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Sample records for heart hemodynamic status

  1. Growth Status of Iranian Children with Hemodynamically Important Congenital Heart Disease

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    Mohammad Dalili

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between congenital heart disease (CHD and growth retardation is well documented. We investigated the growth condition of Iranian children with several types of congenital heart disease (CHD and compared it with worldwide researches. Growth condition was investigated in 469 patients with important CHD aged from 1 month to 18 years. The patients were divided into two groups; infants (aged 12 months or less, and children (1-18 yrs of age. Children with hemodynamically unimportant small VSDs or small ASDs were not studied. Other exclusion criteria were prematurity, known genetic disorders and neurologic disease affecting growthd. All patients' cardiac diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical and laboratory examinations; including electrocardiography, echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, and angiography. Body weight and height of all patients were measured using conventional methods and compared with standard growth charts. In all patients body weights and heights were significantly lower than normal population. This difference was greater in the weight of female children. Other risk factors for growth failure were large left-to-right intracardiac shunts, pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis. Iranian children with CHD have growth failure somewhat different from other countries. Lower body weights of cyanotic patients and female children indicated that these patients need more nutritional and psychosocial attention.

  2. Symptom-Hemodynamic Mismatch and Heart Failure Event Risk

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    Lee, Christopher S.; Hiatt, Shirin O.; Denfeld, Quin E.; Mudd, James O.; Chien, Christopher; Gelow, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) is a heterogeneous condition of both symptoms and hemodynamics. Objective The goal of this study was to identify distinct profiles among integrated data on physical and psychological symptoms and hemodynamics, and quantify differences in 180-day event-risk among observed profiles. Methods A secondary analysis of data collected during two prospective cohort studies by a single group of investigators was performed. Latent class mixture modeling was used to identify distinct symptom-hemodynamic profiles. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to quantify difference in event-risk (HF emergency visit, hospitalization or death) among profiles. Results The mean age (n=291) was 57±13 years, 38% were female, and 61% had class III/IV HF. Three distinct symptom-hemodynamic profiles were identified. 17.9% of patients had concordant symptoms and hemodynamics (i.e. moderate physical and psychological symptoms matched the comparatively hemodynamic profile), 17.9% had severe symptoms and average hemodynamics, and 64.2% had poor hemodynamics and mild symptoms. Compared to those in the concordant profile, both profiles of symptom-hemodynamic mismatch were associated with a markedly increased event-risk (severe symptoms hazards ratio = 3.38, p=0.033; poor hemodynamics hazards ratio = 3.48, p=0.016). Conclusions A minority of adults with HF have concordant symptoms and hemodynamics. Either profile of symptom-hemodynamic mismatch in HF is associated with a greater risk of healthcare utilization for HF or death. PMID:24988323

  3. Invasive hemodynamic characterization of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

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    Andersen, Mads Jønsson; Borlaug, Barry A

    2014-01-01

    Recent hemodynamic studies have advanced our understanding of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Despite improved pathophysiologic insight, clinical trials have failed to identify an effective treatment for HFpEF. Invasive hemodynamic assessment can diagnose or exclude HFp...

  4. Congenital heart malformations induced by hemodynamic altering surgical interventions

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    Madeline eMidgett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic heart formation results from a dynamic interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Blood flow during early embryonic stages plays a critical role in heart development, as interactions between flow and cardiac tissues generate biomechanical forces that modulate cardiac growth and remodeling. Normal hemodynamic conditions are essential for proper cardiac development, while altered blood flow induced by surgical manipulations in animal models result in heart defects similar to those seen in humans with congenital heart disease. This review compares the altered hemodynamics, changes in tissue properties, and cardiac defects reported after common surgical interventions that alter hemodynamics in the early chick embryo, and shows that interventions produce a wide spectrum of cardiac defects. Vitelline vein ligation and left atrial ligation decrease blood pressure and flow; and outflow tract banding increases blood pressure and flow velocities. These three surgical interventions result in many of the same cardiac defects, which indicate that the altered hemodynamics interfere with common looping, septation and valve formation processes that occur after intervention and that shape the four-chambered heart. While many similar defects develop after the interventions, the varying degrees of hemodynamic load alteration among the three interventions also result in varying incidence and severity of cardiac defects, indicating that the hemodynamic modulation of cardiac developmental processes is strongly dependent on hemodynamic load.

  5. Central hemodynamic responses during serial exercise tests in heart failure patients using implantable hemodynamic monitors.

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    Ohlsson, A; Steinhaus, D; Kjellström, B; Ryden, L; Bennett, T

    2003-06-01

    Exercise testing is commonly used in patients with congestive heart failure for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Such testing may be even more valuable if invasive hemodynamics are acquired. However, this will make the test more complex and expensive and only provides information from isolated moments. We studied serial exercise tests in heart failure patients with implanted hemodynamic monitors allowing recording of central hemodynamics. Twenty-one NYHA Class II-III heart failure patients underwent maximal exercise tests and submaximal bike or 6-min hall walk tests to quantify their hemodynamic responses and to study the feasibility of conducting exercise tests in patients with such devices. Patients were followed for 2-3 years with serial exercise tests. During maximal tests (n=70), heart rate increased by 52+/-19 bpm while S(v)O(2) decreased by 35+/-10% saturation units. RV systolic and diastolic pressure increased 29+/-11 and 11+/-6 mmHg, respectively, while pulmonary artery diastolic pressure increased 21+/-8 mmHg. Submaximal bike (n=196) and hall walk tests (n=172) resulted in S(v)O(2) changes of 80 and 91% of the maximal tests, while RV pressures ranged from 72 to 79% of maximal responses. An added potential value of implantable hemodynamic monitors in heart failure patients may be to quantitatively determine the true hemodynamic profile during standard non-invasive clinical exercise tests and to compare that to hemodynamic effects of regular exercise during daily living. It would be of interest to study whether such information could improve the ability to predict changes in a patient's clinical condition and to improve tailoring patient management.

  6. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Hemodynamic Changes in Left-Sided Heart Valves in Pregnant Women With Valvular Heart Disease.

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    Samiei, Niloufar; Amirsardari, Mandana; Rezaei, Yousef; Parsaee, Mozhgan; Kashfi, Fahimeh; Hantoosh Zadeh, Sedigheh; Beikmohamadi, Somayeh; Fouladi, Masoumeh; Hosseini, Saeid; Peighambari, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohebbi, Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Physiologic changes during pregnancy can deteriorate or improve patients' hemodynamic status in the setting of valvular heart disease. There are sparse data regarding the effect of pregnancy on valve hemodynamics in normal pregnant women with known valvular heart disease. In a prospective study from July 2014 to January 2016, a total of 52 normal pregnant women who had mitral stenosis, aortic stenosis, or a history of mitral valve or aortic valve replacements were assessed. All patients underwent echocardiographic examinations and hemodynamic parameters were measured for both the mitral valve and aortic valve at first, second, and third trimesters. The parameters included mean gradient, peak gradient, mean gradient/heart rate, peak gradient/heart rate, pressure halftime, dimensionless velocity index, and valve area. Although most hemodynamic parameters (i.e., mean gradient, peak gradient, mean gradient/heart rate, and peak gradient/heart rate) increased approximately 50% from first to second trimester and first to third trimester (p 0.05). The ratio of changes between trimesters for valve area and dimensionless velocity index were comparable. No clinical decompensations were observed except for 3 and 7 cases of deterioration to functional class II at second and third trimesters, respectively. In conclusion, during a full-term and uncomplicated pregnancy, mitral and aortic valve gradients increase without significant changes in valve area that are more marked between the second and first trimester than between the third and second trimester. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Invasive Hemodynamics of Valvular Heart Disease.

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    Pighi, Michele; Asgar, Anita W

    2017-07-01

    In the current era, diagnosis and follow-up of valvular heart disease is performed noninvasively using echocardiography. In some cases, the results of echocardiographic evaluation are inconclusive or discrepant with the patient's clinical symptoms. In such cases, a well-planned and executed cardiac catheterization is invaluable to clarify the clinical dilemma and assist in planning further management. This article reviews the indications, technique, and interpretation of cardiac catheterization in the setting of valvular stenosis and regurgitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prognostic value of noninvasive hemodynamic evaluation of the acute effect of levosimendan in advanced heart failure.

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    Malfatto, Gabriella; Della Rosa, Francesco; Rella, Valeria; Villani, Alessandra; Branzi, Giovanna; Blengino, Simonetta; Giglio, Alessia; Facchini, Mario; Parati, Gianfranco

    2014-04-01

    Optimization of inotropic treatment in worsening heart failure sometimes requires invasive hemodynamic assessment in selected patients. Impedance cardiography (ICG) may be useful for a noninvasive hemodynamic evaluation. ICG was performed in 40 patients (69 ± 8 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 27.5 ± 5.6%; New York Heart Association 3.18 ± 0.34; Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support 5.48 ± 0.96, before and after infusion of Levosimendan (0.1–0.2 µg/kg per min for up to 24 h). Echocardiogram, ICG [measuring cardiac index (CI), total peripheral resistances (TPRs) and thoracic fluid content (TFC)] and plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were obtained; in nine patients, right heart catheterization was also carried out. When right catheterization and ICG were performed simultaneously, a significant relationship was observed between values of CI and TPR, and between TFC and pulmonary wedge pressure. ICG detected the Levosimendan-induced recovery of the hemodynamic status, associated with improved systolic and diastolic function and reduction in BNP levels. One-year mortality was 4.4%. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of mortality were: no improvement in the severity of mitral regurgitation, a persistent restrictive filling pattern (E/E’ > 15), a reduction of BNP levels below 30% and a change below 10% in CI, TPR and TFC. When combined, absence of hemodynamic improvement at ICG could predict 1-year mortality with better sensitivity (86%) and specificity (85%) than the combination of echocardiographic and BNP criteria only (sensitivity 80% and specificity 36%). Noninvasive hemodynamic evaluation of heart failure patients during infusion of inodilator drugs is reliable and may help in their prognostic stratification.

  9. Implant experience with an implantable hemodynamic monitor for the management of symptomatic heart failure.

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    Steinhaus, David; Reynolds, Dwight W; Gadler, Fredrik; Kay, G Neal; Hess, Mike F; Bennett, Tom

    2005-08-01

    Management of congestive heart failure is a serious public health problem. The use of implantable hemodynamic monitors (IHMs) may assist in this management by providing continuous ambulatory filling pressure status for optimal volume management. The Chronicle system includes an implanted monitor, a pressure sensor lead with passive fixation, an external pressure reference (EPR), and data retrieval and viewing components. The tip of the lead is placed near the right ventricular outflow tract to minimize risk of sensor tissue encapsulation. Implant technique and lead placement is similar to that of a permanent pacemaker. After the system had been successfully implanted in 148 patients, the type and frequency of implant-related adverse events were similar to a single-chamber pacemaker implant. R-wave amplitude was 15.2 +/- 6.7 mV and the pressure waveform signal was acceptable in all but two patients in whom presence of artifacts required lead repositioning. Implant procedure time was not influenced by experience, remaining constant throughout the study. Based on this evaluation, permanent placement of an IHM in symptomatic heart failure patients is technically feasible. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the use of the continuous hemodynamic data in management of heart failure patients.

  10. Hemodynamic determinants of dyspnea improvement in acute decompensated heart failure.

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    Solomonica, Amir; Burger, Andrew J; Aronson, Doron

    2013-01-01

    Dyspnea relief constitutes a major treatment goal and a key measure of treatment efficacy in decompensated heart failure. However, there are no data with regard to the relationship between hemodynamic measurements during treatment and dyspnea improvement. We studied 233 patients assigned to right heart catheterization in the Vasodilation in the Management of Acute Congestive Heart Failure trial. Dyspnea (assessed using a 7-point Likert scale) and hemodynamic parameters were measured simultaneously at 15 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 24 hours. Dyspnea relief was defined as moderate or marked improvement. There was a time-dependent association between the reductions in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP; 25.4, 24.6, 24.0, 23.5, 23.4, 21.5, and 19.9 mm Hg) and the percentage of patients achieving dyspnea relief (17.7%, 24.6%, 32.2%, 36.2%, 37.8%, 47.4%, and 66.1%, in the respective time points). Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equations modeling demonstrated that reductions of both PCWP and mean pulmonary artery pressure were independently associated with dyspnea relief. Compared with the highest PCWP quartile, the adjusted odds ratios for dyspnea relief were 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.29), 1.07 (95% CI, 0.75-1.55), and 1.80 (95% CI, 1.22-2.65) in the third, second, and first PCWP quartiles, respectively (P(trend)=0.003). Compared with the highest mean pulmonary artery pressure quartile, the adjusted odds ratios for dyspnea relief were 2.0 (95% CI, 1.41-2.82), 2.23 (95% CI, 1.52-3.27), and 2.98 (95% CI, 1.91-4.66) in the third, second, and first mean pulmonary artery pressure quartiles, respectively (P(trend)<0.0001). A clinically significant improvement in dyspnea is associated with a reduction in both PCWP and mean pulmonary artery pressure.

  11. Differential hemodynamic effects of exercise and volume expansion in people with and without heart failure

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    Andersen, Mads Jønsson; Olson, Thomas P; Melenovsky, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Invasive hemodynamic exercise testing is commonly used in the evaluation of patients with suspected heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) or pulmonary hypertension. Saline loading has been suggested as an alternative provocative maneuver, but the hemodynamic changes...

  12. HEMODYNAMIC STATUS IN AIRWAY MANAGEMENT DURING GENERAL ANESTHESIA: COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS

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    K MONTAZERI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The laryngeal mask airway (LMA was recently introduced in general anesthesia as an alternative to the face mask or tracheal intubation for airway maintenance. Methods. The effects of LMA insertion, face mask or tracheal intubation on homodynamic status were studied in 195 normotensive patients who underwent elective transurethral lithotripsy (TUL. The patients were monitored with blood pressure measurement and pulse oximetry. Anesthesia was induced with sodium thiopental, succynilcholine and fentanyl and maintained with halothane, nitrous oxide and oxygen. Findings. The heart rate (HR and mean arterial pressure increased after LMA insertion. face mask or tracheal intubation, compared with baseline (P<0.05. The hemodynamic changes were significantly greater after tracheal intubation and face mask than after LMA insertion (P<0.05. Conclusion. We conclude that insertion of LMA is associated with less hemodynamic disturbances than face mask or tracheal intubation in normotensive patients undergoing elective operations.

  13. Implications of the Hemodynamic Optimization Approach Guided by Right Heart Catheterization in Patients with Severe Heart Failure

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    Luís E. Rohde

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the hemodynamic and functional responses obtained with clinical optimization guided by hemodynamic parameters in patients with severe and refractory heart failure. METHODS: Invasive hemodynamic monitoring using right heart catheterization aimed to reach low filling pressures and peripheral resistance. Frequent adjustments of intravenous diuretics and vasodilators were performed according to the hemodynamic measurements. RESULTS: We assessed 19 patients (age = 48±12 years and ejection fraction = 21±5% with severe heart failure. The intravenous use of diuretics and vasodilators reduced by 12 mm Hg (relative reduction of 43% pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (P<0.001, with a concomitant increment of 6 mL per beat in stroke volume (relative increment of 24%, P<0.001. We observed significant associations between pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure (r=0.76; P<0.001 and central venous pressure (r=0.63; P<0.001. After clinical optimization, improvement in functional class occurred (P< 0.001, with a tendency towards improvement in ejection fraction and no impairment to renal function. CONCLUSION: Optimization guided by hemodynamic parameters in patients with refractory heart failure provides a significant improvement in the hemodynamic profile with concomitant improvement in functional class. This study emphasizes that adjustments in blood volume result in imme-diate benefits for patients with severe heart failure.

  14. Emerging hemodynamic signatures of the right heart (Third International Right Heart Failure Summit, part 2).

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    Maron, Bradley A

    2014-12-01

    Despite the importance of preserved right ventricular structure and function with respect to outcome across the spectrum of lung, cardiac, and pulmonary vascular diseases, only recently have organized efforts developed to consider the pulmonary vascular-right ventricular apparatus as a specific unit within the larger context of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology. The Third International Right Heart Failure Summit (Boston, MA) was a multidisciplinary event dedicated to promoting a dialogue about the scientific and clinical basis of right heart disease. The current review provides a synopsis of key discussions presented during the section of the summit titled "Emerging Hemodynamic Signatures of the Right Heart." Specifically, topics emphasized in this element of the symposium included (1) the effects of pulmonary vascular dysfunction at rest or provoked by exercise on the right ventricular pressure-volume relationship, (2) the role of pressure-volume loop analysis as a method to characterize right ventricular inefficiency and predict right heart failure, and (3) the importance of a systems biology approach to identifying novel factors that contribute to pathophenotypes associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension and/or right ventricular dysfunction. Collectively, these concepts frame a forward-thinking paradigm shift in the approach to right heart disease by emphasizing factors that regulate the transition from adaptive to maladaptive right ventricular-pulmonary vascular (patho)physiology.

  15. Hemodynamic Characteristics Including Pulmonary Hypertension at Rest and During Exercise Before and After Heart Transplantation

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    Lundgren, Jakob; Rådegran, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the hemodynamic response to exercise in heart failure patients at various ages before and after heart transplantation (HT). This information is important because postoperative hemodynamics may be a predictor of survival. To investigate the hemodynamic response to HT and exercise, we grouped our patients based on preoperative age and examined their hemodynamics at rest and during exercise before and after HT. Methods and Results Ninety-four patients were evaluated at rest prior to HT with right heart catheterization at our laboratory. Of these patients, 32 were evaluated during slight supine exercise before and 1 year after HT. Postoperative evaluations were performed at rest 1 week after HT and at rest and during exercise at 4 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after HT. The exercise patients were divided into 2 groups based on preoperative age of ≤50 or >50 years. There were no age-dependent differences in the preoperative hemodynamic exercise responses. Hemodynamics markedly improved at rest and during exercise at 1 and 4 weeks, respectively, after HT; however, pulmonary and, in particular, ventricular filling pressures remained high during exercise at 1 year after HT, resulting in normalized pulmonary vascular resistance response but deranged total pulmonary vascular resistance response. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, (1) in patients with heart failure age ≤50 or >50 years may not affect the hemodynamic response to exercise to the same extent as in healthy persons, and (2) total pulmonary vascular resistance may be more adequate than pulmonary vascular resistance for evaluating the exercise response after HT. PMID:26199230

  16. Levosimendan reduces plasma B-type natriuretic peptide and interleukin 6, and improves central hemodynamics in severe heart failure patients.

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    Kyrzopoulos, Stamos; Adamopoulos, Stamatis; Parissis, John T; Rassias, John; Kostakis, George; Iliodromitis, Efstathios; Degiannis, Dimitrios; Kremastinos, Dimitrios Th

    2005-03-30

    Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels have recently been demonstrated as significant neurohormonal markers associated with the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). Additionally, clinical studies have shown that the calcium sensitizer, levosimendan, beneficially affects the central hemodynamics of CHF patients and improves their long-term prognosis. This study investigates whether levosimendan-induced hemodynamic improvement of CHF patients is related to the respective changes of NT-proBNP and IL-6 levels. Circulating levels of NT-pro BNP and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 12 patients with decompensated advanced CHF at baseline, immediately after the end of a 24-h levosimendan infusion and 72 h after the initiation of treatment. Hemodynamic parameters of patients (pulmonary wedge and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), stroke volume, and cardiac output and index) were also monitored during the same period. NT-proBNP and IL-6 levels were significantly reduced in severe CHF patients within 72 h after the initiation of levosimendan treatment (pNT-proBNP levels and the respective reduction of pulmonary wedge pressure (r(s)=0.65, pBNP and IL-6 levels may be useful biochemical markers related with the levosimendan-induced improvement in central hemodynamics and the clinical status of decompensated advanced CHF patients.

  17. Comparison of Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels to Simultaneously Obtained Right Heart Hemodynamics in Stable Outpatients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

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    Helgeson, Scott A; Imam, J Saadi; Moss, John E; Hodge, David O; Burger, Charles D

    2018-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease that requires validated biomarkers of disease severity. While PAH is defined hemodynamically by right heart catheterization (RHC), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is recommended by guidelines to assess disease status. Retrospectively collected data in 138 group 1 PAH patients were examined for the correlation of BNP levels to simultaneously obtained right heart catheterization (RHC). Patients were mostly Caucasian women, with functional class III symptoms, mean BNP of 406 ± 443 pg/mL, and an average right atrial pressure (RAP) of 9.9 ± 5.7 mm Hg and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of 47.3 ± 14.7 mm Hg. Significant correlation was demonstrated between BNP and RAP ( p = 0.021) and mPAP ( p = 0.003). Additional correlation was seen with right heart size on echocardiography: right atrial (RAE; p = 0.04) and right ventricular enlargement ( p = 0.03). An increased BNP level was an independent predictor of mortality ( p right heart hemodynamics. The current results reinforce the use of BNP level as a continuous variable to assess disease severity in group 1 PAH.

  18. The effect of combined conventional and modified ultrafiltration on mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic changes in congenital heart surgery

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    Mohsen Ziyaeifard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with increased fluid accumulation around the heart which influences pulmonary and cardiac diastolic function. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of modified ultrafiltration (MUF versus conventional ultrafiltration (CUF on duration of mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic status in children undergoing congenital heart surgery. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 46 pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass throughout their congenital heart surgery. Arteriovenous MUF plus CUF was performed in 23 patients (intervention group and sole CUF was performed for other 23 patients (control group. In MUF group, arterial cannula was linked to the filter inlet through the arterial line, and for 10 min, 10 ml/kg/min of blood was filtered and returned via cardioplegia line to the right atrium. Different parameters including hemodynamic variables, length of mechanical ventilation, Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay, and inotrope requirement were compared between the two groups. Results: At immediate post-MUF phase, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.05 only in the study group. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in time of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.004 and ICU stay (P = 0.007 between the two groups. Inotropes including milrinone (P = 0.04, epinephrine (P = 0.001, and dobutamine (P = 0.002 were used significantly less frequently for patients in the intervention than the control group. Conclusion: Administration of MUF following surgery improves hemodynamic status of patients and also significantly decreases the duration of mechanical ventilation and inotrope requirement within 48 h after surgery.

  19. Exercise Hemodynamics in Chronic Heart Failure : Physiological and Clinical Aspects

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    Spee, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic heart failure is intrinsically associated with exercise intolerance. Understanding the pathophysiological background of exercise intolerance is essential for optimizing the response to current and future therapies aiming at an improvement of exercise capacity. Each step in the oxygen

  20. Thermal effect on heart rate and hemodynamics in vitelline arteries of stage 18 chicken embryos.

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    Lee, Jung Yeop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the thermal effects on heart rate, hemodynamics, and response of vitelline arteries of stage-18 chicken embryos. Heart rate was monitored by a high-speed imaging method, while hemodynamic quantities were evaluated using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Experiments were carried out at seven different temperatures (36-42 °C with 1 °C interval) after 1h of incubation to stabilize the heart rate. The heart rate increased in a linear manner (r = 0.992). Due to the increased cardiac output (or heart rate), the hemodynamic quantities such as mean velocity (U(mean)), velocity fluctuation (U(fluc)), and peak velocity (U(peak)) also increased with respect to the Womersley number (Ω) in the manner r = 0.599, 0.693, and 0.725, respectively. This indicates that the mechanical force exerting on the vessel walls increases. However, the active response (or regulation) of the vitelline arteries was not observed in this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating changes in cardiac output using an implanted hemodynamic monitor in heart failure patients

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    Ståhlberg, Marcus; Damgaard, Morten; Ersgård, David

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate an algorithm that estimates changes in cardiac output (CO) from right ventricular (RV) pressure waveforms derived from an implantable hemodynamic monitor (IHM) in heart failure patients. DESIGN: Twelve heart failure patients (NYHA II-III, EF 32......%) with an implantable hemodynamic monitor (Chronicle) were included in this study. Changes in cardiac output were provoked by body position change at rest (left lateral supine, horizontal supine, sitting, and standing) and a steady state bicycle exercise at 20 watts. Estimated CO derived from the IHM (CO...... was -0.39 L/min (11%). Limits of agreement were +/-1.56 L/min and relative error was 21%. CONCLUSIONS: A simple algorithm based on RV pressure wave form characteristics derived from an IHM can be used to estimate changes in CO in heart failure patients. These findings encourage further research aiming...

  2. Cardiac Hemodynamics in the Pathogenesis of Congenital Heart Disease and Aortic Valve Calcification

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    Nigam, Vishal

    2011-11-01

    An improved understanding of the roles of hemodynamic forces play in cardiac development and the pathogenesis of cardiac disease will have significant scientific and clinical impact. I will focus on the role of fluid dynamics in congenital heart disease and aortic valve calcification. Congenital heart defects are the most common form of birth defect. Aortic valve calcification/stenosis is the third leading cause of adult heart disease and the most common form of acquired valvular disease in developed countries. Given the high incidence of these diseases and their associated morbidity and mortality, the potential translational impact of an improved understanding of cardiac hemodynamic forces is very large. Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego

  3. Hypertensive heart disease and obesity: a complex interaction between hemodynamic and not hemodynamic factors.

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    Sarzani, Riccardo; Bordicchia, Marica; Spannella, Francesco; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Fedecostante, Massimiliano

    2014-06-01

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled, with an increase in obesity-related cardiovascular disease and mortality. Several factors are involved in the genesis of hypertension and hypertensive heart disease (HHD) in overweight/obesity. This review is focused on bridging factors between excessive adiposity and HHD, presenting a unifying hypothesis of vascular-metabolic syndrome, where an "handicap" of the natriuretic peptide system has a central role both in adipocyte dysmetabolism as well as in increased blood pressure and HHD.

  4. Renal Hemodynamic Effects of Serelaxin in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Adriaan A.; Dahlke, Marion; Meyer, Sven; Stepinska, Janina; Gottlieb, Stephen S.; Jones, Andrew; Zhang, Yiming; Laurent, Didier; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Navis, Gerjan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background-Serelaxin is a promising therapy for acute heart failure. The renal hemodynamic effects of serelaxin in patients with chronic heart failure are unknown. Methods and Results-In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study, patients with New York Heart Association

  5. Determination of Hemodynamic Changes on Heart Rate for Assessment of Orthostatic Intolerance in Older People

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    Hortelano Rubio, M.; Reilly, R.B.; Cervigón Abad, R.

    2016-07-01

    Introduction.- The aim of our study was to assess the hemodynamic changes that occur in symptomatic Orthostatic Intolerance (OI) patients, at the starting of exercise and recovery stages during six minutes walking distance test. Materials.- We analysed 65 older subjects, of whom 42 were women. The participants were carried out the Active Stand Protocol. The records were divided into: Phase 1 (pre-exercise), Phase 2 (starting of exercise), Phase 3 (active), Phase 4 (recovery) and Phase 5 (prost-exercise). Methods.- The averages and differences of heart rate (HR) between Phase 1, Phase 3 and Phase 5 were calculated. In the same way, duration before stabilization from passive to active stages (Phase 2) and from active to passive stages (Phase 4) were calculated. The máximum and mínimum values achieved in these time series and the difference between these values were also calculated. Results.- Results showed that the symptomatic OI patients employed more time to reach the active phase tan the asymptomatic OI participants. Moreover, the symptomatic OI participants showed higher mínimum heart rate values at the starting of exercise and recovery stages. However, the asymptomatic OI group illustrated a higher difference between the máximum and mínimum heart rate values in these stages with a significance p=0.003 and p=0.007, respectivecly. Conclusion.- This study provides important information on hemodynamic parameters and can be helpful for description of the hemodynamic changes that occur during OI. (Author)

  6. Baseline Hemodynamics and Response to Contrast Media During Diagnostic Cardiac Catheterization Predict Adverse Events in Heart Failure Patients.

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    Denardo, Scott J; Vock, David M; Schmalfuss, Carsten M; Young, Gregory D; Tcheng, James E; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    Contrast media administered during cardiac catheterization can affect hemodynamic variables. However, little is documented about the effects of contrast on hemodynamics in heart failure patients or the prognostic value of baseline and changes in hemodynamics for predicting subsequent adverse events. In this prospective study of 150 heart failure patients, we measured hemodynamics at baseline and after administration of iodixanol or iopamidol contrast. One-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of adverse event-free survival (death, heart failure hospitalization, and rehospitalization) were generated, grouping patients by baseline measures of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and cardiac index (CI), and by changes in those measures after contrast administration. We used Cox proportional hazards modeling to assess sequentially adding baseline PCWP and change in CI to 5 validated risk models (Seattle Heart Failure Score, ESCAPE [Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness], CHARM [Candesartan in Heart Failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity], CORONA [Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure], and MAGGIC [Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure]). Median contrast volume was 109 mL. Both contrast media caused similarly small but statistically significant changes in most hemodynamic variables. There were 39 adverse events (26.0%). Adverse event rates increased using the composite metric of baseline PCWP and change in CI (Pcontrast correlated with the poorest prognosis. Adding both baseline PCWP and change in CI to the 5 risk models universally improved their predictive value (P≤0.02). In heart failure patients, the administration of contrast causes small but significant changes in hemodynamics. Calculating baseline PCWP with change in CI after contrast predicts adverse events and increases the predictive value of existing models. Patients with elevated baseline PCWP and

  7. Hemodynamic simulation of the heart using a 2D model and MR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeler, Pernille Thorup

    2002-01-01

    Computational models of the blood flow in the heart are a useful tool for studying the functioning of the heart. The purpose of this thesis is to achieve a better understanding of hemodynamics of the normal and diseased hearts through the use of a computational model and magnetic resonance (MR......) data. We present a 2D computational model of the blood flow in the left side of the heart. The work is based on Peskin and McQueen's 2D model dimensioned to data on the dog heart, which we improve and adjust using physiological knowledge and MR velocity data to achieve a model of the human heart...... by letting the apical region be inactive. In both of these cases the simulation results compare well with clinically observed data on dogs and humans. We present Peskin and McQueen's 3D model of the entire human heart and the nearby great vessels. We perform a simulation with the model, where we adjust...

  8. RENAL AND SYSTEMIC HEMODYNAMIC-EFFECTS OF IBOPAMINE IN PATIENTS WITH MILD-TO-MODERATE CONGESTIVE-HEART-FAILURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LIEVERSE, AG; VANVELDHUISEN, DJ; SMIT, AJ; ZIJLSTRA, JG; MEIJER, S; REITSMA, WD; LIE, KI; GIRBES, ARJ

    To study the hemodynamic and renal effects of the orally (p.o.) active dopamine (DA) agonist ibopamine, we examined 10 patients with mild to moderate congestive heart failure (CHF), who were stable while treated with digoxin and diuretics. All patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA)

  9. Central hemodynamics, vegetative status, and 40K excretion in children from regions with radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovina, N.A.; Korenkov, I.P.; Zaplatnikov, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Metabolism of potassium and natural radionuclide 40 K in children with functional disorders of circulatory organs, permanently living in areas with radiation contamination as a result of the Chernobyl accident is studied. Health status, cardiovascular function, vegetative homeostasis, and metabolism of stable potassium and 40 K were studied by clinical and instrumental methods in 61 children aged 10 t 14 years living in regions with radionuclide contamination in the Bryansk district (density of radiation contamination with 137 Cs 15 to 40 Ci/km 2 , level of 137 Cs incorporation up to 0.15 mkCi per organism. It was stated that six to seven years after the Chernobyl accident 58.3 to 62.5 % of children permanently living in regions with radionuclide contamination developed functional changes of the bioelectrical activity of the myocardium,, presenting as specific heart rhythm, conductivity, and repolarization process involving no disorders of the central hemodynamics; vegetative dysfunction was observed in 78.3 % children (p 40 K in different groups of children with functional disorders of the circulatory organs. 14 refs.; 3 tabs

  10. Association of Cardiac Hemodynamic Factors With Severity of White Matter Hyperintensities in Chronic Valvular Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Jin; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Ryu, Young Jin; Kim, Jeong-Min; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho; Lee, Sang Kun; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2018-01-01

    The cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH) is frequently noted in patients with chronic heart disease. Long-term alteration of cardiac hemodynamics might have an influence on the mechanism of cerebral WMH. To investigate the association between chronically altered cardiac hemodynamics and severity of cerebral WMH in patients with chronic valvular heart disease. This cross-sectional analysis identified 303 consecutive patients at a tertiary referral center between 2008 and 2016 who were 50 years or older, and diagnosed with severe chronic valvular heart disease and underwent cardiac catherization, echocardiography, and received brain magnetic resonance imaging. Among these patients, 71 with other demonstrated cardiac disease, central nervous system disease, and/or without sufficient catheterization data were excluded, and the remaining 232 patients were included in further analyses. The site and mechanism of valve diseases, as well as clinical and medication profiles, were reviewed. Cardiac catheterization parameters such as right atrial (RA) mean pressure, right ventricular pressure, and aortic mean pressure were obtained. Comprehensive echocardiographic hemodynamic markers such as left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, LV mass index, LV end diastolic volume, cardiac index, and E/e' ratio were also obtained. White matter hyperintensity volume was quantitatively evaluated using volumetric analysis. This study included 232 patients (103 men [44.4%] and 129 women [55.6%]; mean [SD] (range) age, 65.6 [8.8] (51-88) years) in the final analysis. The mean (SD) WMH volume was 5.93 (7.14) mL (median [interquartile range], 4.33 [1.33-8.62] mL), and mean (SD) RA pressure was 10.0 (4.7) mm Hg. From the catheterization data, 147 patients (63.4%) were classified as having a disease involving the mitral valve; 93 (40.1%), aortic valve; 37 (15.9%), tricuspid valve; and 4 (1.7%), pulmonary valve. In multivariate linear regression analysis, adjusting the type and mechanism of

  11. Hemodynamic deterioration during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation weaning in a patient with a total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinian, Leila; Levin, Matthew A; Fischer, Gregory W; Anyanwu, Anelechi C; Torregrossa, Gianluca; Evans, Adam S

    2015-01-01

    The Total Artificial Heart (Syncardia, Tucson, AZ) is approved for use as a bridge-to-transplant or destination therapy in patients who have irreversible end-stage biventricular heart failure. We present a unique case, in which the inferior vena cava compression by a total artificial heart was initially masked for days by the concurrent placement of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannula. This is the case of a 33-year-old man admitted to our institution with recurrent episodes of ventricular tachycardia requiring emergent total artificial heart and venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation placement. This interesting scenario highlights the importance for critical care physicians to have an understanding of exact anatomical localization of a total artificial heart, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and their potential interactions. In total artificial heart patients with hemodynamic compromise or reduced device filling, consideration should always be given to venous inflow compression, particularly in those with smaller body surface area. Transesophageal echocardiogram is a readily available diagnostic tool that must be considered standard of care, not only in the operating room but also in the ICU, when dealing with this complex subpopulation of cardiac patients.

  12. A computer-based matrix for rapid calculation of pulmonary hemodynamic parameters in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Antonio Augusto; Miranda, Rogerio dos Anjos; Goncalves, Rilvani Cavalcante; Thomaz, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    In patients with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac catheterization for hemodynamic purposes, parameter estimation by the indirect Fick method using a single predicted value of oxygen consumption has been a matter of criticism. We developed a computer-based routine for rapid estimation of replicate hemodynamic parameters using multiple predicted values of oxygen consumption. Using Microsoft Excel facilities, we constructed a matrix containing 5 models (equations) for prediction of oxygen consumption, and all additional formulas needed to obtain replicate estimates of hemodynamic parameters. By entering data from 65 patients with ventricular septal defects, aged 1 month to 8 years, it was possible to obtain multiple predictions for oxygen consumption, with clear between-age groups ( P <.001) and between-methods ( P <.001) differences. Using these predictions in the individual patient, it was possible to obtain the upper and lower limits of a likely range for any given parameter, which made estimation more realistic. The organized matrix allows for rapid obtainment of replicate parameter estimates, without error due to exhaustive calculations. (author)

  13. Visceral Congestion in Heart Failure: Right Ventricular Dysfunction, Splanchnic Hemodynamics, and the Intestinal Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsinelli, Vincenzo B; Sinha, Arjun; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2017-12-01

    Visceral venous congestion of the gut may play a key role in the pathogenesis of right-sided heart failure (HF) and cardiorenal syndromes. Here, we review the role of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, visceral congestion, splanchnic hemodynamics, and the intestinal microenvironment in the setting of right-sided HF. We review recent literature on this topic, outline possible mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, and discuss potential therapeutics. There are several mechanisms linking RV-gut interactions via visceral venous congestion which could result in (1) hypoxia and acidosis in enterocytes, which may lead to enhanced sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) expression with increased sodium and fluid retention; (2) decreased luminal pH in the intestines, which could lead to alteration of the gut microbiome which could increase gut permeability and inflammation; (3) alteration of renal hemodynamics with triggering of the cardiorenal syndrome; and (4) altered phosphate metabolism resulting in increased pulmonary artery stiffening, thereby increasing RV afterload. A wide variety of therapeutic interventions that act on the RV, pulmonary vasculature, intestinal microenvironment, and the kidney could alter these pathways and should be tested in patients with right-sided HF. The RV-gut axis is an important aspect of HF pathogenesis that deserves more attention. Modulation of the pathways interconnecting the right heart, visceral congestion, and the intestinal microenvironment could be a novel avenue of intervention for right-sided HF.

  14. Hemodynamics of a functional centrifugal-flow total artificial heart with functional atrial contraction in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Takuya; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Sano, Kyosuke; Taira, Yasunori; Tsuboko, Yusuke; Yamada, Akihiro; Miura, Hidekazu; Katahira, Shintaro; Akiyama, Masatoshi; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2016-03-01

    Implantation of a total artificial heart (TAH) is one of the therapeutic options for the treatment of patients with end-stage biventricular heart failure. There is no report on the hemodynamics of the functional centrifugal-flow TAH with functional atrial contraction (fCFTAH). We evaluated the effects of pulsatile flow by atrial contraction in acute animal models. The goats received fCFTAH that we created from two centrifugal-flow ventricular assist devices. Some hemodynamic parameters maintained acceptable levels: heart rate 115.5 ± 26.3 bpm, aortic pressure 83.5 ± 10.1 mmHg, left atrial pressure 18.0 ± 5.9 mmHg, pulmonary pressure 28.5 ± 9.7 mmHg, right atrial pressure 13.6 ± 5.2 mmHg, pump flow 4.0 ± 1.1 L/min (left) 3.9 ± 1.1 L/min (right), and cardiac index 2.13 ± 0.14 L/min/m(2). fCFTAH with atrial contraction was able to maintain the TAH circulation by forming a pulsatile flow in acute animal experiments. Taking the left and right flow rate balance using the low internal pressure loss of the VAD pumps may be easier than by other pumps having considerable internal pressure loss. We showed that the remnant atrial contraction effected the flow rate change of the centrifugal pump, and the atrial contraction waves reflected the heart rate. These results indicate that remnant atria had the possibility to preserve autonomic function in fCFTAH. We may control fCFTAH by reflecting the autonomic function, which is estimated with the flow rate change of the centrifugal pump.

  15. Relationship Between Cerebral Oxygenation and Hemodynamic and Oxygen Transport Parameters in Surgery for Acquired Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lenkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamic and oxygen transport parameters in surgical correction of concomitant acquired heart diseases. Subjects and methods. Informed consent was received from 40 patients who required surgery because of concomitant (two or more acquired heart defects. During procedure, perioperative monitoring of oxygen transport and cerebral oxygenation was performed with the aid of PiCCO2 monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany and a Fore-Sight cerebral oximeter (CASMED, USA. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and fen-tanyl, by monitoring the depth of anesthesia. Early postoperative intensive therapy was based on the protocol for early targeted correction of hemodynamic disorders. Oxygen transport and cerebral oxygenation parameters were estimated intraopera-tively and within 24 postoperative hours. A statistical analysis including evaluation of Spearman correlations was performed with the aid of SPSS 15.0. Results. During perfusion, there was a relationship between cerebral oximetry values and hemat-ocrit levels, and oxygen partial pressure in the venous blood. Furthermore, a negative correlation between cerebral oximetry values and blood lactate levels was found 30 minutes after initiation of extracorporeal circulation (EC. During the study, there was a positive correlation between cerebral oxygenation and values of cardiac index, central venous saturation, and oxygen delivery index. There was a negative relationship between cerebral oxygenation and extravascular lung water at the beginning of surgery and a correlation between cerebral oximetry values and oxygenation index by the end of the first 24 postoperative hours. Conclusion. The cerebral oxygenation values correlate -with the main determinants of oxygen transport during EC and after cardiac surgical procedures. Cerebral oximetry may be used in early targeted therapy for the surgical correction of acquired combined

  16. Morphological and Hemodynamic Discriminators for Rupture Status in Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lv

    Full Text Available The conflicting findings of previous morphological and hemodynamic studies on intracranial aneurysm rupture may be caused by the relatively small sample sizes and the variation in location of the patient-specific aneurysm models. We aimed to determine the discriminators for aneurysm rupture status by focusing on only posterior communicating artery (PCoA aneurysms.In 129 PCoA aneurysms (85 ruptured, 44 unruptured, clinical, morphological and hemodynamic characteristics were compared between the ruptured and unruptured cases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the discriminators for rupture status of PCoA aneurysms.While univariate analyses showed that the size of aneurysm dome, aspect ratio (AR, size ratio (SR, dome-to-neck ratio (DN, inflow angle (IA, normalized wall shear stress (NWSS and percentage of low wall shear stress area (LSA were significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm rupture status. With multivariate analyses, significance was only retained for higher IA (OR = 1.539, p < 0.001 and LSA (OR = 1.393, p = 0.041.Hemodynamics and morphology were related to rupture status of intracranial aneurysms. Higher IA and LSA were identified as discriminators for rupture status of PCoA aneurysms.

