HR for the overall association (equivalent to a general population association) was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·66, 0·88) per 10-unit increment in the MQHD score for CHD, and the multivariable-adjusted HR for a twin with a MQHD score ten units higher than his co-twin brother was 0·79 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·96, P = 0·02) for CHD independent of familial predisposition. Similar results were found for a slightly more food-specified alternative moderation-quantified healthy diet (aMQHD). The between-pair association (reflecting familial influence) was significant for CHD for both MQHD and aMQHD. It is concluded that associations of MQHD and aMQHD with a lower long-term CHD mortality risk are both nutritionally and familially affected, supporting their use for dietary planning to prevent CHD mortality. PMID:27188259

  7. Paclitaxel-eluting versus sirolimus-eluting stents in diabetes mellitus: a report from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Dynamic Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, William M; Vlachos, Helen A; Marroquin, Oscar C; Lee, Joon S; Smith, Conrad; Anderson, William D; Schindler, John T; Holper, Elizabeth M; Abbott, J Dawn; Williams, David O; Laskey, Warren K; Kip, Kevin E; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Mulukutla, Suresh R

    2010-02-01

    Diabetes is a powerful predictor of adverse events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Drug-eluting stents reduce restenosis rates compared with bare metal stents; however, controversy remains regarding which drug-eluting stents provides greater benefit in patients with diabetes. Accordingly, we compared the safety and efficacy of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) with paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) among diabetic patients in a contemporary registry. Using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Dynamic Registry, we evaluated 2-year outcomes of diabetic patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions with SES (n=677) and PES (n=328). Clinical and demographic characteristics, including age, body mass index, insulin use, left ventricular function, and aspirin/clopidogrel use postprocedure, did not differ significantly between the groups except that PES-treated patients had a greater frequency of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. At the 2-year follow-up, no significant differences were observed between PES and SES with regard to safety or efficacy end points. PES- and SES-treated patients had similar rates of death (10.7% versus 8.2%, P=0.20), death and myocardial infarction (14.9% versus 13.6%, P=0.55), repeat revascularization (14.8% versus 17.8%, P=0.36), and stent thrombosis (1.3% versus 1.3%, P=0.95). After adjustment, no significant differences between the 2 stent types in any outcome were observed. PES and SES are equally efficacious and have similar safety profiles in diabetic patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions in clinical practice.

  8. Temporal changes in the outcomes of patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute dynamic registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holper, Elizabeth M; Abbott, J Dawn; Mulukutla, Suresh; Vlachos, Helen; Selzer, Faith; McGuire, Darren; Faxon, David P; Laskey, Warren; Srinivas, Vankeepuram S; Marroquin, Oscar C; Jacobs, Alice K

    2011-02-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at higher risk for adverse outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To determine whether outcomes have improved over time, we analyzed data from 2,838 consecutive patients with medically treated DM, including 1,066 patients (37.6%) treated with insulin, in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Dynamic Registry undergoing PCI registered in waves 1 (1997-1998), 2 (1999), 3 (2001-2002), 4 (2004), and 5 (2006). We compared baseline demographics and 1-year outcomes in the overall cohort and in analyses stratified by recruitment wave and insulin use. Crude mortality rates by chronological wave were 9.5%, 12.5%, 8.9%, 11.6%, and 6.6% (P value(trend) = .33) among those treated with insulin and, respectively, 9.7%, 6.5%, 4.1%, 5.4%, and 4.7% (P value(trend) = .006) among patients treated with oral agents,. The adjusted hazard ratios of death, myocardial infarction (MI), and overall major adverse cardiovascular events (death, MI, revascularization) in insulin-treated patients with DM in waves 2 to 5 as compared with wave 1 were either higher or the same. In contrast, the similar adjusted hazard ratios for oral agent-treated patients with DM were either similar or lower. Significant improvements over time in adverse events by 1 year were detected in patients with DM treated with oral agents. In insulin-treated diabetic patients, despite lower rates of repeat revascularization over time, death and MI following PCI have not significantly improved. These findings underscore the need for continued efforts at optimizing outcomes among patients with DM undergoing PCI, especially those requiring insulin treatment. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  10. Heart transplantation in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houyel, Lucile; To-Dumortier, Ngoc-Tram; Lepers, Yannick; Petit, Jérôme; Roussin, Régine; Ly, Mohamed; Lebret, Emmanuel; Fadel, Elie; Hörer, Jürgen; Hascoët, Sébastien

    2017-05-01

    With the advances in congenital cardiac surgery and postoperative care, an increasing number of children with complex congenital heart disease now reach adulthood. There are already more adults than children living with a congenital heart defect, including patients with complex congenital heart defects. Among these adults with congenital heart disease, a significant number will develop ventricular dysfunction over time. Heart failure accounts for 26-42% of deaths in adults with congenital heart defects. Heart transplantation, or heart-lung transplantation in Eisenmenger syndrome, then becomes the ultimate therapeutic possibility for these patients. This population is deemed to be at high risk of mortality after heart transplantation, although their long-term survival is similar to that of patients transplanted for other reasons. Indeed, heart transplantation in adults with congenital heart disease is often challenging, because of several potential problems: complex cardiac and vascular anatomy, multiple previous palliative and corrective surgeries, and effects on other organs (kidney, liver, lungs) of long-standing cardiac dysfunction or cyanosis, with frequent elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance. In this review, we focus on the specific problems relating to heart and heart-lung transplantation in this population, revisit the indications/contraindications, and update the long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. The method and efficacy of support vector machine classifiers based on texture features and multi-resolution histogram from 18F-FDG PET-CT images for the evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xuan; Chu, Chunyu; Li, Yingci; Lu, Peiou; Wang, Wenzhi; Liu, Wanyu; Yu, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Three support vector machine classifiers were constructed from PET-CT images. • The areas under the ROC curve for SVM1, SVM2, and SVM3 were 0.689, 0.579, and 0.685, respectively. • The areas under curves for maximum short diameter and SUV max were 0.684 and 0.652, respectively. • The algorithm based on SVM was potential in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymph nodes. - Abstract: Objectives: In clinical practice, image analysis is dependent on simply visual perception and the diagnostic efficacy of this analysis pattern is limited for mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer. In order to improve diagnostic efficacy, we developed a new computer-based algorithm and tested its diagnostic efficacy. Methods: 132 consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT examination before treatment. After all data were imported into the database of an on-line medical image analysis platform, the diagnostic efficacy of visual analysis was first evaluated without knowing pathological results, and the maximum short diameter and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) were measured. Then lymph nodes were segmented manually. Three classifiers based on support vector machine (SVM) were constructed from CT, PET, and combined PET-CT images, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of SVM classifiers was obtained and evaluated. Results: According to ROC curves, the areas under curves for maximum short diameter and SUV max were 0.684 and 0.652, respectively. The areas under the ROC curve for SVM1, SVM2, and SVM3 were 0.689, 0.579, and 0.685, respectively. Conclusion: The algorithm based on SVM was potential in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymph nodes

  12. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  13. Heart Failure in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lungs where oxygen is added. Watch an animation of blood flow in the heart All the ... resources here Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  14. The feasibility of evaluating radiation dose to the heart by integrating kilovoltage-cone beam computed tomography in stereotactic body radiotherapy of early non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chengxin; Gong, Guanzhong; Guo, Chen; Liu, Tonghai; Lu, Jie; Zhao, Hong; Dong, Wei; Yin, Yong

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of contouring the planning risk organ volume (PRV) for the heart, and to determine the probability of evaluating radiation dose to the heart using kilovoltage-cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, who received stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Seventeen NSCLC patients who received SBRT (5Gy/f × 10f dose) were enrolled and subjected to CBCT and CT imaging analyses to plan treatment. Sequential planning CBCT images of individual patient’s hearts were analyzed for reproducibility of heart contouring and volume. Comparative analyses were made between the planning CT- and CBCT-detected heart margins and dose-volume indices for treatment. The heart volume from planning CT images was significantly smaller than that from CBCT scans (p < 0.05), and the volumes based on the different series of CBCT images were similar (p > 0.05).The overlap of the heart region on the same anatomical section between the first series of CBCT scans and other scans reached 0.985 ± 0.020 without statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). The mean margins of the heart from planning CT and CBCT scans were 10.5 ± 2.8 mm in the left direction, 5.9 ± 2.8 mm in the right direction, 2.2 ± 1.6 mm in the direction of the head, 3.3 ± 2.2 mm in the direction of the foot, 6.7 ± 1.1 mm in the anterior direction, and 4.5 mm ± 2.5 mm in the posterior direction. All relative and absolute dose-volume indices obtained from CBCT images were significantly larger than those from planning CT scans (p < 0.05), with the exception of the volume in the 5Gy region. The PRV of heart contouring based on kV-CBCT is feasible with good reproducibility. More accurate and objective dose-volume indices may be obtained for NSCLC patients by using kV-CBCT, instead of CT, to plan SBRT

  15. Heart MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  16. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  17. Machine Translation from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  18. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine

  19. SU-F-T-516: Effects of Inter-Fraction Organ Displacement/deformation On the Delivered Doses to the Heart, Esophagus, and Lungs in Patients Receiving Thoracic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammers, J; Matney, J; Kaidar-Person, O; Zagar, T; Marks, L; Das, S; Mavroidis, P [University North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess the effects of inter-fraction changes in organ shape and location on the delivered dose distribution to the organs at risk (OAR) in lung cancer patients. Methods: This study analyzes treatment data of 10 patients, who were treated to 60Gy in 30 fractions. In each fraction a cone beam CT (CBCT) was acquired. Each CBCT was registered with the planning CT using deformable registration tools within MIM Software. The daily setup shifts were used to translate the planned dose distribution on the deformed planning CT. The structures of lungs, esophagus and heart were re-delineated by a physician on each CBCT. The doses delivered to each OAR, reflecting changes in the position and shape variations, were recomputed. Resultant daily dose volume histograms (DVHs) for OARs were computed and compared to those from the planning CT. Results: Based on the findings of two patients and 24 CBCTs analyzed so far, higher doses are delivered to the lungs and esophagus compared to the treatment plan. The dose differences per fraction between the delivered doses and those in the treatment plan are: for patient 1, lung mean dose = 5.3±1.3cGy and esophagus mean dose = 3.4±3.5cGy. For patient 2, lung mean dose = 12.0±3.9cGy and esophagus mean dose = 34.2±7.5cGy. Regarding the maximum dose to heart, the results varied (−18.9±22.0cGy for patient1 and 53.0±62.2cGy for patient2). Conclusion: The dosimetric effects of inter-fractional anatomical variations could be estimated using deformable image registration and manual organ segmentation for each CBCT. A considerable dose distribution variation between fractions was observed for the OARs. These changes are currently not taken into account while treating the patients and these may explain cases with severe side effects even when the treatment plan looks satisfactory. These results suggest the need for automated daily dose tracking and accumulation.

  20. Machine learning and medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Dinggang; Sabuncu, Mert

    2016-01-01

    Machine Learning and Medical Imaging presents state-of- the-art machine learning methods in medical image analysis. It first summarizes cutting-edge machine learning algorithms in medical imaging, including not only classical probabilistic modeling and learning methods, but also recent breakthroughs in deep learning, sparse representation/coding, and big data hashing. In the second part leading research groups around the world present a wide spectrum of machine learning methods with application to different medical imaging modalities, clinical domains, and organs. The biomedical imaging modalities include ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), histology, and microscopy images. The targeted organs span the lung, liver, brain, and prostate, while there is also a treatment of examining genetic associations. Machine Learning and Medical Imaging is an ideal reference for medical imaging researchers, industry scientists and engineers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students, a...

  1. Heart murmurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has 4 chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  2. Mutations in STRA6 cause a broad spectrum of malformations including anophthalmia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, alveolar capillary dysplasia, lung hypoplasia, and mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasutto, Francesca; Sticht, Heinrich; Hammersen, Gerhard; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Fitzpatrick, David R.; Nuernberg, Gudrun; Brasch, Frank; Schirmer-Zimmermann, Heidemarie; Tolmie, John L.; Chitayat, David; Houge, Gunnar; Fernandez-Martinez, Lorena; Keating, Sarah; Mortier, Geert; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; von der Wense, Axel; Slavotinek, Anne; Meinecke, Peter; Bitoun, Pierre; Becker, Christian; Nuernberg, Peter; Reis, Andre; Rauch, Anita

    2007-01-01

    We observed two unrelated consanguineous families with malformation syndromes sharing anophthalmia and distinct eyebrows as common signs, but differing for alveolar capillary dysplasia or complex congenital heart defect in one and diaphragmatic hernia in the other family. Homozygosity mapping

  3. Machine learning based analysis of cardiovascular images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, JM

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including coronary artery disease (CAD) and congenital heart disease (CHD) are the global leading cause of death. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow non-invasive imaging of cardiovascular structures. This thesis presents machine

  4. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  5. PHENOMENON OF DEMIKHOV. "TRANSPLANTATION OF VITAL ORGANS IN EXPERIMENT" (1960. HOMOPLASTIC ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION: OF AN ISOLATED HEART, ISOLATED LUNG, KIDNEY, HEAD, HALF OF THE TRUNK, AND THE WHOLE TRUNK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Glyantsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The  article  (the third one of five presents the analysis of the final part  of the third chapter on homoplastic organ transplantation from V.P.  Demikhov's monograph "Transplantation of  vital  organs  in  experiment"  (MedGIz Publ., Moscow,  1960. The article covers the data presented by V.P. Demikhov on his creating the following animal models:  of the isolated  heart  and lung,  kidneys, head, half of the trunk, and the whole  trunk. The isolated  heart  models where  the heart  was positioned in place of the biological one were not successful. The longest  period  of the dog-recipient survival was  15 hours. The  dogs with transplanted lobes of  the  lung  survived up  to 6 days  (there  are no evidence of  a whole lung  transplant in the book; animal-recipients of kidneys survived up to 19 days.  V.P. Demikhov considered that  the graft deaths might be caused  by the biological  tissue  incompatibility between  the donor  and  recipient, and  he stressed the  need  for  its suppression and  the  importance of  choosing the  donor  and  recipient compatible by their  blood group for  successful homoplastic transplantation. By  transplanting the puppies' heads  onto  the cervical  vessels  of  the dogs, starting the experiments from 1954, V.P. Demikhov attempted to prove the role of the central nervous system in the organ engraftment, which was one of the targets  in those experiments. The integration of two bodies, combining their vascular systems, and mixing the blood had two goals: to create the conditions for overcoming the transplantation immunity and to make an animal model  of organ transplant in combination with retaining the organ neurohumoral links. The model of the cross circulation also allowed the formulation and implementation of the organ bank concept in the experiment.

  6. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with complication of severe respiratory failure, right heart failure, and steroid induced diabetes – qualification for lung transplantation as a matter of urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata P. Kraśnicka-Sokół

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old woman 146 cm tall and weighing 50 kg, due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, was firstly approved for lung transplantation according to the planned mode. Due to the low height of the patient there were difficulties in the selection of the donor and prolonged waiting time for the surgery. Rapid progression of pulmonary hypertension and steroid-induced diabetes forced us to change the mode of the procedure to urgent. The description of the case shows the difficulties in therapy and choosing the appropriate time for lung transplantation. In this case, the collaboration of specialists from various fields in the decision on transplant is noteworthy.

  7. Functional radioanatomy of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive data on radioanatomy of the heart and main vessels as applied to standard projections are presented. Anatomic structure evolution during heart cycle is described. A current trend towards complex examination of the heart and minor circulation vessels is illustrated, including digital roentgenography, digital subtraction angiography, nmr imaging, computerized tomography, radioisotope examination of the heart and positron emission tomography. Data testifying to essential effect of resperation phase and patient's placement on X-ray picture of the heart and blood flow in the lungs. 291 refs.; 131 figs

  8. What Is Heart Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidneys, liver, and lungs. Stroke , which may cause short-term or permanent damage. Death. (Heart surgery is more likely to be life threatening in people who are very sick before the surgery.) Memory loss and other issues, such as problems concentrating or ...

  9. Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may recommend or try: Carotid sinus massage: gentle pressure on the neck, where the carotid artery splits into two branches. Must be performed by a healthcare professional to minimize risk of stroke, heart or lung injury from blood clots. Pressing gently on the eyeballs ...

  10. Face machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-06-01

    The article surveys latest equipment available from the world`s manufacturers of a range of machines for tunnelling. These are grouped under headings: excavators; impact hammers; road headers; and shields and tunnel boring machines. Products of thirty manufacturers are referred to. Addresses and fax numbers of companies are supplied. 5 tabs., 13 photos.

  11. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  12. Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Diane E.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists seek to develop machines that can "learn," that is, solve problems by imitating the human brain, a gold mine of information on the processes of human learning is being discovered, expert systems are being improved, and human-machine interactions are being enhanced. (SK)

  13. Nonplanar machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.

    1989-05-01

    This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs

  14. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  15. Enlarged Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rheumatic fever, a heart defect, infections (infectious endocarditis), connective tissue disorders, certain medications or radiation treatments for cancer, your heart may enlarge. Disease of the heart ...

  16. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  17. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  18. Early detection of lung cancer using ultra-low-dose computed tomography in coronary CT angiography scans among patients with suspected coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, Matheus; Pacini, Gabriel Sartori; de Souza, Vinicius Valério Silveiro; Marchiori, Edson; Meirelles, Gustavo Souza Portes; Szarf, Gilberto; Torres, Felipe Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    To assess whether an additional chest ultra-low-dose CT scan to the coronary CT angiography protocol can be used for lung cancer screening among patients with suspected coronary artery disease. 175 patients underwent coronary CT angiography for assessment of coronary artery disease, additionally undergoing ultra-low-dose CT screening to early diagnosis of lung cancer in the same scanner (80kVp and 15mAs). Patients presenting pulmonary nodules were followed-up for two years, repeating low-dose CTs in intervals of 3, 6, or 12 months based on nodule size and growth rate in accordance with National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Ultra-low-dose CT identified 71 patients with solitary pulmonary nodules (41%), with a mean diameter of 5.50±4.00mm. Twenty-eight were >6mm, and in 79% (n=22) of these cases they were false positive findings, further confirmed by follow-up (n=20), resection (n=1), or biopsy (n=1). Lung cancer was detected in six patients due to CT screening (diagnostic yield: 3%). Among these, four cases could not be detected in the cardiac field of view. Most patients were in early stages of the disease. Two patients diagnosed at advanced stages died due to cancer complications. The addition of the ultra-low-dose CT scan represented a radiation dose increment of 1.22±0.53% (effective dose, 0.11±0.03mSv). Lung cancer might be detected using additional ultra-low-dose protocols in coronary CT angiography scans among patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Machine Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  20. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  1. Impact of Spot Size and Spacing on the Quality of Robustly Optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Plans for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenbin; Schild, Steven E; Chang, Joe Y; Liao, Zhongxing; Korte, Shawn; Shen, Jiajian; Ding, Xiaoning; Hu, Yanle; Kang, Yixiu; Keole, Sameer R; Sio, Terence T; Wong, William W; Sahoo, Narayan; Bues, Martin; Liu, Wei

    2018-06-01

    To investigate how spot size and spacing affect plan quality, robustness, and interplay effects of robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for lung cancer. Two robustly optimized IMPT plans were created for 10 lung cancer patients: first by a large-spot machine with in-air energy-dependent large spot size at isocenter (σ: 6-15 mm) and spacing (1.3 σ), and second by a small-spot machine with in-air energy-dependent small spot size (σ: 2-6 mm) and spacing (5 mm). Both plans were generated by optimizing radiation dose to internal target volume on averaged 4-dimensional computed tomography scans using an in-house-developed IMPT planning system. The dose-volume histograms band method was used to evaluate plan robustness. Dose evaluation software was developed to model time-dependent spot delivery to incorporate interplay effects with randomized starting phases for each field per fraction. Patient anatomy voxels were mapped phase-to-phase via deformable image registration, and doses were scored using in-house-developed software. Dose-volume histogram indices, including internal target volume dose coverage, homogeneity, and organs at risk (OARs) sparing, were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Compared with the large-spot machine, the small-spot machine resulted in significantly lower heart and esophagus mean doses, with comparable target dose coverage, homogeneity, and protection of other OARs. Plan robustness was comparable for targets and most OARs. With interplay effects considered, significantly lower heart and esophagus mean doses with comparable target dose coverage and homogeneity were observed using smaller spots. Robust optimization with a small spot-machine significantly improves heart and esophagus sparing, with comparable plan robustness and interplay effects compared with robust optimization with a large-spot machine. A small-spot machine uses a larger number of spots to cover the same tumors compared with a large

  2. Impact of medical treatment on lung diffusion capacity in elderly patients with heart failure. Baseline characteristics and 1-year follow up after medical treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Claus Leth; Kjaer, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    treatment (baseline) and after 1 year of treatment with diuretics and ACE-inhibitors/angiotensin-II receptor antagonists. Age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were included as control group. RESULTS: (mean+/-S.E.M.): K(CO) at baseline was 0.95+/-0.06 and 1.25+/-0.04 mmol/min x kPa/l in HF patients......AIM: The aim of this investigation was (1) to study the effect of untreated chronic heart failure (CHF) on alveolar membrane diffusion capacity (transfer coefficient, K(CO)) in elderly patients and (2) to study the impact of the standard regime of medical treatment with diuretics and ACE......-inhibitor/angiotensin-II receptor antagonists on K(CO) in these patients. METHODS: Non-medicated patients (except for diuretics) with symptoms of heart failure (NYHA II-III) and echocardiographically estimated left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)

  3. Thallium-201 right lung/heart ratio during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: relation to thallium-201 myocardial single-photon emission tomography, rest and exercise left ventricular function and coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, O.; Pezard, P.; Le Jeune, J.J.; Denizot, B.; Jallet, P.; Furber, A.; Vielle, B.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate lung thallium-201 uptake on exercise with 201 Tl single-photon emission tomography (SPET) myocardial perfusion imaging, rest and exercise equilibrium radionuclide angiographic and coronary angiographic findings in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) using a simple, reproducible lung/heart (L/H) ratio that would be easy to use in clinical practice. L/H ratio was defined on the anterior planar image obtained during exercise 201 Tl SPET acquisition as the mean counts per pixel in an entire right lung field region of interest divided by the mean counts per pixel in the hottest myocardial wall region of interest. We studied 103 patients. Fifty-nine patients (group I) with 201 Tl SPET, radionuclide angiographic and coronary angiographic variables. The group I L/H ratio of 0.35±0.05 (mean ±1 SD) was significantly lower (P 0.45 (mean+2 SD in group I) was considered abnormal. In group II, L/H ratio showed a significant correlation with stress and rest 201 Tl perfusion defect size (r=0.39 and r=0.42, P<0.01, respectively), but not with extent of ischaemic myocardium. The mean L/H ratio was 0.41±0.10 in patients with one-vessel disease (n=15), 0.46±0.08 in those with two-vessel disease (n=17) and 0.47±0.12 in those with three-vessel disease (n=12), but no significant difference was found between the three subgroups. L/H ratio showed a significant inverse relation with rest and exercise left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.37 and r=-0.50, P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). Using stepwise multiple regression analysis, exercise left ventricular ejection fraction and previous history of hypertension were the sole two variables independently predictive of the L/H ratio. In conclusion, although lung thallium uptake is usually found to correlate with extent and severity of CAD, increased L/H ratio should primarily be considered as a marker of exercise-induced left ventricular systolic and perhaps diastolic dysfunction, probably

  4. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  5. Air Quality and Heart Health: An Emerging Topic for Heart Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Quality and Heart Health: An Emerging Topic for Heart Month: Ambient air particle pollution increases short- and long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Older-people, those with pre-existing heart disease and lung disease and diabetes are at higher risk. Mechanism...

  6. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012

  7. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  8. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, Markus; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  9. Machine Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  10. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  11. LungMAP: The Molecular Atlas of Lung Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardini-Poleske, Maryanne E; Clark, Robert F; Ansong, Charles; Carson, James P; Corley, Richard A; Deutsch, Gail H; Hagood, James S; Kaminski, Naftali; Mariani, Thomas J; Potter, Steven S; Pryhuber, Gloria S; Warburton, David; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Palmer, Scott M; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2017-11-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute is funding an effort to create a molecular atlas of the developing lung (LungMAP) to serve as a research resource and public education tool. The lung is a complex organ with lengthy development time driven by interactive gene networks and dynamic cross talk among multiple cell types to control and coordinate lineage specification, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, morphogenesis, and injury repair. A better understanding of the processes that regulate lung development, particularly alveologenesis, will have a significant impact on survival rates for premature infants born with incomplete lung development and will facilitate lung injury repair and regeneration in adults. A consortium of four research centers, a data coordinating center, and a human tissue repository provides high-quality molecular data of developing human and mouse lungs. LungMAP includes mouse and human data for cross correlation of developmental processes across species. LungMAP is generating foundational data and analysis, creating a web portal for presentation of results and public sharing of data sets, establishing a repository of young human lung tissues obtained through organ donor organizations, and developing a comprehensive lung ontology that incorporates the latest findings of the consortium. The LungMAP website (www.lungmap.net) currently contains more than 6,000 high-resolution lung images and transcriptomic, proteomic, and lipidomic human and mouse data and provides scientific information to stimulate interest in research careers for young audiences. This paper presents a brief description of research conducted by the consortium, database, and portal development and upcoming features that will enhance the LungMAP experience for a community of users. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Teletherapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panyam, Vinatha S.; Rakshit, Sougata; Kulkarni, M.S.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation Standards Section (RSS), RSSD, BARC is the national metrology institute for ionizing radiation. RSS develops and maintains radiation standards for X-ray, beta, gamma and neutron radiations. In radiation dosimetry, traceability, accuracy and consistency of radiation measurements is very important especially in radiotherapy where the success of patient treatment is dependent on the accuracy of the dose delivered to the tumour. Cobalt teletherapy machines have been used in the treatment of cancer since the early 1950s and India had its first cobalt teletherapy machine installed at the Cancer Institute, Chennai in 1956

  13. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  14. [Lung transplantation: supply and demand in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M; Souilamas, R; Tixier, D; Mal, H

    2008-10-01

    For a decade lung transplantation has suffered from a lack of donor organs which aroused a national debate and led to planned action in collaboration with The French National Agency for Transplantation. Analysis of the stages of the process from potential donor to lung transplantation identified lung procurement as the main priority. An increase in the number of potential lung donors and revision of the acceptance criteria led to a doubling of the annual rate of lung transplantation in less than two years. In the near future we may solve the problem of donor family refusals and establish scientifically based criteria for lung acceptance to increase the rate of lung transplantation. Transplantation from non heart-beating donors and the reconditioning of ex vivo non acceptable lungs might supply additional organs to fulfill demand in the long term. The rate of lung transplantation activity in France doubled as the result of a dramatic increase of donor lung proposals. The current improvement in the results of lung transplantation might create new demands and generate future difficulties in the supply of donor lungs. New approaches, such as transplantation from non heart-beating donors and reconditioning ex vivo non acceptable lungs, should be examined in the near future.

  15. Comparative study of three different approaches on the estimation of the lung-heart ratio in thallium 201 scintigrams in relation to the extent of coronary artery disease and left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilmer, B.; Reijs, A.E.M.; Fioretti, P.; Reiber, J.H.C.