  17. COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS OF A PROGRESSIVE MOBILIZATION AND MOZART MUSIC THERAPY ON NON-INVASIVE HEMODYNAMIC STATUS CHANGES IN PATIENTS WITH HEAD INJURY IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Indriani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The instability of hemodynamic status in patients with head injury with decreased consciousness has an effect on the increase of intracranial pressure. The recovery of hemodynamic status can be done through nursing intervention either by providing a sensory stimulus (music therapy or motor stimulus (progressive mobilization. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of progressive mobilization of level I with Mozart's music therapy on non-invasive hemodynamic status changes in patients with head injury with decreased awareness. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pretest-posttest design. There were 34 samples selected using consecutive sampling, which 17 samples assigned in a group of progressive mobilization and group of music therapy. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon test were used for paired group, and Independent t-test and Mann-Whitney test for unpaired group. Results: Progressive mobilization of level I had significant effect on changes in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0001, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002 and MAP (p = 0.019, and no significant effect on heart rate (p = 0.155, respiration (p = 0.895 and oxygen saturation (p = 0.248. Mozart's music therapy had a significant effect on changes in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0001, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.0001, respiration (p= 0.032 and oxygen saturation (p = 0.008, but no effect on MAP (p = 0.561. There was a significant difference between the two interventions in the systolic blood pressure and heart rate variables (p 0.05. Conclusion: The Mozart's music therapy is more effective on non-invasive hemodynamic status changes in patients with head injury with decreased consciousness compared with progressive mobilization of level I.

  18. Morphological and Hemodynamic Discriminators for Rupture Status in Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Nan; Wang, Chi; Karmonik, Christof; Fang, Yibin; Xu, Jinyu; Yu, Ying; Cao, Wei; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The conflicting findings of previous morphological and hemodynamic studies on intracranial aneurysm rupture may be caused by the relatively small sample sizes and the variation in location of the patient-specific aneurysm models. We aimed to determine the discriminators for aneurysm rupture status by focusing on only posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms. Materials and Methods In 129 PCoA aneurysms (85 ruptured, 44 unruptured), clinical, morphological and hemo...

  19. Hemodynamic and neurochemical determinates of renal function in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Cameron; Cherney, David Z I; Parker, Andrea B; Mak, Susanna; Floras, John S; Al-Hesayen, Abdul; Parker, John D

    2016-01-15

    Abnormal renal function is common in acute and chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) and is related to the severity of congestion. However, treatment of congestion often leads to worsening renal function. Our objective was to explore basal determinants of renal function and their response to hemodynamic interventions. Thirty-seven patients without CHF and 59 patients with chronic CHF (ejection fraction; 23 ± 8%) underwent right heart catheterization, measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR; inulin) and renal plasma flow (RPF; para-aminohippurate), and radiotracer estimates of renal sympathetic activity. A subset (26 without, 36 with CHF) underwent acute pharmacological intervention with dobutamine or nitroprusside. We explored the relationship between baseline and drug-induced hemodynamic changes and changes in renal function. In CHF, there was an inverse relationship among right atrial mean pressure (RAM) pressure, RPF, and GFR. By contrast, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac index (CI), and measures of renal sympathetic activity were not significant predictors. In those with CHF there was also an inverse relationship among the drug-induced changes in RAM as well as pulmonary artery mean pressure and the change in GFR. Changes in MAP and CI did not predict the change in GFR in those with CHF. Baseline values and changes in RAM pressure did not correlate with GFR in those without CHF. In the CHF group there was a positive correlation between RAM pressure and renal sympathetic activity. There was also an inverse relationship among RAM pressure, GFR, and RPF in patients with chronic CHF. The observation that acute reductions in RAM pressure is associated with an increase in GFR in patients with CHF has important clinical implications. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Clinical Implications of Cluster Analysis-Based Classification of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Correlation with Bedside Hemodynamic Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ahmad

    Full Text Available Classification of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF is based on subjective criteria that crudely capture disease heterogeneity. Improved phenotyping of the syndrome may help improve therapeutic strategies.To derive cluster analysis-based groupings for patients hospitalized with ADHF, and compare their prognostic performance to hemodynamic classifications derived at the bedside.We performed a cluster analysis on baseline clinical variables and PAC measurements of 172 ADHF patients from the ESCAPE trial. Employing regression techniques, we examined associations between clusters and clinically determined hemodynamic profiles (warm/cold/wet/dry. We assessed association with clinical outcomes using Cox proportional hazards models. Likelihood ratio tests were used to compare the prognostic value of cluster data to that of hemodynamic data.We identified four advanced HF clusters: 1 male Caucasians with ischemic cardiomyopathy, multiple comorbidities, lowest B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels; 2 females with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, few comorbidities, most favorable hemodynamics; 3 young African American males with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, most adverse hemodynamics, advanced disease; and 4 older Caucasians with ischemic cardiomyopathy, concomitant renal insufficiency, highest BNP levels. There was no association between clusters and bedside-derived hemodynamic profiles (p = 0.70. For all adverse clinical outcomes, Cluster 4 had the highest risk, and Cluster 2, the lowest. Compared to Cluster 4, Clusters 1-3 had 45-70% lower risk of all-cause mortality. Clusters were significantly associated with clinical outcomes, whereas hemodynamic profiles were not.By clustering patients with similar objective variables, we identified four clinically relevant phenotypes of ADHF patients, with no discernable relationship to hemodynamic profiles, but distinct associations with adverse outcomes. Our analysis suggests that ADHF classification using

  1. Emerging hemodynamic signatures of the right heart (Third International Right Heart Failure Summit, part 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Despite the importance of preserved right ventricular structure and function with respect to outcome across the spectrum of lung, cardiac, and pulmonary vascular diseases, only recently have organized efforts developed to consider the pulmonary vascular–right ventricular apparatus as a specific unit within the larger context of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology. The Third International Right Heart Failure Summit (Boston, MA) was a multidisciplinary event dedicated to promoting a dialog...

  2. Ongoing right ventricular hemodynamics in heart failure: clinical value of measurements derived from an implantable monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Philip B; Magalski, Anthony; Braunschweig, Frieder; Böhm, Michael; Reynolds, Dwight; Steinhaus, David; Luby, Allyson; Linde, Cecilia; Ryden, Lars; Cremers, Bodo; Takle, Teri; Bennett, Tom

    2003-02-19

    This study examined the characteristics of continuously measured right ventricular (RV) hemodynamic information derived from an implantable hemodynamic monitor (IHM) in heart failure patients. Hemodynamic monitoring might improve the day-to-day management of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Little is known about the characteristics of long-term hemodynamic information in patients with CHF or how such information relates to meaningful clinical events. Thirty-two patients with CHF received a permanent RV IHM system similar to a single-lead pacemaker. Right ventricular systolic and diastolic pressures, heart rate, and pressure derivatives were continuously measured for nine months without using the data for clinical decision-making or management of patients. Data were then made available to clinical providers, and the patients were followed up for 17 months. Pressure characteristics during optimal volume, clinically determined volume-overload exacerbations, and volume depletion events were examined. The effect of IHM on hospitalizations was examined using the patients' historical controls. Long-term RV pressure measurements had either marked variability or minimal time-related changes. During 36 volume-overload events, RV systolic pressures increased by 25 +/- 4% (p < 0.05) and heart rate increased by 11 +/- 2% (p < 0.05). Pressure increases occurred in 9 of 12 events 4 +/- 2 days before the exacerbations requiring hospitalization. Hospitalizations before using IHM data for clinical management averaged 1.08 per patient year and decreased to 0.47 per patient-year (57% reduction, p < 0.01) after hemodynamic data were used. Long-term ambulatory pressure measurements from an IHM may be helpful in guiding day-to-day clinical management, with a potentially favorable impact on CHF hospitalizations.

  3. MUSIC AND AROMATHERAPY: A GOOD COMBINATION FOR REDUCING ANXIETY AND STABILIZING NON-INVASIVE HEMODYNAMIC STATUS IN PATIENTS IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Kumala

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combining musical and aromatherapy therapy is expected to have a stronger effect in the reduction of anxiety and non-invasive hemodynamic stability. Objective: To examine the effect of the combination of music and aromatherapy on anxiety and non-invasive hemodynamic in patients in the intensive care unit. Methods: This was a quasy experimental study with non-equivalent group. An experimental group was given a combined musical and aromatherapy, while a control group was given music therapy. Thirty samples selected using accidental sampling, with 15 samples randomly assigned in the music group and combination group. HARS scale (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale was used to measure anxiety. Non-invasive hemodynamic status of patients such as blood pressure and heart rate were documented in the observation sheet. Paired t-test and one-way ANOVA were used for data analysis. Results: There were significant effects of combination therapy on anxiety (p=0.001, diastole (p=0.004 and heart rate (p=0.031, but no significant effect on systole (p=0.387. While music therapy alone had a significant effect on anxiety (p=0.001, systole (p=0.047, and diastole (p=0.037. Conclusion: The combination therapy (music-aromatherapy had a greater effect than the music therapy alone in decreasing anxiety, and stabilizing diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. This therapy can be used as an alternative in nursing interventions, and can be used as inputs to develop standard of operational procedure for anxiety and non-invasive hemodynamic stability.

  4. Clinical predictors and hemodynamic consequences of elevated peripheral chemosensitivity in optimally treated men with chronic systolic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewinski, Piotr; Engelman, Zoar J; Fudim, Marat; Tubek, Stanislaw; Paleczny, Bartlomiej; Jankowska, Ewa A; Banasiak, Waldemar; Sobotka, Paul A; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2013-06-01

    Augmented peripheral chemoreflex response is an important mechanism in the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure (CHF). This study characterizes prevalence and clinical predictors of this phenomenon in optimally managed male CHF patients, and seeks to describe the hemodynamic consequences of chemoreceptor hypersensitivity. Thirty-four optimally managed CHF patients and 16 control subjects were prospectively studied. Hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR)-a measure of peripheral chemosensitivity-was calculated with the use of short nitrogen gas administrations. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) following transient hypoxic challenges were recorded with a Nexfin monitor. Hemodynamic responses to hypoxia were expressed by the linear slopes between oxygen saturation (%) and SBP (mm Hg) or HR (beats/min). Elevated HVR was present in 15 (44%) of the CHF patients. Patients with elevated HVR exhibited higher levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation. CHF patients with elevated HVR had significantly greater SBP and HR responses to hypoxia than CHF patients with normal HVR. Despite comprehensive pharmacotherapy, elevated HVR is prevalent in CHF patients, related to severity of the disease and associated with augmented hemodynamic responses to hypoxia. CHF patients with elevated HVR may be prone to unfavorable hemodynamic changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphological and Hemodynamic Discriminators for Rupture Status in Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Nan; Wang, Chi; Karmonik, Christof; Fang, Yibin; Xu, Jinyu; Yu, Ying; Cao, Wei; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2016-01-01

    The conflicting findings of previous morphological and hemodynamic studies on intracranial aneurysm rupture may be caused by the relatively small sample sizes and the variation in location of the patient-specific aneurysm models. We aimed to determine the discriminators for aneurysm rupture status by focusing on only posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms. In 129 PCoA aneurysms (85 ruptured, 44 unruptured), clinical, morphological and hemodynamic characteristics were compared between the ruptured and unruptured cases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the discriminators for rupture status of PCoA aneurysms. While univariate analyses showed that the size of aneurysm dome, aspect ratio (AR), size ratio (SR), dome-to-neck ratio (DN), inflow angle (IA), normalized wall shear stress (NWSS) and percentage of low wall shear stress area (LSA) were significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm rupture status. With multivariate analyses, significance was only retained for higher IA (OR = 1.539, p PCoA aneurysms.

  6. A Computational Study on the Relation between Resting Heart Rate and Atrial Fibrillation Hemodynamics under Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Scarsoglio, Stefania; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR) target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model. The AF lumped-parameter model was run to simulate resting (1 Metabolic Equivalent of Task-MET) and various exercise conditions (4 METs: brisk walking; 6 METs: skiing; 8 METs: running), considering different resting HR (70 bpm for the slower resting HR-SHR-simulations, and 100 bpm for the higher resting HR-HHR-simulations). To compare relative variations of cardiovascular variables upon exertion, the variation comparative index (VCI)-the absolute variation between the exercise and the resting values in SHR simulations referred to the absolute variation in HHR simulations-was calculated at each exercise grade (VCI4, VCI6 and VCI8). Pulmonary venous pressure underwent a greater increase in HHR compared to SHR simulations (VCI4 = 0.71, VCI6 = 0.73 and VCI8 = 0.77), while for systemic arterial pressure the opposite is true (VCI4 = 1.15, VCI6 = 1.36, VCI8 = 1.56). The computational findings suggest that a slower, with respect to a higher resting HR, might be preferable in permanent AF patients, since during exercise pulmonary venous pressure undergoes a slighter increase and systemic blood pressure reveals a more appropriate increase.

  7. Markers of inflammation and hemodynamic measurements in obesity: Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla; Jensen, Jan S; Marott, Jacob L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-grade chronic inflammation has been proposed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Low-grade chronic inflammation is also closely associated with obesity, an established causative factor in the development of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to inves......BACKGROUND: Low-grade chronic inflammation has been proposed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Low-grade chronic inflammation is also closely associated with obesity, an established causative factor in the development of hypertension. The purpose of this study...... was to investigate the relationship between two markers of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen, and blood pressure (BP) and other hemodynamic variables in obese subjects. METHODS: From a large cardiovascular study based in the general population, we selected subjects with a body mass index (BMI...... index (rho: -0.057 to 0.068; P > 0.13). However, fibrinogen and CRP were found to be significantly related to heart rate (rho: 0.127-0.169; P obese subjects from the general population, we found no significant relationships between markers...

  8. Art care: A multi-modality coronary 3D reconstruction and hemodynamic status assessment software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siogkas, Panagiotis K; Stefanou, Kostas A; Athanasiou, Lambros S; Papafaklis, Michail I; Michalis, Lampros K; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2018-01-01

    Due to the incremental increase of clinical interest in the development of software that allows the 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and the functional assessment of the coronary vasculature, several software packages have been developed and are available today. Taking this into consideration, we have developed an innovative suite of software modules that perform 3D reconstruction of coronary arterial segments using different coronary imaging modalities such as IntraVascular UltraSound (IVUS) and invasive coronary angiography images (ICA), Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and ICA images, or plain ICA images and can safely and accurately assess the hemodynamic status of the artery of interest. The user can perform automated or manual segmentation of the IVUS or OCT images, visualize in 3D the reconstructed vessel and export it to formats, which are compatible with other Computer Aided Design (CAD) software systems. We employ finite elements to provide the capability to assess the hemodynamic functionality of the reconstructed vessels by calculating the virtual functional assessment index (vFAI), an index that corresponds and has been shown to correlate well to the actual fractional flow reserve (FFR) value. All the modules of the proposed system have been thoroughly validated. In brief, the 3D-QCA module, compared to a successful commercial software of the same genre, presented very good correlation using several validation metrics, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) for the calculated volumes, vFAI, length and minimum lumen diameter of 0.99, 0.99, 0.99 and 0.88, respectively. Moreover, the automatic lumen detection modules for IVUS and OCT presented very high accuracy compared to the annotations by medical experts with the Pearson's correlation coefficient reaching the values of 0.94 and 0.99, respectively. In this study, we have presented a user-friendly software for the 3D reconstruction of coronary arterial segments and the accurate hemodynamic

  9. A Computational Study on the Relation between Resting Heart Rate and Atrial Fibrillation Hemodynamics under Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Anselmino

    Full Text Available Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model.The AF lumped-parameter model was run to simulate resting (1 Metabolic Equivalent of Task-MET and various exercise conditions (4 METs: brisk walking; 6 METs: skiing; 8 METs: running, considering different resting HR (70 bpm for the slower resting HR-SHR-simulations, and 100 bpm for the higher resting HR-HHR-simulations. To compare relative variations of cardiovascular variables upon exertion, the variation comparative index (VCI-the absolute variation between the exercise and the resting values in SHR simulations referred to the absolute variation in HHR simulations-was calculated at each exercise grade (VCI4, VCI6 and VCI8.Pulmonary venous pressure underwent a greater increase in HHR compared to SHR simulations (VCI4 = 0.71, VCI6 = 0.73 and VCI8 = 0.77, while for systemic arterial pressure the opposite is true (VCI4 = 1.15, VCI6 = 1.36, VCI8 = 1.56.The computational findings suggest that a slower, with respect to a higher resting HR, might be preferable in permanent AF patients, since during exercise pulmonary venous pressure undergoes a slighter increase and systemic blood pressure reveals a more appropriate increase.

  10. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in congenital heart disease: Correlation of radiologic index with hemodynamic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hi

    1984-01-01

    It is well known that pulmonary arterial hypertension in congenital heart disease is an important prognostic factor, as is pulmonary vascular resistance. So it is tempting to get certain radiologic index that could predict the presence and the degree of pulmonary arterial hypertension. A total of 152 cases of left to right shunt with pulmonary arterial hypertension and 50 cases of left to right shunt without pulmonary arterial hypertension is presented, in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between March 1981 and February 1983. Statistical analysis of plain radiography findings with the emphasis on the correction of radiologic index with the hemodynamic data. The results are as follows: 1. The incidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension is much less in arterial septal defect than other two disease groups of left to right shunt. 2. PA/T ratio correlates well with pulmonary arterial pressure (r=0.674), especially in mild pulmonary hypertension group. No correlation in moderate pulmonary hypertension group in significant level. 3. PA/T ratio is below 38 in total cases of normal control group and in 32 cases (21.0%) among 152 cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension group. 4. The average PA/T ratio in normal pressure group of left to right shunt is 35.3, which has no significant difference from that of normal control group. 5. The average CT ratio of pulmonary arterial hypertension group is 59.0, which is larger than 49.1 of normal control group. The CT ratio shows no correlation with the pulmonary arterial pressure in statistically significant level. 6. The higher the pulmonary arterial pressure, the larger the Rp/Rs value. The Rp/Rs in atrial septal defect is 0.193 in average, the lowest value in comparison with other two disease groups.

  11. Peculiarities of cardiac hemodynamics and functional state of left ventricular myocardium in teenagers with connective heart tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhmudova F.M.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of investigation is to study heart hemodynamics in teenagers with connective tissue dysplasia of heart (CTDH. 35 patients ages 12 to 15 years with CTDH have been observed: Group I (n=14 are the patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP without mitral regurgitation (MR and myxomatous degeneration(MD or isolated minor heart abnormalities (MHA, Group II (n=11are patients with MVP and MR in combination with 1 or2 MHA, and Group III (n=10 are patients with MVP and mixoid degeneration (MD in combination with 2 or more MHA. The control group consisted of 15 patients of the same age without MHA. All the children passed Doppler and echocardiography. According to the results significant changes of cardiohemodynamic indices in patients of Group I were not observed. The changes of size and volume indices of the left ventricle (LV, increase in wall thickness and diastolic dysfunction of the LV were observed in Group II. The significant changes of systolic function of left ventricular myocardium were observed in Group III. The study comes to the conclusion that teenagers with CTDH have definite changes of heart hemodynamics and functional state of left ventricular myocardium. These changes depend on mitral regurgitation, myxomatous degeneration and MHA combination

  12. Hemodynamics, functional state of endothelium and renal function, platelets depending on the body mass index in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved systolic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir Yu.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate hemodynamics, endothelium function of kidneys and platelets depending on the body mass index (BMI in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and preserved systolic function. 42 patients (mean age - 76,690,83 years with CHF II-III FC NYHA with preserved systolic function (LVEF>45% were enrolled. Echocardiography was performed, endothelial function, serum creatinine levels and microalbuminuria were determined in patients. BMI and glomerulation filtration rate were calculated by formulas. The morphological and functional status of platelets was estimated by electronic microscopy. It was defined that increased BMI in patients with CHF and preserved systolic function determines the structural and functional changes of the myocardium and leads to the endothelial and renal functional changes. An increased risk of thrombogenesis was established in patients with overweight and obesity.

  13. Hemodynamic Correlates of Abnormal Aortic Root Dimension in an Adult Population: The Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Simone, Giovanni; Roman, Mary J; De Marco, Marina; Bella, Jonathan N; Izzo, Raffaele; Lee, Elisa T; Devereux, Richard B

    2015-09-28

    We evaluated the relationship of aortic root dimension (ARD) with flow output and both peripheral and central blood pressure, using multivariable equations predicting ideal sex-specific ARD at a given age and body height. We measured echocardiographic diastolic ARD at the sinuses of Valsalva in 3160 adults (aged 42±16 years, 61% women) from the fourth examination of the Strong Heart Study who were free of prevalent coronary heart disease, and we compared measured data with the theoretical predicted value to calculate a z score. Central blood pressure was estimated by applanation tonometry of the radial artery in 2319 participants. ARD z scores were divided into tertiles representing small, normal, and large ARD. Participants with large ARD exhibited greater prevalence of central obesity and higher levels of inflammatory markers and lipids (0.05heart rate, and both cuff and central diastolic blood pressure were progressively greater from small to large ARD (all P<0.0001). Pulse pressure was higher in small ARD (P<0.0001). In multivariable analysis, ARD z score was related positively to stroke volume, either cuff or central diastolic blood pressure, and negatively to pulse pressure. Large ARD was also independently correlated to higher waist circumference and percentages of neutrophils and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (all P<0.01). Aortic root dilatation is associated with high diastolic blood pressure, high stroke volume, central fat distribution, and inflammatory status. In contrast, at a given diastolic blood pressure and stroke volume, aortic root dilatation is associated with lower pulse pressure and systolic blood pressure. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Continuous ambulatory right heart pressure measurements with an implantable hemodynamic monitor: a multicenter, 12-month follow-up study of patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalski, Anthony; Adamson, Philip; Gadler, Frederick; Böehm, Michael; Steinhaus, David; Reynolds, Dwight; Vlach, Kathryn; Linde, Cecilia; Cremers, Bodo; Sparks, Brandon; Bennett, Tom

    2002-04-01

    We describe the performance of an implantable hemodynamic monitor (IHM) that allows continuous recording of heart rate, patient activity levels, and right ventricular systolic, right ventricular diastolic, and estimated pulmonary artery diastolic pressures. Pressure parameters derived from the implantable monitor were correlated to measurements made with a balloon-tipped catheter to establish accuracy and reproducibility over time in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). IHM devices were implanted in 32 patients with CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction, 29% +/- 11%; range, 14%-62%) and were tested with right heart catheterization at implantation and 3, 6, and 12 months later. Hemodynamic variables were digitally recorded simultaneously from the IHM and catheter. Values were recorded during supine rest, peak response of Valsalva maneuver, sitting, peak of a 2-stage (25-50 W) bicycle exercise test, and final rest period. The median of 21 paired beat-to-beat cardiac cycles was analyzed for each intervention. A total of 217 paired data values from all maneuvers were analyzed for 32 patients at implantation and 129 paired data values for 20 patients at 1 year. The IHM and catheter values were not different at baseline or at 1 year (P >.05). Combining all interventions, correlation coefficients were 0.96 and 0.94 for right ventricular systolic pressure, 0.96 and 0.83 for right ventricular diastolic pressure, and 0.87 and 0.87 for estimated pulmonary artery diastolic pressure at implantation and 1 year, respectively. The IHM and a standard reference pressure system recorded comparable right heart pressure values in patients with CHF. This implantable pressure transducer is accurate over time and provides a means to precisely monitor the hemodynamic condition of patients with CHF in a continuous fashion.

  15. Beneficial hemodynamic effects of nicorandil in a canine model of acute congestive heart failure: comparison with nitroglycerin and cromakalim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, K; Matsuzaki, T; Ojiri, Y; Koyama, T; Nakasone, J; Sakanashi, M

    1998-01-01

    Comparative hemodynamic effects of nicorandil (NCR), nitroglycerin (NTG) and cromakalim (CRM) were examined in a canine model of acute congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF was produced by injections of saponin into coronary arteries of anesthetized dogs followed by volume loading and continuous i.v. infusion of methoxamine. After the treatment, aortic blood flow (AoF), left ventricular dP/dt and myocardial segment shortening (SS) markedly decreased, while the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), the right atrial pressure (RAP) and the systemic vascular resistance (SVR) increased. NCR (n = 6), NTG (n = 6) and CRM (n = 8), which were administered i.v. after production of CHF, caused a comparable reduction in LVEDP. NCR and CRM profoundly increased AoF and SS but NTG did only slightly. On the other hand, NTG and NCR but not CRM significantly reduced RAP. Intracoronary NCR (n = 8) exerted no or similar effects on SS as well as systemic hemodynamic indices to those observed with i.v. NCR despite distinct coronary vasodilation. These results indicate that NCR may exert beneficial hemodynamic effects in an experimental CHF mainly due to lessening both afterload and preload rather than the coronary vasodilating effect.

  16. Hemodynamic and neuroendocrine responses to changes in sodium intake in compensated heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Norsk, Peter; Gustafsson, Finn

    2005-01-01

    inhibitors and beta-adrenoreceptor blockers. Therefore, we determined the hemodynamic and neuroendocrine responses to 1 wk of a low-sodium diet (70 mmol/day) and 1 wk of a high-sodium diet (250 mmol/day) in 12 HF patients and 12 age-matched controls in a randomized, balanced fashion. During steady......-state conditions, hemodynamic and neuroendocrine examinations were performed at rest and during bicycle exercise. In seated HF patients, high sodium intake increased body weight (1.6 +/- 0.4%), plasma volume (9 +/- 2%), cardiac index (14 +/- 6%), and stroke volume index (21 +/- 5%), whereas mean arterial pressure...

  17. Hemodynamic effect and safety of intermittent sequential pneumatic compression leg sleeves in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Amitai; Shturman, Alexander; Sergeiev, Michael; Ivry, Shimon; Eitan, Arieh; Atar, Shaul

    2014-10-01

    Pneumatic leg sleeves are widely used after prolonged operations for prevention of venous stasis. In healthy volunteers they increase cardiac function. We evaluated the hemodynamic effects and safety of intermittent sequential pneumatic compression (ISPC) leg sleeves in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). We studied 19 patients with systolic left ventricular dysfunction and CHF. ISPC leg sleeves, each with 10 air cells, were operated by a computerized compressor, exerting 2 cycles/min. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters were measured before, during, and after ISPC activation. The baseline mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 29 ± 9.2%, median 32%, range 10%-40%. Cardiac output (from 4.26 to 4.83 L/min; P = .008) and stroke volume (from 56.1 to 63.5 mL; P = .029) increased significantly after ISPC activation, without a reciprocal increase in heart rate, and declined after sleeve deactivation. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) decreased significantly (from 1,520 to 1,216 dyne-s/cm5; P = .0005), and remained lower than the baseline level throughout the study. There was no detrimental effect on diastolic function and no adverse clinical events, despite increased pulmonary venous return. ISPC leg sleeves in patients with chronic CHF do not exacerbate symptoms and transiently improve cardiac output through an increase in stroke volume and a reduction in SVR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical and hemodynamic effects of intra-aortic balloon pump therapy in chronic heart failure patients with cardiogenic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Justin A; Nair, Abhinav; Takeda, Koji; Clerkin, Kevin; Topkara, Veli K; Masoumi, Amirali; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Takayama, Hiroo; Naka, Yoshifumi; Burkhoff, Daniel; Kirtane, Ajay; Dimitrios Karmpaliotis, S M; Moses, Jeffrey; Colombo, Paolo C; Garan, A Reshad

    2018-03-20

    The role of the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in acute decompensated heart failure (HF) with cardiogenic shock (CS) is largely undefined. In this study we sought to assess the hemodynamic and clinical response to IABP in chronic HF patients with CS and identify predictors of response to this device. We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing IABP implantation from 2011 to 2016 at our institution to identify chronic HF patients with acute decompensation and CS (cardiac index <2.2 liters/min/m 2 and systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg or need for vasoactive medications to maintain this level). Clinical deterioration on IABP was defined as failure to bridge to either discharge on medical therapy or durable heart replacement therapy (HRT; durable left ventricular assist device or heart transplant) with IABP alone. We identified 132 chronic HF patients with IABP placed after decompensation with hemodynamic evidence of CS. Overall 30-day survival was 84.1%, and 78.0% of patients were successfully bridged to HRT or discharge without need for escalation of device support. The complication rate during IABP support was 2.3%. Multivariable analysis identified ischemic cardiomyopathy (odds ratio [OR] 3.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16 to 9.06; p = 0.03) and pulmonary artery pulsatility index (PAPi) <2.0 (OR 5.04, 95% CI 1.86 to 13.63; p = 0.001) as predictors of clinical deterioration on IABP. Overall outcomes with IABP in acute decompensated chronic HF patients are encouraging, and IABP is a reasonable first-line device for chronic HF patients with CS. Baseline right ventricular function, as measured by PAPi, is a major predictor of outcomes with IABP in this population. Copyright © 2018 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of hemodynamics in the development of the outflow tract of the heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loots, Erwin; Hillen, Berend; Veldman, Arthur E.P.

    The question whether, and if so to what extent, hemodynamic forces and mechanical stimuli do modulate the morphogenesis of the vascular system is a century-old problem. It is important especially in the outflow tract where a spiraling septum develops in and after a strong bend in the tube. Spiraling

  20. Effect of Progressive Heart Failure on Cerebral Hemodynamics and Monoamine Metabolism in CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalyga, M L; Mamalyga, L M

    2017-07-01

    Compensated and decompensated heart failure are characterized by different associations of disorders in the brain and heart. In compensated heart failure, the blood flow in the common carotid and basilar arteries does not change. Exacerbation of heart failure leads to severe decompensation and is accompanied by a decrease in blood flow in the carotid and basilar arteries. Changes in monoamine content occurring in the brain at different stages of heart failure are determined by various factors. The functional exercise test showed unequal monoamine-synthesizing capacities of the brain in compensated and decompensated heart failure. Reduced capacity of the monoaminergic systems in decompensated heart failure probably leads to overstrain of the central regulatory mechanisms, their gradual exhaustion, and failure of the compensatory mechanisms, which contributes to progression of heart failure.

  1. A New MRI-Based Model of Heart Function with Coupled Hemodynamics and Application to Normal and Diseased Canine Left Ventricles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Joon; Constantino, Jason; Vedula, Vijay; Trayanova, Natalia; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    A methodology for the simulation of heart function that combines an MRI-based model of cardiac electromechanics (CE) with a Navier–Stokes-based hemodynamics model is presented. The CE model consists of two coupled components that simulate the electrical and the mechanical functions of the heart. Accurate representations of ventricular geometry and fiber orientations are constructed from the structural magnetic resonance and the diffusion tensor MR images, respectively. The deformation of the ventricle obtained from the electromechanical model serves as input to the hemodynamics model in this one-way coupled approach via imposed kinematic wall velocity boundary conditions and at the same time, governs the blood flow into and out of the ventricular volume. The time-dependent endocardial surfaces are registered using a diffeomorphic mapping algorithm, while the intraventricular blood flow patterns are simulated using a sharp-interface immersed boundary method-based flow solver. The utility of the combined heart-function model is demonstrated by comparing the hemodynamic characteristics of a normal canine heart beating in sinus rhythm against that of the dyssynchronously beating failing heart. We also discuss the potential of coupled CE and hemodynamics models for various clinical applications. PMID:26442254

  2. Relationship between renal hemodynamic status and aging in patients without diabetes evaluated by renal Doppler ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tatsuo; Kamide, Kei; Onishi, Miyuki; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto-Hanasaki, Hiroko; Oguro, Ryosuke; Maekawa, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Koichi; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2012-10-01

    Aging is well known as one of the major causes of a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The resistive index (RI) measured by renal Doppler ultrasonography (RDU) is thought to be a good indicator of renal vascular resistance induced by arteriosclerosis. In this study, we investigated whether RI could be used to evaluate the pathogenesis of renal damage or the mechanisms of reduction of renal function by aging. We investigated the correlation between RI and multiple clinical parameters and the influence of aging on the renal hemodynamic status of 194 in-patients (mean age 66.2 years) who underwent RDU at our hospital between February 2009 and July 2010. RI was significantly correlated with the age, estimated GFR (eGFR), diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and degree of albuminuria. Subjects aged ≥75 years showed a significantly higher correlation coefficient between eGFR and RI. RI showed a stronger correlation with age in subjects aged ≥75 years compared to eGFR. The present study showed that renal vascular resistance and intra-renal arteriosclerosis had a greater impact on renal function in older than younger subjects, reflecting the possible mechanisms of renal function reduction due to aging.

  3. Study of continuous blood pressure estimation based on pulse transit time, heart rate and photoplethysmography-derived hemodynamic covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingjie; Huang, Zhongyi; Zhou, Congcong; Ye, Xuesong

    2018-06-01

    It is widely recognized that pulse transit time (PTT) can track blood pressure (BP) over short periods of time, and hemodynamic covariates such as heart rate, stiffness index may also contribute to BP monitoring. In this paper, we derived a proportional relationship between BP and PPT -2 and proposed an improved method adopting hemodynamic covariates in addition to PTT for continuous BP estimation. We divided 28 subjects from the Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care database into two groups (with/without cardiovascular diseases) and utilized a machine learning strategy based on regularized linear regression (RLR) to construct BP models with different covariates for corresponding groups. RLR was performed for individuals as the initial calibration, while recursive least square algorithm was employed for the re-calibration. The results showed that errors of BP estimation by our method stayed within the Association of Advancement of Medical Instrumentation limits (- 0.98 ± 6.00 mmHg @ SBP, 0.02 ± 4.98 mmHg @ DBP) when the calibration interval extended to 1200-beat cardiac cycles. In comparison with other two representative studies, Chen's method kept accurate (0.32 ± 6.74 mmHg @ SBP, 0.94 ± 5.37 mmHg @ DBP) using a 400-beat calibration interval, while Poon's failed (- 1.97 ± 10.59 mmHg @ SBP, 0.70 ± 4.10 mmHg @ DBP) when using a 200-beat calibration interval. With additional hemodynamic covariates utilized, our method improved the accuracy of PTT-based BP estimation, decreased the calibration frequency and had the potential for better continuous BP estimation.

  4. A Comparison Between the Hemodynamic Effects of Cisatracurium and Atracurium in Patient with Low Function of Left Ventricle who are Candidate for Open Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanlo, Masoud; Mohaghegh, Mahmoud Reza; Yazdanian, Forozan; Mesbah, Mehrdad; Totonchi, Ziya

    2016-07-27

    The need for muscle relaxants in general anesthesia in different surgeries including cardiac surgeries, and the type of relaxant to be used considering its different hemodynamic effects on patients with heart disease can be of considerable importance. In this study, the hemodynamic effects of two muscle relaxants, Cisatracurium and Atracurium in patients whit low function of left ventricle who are candidate for open heart surgery have been considered. This study has been designed as a randomized prospective double-blind clinical trial. The target population included all adult patients with heart disease whose ejection fraction reported by echocardiography or cardiac catheterization was 35% or less before the surgery, and were candidate for open heart surgery in Shahid Rajaei Heart Center. Taking into account the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the patients were randomly placed in two groups of 30 people each. In the induction stage, all the patients received midazolam, etomidate, and one of the considered muscle relaxant, either 0.2 mg/kg of cisatracurium or 0.5mg/kg of Atracurium within one minute. In the maintenance stage of anesthesia, the patients were administered by infusion of midazolam, sufentanil and the same muscle relaxant used in the induction stage. The hemodynamic indexes were recorded and evaluated in different stages of anesthesia and surgery as well as prior to transfer to ICU. In regard with descriptive indexes (age and sex distributions, premedication with cardiac drugs, ejection fraction before surgery, basic disease) there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. The significant difference of hemodynamic indexes between the two groups of this study, and the need for hemodynamic stability in all stages of surgery for patients with low function of left ventricle who are candidate for open heart surgery, proves that administering Cisatracurium as the muscle relaxant is advantageous and better.

  5. Short-term assessment of left ventricular function, coronary hemodynamics, and catecholamine balance in severe congestive heart failure after a single oral dose of milrinone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Piscione; B.E. Jaski; P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractSystemic and coronary hemodynamics were measured before and every 10 min after oral milrinone (10 mg) administration for 50 min, together with the drug plasma level in 14 patients with congestive heart failure. Left ventricular pressure (tip manometry), volume (angiography), and derived

  6. [The effect of combined treatment with the use of magnetotherapy on the systemic hemodynamics of patients with ischemic heart disease and spinal osteochondrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudchenko, M A; Vesel'skiĭ, I Sh; Shtompel', V Iu

    1992-05-01

    The authors examined 66 patients with ischemic heart disease and concomitant cervico-thoracic osteochondrosis and 22 patients without osteochondrosis. Differences were revealed in values of the systemic hemodynamics with prevalence of the hypokinetic type in patients with combined pathology. Inclusion of magnetotherapy in the treatment complex of patients with ischemic heart disease and osteochondrosis favours clinical improvement, normalization of indices of central and regional blood circulation.

  7. Rejection with hemodynamic compromise in the current era of pediatric heart transplantation: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Melanie D; Pahl, Elfriede; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Zheng, Jie; Ringewald, Jeremy M; L'ecuyer, Thomas; Naftel, David C; Kirklin, James K; Blume, Elizabeth D; Bullock, Emily A; Canter, Charles E

    2011-03-01

    Survival after pediatric heart transplant has improved over time, as has the incidence of overall rejection. We studied the effect of era on the occurrence and outcome of rejection with hemodynamic compromise (HC). Data from 2227 patients who received allografts between 1993 and 2006 at 36 centers in the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study were analyzed to determine incidence, outcome, and risk factors for rejection with HC in early (1993-1999) and recent (2000-2006) eras. Rejection with HC was classified as severe (RSHC) when inotropes were used for circulatory support and mild (RMHC) when inotropes were not used. Of 1217 patients with any episode of rejection, 541 had rejection with HC. Freedom from RMHC improved at 1 year (81% vs 90%, p RMHC (87% at 1 year and 72% at 5 years, p RMHC was earlier era of transplant (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.56-2.41; p RMHC has declined over time but the same era effect has not occurred with RSHC. Close follow-up after RSHC is crucial because mortality is so high. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. GSK-3α directly regulates β-adrenergic signaling and the response of the heart to hemodynamic stress in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jibin; Lal, Hind; Chen, Xiongwen; Shang, Xiying; Song, Jianliang; Li, Yingxin; Kerkela, Risto; Doble, Bradley W.; MacAulay, Katrina; DeCaul, Morgan; Koch, Walter J.; Farber, John; Woodgett, James; Gao, Erhe; Force, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) family of serine/threonine kinases consists of 2 highly related isoforms, α and β. Although GSK-3β has an important role in cardiac development, much remains unknown about the function of either GSK-3 isoform in the postnatal heart. Herein, we present what we believe to be the first studies defining the role of GSK-3α in the mouse heart using gene targeting. Gsk3a–/– mice over 2 months of age developed progressive cardiomyocyte and cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. Following thoracic aortic constriction in young mice, we observed enhanced hypertrophy that rapidly transitioned to ventricular dilatation and contractile dysfunction. Surprisingly, markedly impaired β-adrenergic responsiveness was found at both the organ and cellular level. This phenotype was reproduced by acute treatment of WT cardiomyocytes with a small molecule GSK-3 inhibitor, confirming that the response was not due to a chronic adaptation to LV dysfunction. Thus, GSK-3α appears to be the central regulator of a striking range of essential processes, including acute and direct positive regulation of β-adrenergic responsiveness. In the absence of GSK-3α, the heart cannot respond effectively to hemodynamic stress and rapidly fails. Our findings identify what we believe to be a new paradigm of regulation of β-adrenergic signaling and raise concerns given the rapid expansion of drug development targeting GSK-3. PMID:20516643

  9. Effects of body position on the carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in patients with chronic heart failure: relation to hemodynamic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiano, P; D'Aloia, A; Simoni, P; Gualeni, A; Foglio, K; Ambrosino, N; Giordano, A

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary diffusion has been found to be reduced in patients with congestive heart failure. The effects of postural changes on the diffusing capacity had been evaluated in healthy subjects, but not in patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the posture-induced changes in diffusing capacity in patients with chronic heart failure and their relation to the hemodynamic profile. The pulmonary carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) was measured in the supine position, with 20 degrees passive head elevation, and in the sitting position, both postures maintained for 10 min, in a group of 32 male patients with mild to moderate chronic heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction differ in the two positions (20.3 +/- 5.7 vs. 19.4 +/- 5.6 ml/min/mm Hg, 77 +/- 23 vs. 75 +/- 20% of predicted, respectively). The patients were then subdivided according to changes in DLCO from the supine to the sitting position: DLCO increased (+23%) in 9 patients (28%, group 1), decreased (-17.5%) in 17 patients (53%, group 2), and remained within the coefficient of reproducibility ( +/- 5 %) in 6 patients (group 3). As compared with group 2, group 1 patients showed a significant increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (+7 vs. -15%, p pressure (+8 vs. -22%, p position, while the cardiac index showed a smaller - but not significant - decrease in group 1 (-5 vs. -12%). The percent changes in DLCO significantly correlated with changes in pulmonary capillary wedge (r = 0.54, p pressures. In chronic heart failure postural changes may induce different responses in diffusing capacity. To a greater extent than in healthy subjects, the most common response is a decrease in DLCO in the sitting as compared with the supine position. The DLCO changes correlate with variations in pulmonary circulation pressure, probably due to changes in pulmonary vascular recruitment and pulmonary capillary blood volume.

  10. Spectral Doppler interrogation of the patent foramen ovale-a window to left heart hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Bahaa M; Husain, Aysha; Bakarman, Hatem; Dahdouh, Ziad; Salvo, Giovanni Di; Mohty, Dania

    2015-02-01

    Spectral Doppler interrogation of flow across a patent foramen ovale (PFO) allows recording of the instantaneous pressure gradient between left and right atrium (RA). The assessment of RA pressure using the size and collapsibility of the inferior vena cava would thus allow estimation of left atrial (LA) pressure. In this article, we illustrate the value of spectral Doppler interrogation of flow across the PFO by transthoracic echocardiography as a novel and simple tool for the assessment of LA pressure and left cardiac hemodynamics in addition to the conventional noninvasive parameters. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Nitric oxide improves the hemodynamic performance of the hypoxic goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imbrogno, Sandra; Capria, C.; Tota, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Goldfish tolerate prolonged and severe hypoxia, thus representing a well-suited model to study the maintenance of cardiac function when O2 availability represents a limiting factor. Using a working heart preparation, we explored the role of the intracardiac nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- derived...... complemented by Western blotting analysis which revealed increased expressions of NOS and hypoxia inducible factor α(HIF-1α). In conclusion, we demonstrated that intracardiac NO/NOS enhances goldfish heart performance, remarkably expanding its hypoxic tolerance....