    1991-01-01

    Uptake of thallium 201 ( 201 Tl) in the lungs has been proposed as a measure of left ventricular dysfunction with exercise. To study this hypothesis, we compared the lung/-heart (LH) ratio assessed from anterior planar images (ANT-P), from anterior images obtained during single photon emission tomography (SPET) acquisition (ANT-T) and from short-axis tomographic cross-sections (CS) in early post-exercise thallium 201 scintigrams. The study population consisted of 54 prepercutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) studies (82% with single-vessel disease), 50 post-PTCA studies, 33 pre-coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) studies (71% with three-vessel disease), 30 post-CABG studies and 30 patients with a left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) due to an acute myocardial infarction; 18 individuals with a low likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD) served as a control group. The results demonstrated that, on average, the LH ratios obtained from ANT-P and ANT-T were not significantly different for all study groups; these ratios increased significantly with ischaemia and with LVD relative to non-ischaemic situations. However, the LH ratios in CS did not show a relation with ischaemia nor with LVD and differed significantly from the LH-ratios assessed from the anterior approaches. Each of the three approaches (ANT-P, ANT-T, CS) was characterized by large overlaps of LH ratios for the different study groups. In conclusion, the LH ratio should be determined from ANT-P or ANT-T projection images, not CS. However, due to large overlaps in the measurement data, it is not a clinically useful parameter for the detection of CAD or LVD in the individual patient. (orig.)

  16. The novel mouse mutant, chuzhoi, has disruption of Ptk7 protein and exhibits defects in neural tube, heart and lung development and abnormal planar cell polarity in the ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paudyal Anju

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The planar cell polarity (PCP signalling pathway is fundamental to a number of key developmental events, including initiation of neural tube closure. Disruption of the PCP pathway causes the severe neural tube defect of craniorachischisis, in which almost the entire brain and spinal cord fails to close. Identification of mouse mutants with craniorachischisis has proven a powerful way of identifying molecules that are components or regulators of the PCP pathway. In addition, identification of an allelic series of mutants, including hypomorphs and neomorphs in addition to complete nulls, can provide novel genetic tools to help elucidate the function of the PCP proteins. Results We report the identification of a new N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU-induced mutant with craniorachischisis, which we have named chuzhoi (chz. We demonstrate that chuzhoi mutant embryos fail to undergo initiation of neural tube closure, and have characteristics consistent with defective convergent extension. These characteristics include a broadened midline and reduced rate of increase of their length-to-width ratio. In addition, we demonstrate disruption in the orientation of outer hair cells in the inner ear, and defects in heart and lung development in chuzhoi mutants. We demonstrate a genetic interaction between chuzhoi mutants and both Vangl2Lp and Celsr1Crsh mutants, strengthening the hypothesis that chuzhoi is involved in regulating the PCP pathway. We demonstrate that chuzhoi maps to Chromosome 17 and carries a splice site mutation in Ptk7. This mutation results in the insertion of three amino acids into the Ptk7 protein and causes disruption of Ptk7 protein expression in chuzhoi mutants. Conclusions The chuzhoi mutant provides an additional genetic resource to help investigate the developmental basis of several congenital abnormalities including neural tube, heart and lung defects and their relationship to disruption of PCP. The chuzhoi mutation

  17. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  19. Machine rates for selected forest harvesting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Brinker; J. Kinard; Robert Rummer; B. Lanford

    2002-01-01

    Very little new literature has been published on the subject of machine rates and machine cost analysis since 1989 when the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 296, Machine Rates for Selected Forest Harvesting Machines, was originally published. Many machines discussed in the original publication have undergone substantial changes in various aspects, not...

  20. Electric machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    BASIC ELECTROMAGNETIC CONCEPTSBasic Magnetic ConceptsMagnetically Linear Systems: Magnetic CircuitsVoltage, Current, and Magnetic Field InteractionsMagnetic Properties of MaterialsNonlinear Magnetic Circuit AnalysisPermanent MagnetsSuperconducting MagnetsThe Fundamental Translational EM MachineThe Fundamental Rotational EM MachineMultiwinding EM SystemsLeakage FluxThe Concept of Ratings in EM SystemsSummaryProblemsTRANSFORMERSThe Ideal n-Winding TransformerTransformer Ratings and Per-Unit ScalingThe Nonideal Three-Winding TransformerThe Nonideal Two-Winding TransformerTransformer Efficiency and Voltage RegulationPractical ConsiderationsThe AutotransformerOperation of Transformers in Three-Phase EnvironmentsSequence Circuit Models for Three-Phase Transformer AnalysisHarmonics in TransformersSummaryProblemsBASIC MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONSSome General PerspectivesEfficiencyLoad Torque-Speed CharacteristicsMass Polar Moment of InertiaGearingOperating ModesTranslational SystemsA Comprehensive Example: The ElevatorP...

  1. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  2. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  3. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  4. Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  5. A comparison of Monte Carlo and Fermi-Eyges-Hogstrom estimates of heart and lung dose from breast electron boost treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Joy; Park, Catherine; Villarreal-Barajas, J. Eduardo; Petti, Paula; Faddegon, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Electrons are commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer primarily to deliver a tumor bed boost. We compared the use of the Monte Carlo (MC) method and the Fermi-Eyges-Hogstrom (FEH) algorithm to calculate the dose distribution of electron treatment to normal tissues. Methods and materials: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer treated with breast-conservation therapy at the University of California, San Francisco, were included in this study. Each patient received an electron boost to the surgical bed to a dose of 1,600 cGy in 200 cGy fractions prescribed to 80% of the maximum. Doses to the left ventricle (LV) and the ipsilateral lung (IL) were calculated using the EGS4 MC system and the FEH algorithm implemented on the commercially available Pinnacle treatment planning system. An anthromorphic phantom was irradiated with radiochromic film in place to verify the accuracy of the MC system. Results: Dose distributions calculated with the MC algorithm agreed with the film measurements within 3% or 3 mm. For all patients in the study, the dose to the LV and IL was relatively low as calculated by MC. That is, the maximum dose received by up to 98% of the LV volume was 30 cGy and differences in maximum dose of < 35 cGy/day to the LV and 80 cGy/day to the IL. Conclusions: From our series, using clinical judgment to prescribe the boost to the surgical bed after breast-conserving treatment results in low doses to the underlying LV and IL. When calculated dose distributions are desired, MC is the most accurate, but FEH can still be used

  6. Effect of different head and neck positions on behaviour, heart rate variability and cortisol levels in lunged Royal Dutch Sport horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiet, E; Van Dierendonck, M C; Sleutjens, J; Menheere, P P C A; van Breda, E; de Boer, D; Back, W; Wijnberg, I D; van der Kolk, J H

    2014-10-01

    Different head-and-neck positions (HNPs) are discussed in relation to potential welfare issues. To evaluate the effect on welfare, seven Royal Dutch Sport horses were studied in five predetermined HNPs: (1) unrestrained (HNP1); (2) neck raised, bridge of nose around the vertical (HNP2); (3) neck lowered and considerably flexed, bridge of nose pointing towards the chest (HNP4); (4) neck raised and extended, bridge of nose in front of the vertical (HNP5), and (5) neck lowered and flexed, bridge of nose pointing towards the carpus (HNP7). A standardised exercise test (SET) of 34 min consisted of trot, canter and walk. Behaviour was recorded with a pre-defined ethogram and R-R intervals measured using telemetry. Cortisol concentrations were taken at the start, 5 and 30 min after the SET. Behaviour around the SET was scored separately. Conflict behaviours increased significantly during HNP2 when compared with HNP1, HNP4 and HNP7 during the SET, and there was significant negative anticipation before HNP2 and HNP7. The heart rate variability (HRV) frequency domain for HNP2 showed a significantly increased low frequency peak (LFpeak) compared with other HNPs, and there was a decrease in very low frequency (VLF%) compared with HNP1. HNP4 showed a significant increase in LF% and decrease in VLF% compared with HNP1. Saliva cortisol concentrations were significantly increased in HNP2 at 5 and 30 min after exercise. Increased conflict behaviour was mostly observed in HNP2, but there was a raised HRV suggesting a sympathetic shift in HNP2 and HNP4, and increased cortisol concentrations during HNP2 indicated a stress response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of health-related quality of life in children with chronic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemitz, Mandy; Gunst, Diana C M; Hövels-Gürich, Hedwig H; Hofbeck, Michael; Kaulitz, Renate; Galm, Christoph; Berger, Felix; Nagdyman, Nicole; Stiller, Brigitte; Borth-Bruhns, Thomas; Konzag, Ines; Balmer, Christian; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2017-10-01

    Chronic paediatric heart disease is often associated with residual symptoms, persisting functional restrictions, and late sequelae for psychosocial development. It is, therefore, increasingly important to evaluate the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents with chronic heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine medical and socio-demographic variables affecting health-related quality of life in school-aged children and adolescents with chronic heart disease. Patients and methods The Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory was administered to 375 children and adolescents and 386 parental caregivers. Medical information was obtained from the charts. The socio-demographic information was provided by the patients and caregivers. Greater disease severity, low school attendance, current cardiac medication, current parental employment, uncertain or limited prognosis, history of connection to a heart-lung machine, number of nights spent in a hospital, and need for treatment in a paediatric aftercare clinic independently contributed to lower health-related quality of life (self-report: R2=0.41; proxy-report: R2=0.46). High correlations between self-reports and parent-proxy reports indicated concordance regarding the evaluation of a child's health-related quality of life. Beyond medical treatment, integration into school is important to increase health-related quality of life in children and adolescents surviving with chronic heart disease. Regular screening of health-related quality of life is recommended to identify patients with special needs.

  8. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...... possibilities, and genre distinctions. Presenting several distinct ways of producing space photographically, this book opens a new and important field of inquiry for photography research....

  9. Shear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)

  10. Electricity of machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijeon media editorial department

    1977-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with electricity machine, which can taints from generator to motor, motor a power source of machine tool, electricity machine for machine tool such as switch in main circuit, automatic machine, a knife switch and pushing button, snap switch, protection device, timer, solenoid, and rectifier. The second part handles wiring diagram. This concludes basic electricity circuit of machine tool, electricity wiring diagram in your machine like milling machine, planer and grinding machine. The third part introduces fault diagnosis of machine, which gives the practical solution according to fault diagnosis and the diagnostic method with voltage and resistance measurement by tester.

  11. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  12. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  13. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  14. 3D Interpolation Method for CT Images of the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Asada

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D image can be reconstructed from numerous CT images of the lung. The procedure reconstructs a solid from multiple cross section images, which are collected during pulsation of the heart. Thus the motion of the heart is a special factor that must be taken into consideration during reconstruction. The lung exhibits a repeating transformation synchronized to the beating of the heart as an elastic body. There are discontinuities among neighboring CT images due to the beating of the heart, if no special techniques are used in taking CT images. The 3-D heart image is reconstructed from numerous CT images in which both the heart and the lung are taken. Although the outline shape of the reconstructed 3-D heart is quite unnatural, the envelope of the 3-D unnatural heart is fit to the shape of the standard heart. The envelopes of the lung in the CT images are calculated after the section images of the best fitting standard heart are located at the same positions of the CT images. Thus the CT images are geometrically transformed to the optimal CT images fitting best to the standard heart. Since correct transformation of images is required, an Area oriented interpolation method proposed by us is used for interpolation of transformed images. An attempt to reconstruct a 3-D lung image by a series of such operations without discontinuity is shown. Additionally, the same geometrical transformation method to the original projection images is proposed as a more advanced method.

  15. Lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalenz, Roberto.

    1994-01-01

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies

  16. A multidisciplinary "think tank": the top 10 clinical trial opportunities in transfusion medicine from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored 2009 state-of-the-science symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Cassandra D; Glynn, Simone A; Kleinman, Steve H; Blajchman, Morris A

    2011-04-01

    In September 2009, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened the State-of-the-Science Symposium in Transfusion Medicine to identify Phase II and/or III clinical trials that would provide important information to advance transfusion medicine. Seven multidisciplinary subcommittees developed proposals in the following areas: 1) platelet (PLT) product use, 2) neonatal and/or pediatric transfusion practice, 3) surgical transfusion practice, 4) intensive care unit and/or in trauma transfusion practice, 5) plasma and/or cryoprecipitate product use and therapeutic apheresis practice, 6) red blood cell (RBC) product use and/or blood conservation management, and 7) medical transfusion practice or blood donor studies. The committees consisted of transfusion medicine specialists, hematologists, cardiovascular surgeons, anesthesiologists, neonatologists, critical care physicians, and clinical trial methodologists. Proposals were presented and an external panel evaluated and prioritized each concept for scientific merit, clinical importance, and feasibility. Twenty-four concepts were presented by the subcommittees. Ten concepts addressed four areas deemed most important: 1) PLT transfusion strategies to prevent and/or mitigate bleeding in neonates and patients with hematologic malignancies, 2) RBC transfusion trigger strategies to improve overall outcomes in different patient populations, 3) evaluation of optimal plasma:PLT:RBC ratios in trauma resuscitation, and 4) pathogen inactivation of PLTs to improve PLT transfusion safety. The proposal themes not only represent inquiries about the indications for transfusion, but also epitomize the lack of consensus when clinical practice lacks a strong evidence base. Ultimately, the purpose of this publication is to provide a "blueprint" of ideas for further development rather than endorse any one specific clinical trial design. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Heart irradiation as a risk factor for radiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ellen X.; El Naqa, Issam; Deasy, Joseph O.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Trovo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the potential role of incidental heart irradiation on the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) for patients receiving definitive radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and methods. Two hundred and nine patient datasets were available for this study. Heart and lung dose-volume parameters were extracted for modeling, based on Monte Carlo-based heterogeneity corrected dose distributions. Clinical variables tested included age, gender, chemotherapy, pre-treatment weight-loss, performance status, and smoking history. The risk of RP was modeled using logistic regression. Results. The most significant univariate variables were heart related, such as heart heart V65 (percent volume receiving at least 65 Gy) (Spearman Rs = 0.245, p < 0.001). The best-performing logistic regression model included heart D10 (minimum dose to the hottest 10% of the heart), lung D35, and maximum lung dose (Spearman Rs 0.268, p < 0.0001). When classified by predicted risk, the RP incidence ratio between the most and least risky 1/3 of treatments was 4.8. The improvement in risk modeling using lung and heart variables was better than using lung variables alone. Conclusions. These results suggest a previously unsuspected role of heart irradiation in many cases of RP

  18. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  19. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an interlock system providing the glue between these systems. The most recent accelerator, the LHC, will operate with about 3 × 10 14 protons per beam, corresponding to an energy stored in each beam of 360 MJ. This energy can cause massive damage to accelerator equipment in case of uncontrolled beam loss, and a single accident damaging vital parts of the accelerator could interrupt operation for years. This article provides an overview of the requirements for protection of accelerator equipment and introduces the various protection systems. Examples are mainly from LHC, SNS and ESS

  20. Heart Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health! Get a free badge or banner to post to your website or blog. Are you at risk for heart disease? Here's how to find out . Planning to use The Heart Truth logo? Check out our logo guidelines and downloads. ...

  1. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it may be caused by diseases, such as connective tissue disorders, excessive iron buildup in your body (hemochromatosis), the buildup of abnormal proteins (amyloidosis) or by some cancer treatments. Causes of heart infection A heart infection, ...

  2. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family history of heart attack race – African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and native Hawaiians are at ... Your doctor will prescribe the medicines that are right for you. If you have had a heart ...

  3. Heart pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation; Artificial pacemaker; Permanent pacemaker; Internal pacemaker; Cardiac resynchronization therapy; CRT; Biventricular pacemaker; Arrhythmia - pacemaker; Abnormal heart ...

  4. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  5. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  6. Abscess in the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Lung and Airway Disorders Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Resources ... here for the Professional Version Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs A lung abscess is a ...

  7. Machine terms dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-04-15

    This book gives descriptions of machine terms which includes machine design, drawing, the method of machine, machine tools, machine materials, automobile, measuring and controlling, electricity, basic of electron, information technology, quality assurance, Auto CAD and FA terms and important formula of mechanical engineering.

  8. Pediatric cardiology. Clinical and practical experiences with heart diseases of children, juveniles and young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Nikolaus A.

    2011-01-01

    The book on pediatric cardiology covers the following chapters: (I) Fundamentals and diagnostics: pediatric cardiologic anamnesis, electrocardiograms, thorax X-radiography, MRT and CT of the heart, nuclear medical diagnostics, exercise tests, heart catheter examination, electrophysiological tests. (II) Leading symptoms: Cyanosis, cardiac murmur, thorax pain, palpitation, syncopes. (III) Disease pictures: congenital heart defects, acquired heart defects, cardiomyopathies, heart rhythm disturbances, heart insufficiency, arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, other heart involving syndromes. (IV) Therapy: Catheter interventional therapy, post-surgical pediatric cardiac therapy, surgery involving the life-support machine, mechanical cardiovascular support systems, initial treatment of newborns with critical heart defects, heart transplantation, vaccination of children with heart diseases, medicinal therapy.

  9. Addiction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entry into the crypt William Burroughs shared with his mother opened and shut around a failed re-enactment of William Tell’s shot through the prop placed upon a loved one’s head. The accidental killing of his wife Joan completed the installation of the addictation machine that spun melancholia as manic dissemination. An early encryptment to which was added the audio portion of abuse deposited an undeliverable message in WB. Wil- liam could never tell, although his corpus bears the in- scription of this impossibility as another form of pos- sibility. James Godley is currently a doctoral candidate in Eng- lish at SUNY Buffalo, where he studies psychoanalysis, Continental philosophy, and nineteenth-century litera- ture and poetry (British and American. His work on the concept of mourning and “the dead” in Freudian and Lacanian approaches to psychoanalytic thought and in Gothic literature has also spawned an essay on zombie porn. Since entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe in 2007, Valentin Hennig has studied in the classes of Sil- via Bächli, Claudio Moser, and Corinne Wasmuht. In 2010 he spent a semester at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts. His work has been shown in group exhibi- tions in Freiburg and Karlsruhe.

  10. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  11. O papel da biopsia pulmonar na indicação cirúrgica de cardiopatias congénitas The role of lung biopsy in the decision-making process for congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Bordignon

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando relacionar o aspecto morfológico dos vasos pulmonares com os dados clínicos para auxiliar na decisão da cirurgia de cardiopatias congênitas com hipertensão pulmonar severa, em casos previamente avaliados por critérios clínicos, angiográficos e/ou hemodinâmicos, foram realizadas, de 1980 a 1991, no Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul, 49 biópsias pulmonares. As idades dos pacientes variaram de 5m a 28a6m (média = 7a7m e os diagnósticos foram: CIV (16, PCA (3, CIVe ESubAo (1, PCA e CIV (2, PCA e Cl A (1 DSAV (7, DSAV incompl. e PCA (1, PCA e CoAo (1, Inter Arco Ao com PCA e CIV e/ou ESupraM e Anel SubAo (2, DVSVD com CIV e/ou PCA (6, DVSVE e EP (1, ATe ESubP. (1, TGV (1, TGV corrigida e CIV (1 e truncus arteriosus (5. Houve 3 (6,1 % óbitos no pós-operatório da biopsia. Baseado na classificação de Heath-Edwards, foram para correção cirúrgica 11 pacientes com cardiopatias simples (CIV, PCA, DSAV, cuja mortalidade foi 36,4%. Dez pacientes com cardiopatias complexas (DVSVD, DVSVE, TGV, truncus, inter arco Ao foram para cirurgia, com mortalidade de 30%. A evolução pós-operatória tardia foi favorável em 13 (62% pacientes. Conclui-se que a biopsia pulmonar pode ser útil na indicação cirúrgica das cardiopatias congênitas com hipertensão pulmonar severa e, por envolver riscos, sua utilização deve ser criteriosa. E valiosa para os pacientes que apresentam dúvidas quanto ao grau de doença vascular pulmonar ou quanto à natureza das lesões e o estudo clínico e hemodinâmico não são esclarecedores, ou mesmo quando apontarem para a contra-indicação cirúrgica.Open lung biopsy has been performed in patients with congenital heart disease and severe pulmonary hypertension in order to complement the decision-making process for surgical correction. All patients had clinical, hemodynamic and angiographic evaluation previously and would not be surgical candidates by conventional criteria. The 49 patients

  12. Radiation-induced heart injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Niibe, Hideo

    1975-01-01

    In order to identify radiation-induced heart injury and to differentiate it from heart disease, an attempt was made to clarify post-irradiation heart injury by investigating the histological changes which occur during the internal between the irradiation and the time of demonstrable histological changes. A study was made of 83 autopsies in which most of the primary neoplasms were breast cancers, lung cancers and mediastinal tumors. In 43 of these autopsies the heart had been irradiated. Sixty eight dd-strain mice were also used for microautoradiographic study. Histological changes in the heart were observed in 27 of the 43 cases receiving irradiation. The limit of the tolerance dose to the heart for indicating histological changes was 1220 ret in humans. The latent period without histological changes was 2.7 months after initiation of radiation therapy. Greater heart injury was observed after re-irradiation or after the combined therapy of radiation and chemotherapy especially mitomycin (MMC). The histological findings after treatment with MMC were similar to those of radiation-induced heart injury. Results of the study indicate that the damage is secondary to radiation-induced changes of the vascula connective tissue. (Evans, G.)

  13. Malignant Tumors Of The Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrava, J.

    2007-01-01

    Autoptic prevalence of the heart tumors is 0,01 – 0,3 %. 12 – 25 % of them are malignant tumors and 75 – 88 % are benign. Malignancies are more frequently found in the right heart. Metastatic tumors occur 20 – 40-times more frequently than primary neoplasms. Even 94 % of primary malignant tumors are sarcomas. Most frequent of them are angio sarcomas. Heart metastases are only found in extensive dissemination. Highest prevalence of heart metastases is observed in melanoma, followed by malignant germ cell tumors, leukemia, lymphoma, lung cancer. The clinical presentation is due to the combination of heart failure, embolism, arrhythmias, pericardial effusion or tamponade. The symptoms depend on anatomical localization and the tumor size but not on the histological type. Prognosis of the heart malignancies is poor. Untreated patients die within several weeks to 2 years after the diagnosis was determined. Whenever possible the heart tumor should be resected, despite the surgery is usually neither definite nor sufficiently effective therapy. The patients with completely resectable sarcomas have better prognosis (median of survival 12 – 24 months) than the patients with incomplete resection (3 – 10 months). Complete excision is possible in only less than half of the patients. In some patients chemotherapy, radiotherapy, heart transplantation or combination of them prolonged the survival up to 2 years. Despite of this treatment median of the survival is only 1 year. (author)

  14. Metastasizing leiomyoma to heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consamus, Erin N; Reardon, Michael J; Ayala, Alberto G; Schwartz, Mary R; Ro, Jae Y

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac smooth muscle tumors are rare. Three different clinical settings for these tumors have been reported, including benign metastasizing leiomyoma from the uterus, primary cardiac leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma, and intravenous cardiac extension of pelvic leiomyoma, which is the most common. We present a case of a 55-year-old woman with a benign metastasizing leiomyoma to the heart 17 years after hysterectomy and 16 years after metastasis to the lung. Immunohistochemical stains for smooth muscle actin, desmin, and estrogen and progesterone receptors were positive, indicating a smooth muscle tumor of uterine origin. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of benign metastasizing leiomyoma to the heart and the first case of long-delayed cardiac metastasis after successful treatment of pulmonary metastasis. It illustrates that benign metastasizing leiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of cardiac tumors in patients with a history of uterine leiomyoma, especially when associated with pulmonary metastasis.

  15. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  16. Heart regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Distinct phases of cardiomyocyte differentiation regulate growth of the zebrafish heart.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pater, E.M.; Clijsters, L.; Marques, S.R.; Lin, Y.F.; Garavito-Aguilar, Z.V.; Yelon, D.; Bakkers, J.

    2009-01-01

    Amongst animal species, there is enormous variation in the size and complexity of the heart, ranging from the simple one-chambered heart of Ciona intestinalis to the complex four-chambered heart of lunged animals. To address possible mechanisms for the evolutionary adaptation of heart size, we

  18. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell disease to improve treatment options and symptom management, with the goal of one day finding a widely available cure. Learn about our commitment to easing the burden of sickle cell disease ...

  19. Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    McMurray, John; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure.

  20. Artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-18

    Super-pure plutonium-238 could use heat produced during fission to power an implanted artificial heart. Three model hearts have worked for some time. Concern that excess heat would make the procedure unsafe for humans has broadened the search for another energy source, such as electrohydraulic drive or an external power battery. A back pack approach may provide an interim solution until materials are developed which can withstand heart activity and be small enough for implantation.

  1. Types of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  2. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  3. Machine technology: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt was made to find existing machines that have been upgraded and that could be used for large-scale decontamination operations outdoors. Such machines are in the building industry, the mining industry, and the road construction industry. The road construction industry has yielded the machines in this presentation. A review is given of operations that can be done with the machines available

  4. Machine Shop Lathes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This guide, the second in a series of five machine shop curriculum manuals, was designed for use in machine shop courses in Oklahoma. The purpose of the manual is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trade at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed so that it can be used in…

  5. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  6. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  7. Data Mining Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Ian H; Hall, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques offers a thorough grounding in machine learning concepts as well as practical advice on applying machine learning tools and techniques in real-world data mining situations. This highly anticipated third edition of the most acclaimed work on data mining and machine learning will teach you everything you need to know about preparing inputs, interpreting outputs, evaluating results, and the algorithmic methods at the heart of successful data mining. Thorough updates reflect the technical changes and modernizations that have taken place

  8. The relationship between ventilatory lung motion and pulmonary perfusion shown by ventilatory lung motion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Nakatsuka, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Kazuhiko; Hirose, Yoshiki; Hirayama, Jiro; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro

    1991-01-01

    Using ventilatory lung motion imaging, which was obtained from two perfusion lung scintigrams with 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin taken in maximal inspiration and maximal expiration, the lung motion (E-I/I) of the each unilateral lung was studied in various cardiopulmonary diseases. The sum of (E-I)/I(+) of the unilateral lung was decreased in the diseased lung for localized pleuropulmonary diseases, including primary lung cancer and pleural thickening, and in both lungs for heart diseases, and diffuse pulmonary diseases including diffuse interstitial pneumonia and diffuse panbronchiolitis. The sum of (E-I)/I(+) of the both lungs, which correlated with vital capacity and PaO 2 , was decreased in diffuse interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary emphysema, diffuse panbronchiolitis, primary lung cancer, pleural diseases and so on. (E-I)/I(+), correlated with pulmonary perfusion (n=49, r=0.51, p 81m Kr or 133 Xe (n=49, r=0.61, p<0.001) than pulmonary perfusion. The ventilatory lung motion imaging, which demonstrates the motion of the intra-pulmonary areas and lung edges, appears useful for estimating pulmonary ventilation of the perfused area as well as pulmonary perfusion. (author)

  9. Lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, H.K.; Kang, M.W.; Park, J.M.; Yang, W.J.; Shinn, K.S.; Bahk, Y.W.