  12. Effects of Ischemic Postconditioning on the Hemodynamic Parameters and Heart Nitric Oxide Levels of Hypothyroid Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeddi, Sajad; Zaman, Jalal; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic postconditioning (IPost) is a method of protecting the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the effectiveness of IPost in cases of ischemic heart disease accompanied by co-morbidities such as hypothyroidism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of IPost on myocardial IR injury in hypothyroid male rats. Propylthiouracil in drinking water (500 mg/L) was administered to male rats for 21 days to induce hypothyroidism. The hearts from control and hypothyroid rats were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 min of global ischemia, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. IPost was induced immediately following ischemia. Hypothyroidism and IPost significantly improved the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and peak rates of positive and negative changes in left ventricular pressure (±dp/dt) during reperfusion in control rats (p < 0.05). However, IPost had no add-on effect on the recovery of LVDP and ±dp/dt in hypothyroid rats. Furthermore, hypothyroidism significantly decreased the basal NO metabolite (NO x ) levels of the serum (72.5 ± 4.2 vs. 102.8 ± 3.7 μmol/L; p < 0.05) and heart (7.9 ± 1.6 vs. 18.8 ± 3.2 μmol/L; p < 0.05). Heart NO x concentration in the hypothyroid groups did not change after IR and IPost, whereas these were significantly (p < 0.05) higher and lower after IR and IPost, respectively, in the control groups. Hypothyroidism protects the heart from IR injury, which may be due to a decrease in basal nitric oxide (NO) levels in the serum and heart and a decrease in NO after IR. IPost did not decrease the NO level and did not provide further cardioprotection in the hypothyroid group

  13. Effects of Ischemic Postconditioning on the Hemodynamic Parameters and Heart Nitric Oxide Levels of Hypothyroid Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeddi, Sajad; Zaman, Jalal; Ghasemi, Asghar, E-mail: ghasemi@endocrine.ac.ir [Endocrine Physiology Research Center - Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences - Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrine Research Center - Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences - Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Ischemic postconditioning (IPost) is a method of protecting the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the effectiveness of IPost in cases of ischemic heart disease accompanied by co-morbidities such as hypothyroidism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of IPost on myocardial IR injury in hypothyroid male rats. Propylthiouracil in drinking water (500 mg/L) was administered to male rats for 21 days to induce hypothyroidism. The hearts from control and hypothyroid rats were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 min of global ischemia, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. IPost was induced immediately following ischemia. Hypothyroidism and IPost significantly improved the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and peak rates of positive and negative changes in left ventricular pressure (±dp/dt) during reperfusion in control rats (p < 0.05). However, IPost had no add-on effect on the recovery of LVDP and ±dp/dt in hypothyroid rats. Furthermore, hypothyroidism significantly decreased the basal NO metabolite (NO{sub x}) levels of the serum (72.5 ± 4.2 vs. 102.8 ± 3.7 μmol/L; p < 0.05) and heart (7.9 ± 1.6 vs. 18.8 ± 3.2 μmol/L; p < 0.05). Heart NO{sub x} concentration in the hypothyroid groups did not change after IR and IPost, whereas these were significantly (p < 0.05) higher and lower after IR and IPost, respectively, in the control groups. Hypothyroidism protects the heart from IR injury, which may be due to a decrease in basal nitric oxide (NO) levels in the serum and heart and a decrease in NO after IR. IPost did not decrease the NO level and did not provide further cardioprotection in the hypothyroid group.

  14. [Effects of flunarizine and vitamin C on hemodynamics in rat heart subjected to ischemia-reperfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Y; Lan, T; Wang, Y

    1998-09-01

    Langendorff perfusion isolated rat heart was subjected to total global ischemia (coronary flow rate is equal to zero) for 10 minutes and reperfusion for 15 minutes. The heart rate (HR), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), coronary flow rate (CFR), electrocardiogram (ECG) and the effects of calcium antagonist-flunarizine (FNZ) and/or oxygen free radical scavenger--vitamine C on the above parameters were observed. The results showed that FNZ dilated coronary vessel (P Vitamine C did not affect HR, LVP and CFR. The recovery of the product of HR and LVDP-Rate Pressure Product (RPP) in the FNZ + Vit. C group, Vit. C group and FNZ group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P C may improve the recovery of heart function after reperfusion.

  15. Ramp Study Hemodynamics, Functional Capacity, and Outcome in Heart Failure Patients with Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette H; Gustafsson, Finn; Houston, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Ramp studies-measuring changes in cardiac parameters as a function of serial pump speed changes (revolutions per minute [rpm])-are increasingly used to evaluate function and malfunction of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs). We hypothesized that ramp studies can predict...... patients (HeartMate II, Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA). Functional status was evaluated in 70% (31/44); average 6 minute walk test (6MWT) was 312 ± 220 min, New York Heart Association (NYHA) I-II/III-IV (70/30%) and activity scores very low-low/moderate-very high (55/45%). Decrease in pulmonary...

  16. Numerical model of total artificial heart hemodynamics and the effect of its size on stress accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Gil; Chiu, Wei-Che; Slepian, Marvin J; Bluestein, Danny

    2014-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a bi-ventricular mechanical circulatory support device that replaces the heart in patients with end-stage congestive heart failure. The device acts as blood pump via pneumatic activation of diaphragms altering the volume of the ventricular chambers. Flow in and out of the ventricles is controlled by mechanical heart valves. The aim of this study is to evaluate the flow regime in the TAH and to estimate the thrombogenic potential during systole. Toward that goal, three numerical models of TAHs of differing sizes, that include the deforming diaphragm and the blood flow from the left chamber to the aorta, are introduced. A multiphase model with injection of platelet particles is employed to calculate their trajectories. The shear stress accumulation in the three models are calculated along the platelets trajectories and their probability density functions, which represent the `thrombogenic footprint' of the device are compared. The calculated flow regime successfully captures the mitral regurgitation and the flows that open and close the aortic valve during systole. Physiological velocity magnitudes are found in all three models, with higher velocities and increased stress accumulation predicted for smaller devices.

  17. Clinical studies on hemodynamic assessments of valvular heart disease by means of radiopulmonary cardiography (RPCG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Shuji

    1978-01-01

    Radiopulmonary cardiography and lung scinti-scanning methods were employed for this study and performed on 59 patients with mitral valve disease and on 6 patients with aortic valve disease. For these examination, sup(99m)Tc-Pertechnetate and 131 I-MAA were administered intravenously as usual. Circulation time from the right heart to the lung (R-P), and from the lung to the left heart (P-L), and from the right heart to the left heart (R-L), as well as the value to the R-P and P-L ratio, and the U/L ratio in terms of blood distribution in the upper and lower parts of the lung were carefully estimated through these methods. Significant prolongation of the P-L interval and decrease in the R-P/P-L ratio were clearly observed in aortic insufficiency, mitral insufficiency, mitral stnosis, and mitral steno-insufficiency (MSI). On the contrary, prolongation of the R-P interval and an increase in the R-P/P-L ratio were recognized in patients with MSI + tricuspid insufficiency (TI). Radiopulmonary cardiograms revealed such characteristic patterns in each valvular heart disease, that differential diagnosis among valvular heart disease could be confirmed. The R-L interval was over 16 seconds in patients with MSI + TI who developed cardiac failure. The more the R-L interval was prolonged, the more severe the cardiac failure was found to be. A significant prolongation of the R-P interval and an increase in the R-P/P-L ratio, as well as a slight increase in the U/L ratio were clarly observed in the cases with severe right cardiac failure due to TI. On the other hand, remarked prolongation of the P-L interval, and a low value in the R-P/P-L ratio, as well as high value in the U/L ratio were seen in the cases with left cardiac failure. From these findings, the degree of severity and location of cardiac failure or of TI could be approximately evaluated. (author)

  18. Children with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease can be identified through population-based registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Gunnar; Hærskjold, Ann; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological research is facilitated in Sweden by a history of national health care registers, making large unselected national cohort studies possible. However, for complex clinical populations, such as children with congenital heart disease (CHD), register-based studies...... are challenged by registration limitations. For example, the diagnostic code system International Classification of Diseases, 10th version (ICD-10) does not indicate the clinical significance of abnormalities, therefore may be of limited use if used as the sole parameter in epidemiological research. Palivizumab...

  19. Evaluation of hemodynamics by nuclear cardiology in a miniswine model of congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latson, L.A.; Erickson, C.; Kitzer, K.; Stratbucker, R.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology methods for measuring ventricular function and pulmonary vs systemic blood flow (Qp/Qs) are attractive for long term experimental studies because they are invasive minimally and can be repeated frequently. We adapted the technique for use in a miniswine model of congestive heart failure secondary to a left to right shunt. Minor modifications in camera positioning were needed to obtain adequate studies in miniswine. A straight lateral position was best for first pass studies if Qp/Qs was to be measured and a 40 degree left anterior oblique view was best for gated equilibrium studies. Direct anastamosis of the ascending aorta and main pulmonary artery is superior to using a prosthetic conduit from descending aorta to pulmonary artery for creation of a long term stable left to right shunt

  20. Hemodynamic and radionuclide effects of acute captopril therapy for heart failure: changes in left and right ventricular volumes and function at rest and during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massie, B.; Kramer, B.L.; Topic, N.; Henderson, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Although the resting hemodynamic effects of captopril in congestive heart failure are known, little information is available about the hemodynamic response to captopril during exercise or about changes in noninvasive measurements of the size and function of both ventricles. In this study, 14 stable New York Heart Association class III patients were given 25 mg of oral captopril. Rest and exercise hemodynamic measurements and blood pool scintigrams were performed simultaneously before and 90 minutes after captopril. The radionuclide studies were analyzed for left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes, end-systolic volumes, ejection fractions and pulmonary blood volume. The primary beneficial responses at rest were decreases in left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes from 388 +/- 81 to 350 +/- 77 ml and from 52 +/- 26 to 43 +/- 20 volume units, respectively, and in their corresponding filling pressures, from 24 +/- 10 to 17 +/- 9 mm Hg and 10 +/- 5 to 6 +/- 5 mm Hg. Although stroke volume did not increase significantly, both left and right ventricular ejection fractions increased slightly, from 19 +/- 6% to 22+/- 5% and from 25 +/- 9% to 29 +/- 11%, respectively. During exercise, similar changes were noted in both hemodynamic and radionuclide indexes. This, in patients with moderate symptomatic limitation from chronic heart failure, captopril predominantly reduces ventricular volume and filling pressure, with a less significant effect on cardiac output. These effects persist during exercise, when systemic vascular resistance is already very low. Radionuclide techniques are valuable in assessing the drug effect in these subjects, particularly when ventricular volumes are also measured

  1. Growth patterns and cerebro-placental hemodynamics in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebius, M J; Clur, S A B; Vink, A S; Pajkrt, E; Kalteren, W S; Kooi, E M W; Bos, A F; du Marchie Sarvaas, G J; Bilardo, C M

    2018-05-28

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) has been associated with a reduced fetal head circumference (HC). The underlying pathophysiological background remains undetermined. We aimed to define trends in fetal growth and cerebro-placental Doppler flow, and to investigate the association between head growth and cerebro-placental flow in fetuses with CHD. Fetuses with CHD and serial measurements of HC, abdominal circumference (AC), middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI), umbilical artery pulsatility index (UA-PI), and cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) were included. CHD was categorized into 3 groups based on expected cerebral arterial oxygen saturation: normal, mild to moderately reduced, and severely reduced. Trends over time in Z-scores were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. 181 fetuses fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Expected cerebral arterial oxygen saturation in CHD was classified as normal in 44, mild to moderately reduced in 84 and severely reduced in 53 cases. HC z-scores showed a tendency to decrease until 23 weeks, then to increase until 33 weeks, followed by a decrease again in the late third trimester. AC increased progressively with advancing gestation. MCA-PI and UA-PI showed significant trends throughout pregnancy, but CPR did not. There were no associations between expected cerebral arterial oxygen saturation and fetal growth. Average trends in MCA-PI were significantly different in the three subgroups (P=0.010), whereas average trends in UA-PI and CPR were similar (P=0.530 and P=0.285). Furthermore, there was no significant association between MCA-PI and HC (P=0.284). Fetal biometry and Doppler flow patterns are within normal ranges in fetuses with CHD, but show trends over time. Fetal head growth is not associated with the cerebral blood flow pattern or placental function and HC is not influenced by the cerebral arterial oxygen saturation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright

  2. Response of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope to orthotopic heart transplantation: lack of correlation with changes in central hemodynamic parameters and resting lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laethem, Christophe; Goethals, Marc; Verstreken, Sofie; Walravens, Maarten; Wellens, Francis; De Proft, Margot; Bartunek, Jozef; Vanderheyden, Marc

    2007-09-01

    Recently, a new linear measure of ventilatory response to exercise, the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), was proposed in the evaluation of heart failure patients. No data are available on the response of the OUES after orthotopic heart transplantation (HTx). Thirty patients who underwent HTx between 1999 and 2003 were included in the study. Data from maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test, resting pulmonary function and hemodynamic assessment were collected before the transplant at time of screening and 1 year after HTx. During the first year after HTx, OUES and normalized OUES for body weight (OUES/kg) increased significantly from 15.6 +/- 4.9 to 19.7 +/- 4.8 (p volumes or capacities and measures of central hemodynamic function after HTx. OUES improved significantly after HTx, but, similar to other exercise parameters, remained considerably impaired. The changes in OUES were highly correlated with the improvements in other exercise variables, but did not correlate with marked improvements in central hemodynamics or resting lung function.

  3. Maternal global methylation status and risk of congenital heart diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Lydi M. J. W.; de Jonge, Robert; Helbing, Willem A.; van Zelst, Bertrand D.; Ottenkamp, Jaap; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between the maternal methylation status as reflected by low S-adenosylmethionine and high S-adenosylhomocysteine, is detrimental for cardiogenesis and congenital heart disease (CHD) in the offspring. METHODS: As part of a case-control study in the

  4. Socio-economic status, risk factors and coronary heart disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship of socio-economic status (SES) indicators and coronary risk factors (RFs) with coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence was examined in 5620 subjects aged 20 ... The SES indicators had Iitlle or no independent effect on CHD prevalence in multivariate logistic analyses after, inclusion of the standard RFs.

  5. The cardioprotective effect of vanillic acid on hemodynamic parameters, malondialdehyde, and infarct size in ischemia-reperfusion isolated rat heart exposed to PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Radmanesh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Particulate matter (PM exposure can promote cardiac ischemia and myocardial damage. The effects of PM10 on hemodynamic parameters, lipid peroxidation, and infarct size induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury and the protective effects of vanillic acid (VA in isolated rat heart were investigated. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats (250–300 g were divided into 8 groups (n=10: Control, Sham, VAc, VA, PMa (0.5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, PMb (2.5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, PMc (5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation, and PMc + VA (5 mg/kg PM, intratracheal instillation; and 10 mg/kg vanillic acid, gavage for 10 days. PM10 was instilled into the trachea in two stages, within 48 hr. After isolating the hearts and transfer to a Langendorff apparatus, hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 60 min reperfusion. Hemodynamic parameters (±dp/dt, LVSP, LVDP, and RPP, production of lipid peroxidation (MDA, and infarct size were assessed. Results: A significant decrease in ±dp/dt, LVSP, LVDP and RPP occurred in PM groups. A significant increase in MDA and myocardial infarct size occurred in PM groups. A significant increase in LVDP, LVSP, ±dp/dt, RPP and decrease in infarct size, MDA, and myocardial dysfunction was observed in groups that received vanillic acid after ischemia–reperfusion. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that PM10 increases MDA, as well as the percentage of cardiac infarct size, and has negative effects on hemodynamic parameters. This study suggests that vanillic acid may serve as an adjunctive treatment in delaying the progression of ischemic heart disease.

  6. Hemodynamic Effects of Glucagon - A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meidahl Petersen, Kasper; Bøgevig, Søren; Holst, Jens Juul

    2018-01-01

    Context: Glucagon's effects on hemodynamic parameters - most notably heart rate and cardiac contractility - are overlooked. The glucagon receptor is a central target in novel and anticipated type 2 diabetes therapies and hemodynamic consequences of glucagon signaling have therefore become increas...

  7. Norwood with right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit is more effective than Norwood with Blalock-Taussig shunt for hypoplastic left heart syndrome: mathematic modeling of hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Tomasz; Małota, Zbigniew; Wójcik, Elżbieta; Nawrat, Zbigniew; Skalski, Janusz

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of right ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit in the Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome resulted in a higher survival rate in many centers. A higher diastolic aortic pressure and a higher mean coronary perfusion pressure were suggested as the hemodynamic advantage of this source of pulmonary blood flow. The main objective of this study was the comparison of two models of Norwood physiology with different types of pulmonary blood flow sources and their hemodynamics. Based on anatomic details obtained from echocardiographic assessment and angiographic studies, two three-dimensional computer models of post-Norwood physiology were developed. The finite-element method was applied for computational hemodynamic simulations. Norwood physiology with RV-PA 5-mm conduit and Blalock-Taussig shunt (BTS) 3.5-mm shunt were compared. Right ventricle work, wall stress, flow velocity, shear rate stress, energy loss and turbulence eddy dissipation were analyzed in both models. The total work of the right ventricle after Norwood procedure with the 5-mm RV-PA conduit was lower in comparison to the 3.5-mm BTS while establishing an identical systemic blood flow. The Qp/Qs ratio was higher in the BTS group. Hemodynamic performance after Norwood with the RV-PA conduit is more effective than after Norwood with BTS. Computer simulations of complicated hemodynamics after the Norwood procedure could be helpful in establishing optimal post-Norwood physiology. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nurses' decision making in heart failure management based on heart failure certification status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nancy M; Bena, James F; Buxbaum, Denise; Martensen, Linda; Morrison, Shannon L; Prasun, Marilyn A; Stamp, Kelly D

    Research findings on the value of nurse certification were based on subjective perceptions or biased by correlations of certification status and global clinical factors. In heart failure, the value of certification is unknown. Examine the value of certification based nurses' decision-making. Cross-sectional study of nurses who completed heart failure clinical vignettes that reflected decision-making in clinical heart failure scenarios. Statistical tests included multivariable linear, logistic and proportional odds logistic regression models. Of nurses (N = 605), 29.1% were heart failure certified, 35.0% were certified in another specialty/job role and 35.9% were not certified. In multivariable modeling, nurses certified in heart failure (versus not heart failure certified) had higher clinical vignette scores (p = 0.002), reflecting higher evidence-based decision making; nurses with another specialty/role certification (versus no certification) did not (p = 0.62). Heart failure certification, but not in other specialty/job roles was associated with decisions that reflected delivery of high-quality care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Heart transplantation for adults with congenital heart disease: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hikaru; Ichikawa, Hajime; Ueno, Takayoshi; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2017-06-01

    Increased survival rates after corrective or palliative surgery for complex congenital heart disease (CHD) in infancy and childhood are now being coupled with increased numbers of patients who survive to adulthood with various residual lesions or sequelae. These patients are likely to deteriorate in cardiac function or end-organ function, eventually requiring lifesaving treatment including heart transplantation. Although early and late outcomes of heart transplantation have been improving for adult survivors of CHD, outcomes and pretransplant management could still be improved. Survivors of Fontan procedures are a vulnerable cohort, particularly when single ventricle physiology fails, mostly with protein-losing enteropathy and hepatic dysfunction. Therefore, we reviewed single-institution and larger database analyses of adults who underwent heart transplantation for CHD, to enable risk stratification by identifying the indications and outcomes. As the results, despite relatively high early mortality, long-term results were encouraging after heart transplantation. However, further investigations are needed to improve the indication criteria for complex CHD, especially for failed Fontan. In addition, the current system of status criteria and donor heart allocation system in heart transplantation should be arranged as suitable for adults with complex CHD. Furthermore, there is a strong need to develop ventricular assist devices as a bridge to transplantation or destination therapy, especially where right-sided circulatory support is needed.

  10. 4D cardiovascular magnetic resonance velocity mapping of alterations of right heart flow patterns and main pulmonary artery hemodynamics in tetralogy of Fallot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess changes in right heart flow and pulmonary artery hemodynamics in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) we used whole heart, four dimensional (4D) velocity mapping (VM) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods CMR studies were performed in 11 subjects with rTOF (5M/6F; 20.1 ± 12.4 years) and 10 normal volunteers (6M/4F; 34.2 ± 13.4 years) on clinical 1.5T and 3.0T MR scanners. 4D VM-CMR was performed using PC VIPR (Phase Contrast Vastly undersampled Isotropic Projection Reconstruction). Interactive streamline and particle trace visualizations of the superior and inferior vena cava (IVC and SVC, respectively), right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV), and pulmonary artery (PA) were generated and reviewed by three experienced readers. Main PA net flow, retrograde flow, peak flow, time-to-peak flow, peak acceleration, resistance index and mean wall shear stress were quantified. Differences in flow patterns between the two groups were tested using Fisher's exact test. Differences in quantitative parameters were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Results 4D VM-CMR was successfully performed in all volunteers and subjects with TOF. Right heart flow patterns in rTOF subjects were characterized by (a) greater SVC/IVC flow during diastole than systole, (b) increased vortical flow patterns in the RA and in the RV during diastole, and (c) increased helical or vortical flow features in the PA's. Differences in main PA retrograde flow, resistance index, peak flow, time-to-peak flow, peak acceleration and mean wall shear stress were statistically significant. Conclusions Whole heart 4D VM-CMR with PC VIPR enables detection of both normal and abnormal right heart flow patterns, which may allow for comprehensive studies to evaluate interdependencies of post-surgically altered geometries and hemodynamics. PMID:22313680

  11. DAILY CHANGES OF CENTRAL HEMODYNAMICS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE WITH NIGHT-TIME DYSPNOEA ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Dovgolis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study daily changes of central hemodynamics (CHD in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and the effects of therapy. Materials and methods. 22 patients with ischemic heart disease and CHF of III-IV functional class (FC by NYHA, age 60,5±10,5 were observed. Patients were suffering from night-time dyspnoea attacks and had pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP 15-20 mm Hg. CHD was monitored invasively before the treatment and after 4 weeks of CHF treatment. Results. According to the cardiac index (CI at admission patients were split into two groups. 9 patients of group-I had CI ≤2,15 l\\min\\m2, and 13 patients of group-II had CI >2,15 l\\min\\m2. In patients of group-I CI increased in 4 weeks of treatment. The treatment caused considerable clinical improvement in all patients. The CHD indexes also improved. Initially evening-night-time peaks of PAOP (р≤0,002, systolic (SBP (р≤0,003, diastolic (DBP (р=0,002 and average (BPa (р=0,0007 blood pressure (BP as well as double multiplication (DM (р≤0,008 were registered in patients of group-I. At the end of treatment only evening-night increase in DBP (р=0,002 and BPa (р≤0,006 were noted. In patients of group-II after 4 weeks of treatment CI decreased or didn’t change. Towards 28-th day of treatment 10 patients had clinical improvements. Only one patient’s FC NYHA increased. At the end of treatment the normalization of CHD was registered totally in group. Initially evening-night-time peaks of PAOP (р≤0,002, SBP (р≤0, 0001, CI (р=0,057 and DM (р=0,084 were registered in patients of group-II. At the end of treatment evening-night-time peaks of PAOP (р≤0,015, SBP (р≤0,044, CI (р≤0,005 and DM (р≤0,044 still remained. Besides, evening-night-time peaks of cardiac output (р≤0,01 and systolic index (р≤0, 06 have added. Conclusion. In patients with CHF with initial CI ≤2,15 l\\min\\m2 treatment results in the normalization of CHD and its daily

  12. Acid-base and hemodynamic status of patients with intraoperative hemorrhage using two solution types: Crystalloid Ringer lactate and 1.3% sodium bicarbonate in half-normal saline solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Sayed Jalal; Heidari, Sayed Morteza; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Seirafi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative hemorrhage is one of the problems during surgery and, if it happens in a high volume without an immediate action to control, it can be fatal. Nowadays, various injectable solutions are used. The aim of this study was to compare the acid-base and hemodynamic status of the patient using two solutions, Ringer lactate and 1.3% sodium bicarbonate, in half saline solution. This clinical trial was performed at the Al-Zahra Hospital in 2013 on 66 patients who were randomly selected and put in two studied groups at the onset of hemorrhage. For the first group, crystalloid Ringer lactate solution and for the second group, 1.3% sodium bicarbonate in half-normal saline solution was used. Electrocardiogram, heart rate, O2 saturation non-invasive blood pressure and end-tidal CO2 were monitored. The arterial blood gas, blood electrolytes, glucose and blood urea nitrogen were measured before serum and blood injection. After the infusion of solutions and before blood transfusions, another sample was sent for measurement of blood parameters. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in the second group than in the first group at some times after the infusion of solutions. pHh levels, base excess, bicarbonate, sodium, strong ion differences and osmolarity were significantly greater and potassium and chloride were significantly lower in the second group than in the first group after the infusion of solutions. 1.3% sodium bicarbonate in half-normal saline solution can lead to a proper correction of hemodynamic instability. By maintaining hemodynamic status, osmolarity and electrolytes as well as better balance of acid-base, 1.3% sodium bicarbonate solution in half-normal saline solution can be more effective than Ringer lactate solution during intraoperative bleeding.

  13. Clinical impact of left ventricular eccentricity index using cardiac MRI in assessment of right ventricular hemodynamics and myocardial fibrosis in congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Yuzo; Kamitani, Takeshi; Yamanouchi, Torahiko; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Departments of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu; Kawanami, Satoshi [Kyushu University, Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamura, Kenichiro [Kyushu University, Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Sakamoto, Ichiro [Kyushu University, Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake [Kyushu University, Health SciencesGraduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    To investigate the utility of eccentricity index (EI) using cardiac cine MRI for the assessment of right ventricular (RV) hemodynamics in congenital heart disease (CHD). Fifty-five patients with CHD (32 women; mean age, 40.7 ± 20.9 years) underwent both cardiac MRI and right heart catheterization. EI was defined as the ratio of the distance between the anterior-posterior wall and the septal-lateral wall measured in the short-axis of mid-ventricular cine MRI. Correlations between EIs and RV hemodynamic parameters were analyzed. EIs were compared between patients with and without late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). A strong correlation between mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and systolic EI (r = 0.81, p < 0.0001) and a moderate negative correlation between diastolic EI and RV ejection fraction (EF) (r = -0.62, p < 0.0001) were observed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed optimal EI thresholds for detecting patients with mean PAP ≥40 mmHg with C-statistics of 0.90 and patients with RVEF <40 % with C-statistics of 0.78. Systolic EIs were significantly greater for patients with LGE (1.45 ± 0.05) than for those without LGE (1.15 ± 0.07; p < 0.001). EI offers a simple, comprehensive index that can predict pulmonary hypertension and RV dysfunction in CHD. (orig.)

  14. Acid–base and hemodynamic status of patients with intraoperative hemorrhage using two solution types: Crystalloid Ringer lactate and 1.3% sodium bicarbonate in half-normal saline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Jalal Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: 1.3% sodium bicarbonate in half-normal saline solution can lead to a proper correction of hemodynamic instability. By maintaining hemodynamic status, osmolarity and electrolytes as well as better balance of acid–base, 1.3% sodium bicarbonate solution in half-normal saline solution can be more effective than Ringer lactate solution during intraoperative bleeding.

  15. HEMODYNAMIC STATUS IN AIRWAY MANAGEMENT DURING GENERAL ANESTHESIA: COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    K MONTAZERI; KH NAGHIBI; A.A AKHOUNDI

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was recently introduced in general anesthesia as an alternative to the face mask or tracheal intubation for airway maintenance. Methods. The effects of LMA insertion, face mask or tracheal intubation on homodynamic status were studied in 195 normotensive patients who underwent elective transurethral lithotripsy (TUL). The patients were monitored with blood pressure measurement and pulse oximetry. Anesthesia was induced with sodium thiopental,...

  16. The impact of smoking status on the health status of heart failure patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conard, Mark W

    2012-02-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). Yet, little is known about smoking\\'s effects on the health status of established HF patients. HF patients were recruited from outpatient clinics across North America. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) was used to assess disease-specific health status. Smoking behaviors were classified as never having smoked, prior smoker, and as having smoked within the past 30 days. Risk-adjusted multivariable regression was used to evaluate the association of smoking status with baseline and 1-year KCCQ overall summary scores. Smoking was not associated with baseline health status. However, a significant effect was observed on 1-year health status among outpatients with HF with current smokers reporting significantly lower KCCQ scores than never smokers or ex-smokers. These findings highlight an additional adverse consequence of smoking in HF patients not previously discussed.

  17. Effect of high altitude exposure on the hemodynamics of the bidirectional Glenn physiology: modeling incremented pulmonary vascular resistance and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecilla, Carolina; Khiabani, Reza H; Sandoval, Néstor; Fogel, Mark; Briceño, Juan Carlos; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-06-03

    The considerable blood mixing in the bidirectional Glenn (BDG) physiology further limits the capacity of the single working ventricle to pump enough oxygenated blood to the circulatory system. This condition is exacerbated under severe conditions such as physical activity or high altitude. In this study, the effect of high altitude exposure on hemodynamics and ventricular function of the BDG physiology is investigated. For this purpose, a mathematical approach based on a lumped parameter model was developed to model the BDG circulation. Catheterization data from 39 BDG patients at stabilized oxygen conditions was used to determine baseline flows and pressures for the model. The effect of high altitude exposure was modeled by increasing the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and heart rate (HR) in increments up to 80% and 40%, respectively. The resulting differences in vascular flows, pressures and ventricular function parameters were analyzed. By simultaneously increasing PVR and HR, significant changes (p fails to overcome the increased preload and implied low oxygenation in BDG patients at higher altitudes, especially for those with high baseline PVRs. The presented mathematical model provides a framework to estimate the hemodynamic performance of BDG patients at different PVR increments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Focal hemodynamic patterns of status epilepticus detected by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aellen, Jerome; Kottke, Raimund; Springer, Elisabeth; Weisstanner, Christian; El-Koussy, Marwan; Schroth, Gerhard; Wiest, Roland; Gralla, Jan; Verma, Rajeev K. [University of Bern, University Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital Bern and Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Abela, Eugenio; Schindler, Kaspar [University of Bern, Department of Neurology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Buerki, Sarah E. [Inselspital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, University Children' s Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-11-15

    To investigate pathological findings in the susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of patients experiencing convulsive (CSE) or non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) with focal hyperperfusion in the acute setting. Twelve patients (six with NCSE confirmed by electroencephalogram (EEG) and six patients with CSE with seizure event clinically diagnosed) underwent MRI in this acute setting (mean time between onset of symptoms and MRI was 3 h 8 min), including SWI, dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). MRI sequences were retrospectively evaluated and compared with EEG findings (10/12 patients), and clinical symptoms. Twelve out of 12 (100 %) patients showed a focal parenchymal area with pseudo-narrowed cortical veins on SWI, associated with focal hyperperfused areas (increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mean transit time (MTT) shortening), and cortical DWI restriction in 6/12 patients (50 %). Additionally, these areas were associated with ictal or postical EEG patterns in 8/10 patients (80 %). Most frequent acute clinical findings were aphasia and/or hemiparesis in eight patients, and all of them showed pseudo-narrowed veins in those parenchymal areas responsible for these symptoms. In this study series with CSE and NCSE patients, SWI showed focally pseudo-narrowed cortical veins in hyperperfused and ictal parenchymal areas. Therefore, SWI might have the potential to identify an ictal region in CSE/NCSE. (orig.)

  19. Focal hemodynamic patterns of status epilepticus detected by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aellen, Jerome; Kottke, Raimund; Springer, Elisabeth; Weisstanner, Christian; El-Koussy, Marwan; Schroth, Gerhard; Wiest, Roland; Gralla, Jan; Verma, Rajeev K.; Abela, Eugenio; Schindler, Kaspar; Buerki, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate pathological findings in the susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of patients experiencing convulsive (CSE) or non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) with focal hyperperfusion in the acute setting. Twelve patients (six with NCSE confirmed by electroencephalogram (EEG) and six patients with CSE with seizure event clinically diagnosed) underwent MRI in this acute setting (mean time between onset of symptoms and MRI was 3 h 8 min), including SWI, dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). MRI sequences were retrospectively evaluated and compared with EEG findings (10/12 patients), and clinical symptoms. Twelve out of 12 (100 %) patients showed a focal parenchymal area with pseudo-narrowed cortical veins on SWI, associated with focal hyperperfused areas (increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mean transit time (MTT) shortening), and cortical DWI restriction in 6/12 patients (50 %). Additionally, these areas were associated with ictal or postical EEG patterns in 8/10 patients (80 %). Most frequent acute clinical findings were aphasia and/or hemiparesis in eight patients, and all of them showed pseudo-narrowed veins in those parenchymal areas responsible for these symptoms. In this study series with CSE and NCSE patients, SWI showed focally pseudo-narrowed cortical veins in hyperperfused and ictal parenchymal areas. Therefore, SWI might have the potential to identify an ictal region in CSE/NCSE. (orig.)

  20. SELECTION OF RECIPIENTS FOR HEART TRANSPLANTATION BASED ON URGENCY STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Sujayeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the overview of current international recommendations dedicated to selection of heart transplantation recipients based on urgency status. Authors found that cardiopulmonary bicycle stress test allowed to reveal additional criteria of high death risk within 1 year. These additional criteria were: the maximal oxygen consumption VO2max < 30% of the expected considering the age; VD/VT (ratio of physiologic dead space over tidal volume increasing during the test; maximal tolerance to physical loading ≤50 Wt and/or < 20% of the expected considering the age. Authors created mathematical model for prediction of death within 1 year based on above mentioned data. Special software estimating the probability of death within 1 year was also created.

  1. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Hemodynamics in Neonates and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogen Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic instability and inadequate cardiac performance are common in critically ill children. The clinical assessment of hemodynamic status is reliant upon physical examination supported by the clinical signs such as heart rate, blood pressure, capillary refill time, and measurement of the urine output and serum lactate. Unfortunately, all of these parameters are surrogate markers of cardiovascular well-being and they provide limited direct information regarding the adequacy of blood flow and tissue perfusion. A bedside point-of-care echocardiography can provide real-time hemodynamic information by assessing cardiac function, loading conditions (preload and afterload and cardiac output. The echocardiography has the ability to provide longitudinal functional assessment in real time, which makes it an ideal tool for monitoring hemodynamic assessment in neonates and children. It is indispensable in the management of patients with shock, pulmonary hypertension, and patent ductus arteriosus. The echocardiography is the gold standard diagnostic tool to assess hemodynamic stability in patients with pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, and cardiac abnormalities such as congenital heart defects or valvar disorders. The information from echocardiography can be used to provide targeted treatment in intensive care settings such as need of fluid resuscitation versus inotropic support, choosing appropriate inotrope or vasopressor, and in providing specific interventions such as selective pulmonary vasodilators in pulmonary hypertension. The physiological information gathered from echocardiography may help in making timely, accurate, and appropriate diagnosis and providing specific treatment in sick patients. There is no surprise that use of bedside point-of-care echocardiography is rapidly gaining interest among neonatologists and intensivists, and it is now being used in clinical decision making for patients with hemodynamic instability. Like any

  2. Hemodynamic changes as a result of experimental heart failure in sheep as observed with technetium 99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rooyen, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of this project is to study heart failure in sheep that have gousiekte by using technetium 99m to determine the blood flow. Gousiekte is a congestive cardiomyopathy that occurs in ruminant animals. It is characterised by a latent period of 2-6 weeks followed by a sudden death. It appears that during gousiekte the stroke volume decreases with about 40% and the PFI increases with more than a 100%. The decrease in stroke volume is observed by means of an electromagnetic bloodflow meter. The greater change in PFI than stroke volume during gousiekte is a sign that there is congestive failure of the left ventricle. A decrease in ejection fraction has been observed by a loss of value lower than 30% after the final congestive phase has been reached. Normally 7,4 plus minus 0,3 contractions of a sheep's heart are needed to pump the blood from the right to left side of the heart. Complete congestive failure during gousiekte can decrease the effectiveness of the heart so that 50 contractions are needed, in other words a PFI value of 50. Two phases can be distinguished during the development of gousiekte namely a compensation phase and a decompensation phase. The PFI as criterion is used to establish the influence of certain drugs with an inotropic effect and to establish whether a gousiekte heart can protentiate after administration of the drugs. The findings are positive which shows than energy abnormalities are not primary causes of gousiekte. As a model for heart failure gousiekte can be compared with other well known models of heart failure such a volume overload, pressure overload and coronary ligatures in sheep. The by-product of this research is the development and possible application of the technetium isotope method to diagnose heart failure in sheep

  3. Hemodynamic imaging of cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grond, J. van der; Hendrikse, J.; Osch, M.J.P. van [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2001-11-01

    MR can provide data on perfusion, oxygen consumption and oxygen metabolism, which can be of great value in stroke research. This article reviews the possibilities and current status of the MR techniques with respect to intracranial hemodynamic changes. (orig.)

  4. Natriuretic peptides and cerebral hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Barringer, Filippa; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have emerged as important diagnostic and prognostic tools for cardiovascular disease. Plasma measurement of the bioactive peptides as well as precursor-derived fragments is a sensitive tool in assessing heart failure. In heart failure, the peptides are used as treatment...... in decompensated disease. In contrast, their biological effects on the cerebral hemodynamics are poorly understood. In this mini-review, we summarize the hemodynamic effects of the natriuretic peptides with a focus on the cerebral hemodynamics. In addition, we will discuss its potential implications in diseases...... where alteration of the cerebral hemodynamics plays a role such as migraine and acute brain injury including stroke. We conclude that a possible role of the peptides is feasible as evaluated from animal and in vitro studies, but more research is needed in humans to determine the precise response...

  5. Heart failure and socioeconomic status: accumulating evidence of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Nathaniel M; Jhund, Pardeep S; McMurray, John J V; Capewell, Simon

    2012-02-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a powerful predictor of incident coronary disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Understanding the impact of SES on heart failure (HF) development and subsequent outcomes may help to develop effective and equitable prevention, detection, and treatment strategies A systematic literature review of electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library, restricted to human subjects, was carried out. The principal outcomes were incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, mortality, and treatment of HF. Socioeconomic measures included education, occupation, employment relations, social class, income, housing characteristics, and composite and area level indicators. Additional studies were identified from bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews. Twenty-eight studies were identified. Lower SES was associated with increased incidence of HF, either in the community or presenting to hospital. The adjusted risk of developing HF was increased by ∼30-50% in most reports. Readmission rates following hospitalization were likewise greater in more deprived patients. Although fewer studies examined mortality, lower SES was associated with poorer survival. Evidence defining the equity of medical treatment of patients with HF was scarce and conflicting. Socioeconomic deprivation is a powerful independent predictor of HF development and adverse outcomes. However, the precise mechanisms accounting for this risk remain elusive. Heart failure represents the endpoint of numerous different pathophysiological processes and 'chains of events', each modifiable throughout the disease trajectories. The interaction between SES and HF is accordingly complex. Disentangling the many and varied life course processes is challenging. A better understanding of these issues may help attenuate the health inequalities so clearly evident among patients with HF.

  6. Evolução hemodinâmica seqüencial no transplante cardíaco Sequential hemodynamic evaluation in heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noedir A. G Stolf

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available O transplante cardíaco tem tido ampla aplicação no tratamento da cardiomiopatia em fase terminal. Grande interesse existe no estudo das alterações hemodinâmicas imediatas e na identificação dos fatores que determinam essas alterações. Quarenta e três pacientes transplantados foram estudados com esse objetivo. Os seguintes dados foram obtidos: índice cardíaco, as pressões nas câmaras cardíacas, capilar pulmonar, aorta, artéria pulmonar, volume sistólico, fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (VE, resistência vascular pulmonar e sistêmica, índice do trabalho sistólico do ventrículo esquerdo e direito (VD e o tríplice produto. Esses valores foram comparados de acordo com os episódios de rejeição e com diferentes valores do gradiente transpulmonar. Verificou-se que no pós-operatório imediato há depressão da função dos ventrículos decorrente de uma série de fatores. O índice cardíaco se mantém em valore adequados através de vários mecanismos e adaptação dos ventrículos, que ocorre mais precocemente para o VE do que para o VD. Tardiamente as alterações hemodinâmicas dependem do aparecimento de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e da aterosclerose coronária. A presença e os valores mais elevados do gradiente transpulmonar não tiveram influência estatisticamente significativa nas condições hemodinâmicas dos pacientes.heart transplantation has been widely employed in treatment of end stage cardiomyopathy. Great interest exists in the study of early and late hemodynamic alterations following the procedure. Fourty three patients submited to heart transplantation were studied with this aim. The data obtained were: cardiac index, pressure in the heart chambers, capillary wedge pressure, aorta and pulmonary artery pressure, systolic volume and ejection fraction of left ventricle, pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances; left and right work systolic indexes; triple product. The data were compared in

  7. Electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, and biochemical responses to acute particulate matter (PM) exposure in aged heart failure-prone rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to ambient PM from fossil-fuel emissions is linked to cardiovascular disease and death. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiac disease-especially heart failure (HF). The mechanisms explaining PM-induced exacerbation ofHF are unclear. Some o...

  8. [Influence of detomidine on echocardiographic function parameters and cardiac hemodynamics in horses with and without heart murmur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlen, H; Kroker, K; Deegen, E; Stadler, P

    2004-03-01

    30 warmblood horses were examined before and after sedation with 20 micrograms/kg BW detomidine, to determine changes of cardiac function parameters, using B-mode, M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. 15 horses showed a heart murmur, but no clinical signs of cardiac heart failure, 15 horses had neither a heart murmur nor other signs of cardiac disease. After sedation with detomidine we could recognise a significant increase of end-diastolic left atrium diameter, an increase of end-systolic left ventricular diameter and aortic root diameter. The end-systolic thickness of papillary muscle and interventricular septum showed a decrease. Fractional shortening and amplitude of left ventricular wall motion was decreased after sedation. The mitral valve echogram revealed a presystolic valve closure and an inflection in the Ac slope (B-notch) in xy horses before sedation. Both increased after sedation with detomidine. Doppler echocardiography showed a decrease of blood flow velocity and velocity time integral (VTI) in the left and right ventricular outflow tract after sedation. Regurgitant flow signals were intensified following sedation in xy horses, especially at the mitral valve.

  9. Disease-specific health status as a predictor of mortality in patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastenbroek, Mirjam H; Versteeg, Henneke; Zijlstra, Wobbe P

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Some, but not all, studies have shown that patient-reported health status, including symptoms, functioning, and health-related quality of life, provides additional information to traditional clinical factors in predicting prognosis in heart failure patients. To evaluate the overall evidence......, the association of disease-specific health status on mortality in heart failure was examined through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective cohort studies that assessed the independent association of disease-specific health status with mortality in heart failure were selected....... Searching PubMed (until March 2013) resulted in 17 articles in the systematic review and 17 studies in the meta-analysis. About half of the studies reported a significant relationship between disease-specific health status and mortality in heart failure, while the remainder found no association. A larger...