    1993-01-01

    Lung abscess was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage in 5 of 6 patients. Complete abscess resolution occurred in 4 patients, partial resolution in one, and no response in one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days (mean 15.5 days) in successful cases. The failure of drainage in one neurologicall impaired patient was attributed to persistent aspiration. In 2 patients, concurrent pleural empyema was also cured. CT provided the anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is a safe and effective method for treating lung abscess. (orig.)

  10. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  11. Lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  12. Lung surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Robotic surgery may also be used. Lung surgery using ... Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  13. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  14. Conservation of small-airway function by tacrolimus/cyclosporine conversion in the management of bronchiolitis obliterans following lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, M P; Lewis, M E; Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Wilson, I C; Bonser, R S

    2000-12-01

    We studied serial lung function in 11 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome who were treated with tacrolimus conversion following lung or heart-lung transplantation. Our results show that tacrolimus conversion slows the decline of lung function in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The attenuation continues for at least 1 year following conversion.

  15. Unexpandable lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Marco F; Ferreiro, Lucía; Valdés, Luis

    2013-02-01

    Unexpandable lung is a mechanical complication by which the lung does not expand to the chest wall, impeding a normal apposition between the two pleural layers. The main mechanism involved is the restriction of the visceral pleura due to the formation of a fibrous layer along this pleural membrane. This happens because of the presence of an active pleural disease (lung entrapment), which can be resolved if proper therapeutic measures are taken, or a remote disease (trapped lung), in which an irreversible fibrous pleural layer has been formed. The clinical suspicion arises with the presence of post-thoracocentesis hydropneumothorax or a pleural effusion that cannot be drained due to the appearance of thoracic pain. The diagnosis is based on the analysis of the pleural liquid, the determination of pleural pressures as we drain the effusion and on air-contrast chest CT. As both represent the continuity of one same process, the results will depend on the time at which these procedures are done. If, when given a lung that is becoming entrapped, the necessary therapeutic measures are not taken, the final result will be a trapped lung. In this instance, most patients are asymptomatic or have mild exertional dyspnea and therefore they do not require treatment. Nevertheless, in cases of incapacitating dyspnea, it may be necessary to use pleural decortication in order to resolve the symptoms. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Normothermic versus hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in children undergoing open heart surgery (thermic-2): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baos, Sarah; Sheehan, Karen; Culliford, Lucy; Pike, Katie; Ellis, Lucy; Parry, Andrew J; Stoica, Serban; Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Caputo, Massimo; Rogers, Chris A

    2015-05-25

    During open heart surgery, patients are connected to a heart-lung bypass machine that pumps blood around the body ("perfusion") while the heart is stopped. Typically the blood is cooled during this procedure ("hypothermia") and warmed to normal body temperature once the operation has been completed. The main rationale for "whole body cooling" is to protect organs such as the brain, kidneys, lungs, and heart from injury during bypass by reducing the body's metabolic rate and decreasing oxygen consumption. However, hypothermic perfusion also has disadvantages that can contribute toward an extended postoperative hospital stay. Research in adults and small randomized controlled trials in children suggest some benefits to keeping the blood at normal body temperature throughout surgery ("normothermia"). However, the two techniques have not been extensively compared in children. The Thermic-2 study will test the hypothesis that the whole body inflammatory response to the nonphysiological bypass and its detrimental effects on different organ functions may be attenuated by maintaining the body at 35°C-37°C (normothermic) rather than 28°C (hypothermic) during pediatric complex open heart surgery. This is a single-center, randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness and acceptability of normothermic versus hypothermic bypass in 141 children with congenital heart disease undergoing open heart surgery. Children having scheduled surgery to repair a heart defect not requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest represent the target study population. The co-primary clinical outcomes are duration of inotropic support, intubation time, and postoperative hospital stay. Secondary outcomes are in-hospital mortality and morbidity, blood loss and transfusion requirements, pre- and post-operative echocardiographic findings, routine blood gas and blood test results, renal function, cerebral function, regional oxygen saturation of blood in the cerebral cortex, assessment of

  17. Respiratory and cardiovascular responses to walking down a traffic-polluted road compared with walking in a traffic-free area in participants aged 60 years and older with chronic lung or heart disease and age-matched healthy controls: a randomised, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Rudy; Gong, Jicheng; Barratt, Benjamin; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Ernst, Sabine; Kelly, Frank J; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Collins, Peter; Cullinan, Paul; Chung, Kian Fan

    2018-01-27

    Long-term exposure to pollution can lead to an increase in the rate of decline of lung function, especially in older individuals and in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas shorter-term exposure at higher pollution levels has been implicated in causing excess deaths from ischaemic heart disease and exacerbations of COPD. We aimed to assess the effects on respiratory and cardiovascular responses of walking down a busy street with high levels of pollution compared with walking in a traffic-free area with lower pollution levels in older adults. In this randomised, crossover study, we recruited men and women aged 60 years and older with angiographically proven stable ischaemic heart disease or stage 2 Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) COPD who had been clinically stable for 6 months, and age-matched healthy volunteers. Individuals with ischaemic heart disease or COPD were recruited from existing databases or outpatient respiratory and cardiology clinics at the Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust and age-matched healthy volunteers using advertising and existing databases. All participants had abstained from smoking for at least 12 months and medications were taken as recommended by participants' doctors during the study. Participants were randomly assigned by drawing numbered disks at random from a bag to do a 2 h walk either along a commercial street in London (Oxford Street) or in an urban park (Hyde Park). Baseline measurements of participants were taken before the walk in the hospital laboratory. During each walk session, black carbon, particulate matter (PM) concentrations, ultrafine particles, and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations were measured. Between October, 2012, and June, 2014, we screened 135 participants, of whom 40 healthy volunteers, 40 individuals with COPD, and 39 with ischaemic heart disease were recruited. Concentrations of black carbon, NO 2 , PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and ultrafine particles

  18. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other diseases. Chronic diseases — such as diabetes, HIV, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or a buildup of iron (hemochromatosis) or ... transplantation or support with a ventricular assist device. Prevention The key to preventing heart failure is to ...

  19. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... properly causes your body's blood sugar levels to rise, increasing your risk of heart attack. Metabolic syndrome. This occurs when you have obesity, high blood pressure and high blood sugar. Having metabolic ...

  20. Cardio MRI right heart assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genova, K.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In recent years, the evaluation of the function and morphology of the right heart caused increasing interest as right sided dysfunction is an important prognostic factor in many cardiovascular diseases. Modern MRI technique is the method of choice for precise assessment of the morphology and function of the right heart and is increasingly used in routine practice. What you will learn: Selecting appropriate techniques tailored to the morphology and function of right heart and conform to accepted standards is crucial for obtaining diagnostic imaging. This requires, as knowledge of the art of study, and diseases that assessment of right heart is key. The various techniques used and the specifics of the study protocol in the underlying disease leading to right dysfunction, consistent with standards and based on our experience will be presented. Discussion: The function of the right heart and in particular right sided function affects the prognosis of a number of cardiovascular diseases. Right sided morphology and function are assessed in terms of hemodynamic and prognostic significance in a number of heart and lung diseases. This enables clinicians to refine therapy, monitoring the effect of treatment and appropriate adjustment and precise timing invasive procedure or surgery. Knowing the capabilities and limitations of the method, combined with clinically - oriented approach are prerequisites for accurate and informative assessment of the right heart. Conclusion: Cardiac MRI is a method that allows precise , non-invasive and non- ionizing radiation morphological and functional assessment of the right heart, with the evaluation of the pulmonary circulation, which determines its key importance in conditions requiring assessment of right heart

  1. Classes of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and Advanced HF • Tools and Resources • Personal Stories Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  2. Men and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Men and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Source: Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke Heart Disease Facts in Men Heart disease is the leading ...

  3. Wine and heart health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  4. MITS machine operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinchem, J.

    1980-01-01

    This document contains procedures which apply to operations performed on individual P-1c machines in the Machine Interface Test System (MITS) at AiResearch Manufacturing Company's Torrance, California Facility

  5. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  6. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  7. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  8. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  9. Machine protection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Macpherson, A L

    2010-01-01

    A summary of the Machine Protection System of the LHC is given, with particular attention given to the outstanding issues to be addressed, rather than the successes of the machine protection system from the 2009 run. In particular, the issues of Safe Machine Parameter system, collimation and beam cleaning, the beam dump system and abort gap cleaning, injection and dump protection, and the overall machine protection program for the upcoming run are summarised.

  10. Effect of dependency versus nondependency on lung lesion visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechman, R.D. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Paraffin blocks and mineral oil were used as a model to determine the effect of dependency versus nondependency on radiographic visualization of lung lesions in lateral thoracic radiographs. It was concluded that the increased opacity of the material surrounding the lesion, not contact between the heart and the lesion, was responsible for the inability to detect lung disease in the dependent lung. The results were tested in dogs with pneumonia in the right middle lung lobe. When the dog was in right lateral recumbency, the dependent right lung was increased in opacity and decreased in volume and the pulmonary lesion was difficult to detect. When the dog was in left lateral recumbency, the non dependent right lung was increased in volume and decreased in opacity and the pulmonary disease was clearly visible. A single recumbent lateral radiograph must not be used to assess a dog with suspected lung disease because lesions in the dependent lung lobes may not be detected

  11. Dictionary of machine terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This book has introduction of dictionary of machine terms, and a compilation committee and introductory remarks. It gives descriptions of the machine terms in alphabetical order from a to Z and also includes abbreviation of machine terms and symbol table, way to read mathematical symbols and abbreviation and terms of drawings.

  12. Mankind, machines and people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugli, A

    1984-01-01

    The following questions are addressed: is there a difference between machines and men, between human communication and communication with machines. Will we ever reach the point when the dream of artificial intelligence becomes a reality. Will thinking machines be able to replace the human spirit in all its aspects. Social consequences and philosophical aspects are addressed. 8 references.

  13. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  14. HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    machine. The machine comprises six stationary HTS field windings wound from both YBCO and BiSCOO tape operated at liquid nitrogen temperature and enclosed in a cryostat, and a three phase armature winding spinning at up to 300 rpm. This design has full functionality of HTS synchronous machines. The design...

  15. Your Sewing Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  16. Unilateral lung transplantation for pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Improvements in immunosuppression and surgical techniques have made unilateral lung transplantation feasible in selected patients with end-stage interstitial lung disease. We report two cases of successful unilateral lung transplantation for end-stage respiratory failure due to pulmonary fibrosis. The patients, both oxygen-dependent, had progressive disease refractory to all treatment, with an anticipated life expectancy of less than one year on the basis of the rate of progression of the disease. Both patients were discharged six weeks after transplantation and returned to normal life. They are alive and well at 26 months and 14 months after the procedure. Pulmonary-function studies have shown substantial improvement in their lung volumes and diffusing capacities. For both patients, arterial oxygen tension is now normal and there is no arterial oxygen desaturation with exercise. This experience shows that unilateral lung transplantation, for selected patients with end-stage interstitial lung disease, provides a good functional result. Moreover, it avoids the necessity for cardiac transplantation, as required by the combined heart-lung procedure, and permits the use of the donor heart for another recipient.

  17. Lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorichter, S.

    2009-01-01

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T LCO ), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI max , P 0.1 ) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [de

  18. Exhaled CO, a predictor of lung function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Scharling, Henrik; Løkke, Anders

    2007-01-01

    and whether CO could provide additional information to usual measures of smoking regarding prediction of present lung function and decline in lung function over an extended period of time. METHOD: Cigarette smokers from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with valid measures of lung function and exhaled CO......; in total 3738 subjects, 2096 women and 1642 men. RESULTS: Subjects not inhaling had slightly lower exhaled CO values than those inhaling, but substantially higher values than non-smokers (PSmokers of plain cigarettes had slightly lower CO values than smokers of filter cigarettes (P...BACKGROUND: Smoking is associated with an accelerated loss of lung function and inhalation accelerates the decline further. Exhaled CO reflects the exposure of smoke to the lungs. AIM: To investigate whether self-reported inhalation and type of cigarette influenced the level of exhaled CO...

  19. Frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets (B-lines) using a regionally based lung ultrasound examination named vet BLUE (veterinary bedside lung ultrasound exam) in dogs with radiographically normal lung findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisciandro, Gregory R; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Fulton, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Lung ultrasound is superior to lung auscultation and supine chest radiography for many respiratory conditions in human patients. Ultrasound diagnoses are based on easily learned patterns of sonographic findings and artifacts in standardized images. By applying the wet lung (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines, representing interstitial edema) versus dry lung (A-lines with a glide sign) concept many respiratory conditions can be diagnosed or excluded. The ultrasound probe can be used as a visual stethoscope for the evaluation of human lungs because dry artifacts (A-lines with a glide sign) predominate over wet artifacts (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines). However, the frequency and number of wet lung ultrasound artifacts in dogs with radiographically normal lungs is unknown. Thus, the primary objective was to determine the baseline frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets in dogs without clinical signs of respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lung findings using an 8-view novel regionally based lung ultrasound examination called Vet BLUE. Frequency of ultrasound lung rockets were statistically compared based on signalment, body condition score, investigator, and reasons for radiography. Ten left-sided heart failure dogs were similarly enrolled. Overall frequency of ultrasound lung rockets was 11% (95% confidence interval, 6-19%) in dogs without respiratory disease versus 100% (95% confidence interval, 74-100%) in those with left-sided heart failure. The low frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets observed in dogs without respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lungs suggests that Vet BLUE will be clinically useful for the identification of canine respiratory conditions. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  20. Lung transplantation in children. Specific aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Galdó, Antonio; Solé Montserrat, Juan; Roman Broto, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Lung transplantation has become in recent years a therapeutic option for infantswith terminal lung disease with similar results to transplantation in adults.In Spain, since 1996 114 children lung transplants have been performed; this corresponds to3.9% of the total transplant number.The most common indication in children is cystic fibrosis, which represents between 70-80% of the transplants performed in adolescents. In infants common indications areinterstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension.In most children a sequential double lung transplant is performed, generally with the help ofextracorporeal circulation. Lung transplantation in children presents special challenges in monitoring and follow-up, especially in infants, given the difficulty in assessing lung function and performing transbronchial biopsies.There are some more specific complications in children like postransplant lymphoproliferative syndrome or a greater severity of respiratory virus infections .After lung transplantation children usually experiment a very important improvement in their quality of life. Eighty eight per cent of children have no limitations in their activity after 3 years of transplantation.According to the registry of the International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) survival at 5 years of transplantation is 54% and at 10 years is around 35%. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantum machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  2. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Botvinnik, M M

    1964-01-01

    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  3. Open lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia . This means you will be asleep and ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  4. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional support team today. Learn More . Find more lung cancer resources. Learn More Donate Today! What is Lung ... to Give How Your Support Helps Events Lung Cancer Awareness © Lung Cancer Alliance. The information presented in this website ...

  5. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  6. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  7. Deterministic Approach to Detect Heart Sound Irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mengko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method to detect heart sound that does not require machine learning is proposed. The heart sound is a time series event which is generated by the heart mechanical system. From the analysis of heart sound S-transform and the understanding of how heart works, it can be deducted that each heart sound component has unique properties in terms of timing, frequency, and amplitude. Based on these facts, a deterministic method can be designed to identify each heart sound components. The recorded heart sound then can be printed with each component correctly labeled. This greatly help the physician to diagnose the heart problem. The result shows that most known heart sounds were successfully detected. There are some murmur cases where the detection failed. This can be improved by adding more heuristics including setting some initial parameters such as noise threshold accurately, taking into account the recording equipment and also the environmental condition. It is expected that this method can be integrated into an electronic stethoscope biomedical system.

  8. [Lung scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümichen, Carl; Schmidt, Matthias; Krause, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    The S1 guideline for lung scintigraphy has been updated and extended in order to emphasize the advantages oft the method in detecting acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in the periphery oft the lung (subsegmental PE), in underlying subacute and chronic pulmonary disorders, as well as in detecting chronic LE (CTEPH). Method of choice is ventilation / perfusion (V/P) SPECT or V/P SPECT/CT with even higher specificity. Because of its high sensitivity, a threshold (V/P mismatch in at least one segment or two subsegments) is introduced to avoid overtreatment. In case of a change in the therapeutic approach (observation only instead of anticoaculation) the threshold can be omitted. New data concerning the clinical and therapeutical impact of subsegmental PE are included, the chapters open questions have been extented. Other indications for V/P SPECT (secondary diagnoses, abnormalities in pulmonary perfusion, prediction of postoperative lung function) are presented with new data. Schattauer GmbH.

  9. Potentialities of radioisotope aniocardiography in diagnosis of acquired heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, G.A.; Mikaelyan, R.S.; Dumpe, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    On the base of the examination of 40 patients with acquired heart diseases and 5 people without heart diseases for control determined are the most charactreristic signs of the acquired heart disease of visual observation on RPP transit (albumin of human serum labelled by sup(99m)Tc) through the heart cavities and magistral vessels. It is shown that there is a close connection between central and intracardial hemodynamics which permjts to judge on the cardiac output on the base of mean circulation time (MCT). Radioisotopic angiocardiography permits to find redistribution of lung blood flow in patients with acquired heart diseases, which can serve as indirect index of long hypertension

  10. International perception of lung sounds : a comparison of classification across some European borders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aviles-Solis, Juan Carlos; Vanbelle, Sophie; Halvorsen, Peder A; Francis, Nick; Cals, Jochen W L; Andreeva, Elena A; Marques, Alda; Piirilä, Päivi; Pasterkamp, Hans; Melbye, Hasse

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Lung auscultation is helpful in the diagnosis of lung and heart diseases; however, the diagnostic value of lung sounds may be questioned due to interobserver variation. This situation may also impair clinical research in this area to generate evidence-based knowledge about the role

  11. Lung radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Indication or main clinical use of Lung radiopharmaceuticals is presented and clasification of radiopharmaceuticals as ventilation and perfusion studies. Perfusion radiopharmaceuticals, main controls for administration quality acceptance. Clearence after blood administration and main clinical applications. Ventilation radiopharmaceuticals, gases and aerosols, characteristics of a ideal radioaerosol, techniques of good inhalation procedure, clinical applications. Comparison of several radiopharmaceuticals reflering to retention time as 50% administered dose, percent administered dose at 6 hours post inhalation, blood activity at 30 and 60 minutes post inhalation, initial lung absorbed dose, cumulated activity.Kinetic description of two radiopharmaceuticals, 99mTcDTPA and 99mTc-PYP

  12. Effects of Malaria on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Electrocardiogram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of malaria on blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiogram and the cardiovascular responses to postural change were studied in malaria patients. Blood pressure was measured by the sphygmomanometric-auscultatory method. Standard ECG machine was used to record the electrocardiogram. Heart rate was ...

  13. Heart transplantation for Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, D; Chamsi-Pasha, H; Hasleton, P

    1989-01-01

    A patient with heart failure caused by Churg-Strauss syndrome was successfully treated with transplantation. The case was unusual because there was little evidence of Churg-Strauss syndrome in the lung. The patient remains well on standard transplant immunotherapy. Images Figure PMID:2590597

  14. Heart valve surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement; Valve repair; Heart valve prosthesis; Mechanical valves; Prosthetic valves ... surgery. Your heart valve has been damaged by infection ( endocarditis ). You have received a new heart valve ...

  15. Heart failure - tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...

  16. Lung Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Severity of the recipient's lung disease Recipient's overall health Likelihood that the transplant will be successful Immediately before ... will begin within days of your surgery. Your health care team will likely work with you to design an exercise program that's right for you. Your doctor may ...

  17. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  18. The clinical importance of radiological determination of the heart volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaedicke, W.; Ong, T.S.; Barmeyer, J.

    1982-01-01

    The size of the heart is an autonomous, important parameter of its functional state, i.e. in the radiologic heart diagnostics, the measurement of the heart volume is of equal value as the shape analysis. A size determination which must be exact enough for course controls and differentiation from the normal picture makes sense only if the measurement is carriet out in 3 dimensions and not in only one as is done when determining the heart-lung-quotient. The heart volume measurement carried out in lying or sitting position is considerably more reliable than in standing position as too many extracardiac factors influence the heart volume when the patient is standing. The echo cardiogram is a nearly ideal supplement but no competitor of radiological heart volume measurement and can be of the same value as or superior to heart volume measurement for functional diagnostics only in diseases limited to nearly exclusively to the left ventricle as in coronary diseases. (orig.) [de

  19. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter ... most common heart attack symptom in men and women is chest pain or discomfort. However, women also ...

  20. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  1. Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary ...

  2. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  3. Obesity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in black and white 9- and 10-year-old girls : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Sprecher, D; McMahon, RP; Schreiber, GB; Khoury, PR

    It has been hypothesized that the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) may be mediated in part through its inverse relationship with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Obesity is inversely correlated with HDL-C, and HDL-C has been shown to be protective

  4. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  5. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  6. The Newest Machine Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yeong Seop; Choe, Byeong Do; Bang, Meong Sung

    2005-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of machine material with classification of machine material and selection of machine material, structure and connection of material, coagulation of metal and crystal structure, equilibrium diagram, properties of metal material, elasticity and plasticity, biopsy of metal, material test and nondestructive test. It also explains steel material such as heat treatment of steel, cast iron and cast steel, nonferrous metal materials, non metallic materials, and new materials.

  7. Introduction to machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Baştanlar, Yalın; Özuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning app...

  8. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  9. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  10. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: A previous heart attack Open heart surgery Chest trauma A heart attack that has affected the thickness of your heart muscle Symptoms Symptoms include: Anxiety Chest pain from the swollen pericardium rubbing on the ...

  11. Heart failure - home monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000113.htm Heart failure - home monitoring To use the sharing features on ... your high blood pressure Fast food tips Heart failure - discharge Heart failure - fluids and diuretics Heart failure - what to ...

  12. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Back to Patient Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Millions of people experience irregular or abnormal ... harmless and happen in healthy people free of heart disease. However, some abnormal heart rhythms can be serious ...

  13. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  14. Coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also be called hardening of the ...

  15. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  16. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  17. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  18. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented. PMID:23558425

  19. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  20. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sidorenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance.

  1. Machine listening intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    This manifesto paper will introduce machine listening intelligence, an integrated research framework for acoustic and musical signals modelling, based on signal processing, deep learning and computational musicology.

  2. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Written as a tutorial to explore and understand the power of R for machine learning. This practical guide that covers all of the need to know topics in a very systematic way. For each machine learning approach, each step in the process is detailed, from preparing the data for analysis to evaluating the results. These steps will build the knowledge you need to apply them to your own data science tasks.Intended for those who want to learn how to use R's machine learning capabilities and gain insight from your data. Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning, but have never used R; or

  3. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  4. TU-H-CAMPUS-JeP3-04: Factors Predicting a Need for Treatment Replanning with Proton Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, C; Janssens, G; Ainsley, C; Teo, B; Valdes, G; Burgdorf, B; Berman, A; Levin, W; Xiao, Y; Lin, L; Gabriel, P; Simone, C; Solberg, T [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Proton dose distribution is sensitive to tumor regression and tissue and normal anatomy changes. Replanning is sometimes necessary during treatment to ensure continue tumor coverage or avoid overtreatment of organs at risk (OARs). We investigated action thresholds for replanning and identified both dosimetric and non-dosimetric metrics that would predict a need for replan. Methods: All consecutive lung cancer patients (n = 188) who received definitive proton radiotherapy and had more than two evaluation CT scans at the Roberts Proton Therapy Center (Philadelphia, USA) from 2011 to 2015 were included in this study. The cohort included a variety of tumor sizes, locations, histology, beam angles, as well as radiation-induced tumor and lung change. Dosimetric changes during therapy were characterized by changes in the dose volume distribution of PTV, ITV, and OARs (heart, cord, esophagus, brachial plexus and lungs). Tumor and lung change were characterized by changes in sizes, and in the distribution of Hounsfield numbers and water equivalent thickness (WET) along the beam path. We applied machine learning tools to identify both dosimetric and non-dosimetric metrics that predicted a replan. Results: Preliminary data showed that clinical indicators (n = 54) were highly correlated; thus, a simple indicator may be derived to guide the action threshold for replanning. Additionally, tumor regression alone could not predict dosimetric changes in OARs; it required further information about beam angles and tumor locations. Conclusion: Both dosimetric and non-dosimetric factors are predictive of the need for replanning during proton treatment.

  5. Are there intelligent Turing machines?

    OpenAIRE

    Bátfai, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new computing model based on the cooperation among Turing machines called orchestrated machines. Like universal Turing machines, orchestrated machines are also designed to simulate Turing machines but they can also modify the original operation of the included Turing machines to create a new layer of some kind of collective behavior. Using this new model we can define some interested notions related to cooperation ability of Turing machines such as the intelligence quo...

  6. Pediatric cardiology. Clinical and practical experiences with heart diseases of children, juveniles and young adults; Kinderkardiologie. Klinik und Praxis der Herzerkrankungen bei Kindern, Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Nikolaus A. [Herz- und Diabeteszentrum NRW, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany). Klinik fuer angeborene Herzfehler; Kleideiter, Ulrich [Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Coesfeld (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The book on pediatric cardiology covers the following chapters: (I) Fundamentals and diagnostics: pediatric cardiologic anamnesis, electrocardiograms, thorax X-radiography, MRT and CT of the heart, nuclear medical diagnostics, exercise tests, heart catheter examination, electrophysiological tests. (II) Leading symptoms: Cyanosis, cardiac murmur, thorax pain, palpitation, syncopes. (III) Disease pictures: congenital heart defects, acquired heart defects, cardiomyopathies, heart rhythm disturbances, heart insufficiency, arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, other heart involving syndromes. (IV) Therapy: Catheter interventional therapy, post-surgical pediatric cardiac therapy, surgery involving the life-support machine, mechanical cardiovascular support systems, initial treatment of newborns with critical heart defects, heart transplantation, vaccination of children with heart diseases, medicinal therapy.

  7. The lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macey, D.J.; Marshall, R.

    1982-01-01

    Currently emission tomography of the lungs is only practical for perfusion images with sup(99m)Tc microaggregates and ventilation images with sup(81m)Kr. The following topics are touched on: the rotating gamma camera single photon ECT system, spatial resolution and linearity, resolution in phantom studies, area and volume studies, quantitation studies, with particular reference to the authors' experience of perfusion and ventilation in investigations of pulmonary embolism. (U.K.)

  8. The Basics of Stellites in Machining Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shahanur Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stellites are cobalt (Co-based superalloys available in two main combinations: (a a Tungsten (W group with composition of Co-Cr-W-C, and (b a Molybdenum (Mo group containing Co-Cr-Mo-C. Stellites possess outstanding corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance, wear resistance, heat resistance, and low magnetic permeability. Components made of stellites work well in highly corrosive environments and maintain these advantageous properties at elevated temperatures. Components made of stellites are widely used in the oil and gas, automotive, nuclear power, paper and pulp, chemical and petrochemical, refineries, automobile, aerospace and aircraft industries. By virtue of their nonmagnetic, anticorrosive and non-reactivity to human body-fluid properties, stellites are used in medical surgery and in surgical tools, tooth and bone implants and replacements, heart valves, and in heart pacemakers. The hardness range of stellites is from 32 to 55 HRC, which makes stellites brittle materials but they have a low Young’s modulus. Due to their high hardness, dense but non-homogeneous molecular structure and lower thermal conductivity, machining operations for parts made of stellites are extremely difficult, categorising stellites as difficult-to-machine materials like Ti-alloys, inconels, composites and stainless steels. Usually, machine components made of stellites are produced by a deposition method onto steel substrates instead of expensive solid stellite bars. The rough surfaces of deposited stellites are then finished by grinding, rather than some other economic machining process, which is costly and time-consuming, making stellite products very expensive. This paper provides a basic overview of stellites applicable in engineering, their significances and specific applications, advantages and disadvantages in respect of machining processes. A brief review on experimental research on economically rational cutting parameters for turning operations of

  9. Pediatric heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  10. Hyperlucent lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Gutierrez, Florana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E.