  10. Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to Combat Obesity, Heart Disease and Cancer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to combat obesity, heart disease, and cancer are major components of the Community Health Data Initiative. This dataset...

  11. TNF-α receptor 1 knockdown in the subfornical organ ameliorates sympathetic excitation and cardiac hemodynamics in heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wei, Shun-Guang; Weiss, Robert M; Felder, Robert B

    2017-10-01

    In systolic heart failure (HF), circulating proinflammatory cytokines upregulate inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity in cardiovascular regions of the brain, contributing to sympathetic excitation and cardiac dysfunction. Important among these is the subfornical organ (SFO), a forebrain circumventricular organ that lacks an effective blood-brain barrier and senses circulating humors. We hypothesized that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) receptor 1 (TNFR1) in the SFO contributes to sympathetic excitation and cardiac dysfunction in HF rats. Rats received SFO microinjections of a TNFR1 shRNA or a scrambled shRNA lentiviral vector carrying green fluorescent protein, or vehicle. One week later, some rats were euthanized to confirm the accuracy of the SFO microinjections and the transfection potential of the lentiviral vector. Other rats underwent coronary artery ligation (CL) to induce HF or a sham operation. Four weeks after CL, vehicle- and scrambled shRNA-treated HF rats had significant increases in TNFR1 mRNA and protein, NF-κB activity, and mRNA for inflammatory mediators, RAS components and c-Fos protein in the SFO and downstream in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, along with increased plasma norepinephrine levels and impaired cardiac function, compared with vehicle-treated sham-operated rats. In HF rats treated with TNFR1 shRNA, TNFR1 was reduced in the SFO but not paraventricular nucleus, and the central and peripheral manifestations of HF were ameliorated. In sham-operated rats treated with TNFR1 shRNA, TNFR1 expression was also reduced in the SFO but there were no other effects. These results suggest a key role for TNFR1 in the SFO in the pathophysiology of systolic HF. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Activation of TNF-α receptor 1 in the subfornical organ (SFO) contributes to sympathetic excitation in heart failure rats by increasing inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in the SFO and downstream in the hypothalamic

  12. Lagrangian postprocessing of computational hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadden, Shawn C; Arzani, Amirhossein

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in imaging, modeling, and computing have rapidly expanded our capabilities to model hemodynamics in the large vessels (heart, arteries, and veins). This data encodes a wealth of information that is often under-utilized. Modeling (and measuring) blood flow in the large vessels typically amounts to solving for the time-varying velocity field in a region of interest. Flow in the heart and larger arteries is often complex, and velocity field data provides a starting point for investigating the hemodynamics. This data can be used to perform Lagrangian particle tracking, and other Lagrangian-based postprocessing. As described herein, Lagrangian methods are necessary to understand inherently transient hemodynamic conditions from the fluid mechanics perspective, and to properly understand the biomechanical factors that lead to acute and gradual changes of vascular function and health. The goal of the present paper is to review Lagrangian methods that have been used in post-processing velocity data of cardiovascular flows.

  13. Clinical study on the cardiac hemodynamics and the possibility of demonstration of the left intraatrial thrombi by echocardiography, angiocardiography and computed tomography and the neurological symptoms in patients with heart disorder and cerebral embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kazuo

    1987-03-01

    In an attempt to elucidate risk factors for developing cerebral embolism (CE) in patients with heart disease, hemodynamic, sonographic or radiologic, and neurologic manifestations of heart disease developing into CE were retrospectively analyzed in 44 patients with CE and 122 patients with mitral valve disease (MVD). The most common underlying disease of CE was valve disease (50 %), followed by myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, and infectious endocarditis. In MVD patients, risk factors for CE were considered to be atrial fibrillation, mitral stenosis, and intraatrial thrombi. Combined use of various imaging modalities revealed the presence of intraatrial thrombi in 65 % of the CE patients. Cranial computed tomography showed hemorrhagic infarction in 22 %, and found the mid-arotic artery to be the commonest responsible region (81 %). The frequent initial neurologic symptom was hemiplegia. Half of the patients had disturbance of consciousness on admission. Prognosis was better in patients with MVD than those with the other types of heart disease. (Namekawa, K.). 117 refs.

  14. Clinical study on the cardiac hemodynamics and the possibility of demonstration of the left intraatrial thrombi by echocardiography, angiocardiography and computed tomography and the neurological symptoms in patients with heart disorder and cerebral embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate risk factors for developing cerebral embolism (CE) in patients with heart disease, hemodynamic, sonographic or radiologic, and neurologic manifestations of heart disease developing into CE were retrospectively analyzed in 44 patients with CE and 122 patients with mitral valve disease (MVD). The most common underlying disease of CE was valve disease (50 %), followed by myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, and infectious endocarditis. In MVD patients, risk factors for CE were considered to be atrial fibrillation, mitral stenosis, and intraatrial thrombi. Combined use of various imaging modalities revealed the presence of intraatrial thrombi in 65 % of the CE patients. Cranial computed tomography showed hemorrhagic infarction in 22 %, and found the mid-arotic artery to be the commonest responsible region (81 %). The frequent initial neurologic symptom was hemiplegia. Half of the patients had disturbance of consciousness on admission. Prognosis was better in patients with MVD than those with the other types of heart disease. (Namekawa, K.). 117 refs

  15. Sex Differences in Mortality Based on United Network for Organ Sharing Status While Awaiting Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsich, Eileen M; Blackstone, Eugene H; Thuita, Lucy; McNamara, Dennis M; Rogers, Joseph G; Ishwaran, Hemant; Schold, Jesse D

    2017-06-01

    There are sex differences in mortality while awaiting heart transplantation, and the reason remains unclear. We included all adults in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients placed on the heart transplant active waitlist from 2004 to 2015. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate survival by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) status at the time of listing. Random survival forest was used to identify sex interactions for the competing risk of death and transplantation. There were 33 069 patients (25% women) awaiting heart transplantation. This cohort included 7681 UNOS status 1A (26% women), 13 027 UNOS status 1B (25% women), and 12 361 UNOS status 2 (26% women). During a median follow-up of 4.3 months, 1351 women and 4052 men died. After adjusting for >20 risk factors, female sex was associated with a significant risk of death among UNOS status 1A (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.29) and UNOS status 1B (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.30). In contrast, female sex was significantly protective for time to death among UNOS status 2 (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.95). Sex differences in probability of transplantation were present for every UNOS status, and >20 sex interactions were identified for mortality and transplantation. When stratified by initial UNOS status, women had a higher mortality than men as UNOS status 1 and a lower mortality as UNOS status 2. With >20 sex interactions for mortality and transplantation, further evaluation is warranted to form a more equitable allocation system. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Employment status at time of first hospitalization for heart failure is associated with a higher risk of death and rehospitalization for heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, Rasmus; Fosbøl, Emil L; Mogensen, Ulrik M

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Employment status at time of first heart failure (HF) hospitalization may be an indicator of both self-perceived and objective health status. In this study, we examined the association between employment status and the risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent HF hospitalization in a nation......AIMS: Employment status at time of first heart failure (HF) hospitalization may be an indicator of both self-perceived and objective health status. In this study, we examined the association between employment status and the risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent HF hospitalization...

  17. [Heart rate variability and physical exercise. Current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Hoos, Olaf; Esperer, Hans Dieter

    2006-09-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has long been used in risk stratification for sudden cardiac death and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In recent years, both time and frequency domain indices of HRV also gained increasing interest in sports and training sciences. In these fields, HRV is currently used for the noninvasive assessment of autonomic changes associated with short-term and long-term endurance exercise training in both leisure sports activity and high-performance training. Furthermore, HRV is being investigated as a diagnostic marker of overreaching and overtraining.A large body of evidence shows that, in healthy subjects and cardiovascular patients of all ages (up to an age of 70 years), regular aerobic training usually results in a significant improvement of overall as well as instantaneous HRV. These changes, which are accompanied by significant reductions in heart rates both at rest and during submaximal exercise, reflect an increase in autonomic efferent activity and a shift in favor of enhanced vagal modulation of the cardiac rhythm. Regular aerobic training of moderate volume and intensity over a minimum period of 3 months seems to be necessary to ensure these effects, which might be associated with a prognostic benefit regarding overall mortality.At present, available data does not allow for final conclusions with respect to the usefulness of traditional HRV indices in assessing an individual's exercise performance and monitoring training load. The discrepant results published so far are due to several factors including insufficient study size and design, and different HRV methods. Large-sized and prospectively designed studies are necessary for clarification. It also remains to be seen, whether the traditional HRV indices prove useful in the diagnosis of overreaching and overtraining. Preliminary results, though promising, need to be confirmed in larger cohorts.A basic problem in HRV analysis is nonstationarity of the heart rate signal, which holds

  18. Current status of radionuclide imaging in valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Pohost, G.M.

    1980-12-18

    The current state-of-the-art in radionuclide imaging of valvular heart disease is based on different angiographic patterns in three left-sided valve abnormalities: pressure overload, volume overload, and inflow obstruction. In pressure overload, the left ventricle has normal dimensions or is minimally dilated the volume overload involves a left ventricular dilatation with a normal or reduced ejection fraction at rest the left ventricular function in inflow obstruction is normal, but in some cases may be depressed. Radionuclide angiography evaluates the effect of a valve abnormality on cardiac chamber and function thallium-201 imaging diagnoses regional myocardial blood flow and cell integrity and can evaluate the associated coronary artery disease.

  19. Current status of radionuclide imaging in valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Pohost, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in radionuclide imaging of valvular heart disease is based on different angiographic patterns in three left-sided valve abnormalities: pressure overload, volume overload, and inflow obstruction. In pressure overload, the left ventricle has normal dimensions or is minimally dilated the volume overload involves a left ventricular dilatation with a normal or reduced ejection fraction at rest the left ventricular function in inflow obstruction is normal, but in some cases may be depressed. Radionuclide angiography evaluates the effect of a valve abnormality on cardiac chamber and function thallium-201 imaging diagnoses regional myocardial blood flow and cell integrity and can evaluate the associated coronary artery disease

  20. Hemodynamic response during aneurysm clipping surgery among experienced neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Bilskiene, Diana; Macas, Andrius; Tamasauskas, Arimantas

    2016-02-01

    Neurosurgery is a challenging field associated with high levels of mental stress. The goal of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic response of experienced neurosurgeons during aneurysm clipping surgery and to evaluate whether neurosurgeons' hemodynamic responses are associated with patients' clinical statuses. Four vascular neurosurgeons (all male; mean age 51 ± 10 years; post-residency experience ≥7 years) were studied during 42 aneurysm clipping procedures. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were assessed at rest and during seven phases of surgery: before the skin incision, after craniotomy, after dural opening, after aneurysm neck dissection, after aneurysm clipping, after dural closure and after skin closure. HR and BP were significantly greater during surgery relative to the rest situation (p ≤ 0.03). There was a statistically significant increase in neurosurgeons' HR (F [6, 41] = 10.88, p neurosurgeon experience, the difference in BP as a function of aneurysm rupture was not significant (p > 0.08). Aneurysm location, intraoperative aneurysm rupture, admission WFNS score, admission Glasgow Coma Scale scores and Fisher grade were not associated with neurosurgeons' intraoperative HR and BP (all p > 0.07). Aneurysm clipping surgery is associated with significant hemodynamic system activation among experienced neurosurgeons. The greatest HR and BP were after aneurysm neck dissection and clipping. Aneurysm location and patient clinical status were not associated with intraoperative changes of neurosurgeons' HR and BP.

  1. Anxiety, Depression, and Functional Status Are the Best Predictors of Health Status Patients With Heart Failure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeJong, Marla

    2004-01-01

    .... Therefore, health status is an increasingly important concept in the management of HF. In fact, most symptomatic patients are more concerned about their everyday health status than the length of their life...

  2. Overweight Status, Obesity, and Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, C. Michael; Robinson, Laura M.; Davidson, Philip W.; Haveman, Meindert; Janicki, Matthew P.; Albertini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have high rates of overweight status/obesity (OSO). OSO is associated with several important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). This study focused on assessing whether such risk factors are being identified in adults with ID who are receiving their healthcare in…

  3. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  4. Thoughts about death and perceived health status in elderly patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroemberg, Anna; Jaarsma, Tiny

    Aim: To explore thoughts about death and perceived health status in elderly patients with heart failure during a 6 month period after a deterioration needing hospitalisation. Methods: A descriptive, mixed methods design was used. Health was measured with EuroQol-5D, thoughts about death with

  5. Iron Status in Chronic Heart Failure: Impact on Symptoms, Functional Class and Submaximal Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjuanes, Cristina; Bruguera, Jordi; Grau, María; Cladellas, Mercé; Gonzalez, Gina; Meroño, Oona; Moliner-Borja, Pedro; Verdú, José M; Farré, Nuria; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency and anemia on submaximal exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. We undertook a single-center cross-sectional study in a group of stable patients with chronic heart failure. At recruitment, patients provided baseline information and completed a 6-minute walk test to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity and exercise-induced symptoms. At the same time, blood samples were taken for serological evaluation. Iron deficiency was defined as ferritin < 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation < 20% when ferritin is < 800 ng/mL. Additional markers of iron status were also measured. A total of 538 heart failure patients were eligible for inclusion, with an average age of 71 years and 33% were in New York Heart Association class III/IV. The mean distance walked in the test was 285 ± 101 meters among those with impaired iron status, vs 322 ± 113 meters (P=.002). Symptoms during the test were more frequent in iron deficiency patients (35% vs 27%; P=.028) and the most common symptom reported was fatigue. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that increased levels of soluble transferrin receptor indicating abnormal iron status were independently associated with advanced New York Heart Association class (P < .05). Multivariable analysis using generalized additive models, soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index, both biomarkers measuring iron status, showed a significant, independent and linear association with submaximal exercise capacity (P=.03 for both). In contrast, hemoglobin levels were not significantly associated with 6-minute walk test distance in the multivariable analysis. In patients with chronic heart failure, iron deficiency but not anemia was associated with impaired submaximal exercise capacity and symptomatic functional limitation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutritional Status and Non-Diet Associated Factors of Hospitalized Heart-Failure Elderly Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Hosseini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess nutritional status and identify the most significant MNA-items (Mini Nutritional assessment to accelerate the determination of nutritional risk of heart-failure in elderly patients. Methods and Materials: The present research was a cross-sectional descriptive analytical survey on hospitalized heart- failure elderly patients (n=225. The sampling method was enrolled nonrandomly. The MNA questionnaires (18 items were used for nutritional assessment. Results: Based on the MNA questionnaire, 9.8% of the elderly were malnourished, 80.9% were at risk of malnutrition and 9.3% were well-nourished. Conclusion: Regarding the factors related to nutritional status of heart failure elderly patient, it is indicated that bed sore, the ability of eating, self-view of nutritional status and self-rated health status relative to peers had significant relationship with the nutritional status according to MNA (P<0.005. Regarding high prevalence of vulnerable or malnourished hospitalized elderly, nutritional intervention is necessary.

  7. Hemodynamics in diabetic orthostatic hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Parving, H H; Christensen, N J

    1981-01-01

    Hemodynamic variables (blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, plasma volume, splanchnic blood flow, and peripheral subcutaneous blood flow) and plasma concentrations of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and renin were measured in the supine position and after 30 min of quiet standing. This was done...... in normal subjects (n = 7) and in juvenile-onset diabetic patients without neuropathy (n = 8), with slight neuropathy (decreased beat-to-beat variation in heart rate during hyperventilation) (n = 8), and with severe neuropathy including orthostatic hypotension (n = 7). Blood pressure decreased precipitously...

  8. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika De Rubeis

    Full Text Available Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing. We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52 and disorganized attachment status (n = 45. Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051. These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  9. The effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Inkyung; Kim, Dong Yeon; Kim, Youn Jin

    2012-11-01

    Inflation and deflation of a pneumatic tourniquet used in total knee replacement surgery induces various changes in patient's hemodynamic and metabolic status, which may result in serious complications, especially in aged patients. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a monitoring device designed to estimate the regional cerebral oxygen saturation. We evaluated the effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery, using NIRS. Twenty-eight American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II patients, over the age of sixty-five years undergoing total knee replacement surgery, were included. Under general anesthesia, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) were recorded before induction of anesthesia and every 2 min after tourniquet deflation for 20 min. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed 5 min before, in addition to 0, and 10 min after tourniquet deflation. The decrease of rSO(2) was not significant during 20-min deflation period. MAP, CO and SV showed significant decrease during 2 to 12, 4 to 6 and 2 to 6-min period after tourniquet deflation, respectively (P deflation caused significant changes in hemodynamic and metabolic status, but not in regional cerebral oxygen saturation. It is recommended to monitor neurologic status, as well as hemodynamic and metabolic status to avoid serious complications, especially in aged patients.

  10. Low density lipoprotein levels linkage with the periodontal status patients of coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nafisah Ibrahim; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Studies found an association between periodontitis and coronary heart disease (CHD), but relationship between periodontal status CHD patients with LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) levels, as risk factors for atherosclerosis, has not been studied. Objective: To analyze relationship between LDL and periodontal status CHD. Methods: Periodontal status of 60 CHD, 40 controls were examined (PBI, PPD, CAL) and their blood was taken to assess levels of LDL. Result: Found significant differences LDL (p=0.005), correlation between LDL with PPD (p=0.003) and CAL CHD (p=0.013), and PPD (p=0.001), CAL (p=0.008) non-CHD, but no significant correlation between LDL with PBI CAD (p=0.689) and PBI non-CHD (p=0.320). Conclusion: There is a correlation between the LDL levels with periodontal status.

  11. Alkaline phosphatase levels in patients with coronary heart disease saliva and its relation with periodontal status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunita, Dina Suci; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Tadjoedin, Fatimah M.; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease that causes narrowing of the coronary arteries. Currently, there is a hypothesis regarding periodontal infection that increases risk for heart disease. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as a marker of inflammation will increase in atherosclerosis and periodontal disease. The objective of this research is analyzing the relationship between the levels of alkaline phosphatase in saliva with periodontal status in patients with CHD and non CHD. Here, saliva of 104 subjects were taken, each 1 ml, and levels of Alkaline Phosphatase was analyzed using Abbott ci4100 architect. We found that no significant difference of Alkaline Phosphatase levels in saliva between CHD patients and non CHD. Therefore, it can be concluded that Alkaline Phosphatase levels in patients with CHD saliva was higher than non CHD and no association between ALP levels with periodontal status.

  12. Socioeconomic status and impact of treatment on families of children with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughal, A.R.; Sidiq, M.; Hyder, S.N.; Qureshi, A.U.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the socioeconomic status, treatment being offered and the impact of congenital heart disease treatment on families. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital / Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from first March to 31 August 2010. Methodology: All patients undergoing a cardiac surgical or angiographic intervention were enrolled. Socioeconomic status was assessed by Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale with income group modification. The impact was measured by the source of financing, effect on family financing source and schooling and health of siblings. Results: Of 211 patients undergoing treatment in the study period, surgery was the definitive treatment in 164 (77.7%) and angiographic intervention in 47 (22.3%) patients. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The mean age of the patient was 39.1 +- 3.2 months (range 01 day to 15 years). Majority of families belonged to middle (66.4%, n=140) and lower (27%, n=57) socioeconomic class. The mean cost of medicines and disposable was PKR 78378.2 +- 8845.9 (US$ 933.1 +- 105.3) in open heart surgery, PKR 12581 +- 7010.8 (US$ 149.8 +- 83.5) in closed heart surgery and PKR 69091 + 60906 in angiographic interventions. In 63.1% patients, families contributed towards these costs either completely (12.3%) or partly (50.8%) with significant contribution from the hospital. Adverse effect on families ranged from leave without pay to losing jobs or business (46%), and selling their assets (11.3%). It also affected schooling and health of siblings (22.7% and 26.1% respectively). Conclusion: Majority of children with congenital heart disease belonged to middle and lower socioeconomic status in this study. Main definitive treatment was surgery. The cost of health care facilities posed a marked socioeconomic burden on those families. (author)

  13. Socioeconomic status and impact of treatment on families of children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Abdul Razzaq; Sadiq, Masood; Hyder, Syed Najam; Qureshi, Ahmad Usaid; A Shah, S Salman; Khan, Mohammad Asim; Nasir, Jamal Abdul

    2011-07-01

    To assess the socioeconomic status, treatment being offered and the impact of congenital heart disease treatment on families. Observational study. The Children's Hospital / Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from 1st March to 31st August 2010. All patients undergoing a cardiac surgical or angiographic intervention were enrolled. Socioeconomic status was assessed by Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale with income group modification. The impact was measured by the source of financing, effect on family financing source and schooling and health of siblings. Of 211 patients undergoing treatment in the study period, surgery was the definitive treatment in 164 (77.7%) and angiographic intervention in 47 (22.3%) patients. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The mean age of the patient was 39.1 + 3.2 months (range 01 day to 15 years). Majority of families belonged to middle (66.4%, n=140) and lower (27%, n=57) socioeconomic class. The mean cost of medicines and disposables was PKR 78378.2 ± 8845.9 (US$ 933.1 ± 105.3) in open heart surgery, PKR 12581 ± 7010.8 (US$ 149.8 ± 83.5) in closed heart surgery and PKR 69091 + 60906 in angiographic interventions. In 63.1% patients, families contributed towards these costs either completely (12.3%) or partly (50.8%) with significant contribution from the hospital. Adverse effect on families ranged from leave without pay to losing jobs or business (46%), and selling their assets (11.3%). It also affected schooling and health of siblings (22.7% and 26.1% respectively). Majority of children with congenital heart disease belonged to middle and lower socioeconomic status in this study. Main definitive treatment was surgery. The cost of health care facilities posed a marked socioeconomic burden on those families.

  14. Acute Responses of a Physical Training Session with a Nintendo Wii on Hemodynamic Variables of an Individual with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Junior, Renato Sobral; Dantas, Aretha; de Souza, Cíntia Pereira; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a neurological illness that decreases motor functions. This disease can cause weakness of cardiorespiratory muscles and impaired functional capacity and quality of life. Therefore it requires preventive treatments. This study investigated the acute responses of a virtual physical training session with the Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) Wii™ on hemodynamic variables of an individual with multiple sclerosis (relapsing-remitting). A 34-year-old man with multiple sclerosis with previous experience in aerobic, strength, and functional training (2 years) was tested. His Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.5. We compared the heart rate, blood pressure, and double product obtained at rest and during (heart rate) and after the Nintendo Wii games "Boxing" and "Sword Play." In rest, the variables were measured in the supine position. Our results showed positive hemodynamic alterations after execution of both games. The peak of heart rate was 121 beats per minute (65% of maximal heart rate) and 104 beats per minute (56% of maximal heart rate) for "Boxing" and "Sword Play," respectively. The training session with "Boxing" was able to stimulate the heart rate to achieve the recommended values for the maintenance of physical fitness in accordance with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines. We conclude that an exercise training program with the Nintendo Wii may improve physical fitness in people with multiple sclerosis. Moreover, these activities could improve affective status and perhaps maintain the individual engaged at treatment program.

  15. Dietary vitamin K2 supplement improves bone status after lung and heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forli, Liv; Bollerslev, Jens; Simonsen, Svein; Isaksen, Gunhild A; Kvamsdal, Kari E; Godang, Kristin; Gadeholt, Gaut; Pripp, Are H; Bjortuft, Oystein

    2010-02-27

    Osteoporosis is a problem after transplantation. Studies since the last year indicate that vitamin K plays a role in optimal bone health. The aim of this randomized, double blind, prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the effect of a dietary supplement with vitamin K2 (180 microg menakinon-7) on bone mass, the first year after lung and heart transplantation. After preoperative baseline investigation of bone mass and bone-related biochemistry, 35 lung and 59 heart recipients were postoperatively randomized to vitamin K2 or placebo and reinvestigated the following year. In all recipients, 1 year after solid organ transplantation, the difference between vitamin K2 and placebo for the lumbar spine (L2-L4) bone mineral density (BMD) was 0.028 (SE 0.014) g/cm(2), P=0.055 and for L2 to L4 bone mineral content was 1.33 (SE 1.91) g/cm(2) (P=0.5). In lung recipients separately, the difference for bone mineral content was 3.39 g (SE 1.65), P=0.048 and in heart recipients 0.45 (SE 0.02) g, P=0.9 after controlling for baseline measures. In a forward stepwise linear regression analysis fitted to model differences in the L2 to L4 BMD, controlled for possible confounding variables (including use of bisphosphonate), and the only significant predictors were organ (B=-0.065 g/cm(2), P<0.001) and vitamin K2 (B=0.034 g/cm(2), P=0.019). Insufficient vitamin D status was common, and the parathyroid hormone was highest in the K2 group indicating a higher need for vitamin D. One year of vitamin K2 supplement suggest a favorable effect on lumbar spine BMD with different response in lung and heart recipients. Vitamin D status should receive more attention.

  16. Occupational exposure in hemodynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Amanda J.; Fernandes, Ivani M.; Silva, Paula P. Nou; Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper has an objective to perform a radiometric survey at a hemodynamic service. Besides, it was intended to evaluate the effective dose of health professionals and to provide data which can contribute with minimization of exposures during the realization of hemodynamic procedure. The radiometric survey was realized in the real environment of work simulating the conditions of a hemodynamic study with a ionization chamber

  17. The distressed (type D) personality is independently associated with impaired health status and increased depressive symptoms in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Widdershoven, Jos W

    2005-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a serious condition that is associated with impaired health status and a high prevalence of depressive symptoms. To date, little is known about the determinants of health status and depressive symptoms in CHF. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether T...

  18. The Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Antioxidant Status in the Hearts of the Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salehi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder caused by low secretion or resistance to the insulin action. Oxidative stress, as a result of imbalance between the free radical production and antioxidant defense systems is strongly related to diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of experimental diabetes and forced treadmill exercise on oxidative stress indexes in heart tissue.Materials & Methods: 40 male wistar rats (20020g were divided into four groups(n=10: control, control with exercise, diabetic, diabetic with exercise. Diabetes was induced by a single dose injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/Kg-1, i.p. Treadmill was performed for 1 hour, 5 days in 8 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the rats were anesthetized by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg-1, i.p and left ventricle dissociate from heart and maintenance in -80 ºC. Supernatant from homogenization were used to determine the superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthatione peroxidase (GPX, gluthatione reductase (GR and catalase (CAT activities as enzymatic antioxidant status. Also Maolnyldealdehyde (MDA level as index of lipid peroxidation and total glutathione (T.GSH of the heart tissue were measured.Results: Diabetes significantly reduced CAT and GR activities in diabetic rats compared with control rats. SOD and GPX activities weren't changed in the hearts of the diabetic rats. MDA level, as a lipid peroxidation index, increased in non exercised diabetic rats. In response to exercise, MDA level, CAT, GR and SOD activities showed a significant increase in exercise diabetic rats compared with non exercise diabetic rats.Conclusion: Forced treadmill with moderate severity has harmful effects on cardiovascular system in diabetes because it increases MDA level of heart tissue in exercised diabetic rats.

  19. Impact of metoprolol treatment on mental status of chronic heart failure patients with neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xuelu Liu,1 Xueming Lou,1 Xianliang Cheng,2 Yong Meng1 1Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China Background: Metoprolol treatment is well established for chronic heart failure (CHF patients, but the central nervous system side effects are often a potential drawback.Objective: To investigate the impact of metoprolol treatment on change in mental status of CHF patients with clinical psychological disorders (such as depression, anxiety, and burnout syndrome.Methods: From February 2013 to April 2016, CHF patients with clinical mental disorders received metoprolol (23.75 or 47.5 mg, qd PO, dose escalated with 23.75 mg each time until target heart rate [HR] <70 bpm was achieved at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University. Mental status was assessed by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI scale. The primary outcome assessed was change in mental status of patients post-metoprolol treatment and the association with reduction in HR achieved by metoprolol.Results: A total of 154 patients (median age: 66.39 years; males: n=101 were divided into eight groups on the basis of their mental status. HR decreased significantly from baseline values in all the groups to <70 bpm in the 12th month, P≤0.0001. The HADS depression and CBI scores significantly increased from baseline throughout the study frame (P≤0.0001 for all groups, but a significant decrease in the HADS anxiety score was observed in patients with anxiety (P≤0.0001 for all groups. Regression analysis revealed no significant correlation in any of the groups between the HR reduction and the change in the HADS/CBI scores, except for a change in the CBI scores of CHF patients with depression (P=0.01, which was HR dependent.Conclusion: Metoprolol treatment worsens the depressive and high burnout

  20. Concurrent relations among cigarette smoking status, resting heart rate variability, and erectile response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Christopher B

    2014-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker of sympathovagal balance; it has been implicated in erectile function and is also altered by tobacco use. Furthermore, smoking and erectile health are strongly related, given that smokers are at increased risk for erectile dysfunction. Few studies have explored the interrelationships between smoking, HRV, and erectile function concurrently. The aim of this study was to examine potential mechanisms underlying tobacco's effects on penile hemodynamics by exploring the mediating role of HRV. The sample comprised 119 men (smokers = 64; nonsmokers = 55) (mean age 28.90 years; standard deviation (SD) 11.68; range 18-58) selected from the control conditions of three previously published experiments. Participants were free from a history of cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarct, and/or cardiac/cardiovascular medication use. During a laboratory visit, self-report, anthropometric, cardiovascular, and electrocardiographic data were assessed, as well as sexual arousal responses elicited from viewing an erotic film. Objective sexual arousal indices (circumferential change via penile plethysmography), self-reported erectile function (per the erectile function domain score of the International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-EF]), and time- (SD of beat-to-beat intervals) and frequency-domain parameters of HRV (ratio of low-frequency [LF] power to high-frequency [HF] power [LF/HF ratio]) were assessed. Being a current long-term cigarette smoker was associated with dysregulated sympathovagal balance (higher LF/HF ratios, indicative of sympathetic nervous system dominance), which in turn showed inverse relations with magnitude of erectile tumescence. HRV did not mediate relations between tobacco use and either IIEF-EF scores or resting penile circumference. Findings suggest that dysfunctional cardiac autonomic tone may be an underlying mechanism by which tobacco exerts its deleterious effects on erectile health. Further research

  1. Risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Catherine A; Denny, Clark H; Greenlund, Kurt J; Benjamin, Stephanie M; Strine, Tara W; Balluz, Lina S; Mokdad, Ali H

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether disabled diabetic persons have a higher prevalence of risk factors for heart disease and stroke than do diabetic persons without disability. RESEARCH, DESIGN, AND METHODS: Data were analyzed for noninstitutionalized adults in 27 states and the District of Columbia that participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2001 and/or 2003. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence and odds ratios of disabled diabetic persons, by sociodemographic characteristics. The logit form of each model was used to estimate conditional marginal probabilities of risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status. Diabetic persons with disability were more likely than those without disability to have more risk factors for heart disease and stroke, including insufficient leisure-time physical activity or inactivity (adjusted prevalence: 75.2% vs. 63.3%; Pvs. 43.3%; Pvs. 48.4%; P=.038), and hypertension (63.9% vs. 56.6%; Ptwo or more, three or more, and four or more risk factors (97.2% vs. 95.6%, 83.5% vs. 74.0%, 56.5% vs. 41.1%, and 22.2% vs. 13.6%, respectively; Pstroke. Health care guidelines specifically targeting diabetic patients with disability may be needed to aid health care providers in addressing these risk factors.

  2. Association between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of coronary heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensia, Rosy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an abnormal narrowing of heart arteries associated with local accumulation of lipids, in the form of cholesterol and triglycerides. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory that suggests link to the development of CHD. In periodontitis have been reported changes in lipid profile, include increased of cholesterol levels of blood. Objective: to analyse correlation between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of CHD and non CHD subjects. Methods: Periodontal status and blood cholesterol level of 60 CHD and 40 non CHD subjects was measured. Result: Blood cholesterol level in CHD subjects differs from non CHD subjects (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.003) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (p=0.000) in CHD subjects. Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.010) in non CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level and bleeding on probing (BOP) in CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level with BOP and CAL in non CHD subjects. Conclusion: Blood cholesterol level in control group is higher than CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.375) and CAL (r=0.450) in CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level is positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.404) in control group.

  3. The obesity paradox in elderly patients with heart failure: analysis of nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Vara, Antonio; Santolaria, Francisco; Fernández-Bereciartúa, Ainhoa; González-Reimers, Emilio; García-Ochoa, Alfonso; Martínez-Riera, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    The obesity paradox refers to the improved survival of obese compared with non-obese elderly or diseased patients for reasons that are not clear. To assess the relative roles of fat and other factors in this improved survival, we analyzed the prognostic value of overweight and obesity elderly patients with heart failure (HF), controlling for other nutritional data such as midarm anthropometrics, serum proteins, and muscle strength. Two hundred forty-four patients (83.2 ± 0.5 y old) hospitalized for HF were included. A nutritional survey was performed in all patients. After discharge, the patients were followed up by telephone. Fourteen patients (5.7%) died during hospitalization. The median survival was 984 d. Patients with better nutritional status as assessed by the body mass index (BMI), subjective score, midarm muscle area, triceps skinfold thickness, handgrip, lymphocyte count, and serum albumin, prealbumin, and cholesterol levels showed better short- and long-term prognoses. Obese patients with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) showed a better long-term prognosis than those with a BMI from 25 to 30 kg/m(2), those with a BMI from 20 to 25 kg/m(2), and those with a BMI lower than 20 kg/m(2). However, survival was not significantly related to a triceps skinfold thickness above the 95th percentile. Obese and overweight patients were younger and had better a nutritional status than those with a normal or decreased BMI as shown by the anthropometrics, subjective score, handgrip, lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, and serum albumin, prealbumin, and cholesterol levels. All the nutritional data correlated closely with each other. New York Heart Association class also correlated with nutrition-derived data: as the HF class increased, the nutritional status deteriorated. On multivariate analysis, to predict long-term survival, neither BMI nor triceps skinfold thickness showed an independent predictive value, whereas a larger midarm muscle area did. The obesity paradox was confirmed in

  4. The mediation effect of health literacy between subjective social status and depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huijing; Chen, Yuxia; Fang, Wenjie; Zhang, Yanting; Fan, Xiuzhen

    2016-12-01

    Depressive symptoms are prevalent and cause adverse outcomes in heart failure. Previous studies have linked depressive symptoms with socioeconomic status. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study aimed to evaluate the association between socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms, and to examine whether access to healthcare, health literacy and social support mediated this relationship in patients with heart failure. Cross-sectional design was used to study 321 patients with heart failure recruited from a general hospital. Demographics, clinical data, depressive symptoms, socioeconomic status (i.e., education, employment, income, and subjective social status), access to healthcare, health literacy, and social support were collected by patient interview, medical record review or questionnaires. A series of logistic regressions and linear regressions were conducted to examine mediation. The mean age of patients with heart failure was 63.6±10.6years. Fifty-eight patients (18%) had depressive symptoms. Lower subjective social status (OR=1.321, p=0.012) and lower health literacy (OR=1.065, psubjective social status and health literacy were entered simultaneously, the relationship between subjective social status and depressive symptoms became non-significant (OR=1.208, p=0.113), demonstrating mediation. Additionally, lower social support was associated with depressive symptoms (OR=1.062, p=0.007). In patients with heart failure, health literacy mediated the relationship between subjective social status and depressive symptoms. Lower social support was associated with depressive symptoms. Interventions should take these factors into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hemodynamic variables during exercise in childhood and resting systolic blood pressure levels 6 years later in adolescence: the European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Møller, N C

    2011-01-01

    of Danish children followed longitudinally for 6 years. The study comprised 226 children randomly sampled at age 9, who had their blood pressure and HR measured during ergometer exercise to exhaustion and was reassessed in adolescence. SBP and RPP during exercise in stage two of the test were positively......The aim of this study was to analyze whether systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP) during exercise in childhood can predict resting SBP levels in adolescence independent of resting SBP and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. We studied this in a sample...... remained significant (P=0.059 and P=0.012, respectively). No significant independent associations were observed for HR during exercise, but associations were in the same direction. Our results supports that measuring SBP and RPP, during a standard acute ergometer exercise test in children, improves...

  6. Hemodynamic and Mechanical Properties of the Proximal Aorta in Young and Middle-Aged Adults With Isolated Systolic Hypertension: The Dallas Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuichiro; Neeland, Ian J; Ayers, Colby; Peshock, Ronald; Berry, Jarett D; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Greenland, Philip; Mitchell, Gary F; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess characteristic impedance (Z c ) of the proximal aorta in young and middle-aged individuals with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). Z c is an index of aortic stiffness relative to aortic size. In the Dallas Heart Study, 2001 untreated participants 18 to 64 years of age (mean age: 42.3 years; 44% black race) were divided into the following groups based on office blood pressure (BP) measurements: (1) optimal BP (systolic BP [SBP] hypertension (SBP hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg; n=178). Z c , aortic arch pulse wave velocity, and minimum ascending aortic size were quantified using cardiovascular magnetic resonance. In multivariable-adjusted linear models, Z c was highest in the ISH group compared with the optimal BP, isolated diastolic hypertension, or systolic-diastolic hypertension groups (103.2±4.0 versus 68.3±2.1, 75.4±6.0, and 88.9±4.8 dyne*seconds/cm 5 , respectively; all P hypertension, or systolic-diastolic hypertension groups (6.3±0.3 versus 4.3±0.1, 4.4±0.4 and 5.5±0.3 m/s, respectively; all P 0.2). Results were similar in a subgroup of 1551 participants 18 to 49 years of age. In a multiracial population-based sample, we found evidence of a mismatch between proximal aortic stiffness and diameter in young and middle-aged adults with ISH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Educational level and employment status in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfitzer, Constanze; Helm, Paul C; Rosenthal, Lisa-Maria; Walker, Christoph; Ferentzi, Hannah; Bauer, Ulrike M M; Berger, Felix; Schmitt, Katharina R L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Through this study we aimed to assess the educational level and employment status of adults with CHD in Germany. Data were acquired from an online survey carried out in 2015 by the German National Register for Congenital Heart Defects. A total of 1458 adults with CHD participated in the survey (response rate: 37.6%). For 1198 participants, detailed medical information, such as main cardiac diagnosis and information from medical reports, was available. Of the participants surveyed (n=1198), 54.5% (n=653) were female, and the mean age was 30 years. The majority of respondents (59.4%) stated that they had high education levels and that they were currently employed (51.1%). Patients with simple CHD had significantly higher levels of education (peducation levels and the majority were employed. The association between CHD and its severity and individuals' educational attainment should be investigated more closely in future studies.

  8. Critical review-current status of Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy in patients with ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Nariaki; Hoer, G.

    1982-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy (TMS) is the most important, accurate and noninvasive diagnostic tool for the detection of regional myocardial perfusion. This agent is a potassium analog and the biologic half life in normal myocardium is 4 hours. Therefore, serial imaging after a single dose of Tl-201 at the peak of the exercise makes differential diagnosis possible between stress induced ischemia (transient perfusion defect with redistribution) and myocardial fibrosis or scar (permanent defect). The reproducibility is around 90%. The overall sensitivity in 4,094 patients reviewed from the literature was 83% with a specificity of 87%. The accuracy of TMS for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease was 85%. Sensitivity increases in the order of visual (83%), computer analysis of standard scintigraphy (91%), and computer analysis of pinhole tomography (96%), but there is no significant difference in specificity among them. Also, sensitivity increases in the order of single (73%), double (83%) and triple (90%) vessel d isease. However, TMS does not indicate the correct number of vessels involved. In this paper, we discuss the current status of use and limitations of TMS in the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. (author)

  9. Subjective social status and psychosocial and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanyam, Malavika A.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A.; Williams, David R.; Wyatt, Sharon B

    2012-01-01

    Subjective social status has been shown to be inversely associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, independent of objective social status. However, few studies have examined this association among African Americans and the results have been mixed. Additionally, the influence of discrimination on this relationship has not been explored. Using baseline data (2000–2004) from the Jackson Heart Study, an African American cohort from the U.S. South (N = 5301), we quantified the associati...

  10. Patent ductus arteriosus in an adult cat with pulmonary hypertension and right-sided congestive heart failure: hemodynamic evaluation and clinical outcome following ductal closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo-Matos, José; Hurter, Karin; Bektas, Rima; Grest, Paula; Glaus, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Right-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) developed secondary to severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) in an 8-year-old cat with a left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Vascular reactivity was tested prior to shunt ligation by treatment with oxygen and sildenafil. This treatment was associated with a significant decrease in pulmonary artery pressure as assessed by echocardiography. Subsequently surgical shunt ligation was planned. During thoracotomy, digital occlusion of the PDA was performed for 10 min with simultaneous catheter measurement of right ventricular pressure, which did not increase. Permanent shunt ligation resulted in a complete and sustained clinical recovery. A lung biopsy sample obtained during thoracotomy demonstrated histopathological arterial changes typical of PH. Cats can develop clinically severe PH and right-sided CHF secondary to a left-to-right PDA even at an advanced age. Assuming there is evidence of pulmonary reactivity, PDA occlusion might be tolerated and can potentially produce long-term clinical benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Somatic versus cognitive symptoms of depression as predictors of all-cause mortality and health status in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pelle, Aline J; Smith, Otto R F

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a predictor of adverse health outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF), but it is not known whether specific symptoms drive this relationship. We examined the impact of somatic/affective, cognitive/affective, and total depressive symptoms on all-cause mortality and health status in CHF....

  12. Use of mathematic modeling to compare and predict hemodynamic effects of the modified Blalock-Taussig and right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunts for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Edward L; Migliavacca, Francesco; de Leval, Marc R; Balossino, Rossella; Pennati, Giancarlo; Lloyd, Thomas R; Khambadkone, Sachin; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Dubini, Gabriele

    2008-08-01

    Stage one reconstruction (Norwood operation) for hypoplastic left heart syndrome can be performed with either a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt or a right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunt. Both methods have certain inherent characteristics. It is postulated that mathematic modeling could help elucidate these differences. Three-dimensional computer models of the Blalock-Taussig shunt and right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunt modifications of the Norwood operation were developed by using the finite volume method. Conduits of 3, 3.5, and 4 mm were used in the Blalock-Taussig shunt model, whereas conduits of 4, 5, and 6 mm were used in the right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunt model. The hydraulic nets (lumped resistances, compliances, inertances, and elastances) were identical in the 2 models. A multiscale approach was adopted to couple the 3-dimensional models with the circulation net. Computer simulations were compared with postoperative catheterization data. Good correlation was found between predicted and observed data. For the right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunt modification, there was higher aortic diastolic pressure, decreased pulmonary artery pressure, lower Qp/Qs ratio, and higher coronary perfusion pressure. Mathematic modeling predicted minimal regurgitant flow in the right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunt model, which correlated with postoperative Doppler measurements. The right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunt demonstrated lower stroke work and a higher mechanical efficiency (stroke work/total mechanical energy). The close correlation between predicted and observed data supports the use of mathematic modeling in the design and assessment of surgical procedures. The potentially damaging effects of a systemic ventriculotomy in the right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunt modification of the Norwood operation have not been analyzed.