    2007-01-01

    Unilateral hyperlucent lung is also known as Swyer-James Syndrome, Macleod Syndrome or lobular or unilateral emphysema. It is an uncommon disease characterized by lung or unilateral lobe hiperlucency associated to an air trapping upon expiration. As regards to etiology, this syndrome is considered to be an acquired disease that appears secondary to respiratory infections during the early years of life, probably bronchiolitis and/ or viral pneumonia. The clinical presentation varies among patients. Some of them are asymptomatic, others present a history of recurrent episodes of pulmonary infections from early years of life or present effort dyspnea. The diagnosis is usually made accidentally by a chest radiograph in a child with history of respiratory infections or in an adult during a routine chest x- ray in an asymptomatic person. It is important to differentiate this syndrome from other causes of unilateral pulmonary hiperlucency on conventional chest x-rays. Few cases of Swyer-James Syndrome in children have been reported, it is presented the clinical case of a patient who had a parainfluenza 3 bronchopneumonia when he was a month and eighteen days of age. The differential diagnosis of this syndrome should be done with other thoracic entities that diminish the radiological pulmonary unilateral density. A case of a child who is the bearer of hyperlucent lung is described. (author) [es

  11. Effects of smoking on lung uptake of 201Tl during exercise myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wei; He Guorong; Liu Jinhua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of smoking on lung uptake of 201 Tl during myocardial perfusion imaging. Methods: Ninety-two healthy subjects, with normal 201 Tl myocardial perfusion imaging findings but no evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary disease, were divided into three groups, smoker, nonsmoker and quitted smoker groups. Exercise/delay 201 Tl myocardial perfusion imaging was performed on all subjects included. Lung/heart ratio was defined on the anterior planar image obtained during exercise tomography. Results: Both the lung/heart ratios during exercise in smoker (0.40 ± 0.07, F=10.635, P 201 Tl lung/heart ratios in smokers are higher than in nonsmokers and this must be kept in mind when 201 Tl lung/heart ratios are used clinically, even in quitted smokers

  12. Microsoft Azure machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mund, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    The book is intended for those who want to learn how to use Azure Machine Learning. Perhaps you already know a bit about Machine Learning, but have never used ML Studio in Azure; or perhaps you are an absolute newbie. In either case, this book will get you up-and-running quickly.

  13. The Hooey Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how students can make and use Hooey Machines to learn how mechanical energy can be transferred from one object to another within a system. The Hooey Machine is made using a pencil, eight thumbtacks, one pushpin, tape, scissors, graph paper, and a plastic lid. (PR)

  14. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials...

  15. A nucleonic weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The design and operation of a nucleonic weighing machine fabricated for continuous weighing of material over conveyor belt are described. The machine uses a 40 mCi cesium-137 line source and a 10 litre capacity ionization chamber. It is easy to maintain as there are no moving parts. It can also be easily removed and reinstalled. (M.G.B.)

  16. An asymptotical machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristallini, Achille

    2016-07-01

    A new and intriguing machine may be obtained replacing the moving pulley of a gun tackle with a fixed point in the rope. Its most important feature is the asymptotic efficiency. Here we obtain a satisfactory description of this machine by means of vector calculus and elementary trigonometry. The mathematical model has been compared with experimental data and briefly discussed.

  17. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning but have never used R, or perhaps you know a little R but are new to machine learning. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic programming concepts, but no prior experience is required.

  18. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...

  19. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  20. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  1. Introduction to machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  2. LHC Report: machine development

    CERN Multimedia

    Rogelio Tomás García for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Machine development weeks are carefully planned in the LHC operation schedule to optimise and further study the performance of the machine. The first machine development session of Run 2 ended on Saturday, 25 July. Despite various hiccoughs, it allowed the operators to make great strides towards improving the long-term performance of the LHC.   The main goals of this first machine development (MD) week were to determine the minimum beam-spot size at the interaction points given existing optics and collimation constraints; to test new beam instrumentation; to evaluate the effectiveness of performing part of the beam-squeezing process during the energy ramp; and to explore the limits on the number of protons per bunch arising from the electromagnetic interactions with the accelerator environment and the other beam. Unfortunately, a series of events reduced the machine availability for studies to about 50%. The most critical issue was the recurrent trip of a sextupolar corrector circuit –...

  3. Air Quality and Heart Health: An Emerging Topic for Heart ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Quality and Heart Health: An Emerging Topic for Heart Month: Ambient air particle pollution increases short- and long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Older-people, those with pre-existing heart disease and lung disease and diabetes are at higher risk. Mechanisms are under investigation and are likely related to oxidative stress, inflammation and effects on autonomic control. Improvements in air pollution levels reduce health impacts and increase life expectancy. Reductions of short-term exposure in those at highest risk are predicted to mitigate adverse health effects. EPA regularly evaluates the standards, health risks and issues improved standards when needed. Public health action is needed along with EPA standards to reduce the public health burden of short- and long-term adverse health effects of air pollution. Health risks remain and need to be addressed through integrated efforts of public health, health care, environmental health, individuals and communities. Presented at Webinar for the National Association of Clean Air Agencies, February 2, 2017, Chapel Hill, NC- This webinar provided an update of environmental health information related to the effects of air pollution and heart and blood vessel disease. Such information is critically important for the Clean Air Agencies to understand as it provides the justification of their actions.

  4. Heart Transplantation in Congenital Heart Disease: In Whom to Consider and When?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenhofer Jost, Christine H.; Schmidt, Dörthe; Huebler, Michael; Balmer, Christian; Noll, Georg; Caduff, Rosmarie; Greutmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Due to impressive improvements in surgical repair options, even patients with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) may survive into adulthood and have a high risk of end-stage heart failure. Thus, the number of patients with CHD needing heart transplantation (HTx) has been increasing in the last decades. This paper summarizes the changing etiology of causes of death in heart failure in CHD. The main reasons, contraindications, and risks of heart transplantation in CHD are discussed and underlined with three case vignettes. Compared to HTx in acquired heart disease, HTx in CHD has an increased risk of perioperative death and rejection. However, outcome of HTx for complex CHD has improved over the past 20 years. Additionally, mechanical support options might decrease the waiting list mortality in the future. The number of patients needing heart-lung transplantation (especially for Eisenmenger's syndrome) has decreased in the last years. Lung transplantation with intracardiac repair of a cardiac defect is another possibility especially for patients with interatrial shunts. Overall, HTx will remain an important treatment option for CHD in the near future. PMID:23577237

  5. Radiation-induced heart injury. Radiopathological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y; Niibe, H [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-11-01

    In order to identify radiation-induced heart injury and to differentiate it from heart disease, an attempt was made to clarify post-irradiation heart injury by investigating the histological changes which occur during the interval between the irradiation and the time of demonstrable histological changes. A study was made of 83 autopsies in which most of the primary neoplasms were breast cancers, lung cancers and mediastinal tumors. In 43 of these autopsies the heart had been irradiated. Sixty eight dd-strain mice were also used for microautoradiographic study. Histological changes in the heart were observed in 27 of the 43 cases receiving irradiation. The limit of the tolerance dose to the heart for indicating histological changes was 1220 ret in humans. The latent period without histological changes was 2.7 months after initiation of radiation therapy. Greater heart injury was observed after re-irradiation or after the combined therapy of radiation and chemotherapy especially mitomycin (MMC). The histological findings after treatment with MMC were similar to those of radiation-induced heart injury. Results of the study indicate that the damage is secondary to radiation-induced changes of the vascula connective tissue.

  6. Healthcare-associated prosthetic heart valve, aortic vascular graft, and disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infections subsequent to open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Philipp; Kuster, Stefan P; Bloemberg, Guido; Schulthess, Bettina; Frank, Michelle; Tanner, Felix C; Rössle, Matthias; Böni, Christian; Falk, Volkmar; Wilhelm, Markus J; Sommerstein, Rami; Achermann, Yvonne; Ten Oever, Jaap; Debast, Sylvia B; Wolfhagen, Maurice J H M; Brandon Bravo Bruinsma, George J; Vos, Margreet C; Bogers, Ad; Serr, Annerose; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Sax, Hugo; Böttger, Erik C; Weber, Rainer; van Ingen, Jakko; Wagner, Dirk; Hasse, Barbara

    2015-10-21

    We identified 10 patients with disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infections subsequent to open-heart surgery at three European Hospitals. Infections originated from the heater-cooler unit of the heart-lung machine. Here we describe clinical aspects and treatment course of this novel clinical entity. Interdisciplinary care and follow-up of all patients was documented by the study team. Patients' characteristics, clinical manifestations, microbiological findings, and therapeutic measures including surgical reinterventions were reviewed and treatment outcomes are described. The 10 patients comprise a 1-year-old child and nine adults with a median age of 61 years (range 36-76 years). The median duration from cardiac surgery to diagnosis was 21 (range 5-40) months. All patients had prosthetic material-associated infections with either prosthetic valve endocarditis, aortic graft infection, myocarditis, or infection of the prosthetic material following banding of the pulmonary artery. Extracardiac manifestations preceded cardiovascular disease in some cases. Despite targeted antimicrobial therapy, M. chimaera infection required cardiosurgical reinterventions in eight patients. Six out of 10 patients experienced breakthrough infections, of which four were fatal. Three patients are in a post-treatment monitoring period. Healthcare-associated infections due to M. chimaera occurred in patients subsequent to cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation and implantation of prosthetic material. Infections became clinically apparent after a time lag of months to years. Mycobacterium chimaera infections are easily missed by routine bacterial diagnostics and outcome is poor despite long-term antimycobacterial therapy, probably because biofilm formation hinders eradication of pathogens. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Metastatic tumors of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of lung metastases and their complications, as well as peculiarities of lung metastases of separate localization tumours are presented. Definition table for primary tumour by roentgenologic aspect of lung metastases is given

  8. How Lungs Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > How Lungs Work How Lungs Work The Respiratory System Your lungs are part of the respiratory system, ... your sense of smell. The Parts of the Respiratory System and How They Work Airways SINUSES are hollow ...

  9. Protecting Your Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung capacity. Specific breathing exercises can also help improve your lung function if you have certain lung diseases, like COPD. Exercise and breathing techniques are also great for improving your mood and helping you relax. Public Health and Your ...

  10. Radiological and angiographic examination of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    The radiological examination of the heart provides detailed information regarding cardiac structure and function that cannot be duplicated by any other diagnostic method. The appearance of the heart and lungs on ordinary chest roentgenograms often indicates the presence of heart disease and, at times, is diagnostic of a specific cardiac abnormality. Correct interpretation of the cardiac shadow in the frontal view is particularly important, because a chest roentgenogram in this projection is included as part of most routine medical examinations and provides a convenient survey method for the detection of otherwise unsuspected heart disease. In those patients with a known cardiac condition, the chest roentgenogram is of use in assessing its severity, in documenting the progress of the disease, in evaluating the presence and severity of secondary complications, and as an indicator of the efficacy of treatment

  11. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  12. Machine learning and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. DNA-based machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  14. Heart failure - surgeries and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery; HF - surgery; Intra-aortic balloon pumps - heart failure; IABP - heart failure; Catheter based assist devices - heart failure ... problem may cause heart failure or make heart failure worse. Heart valve surgery may be needed to repair or ...

  15. Fundamentals of machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Karaszewski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    A forum of researchers, educators and engineers involved in various aspects of Machine Design provided the inspiration for this collection of peer-reviewed papers. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchange of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field will make the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The book reflects the cooperative efforts made in seeking out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of machines and machine parts and for extending

  16. Machine Learning for Hackers

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, Drew

    2012-01-01

    If you're an experienced programmer interested in crunching data, this book will get you started with machine learning-a toolkit of algorithms that enables computers to train themselves to automate useful tasks. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White help you understand machine learning and statistics tools through a series of hands-on case studies, instead of a traditional math-heavy presentation. Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you'll learn how to analyz

  17. Creativity in Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recent machine learning techniques can be modified to produce creative results. Those results did not exist before; it is not a trivial combination of the data which was fed into the machine learning system. The obtained results come in multiple forms: As images, as text and as audio. This paper gives a high level overview of how they are created and gives some examples. It is meant to be a summary of the current work and give people who are new to machine learning some starting points.

  18. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  19. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  20. Extravascular Lung Water and Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Maharaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury carries a high burden of morbidity and mortality and is characterised by nonhydrostatic pulmonary oedema. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of accurate quantification of extravascular lung water in diagnosis, management, and prognosis in “acute lung injury” and “acute respiratory distress syndrome”. Several studies have verified the accuracy of both the single and the double transpulmonary thermal indicator techniques. Both experimental and clinical studies were searched in PUBMED using the term “extravascular lung water” and “acute lung injury”. Extravascular lung water measurement offers information not otherwise available by other methods such as chest radiography, arterial blood gas, and chest auscultation at the bedside. Recent data have highlighted the role of extravascular lung water in response to treatment to guide fluid therapy and ventilator strategies. The quantification of extravascular lung water may predict mortality and multiorgan dysfunction. The limitations of the dilution method are also discussed.