  13. Exercise on-transition uncoupling of ventilatory, gas exchange and cardiac hemodynamic kinetics accompany pulmonary oxygen stores depletion to impact exercise intolerance in human heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iterson, E H; Smith, J R; Olson, T P

    2018-03-25

    In contrast to knowledge that heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate peak exercise uncoupling across ventilation, gas exchange and cardiac haemodynamics, whether this dyssynchrony follows that at the exercise on-transition is unclear. This study tested whether exercise on-transition temporal lag for ventilation relative to gas exchange and oxygen pulse (O 2 pulse) couples with effects from abnormal pulmonary gaseous oxygen store (O 2store ) contributions to V˙O 2 to interdependently precipitate persistently elevated ventilatory demand and low oxidative metabolic capacity in HF. Beat-to-beat HR and breath-to-breath ventilation and gas exchange were continuously acquired in HF (N = 9, ejection fraction = 30 ± 9%) and matched controls (N = 10) during square-wave ergometry at 60% V˙O 2peak (46 ± 14 vs 125 ± 54-W, P < .001). Temporal responses across V˙ E , V˙O 2 and O 2 pulse were assessed for the exercise on-transition using single exponential model Phase II on-kinetic time constants (τ = time to reach 63% steady-state rise). Breath-to-breath gas fractions and respiratory flows were used to determine O 2stores . HF vs controls: τ for V˙ E (137 ± 93 vs 74 ± 40-seconds, P = .03), V˙O 2 (60 ± 40 vs 23 ± 5-seconds, P = .03) and O 2 pulse (28 ± 18 vs 23 ± 15-seconds, P = .59). Within HF, τ for V˙ E differed from O 2 pulse (P < .02), but not V˙O 2 . Exercise V˙ E rise (workload indexed) differed in HF vs controls (545 ± 139 vs 309 ± 88-mL min -1 W -1 , P < .001). Exercise on-transition O 2store depletion in HF exceeded controls, generally persisting to end-exercise. These data suggest HF demonstrated exercise on-transition O 2store depletion (high O 2store contribution to V˙O 2 ) coupled with dyssynchronous V˙ E , V˙O 2 and O 2 pulse kinetics-not attributable to prolonged cardiac haemodynamics. Persistent high ventilatory demand and low oxidative metabolic capacity in HF may be precipitated by physiological uncoupling occurring within the exercise

  14. Cancer and heart attack survivors’ expectations of employment status: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia F. A. Duijts

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sociodemographic, health- and work-related factors have been found to influence return to work in cancer survivors. It is feasible though that behavioural factors, such as expectation of being at work, could also affect work-related outcomes. Therefore, the effect of earlier identified factors and expectation of being at work on future employment status in cancer survivors was explored. To assess the degree to which these factors specifically concern cancer survivors, a comparison with heart attack survivors was made. Methods Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used. Cancer and heart attack survivors of working age in the UK were included and followed up for 2 years. Baseline characteristics of both cancer and heart attack survivors were compared regarding employment status. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed in survivors at work, and the interaction between independent variables and diagnose group was assessed. Results In cancer survivors at work (N = 159, alcohol consumption, participating in moderate or vigorous sport activities, general health and participation were univariate associated with employment status at two-year follow-up. Only fair general health (compared to very good general health remained statistically significant in the multivariate model (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.13–0.76; p = 0.010. In heart attack survivors at work (N = 78, gender, general health and expectation of being at work were univariate associated with employment status at follow-up. Female gender (OR 0.03; 95% CI 0.00–0.57; p = 0.018 and high expectation of being at work (OR 10.68; 95% CI 1.23–93.92; p = 0.033 remained significant in the multivariate model. The influence of gender (p = 0.066 and general health (p = 0.020 regarding employment status was found to differ significantly between cancer and heart attack survivors. Conclusions When predicting future employment status in cancer

  15. Cancer and heart attack survivors' expectations of employment status: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijts, Saskia F A; van der Beek, Allard J; Bleiker, Eveline M A; Smith, Lee; Wardle, Jane

    2017-08-07

    Sociodemographic, health- and work-related factors have been found to influence return to work in cancer survivors. It is feasible though that behavioural factors, such as expectation of being at work, could also affect work-related outcomes. Therefore, the effect of earlier identified factors and expectation of being at work on future employment status in cancer survivors was explored. To assess the degree to which these factors specifically concern cancer survivors, a comparison with heart attack survivors was made. Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used. Cancer and heart attack survivors of working age in the UK were included and followed up for 2 years. Baseline characteristics of both cancer and heart attack survivors were compared regarding employment status. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed in survivors at work, and the interaction between independent variables and diagnose group was assessed. In cancer survivors at work (N = 159), alcohol consumption, participating in moderate or vigorous sport activities, general health and participation were univariate associated with employment status at two-year follow-up. Only fair general health (compared to very good general health) remained statistically significant in the multivariate model (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.13-0.76; p = 0.010). In heart attack survivors at work (N = 78), gender, general health and expectation of being at work were univariate associated with employment status at follow-up. Female gender (OR 0.03; 95% CI 0.00-0.57; p = 0.018) and high expectation of being at work (OR 10.68; 95% CI 1.23-93.92; p = 0.033) remained significant in the multivariate model. The influence of gender (p = 0.066) and general health (p = 0.020) regarding employment status was found to differ significantly between cancer and heart attack survivors. When predicting future employment status in cancer survivors in the UK, general health is the most relevant factor

  16. Association of adiponectin and socioeconomic status in African American men and women: the Jackson heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon K. Davis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent emphasis has been placed on elucidating the biologic mechanism linking socioeconomic status (SES to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Positive associations of inflammatory biomarkers provide evidence suggestive of a biologic pathway by which SES may predispose to CVD. African Americans have disproportionately lower SES and have a higher prevalence of CVD risk factors compared to most ethnic/racial groups. Adiponectin (an anti-inflammatory marker is also lower. The objective of this study was to assess the association of adiponectin with SES among African American men and women using the Jackson Heart Study. Methods Study sample included 4340 participants. Linear regression was performed separately by SES and stratified by sex. Annual household income and level of education was used as proxies for SES. Crude, age, health behavior and health status adjusted models were analyzed. The main outcome was log-transformed adiponectin. Results Men in the lowest income group had significantly higher adiponectin than those in the highest income group in the fully adjusted model (ß/standard error [se], p value = .16/.08, p = .0008. Men with < high school level of education had significantly higher adiponectin in the crude and age adjusted models than those with ≥ college degree (.25/.05, p < .0001; .14/.05/ p = .005, respectively. Women with some college or vocational training in the crude and age adjusted models had lower adiponectin compared to women with ≥ college degree (−.09/.03, p = .004; −.06/.03, p = .04, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest a potential inverse biologic pathway between annual household income and adiponectin among African American men. There was no such finding among women. Findings suggest interventions should be targeted for higher SES African American men to improve adiponectin levels.

  17. Evaluation of Growth Status in Children with Congenital Heart Disease: A Case- Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad Noori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD are prone to malnutrition and growth retardation. This study aimed to compare growth status between children with CHD and healthy children.                Materials and Methods: This case–control study included 310 children with CHD and 300 healthy children matched in age and gender. CHD patients grouped according to cardiac diagnosis: group 1 (n=5, cyanotic patients with pulmonary hypertension; group 2 (n=22, cyanotic patients without pulmonary hypertension; group 3 (n=43, Acyanotic patients with pulmonary hypertension; and group 4 (n=240, Acyanotic patients without pulmonary hypertension. Anthropometric measurements of weight (Kg, height (cm, and head circumference (cm were measured and recorded for both case and control groups.  Descriptive and analytical statistics were performed using the by SPSS version 21.0. Results: Weight and head circumference were significantly lower in CHD children compared to healthy children (p

  18. Healthy lifestyle status, antihypertensive treatment and the risk of heart failure among Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Antikainen, Riitta; Mähönen, Markku; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Hu, Gang

    2013-11-01

    To compare the association between antihypertensive drug treatment and heart failure (HF) risk with the association between engaging in a healthy lifestyle and HF risk. We prospectively investigated the single and joint associations of lifestyle factors and awareness, treatment, blood pressure control status with HF risk among 38 075 Finns, who were 25-74 years old and free of HF at baseline. During a median follow-up of 14.1 years, 638 men and 445 women developed HF. Engaging in a healthy lifestyle was associated with an decreased risk of HF. Compared with normotensive people, hypertensive patients with and without antihypertensive treatment had a higher risk of HF. Hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs but did not engage in a healthy lifestyle had a significantly higher risk of HF [HR 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.21] than hypertensive patients who did not use antihypertensive drugs but engaged in a healthy lifestyle. In addition, compared with hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs and engaged in a healthy lifestyle, hypertensive patients who did not use antihypertensive drug or engage in a healthy lifestyle had a significantly higher risk of HF (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.24-1.95). The present study demonstrates that HF risk was lower in hypertensive patients who engaged in a healthy lifestyle but higher in hypertensive people using antihypertensive drug treatment.

  19. Effect of beta-blocker therapy on functional status in patients with heart failure--a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Køber, Lars; Christensen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The results of randomised control trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of beta-blockers on functional status in patients with chronic heart failure are conflicting. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating the effect of beta-blockers on New York Heart...... Association (NYHA) classification and exercise tolerance in chronic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: We selected 28 RCTs evaluating beta-blocker versus placebo in addition to ACE inhibitor therapy. Combined results of 23 RCTs showed that beta-blockers improved NYHA class by at least one class with odds...... ratio (OR) 1.80 (1.33-2.43) pbeta-blockers had no significant effect...

  20. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  1. Fermented ginseng, GBCK25, ameliorates hemodynamic function on experimentally induced myocardial injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adithan Aravinthan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with GBCK25 facilitated the recovery of hemodynamic parameters, left ventricle systolic pressure, left ventricular developed pressure, and electrocardiographic changes. GBCK25 significantly prevented the decrease in hemodynamic parameters and ameliorated the electrocardiographic abnormality. These results indicate that GBCK25 has distinct cardioprotective effects in rat heart.

  2. Alterações hemodinâmicas devido ao uso de estabilizadores em revascularização do miocárdio: estudo experimental Hemodynamic disorders related to beating heart surgery using cardiac stabilizers: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Martins de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    -pump coronary artery bypass graft surgeries by means of both a suction device "Octopus" and a compression device (Speroni. METHODS: Ten swine underwent median sternotomy. Monitoring of ECG, continuous cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean right and left atrial pressures, and right and left ventricular diastolic pressure were performed. Stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance were calculated. Both stabilizers were studied placed on three vessels: anterior interventricular branch, posterior interventricular branch, and marginal branch of the circumflex branch. Each animal was randomly designed to application regarding the type of stabilizer and the target artery. The measurements were carried out 5 minutes before and after the stabilizer application. RESULTS: In the anterior interventricular branch changes have occurred only with the compression device, thus reducing cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean arterial pressure, but increasing the systemic vascular resistance. In the posterior interventricular branch changes have occurred with the compression device (Speroni, reducing cardiac output and stroke volume, but increasing the heart rate. With the suction device (octopus there was an increase of both heart rate and systemic vascular resistance, but a decrease in stroke volume. In the marginal branch of the circumflex branch there was a decrease of cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean arterial pressure with both stabilizers. Also, there was a decrease in the mean pulmonary artery pressure and an increase in the mean right atrial pressure with the compression device (Speroni. CONCLUSION: Both stabilizers have caused hemodynamic changes. The compression device (Speroni is more associated with changes than the suction device (Octopus.

  3. Hyperthyroidism and the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Patricia Mejia; Udovcic, Maja; Sharma, Morali D

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have a significant impact on cardiac function and structure. Excess thyroid hormone affects cardiovascular hemodynamics, leading to high-output heart failure and, in late stages, dilated cardiomyopathy. In this review, we discuss how hyperthyroidism affects cardiovascular pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms and examine the complications caused by excess thyroid hormone, such as heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

  4. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo A. Bisschoff, Ben Coetzee, Michael R. Esco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV, and heart rate recovery (HRR are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match, during (in-match, after (post-match and during rest periods (in-match rest of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014 was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626 and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085 and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258 for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  5. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschoff, Christo A; Coetzee, Ben; Esco, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states) for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match), during (in-match), after (post-match) and during rest periods (in-match rest) of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014) was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626) and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085) and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258) for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  6. Subjective social status and psychosocial and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Malavika A; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Hickson, Demarc A; Sarpong, Daniel F; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A; Williams, David R; Wyatt, Sharon B

    2012-04-01

    Subjective social status has been shown to be inversely associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, independent of objective social status. However, few studies have examined this association among African Americans and the results have been mixed. Additionally, the influence of discrimination on this relationship has not been explored. Using baseline data (2000-2004) from the Jackson Heart Study, an African American cohort from the U.S. South (N=5301), we quantified the association of subjective social status with selected cardiovascular risk factors: depressive symptoms, perceived stress, waist circumference, insulin resistance and prevalence of diabetes. We contrasted the strength of the associations of these outcomes with subjective versus objective social status and examined whether perceived discrimination confounded or modified these associations. Subjective social status was measured using two 10-rung "ladders," using the U.S. and the community as referent groups. Objective social status was measured using annual family income and years of schooling completed. Gender-specific multivariable linear and logistic regression models were fit to examine associations. Subjective and objective measures were weakly positively correlated. Independent of objective measures, subjective social status was significantly inversely associated with depressive symptoms (men and women) and insulin resistance (women). The associations of subjective social status with the outcomes were modest and generally similar to the objective measures. We did not find evidence that perceived racial discrimination strongly confounded or modified the association of subjective social status with the outcomes. Subjective social status was related to depressive symptoms but not consistently to stress or metabolic risk factors in African Americans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Marital Status, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Death among African American Women and Men: Incidence and Prevalence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M.; Coresh, Josef; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and African Americans disproportionately experience more cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes. The literature documents a complex relationship between marital status and health, which varies by gender. We prospectively examine…

  8. Relationship between quantitative measurement of Porphyromonas gingivalis on dental plaque with periodontal status of patients with coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyanti, Stephani; Soeroso, Yuniarti; Sunarto, Hari; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease is a narrowing of coronary artery due to plaque build-up. [1] Chronic periodontitis increases risk of cardiovascular disease. P.gingivalis is linked to both diseases. Objective: to analyse quantitative difference of P.gingivalis on dental plaque and its relationship with periodontal status of CHD patient and control. Methods: Periodontal status of 66 CHD patient and 40 control was checked. Subgingival plaque was isolated and P.gingivalis was measured using real-time PCR. Result: P.gingivalis of CHD patient differs from control. P.gingivalis is linked to pocket depth of CHD patient. Conclusion: P.gingivalis count of CHD patient is higher than control. P.gingivalis count is not linked to any periodontal status, except for pocket depth of CHD patient.

  9. Nutritional Status and Energy Intake as Predictors of Functional Status After Cardiac Rehabilitation in Elderly Inpatients With Heart Failure - A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Akiyoshi; Ohori, Katsuhiko; Watanabe, Ayako; Honma, Remi; Yanase, Rimi; Ishigo, Tomoyuki; Fujito, Takefumi; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi; Ishiai, Sumio; Miura, Tetsuji

    2018-05-25

    Whether the short-term effect of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in elderly patients with heart failure (HF) is influenced by nutritional status is uncertain, so the present study investigated the effect of nutritional status on functional recovery after CR in elderly HF inpatients.Methods and Results:We enrolled 145 patients admitted for treatment of HF who were aged ≥65 years and had a low functional status defined as a Barthel index (BI) score ≤85 points at the commencement of CR. Nutritional status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) and total energy intake per day. The primary endpoint was functional status determined by the BI score at discharge. The median CR period was 20 days (interquartile range: 14-34 days), and 87 patients (60%) were functionally dependent (BI score ≤85) at discharge. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that MNA-SF score (odds ratio [OR]: 0.76, P=0.02) and total energy intake at the commencement of CR (OR: 0.91, P=0.02) were independent predictors of functional dependence after CR. MNA-SF score ≤7 and total energy intake ≤24.5 kcal/kg/day predicted functional dependence at discharge with moderate sensitivity and specificity. MNA-SF score and total energy intake at the commencement of CR are novel predictors of the extent of functional recovery of elderly HF inpatients after in-hospital CR.

  10. Effects of an interatrial shunt on rest and exercise hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaye, David; Shah, Sanjiv J; Borlaug, Barry A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A treatment based on an interatrial shunt device has been proposed for counteracting elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in patients with heart failure and mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We tested the theoretical hemodynamic effects of this appro...

  11. Physiological basis of clinically used coronary hemodynamic indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, Jos A. E.; Piek, Jan J.; Hoffman, Julien I. E.; Siebes, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In deriving clinically used hemodynamic indices such as fractional flow reserve and coronary flow velocity reserve, simplified models of the coronary circulation are used. In particular, myocardial resistance is assumed to be independent of factors such as heart contraction and driving pressure.

  12. [Present status and trend of heart fluid mechanics research based on medical image analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jianhong; Yin, Lixue; Xie, Shenghua; Li, Wenhua; Lu, Jing; Luo, Anguo

    2014-06-01

    With introduction of current main methods for heart fluid mechanics researches, we studied the characteristics and weakness for three primary analysis methods based on magnetic resonance imaging, color Doppler ultrasound and grayscale ultrasound image, respectively. It is pointed out that particle image velocity (PIV), speckle tracking and block match have the same nature, and three algorithms all adopt block correlation. The further analysis shows that, with the development of information technology and sensor, the research for cardiac function and fluid mechanics will focus on energy transfer process of heart fluid, characteristics of Chamber wall related to blood fluid and Fluid-structure interaction in the future heart fluid mechanics fields.

  13. Pain and hemodynamic effects in aortofemoral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, U.; Nilsson, P.; Westergren, A.

    1982-01-01

    Two new contrast media, iohexol (non-ionic monomer) and ioxaglate (monoacidic dimer), were compared with the non-ionic metrizamide during aortofemoral angiography in a single blind randomized trial in 2 groups of patients with 20 in each. The degree of heat and pain produced by iohexol and ioxaglate did not differ significantly from that produced by metrizamide, while subsequent injections of metrizoate caused significantly more heat and pain. The hemodynamic effects recorded in 10 patients in each group showed that iohexol and ioxaglate induced a decrease in vascular resistance, decrease in blood pressure and increase in heart rate not differing significantly from that induced by metrizamide. (Auth.)

  14. Hemodynamic causes of exercise intolerance in Fontan patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebert, Anders; Jensen, Annette S; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance is frequent among Fontan patients and an important determinant for quality of life. This study investigated the hemodynamic causes of impaired exercise capacity in Fontan patients with particular focus on the influence of stroke volume index (SVI) and heart rate (HR...... patients and controls respectively. CONCLUSION: SVI decreased significantly in Fontan patients near the end of maximal effort exercise. The low SVI at maximal exercise was the most important hemodynamic factor limiting exercise capacity in Fontan patients, whereas chronotropic impairment had a smaller...

  15. Imaging technique and current status of valvular heart disease using cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, J.; Sohns, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The main indications for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of valvular heart disease are pathologies of the aortic and pulmonary valve. For mitral and tricuspid valve pathologies MRI is not the first line modality as these are usually well visualized by echocardiography. The advantages of MRI in valvular heart disease are a high reliability in the evaluation of ventricular volumes and function as well as the assessment of the perivalvular arterial or atrial structures. This reliability and the limitless access to any imaging plane partially compensates for the lower temporal and spatial resolution in comparison to echocardiography. In patients with congenital heart disease, cardiac MRI is established as a valuable diagnostic tool in daily clinical management, especially for the evaluation of pulmonary valve defects. Nevertheless, echocardiography remains the first-line diagnostic imaging tool for the foreseeable future. (orig.) [de

  16. Comparison of Hemodynamic Changes during General Anesthesia with Low-dose Isoflurane or Propofol in Elderly Patients Undergoing Upper Femoral Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Taghi Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Surgery of upper part of femor in elderly patients can be due to the fracture of femoral neck, shaft and arthroplasty. Hemodynamic changes and complications of the anesthesia are among the major concerns. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes in low dose isoflurane with propofol in upper femoral surgeries in elderly patients. Methods: This prospective clinical trial study was done on 60 patients over 65 year-old elderly patients with ASA physical status of I and II that were candidate for upper femoral surgery in two groups (inhalational: isoflurane 0.5-0.6 MAC and (total intravenous anesthesia with propofol 50-100 mic/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes were compared in these groups with the same anesthetic depth (HR-SBP-DBP-MBP-SaO₂. Results: There was no significant difference in heart rate, age or sex between two groups. In isoflurane group SBP on 20 and 25th minutes and DBP and MBP on 20, 25 and 35th minutes were significantly higher than propofol group. In propofol group SaO₂ was significantly more than isoflurane group on induction, start of surgery and on 5, 25, 35 and 45th minutes of surgery. Conclusion: In anesthesia with the same Bi-Spectral Index, isoflurane provides more stable hemodynamic parameters than propofol.

  17. Distinct trajectories of disease-specific health status in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastenbroek, Mirjam H.; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Meine, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    of beta-blockers, use of psychotropic medication, anxiety, depression, and type D personality were found to be associated with poorer health status in unadjusted analyses. Interestingly, subgroups of patients (12-20 %) who experienced poor health status at baseline improved to stable good health status....... The timely identification of CRT-D patients who present with poor disease-specific health status (i.e., KCCQ score anxiety, depression, and/or type D personality) is paramount, as they may benefit from cardiac rehabilitation in combination...

  18. Hemodynamic stress testing using pacing tachycardia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, R.G.; Grossman, W.

    1986-01-01

    A trial pacing was first introduced in 1967 by Sowton and co-workers as a stress test which could be used in the cardiac catheterization laboratory to evaluate patients with schemic heart disease. Sowton noted that artificially increasing the heart rate by pacing the right atrium could usually induce angina in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease. Since Sowton's original description, numerous investigators have described characteristic pacing-induced electrocardiographic changes, derangements of myocardial lactate metabolism, hemodynamic abnormalities, regional wall abnormalities, and defects in thallium scintigraphy. Although agreement on the overall usefulness of atrial pacing has not been uniform, it is clear that the technique can safely and reliably induce ischemia in most patients with coronary artery disease and that information obtained during the pacing-induced ischemic state can often be helpful in the diagnosis and treatment of the patient's underlying disease

  19. Health status in patients with coexistent COPD and heart failure: a validation and comparison between the Clinical COPD Questionnaire and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhof, Farida F; Metzemaekers, Leola; Uil, Steven M; Kerstjens, Huib A M; van den Berg, Jan W K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF) are both common diseases that coexist frequently. Patients with both diseases have worse stable state health status when compared with patients with one of these diseases. In many outpatient clinics, health status is monitored routinely in COPD patients using the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) and in HF patients with the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHF-Q). This study validated and compared which questionnaire, ie, the CCQ or the MLHF-Q, is suited best for patients with coexistent COPD and HF. Patients with both COPD and HF and aged ≥40 years were included. Construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and agreement were determined. The Short-Form 36 was used as the external criterion. All questionnaires were completed at baseline. The CCQ and MLHF-Q were repeated after 2 weeks, together with a global rating of change. Fifty-eight patients were included, of whom 50 completed the study. Construct validity was acceptable. Internal consistency was adequate for CCQ and MLHF-Q total and domain scores, with a Cronbach's alpha ≥0.70. Reliability was adequate for MLHF-Q and CCQ total and domain scores, and intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.70-0.90, except for the CCQ symptom score (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.42). The standard error of measurement on the group level was smaller than the minimal clinical important difference for both questionnaires. However, the standard error of measurement on the individual level was larger than the minimal clinical important difference. Agreement was acceptable on the group level and limited on the individual level. CCQ and MLHF-Q were both valid and reliable questionnaires for assessment of health status in patients with coexistent COPD and HF on the group level, and hence for research. However, in clinical practice, on the individual level, the characteristics of both questionnaires were not as good

  20. Ruptured congenital aneurysm of the right sinus of Valsalva into the right ventricle: with special reference to pathoanatomic and hemodynamic characteristics in symptomless cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J J; Lien, W P; Chang, F Z; Lee, Y S; Hung, C R; Chu, S S; Wu, T L

    1980-02-01

    Clinical features of 19 cases with congenital aneurysm of the right sinus of Valsalva rupturing into the right ventricular outflow region (Type 1) were analysed in relation to their pathoanatomic lesions and hemodynamic alterations. Sixteen cases were operated with one surgical death. All were catheterized together with ascending aortographic study. Rupture of the aneurysm in many cases was silent or symptomless and progressive heart failure was not quite common. Symptomatology of the patients did not seem to be related entirely to status of the pathoanatomical lesions or hemodynamic alterations. Time of the rupture, and inherent right ventricular characteristics, tolerating volume overload rather well, might be, in part, responsible for its better prognosis in some cases. However, all patients with ruptured aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva should be treated surgically. Bacterial endocarditis is a serious complication leading to death.

  1. Patient-Specific Modeling of Intraventricular Hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, Vijay; Marsden, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Heart disease is the one of the leading causes of death in the world. Apart from malfunctions in electrophysiology and myocardial mechanics, abnormal hemodynamics is a major factor attributed to heart disease across all ages. Computer simulations offer an efficient means to accurately reproduce in vivo flow conditions and also make predictions of post-operative outcomes and disease progression. We present an experimentally validated computational framework for performing patient-specific modeling of intraventricular hemodynamics. Our modeling framework employs the SimVascular open source software to build an anatomic model and employs robust image registration methods to extract ventricular motion from the image data. We then employ a stabilized finite element solver to simulate blood flow in the ventricles, solving the Navier-Stokes equations in arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) coordinates by prescribing the wall motion extracted during registration. We model the fluid-structure interaction effects of the cardiac valves using an immersed boundary method and discuss the potential application of this methodology in single ventricle physiology and trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This research is supported in part by the Stanford Child Health Research Institute and the Stanford NIH-NCATS-CTSA through Grant UL1 TR001085 and partly through NIH NHLBI R01 Grant 5R01HL129727-02.

  2. Oral health status of children with congenital heart disease and the awareness, attitude and knowledge of their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kavita; Supriya, S; Hegde, Amitha M

    2009-01-01

    The oral health status of children with congenital heart diseases and the parental awareness on maintaining good oral health and attitude towards preventive dental health measures were evaluated. A total of 170 children between the age group of 1-16 yrs belonging to both genders, with the history of congenital heart disease from Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram and Narayana Hrudayalaya Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore were examined. Oral lesions and caries experience were recorded using modified WHO oral health assessment form. Oral hygiene of the children with congenital heart disease was found to be poor with tongue coating (50.6%), plaque (41.8%), calculus (35.3%), and caries (42.4%). Parental awareness on the importance of maintaining good oral hygiene, preventive dentistry, medicinal decay and its systemic effects has been found to be very poor. Dentistry should give priority to patients whose general health may be put at risk by poor dental health. Closer cooperation between Pediatrician, Pediatric Cardiologists and Pediatric Dentists could help improve dental care for these children.

  3. Heart Rate Correlates of Attachment Status in Young Mothers and Their Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenko, Marina; Kraemer, Helena; Huffman, Lynne; Gschwendt, Miriam; Pageler, Natalie; Steiner, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore heart rate (HR) correlates of attachment behavior in young mothers and their infants to generate specific hypotheses and to provide pilot data on which studies to test those hypotheses might be based. Method: Using the strange situation procedure, patterns of attachment were assessed in 41 low-income adolescent mothers and…

  4. Nurse specialists in adult congenital heart disease: The current status in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, P.; Scholte op Reimer, W.; De Geest, S.; Fridlund, B.; Heikkila, J.; Jaarsma, Trijntje (Tiny); Martensson, J.; Smith, K; Stewart, S.; Stromberg, A; Thompson, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Recommendations for the management of adults with congenital heart disease indicate that specialist referral centres should employ nurse specialists who are trained and educated in the care for these patients. We surveyed the involvement, education and activities of nurse specialists in the

  5. Hemodynamic effects of a novel pharmacologic stress agent, Higemine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.L.; Liu, X.J.; Tao, Z.H.; Shi, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Higenamine (dl-demethylcodaurine) (HG), which was isolated from aconitum japonicum. This study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of HG in animal study. Methods: We compared the hemodynamic effects of HG (0.5-4μg/min/kg) with Dobutamine (Dob) (5-30μg/min/kg) in 6 dogs: heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), coronary blood flow (CBF), myocardial oxygen consumption (MOC) were measured. Tolerability and safety of HG (1-500μg/mg/min) were evaluated in 8 dogs. Results: Comparison of hemodynamic effects between Dob an HG was presented. SBP: systolic blood pressure; DP: diastolic blood pressure; P<0.01; P<0.05. Diastolic BP slightly decreased, but systolic BP did not change significantly during HG infusion. There was no significant ECG abnormalities and side effects during HG infusion. Conclusion: HG might be a safe and useful pharmacologic stress agent, especially for patients with severe hypertension

  6. Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Cristina; Feske, Steven K; Sorond, Farzaneh A

    2017-12-01

    Sex and gender, as biological and social factors, significantly influence health outcomes. Among the biological factors, sex differences in vascular physiology may be one specific mechanism contributing to the observed differences in clinical presentation, response to treatment, and clinical outcomes in several vascular disorders. This review focuses on the cerebrovascular bed and summarizes the existing literature on sex differences in cerebrovascular hemodynamics to highlight the knowledge deficit that exists in this domain. The available evidence is used to generate mechanistically plausible and testable hypotheses to underscore the unmet need in understanding sex-specific mechanisms as targets for more effective therapeutic and preventive strategies. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Cerebral hemodynamics in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachinski, V C; Olesen, Jes; Norris, J W

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and angiographic findings in migraine are briefly reviewed in relation to cerebral hemodynamic changes shown by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies. Three cases of migraine studied by the intracarotid xenon 133 method during attacks are reported. In classic migraine, with typical...... prodromal symptoms, a decrease in cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated during the aura. Occasionally, this flow decrease persists during the headache phase. In common migraine, where such prodromata are not seen, a flow decrease has not been demonstrated. During the headache phase of both types...... of migraine, rCBF has usually been found to be normal or in the high range of normal values. The high values may represent postischemic hyperemia, but are probably more frequently secondary to arousal caused by pain. Thus, during the headache phase rCBF may be subnormal, normal or high. These findings do...

  8. [Immunological status of the pediatric patient who has undergone heart surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela Flores, A; Wakida, G; Limón Rojas, A; Obregón, C; Orihuela, O; Romero, C

    1995-01-01

    Communication of results a study the effect of open and closed-heart surgery in the immune system of infants and children. Data collected 24 hrs before anesthesia and surgery and five days after surgery. Operating room and pediatric intensive care of Hospital Central de Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) in the South, Mexico City. Children undergoing surgery for correction of congenital heart disease (age 16 months to 14 years). A total of 16 patients. increased neutrophil counts with luymphopenia in both groups (p < 0.05), serum levels of the complement components C3 and C4 were higher after surgery, serum immunoglobulin IgG, IgA and IgM were higher after surgery, serum immunoglobulin IgG, IgA and IgM were decreased form preoperative levels (p < 0.01). Two patients had infection in the surgical wound. The effect of open and closed-heart surgery produced transitory immunodeficiency with recuperation of his immune systems and 5th day after surgery.

  9. [Current status of noninvasive hemodynamics in hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, G

    Hypertension is a haemodynamic disorder resulting from a persistent mismatch between cardiac output and peripheral resistance. Hypertension undergoes haemodynamic progression during its natural history. Impedance cardiography is a method of evaluating the cardiovascular system that obtains haemodynamic information from beat to beat through the analysis of variations in the impedance of the thorax on the passage of an electric current. Impedance cardiography unmasks the haemodynamic deterioration underlying the increase in blood pressure as age and systolic blood pressure increases. This method may help to improve blood pressure control through individualized treatment with reduction of peripheral resistance, maintenance of cardiac output or its increase, improvement of arterial compliance and preservation of organ-tissue perfusion. It is useful in the management of patients with resistant hypertension, since a greater percentage of patients controlled with changes in the treatment in relation to the haemodynamic measurements are obtained. Impedance cardiography is important and has prognostic utility in relation to a haemodynamic deterioration pattern and increased cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The Risk of Heart Failure and Cardiometabolic Complications in Obesity May Be Masked by an Apparent Healthy Status of Normal Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchita Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many obese individuals are normoglycemic and asymptomatic of cardiometabolic complications, this apparent healthy state may be a misnomer. Since heart failure is a major cause of mortality in obesity, we investigated the effects of heme-oxygenase (HO on heart failure and cardiometabolic complications in obese normoglycemic Zucker-fatty rats (ZFs. Treatment with the HO-inducer, hemin, reduced markers of heart failure, such as osteopontin and osteoprotegerin, abated left-ventricular (LV hypertrophy/fibrosis, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins including collagen IV, fibronectin, TGF-β1, and reduced cardiac lesions. Furthermore, hemin suppressed inflammation by abating macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β but enhanced adiponectin, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP, HO activity, insulin sensitivity, and glucose metabolism. Correspondingly, hemin improved several hemodynamic/echocardiographic parameters including LV-diastolic wall thickness, LV-systolic wall thickness, mean-arterial pressure, arterial-systolic pressure, arterial-diastolic pressure, LV-developed pressure, +dP/dt, and cardiac output. Contrarily, the HO-inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effect, exacerbating inflammatory/oxidative insults and aggravated insulin resistance (HOMA-index. We conclude that perturbations in insulin signaling and cardiac function may be forerunners to overt hyperglycemia and heart failure in obesity. Importantly, hemin improves cardiac function by suppressing markers of heart failure, LV hypertrophy, cardiac lesions, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins, and inflammatory/oxidative mediators, while concomitantly enhancing the HO-adiponectin-ANP axis.

  11. White-collar workers' hemodynamic responses during working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Iwakiri, Kazuyuki; Sotoyama, Midori

    2017-08-08

    In the present study, two investigations were conducted at a communication center, to examine white-collar workers' hemodynamic responses during working hours. In investigation I, hemodynamic responses were measured on a working day; and in investigation II, cardiovascular responses were verified on both working and non-working days. In investigation I, blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance were measured in 15 workers during working hours (from 9:00 am to 18:00 pm) on one working day. Another 40 workers from the same workplace participated in investigation II, in which blood pressure and heart rate were measured between the time workers arose in the morning until they went to bed on 5 working days and 2 non-working days. The results showed that blood pressure increased and remained at the same level during working hours. The underlying hemodynamics of maintaining blood pressure, however, changed between the morning and the afternoon on working days. Cardiac responses increased in the afternoon, suggesting that cardiac burdens increase in the afternoon on working days. The present study suggested that taking underlying hemodynamic response into consideration is important for managing the work-related cardiovascular burden of white-collar workers.

  12. Intraoperative non-record-keeping usage of anesthesia information management system workstations and associated hemodynamic variability and aberrancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, David B; Lin, Hung-Mo; Reich, David L

    2012-12-01

    Anesthesia information management system workstations in the anesthesia workspace that allow usage of non-record-keeping applications could lead to distraction from patient care. We evaluated whether non-record-keeping usage of the computer workstation was associated with hemodynamic variability and aberrancies. Auditing data were collected on eight anesthesia information management system workstations and linked to their corresponding electronic anesthesia records to identify which application was active at any given time during the case. For each case, the periods spent using the anesthesia information management system record-keeping module were separated from those spent using non-record-keeping applications. The variability of heart rate and blood pressure were also calculated, as were the incidence of hypotension, hypertension, and tachycardia. Analysis was performed to identify whether non-record-keeping activity was a significant predictor of these hemodynamic outcomes. Data were analyzed for 1,061 cases performed by 171 clinicians. Median (interquartile range) non-record-keeping activity time was 14 (1, 38) min, representing 16 (3, 33)% of a median 80 (39, 143) min of procedure time. Variables associated with greater non-record-keeping activity included attending anesthesiologists working unassisted, longer case duration, lower American Society of Anesthesiologists status, and general anesthesia. Overall, there was no independent association between non-record-keeping workstation use and hemodynamic variability or aberrancies during anesthesia either between cases or within cases. Anesthesia providers spent sizable portions of case time performing non-record-keeping applications on anesthesia information management system workstations. This use, however, was not independently associated with greater hemodynamic variability or aberrancies in patients during maintenance of general anesthesia for predominantly general surgical and gynecologic procedures.

  13. Hemodynamic comparison of mild and severe preeclampsia: concept of stroke systemic vascular resistance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardo, J; Kiser, R; Dillon, A; Brost, B; Newman, R

    1996-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare baseline hemodynamic parameters of mild and severe preeclampsia. Patients admitted to the Medical University Labor and Delivery Unit with the diagnosis of preeclampsia who had not received prior antihypertensive or magnesium sulfate therapy were recruited for noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring with thoracic electrical bioimpedance. After stabilization in the lateral recumbent position, hemodynamic monitoring was begun. Baseline hemodynamic parameters, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), cardiac index (CI), and stroke index (SI) were recorded. Stroke systemic vascular resistance index (SSVRI), the resistance imposed by vasculature on each beat of the heart, was calculated for each patient by multiplying SVRI by HR. For statistical analysis, unpaired Student's t-tests (two-tailed) were utilized (P preclampsia appears to be a more intensely vasoconstricted state than mild preeclampsia. Although CI is inversely proportional to SVRI, increased HR in severe preeclampsia prevents this expected decrease in cardiac output.

  14. Hemodynamic deterioration precedes onset of ventricular tachyarrhythmia after Heartmate II implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaksh, Ameeta; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; Zwiers, Korinne; van Ettinger, Maarten J B; Manintveld, Olivier C; de Wijs, Marcel C J; van der Kemp, Peter; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2016-07-08

    Early postoperative ventricular tachyarrhythmia (PoVT) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation are common and associated with higher mortality-rates. At present, there is no data on initiation of these PoVT and the role of alterations in cardiac hemodynamics. A LVAD was implanted in a patient with end-stage heart failure due to a ischemic cardiomyopathy. Alterations in cardiac rhythm and hemodynamics preceding PoVT-episodes during the first five postoperative days were examined by using continuous recordings of cardiac rhythm and various hemodynamic parameters. All PoVT (N=120) were monomorphic, most often preceded by short-long-short-sequences or regular SR and initiated by ventricular runs. Prior to PoVT, mean arterial pressure decreased; heart rate and ST-segments deviations increased. PoVT are caused by different underlying electrophysiological mechanisms. Yet, they are all monomorphic and preceded by hemodynamic deterioration due to myocardial ischemia.

  15. Differentiation of Constriction and Restriction: Complex Cardiovascular Hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jeffrey B; Anavekar, Nandan S; Nishimura, Rick A; Oh, Jae K; Gersh, Bernard J

    2016-11-29

    Differentiation of constrictive pericarditis (CP) from restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a complex and often challenging process. Because CP is a potentially curable cause of heart failure and therapeutic options for RCM are limited, distinction of these 2 conditions is critical. Although different in regard to etiology, prognosis, and treatment, CP and RCM share a common clinical presentation of predominantly right-sided heart failure, in the absence of significant left ventricular systolic dysfunction or valve disease, due to impaired ventricular diastolic filling. Fundamental to the diagnosis of either condition is a clear understanding of the underlying hemodynamic principles and pathophysiology. We present a contemporary review of the pathophysiology, hemodynamics, diagnostic assessment, and therapeutic approach to patients presenting with CP and RCM. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of Inotropic Agents in Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Tariq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common use of inotropes is among hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and with signs of end-organ dysfunction in the setting of a low cardiac output. Inotropes can be used in patients with severe systolic heart failure awaiting heart transplant to maintain hemodynamic stability or as a bridge to decision. In cases where patients are unable to be weaned off inotropes, these agents can be used until a definite or escalated supportive therapy is planned, which can include coronary revascularization or mechanical circulatory support (intra-aortic balloon pump, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, impella, left ventricular assist device, etc.. Use of inotropic drugs is associated with risks and adverse events. This review will discuss the use of the inotropes digoxin, dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine, milrinone, levosimendan, and omecamtiv mecarbil. Long-term inotropic therapy should be offered in selected patients. A detailed conversation with the patient and family shall be held, including a discussion on the risks and benefits of use of inotropes. Chronic heart failure patients awaiting heart transplants are candidates for intravenous inotropic support until the donor heart becomes available. This helps to maintain hemodynamic stability and keep the fluid status and pulmonary pressures optimized prior to the surgery. On the other hand, in patients with severe heart failure who are not candidates for advanced heart failure therapies, such as transplant and mechanical circulatory support, inotropic agents can be used for palliative therapy. Inotropes can help reduce frequency of hospitalizations and improve symptoms in these patients.

  17. Use of Inotropic Agents in Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Sohaib; Aronow, Wilbert S

    2015-12-04

    The most common use of inotropes is among hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and with signs of end-organ dysfunction in the setting of a low cardiac output. Inotropes can be used in patients with severe systolic heart failure awaiting heart transplant to maintain hemodynamic stability or as a bridge to decision. In cases where patients are unable to be weaned off inotropes, these agents can be used until a definite or escalated supportive therapy is planned, which can include coronary revascularization or mechanical circulatory support (intra-aortic balloon pump, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, impella, left ventricular assist device, etc.). Use of inotropic drugs is associated with risks and adverse events. This review will discuss the use of the inotropes digoxin, dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine, milrinone, levosimendan, and omecamtiv mecarbil. Long-term inotropic therapy should be offered in selected patients. A detailed conversation with the patient and family shall be held, including a discussion on the risks and benefits of use of inotropes. Chronic heart failure patients awaiting heart transplants are candidates for intravenous inotropic support until the donor heart becomes available. This helps to maintain hemodynamic stability and keep the fluid status and pulmonary pressures optimized prior to the surgery. On the other hand, in patients with severe heart failure who are not candidates for advanced heart failure therapies, such as transplant and mechanical circulatory support, inotropic agents can be used for palliative therapy. Inotropes can help reduce frequency of hospitalizations and improve symptoms in these patients.

  18. Marital status and living condition as predictors of mortality and readmissions among African Americans with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Marvin Louis Roy; Davila, Carlos D; Shah, Mahek; Wheeler, David S; Ziccardi, Mary Rodriguez; Banerji, Sourin; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2016-11-01

    Socioeconomic factors, including social support, may partially explain why African Americans (AA) have the highest prevalence of heart failure and with worse outcomes compared to other races. AA are more likely to be hospitalized and readmitted for heart failure and have higher mortality. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the social factors of marital status and living condition affect readmission rates and all-cause mortality following hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in AA patients. Medical records from 611 AA admitted to Einstein Medical Center Philadelphia from January, 2011 to February, 2013 for ADHF were reviewed. Patient demographics including living condition (nursing home residents, living with family or living alone) and marital status (married or non-married -including single, divorced, separated and widowed) were correlated with all-cause mortality and readmission rates. In this cohort (53% male, mean age 65±15, mean ejection fraction 32±16%) 25% (n=152) of subjects were unmarried. Unmarried patients had significantly higher 30-day readmission rates (16% vs. 6% p=0.0002) and higher 1-year mortality (17% vs. 11% p=0.047) compared with married patients. Fifty percent (n=303) of subjects were living with family members, while 40% (n=242) and 11% (n=66) were living alone or in a nursing facility, respectively. Patients living with family members had significantly lower 30-day readmission rates when compared with those living alone or in a nursing facility (7% vs 21% vs. 18% p=vs 32% for nursing facility patients and 17% for those living alone (p=0.0007). After controlling for traditional risk factors (age, gender, body mass index, peak troponin I, left ventricular ejection fraction, B-type natriuretic peptide, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease), being married was an indpendent predictor of 1-year mortality (OR 0.50 p=0.019) and living alone for 30-day readmission (OR 2

  19. Pharmacological Modulation of Hemodynamics in Adult Zebrafish In Vivo.

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    Daniel Brönnimann

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic parameters in zebrafish receive increasing attention because of their important role in cardiovascular processes such as atherosclerosis, hematopoiesis, sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. To study underlying mechanisms, the precise modulation of parameters like blood flow velocity or shear stress is centrally important. Questions related to blood flow have been addressed in the past in either embryonic or ex vivo-zebrafish models but little information is available for adult animals. Here we describe a pharmacological approach to modulate cardiac and hemodynamic parameters in adult zebrafish in vivo.Adult zebrafish were paralyzed and orally perfused with salt water. The drugs isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside were directly applied with the perfusate, thus closely resembling the preferred method for drug delivery in zebrafish, namely within the water. Drug effects on the heart and on blood flow in the submental vein were studied using electrocardiograms, in vivo-microscopy and mathematical flow simulations.Under control conditions, heart rate, blood flow velocity and shear stress varied less than ± 5%. Maximal chronotropic effects of isoprenaline were achieved at a concentration of 50 μmol/L, where it increased the heart rate by 22.6 ± 1.3% (n = 4; p < 0.0001. Blood flow velocity and shear stress in the submental vein were not significantly increased. Sodium nitroprusside at 1 mmol/L did not alter the heart rate but increased blood flow velocity by 110.46 ± 19.64% (p = 0.01 and shear stress by 117.96 ± 23.65% (n = 9; p = 0.03.In this study, we demonstrate that cardiac and hemodynamic parameters in adult zebrafish can be efficiently modulated by isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside. Together with the suitability of the zebrafish for in vivo-microscopy and genetic modifications, the methodology described permits studying biological processes that are dependent on hemodynamic alterations.

  20. [Myocardial contractility and hemodynamics in hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivonenko, V G

    1977-01-01

    The author determined the phasic structure of the systole of the left ventricle by the method of polycardiography and hemodynamics in 20 patients suffering from hypothyrodism. Blood plasma and erythrocyte electrolytes were examined at the same time. Patients with hypothyroidism displayed a phasic syndrome of hypodynamia and a marked correlation between the phase of the synchronous contraction, the period of ejection, the strength of contraction of the left ventricle and the electrolyte content. Sodium and magnesium produced the greatest influence on the phasic structure of the systole; potassium and calcium had a lesser effect. The heart stroke volume diminished; as to the cardiac index, expenditure of the energy of cardiac contractions directed to the maintenance of movement of 1 litre of the minute blood volume; the external work, and the peripheral vascular resistance displayed no significant change.

  1. Impact of Experiencing Acute Coronary Syndrome Prior to Open Heart Surgery on Psychiatric Status

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    Volkan Yüksel

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The incidence of depression and anxiety is higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether experiencing acute coronary syndrome prior to open heart surgery affects patients in terms of depression, hopelessness, anxiety, fear of death and quality of life. Methods: The study included 63 patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery between January 2015 and January 2016. The patients were divided into two groups: those diagnosed after acute coronary syndrome (Group 1 and those diagnosed without acute coronary syndrome (Group 2. Beck depression scale, Beck hopelessness scale, Templer death anxiety scale and death depression scale, State-Trait anxiety inventory and WHOQOL-Bref quality of life scale were applied. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the total score obtained from Beck depression scale, Beck hopelessness scale - future-related emotions, loss of motivation, future-related expectations subgroups, death anxiety scale, the death depression scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - social and environmental subgroups. The mental quality of life sub-scores of group 2 were significantly higher. The patients in both groups were found to be depressed and hopeless about the future. Anxiety levels were found to be significantly higher in all of the patients in both groups. Conclusion: Acute coronary syndrome before coronary artery bypass surgery impairs more the quality of life in mental terms. But unexpectedly there are no differences in terms of depression, hopelessness, anxiety and fear of death.

  2. The role of stents in the treatment of congenital heart disease: Current status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Bjoern; Ewert, Peter; Berger, Felix

    2009-01-01

    Intravascular or intracardiac stenoses occur in many forms of congenital heart disease (CHD). Therefore, the implantation of stents has become an accepted interventional procedure for stenotic lesions in pediatric cardiology. Furthermore, stents are know to be used to exclude vessel aneurysm or to ensure patency of existing or newly created intracardiac communications. With the further refinement of the first generation of devices, a variety of “modern” stents with different design characteristics have evolved. Despite the tremendous technical improvement over the last 20 years, the “ideal stent” has not yet been developed. Therefore, the pediatric interventionalist has to decide which stent is suitable for each lesion. On this basis, currently available stents are discussed in regard to their advantages and disadvantages for common application in CHD. New concepts and designs developed to overcome some of the existing problems, like the failure of adaptation to somatic growth, are presented. Thus, in the future, biodegradable or growth stents might replace the currently used generation of stents. This might truly lead to widening indications for the use of stents in the treatment of CHD

  3. Prevalence of cachexia in chronic heart failure and characteristics of body composition and metabolic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Marie; Kistorp, Caroline Michaela Nervil; Schou, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiac cachexia has previously been estimated to 8-42 %. However, novel treatment strategies for chronic heart failure (CHF) have improved and decreased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we aimed to reassess the prevalence of cachexia in an outpatient CHF clinic...... and to characterize a CHF population with and without cachexia with respect to body composition and related biomarkers. From 2008 to 2011, we screened 238 optimally treated, non-diabetic CHF patients for cardiac cachexia, defined as unintentional non-oedematous weight loss of >5 % over ≥6 months. CHF patients (LVEF...... 45 % (n = 19). The groups were matched for age, sex, and kidney function. Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The prevalence of cachexia was 10.5 %. Abdominal fat ± SD (%) was reduced in cachectic CHF: 27.4 ± 10.0 versus 37.5 ± 10.6 % (CHF, no cachexia) and 40...

  4. Impact of Experiencing Acute Coronary Syndrome Prior to Open Heart Surgery on Psychiatric Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Volkan; Gorgulu, Yasemin; Cinar, Rugul Kose; Huseyin, Serhat; Sonmez, Mehmet Bulent; Canbaz, Suat

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of depression and anxiety is higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether experiencing acute coronary syndrome prior to open heart surgery affects patients in terms of depression, hopelessness, anxiety, fear of death and quality of life. The study included 63 patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery between January 2015 and January 2016. The patients were divided into two groups: those diagnosed after acute coronary syndrome (Group 1) and those diagnosed without acute coronary syndrome (Group 2). Beck depression scale, Beck hopelessness scale, Templer death anxiety scale and death depression scale, State-Trait anxiety inventory and WHOQOL-Bref quality of life scale were applied. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the total score obtained from Beck depression scale, Beck hopelessness scale - future-related emotions, loss of motivation, future-related expectations subgroups, death anxiety scale, the death depression scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - social and environmental subgroups. The mental quality of life sub-scores of group 2 were significantly higher. The patients in both groups were found to be depressed and hopeless about the future. Anxiety levels were found to be significantly higher in all of the patients in both groups. Acute coronary syndrome before coronary artery bypass surgery impairs more the quality of life in mental terms. But unexpectedly there are no differences in terms of depression, hopelessness, anxiety and fear of death.

  5. Evaluation of nutritional status and support in children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasquez, A; Clouzeau, H; Fayon, M; Mouton, J-B; Thambo, J-B; Enaud, R; Lamireau, T

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this disease was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). A total of 125 children with CHD, under 6 months of age, were divided into four groups: no pulmonary hypertension (PH) or cyanosis (group 1, n=47), isolated cyanosis (group 2, n=52), isolated PH (group 3, n=16), and PH and cyanosis (group 4, n=10). Six children died at 6 months (n=4), 12 months (n=1) and 19 months (n=1). The remaining children were followed-up for 24 months. Prevalence of moderate to severe malnutrition (weight/weight for height groups. Moderate or severe malnutrition was more frequent in group 4 (100%) compared with others groups (group 1, 20%; group 2, 16.7% and group 3, 50%; Pgroup 3 (71.4%) and group 4 (75%) than in group 1 (28%) and 2 (28.6%) (Pgroup 4 and rarely in other groups (group 1, 15.8%; group 2, 8.6% and group 3, 11.1%; Pgroups 3 (33.3%) and 4 (50%) than in groups 1 (15.8%) or 2 (14.3%; Pnutritional support.

  6. STRESS LEVEL AND SMOKING STATUS IN CENTRAL IRAN: ISFAHAN HEALTHY HEART PROGRAM

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    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals are faced with numerous stressful life events which can negatively influence mental health. Many individuals use smoking as a means of confronting stress. Given the relatively high prevalence of smoking in central Iran, the present study was conducted to compare stress levels in smokers, non-smokers and those who had quit smoking.    METHODS: This study was conducted as part of Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Program on 9752 individuals in the cities of Isfahan, Arak, and Najafabad in 2008. Sampling was performed using multi-stage cluster randomization method. Data on age, sex, demographic characteristics, and smoking status was collected through interviews. Stress level detected by General Health questionnaire.Logistic regression and chi- squere test was used for data analyzing.    RESULTS: In the present study, 30% of non-smokers, 32.1% ex- smoker and 36.9% of smokers had GHQ of 4 and higher (P = 0.01. In regression analysis, the final model which was controlled for age, sex, socioeconomic statues (including place of residence, marital status and education level showed that the odds ratio of stress in smokers and ex- smoker was significantly higher than in non-smokers (OR = 1.66 and OR = 1.12, respectively.    CONCLUSION: Since in conducted studies, mental problems and stresses have had an important role in people’s smoking, it seems suitable to use the results of this study to present intervention for correct methods of coping with stress towards reducing the prevalence of smoking in the community.Keywords: Cigarette, Stress, Community-based Program.

  7. [Future status of ischaemic heart disease in the state of San Luis Potosí: A predictive dynamic model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytán-Hernández, Darío; Díaz-Oviedo, Aracely; Gallegos-García, Verónica; Terán-Figueroa, Yolanda

    To develop a predictive dynamic model to generate and analyse the future status of the incidence rate of ischaemic heart disease in a population of 25 years and over in Mexico, according to the variation in time of some risk factors. Retrospective ecological study performed during the period 2013-2015, in San Luis Potosí City, Mexico. Secondary databases that corresponded to the years 2000, 2005, and 2010, were used along with official indicators of the 58 municipalities of the state of San Luis Potosí. Eight indicators were analysed at municipality level, using principal components analysis, structural equation modelling, dynamic modelling, and simulation software methods. Three components were extracted, which together explained 80.43% of the total variance of the official indicators used. The second component had a weight of 16.36 units that favoured an increase of the disease analysed. This component was integrated only by the indicator AGE 60-64 and the expected stage of it increasing. The structural model confirmed that the indicators explain 42% of the variation of this disease. The possible stages for the years 2015, 2020, and 2025 are 195.7, 240.7, and 298.0, respectively for every 100,000 inhabitants aged 25 and over. An exponential increase in the incidence rate of ischaemic heart disease is expected, with the age of 60-64 years being identified as the highest risk factor. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. The preserved autonomic functions may provide the asymptomatic clinical status in heart failure despite advanced left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Taçoy, Gülten; Ozdemir, Murat; Açıkgöz, Sadık Kadri; Cengel, Atiye

    2010-12-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is an important marker of prognosis in congestive heart failure (CHF) and may determine the symptoms and progression of CHF. The aim of our study was to investigate whether preserved autonomic function assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) analyses is related to absence of CHF symptoms despite prominently reduced systolic function. The study had a cross-sectional observational design. Fifty patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) below 40% were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups according to their CHF symptomatic status as Group 1 (NYHA functional class I, asymptomatic group) and Group 2 (NYHA functional class ≥ II, symptomatic group). Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, echocardiographic parameters and HRV indices were measured while the patients were clinically stable in each group. Possible factors associated with the development of CHF symptoms were assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Baseline clinical characteristics and left ventricular EF were similar in the two groups. Serum CRP (15 ± 21 vs 7 ± 18 mg/L, p=0.011) and NT-proBNP levels (1935 ± 1088 vs 1249 ± 1083 pg/mL, p=0.020) were significantly higher in symptomatic group. The HRV parameters (SDNN: 78 ± 57 vs 122 ± 42 ms, p=0.001; SDANN: 65 ± 55 vs 84 ± 38 ms, p=0.024; SDNNi: 36 ± 41 vs 70 ± 46 ms, pfunction were significantly associated with the asymptomatic status (SDNN, OR: 1.016, 95%CI: 1.002-1.031, p=0.028; SDNNi, OR: 1.030, 95%CI: 1.008-1.052, p=0.006; TI, OR: 1.088, 95%CI: 1.019-1.161, p=0.011). Preserved autonomic functions were shown to be associated with absence of CHF symptoms independently of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker's treatment and BNP levels and may be protective against the development of CHF symptoms despite advanced left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

  9. DIFFERENCES IN THE LEVELS OF LIPID STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH ISACHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND MALIGNANT DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beretka Atila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Arteriosclerosis is the basis of all cardiovascular diseases. Numerous risk factors lead to the rise of malignant and cardiovascular diseases. Those are: elevated artery blood pressure, raised plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, low level of HDL-cholesterol, smoking, diabetes mellitus, diet, lack of physical exercises, heredity, stress, gender.The aim of the study was to compare the lipid status of patients with cardiovascular disease or malignancy.The database of the biochemical laboratory and oncology counseling unit of the "Ostrog Clinic" was used. The method of random sample was used and patients (n=29 of both genders were selected, who were at the age of 40 to 47, with cardiovascular diseases, and had significant occlusive coronary disease, which required operation or surgical revascularization procedure. The patients were classified in two groups: G1 (n=14 with statin therapy and G2 (n=15 without statin therapy. Both groups were statistically compared with a group of female patients (n=30 with breast cancer, who were between 37 and 69 years of age. Control group comprised 25 healthy subjects. Standard statistical methods were used for processing the lipid status parameters, namely: the arithmetic mean, standard deviation SDn and SDn-1, correlation coefficient, post hock test and a single factor analysis of variance.The results obtained have pointed to the existence of a marked hyperlipoproteinemia type 4 in the group of cardiovascular patients who did not use statin (G2. In G2, higher levels of cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and plasma triglycerides in comparison with the control and G1, while the value of HDL-cholesterol was within the range of referent values. The obvious suppressing effect of statin on cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol was observed in G1. Group G3 had, in comparison with the control and cardiovascular patients, significantly lower levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma, as well as lower index of atherosclerosis

  10. Competing Risk of Cardiac Status and Renal Function During Hospitalization for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Khibar; Kok, Wouter E; Eurlings, Luc W; Bettencourt, Paulo; Pimenta, Joana M; Metra, Marco; Verdiani, Valerio; Tijssen, Jan G; Pinto, Yigal M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the dynamic changes in renal function in combination with dynamic changes in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Treatment of ADHF improves cardiac parameters, as reflected by lower levels of NT-proBNP. However this often comes at the cost of worsening renal parameters (e.g., serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], or serum urea). Both the cardiac and renal markers are validated indicators of prognosis, but it is not yet clear whether the benefits of lowering NT-proBNP are outweighed by the concomitant worsening of renal parameters. This study was an individual patient data analysis assembled from 6 prospective cohorts consisting of 1,232 patients hospitalized for ADHF. Endpoints were all-cause mortality and the composite of all-cause mortality and/or readmission for a cardiovascular reason within 180 days after discharge. A significant reduction in NT-proBNP was not associated with worsening of renal function (WRF) or severe WRF (sWRF). A reduction of NT-proBNP of more than 30% during hospitalization determined prognosis (all-cause mortality hazard ratio [HR]: 1.81; 95% confidence Interval [CI]: 1.32 to 2.50; composite endpoint: HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.64), regardless of changes in renal function and other clinical variables. When we defined prognosis, NT-proBNP changes during hospitalization for treatment of ADHF prevailed over parameters for worsening renal function. Severe WRF is a measure of prognosis, but is of lesser value than, and independent of the prognostic changes induced by adequate NT-proBNP reduction. This suggests that in ADHF patients it may be warranted to strive for an optimal decrease in NT-proBNP, even if this induces WRF. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neonatal Hemodynamics: From Developmental Physiology to Comprehensive Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine L. Vrancken

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of neonatal circulatory homeostasis is a real challenge, due to the complex physiology during postnatal transition and the inherent immaturity of the cardiovascular system and other relevant organs. It is known that abnormal cardiovascular function during the neonatal period is associated with increased risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Understanding the functional and structural characteristics of the neonatal circulation is, therefore, essential, as therapeutic hemodynamic interventions should be based on the assumed underlying (pathophysiology. The clinical assessment of systemic blood flow (SBF by indirect parameters, such as blood pressure, capillary refill time, heart rate, urine output, and central-peripheral temperature difference is inaccurate. As blood pressure is no surrogate for SBF, information on cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance should be obtained in combination with an evaluation of end organ perfusion. Accurate and reliable hemodynamic monitoring systems are required to detect inadequate tissue perfusion and oxygenation at an early stage before this result in irreversible damage. Also, the hemodynamic response to the initiated treatment should be re-evaluated regularly as changes in cardiovascular function can occur quickly. New insights in the understanding of neonatal cardiovascular physiology are reviewed and several methods for current and future neonatal hemodynamic monitoring are discussed.

  12. Analysis of the relationships between type 2 diabetes status, glycemic control, and neuroimaging measures in the Diabetes Heart Study Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffield, Laura M; Cox, Amanda J; Freedman, Barry I; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Wagner, Benjamin C; Xu, Jianzhao; Maldjian, Joseph A; Bowden, Donald W

    2016-06-01

    To examine the relationships between type 2 diabetes (T2D) status, glycemic control, and T2D duration with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived neuroimaging measures in European Americans from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) Mind cohort. Relationships were examined using marginal models with generalized estimating equations in 784 participants from 514 DHS Mind families. Fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and diabetes duration were analyzed in 682 participants with T2D. Models were adjusted for potential confounders, including age, sex, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, educational attainment, and use of statins or blood pressure medications. Association was tested with gray and white matter volume, white matter lesion volume, gray matter cerebral blood flow, and white and gray matter fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. Adjusting for multiple comparisons, T2D status was associated with reduced white matter volume (p = 2.48 × 10(-6)) and reduced gray and white matter fractional anisotropy (p ≤ 0.001) in fully adjusted models, with a trend toward increased white matter lesion volume (p = 0.008) and increased gray and white matter mean diffusivity (p ≤ 0.031). Among T2D-affected participants, neither fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, nor diabetes duration were associated with the neuroimaging measures assessed (p > 0.05). While T2D was significantly associated with MRI-derived neuroimaging measures, differences in glycemic control in T2D-affected individuals in the DHS Mind study do not appear to significantly contribute to variation in these measures. This supports the idea that the presence or absence of T2D, not fine gradations of glycemic control, may be more significantly associated with age-related changes in the brain.

  13. Thyroid antibody status, subclinical hypothyroidism, and the risk of coronary heart disease: an individual participant data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Tinh-Hai; Bauer, Douglas C; Cappola, Anne R; Asvold, Bjørn O; Weiler, Stefan; Vittinghoff, Eric; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Bremner, Alexandra; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Maciel, Rui M B; Vanderpump, Mark P J; Cornuz, Jacques; Dörr, Marcus; Wallaschofski, Henri; Newman, Anne B; Sgarbi, José A; Razvi, Salman; Völzke, Henry; Walsh, John P; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), particularly with thyrotropin levels of 10.0 mIU/L or greater. The measurement of thyroid antibodies helps predict the progression to overt hypothyroidism, but it is unclear whether thyroid autoimmunity independently affects CHD risk. The objective of the study was to compare the CHD risk of subclinical hypothyroidism with and without thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs). A MEDLINE and EMBASE search from 1950 to 2011 was conducted for prospective cohorts, reporting baseline thyroid function, antibodies, and CHD outcomes. Individual data of 38 274 participants from six cohorts for CHD mortality followed up for 460 333 person-years and 33 394 participants from four cohorts for CHD events. Among 38 274 adults (median age 55 y, 63% women), 1691 (4.4%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, of whom 775 (45.8%) had positive TPOAbs. During follow-up, 1436 participants died of CHD and 3285 had CHD events. Compared with euthyroid individuals, age- and gender-adjusted risks of CHD mortality in subclinical hypothyroidism were similar among individuals with and without TPOAbs [hazard ratio (HR) 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.53 vs HR 1.26, CI 1.01-1.58, P for interaction = .62], as were risks of CHD events (HR 1.16, CI 0.87-1.56 vs HR 1.26, CI 1.02-1.56, P for interaction = .65). Risks of CHD mortality and events increased with higher thyrotropin, but within each stratum, risks did not differ by TPOAb status. CHD risk associated with subclinical hypothyroidism did not differ by TPOAb status, suggesting that biomarkers of thyroid autoimmunity do not add independent prognostic information for CHD outcomes.

  14. Association between Vitamin D Status and Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljefree, Najlaa M; Lee, Patricia; Alsaqqaf, Jamal M; Ahmed, Faruk

    2016-10-17

    Recent evidence has pointed out an association between vitamin D deficiency and coronary heart disease (CHD). Due to the growing epidemic of CHD and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, exploring the role of vitamin D in the prevention of CHD is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the association between vitamin D status and CHD in Saudi Arabian adults. This case-control study included 130 CHD cases and 195 age-sex matched controls. Study subjects were recruited from three hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were interviewed face-to-face to collect data on their socio-demographic characteristics and family history of CHD. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum levels of vitamin D, glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Body weight, height, and blood pressure measurements were also recorded. Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL) was much more prevalent in CHD cases than in controls (46% and 3%, respectively). The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL) was associated with CHD, with an odds ratio of 6.5 (95% CI: 2.7-15, p < 0.001). The current study revealed that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with CHD, suggesting an important predictor of CHD among Saudi adults.

  15. Association between Vitamin D Status and Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa M. Aljefree

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has pointed out an association between vitamin D deficiency and coronary heart disease (CHD. Due to the growing epidemic of CHD and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, exploring the role of vitamin D in the prevention of CHD is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the association between vitamin D status and CHD in Saudi Arabian adults. This case-control study included 130 CHD cases and 195 age-sex matched controls. Study subjects were recruited from three hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were interviewed face-to-face to collect data on their socio-demographic characteristics and family history of CHD. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum levels of vitamin D, glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Body weight, height, and blood pressure measurements were also recorded. Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 10 ng/mL was much more prevalent in CHD cases than in controls (46% and 3%, respectively. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 20 ng/mL was associated with CHD, with an odds ratio of 6.5 (95% CI: 2.7–15, p < 0.001. The current study revealed that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with CHD, suggesting an important predictor of CHD among Saudi adults.

  16. MALAYSIA'S POST-9/11 SECURITY STRATEGY: WINNING "HEARTS AND MINDS" OR LEGITIMISING THE POLITICAL STATUS QUO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Humphreys

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Emergency, the Malaysian government has maintained a security policy which somewhat paradoxically combines the use ofcoercive, repressive legislation with a "hearts and minds" ideology.Following 9/11, I argue that the government has adapted this "heartsand minds" approach to the so-called War on Terror. The BarisanNasional governments of Mahathir Mohamad and Abdullah Badawi bothformulated ideological strategies designed to undermine the ideological strength of al-Qaeda and establish Malaysia as a leader of the Muslim world. Mahathir and Abdullah hinged their ideological approach on a state-constructed form of Islam and sought to portray Malaysia as a tolerant and moderate Muslim country. However, it will be shown that the use of ideology in Malaysia is often calibrated to ensure regime security rather than national security. The Malaysian government has used its ideology to promote elite interests and limit the discursive space for alternative and opposing viewpoints. Significantly, ideology has been used to justify crackdowns against genuine political opponents and to legitimise the political status quo.

  17. Lack of evidence for an association between hemodynamic variables and hematoma growth in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Lindsell, Christopher J; Adeoye, Opeolu; Khoury, Jane; Barsan, William; Broderick, Joseph; Pancioli, Arthur; Brott, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Early hematoma expansion in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with worse clinical outcome. We hypothesized that hemodynamic parameters are associated with the increase in hematoma volume owing to their relationship to blood vessel wall stresses. We performed a post hoc analysis of clinical and computed tomography (CT) data from patients enrolled in a prospective observational study of ICH patients presenting within 3 hours from symptom onset. Hematoma volumes were measured at hospital arrival and at 1 and 20 hours from presentation. Blood pressure and heart rate, recorded at 19 time points between presentation and 20 hours, were used to derive hemodynamic variables. Multivariable logistic-regression models were constructed to assess the relation between hemodynamic parameters and hematoma growth, adjusted for clinical covariates. From the original study, 98 patients underwent baseline and 1-hour CT scans; of these, 65 had 20-hour CT scans. Substantial hematoma growth was observed in 28% within the first hour. Of the 65 patients not undergoing surgery within 20 hours, 37% experienced hematoma growth by 20 hours. Neither baseline or peak hemodynamic parameters nor changes in hemodynamic parameters were significantly associated with hematoma growth at either 1 or 20 hours. We found no blood pressure or heart rate parameters, individually or in combination, that were associated with hematoma growth. Our data suggest the influence of hemodynamic parameters on vessel wall stress to be an unlikely target for intervention in reducing the risk of early hematoma growth in ICH.

  18. Amelioration of oxidative and inflammatory status in hearts of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with oils or oil-products with extra virgin olive oil components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Papalois, Apostolos; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) macro- and micro-constituents in heart oxidative and inflammatory status in a hypercholesterolemic rat model was evaluated. Fatty acid profile as well as α-tocopherol, sterol, and squalene content was identified directly in rat hearts to distinguish the effect of individual components or to enlighten the potential synergisms. Oils and oil-products with discernible lipid and polar phenolic content were used. Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet solely, or supplemented with one of the following oils, i.e., EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) or oil-products, i.e., phenolics-deprived EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], and HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. Dietary treatment lasted 9 weeks; at the end of the intervention blood and heart samples were collected. High-cholesterol-diet-induced dyslipidemia was shown by increase in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols. Dyslipidemia resulted in increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, while glutathione and interleukin 6 levels remained unaffected in all intervention groups. Augmentation observed in MDA and TNF-α was attenuated in EVOO, SO(+), and HOSO(+) groups. Heart squalene and cholesterol content remained unaffected among all groups studied. Heart α-tocopherol was determined by oil α-tocopherol content. Variations were observed for heart β-sitosterol, while heterogeneity was reported with respect to heart fatty acid profile in all intervention groups. Overall, we suggest that the EVOO-polar phenolic compounds decreased MDA and TNF-α in hearts of cholesterol-fed rats.

  19. Childhood moyamoya disease: hemodynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzika, A.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Robertson, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Barnes, P.D. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Vajapeyam, S. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Burrows, P.E. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Treves, S.T. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Scott, R.M. l [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Background. Childhood moyamoya disease is a rare progressive cerebrovascular disease. Objective. To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics using dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced imaging in children with moyamoya disease. Materials and methods. Eight children (2-11 years of age) with the clinical and angiographic findings typical of moyamoya disease, before and/or after surgical intervention (pial synangiosis), underwent conventional MR imaging (MRI) and hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI). HMRI used a spoiled gradient-echo with low flip angle (10 deg) and long TE (TR/TE = 24/15 ms) to minimize T 1 effects and emphasize T 2{sup *} weighting. Raw and calculated hemodynamic images were reviewed. Three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) and perfusion brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were also performed. Results. Abnormal hemodynamic maps resulting from vascular stenosis or occlusion and basal collaterals were observed in six patient studies. HMRI depicted perfusion dynamics of affected cerebrovascular territories, detected cortical perfusion deficits, and complemented conventional MRI and MRA. HMRI findings were consistent with those of catheter angiography and perfusion SPECT. Conclusion. Our preliminary experience suggests that HMRI may be of value in the preoperative and postoperative evaluation of surgical interventions in moyamoya disease. (orig.). With 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Childhood moyamoya disease: hemodynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzika, A.A.; Robertson, R.L.; Barnes, P.D.; Vajapeyam, S.; Burrows, P.E.; Treves, S.T.; Scott, R.M. I

    1997-01-01

    Background. Childhood moyamoya disease is a rare progressive cerebrovascular disease. Objective. To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics using dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced imaging in children with moyamoya disease. Materials and methods. Eight children (2-11 years of age) with the clinical and angiographic findings typical of moyamoya disease, before and/or after surgical intervention (pial synangiosis), underwent conventional MR imaging (MRI) and hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI). HMRI used a spoiled gradient-echo with low flip angle (10 deg) and long TE (TR/TE = 24/15 ms) to minimize T 1 effects and emphasize T 2 * weighting. Raw and calculated hemodynamic images were reviewed. Three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) and perfusion brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were also performed. Results. Abnormal hemodynamic maps resulting from vascular stenosis or occlusion and basal collaterals were observed in six patient studies. HMRI depicted perfusion dynamics of affected cerebrovascular territories, detected cortical perfusion deficits, and complemented conventional MRI and MRA. HMRI findings were consistent with those of catheter angiography and perfusion SPECT. Conclusion. Our preliminary experience suggests that HMRI may be of value in the preoperative and postoperative evaluation of surgical interventions in moyamoya disease. (orig.). With 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. [Hemodynamic changes in hypoglycemic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C; Piza, R; Chousleb, A; Hidalgo, M A; Ortigosa, J L

    1977-01-01

    Severe hypoglycemia may be present in seriously ill patients; if it is not corrected opportunely a series of neuroendocrinal mechanisms take place aimed at correcting metabolic alterations. These mechanisms can produce hemodynamic alterations as well. Nine mongrel dogs were studied with continuous registration of: blood pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac frequency, respiratory frequency, electrocardiogram and first derivative (Dp/Dt). Six dogs received crystalline (fast acting) insuline intravenously (group 1). After hemodynamic changes were registered hypoglycemia was corrected with 50 per cent glucose solution. Complementary insuline doses were administered to three dogs (group 2); in this group hypoglycemia was not corrected. In group 1 during hypoglycemia there was an increase in blood pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac frequency, respiratory frequency and Dp/Dt, and changes in QT and T wave on the EKG; these changes were partially reversible after hypoglycemia was corrected. The above mentioned alterations persisted in group 2, breathing became irregular irregular and respiratory arrest supervened. It can be inferred that the hemodynamic response to hypoglycemia is predominantly adrenergic. The role of catecolamines, glucocorticoides, glucagon, insuline, cyclic AMP in metabolic and hemodynamic alterations consecutive to hypoglycemia are discussed.

  2. Avaliação hemodinâmica e evolução clínica de crianças portadoras de cardiomiopatia dilatada grave candidatas a transplante cardíaco Hemodynamic evaluation and clinical outcome of children candidates for heart transplantation with severe dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Azeka

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o perfil dos parâmetros hemodinâmicos e a evolução clínica de crianças candidatas a transplante cardíaco, portadoras de cardiomiopatia grave. MÉTODOS: Foram 24 crianças, com idade entre 4 meses e 10 anos e 8 meses (média de 3,7±2,5 anos, no período de fevereiro/92 a maio/96, submetidas a estudo hemodinâmico e medidos os seguintes parâmetros: débito cardíaco, pressão média de artéria pulmonar (PMAP e pressão capilar pulmonar. Foram calculados o índice de resistência vascular pulmonar (IRVP e gradiente de pressão transpulmonar (GPT. RESULTADOS: Do ponto de vista evolutivo, 10 (41,6% crianças foram transplantadas (grupo A, 5 (20,8% aguardam o transplante (grupo B e 9 (37,6% faleceram (grupo C. Observou-se que a média das idades dos pacientes do grupo B foi significativamente menor que do grupo C. Dos dados hemodinâmicos, a PMAP, GTP e IRVP apresentaram médias significativamente menores no grupo A em relação ao grupo C. CONCLUSÃO: O perfil hemodinâmico de crianças candidatas ao transplante cardíaco mostrou-se compatível ao quadro clínico de insuficiência cardíaca grave. A idade foi o único fator que diferenciou o grupo B e C (p= 0,036. O IRVP, PMAP e o GTP foram fatores que diferenciaram de modo significativo o grupo A e o grupo C (p=0,010; p=0,044 e p=0,023, respectivamente. Quanto maior a idade no momento da indicação do transplante na criança, pior foi seu prognóstico.PURPOSE: To evaluate hemodynamic parameters and clinical outcome of children with severe cardiomyopathy who are candidates for heart transplantation. METHODS: Twenty four children aged from 4 months to 10 years and 8 months (mean 3.7±2.5 years from February 1992 to May 1996, were submitted to hemodynamic study and the following parameters were measured: cardiac output, mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP and capillary wedge pressure. The pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI and transpulmonary pressure gradient (TGP

  3. The Influence of Age on Hemodynamic Parameters During Rest and Exercise in Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Bakkestrøm, Rine; Thomsen, Jacob H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to obtain hemodynamic estimates across a wide age span and in both sexes for future reference and compare these estimates with current guideline diagnostic hemodynamic thresholds for abnormal filling pressure and pulmonary hypertension. BACKGROUND: At present....... METHODS: Sixty-two healthy participants, evenly distributed with respect to age (20 to 80 years) and sex (32 women/30 men), were prospectively enrolled in the study. Participants were all deemed healthy by medical history, echocardiography, exercise test, spirometry, blood tests, and electrocardiogram....... Participants had hemodynamic parameters measured using right heart catheterization during rest, passive leg raise, and incremental exercise. RESULTS: During rest, all hemodynamic parameters were similar between age groups, apart from blood pressure. During leg raise and incremental exercise...

  4. Comparison of the hemodynamic effects of etomidate between hypertensive and normotensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin Daşkaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comparison of the hemodynamic effect of ethomidate induction in normotensive and hypertensive patients. Methods: Forty ASA 1-2 patients were included. After informed consent were obtained, patients were divided into two group; Group H: Hypertensive patients, Group N: Normotensive patients. Fentanile and midazolam were administrated for premedication. Anesthesia induction was performed by etomidate 0.3 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. Arterial pressures and heart rates were measured at certain intervals: control, pre-intubation and 1, 3 and 5 min post-intubation. Myoclonic movements and hemodynamic parameters were noted by an anesthetist who was masked to the groups. Results: Hemodynamic parameters were higher in hypertensive patients but were in clinically tolerable limits. Conclusion: No hemodynamic instability was observed in anesthesia induction with ethomidate in neither hypertensive nor normotensive patients. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 164-168

  5. Sociodemographic, disease status, and illness perceptions predictors of global self-ratings of health and quality of life among those with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Aro, Arja R; Weinman, John

    2006-01-01

    This one-year follow-up study (n = 130 at baseline, n =2745 at follow-up, aged 45-74 years) examined the relationship of patients' perceptions of coronary heart disease (CHD) and illness-related factors with global health status and global quality of life (QOL) ratings. The independent variables...... were CHD history (myocardial infarction, revascularisation), CHD severity (use of nitrates, CHD risk factors and co-morbidities) and illness perceptions. In multivariate regression analysis, CHD history and severity explained 13% of variance in global health status and 8% in global QOL ratings...... at the baseline. Illness perceptions increased the share of explained variance by 18% and 16% respectively. In the follow-up, illness perceptions explained a significant but modest share of variance in change in health status and QOL when baseline health status and QOL and CHD severity were adjusted for more...

  6. Intravenous Milrinone in Treatment of Advanced Congestive Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewail, Aly M.; Nawar, Mohammad; Vrtovec, Bojan; Eastwood, Cathy; Kar, Biswajit; Delgado, Reynolds M.

    2003-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase inhibitors such as milrinone can relieve symptoms and improve hemodynamics in patients with advanced congestive heart failure. We retrospectively evaluated the hemodynamic and clinical outcomes of long-term combination therapy with intravenous milrinone and oral β-blockers in 65 patients with severe congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association class IV function and ejection fraction milrinone. Oral medical therapy was maximized when possible. The mean duration of milrinone treatment in this combination-treatment group was 269 days (range, 14–1,026 days). Functional class improved from IV to II–III with milrinone therapy. Twenty-four such patients tolerated β-blocker up-titration and were successfully weaned from milrinone. Sixteen patients (31%) died while receiving combination therapy; one died of sudden cardiac death (on treatment day 116); the other 15 died of progressive heart failure or other complications. Hospital admissions during the previous 6 months and admissions within 6 months after milrinone initiation stayed the same. Meanwhile, the total number of hospital days decreased from 450 to 380 (a 15.6% reduction), and the mean length of stay decreased by 1.4 days (a 14.7% reduction). We conclude that 1) milrinone plus β-blocker combination therapy is an effective treatment for heart failure even with β-blocker up-titration, 2) weaning from milrinone may be possible once medications are maximized, 3) patients' functional status improves on the combination regimen, and 4) treatment-related sudden death is relatively infrequent during the combination regimen. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:109–13) PMID:12809251

  7. Hemodynamic effects of sodium bicarbonate administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katheria, A C; Brown, M K; Hassan, K; Poeltler, D M; Patel, D A; Brown, V K; Sauberan, J B

    2017-05-01

    To describe the hemodynamic changes that occur with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) administration in premature neonates. This retrospective study included premature neonates 23 to 31+6 weeks of gestational age who underwent continuous cardiac and cerebral monitoring as participants in prospective trials at our institution, and who received NaHCO 3 infused over 30 min in the first 24 h of life. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate, cardiac output (CO), SpO 2 and cerebral oximetry (StO 2 ) were captured every 2 s. A baseline was established for all continuous data and averaged over the 10 min before NaHCO 3 administration. Baseline was compared with measurements over 10 min epochs until 80 min after administration. Arterial blood gases before and within 1 h of administration were also compared. Significance was set at P<0.05. A total of 36 subjects received NaHCO 3 (1.3±0.3 mEq kg -1 ) in the first 24 h (14±8.5 h) of life. NaHCO 3 administration increased pH (7.23 vs 7.28, P<0.01) and decreased base deficit (-8.9 vs -6.8, P<0.01) and PaCO 2 (45 vs 43 mm Hg, P<0.05). There was a transient but significant (P<0.05) decrease in systemic BP coinciding with an increase in cerebral oxygenation without an increase in oxygen extraction. CO did not change. Early postnatal NaHCO 3 administration does not acutely improve CO but does cause transient fluctuations in cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics in extremely premature infants.

  8. Intraosseous anesthesia in hemodynamic studies in children with cardiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliman, Ana Cristina; Piccioni, Marilde de Albuquerque; Piccioni, João Luiz; Oliva, José Luiz; Auler Júnior, José Otávio Costa

    2011-01-01

    Intraosseous (IO) access has been used with good results in emergency situations, when venous access is not available for fluids and drugs infusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate IO a useful technique for anesthesia and fluids infusion during hemodynamic studies and when peripheral intravascular access is unobtainable. The setting was an university hospital hemodynamics unit, and the subjects were twenty one infants with congenital heart disease enrolled for elective hemodynamic study diagnosis. This study compared the effectiveness of IO access in relation to IV access for infusion of anesthetics agents (ketamine, midazolam, and fentanyl) and fluids during hemodynamic studies. The anesthetic induction time, procedure duration, anesthesia recovery time, adequate hydration, and IV and IO puncture complications were compared between groups. The puncture time was significantly smaller in IO group (3.6 min) that in IV group (9.6 min). The anesthetic onset time (56.3 second) for the IV group was faster than IO group (71.3 second). No significant difference between groups were found in relation to hydration (IV group, 315.5 mL vs IO group, 293.2 mL), and anesthesia recovery time (IO group, 65.2 min vs IV group, 55.0 min). The puncture site was reevaluated after 7 and 15 days without signs of infection or other complications. Results showed superiority for IO infusion when considering the puncture time of the procedure. Due to its easy manipulation and efficiency, hydration and anesthesia by IO access was satisfactory for hemodynamic studies without the necessity of other infusion access. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Soapwort extract supplementation alters antioxidant status of serum, liver and heart tissues in growing Japanese quails reared under chronic intermittent cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestami Dalkilic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant effect of dietary soapwort extract supplementation was studied in growing Japanese quails suffering from chronic intermittent cold stress. For this purpose, a total of ninety 15-d-old quails were divided into three groups with three replicates. Chronic intermittent cold stress was applied every night between 22.00 to 06.00 h; starting at 14 °C for the first week, and gradually weekly lowered to 8 °C. Three groups were fed with corn-soy based standard diets supplemented with 0, 50, and 100 ppm soapwort extract for four weeks. At the end of the study, three males and three females were slaughtered to determine total antioxidant and oxidant status of serum, malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, superoxide dismutase of liver and heart tissues. Although the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on serum total antioxidant capacity, it significantly lowered the total oxidant status of serum in cold stressed quails. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity of liver and heart tissues were similar among groups. While the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on glutathione peroxidase activity of the heart tissue, it significantly increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver tissue. In relation to the control group, malondialdehyde concentrations in the liver and heart tissues were significantly lower in soapwort extract groups. These data suggest that dietary soapwort extract could alleviate the detrimental effects of oxidative stress in growing Japanese quails exposed to cold stress.