  1. Machine Learning Approaches in Cardiovascular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henglin, Mir; Stein, Gillian; Hushcha, Pavel V; Snoek, Jasper; Wiltschko, Alexander B; Cheng, Susan

    2017-10-01

    Cardiovascular imaging technologies continue to increase in their capacity to capture and store large quantities of data. Modern computational methods, developed in the field of machine learning, offer new approaches to leveraging the growing volume of imaging data available for analyses. Machine learning methods can now address data-related problems ranging from simple analytic queries of existing measurement data to the more complex challenges involved in analyzing raw images. To date, machine learning has been used in 2 broad and highly interconnected areas: automation of tasks that might otherwise be performed by a human and generation of clinically important new knowledge. Most cardiovascular imaging studies have focused on task-oriented problems, but more studies involving algorithms aimed at generating new clinical insights are emerging. Continued expansion in the size and dimensionality of cardiovascular imaging databases is driving strong interest in applying powerful deep learning methods, in particular, to analyze these data. Overall, the most effective approaches will require an investment in the resources needed to appropriately prepare such large data sets for analyses. Notwithstanding current technical and logistical challenges, machine learning and especially deep learning methods have much to offer and will substantially impact the future practice and science of cardiovascular imaging. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Valvular Heart Disease in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe MC Rosano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural valvular heart disease may be the cause of heart failure or may worsen the clinical status of patients with heart failure. Heart failure may also develop in patients treated with valve surgery. Patients with heart failure with valvular heart disease are at increased risk of events including sudden cardiac death. Before considering intervention (surgical or percutaneous all patients should receive appropriate medical and device therapy taking into account that vasodilators must be used with caution in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Numerous percutaneous and/or hybrid procedures have been introduced in the past few years and they are changing the management of valvular heart disease. In patients with heart failure and valvular heart disease, either primary or functional, the whole process of decision-making should be staged through a comprehensive evaluation of the risk– benefit ratio of different treatment strategies and should be made by a multidisciplinary ‘heart team’ with a particular expertise in valvular heart disease. The heart team should include heart failure cardiologists, cardiac surgeons/structural valve interventionists, imaging specialists, anaesthetists, geriatricians and intensive care specialists. This article will review recent developments and distill practical guidance in the management of this important heart failure co-morbidity.

  3. Prevention of reperfusion lung injury by lidocaine in isolated rat lung ventilated with higher oxygen levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseilet buffer containing 4% bovine serum albumin, and ventilated with 95% oxygen mixed with 5% CO2. Lungs were subjected to ischaemia by stopping perfusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes. Ischaemia was induced in normothermic conditions. RESULTS: Postischaemic reperfusion caused significant (p < 0.0001 higher wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure compared to control lungs. Lidocaine, at a dose of 5mg/Kg b.w. was found to significantly (p < 0.0001 attenuate the increase in the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure observed in post-ischaemic lungs. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine is effective in preventing post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in isolated, perfused rat lung.

  4. Malfolded protein structure and proteostasis in lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, William E; Sznajder, Jacob I; Budinger, Scott; Finley, Daniel; Laposky, Aaron D; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Benjamin, Ivor J; Barreiro, Esther; Morimoto, Richard I; Postow, Lisa; Weissman, Allan M; Gail, Dorothy; Banks-Schlegel, Susan; Croxton, Thomas; Gan, Weiniu

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries indicate that disorders of protein folding and degradation play a particularly important role in the development of lung diseases and their associated complications. The overarching purpose of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute workshop on "Malformed Protein Structure and Proteostasis in Lung Diseases" was to identify mechanistic and clinical research opportunities indicated by these recent discoveries in proteostasis science that will advance our molecular understanding of lung pathobiology and facilitate the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of lung disease. The workshop's discussion focused on identifying gaps in scientific knowledge with respect to proteostasis and lung disease, discussing new research advances and opportunities in protein folding science, and highlighting novel technologies with potential therapeutic applications for diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...... and uncertainty during coordinate measurements, 3) Digitalisation and Reverse Engineering. This document contains a short description of each step in the exercise and schemes with room for taking notes of the results.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  6. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  7. Enter the machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palittapongarnpim, Pantita; Sanders, Barry C.

    2018-05-01

    Quantum tomography infers quantum states from measurement data, but it becomes infeasible for large systems. Machine learning enables tomography of highly entangled many-body states and suggests a new powerful approach to this problem.

  8. Introduction to AC machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, Thomas A

    2018-01-01

    AC electrical machine design is a key skill set for developing competitive electric motors and generators for applications in industry, aerospace, and defense. This book presents a thorough treatment of AC machine design, starting from basic electromagnetic principles and continuing through the various design aspects of an induction machine. Introduction to AC Machine Design includes one chapter each on the design of permanent magnet machines, synchronous machines, and thermal design. It also offers a basic treatment of the use of finite elements to compute the magnetic field within a machine without interfering with the initial comprehension of the core subject matter. Based on the author's notes, as well as after years of classroom instruction, Introduction to AC Machine Design: * Brings to light more advanced principles of machine design--not just the basic principles of AC and DC machine behavior * Introduces electrical machine design to neophytes while also being a resource for experienced designers * ...

  9. From Curve Fitting to Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Zielesny, Achim

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of experimental data is at heart of science from its beginnings. But it was the advent of digital computers that allowed the execution of highly non-linear and increasingly complex data analysis procedures - methods that were completely unfeasible before. Non-linear curve fitting, clustering and machine learning belong to these modern techniques which are a further step towards computational intelligence. The goal of this book is to provide an interactive and illustrative guide to these topics. It concentrates on the road from two dimensional curve fitting to multidimensional clus

  10. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  11. Superconducting machines. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is given of the principles of superconductivity and superconductors. The properties of Nb-Ti superconductors and the method of flux stabilization are described. The basic features of superconducting d.c. machines are illustrated by the use of these machines for ship propulsion, steel-mill drives, industrial drives, aluminium production, and other d.c. power supplies. Superconducting a.c. generators and their design parameters are discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Quantum Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Romero García, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    [EN] In a world in which accessible information grows exponentially, the selection of the appropriate information turns out to be an extremely relevant problem. In this context, the idea of Machine Learning (ML), a subfield of Artificial Intelligence, emerged to face problems in data mining, pattern recognition, automatic prediction, among others. Quantum Machine Learning is an interdisciplinary research area combining quantum mechanics with methods of ML, in which quantum properties allow fo...

  13. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  14. Some relations between quantum Turing machines and Turing machines

    OpenAIRE

    Sicard, Andrés; Vélez, Mario

    1999-01-01

    For quantum Turing machines we present three elements: Its components, its time evolution operator and its local transition function. The components are related with the components of deterministic Turing machines, the time evolution operator is related with the evolution of reversible Turing machines and the local transition function is related with the transition function of probabilistic and reversible Turing machines.

  15. Resolution of sonographic B-lines as a measure of pulmonary decongestion in acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    Objective noninvasive measures of dyspnea in patients with acute heart failure are lacking. In this review, we describe lung ultrasound as a tool to estimate the degree of pulmonary congestion in patients presenting with acute heart failure and to monitor therapeutic efficacy. Serial semiquantitative measures of sonographic B-lines in acute heart failure patients can be converted to pulmonary edema scores obtained at admission and hospital discharge. These scores provide prognostic information for short-term clinical outcomes. Lung ultrasound has the potential to measure changes in pulmonary edema during acute heart failure management and improve risk stratification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The importance of conventional X-ray thorax examination for heart diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    In the case that a deseased heart changes its shape or size, typical X-ray signs are generated that can be monitored with conventional X-ray diagnostic like: thorax-overview, images, cymography, tomography. They allow a conclusion towards the pathoanatomy of the particular heart-chambers and the corresponding change in hemodynamics with respect to usual topography. The large vessels and the lungs usually offer additional X-ray signs that extend those of the heart and this way help to assure diagnoses. The usual X-ray findings at the heart, the coronary vessels and the lungs are represented comprehensively and traced back to their origins. (orig.) [de

  17. Reactor refueling machine simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohosky, T.L.; Swidwa, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes in combination: a nuclear reactor; a refueling machine having a bridge, trolley and hoist each driven by a separate motor having feedback means for generating a feedback signal indicative of movement thereof. The motors are operable to position the refueling machine over the nuclear reactor for refueling the same. The refueling machine also has a removable control console including means for selectively generating separate motor signals for operating the bridge, trolley and hoist motors and for processing the feedback signals to generate an indication of the positions thereof, separate output leads connecting each of the motor signals to the respective refueling machine motor, and separate input leads for connecting each of the feedback means to the console; and a portable simulator unit comprising: a single simulator motor; a single simulator feedback signal generator connected to the simulator motor for generating a simulator feedback signal in response to operation of the simulator motor; means for selectively connecting the output leads of the console to the simulator unit in place of the refueling machine motors, and for connecting the console input leads to the simulator unit in place of the refueling machine motor feedback means; and means for driving the single simulator motor in response to any of the bridge, trolley or hoist motor signals generated by the console and means for applying the simulator feedback signal to the console input lead associated with the motor signal being generated by the control console

  18. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  19. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  20. Revealing Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghaug, Kristin Falck; Pattison, George; Lindgren, Peter

    2014-01-01

    with reference to Tillich’s account of the meaning of revelation through culture and art, summed up in the statement that “(...) revelation is the manifestation of the ground of being for human knowledge” (Tillich, 1951, p.94), which, we argue, can be extended to everyday experiences, for example, in business......Some small business owners want to balance personal values as well as economic values. “I have to follow my heart” or “it must be meaningful” some of them say. But how might they be able to know what gives meaning to the heart? The philosophical theologian Paul Tillich finds that the problem...... life. In Tillich’s own terms, even preliminary concerns may point at an ultimate concern (Tillich, 1964), which can also be understood as ‘knowledge of the heart’. Our account is also connected to wider discussions concerning the nature of intuition....

  1. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    Based on the own experience and world literatures, contribution of radiation in the treatment of lung cancer was reviewed and discussed. Although the patients with advanced cancer were referred to radiation usually, the results of radiotherapy were superior to those by chemotherapy. Of course the radiotherapy was a local one, radiation combined with chemotherapy was highly recommended, besides systemic administration of chemotherapeutics, special methods such as bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and chemoembolization would be more favourable in selected patients. Treatment of undifferentiated small cell carcinoma was becoming more dependent on chemotherapy, radiation showed as excellent local control as ever. To treat locally extended cancer patients with involvement of the thoracic wall and Pancoast's syndrome, external radiation alone were not successful, interstitial radiation or a single exposure with a large dose during the thoracotomy would be promising. Finally, data indicated that aged and poor risk patients in early stage of cancer might be treated by radiation instead of unjustifiable operation. (author)

  2. Getting a New Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be able to replace it with an artificial (man-made) valve. Cardiac size reduction . During this procedure, your doctor removes a piece of the heart muscle from an enlarged heart. This makes your heart ...

  3. Heart-Health Screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools For Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Subscribe to Heart Insight magazine and monthly ... in Spanish . Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  4. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  5. Open heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002950.htm Open heart surgery To use the sharing features on this ... large arteries connected to the heart. The term "open heart surgery" means that you are connected to a ...

  6. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  7. Congenital Heart Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  8. Heart disease and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  9. Hypertensive heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000163.htm Hypertensive heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart problems that occur because of ...

  10. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  11. Right heart ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

  12. Congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a problem with the heart's structure and function that is present at birth. ... Fraser CD, Kane LC. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend CM Jr, ... Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern ...

  13. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Home About Heart Disease Coronary Artery Disease Heart Attack Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  14. [A new machinability test machine and the machinability of composite resins for core built-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, N

    2001-06-01

    A new machinability test machine especially for dental materials was contrived. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of grinding conditions on machinability of core built-up resins using this machine, and to confirm the relationship between machinability and other properties of composite resins. The experimental machinability test machine consisted of a dental air-turbine handpiece, a control weight unit, a driving unit of the stage fixing the test specimen, and so on. The machinability was evaluated as the change in volume after grinding using a diamond point. Five kinds of core built-up resins and human teeth were used in this study. The machinabilities of these composite resins increased with an increasing load during grinding, and decreased with repeated grinding. There was no obvious correlation between the machinability and Vickers' hardness; however, a negative correlation was observed between machinability and scratch width.

  15. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  16. The Buttonhole Machine. Module 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bottonhole machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (parts and purpose) and performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (gauged buttonholes). For each topic these components are…

  17. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  18. Lung needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does not need treatment. But ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale (condition ... of the lung High blood pressure in the lung arteries Severe ...

  19. Automated selection of areas of interest in dynamic studies and camera-cinematograpy of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, F.; Adam, W.E.; Kampmann, H.; Meyer, G.; Weller, R.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in heart investigations using the first transit principle and the steady-state procedure for radionuclide scanning. Progress in the first transit principle relies on automated selection of areas of interest. A procedure has been developed which automatically performs the evaluation of the areas corresponding to the right heart, the lungs, and the left heart. A different procedure has been built up for dynamic lung studies with Xe-133 (Radiospirometry), which principally can be applied to any other organ investigation. R-wave time averaged procedures of the heart in steady state can be performed in direct or indirect manner. A direct procedure is described that leads eventually to a cinematographic presentation of the heart kinetics on the computer display. The analysis yields an exact outline of heart ventricles and auricles as prerequisite for determination of ejection fractions and clinically relevant data of the heart function

  20. Pulmonary hemosiderosis due to mitral valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung Yeop; Kim, Tae Sung; Han, Joung Ho; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of biopsy-proven secondary hemosiderosis of the lung in a 58-year-old patient with mitral valvular heart disease. Both chest radiography and high-resolution CT demonstrated patchy areas of ground-glass opacity ; the former indicated that it was in both lungs, while the latter showed inter-and intralobular septal thickening. These findings were reversible when pulmonary venous hypertension was corrected.