  10. [Cerebral hemodynamics in patients with neurosensory hearing loss before and after magnetotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morenko, V M; Enin, I P

    2001-01-01

    Magnetotherapy effects on cerebral hemodynamics were studied using rheoencephalography (REG). When the treatment results and changes in cerebral hemodynamics were compared it was evident that normalization or improvement of vascular status in vertebrobasilar and carotid territories registered at REG results in better hearing. This confirms the role of vascular factor in pathogenesis of neurosensory hypoacusis of different etiology and effectiveness of magnetotherapy in such patients.

  11. Computational medical imaging and hemodynamics framework for functional analysis and assessment of cardiovascular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin K L; Wang, Defeng; Ko, Jacky K L; Mazumdar, Jagannath; Le, Thu-Thao; Ghista, Dhanjoo

    2017-03-21

    Cardiac dysfunction constitutes common cardiovascular health issues in the society, and has been an investigation topic of strong focus by researchers in the medical imaging community. Diagnostic modalities based on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, chest radiography and computed tomography are common techniques that provide cardiovascular structural information to diagnose heart defects. However, functional information of cardiovascular flow, which can in fact be used to support the diagnosis of many cardiovascular diseases with a myriad of hemodynamics performance indicators, remains unexplored to its full potential. Some of these indicators constitute important cardiac functional parameters affecting the cardiovascular abnormalities. With the advancement of computer technology that facilitates high speed computational fluid dynamics, the realization of a support diagnostic platform of hemodynamics quantification and analysis can be achieved. This article reviews the state-of-the-art medical imaging and high fidelity multi-physics computational analyses that together enable reconstruction of cardiovascular structures and hemodynamic flow patterns within them, such as of the left ventricle (LV) and carotid bifurcations. The combined medical imaging and hemodynamic analysis enables us to study the mechanisms of cardiovascular disease-causing dysfunctions, such as how (1) cardiomyopathy causes left ventricular remodeling and loss of contractility leading to heart failure, and (2) modeling of LV construction and simulation of intra-LV hemodynamics can enable us to determine the optimum procedure of surgical ventriculation to restore its contractility and health This combined medical imaging and hemodynamics framework can potentially extend medical knowledge of cardiovascular defects and associated hemodynamic behavior and their surgical restoration, by means of an integrated medical image diagnostics and hemodynamic performance analysis framework.

  12. Comparison of hemodynamic and nutritional parameters between older persons practicing regular physical activity, nonsmokers and ex-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebelatto Marcelo N

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary lifestyle combined with smoking, contributes to the development of a set of chronic diseases and to accelerating the course of aging. The aim of the study was to compare the hemodynamic and nutritional parameters between elderly persons practicing regular physical activity, nonsmokers and ex-smokers. Methods The sample was comprised of 40 elderly people practicing regular physical activity for 12 months, divided into a Nonsmoker Group and an Ex-smoker Group. During a year four trimestrial evaluations were performed, in which the hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate- HR and VO2 and nutritional status (measured by body mass index data were collected. The paired t-test and t-test for independent samples were applied in the intragroup and intergroup analysis, respectively. Results The mean age of the groups was 68.35 years, with the majority of individuals in the Nonsmoker Group being women (n = 15 and the Ex-smoker Group composed of men (n = 11. In both groups the variables studied were within the limits of normality for the age. HR was diminished in the Nonsmoker Group in comparison with the Ex-smoker Group (p = 0.045 between the first and last evaluation. In the intragroup analysis it was verified that after one year of exercise, there was significant reduction in the HR in the Nonsmoker Group (p = 0.002 and a significant increase in VO2 for the Ex-smoker Group (p = 0.010. There are no significant differences between the hemodynamic and nutritional conditions in both groups. Conclusion In elderly persons practicing regular physical activity, it was observed that the studied variables were maintained over the course of a year, and there was no association with the history of smoking, except for HR and VO2.

  13. Hemodynamics in Korean Hemorrhagic Fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ji Young; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1974-01-01

    The author in an attempt to evaluate hemodynamic changes in the clinical stages of Korean hemorrhagic fever measured plasma volume, cardiac output and effective renal plasma flow utilizing radioisoto as during various phases of the disease. Cardiac output was measured by radiocardiography with external monitoring method using RIHSA. Effective renal plasma flow was obtained from blood clearance curve drawn by external monitoring after radiohippuran injection according to the method described by Razzak et al. The study was carried out in thirty-eight cases of Korean hemorrhagic fever and the following conclusions were obtained. 1) Plasma volume was increased in the patients during the oliguric and hypertensive-diuretic phases, while it was normal in the patients during the normotensive-diuretic phase. 2) Cardiac index was increased in the patients during the oliguric phase and was slightly increased in the patients at the hypertensive diuretic phase. It was normal in the other phases. 3) Total peripheral resistance was increased in the hypertensive patients during diuretic phase, while it was normal in the rest of phases. 4) Effective renal plasma flow was significantly reduced in the patients during the oliguric and diuretic phases as well as at one month after the oliguric onset. There was no significant difference between the oliguric and the early diuretic phases. Renal plasma flow in the group of patients at one month after the oliguric onset was about 45% of the normal, however, it returned to normal level at six months after the onset. 5) Clinical syndrome of relative hypervolemia was observed in some patients during the oliguric phase or hypertensive diuretic phase. Characteristic hemodynamic findings were high cardiac output and normal to relatively increased peripheral resistance these cases. Relatively increased circulating blood volumes due to decreased effective vascular space was suggested for the mechanism of relative hypervolemia. 6) Cardiac

  14. The hemodynamic repercussions of the autonomic modulations in growth-restricted fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Victorovich Lakhno

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Fetal heart rate pattern was influenced by maternal and fetal autonomic tone. Maternal cardiovascular oscillations were reflected in the umbilical circulation in healthy pregnancy Fetal distress was featured by sympathetic overactivity and the reduction of vagal tone. Such autonomic modulations was manifested by the decelerative pattern of CTG and deteriorated umbilical hemodynamics.

  15. Serial hemodynamic measurement in normal pregnancy, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rang, Saskia; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Wolf, Hans

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study hypothesis was that hemodynamic measurements in conjunction with uterine artery Doppler could enable selection of women at risk for the development of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction. STUDY DESIGN: Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate (RR), cardiac

  16. The effect of metabolic control on hemodynamics in short-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Hilsted, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1985-01-01

    Hemodynamics variables (heart rate, arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, hepato-splanchnic blood flow, forearm blood flow, and plasma catecholamines) were measured during good (median blood glucose 4.7 mmol/L) and poor (median blood glucose 16.3 mmol/L) metabolic control in eight young, short...

  17. Hemodynamic and clinical impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, See Hooi; Muratori, Manuela; Delgado, Victoria; Pepi, Mauro; Tamborini, Gloria; Fusini, Laura; Klautz, Robert J M; Gripari, Paola; Bax, Jeroen J; Fusari, Melissa; Schalij, Martin J; Marsan, Nina Ajmone

    2011-10-25

    This study examined the mid-term hemodynamic and clinical impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with balloon-expandable valves. PPM can be observed after aortic valve surgery. However, little is known about the incidence of PPM in patients undergoing TAVI. Echocardiography and clinical assessment were performed in 165 patients at baseline, before hospital discharge, and at 6 months after TAVI. PPM was defined as an indexed effective orifice area ≤0.85 cm(2)/m(2). Thirty patients (18.2%) showed PPM before hospital discharge. At baseline, patients with PPM had a larger body surface area (1.84 ± 0.18 m(2) vs. 1.73 ± 0.18 m(2), p = 0.003) and a greater severity of aortic stenosis (indexed valve area 0.35 ± 0.09 cm(2)/m(2) vs. 0.40 ± 0.10 cm(2)/m(2), p = 0.005) than patients without PPM. Patients with PPM demonstrated a slower and smaller reduction in mean transaortic gradient, limited left ventricular (LV) mass regression, and left atrial volume reduction over 6 months compared with patients without PPM. LV filling pressure, measured by E/e', tended to remain elevated in patients with PPM. Importantly, a higher proportion of patients with PPM did not improve in New York Heart Association functional class compared with patients without PPM (36.7% vs. 1.5%, p < 0.001), although major adverse valve-related and cardiovascular events did not differ between the 2 groups. PPM may be observed after TAVI and when present may be accompanied by less favorable changes in transvalvular hemodynamics, limited LV mass regression, persistent elevated LV filling pressure, and less improvement in clinical functional status. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Dietary Nitrates on Systemic and Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Bond

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral blood flow dysregulation is often associated with hypertension. We hypothesized that a beetroot juice (BRJ treatment could decrease blood pressure and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR. We subjected 12 healthy females to control and BRJ treatments. Cerebrovascular resistance index (CVRI, systolic blood pressure (SBP, total vascular resistance (TVR, and the heart rate-systolic pressure product (RPP measured at rest and at two exercise workloads were lower after the BRJ treatment. CVRI, SBP, and RPP were lower without a lower TVR at the highest exercise level. These findings suggest improved systemic and cerebral hemodynamics that could translate into a dietary treatment for hypertension.

  19. Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation Change Patterns During 6-min Walk Test in Subjects With Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Takeshi; Terada, Jiro; Yahaba, Misuzu; Kawata, Naoko; Jujo, Takayuki; Nagashima, Kengo; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-12-26

    The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is commonly performed to assess functional status in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, changes in heart rate and oxygen saturation ( S pO 2 ) patterns during 6MWT in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension remain unclear. Thirty-one subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were retrospectively evaluated to examine the relationships between the change in heart rate (Δheart rate), heart rate acceleration time, slope of heart rate acceleration, heart rate recovery during the first minute after 6MWT (HRR1), change in S pO 2 (Δ S pO 2 ), S pO 2 reduction time, and S pO 2 recovery time during 6MWT, and the severity of pulmonary hemodynamics assessed by right heart catheterization and echocardiography. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension had significantly longer heart rate acceleration time (144.9 ± 63.9 s vs 96.0 ± 42.5 s, P = .033), lower Δheart rate (47.4 ± 16.9 vs 61.8 ± 13.6 beats, P = .02), and lower HRR1 (13.3 ± 9.0 beats vs 27.1 ± 9.2 beats, P pulmonary hypertension. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension also had significantly longer S pO 2 reduction time (178.3 ± 70.3 s vs 134.3 ± 58.4 s, P = .03) and S pO 2 recovery time (107.6 ± 35.3 s vs 69.8 ± 32.7 s, P = .004) than did subjects with mild chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed only mean pulmonary arterial pressure independently was associated with heart rate acceleration time and slope of heart rate acceleration. Heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT is predominantly associated with pulmonary hemodynamics in subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Evaluating heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT may serve a safe and convenient way to follow the change in pulmonary hemodynamics. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. Clinical Applications of Natriuretic Peptides in Assessment of Valvular Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers such as natriuretic peptides (NPs have evolving clinical utility beyond the scope of heart failure. The role of NPs in the management of valvular heart disease is a growing area of investigation. NPs have much potential in the assessment of asymptomatic patients with hemodynamically significant valvular lesions who have traditionally been excluded from consideration of surgical intervention. NPs also have a role in the risk stratification of these patients as well as in routine surveillance and monitoring. Together with echocardiographic data and functional status, NPs are being incorporated into the management of valvular heart disease. In this review we examine the evidence for the role of natriuretic peptides in assessment of VHD.

  1. Clinical Applications of Natriuretic Peptides in Assessment of Valvular Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Vaseem; Garg, Aakash; Aggarwal, Chirag

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers such as natriuretic peptides (NPs) have evolving clinical utility beyond the scope of heart failure. The role of NPs in the management of valvular heart disease is a growing area of investigation. NPs have much potential in the assessment of asymptomatic patients with hemodynamically significant valvular lesions who have traditionally been excluded from consideration of surgical intervention. NPs also have a role in the risk stratification of these patients as well as in routine surveillance and monitoring. Together with echocardiographic data and functional status, NPs are being incorporated into the management of valvular heart disease. In this review we examine the evidence for the role of natriuretic peptides in assessment of VHD. PMID:26265794

  2. Cerebral hematocrit decreases with hemodynamic compromise in carotid artery occlusion: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, H; Fukuyama, H; Nagahama, Y; Katsumi, Y; Okazawa, H

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated whether in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion the regional cerebral hematocrit correlates with cerebral hemodynamics or metabolic state and, if so, how the regional cerebral hematocrit changes in the hemodynamically compromised region. We used positron emission tomography to study seven patients with unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and no cortical infarction in the chronic stage. The distributions of red blood cell and plasma volumes were assessed using oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide and copper-62-labeled human serum albumin-dithiosemicarbazone tracers, respectively. The calculated hematocrit value was compared with the hemodynamic and metabolic parameters measured with the oxygen-15 steady-state technique. In the cerebral cortex, the value of the cerebral hematocrit varied but was correlated with the hemodynamic and metabolic status. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the large vessel hematocrit, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, and the cerebral blood flow or the oxygen extraction fraction accounted for a significant proportion of variance of the cerebral hematocrit. The oxygen extraction fraction and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen negatively correlated with the cerebral hematocrit, whereas the cerebral blood flow correlated positively: patients with reduced blood supply relative to metabolic demand (decreased blood flow with increased oxygen extraction fraction) showed low hematocrit values. In carotid artery occlusion in the chronic stage, regional cerebral hematocrit may vary according to cerebral hemodynamics and metabolic status. Regional cerebral hematocrit may decrease with hemodynamic compromise unless oxygen metabolism concomitantly decreases.

  3. Hemodynamic and tubular changes induced by contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazza, Antonella; Russo, Luigi; Sabbatini, Massimo; Russo, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury induced by contrast media (CI-AKI) is the third cause of AKI in hospitalized patients. Contrast media cause relevant alterations both in renal hemodynamics and in renal tubular cell function that lead to CI-AKI. The vasoconstriction of intrarenal vasculature is the main hemodynamic change induced by contrast media; the vasoconstriction is accompanied by a cascade of events leading to ischemia and reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Cytotoxicity of contrast media causes apoptosis of tubular cells with consequent formation of casts and worsening of ischemia. There is an interplay between the negative effects of contrast media on renal hemodynamics and on tubular cell function that leads to activation of renin-angiotensin system and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the kidney. Production of ROS intensifies cellular hypoxia through endothelial dysfunction and alteration of mechanisms regulating tubular cells transport. The physiochemical characteristics of contrast media play a critical role in the incidence of CI-AKI. Guidelines suggest the use of either isoosmolar or low-osmolar contrast media rather than high-osmolar contrast media particularly in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI. Older age, presence of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease, nephrotoxic drugs, and diuretics may multiply the risk of CI-AKI.

  4. Profiles in valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, W.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the author discusses the hemodynamic and angiographic findings in patients with valvular heart disease. He has found it useful to apply the general physiologic principles in the interpretation of catheterization data obtained in patients with disordered valve function. This approach will generally enable the physician to unravel even the most complicated of problems

  5. ECG Markers of Hemodynamic Improvement in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Waligóra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Several diagnostic tests have been recommended for risk assessment in pulmonary hypertension (PH, but the role of electrocardiography (ECG in monitoring of PH patients has not been yet established. Therefore the aim of the study was to evaluate which ECG patterns characteristic for pulmonary hypertension can predict hemodynamic improvement in patients treated with targeted therapies. Methods. Consecutive patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH were eligible to be included if they had had performed two consecutive right heart catheterization (RHC procedures before and after starting of targeted therapies. Patients were followed up from June 2009 to July 2017. ECG patterns of right ventricular hypertrophy according to American College of Cardiology Foundation were assessed. Results. We enrolled 80 patients with PAH and 11 patients with inoperable CTEPH. The follow-up RHC was performed within 12.6±10.0 months after starting therapy. Based on median change of pulmonary vascular resistance, we divided our patients into two subgroups: with and without significant hemodynamic improvement. RV1, max⁡RV1,2 + max⁡SI,aVL-SV1, and PII improved along with the improvement of hemodynamic parameters including PVR. They predicted hemodynamic improvement with similarly good accuracy as shown in ROC analysis: RV1 (AUC: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.63–0.84, PII (AUC: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.56–0.77, and max⁡RV1,2+max⁡SI,aVL-SV1 (0.73; 95% CI: 0.63–0.82. In Cox regression only change in RV1 remained significant mortality predictor (HR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01–1.24. Conclusion. Electrocardiogram may be useful in predicting hemodynamic effects of targeted therapy in precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Decrease of RV1, max⁡RV1,2+max⁡SI,aVL-SV1, and PII corresponds with hemodynamic improvement after treatment. Of these changes a decrease of R wave amplitude in V1 is associated with better

  6. Effect of a Collaborative Care Intervention vs Usual Care on Health Status of Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: The CASA Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelman, David B; Allen, Larry A; McBryde, Connor F; Hattler, Brack; Fairclough, Diane L; Havranek, Edward P; Turvey, Carolyn; Meek, Paula M

    2018-04-01

    Many patients with chronic heart failure experience reduced health status despite receiving conventional therapy. To determine whether a symptom and psychosocial collaborative care intervention improves heart failure-specific health status, depression, and symptom burden in patients with heart failure. A single-blind, 2-arm, multisite randomized clinical trial was conducted at Veterans Affairs, academic, and safety-net health systems in Colorado among outpatients with symptomatic heart failure and reduced health status recruited between August 2012 and April 2015. Data from all participants were included regardless of level of participation, using an intent-to-treat approach. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive the Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness (CASA) intervention or usual care. The CASA intervention included collaborative symptom care provided by a nurse and psychosocial care provided by a social worker, both of whom worked with the patients' primary care clinicians and were supervised by a study primary care clinician, cardiologist, and palliative care physician. The primary outcome was patient-reported heart failure-specific health status, measured by difference in change scores on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (range, 0-100) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included depression (measured by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire), anxiety (measured by the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire), overall symptom distress (measured by the General Symptom Distress Scale), specific symptoms (pain, fatigue, and shortness of breath), number of hospitalizations, and mortality. Of 314 patients randomized (157 to intervention arm and 157 to control arm), there were 67 women and 247 men, mean (SD) age was 65.5 (11.4) years, and 178 (56.7%) had reduced ejection fraction. At 6 months, the mean Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score improved 5.5 points in the intervention arm and 2.9 points in the control

  7. Morphological and hemodynamic analysis of mirror posterior communicating artery aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemodynamic factors are commonly believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis, progression, and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. In this study, we aimed to identify significant hemodynamic and morphological parameters that discriminate intracranial aneurysm rupture status using 3-dimensional-angiography and computational fluid dynamics technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D-DSA was performed in 8 patients with mirror posterior communicating artery aneurysms (Pcom-MANs. Each pair was divided into ruptured and unruptured groups. Five morphological and three hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for significance with respect to rupture. RESULTS: The normalized mean wall shear stress (WSS of the aneurysm sac in the ruptured group was significantly lower than that in the unruptured group (0.52±0.20 versus 0.81±0.21, P = .012. The percentage of the low WSS area in the ruptured group was higher than that in the unruptured group (4.11±4.66% versus 0.02±0.06%, P = .018. The AR was 1.04±0.21 in the ruptured group, which was significantly higher than 0.70±0.17 in the unruptured group (P = .012. By contrast, parameters that had no significant differences between the two groups were OSI (P = .674, aneurysm size (P = .327, size ratio (P = .779, vessel angle (P = 1.000 and aneurysm inclination angle (P = 1.000. CONCLUSIONS: Pcom-MANs may be a useful disease model to investigate possible causes of aneurysm rupture. The ruptured aneurysms manifested lower WSS, higher percentage of low WSS area, and higher AR, compared with the unruptured one. And hemodynamics is as important as morphology in discriminating aneurysm rupture status.

  8. Patient-Specific Modeling of Interventricular Hemodynamics in Single Ventricle Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, Vijay; Feinstein, Jeffrey; Marsden, Alison

    2016-11-01

    Single ventricle (SV) congenital heart defects, in which babies are born with only functional ventricle, lead to significant morbidity and mortality with over 30% of patients developing heart failure prior to adulthood. Newborns with SV physiology typically undergo three palliative surgeries, in which the SV becomes the systemic pumping chamber. Depending on which ventricle performs the systemic function, patients are classified as having either a single left ventricle (SLV) or a single right ventricle (SRV), with SRV patients at higher risk of failure. As the native right ventricles are not designed to meet systemic demands, they undergo remodeling leading to abnormal hemodynamics. The hemodynamic characteristics of SLVs compared with SRVs is not well established. We present a validated computational framework for performing patient-specific modeling of ventricular flows, and apply it across 6 SV patients (3SLV + 3SRV), comparing hemodynamic conditions between the two subgroups. Simulations are performed with a stabilized finite element method coupled with an immersed boundary method for modeling heart valves. We discuss identification of hemodynamic biomarkers of ventricular remodeling for early risk assessment of failure. This research is supported in part by the Stanford Child Health Research Institute and the Stanford NIH-NCATS-CTSA through Grant UL1 TR001085 and due to U.S. National Institute of Health through NIH NHLBI R01 Grants 5R01HL129727-02 and 5R01HL121754-03.

  9. Hemodynamic changes during robotic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanlal Darlong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effect on hemodynamic changes and experience of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP in steep Trendelenburg position (45° with high-pressure CO 2 pneumoperitoneum is very limited. Therefore, we planned this prospective clinical trial to study the effect of steep Tredelenburg position with high-pressure CO 2 pneumoperitoneum on hemodynamic parameters in a patient undergoing RALRP using FloTrac/Vigileo™1.10. Methods: After ethical approval and informed consent, 15 patients scheduled for RALRP were included in the study. In the operation room, after attaching standard monitors, the radial artery was cannulated. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl (2 μg/kg and thiopentone (4-7 mg/kg, and tracheal intubation was facilitated by vecuronium bromide (0.1 mg/kg. The patient′s right internal jugular vein was cannulated and the Pre Sep™ central venous oximetry catheter was connected to it. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and nitrous oxide and intermittent boluses of vecuronium. Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was provided to maintain normocapnea. After CO 2 pneumoperitoneum, position of the patient was gradually changed to 45° Trendelenburg over 5 min. The robot was then docked and the robot-assisted surgery started. Intraoperative monitoring included central venous pressure (CVP, stroke volume (SV, stroke volume variation (SVV, cardiac output (CO, cardiac index (CI and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO 2 . Results: After induction of anesthesia, heart rate (HR, SV, CO and CI were decreased significantly from the baseline value (P>0.05. SV, CO and CI further decreased significantly after creating pneumoperitoneum (P>0.05. At the 45° Trendelenburg position, HR, SV, CO and CI were significantly decreased compared with baseline. Thereafter, CO and CI were persistently low throughout the 45° Trendelenburg position (P=0.001. HR at 20 min and 1 h, SV and mean arterial blood pressure

  10. Predicting ICU hemodynamic instability using continuous multiparameter trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hanqing; Eshelman, Larry; Chbat, Nicolas; Nielsen, Larry; Gross, Brian; Saeed, Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Identifying hemodynamically unstable patients in a timely fashion in intensive care units (ICUs) is crucial because it can lead to earlier interventions and thus to potentially better patient outcomes. Current alert algorithms are typically limited to detecting dangerous conditions only after they have occurred and suffer from high false alert rates. Our objective was to predict hemodynamic instability at least two hours before a major clinical intervention (e.g., vasopressor administration), while maintaining a low false alert rate. From the MIMIC II database, containing ICU minute-by-minute heart rate (HR) and invasive arterial blood pressure (BP) monitoring trend data collected between 2001 and 2005, we identified 132 stable and 104 unstable patients that met our stability-instability criteria and had sufficient data points. We first derived additional physiological parameters of shock index, rate pressure product, heart rate variability, and two measures of trending based on HR and BP. Then we developed 220 statistical features and systematically selected a small set to use for classification. We applied multi-variable logistic regression modeling to do classification and implemented validation via bootstrapping. Area under receiver-operating curve (ROC) 0.83+/-0.03, sensitivity 0.75+/-0.06, and specificity 0.80+/-0.07; if the specificity is targeted at 0.90, then the sensitivity is 0.57+/-0.07. Based on our preliminary results, we conclude that the algorithms we developed using HR and BP trend data may provide a promising perspective toward reliable predictive alerts for hemodynamically unstable patients.

  11. Clinical and Echocardiographic Characteristics and Cardiovascular Outcomes According to Diabetes Status in Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren L; Mogensen, Ulrik M; Jhund, Pardeep S

    2017-01-01

    in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction) according to history of diabetes mellitus. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for cardiovascular outcomes adjusted for known predictors, including age, sex, natriuretic peptides, and comorbidity. Echocardiographic data were available...... versus 29 kg/m2), worse Minnesota Living With Heart Failure score (48 versus 40), higher median N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentration (403 versus 320 pg/mL; all Pdifference in left ventricular ejection fraction. Patients with diabetes...

  12. Characteristics of intraoperative abnormal hemodynamics during resection of an intra-fourth ventricular tumor located on the dorsal medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideguchi, Makoto; Kajiwara, Koji; Yoshikawa, Koichi; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Nomura, Sadahiro; Fujii, Masami; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal hemodynamics during extirpation of a para-medulla oblongata (MO) tumor is common and may be associated with direct vagal stimulation of the medullary circuit. However, resection of tumors on the dorsal MO may also induce hemodynamic instability without direct vagal stimulus. The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of hemodynamic instability unrelated to vagal stimulus during dissection of an intra-fourth ventricular tumor with attachment to the dorsal MO. A retrospective analysis was performed in 13 patients. Abnormal hemodynamics were defined as a > 20% change from the means of the intraoperative mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Relationships of intraoperative hemodynamics were evaluated with various parameters, including the volume of the MO. Six patients (46.2%) had intraoperative hypertension during separation of the tumor bulk from the dorsal MO. The maximum MAP and HR in these patients were significantly greater than those in patients with normal hemodynamics (116.0 ± 18.0 mmHg versus 85.6 ± 6.5 mmHg; 124.3 ± 22.8 bpm versus 90.5 ± 14.7 bpm). All six cases with abnormal hemodynamics showed hemodynamic fluctuation during separation of the tumor bulk from the dorsal MO. The preoperative volume of the MO in these patients was 1.11 cc less than that in patients with normal hemodynamics, but the volume after tumor resection was similar in the two groups (5.23 cc and 5.12 cc). This suggests that the MO was compressed by the conglutinate tumor bulk, with resultant fluctuation of hemodynamics. Recognition of and preparation for this phenomenon are important for surgery on a tumor located on the dorsal MO.

  13. Evaluation of plain radiograph in mitral stenosis related to hemodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Ku Ok; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung So

    1973-01-01

    Mitral stenosis, the most frequent heart disease in adult, showed relatively characteristic pulmonary findings in plain chest X-ray. In recent years the knowledge of the altered physiology of hemodynamics could offer considerable amount of hemodynamic barrier in plain chest. But the value of several parameters was still controversial. In this study a variety of roentgen signs were related to physiologic data and those were acquired by the cardiac catheterization in total of 67 cases of mitral stenosis. 1. Correlation of DPA/DHT ratio (Diameter of pulmonary arterial segment/ Diameter of hemithorax X 100) to hemodynamic data; The pulmonary arterial segments was dilated by two factors, the one was pulmonary blood flow and the other the blood pressure within it. In mitral stenosis, the cardiac output was decreased to quite uniform level, hence measurement of pulmonary arterial segment might be valuable. The correlation coefficient of DPA/ DHT ratio to hemodynamic data were as follows: 0.54 to mean pulmonary artery pressure, 0.32 to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, -0.37 to mitral valvular area and 0.07 to pulmonary vascular resistance. No significant difference was noted in between pure mitral stenosis and mitral stenosis associated with other valvular disease. 2. Correlation of diameter of right descending pulmonary artery to hemodynamic data: The measurement was made near the first bifurcation of right descending pulmonary artery at its widest point. Pulmonary vascular pattern was best correlated (r=0.71). Another had rough correlation: 0.05 to mean pulmonary artery pressure, 0.31 to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, -0.44 to mitral valvular area in correlation coefficient. No pulmonary arterial hypertension was observed in the cases diameter of less than 12 mm, but all except two cases had pulmonary hypertension in which diameter exceeded 16 mm. According to increase of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, the same increment in pressure increased change

  14. Evaluation of plain radiograph in mitral stenosis related to hemodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Ku Ok; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung So [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-04-15

    Mitral stenosis, the most frequent heart disease in adult, showed relatively characteristic pulmonary findings in plain chest X-ray. In recent years the knowledge of the altered physiology of hemodynamics could offer considerable amount of hemodynamic barrier in plain chest. But the value of several parameters was still controversial. In this study a variety of roentgen signs were related to physiologic data and those were acquired by the cardiac catheterization in total of 67 cases of mitral stenosis. 1. Correlation of DPA/DHT ratio (Diameter of pulmonary arterial segment/ Diameter of hemithorax X 100) to hemodynamic data; The pulmonary arterial segments was dilated by two factors, the one was pulmonary blood flow and the other the blood pressure within it. In mitral stenosis, the cardiac output was decreased to quite uniform level, hence measurement of pulmonary arterial segment might be valuable. The correlation coefficient of DPA/ DHT ratio to hemodynamic data were as follows: 0.54 to mean pulmonary artery pressure, 0.32 to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, -0.37 to mitral valvular area and 0.07 to pulmonary vascular resistance. No significant difference was noted in between pure mitral stenosis and mitral stenosis associated with other valvular disease. 2. Correlation of diameter of right descending pulmonary artery to hemodynamic data: The measurement was made near the first bifurcation of right descending pulmonary artery at its widest point. Pulmonary vascular pattern was best correlated (r=0.71). Another had rough correlation: 0.05 to mean pulmonary artery pressure, 0.31 to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, -0.44 to mitral valvular area in correlation coefficient. No pulmonary arterial hypertension was observed in the cases diameter of less than 12 mm, but all except two cases had pulmonary hypertension in which diameter exceeded 16 mm. According to increase of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, the same increment in pressure increased change

  15. Myocardial function during transesophageal cardiac pacing in patients with coronary heart diseases when selected for surgical management: nuclear stethoscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitilev, S.B.; Mironova, M.A.; Gordeev, V.F.; Satrapinskij, V.Yu.; Badalyan, E.A.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow

    1991-01-01

    Studies of myocardial function during transesophageal cardiac pacing (TECP) were carried out in 70 patients with coronary heart diseases (CHD). All the patients were examined for central and intracardiac hemodynamics during TECP using nuclear stetoscope Bios (USA). The obtained data of central hemodynamics and myocardium contractibility make it possible to judge not only of pathological hemodynamics changes, as a CHD diagnostic factor, but of factors limiting reserve of cardiovascular system as well, depending on morphological heart changes

  16. Type D personality and depressive symptoms are independent predictors of impaired health status in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Widdershoven, Jos W

    2008-01-01

    To examine whether Type D personality exerts a stable, independent effect on health status in CHF over time, adjusted for depressive symptoms.......To examine whether Type D personality exerts a stable, independent effect on health status in CHF over time, adjusted for depressive symptoms....

  17. Valvular Heart Disease in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe MC Rosano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural valvular heart disease may be the cause of heart failure or may worsen the clinical status of patients with heart failure. Heart failure may also develop in patients treated with valve surgery. Patients with heart failure with valvular heart disease are at increased risk of events including sudden cardiac death. Before considering intervention (surgical or percutaneous all patients should receive appropriate medical and device therapy taking into account that vasodilators must be used with caution in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Numerous percutaneous and/or hybrid procedures have been introduced in the past few years and they are changing the management of valvular heart disease. In patients with heart failure and valvular heart disease, either primary or functional, the whole process of decision-making should be staged through a comprehensive evaluation of the risk– benefit ratio of different treatment strategies and should be made by a multidisciplinary ‘heart team’ with a particular expertise in valvular heart disease. The heart team should include heart failure cardiologists, cardiac surgeons/structural valve interventionists, imaging specialists, anaesthetists, geriatricians and intensive care specialists. This article will review recent developments and distill practical guidance in the management of this important heart failure co-morbidity.

  18. Understanding the physiology of complex congenital heart disease using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappanayil, Mahesh; Kannan, Rajesh; Kumar, Raman Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Complex congenital heart diseases are often associated with complex alterations in hemodynamics. Understanding these key hemodynamic changes is critical to making management decisions including surgery and postoperative management. Existing tools for imaging and hemodynamic assessment like echocardiography, computed tomography and cardiac catheterization have inherent limitations. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a powerful bouquet of tools that allow not only excellent imaging, but also a unique insight into hemodynamics. This article introduces the reader to cardiac MRI and its utility through the clinical example of a child with a complex congenital cyanotic heart disease

  19. Structural alterations in heart valves during left ventricular pressure overload in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, I. E.; Havenith, M. G.; Smits, J. F.; Daemen, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Heart valves are an important denominator of the function of the heart but detailed studies of structural alterations of heart valves after hemodynamic changes are lacking. Structural alterations of heart valves, including DNA synthesis, collagen mRNA, and protein concentration were measured in

  20. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  1. Influence of renal impairment on aldosterone status, calcium metabolism, and vasopressin activity in outpatients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosselmann, Helle; Tonder, Niels; Sölétormos, György

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Renal dysfunction (RD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF). At present, no specific treatment for patients with RD, to prevent progression of HF, has been developed. How different hormone axes-and thereby potential treatment options-are affected by RD...... in HF warrants further investigations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (e...

  2. Evaluación hemodinámica no invasiva con cardiografía de impedancia: aplicaciones en falla cardíaca y en hipertensión arterial Non-invasive hemodynamic evaluation with impedance cardiography: applications in heart failure and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Kepa Balparda

    2012-04-01

    use of this technique during the last decade has been noticed, mainly as a result of a series of clinical studies showing its precision in the estimation of stroke volume either against invasive gold standard (i.e. thermodilution or against non-invasive reference methods (i.e. echocardiography. On the other hand, ICG has demonstrated to be useful for the management of heart failure patients and for the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to hypertension, which currently constitute two of the major applications of ICG. In heart failure patients, changes in thoracic fluid content and cardiac output tracked by ICG have shown to be predictors of acute decompensation even weeks before respiratory symptoms appear; also allowing identification of a cardiac vs. respiratory origin of dyspnea when physical examination and laboratory tests are not conclusive. In the particular case of patients with uncontrolled or severe hypertension, ICG makes possible a better characterization of hypertensive phenotype leading to a more specific choice of pharmacological agents to treat the primary hemodynamic alteration (i.e elevated peripheral resistance vs. elevated cardiac output. The present review, provides a review of the biophysical principles of ICG and its precision in measuring stroke volume and present a critical assessment of the literature supporting its clinical application in the management of heart failure and arterial hypertension.

  3. The effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Inkyung; Kim, Dong Yeon; Kim, Youn Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflation and deflation of a pneumatic tourniquet used in total knee replacement surgery induces various changes in patient's hemodynamic and metabolic status, which may result in serious complications, especially in aged patients. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a monitoring device designed to estimate the regional cerebral oxygen saturation. We evaluated the effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing tot...

  4. Studies of the action of chemical agents on the heart. Annual report, February 1985-February 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassler, G.R.; Moutvic, R.R.

    1986-03-01

    This report describes initial studies to determine the subchronic effect of Soman and Sarin, on the electrical, mechanical, and neurochemical properties of the heart. Two different animal models are under development. The electrophysiologic and hemodynamic aspects of survival doses of chemical agent are begin studied in the dog. Two chronically instrumented dog models have been developed. The first is a hemodynamic dog model in which long-term measurements of left and right heart pressures, aortic flow, coronary flow as well as epicardial electrocardiograms, are monitored. The animals will be monitored at baseline and for one month following exposure in survival of a chemical-warfare-agent insult. These animals are stressed via treadmill exercise. The electrophysiology dog model consists of chronically implanted electrodes for performance of repetitive ventricular response stimulation, His bundle recording, and ECG analysis. Measurements are made prior to, and for one month following, exposure to survivable doses of CW agent. This dog model is further probed by sequential administration of various pharmacologic agents designed to study the autonomic status of the heart. All dogs and a limited number of the guinea pigs will be continuously monitored for occurrence of arrhythmic events utilizing Holter monitoring technology. The guinea pig neurochemical studies will include acetylcholines, choline acetyltransferase activity, QNB binding, choline uptake, norepinephrine levels and turnover, and norepinephrine uptake experiments.

  5. Disorders of cardiac hemodynamic in attack period of bronchial asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratiev V.А.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By dopplerechocardiography method there was studied functional state of cardiac ventricles and character of hemodynamic disorders in 48 patients aged 5-17 years in attack period of moderately-severe and severe bronchial asthma. Group of comparison included 40 healthy peers. Disorders of central and peripheral hemodynamic in attack period of bronchial asthma in children were accompanied both by systolic and diastolic dysfunction of the left and right heart ventricles, herewith right ventricle was functioning in the mode of hyperdynamic, and left one – in the mode of hypodynamic. Combined systolic-diastolic variant of dysfunction both of right and left ventricles was developing in 58,3% of patients with moderately-severe and in 91,6% of patients with severe bronchial asthma. In the attack period of bronchial asthma in children equal directionality of systolic and diastolic dysfunction of heart ventricles was developing; this was characterized by synchronization of their function. Assessment of functional interaction of the ventricles under conditions of severe asthma attack showed direct and high (r=0,67 correlative interaction between finding of Tei index of the left and right ventricles, which characterize their systolic function; this, under conditions of increased hemodynamic pre-loading testified to compensatory increase of systolic interaction of ventricles. Direct and high (r=0,69 correlative interaction between time indices of isovolumic relaxation of the left and right ventricles, characterizing their diastolic function, testified to compensatory increase of diastolic interaction of ventricles under conditions of increase of hemodynamic post-loading. Imbalance of central and peripheral link of hemodynamic in attack period of bronchial asthma in children testified to development of cardiac insufficiency, which was compensated predominantly at the expense of increase of heart contractions rate.

  6. Correction of Hemodynamic Disorders in the Complex Surgical Correction of Acquired Cardiac Valvular Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lenkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the efficiency of using the values of transpulmonary (PiCCO and prepulmonary (Swan-Ganz catheter thermodilution as guides to targeted therapy for hemodynamic disorders in the surgical correction of mixed cardiac valvular defects. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 40 patients operated on for acquired cardiac diseases who were randomized to two matched groups. Hemodynamics was monitored by means of a Swan-Ganz catheter in Group 1 and by transpulmonary thermodilution in Group 2. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and fentanyl. Infusion therapy was performed using crystalloid and colloid solutions. Continuous intravenous infusion of inotropic agents was used when heart failure was developed. Hemodynamic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were estimated intraoperatively and within 24 hours postoperatively. Results. The groups did not differ in the degree of baseline heart failure, the duration of an operation and myocardial ischemia, and the length of extracorporeal circulation. In the PiCCO group, postoperative infusion volume was 33% higher than that in the Swan-Ganz group, which ensured increases in stroke volume and oxygen delivery in the early postoperative period (p<0.05. Respiratory support was 26% shorter in the PiCCO group (p<0.04. Conclusion. After surgical interventions for mixed cardiac defects, the targeted therapy algorithm based on transpulmonary thermodilution provided more steady-state values of hemodynamics and oxygen transport, which was followed by the increased scope of infusion therapy and the shorter length of postoperative mechanical ventilation than that based on hemodynamics being corrected from the values of prepul-monary thermodilution. Key words: transpulmonary thermodilution, targeted therapy, prepulmonary ther-modilution, acquired heart disease.

  7. Cardiorenal Syndrome in Acute Heart Failure: Revisiting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Julio; Miñana, Gema; Santas, Enrique; Bertomeu-González, Vicente

    2015-05-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome has been defined as the simultaneous dysfunction of both the heart and the kidney. Worsening renal function that occurs in patients with acute heart failure has been classified as cardiorenal syndrome type 1. In this setting, worsening renal function is a common finding and is due to complex, multifactorial, and not fully understood processes involving hemodynamic (renal arterial hypoperfusion and renal venous congestion) and nonhemodynamic factors. Traditionally, worsening renal function has been associated with worse outcomes, but recent findings have revealed mixed and heterogeneous results, perhaps suggesting that the same phenotype represents a diversity of pathophysiological and clinical situations. Interpreting the magnitude and chronology of renal changes together with baseline renal function, fluid overload status, and clinical response to therapy might help clinicians to unravel the clinical meaning of renal function changes that occur during an episode of heart failure decompensation. In this article, we critically review the contemporary evidence on the pathophysiology and clinical aspects of worsening renal function in acute heart failure. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiology of school burnout in medical students: Hemodynamic and autonomic functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross W. May

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between burnout and hemodynamic and autonomic functioning in both medical students (N = 55 and premedical undergraduate students (N = 77. Questionnaires screened for health related issues and assessed school burnout and negative affect symptomatology (anxiety and depression. Continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP through finger plethysmography and electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring was conducted during conditions of baseline and cardiac stress induced via the cold pressor task to produce hemodynamic, heart rate variability, and blood pressure variability indices. Independent sample t-tests demonstrated that medical students had significantly higher school burnout scores compared to their undergraduate counterparts. Controlling for age, BMI, anxiety and depressive symptoms, multiple regression analyses indicated that school burnout was a stronger predictor of elevated hemodynamics (blood pressure, decreased heart rate variability, decreased markers of vagal activity and increased markers of sympathetic tone at baseline for medical students than for undergraduates. Analyses of physiological values collected during the cold pressor task indicated greater cardiac hyperactivity for medical students than for undergraduates. The present study supports previous research linking medical school burnout to hemodynamic and autonomic functioning, suggests biomarkers for medical school burnout, and provides evidence that burnout may be implicated as a physiological risk factor in medical students. Study limitations and potential intervention avenues are discussed.

  9. Effects of Lignocaine Administered Intravenously or Intratracheally on Airway and Hemodynamic Responses during Emergence and Extubation in Patients Undergoing Elective Craniotomies in Supine Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabnum, Tabasum; Ali, Zulfiqar; Naqash, Imtiaz Ahmad; Mir, Aabid Hussain; Azhar, Khan; Zahoor, Syed Amer; Mir, Abdul Waheed

    2017-01-01

    Sympathoadrenergic responses during emergence and extubation can lead to an increase in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure whereas increased airway responses may lead to coughing and laryngospasm. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of lignocaine administered intravenously (IV) or intratracheally on airway and hemodynamic responses during emergence and extubation in patients undergoing elective craniotomies. Sixty patients with physical status American Society of Anaesthesiologists Classes I and II aged 18-70 years, scheduled to undergo elective craniotomies were included. The patients were randomly divided into three groups of twenty patients; Group 1 receiving IV lignocaine and intratracheal placebo (IV group), Group 2 receiving intratracheal lignocaine and IV placebo (I/T group), and Group 3 receiving IV and intratracheal placebo (placebo group). The tolerance to the endotracheal tube was monitored, and number of episodes of cough was recorded during emergence and at the time of extubation. Hemodynamic parameters such as HR and blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure) were also recorded. There was a decrease of HR in both IV and intratracheal groups in comparison with placebo group ( P < 0.005). Rise in blood pressure (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure) was comparable in both Groups 1 and 2 but was lower in comparison with placebo group ( P < 0.005). Cough suppression was comparable in all the three groups. Grade III cough (15%) was documented only in placebo group. Both IV and intratracheal lignocaine are effective in attenuation of hemodynamic response if given within 20 min from skull pin removal to extubation. There was comparable cough suppression through intratracheal route and IV routes than the placebo group.

  10. Heart MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  11. Effect of dialysate temperature on hemodynamic stability among hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, Ahmad Taher

    2009-01-01

    Cooling the dialysate below 36.5 degree C is an important factor that contributes to hemody-namic stability in patients during hemodialysis (HD). In this study, the effect of dialysate tempe-rature on hemodynamic stability, patients' perception of dialysis discomfort and post dialysis fatigue were assessed in a group of patients on HD. A total of 50 patients, all of whom were on 3-times-perweek dialysis regimen, were studied. Patients were assessed during six dialysis sessions; in three sessions, the dialysate temperature was normal (37 degree C) and in three other sessions, the dialysate temperature was low (35 degree C). Specific scale questionnaires were used in each dialysis session, to evaluate the symptoms during the dialysis procedure as well as post-dialysis fatigue, and respective scores were noted. The results showed that usage of low dialysate temperature was associated with the following: higher post dialysis systolic blood pressure (P< 0.05) and lower post dialysis heart rate (P<0.01), with similar ultrafiltration rates, better intra-dialysis symptoms score and post-dialysis fatigue scores (P< 0.001, and P<0.001, respectively), shorter post-dialysis fatigue period (P<0.001) as well as higher urea removal (P< 00001) and Kt/V (P< 0.0001). Patients' perceptions were measured by a questionnaire, which showed that 76% of them felt more energetic after dialysis with cool dialysate and requested to be always dialyzed with cool dialysate. Low temperature dialysate is particularly beneficial for highly symptomatic patients, improves tolerance to dialysis in hypotensive patients and helps increase ultrafiltration while maintaining hemodynamic stability during and after dialysis. (author)

  12. Fluid status monitoring with a wireless network to reduce cardiovascular-related hospitalizations and mortality in heart failure: rationale and design of the OptiLink HF Study (Optimization of Heart Failure Management using OptiVol Fluid Status Monitoring and CareLink)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachmann, Johannes; Böhm, Michael; Rybak, Karin; Klein, Gunnar; Butter, Christian; Klemm, Hanno; Schomburg, Rolf; Siebermair, Johannes; Israel, Carsten; Sinha, Anil-Martin; Drexler, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Aims The Optimization of Heart Failure Management using OptiVol Fluid Status Monitoring and CareLink (OptiLink HF) study is designed to investigate whether OptiVol fluid status monitoring with an automatically generated wireless CareAlert notification via the CareLink Network can reduce all-cause death and cardiovascular hospitalizations in an HF population, compared with standard clinical assessment. Methods Patients with newly implanted or replacement cardioverter-defibrillator devices with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy, who have chronic HF in New York Heart Association class II or III and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% will be eligible to participate. Following device implantation, patients are randomized to either OptiVol fluid status monitoring through CareAlert notification or regular care (OptiLink ‘on' vs. ‘off'). The primary endpoint is a composite of all-cause death or cardiovascular hospitalization. It is estimated that 1000 patients will be required to demonstrate superiority of the intervention group to reduce the primary outcome by 30% with 80% power. Conclusion The OptiLink HF study is designed to investigate whether early detection of congestion reduces mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization in patients with chronic HF. The study is expected to close recruitment in September 2012 and to report first results in May 2014. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00769457 PMID:21555324

  13. Comparison of neostigmine and sugammadex for hemodynamic parameters in cardiac patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilay, Deniz; Dal, Didem; Saracoglu, Kemal T; Eti, Zeynep; Gogus, Fevzi Y

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the hemodynamic effects of neostigmine-atropine combination and sugammadex in patients with cardiac problems undergoing noncardiac surgery. Prospective randomized study. In the operating room. Ninety patients with a class 2 or 3 cardiovascular disease according to the New York Heart Association classification and aged between 18 and 75 years undergoing noncardiac surgery were randomized. Group N (n = 45) received 0.03 mg/kg IV neostigmine when T2 appeared as measured with a nerve muscle stimulator. When heart rate was 5 beats/min (±10 beats/min) lower than the heart rate before administration of the medication, 0.5 mg IV atropine sulfate was given. Group S (n = 45) received 3 mg/kg IV sugammadex when T2 appeared as measured with a nerve muscle stimulator. Heart rate, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and electrocardiographic alterations including the QTc (QT Fredericia and QT Bazett) were recorded. There were no significant differences between and within the groups in terms of QTc values. Sugammadex group had a significant decrease on heart rate 1 minute after the medication when compared to the measurement before the medication (P Sugammadex group had lower systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures and heart rate when compared to neostigmine group (P sugammadex might be preferred as it provides more hemodynamic stability compared to neostigmine-atropine combination to reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockage in cardiac patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunologic, hemodynamic, and adrenal incompetence in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise Madeleine; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren

    2015-01-01

    dysfunction, but is not responsive to volume expansion. Recent research indicates that development of hepatic nephropathy represents a continuous spectrum of functional and structural dysfunction and may be precipitated by the inherent immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence in cirrhosis. New...... research explores several new markers of renal dysfunction that may replace serum creatinine in the future and give new insight on the hepatic nephropathy. Our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence, and the impact on renal...

  15. Relation of symptomatic heart failure and psychological status to persistent depression in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Jordaens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    . We examined the prevalence and correlates of persistent depression using an intraindividual approach. Consecutive patients who had undergone ICD implantation (n = 386; 79.3% men) completed a set of validated questionnaires, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), at baseline and 3...... months after implantation. Information on ICD therapies was obtained by device interrogation. At 3 months after implantation, 52 (14%) of the 386 patients had persistent depression (HADS cutoff ≥8 before and 3 months after implantation). Heart failure (odds ratio [OR] 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.......71), diuretics (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.26 to 4.61), and psychotropic medication (OR 3.58; 95% CI 1.86 to 6.90) were all significant univariate correlates of persistent depression at 3 months. No effect was found for ICD shock during follow-up (OR 1.59; 95% CI 0.57 to 4.41). In adjusted analysis, New York Heart...

  16. Direct right ventricular puncture for hemodynamic evaluation of a mechanical tricuspid valve prosthesis: a new indication for an old procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, M A; Carell, E S

    1997-11-01

    The advent of transvenous right heart catheterization has relegated direct transthoracic right ventricular puncture largely to the role of "interesting historical footnote." However, in the case of a right ventricle that is "protected" by a mechanical tricuspid valve prosthesis, direct right ventricular puncture represents a reasonable alternative for obtaining accurate hemodynamic information.

  17. The level of physical exercise is associated with self-reported health status (EQ-5D) in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Camilla; Engström, Karl Gunnar; Dellborg, Mikael; Thilén, Ulf; Wadell, Karin; Johansson, Bengt

    2015-02-01

    The prognosis in adults with congenital aortic valve disease is usually favourable; nevertheless, a number of medical and social factors might hamper long-term prognosis and quality of life. With a focus on physical exercise level, data from the Swedish National Registry on Congenital Heart Disease (SWEDCON) were analysed and variables associated with health-related quality of life in adults with congenital aortic valve disease were identified. In this registry study, SWEDCON was searched for adult patients with isolated congenital aortic valve disease and valid EuroQol-5Dimensions health questionnaire (EQ-5D) data. This study identified 315 patients. The majority (n = 202, 64%) reported best possible health status (EQ-5D(index) = 1) whereas 113 (35%) reported some impairment (EQ-5D(index)  3 h/week was independently associated with best possible health status (EQ-5D(index) = 1; p = 0.013). Moreover presence of cardiovascular symptoms (p 3 h/week was, as a single variable, associated with best possible health status in adults with congenital aortic valve disease. In contrast, a number of medical and social factors are associated with worse self-reported health status. Among these, symptoms, smoking, and educational level are potential targets for modification and intervention. There is a need for studies investigating the effect of increased level of physical exercise in patients with congenital aortic valve disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Central Hemodynamics and Microcirculation in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kosovskikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare central hemodynamic and microcirculatory changes in critical conditions caused by different factors and to reveal their possible differences for a further differentiated approach to intensive therapy. Subjects and methods. The study covered 16 subjects with severe concomitant injury (mean age 41.96±2.83 years and 19 patients with general purulent peritonitis (mean age 45.34±2.16 years. Their follow-up was 7 days. The central hemodynamics was estimated by transpulmonary thermodilution using a Pulsion PiCCO Plus system (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany. The microcirculatory bed was evaluated by cutaneous laser Doppler flowmetry using a LAKK-02 capillary blood flow laser analyzer (LAZMA Research-and-Production Association, Russian Federation. Results. The pattern of central hemodynamic and microcirculatory disorders varies with the trigger that has led to a critical condition. Central hemodynamics should be stabilized to ensure the average level of tissue perfusion in victims with severe concomitant injury. In general purulent peritonitis, microcirculatory disorders may persist even if the macrohemodynamic parameters are normal. Conclusion. The macrohemodynamic and microcirculatory differences obtained during the study suggest that a complex of intensive therapy should be differentiated and, if the latter is used, it is necessary not only to be based on the central hemodynamics, but also to take into consideration functional changes in microcirculation. Key words: severe concomitant injury, general purulent peritonitis, micro-circulation, central hemodynamics, type of circulation.

  19. Hemodynamic changes in rats after radioprotective combination of cystamine administered subcutaneously and 5-methoxytryptamine injected intramuscularly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuna, P.

    1976-01-01

    Administration of cystamine (20 mg base/kg s.c.) and 5-methoxytryptamine (10 mg base/kg i.m.) with 12 minutes delay to anesthetized rats induced the depression of whole cardiovascular system, hemoconcentration and great blood flow decrease in the radiosensitive tissues. Distribution of lowered cardiac output preferred the fractions to brain, heart, liver and lungs. Hemodynamic responses to protective combination may participate in its radioprotective action. (orig.) [de

  20. HEMODYNAMIC AND LACTIC ACID RESPONSES TO PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gültekin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The hemodynamic and metabolic responses to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF exercise were examined in 32 male university students (aged 19-28 years. Ten repetitions of PNF exercises were applied to the subjects' dominant upper extremities in the following order: as an agonist pattern flexion, adduction and external rotation; and as an antagonist pattern extension, abduction and internal rotation. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, double product (DP, and blood lactate concentration (La were determined before, immediately after, and at 1st, 3rd, and 5th minutes after PNF exercise. A one-way ANOVA with repeated measures indicated significant differences in HR, SBP, DBP, DP and La immediately after PNF exercise. HR increased from 81 (±10 to 108 (±15 b·min-1 (p < 0.01, SBP increased from 117 (±10 to 125 (±11 mmHg (p < 0.01, DBP increased from 71 (±10 to 75 (±8 mmHg (p < 0.01, DP increased from 96 (±16 to 135 (±24 (p < 0.01, and La increased from 0.69 (±0.31 to 3.99 (±14.63 mmol·L-1 (p < 0.01. Thus PNF exercise resulted in increased hemodynamic responses and blood lactate concentration that indicate a high strain on the cardiovascular system and anaerobic metabolism in healthy subjects

  1. Life Satisfaction and Hemodynamic Reactivity to Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Andreas; Gaisbachgrabner, Kerstin; Traunmüller, Claudia

    2017-06-01

    Satisfaction with life has been considered a health-protective variable, which could impact cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have examined the physiological pathways involved in the potentially salutary effect of life satisfaction. It was hypothesized that life satisfaction should be associated with a cardiovascular response profile that signals challenge (i.e., higher cardiac output, lower peripheral resistance), rather than threat during a mental stress task. A sample of 75 healthy, medication-free men without clinical signs of psychological disorders who worked full-time and occupied highly demanding positions participated in this study. They performed two mental stress tasks (n-back) with varying degrees of difficulty. The tasks were embedded between a baseline and a recovery period. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic variables (heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance) were recorded by means of impedance cardiography. Individuals who were more satisfied with their life displayed higher cardiac output and lower peripheral resistance levels during the stress tasks, indicating a challenge rather than a threat profile. Findings were robust when controlled for physical activity, smoking, age, and depressive symptoms. Life satisfaction could be positively correlated with beneficial hemodynamic stress reactivity, indicating that individuals with higher levels of life satisfaction can more adaptively cope with stress. Increased cardiac output and decreased peripheral resistance during stress may constitute one route through which life satisfaction can benefit health.

  2. [Damage control in trauma patients with hemodynamic instability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorben; Doll, Dietrich; Kliebe, Frank; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Kühne, Christian

    2010-10-01

    The term "Damage-control" is borrowed from naval terminology. It means the initial control of a damaged ship. Because of the lethal triad in multiple injured patients the classical concept of definitive surgically therapy in the acute phase of the injury has a high rate of complications such as exsanguination, sepsis, heart failure and multiple organ failure. The core idea of the damage control concept was to minimize the additional trauma by surgical operations in these critical patients in the first phase. This means temporary control of a hemorrhage and measures for stopping abdominal contamination. After 24 - 48 hours in the intensive care unit and correction of physiological disturbances further interventions are performed for definitively treatment of the injuries. Summarized, the damage control strategy comprises an abbreviated operation, intensive care unit resuscitation, and a return to the operating room for the definitive operation after hemodynamic stabilisation of the patient. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  3. [System analytical approach of lung function and hemodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naszlady, Attila; Kiss, Lajos

    2009-02-15

    The authors critically analyse the traditional views in physiology and complete them with new statements based on computer model simulations of lung function and of hemodynamics. Conclusions are derived for the clinical practice as follows: the four-dimensional function curves are similar in both systems; there is a "waterfall" zone in the pulmonary blood perfusion; the various time constants of pulmonary regions can modify the blood gas values; pulmonary capillary pressure is equal to pulmonary arterial diastole pressure; heart is not a pressure pump, but a flow source; ventricles are loaded by the input impedance of the arterial systems and not by the total vascular (ohmlike) resistance; optimum heart rate in rest depends on the length of the aorta; this law of heart rate, based on the principle of resonance is valid along the mammalian allometric line; tachycardia decreases the input impedance; using positive end expiratory pressure respirators the blood gas of pulmonary artery should be followed; coronary circulation should be assessed in beat per milliliter, the milliliter per minute may be false. These statements are compared to related references.

  4. Remote Left Ventricular Hemodynamic Monitoring Using a Novel Intracardiac Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondritzki, Thomas; Boehme, Philip; White, Jason; Park, Jin Woo; Hoffmann, Jessica; Vogel, Julia; Kolkhof, Peter; Walsh, Stuart; Sandner, Peter; Bischoff, Erwin; Dinh, Wilfried; Hüser, Jörg; Truebel, Hubert

    2018-05-01

    Heart failure (HF) remains the most common reason for hospital admission in patients aged >65 years. Despite modern drug therapy, mortality and readmission rates for patients hospitalized with HF remain high. This necessitates further research to identify early patients at risk for readmission to limit hospitalization by timely adjustment of medical therapy. Implantable devices can monitor left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and remotely and continuously detect the early signs of decompensation to trigger interventions and reduce the risk of hospitalization for HF. Here, we report the first preclinical study validating a new batteryless and easy to implant LV-microelectromechanical system to assess LV performance. A miniaturized implantable wireless pressure sensor was adapted for implantation in the LV apex. The LV-microelectromechanical system sensor was tested in a canine model of HF. The wireless pressure sensor measurements were compared with invasive left heart catheter-derived measurements at several time points. During different pharmacological challenge studies with dobutamine or vasopressin, the device was equally sensitive compared with invasive standard procedures. No adverse events or any observable reaction related to the implantation and application of the device for a period of 35 days was observed. Our miniaturized wireless pressure sensor placed in the LV (LV-microelectromechanical system) has the potential to become a new telemetric tool to earlier identify patients at risk for HF decompensation and to guide the treatment of patients with HF. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. A comparison of heart rate variability, n-3 PUFA status and lipid mediator profile in age- and BMI-matched middle-aged vegans and omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana M; Sanders, Thomas A B; Kendall, Alexandra C; Nicolaou, Anna; Gray, Robert; Al-Khatib, Haya; Hall, Wendy L

    2017-03-01

    Low heart rate variability (HRV) predicts sudden cardiac death. Long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (C20-C22) status is positively associated with HRV. This cross-sectional study investigated whether vegans aged 40-70 years (n 23), whose diets are naturally free from EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3), have lower HRV compared with omnivores (n 24). Proportions of LC n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, plasma fatty acids and concentrations of plasma LC n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators were significantly lower in vegans. Day-time interbeat intervals (IBI), adjusted for physical activity, age, BMI and sex, were significantly shorter in vegans compared with omnivores (mean difference -67 ms; 95 % CI -130, -3·4, P50 % and high-frequency power) were similarly lower in vegans, with no differences during sleep. In conclusion, vegans have higher 24 h SDNN, but lower day-time HRV and shorter day-time IBI relative to comparable omnivores. Vegans may have reduced availability of precursor markers for pro-resolving lipid mediators; it remains to be determined whether there is a direct link with impaired cardiac function in populations with low-n-3 status.

  6. Work Status and Return to the Workforce after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and/or Heart Valve Surgery: A One-Year-Follow Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Fonager

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several characteristics appear to be important for estimating the likelihood of reentering the workforce after surgery. The aim of the present study was to describe work status in a two-year time period around the time of cardiac surgery and estimate the probability of returning to the workforce. Methods. We included 681 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or heart valve procedures from 2003 to 2007 in the North Denmark Region. We linked hospital data to data in the DREAM database which holds information of everyone receiving social benefits. Results. At the time of surgery 17.3% were allocated disability pension and 2.3% were allocated a permanent part-time benefit. Being unemployed one year before surgery reduced the likelihood of return to the workforce (RR=0.74 (0.60–0.92 whereas unemployment at the time of surgery had no impact on return to the workforce (RR=0.96 (0.78–1.18. Sickness absence before surgery reduced the likelihood of return to the workforce. Conclusion. This study found the work status before surgery to be associated with the likelihood of return to the workforce within one year after surgery. Before surgery one-fifth of the population either was allocated disability pension or received a permanent part-time benefit.

  7. Work Status and Return to the Workforce after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and/or Heart Valve Surgery: A One-Year-Follow Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonager, Kirsten; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Futtrup, Mikkel; Christensen, Anette Luther; Ahmad, Khalil; Nørgaard, Martin Agge

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several characteristics appear to be important for estimating the likelihood of reentering the workforce after surgery. The aim of the present study was to describe work status in a two-year time period around the time of cardiac surgery and estimate the probability of returning to the workforce. Methods. We included 681 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or heart valve procedures from 2003 to 2007 in the North Denmark Region. We linked hospital data to data in the DREAM database which holds information of everyone receiving social benefits. Results. At the time of surgery 17.3% were allocated disability pension and 2.3% were allocated a permanent part-time benefit. Being unemployed one year before surgery reduced the likelihood of return to the workforce (RR = 0.74 (0.60-0.92)) whereas unemployment at the time of surgery had no impact on return to the workforce (RR = 0.96 (0.78-1.18)). Sickness absence before surgery reduced the likelihood of return to the workforce. Conclusion. This study found the work status before surgery to be associated with the likelihood of return to the workforce within one year after surgery. Before surgery one-fifth of the population either was allocated disability pension or received a permanent part-time benefit.

  8. Levels of interleukin-1β in gingival crevicular fluid in patients with coronary heart disease and its relationship to periodontal status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenggogeny, Putri; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Tadjoedin, Fatimah M.; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Periodontitis is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Both diseases are an inflammatory diseases and have the same potential pathogenic mechanisms. Interleukin-1β as a pro-inflammatory main cytokine, can be found in this both diseases. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) derived from the serum of gingival sulcus, affected by inflammatory mechanism and the amount of this fluid will increase in that situation. Objective: To analyze the relationship of interleukin-1β levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of CHD and non-CHD patients with periodontal status. Methods: Oral clinical examination (plaque index, bleeding on probing, pocket depth and clinical attachment loss) for 35 subjects with CHD and 35 non CHD were checked, laboratory test to measure the levels of Interleukin-1β was checked with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: There was no significant differences between interleukin-1β levels in CHD and non-CHD patients (p>0.05); there was no significant difference between the level of Interleukin-1β with periodontal status in CHD and control (non CHD) patients (p>0.05). Conclusions: levels of Interleukin-1β in CHD patients do not have a relationships with plaque index, pocket depth and clinical attachment loss, but has a relationships with bleeding on probing.

  9. Leonardo da Vinci and the first hemodynamic observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins e Silva, J

    2008-02-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was a genius whose accomplishments and ideas come down to us today, five centuries later, with the freshness of innovation and the fascination of discovery. This brief review begins with a summary of Leonardo's life and a description of the most important works of art that he bequeathed us, and then concentrates on his last great challenge. There was a point at which Leonardo's passion for art gave way to the study of human anatomy, not only to improve his drawing but to go beyond what had been simply a representation of form to understand the underlying functioning. Among his many interests, we focus on his study of the heart and blood vessels, which he observed carefully in animals and human autopsies, and reproduced in drawings of great quality with annotations of astonishing acuteness. The experience that he had acquired from observing the flow of water in currents and around obstacles, and the conclusions that he drew concerning hydrodynamics, were central to his interpretation of the mechanisms of the heart and of blood flow, to which he devoted much of his time between 1508 and 1513. From these studies, immortalized in drawings of great clarity, come what are acknowledged to be the first hemodynamic records, in which Leonardo demonstrates the characteristics of blood flow in the aorta and great vessels and the importance of blood reflux and the formation of eddies in the sinus in aortic valve his assiduous and careful observations, and his subsequent deductions, Leonardo put forward detailed findings on hemodynamic questions that advanced technology has only recently enabled us to confirm.

  10. Hemodynamic, ventilator, and ECG changes in pediatric patients undergoing extraction

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    Y K Sanadhya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental treatment induces pain anxiety and fear. This study was conducted to assess the changes in hemodynamic, ventilator, and electrocardiograph changes during extraction procedure among 12-15-year-old children and compare these changes with anxiety, fear, and pain. Materials and Methods: A purposive sample of 60 patients selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria underwent study procedure in the dental OPD of a medical college and hospital. The anxiety, fear, and pain were recorded by dental anxiety scale, dental fear scale, and visual analogue scale, respectively, before the start of the procedure. The systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and electrocardiogram changes were monitored during the extraction procedure. The recording was taken four times (preinjection phase, injection, extraction, and postextraction and was analyzed. Results: At the preinjection phase the mean vales were systolic blood pressure (128 ± 11.2, diastolic blood pressure (85.7 ± 6.3, heart rate (79.7 ± 9.3, and oxygen saturation (97.9 ± 5.8. These values increased in injection phases and decreased in extraction phase and the least values were found after 10 min of procedure and this relation was significant for all parameters except oxygen saturation (P = 0.48, NS. ECG abnormalities were seen among 22 patients and were significant before and after injection of Local anesthetic (P = 0.0001, S. Conclusions: Anxiety, fear, and pain have an effect on hemodynamic, ventilator, and cardiovascular parameters during the extraction procedure and hence behavioral management has to be emphasized among children in dental clinics.

  11. Myocardial hypertrophy and intracardial hemodynamics in children with bicuspid aortic valve

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    А. V. Kamenshchyk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve is one of the most common congenital heart diseases with low manifestation in childhood and severe consequences in adults that determines the importance in early diagnostics of myocardial changes in this anomaly. According to the literature the polymorphisms in the genes of NFATC family could result both in impaired embriogenetic valves formation and development of postnatal myocardial hypertrophy. The aim of the study was to detect the early changes of intracardial hemodynamics at aortic valve in children with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV and establish their interrelations to the signs of myocardial hypertrophy in these children. Materials and methods: Dopplerograhphic study of basic intracardiac hemodynamics parameters in 38 children with BAV and in 28 children of control group was conducted. The results were processed statistically by Student’s t-test, correlation analysis and multiple regression. Results: In the result of study the moderate concentric left ventricle myocardial hypertrophy development was detected in 62 % of children with BAV which is accompanying to significant increasing of blood flow velocity and pressure gradient at aortic valve. There were not established significant correlations between the parameters of hemodynamics at valve and left ventricle’s posterior wall depth and septum depth whereas the highest inputs of these values were obtained in the left ventricle systolic dimension and volume and less in the hypertrophic signs. Conclusions: In children with BAV the moderate concentric myocardial hypertrophy with significant changes of intracardial hemodynamics at aortic valve takes place with the highest inputs in left ventricle volumetric values The obtained data serves as a substantiation for the treatment and prevention of it further development. bicuspid aortic valve; children; heart hypertrophy; dopplerechocardiography; hemodynamics; regression analysis

  12. Biomechanical and Hemodynamic Measures of Right Ventricular Diastolic Function: Translating Tissue Biomechanics to Clinical Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sae; Vanderpool, Rebecca R; Avazmohammadi, Reza; Lapshin, Eugene; Bachman, Timothy N; Sacks, Michael; Simon, Marc A

    2017-09-12

    Right ventricular (RV) diastolic function has been associated with outcomes for patients with pulmonary hypertension; however, the relationship between biomechanics and hemodynamics in the right ventricle has not been studied. Rat models of RV pressure overload were obtained via pulmonary artery banding (PAB; control, n=7; PAB, n=5). At 3 weeks after banding, RV hemodynamics were measured using a conductance catheter. Biaxial mechanical properties of the RV free wall myocardium were obtained to extrapolate longitudinal and circumferential elastic modulus in low and high strain regions (E 1 and E 2 , respectively). Hemodynamic analysis revealed significantly increased end-diastolic elastance (E ed ) in PAB (control: 55.1 mm Hg/mL [interquartile range: 44.7-85.4 mm Hg/mL]; PAB: 146.6 mm Hg/mL [interquartile range: 105.8-155.0 mm Hg/mL]; P =0.010). Longitudinal E 1 was increased in PAB (control: 7.2 kPa [interquartile range: 6.7-18.1 kPa]; PAB: 34.2 kPa [interquartile range: 18.1-44.6 kPa]; P =0.018), whereas there were no significant changes in longitudinal E 2 or circumferential E 1 and E 2 . Last, wall stress was calculated from hemodynamic data by modeling the right ventricle as a sphere: stress=Pressure×radius2×thickness. RV pressure overload in PAB rats resulted in an increase in diastolic myocardial stiffness reflected both hemodynamically, by an increase in E ed , and biomechanically, by an increase in longitudinal E 1 . Modest increases in tissue biomechanical stiffness are associated with large increases in E ed . Hemodynamic measurements of RV diastolic function can be used to predict biomechanical changes in the myocardium. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  13. Spontaneous hemodynamic oscillations during human sleep and sleep stage transitions characterized with near-infrared spectroscopy.

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    Tiina Näsi

    Full Text Available Understanding the interaction between the nervous system and cerebral vasculature is fundamental to forming a complete picture of the neurophysiology of sleep and its role in maintaining physiological homeostasis. However, the intrinsic hemodynamics of slow-wave sleep (SWS are still poorly known. We carried out 30 all-night sleep measurements with combined near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and polysomnography to investigate spontaneous hemodynamic behavior in SWS compared to light (LS and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM. In particular, we concentrated on slow oscillations (3-150 mHz in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations, heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation, and the pulsation amplitude of the photoplethysmographic signal. We also analyzed the behavior of these variables during sleep stage transitions. The results indicate that slow spontaneous cortical and systemic hemodynamic activity is reduced in SWS compared to LS, REM, and wakefulness. This behavior may be explained by neuronal synchronization observed in electrophysiological studies of SWS and a reduction in autonomic nervous system activity. Also, sleep stage transitions are asymmetric, so that the SWS-to-LS and LS-to-REM transitions, which are associated with an increase in the complexity of cortical electrophysiological activity, are characterized by more dramatic hemodynamic changes than the opposite transitions. Thus, it appears that while the onset of SWS and termination of REM occur only as gradual processes over time, the termination of SWS and onset of REM may be triggered more abruptly by a particular physiological event or condition. The results suggest that scalp hemodynamic changes should be considered alongside cortical hemodynamic changes in NIRS sleep studies to assess the interaction between the autonomic and central nervous systems.

  14. Clinical and Hemodynamic Effects of CPAP-Therapy in Patients with Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema

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    M. V. Gorbunova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the clinical and hemodynamic effects of CPAP-therapy in the treatment of alveolar cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI.Subjects and methods. The open-labeled prospective study included 22 patients (19 males; mean age, 59.2±5.8 years with CPE that had complicated the course of AMI. Despite the drug and oxygen therapies of CPE for 30 minutes, progressive respiratory and left ventricular failures were an indication for the initiation of CPAP-therapy (7.3±1.2 cm H2O that was performed, by employing REM-Star apparatuses (Respironics, USA and Ultra Mirage facial masks (ResMed, Australia. Oxygen, 2 l/min (FiO2 = 40%, was delivered through the mask circuit. Central hemodynamic parameters were measured before and 60 and 180 minutes after the initiation of CPAP-therapy, by using a Swan-Ganz thermodilution cathether (HANDS OFF, model AH-05000-H, ARROW, USA. Arterial and mixed venous blood gas composition was rapidly determined on an automatic gas analyzer (Rapidlab 348, Bayer, USA.Results. Cyanosis and acrocyanosis disappeared and the number of congestive moist rales reduced in the lung in 19 (86.4% patients during 30-min CPAP-therapy. The patients’ oxygen status changed: the value of PaO2 significantly increased (82.5±2.5 versus 57.4±4.2 mm Hg at the baseline;p<0.05; SaO2 reached the normal values 60 minutes following CPAP-therapy. There was an increase in the cardiac index (3.1±0.2 versus 2.3±0.1 l/min/m2 at the baseline; p<0.05, a decrease in pulmonary wedge pressure (14.4±21 versus 23.6±2.1 mm Hg at the baseline; p<0.05, and synchronism of right and left cardiac performance.Conclusion. CPAP-therapy optimizes treatment of patients with CPE-complicated AMI, results in the normalization of the arterial blood gas composition, significantly diminishes hydrostatic pulmonary capillary pressure, and promotes the synchronism of the right and left hearts

  15. Nitrendipine binding in congestive heart failure due to myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, I.M.; Lee, S.L.; Dhalla, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    Depressed cardiac pump function is the hallmark of congestive heart failure, and it is suspected that decreased influx of Ca2+ into the cardiac cell is responsible for depressed contractile function. Since Ca2+ channels in the sarcolemmal membrane are considered to be an important route for the entry of Ca2+, we examined the status of Ca2+ receptors/channels in failing rat hearts after myocardial infarction of the left ventricular free wall. For this purpose, the left coronary artery was ligated and hearts were examined 4, 8, and 16 weeks later; sham-operated animals served as controls. Hemodynamic assessment revealed decreased total mechanical energy (left ventricular systolic pressure x heart rate), increased left ventricular diastolic pressure, and decreased positive and negative dP/dt in experimental animals at 4, 8, and 16 weeks. Although accumulation of ascites in the abdominal cavity was evident at 4 weeks, other clinical signs of congestive heart failure in experimental rats were evident from the presence of lung congestion and cardiac dilatation at 8 and 16 weeks after induction of myocardial infarction. The density of Ca2+ receptors/channels in crude membranes, as assessed by [3H]nitrendipine binding assay, was found to be decreased in the uninfarcted experimental left ventricle at 8 and 16 weeks; however, no change in the affinity of nitrendipine was evident. A similar depression in the specific binding of another dihydropyridine compound, [3H]PN200-110, was also evident in failing hearts. Brain and skeletal muscle crude membrane preparations, unlike those of the right ventricle and liver, revealed a decrease in Ca2+ receptors/channels density in experimental animals at 16 weeks

  16. Heart murmurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has 4 chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  17. Cardiac Auscultation for Noncardiologists: Application in Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs: PART I: PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROMES AND HEART FAILURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compostella, Leonida; Compostella, Caterina; Russo, Nicola; Setzu, Tiziana; Iliceto, Sabino; Bellotto, Fabio

    2017-09-01

    During outpatient cardiac rehabilitation after an acute coronary syndrome or after an episode of congestive heart failure, a careful, periodic evaluation of patients' clinical and hemodynamic status is essential. Simple and traditional cardiac auscultation could play a role in providing useful prognostic information.Reduced intensity of the first heart sound (S1), especially when associated with prolonged apical impulse and the appearance of added sounds, may help identify left ventricular (LV) dysfunction or conduction disturbances, sometimes associated with transient myocardial ischemia. If both S1 and second heart sound (S2) are reduced in intensity, a pericardial effusion may be suspected, whereas an increased intensity of S2 may indicate increased pulmonary artery pressure. The persistence of a protodiastolic sound (S3) after an acute coronary syndrome is an indicator of severe LV dysfunction and a poor prognosis. In patients with congestive heart failure, the association of an S3 and elevated heart rate may indicate impending decompensation. A presystolic sound (S4) is often associated with S3 in patients with LV failure, although it could also be present in hypertensive patients and in patients with an LV aneurysm. Careful evaluation of apical systolic murmurs could help identifying possible LV dysfunction or mitral valve pathology, and differentiate them from a ruptured papillary muscle or ventricular septal rupture. Friction rubs after an acute myocardial infarction, due to reactive pericarditis or Dressler syndrome, are often associated with a complicated clinical course.During cardiac rehabilitation, periodic cardiac auscultation may provide useful information about the clinical-hemodynamic status of patients and allow timely detection of signs, heralding possible complications in an efficient and low-cost manner.

  18. Intersection of neighborhood dynamics and socioeconomic status in small-area walkability: the Heart Healthy Hoods project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Pedro; Bilal, Usama; Cebrecos, Alba; Badland, Hannah M; Galán, Iñaki; Franco, Manuel

    2017-06-06

    Previous studies found a complex relationship between area-level socioeconomic status (SES) and walkability. These studies did not include neighborhood dynamics. Our aim was to study the association between area-level SES and walkability in the city of Madrid (Spain) evaluating the potential effect modification of neighborhood dynamics. All census sections of the city of Madrid (n = 2415) were included. Area-level SES was measured using a composite index of 7 indicators in 4 domains (education, wealth, occupation and living conditions). Two neighborhood dynamics factors were computed: gentrification, proxied by change in education levels in the previous 10 years, and neighborhood age, proxied by median year of construction of housing units in the area. Walkability was measured using a composite index of 4 indicators (Residential Density, Population Density, Retail Destinations and Street Connectivity). We modeled the association using linear mixed models with random intercepts. Area-level SES and walkability were inversely and significantly associated. Areas with lower SES showed the highest walkability. This pattern did not hold for areas with an increase in education level, where the association was flat (no decrease in walkability with higher SES). Moreover, the association was attenuated in newly built areas: the association was stronger in areas built before 1975, weaker in areas built between 1975 and 1990 and flat in areas built from 1990 on. Areas with higher neighborhood socioeconomic status had lower walkability in Madrid. This disadvantage in walkability was not present in recently built or gentrified areas.

  19. The impact of socio-economic status on health related quality of life for children and adolescents with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassedy, Amy; Drotar, Dennis; Ittenbach, Richard; Hottinger, Shawna; Wray, Jo; Wernovsky, Gil; Newburger, Jane W; Mahony, Lynn; Mussatto, Kathleen; Cohen, Mitchell I; Marino, Bradley S

    2013-06-18

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to influence children's health-related quality of life. Many SES indicators assess distinct dimensions of a family's position rather than measuring the same underlying construct. Many researchers, however, see SES indicators as interchangeable. The primary aim of this study was to determine which measure of SES had the strongest impact on health-related quality of life. This is a secondary analysis of the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory Validation Study. The SES variables were family income, Hollingshead Index (occupational prestige), and highest parent educational attainment level. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory. Correlations tested the relationship among the three SES indicators. Regression-based modeling was used to calculate the strength of the association between SES measures and the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory. The correlations among the SES measures were moderately high, with the correlation between the Hollingshead Index and parental education being r = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.56-0.65). There were equally high correlations between family income and the Hollingshead (r = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.57-0.65) and a slightly lower correlation between family income and parental education (r = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.52-0.59). Family income had the highest explanatory value compared to the Hollingshead Index or parental educational attainment, while controlling for sex, race, current cardiac status, and original diagnosis, accounting for 4-5% of the variation in patient and parent Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory Total score, respectively, compared to the other SES measures. Family income as an SES measure demonstrated the greatest fidelity with respect to health-related quality of life as measured by the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory across respondent groups and explained more of the variation compared to the

  20. Interacting influences of gender and chronic pain status on parasympathetically mediated heart rate variability in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lynn S; Stone, Amanda L; Smith, Craig A; Bruehl, Stephen; Garber, Judy; Puzanovova, Martina; Diedrich, André

    2017-08-01

    Considerable research links chronic pain to autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, specifically low heart rate variability (HRV) mediated by reduced parasympathetic activity. However, little is known about factors that influence ANS function in chronic pain. The ANS is the primary pathway for brain-gut communication, making it of particular interest in gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, characterized by functional abdominal pain (FAP). We evaluated the relation of sex, pain severity, and psychological stress to ANS function in adolescents/young adults from a database of pediatric FAP and control participants enrolled 8 years earlier in a prospective study of pain. At follow-up in adolescence/young adulthood (Mean age = 19.46, SD = 3.48), we classified participants as Pain-Remit (n = 130), Pain-Persist (n = 96), and pain-free controls (n = 123). We recorded electrocardiogram data at rest and during laboratory stressors. Results demonstrated significantly lower HRV in Pain-Persist females compared with Pain-Remit females, female controls, and all males regardless of pain category. Spectral analysis of electrocardiogram showed that Pain-Persist females had reduced power in the high frequency domain of cardiac activity, ie, reduced parasympathetic "braking" of sympathetic activity, both at rest and during stress. Pain-Remit females exhibited levels of autonomic imbalance intermediate between those of females with persistent FAP and all other participants. Parasympathetically mediated low HRV in young women with persistent FAP may reflect a peripheral mechanism (eg, gut dysfunction) or a central nervous system mechanism (eg, pain amplification or poor emotion self-regulation) involving prolonged sympathetic activation.

  1. Comparison of hemodynamic effects of lidocaine, prilocaine and mepivacaine solutions without vasoconstrictor in hypertensive patients

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    Bahadir Ezmek

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Local anesthetic solutions with vasoconstrictors are not contraindicated in hypertensive patients, but due to their hemodynamic effects, local anesthetics without vasoconstrictors are mainly preferred by the clinicians. The aim of this study was to compare hemodynamic effects of three different local anesthetics without vasoconstrictors during tooth extraction in hypertensive patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-five mandibular molars and premolars were extracted in 60 hypertensive patients (29 females and 31 males; mean age: 66.95 ± 10.87 years; range: 38 to 86 years old. Inferior alveolar and buccal nerve blocks were performed with 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (HCl, 2% prilocaine HCl or 3% mepivacaine HCl without vasoconstrictor. Hemodynamic parameters namely systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, saturation rate (SR, rate pressure product (RPP and pressure rate quotient (PRQ were investigated before and at different intervals after anesthetic injection. RESULTS: The hemodynamic effects of the three agents were similar to each other, although some significance was observed for DBP, MAP, RPP and PRQ values in the lidocaine, prilocaine and mepivacaine groups. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine, prilocaine and mepivacaine solutions without vasoconstrictor can be safely used in hypertensive patients. It is advisable that dental practitioners select anesthetic solutions for hypertensive patients considering their cardiovascular effects in order to provide patient comfort and safety.

  2. Induced Hypothermia Does Not Harm Hemodynamics after Polytrauma: A Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommsen, Philipp; Pfeifer, Roman; Mohr, Juliane; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Flohé, Sascha; Fröhlich, Matthias; Keibl, Claudia; Seekamp, Andreas; Witte, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Background. The deterioration of hemodynamics instantly endangers the patients' life after polytrauma. As accidental hypothermia frequently occurs in polytrauma, therapeutic hypothermia still displays an ambivalent role as the impact on the cardiopulmonary function is not yet fully understood. Methods. We have previously established a porcine polytrauma model including blunt chest trauma, penetrating abdominal trauma, and hemorrhagic shock. Therapeutic hypothermia (34°C) was induced for 3 hours. We documented cardiovascular parameters and basic respiratory parameters. Pigs were euthanized after 15.5 hours. Results. Our polytrauma porcine model displayed sufficient trauma impact. Resuscitation showed adequate restoration of hemodynamics. Induced hypothermia had neither harmful nor major positive effects on the animals' hemodynamics. Though heart rate significantly decreased and mixed venous oxygen saturation significantly increased during therapeutic hypothermia. Mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, and wedge pressure showed no significant differences comparing normothermic trauma and hypothermic trauma pigs during hypothermia. Conclusions. Induced hypothermia after polytrauma is feasible. No major harmful effects on hemodynamics were observed. Therapeutic hypothermia revealed hints for tissue protective impact. But the chosen length for therapeutic hypothermia was too short. Nevertheless, therapeutic hypothermia might be a useful tool for intensive care after polytrauma. Future studies should extend therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:26170533

  3. Induced Hypothermia Does Not Harm Hemodynamics after Polytrauma: A Porcine Model

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    Matthias Weuster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The deterioration of hemodynamics instantly endangers the patients’ life after polytrauma. As accidental hypothermia frequently occurs in polytrauma, therapeutic hypothermia still displays an ambivalent role as the impact on the cardiopulmonary function is not yet fully understood. Methods. We have previously established a porcine polytrauma model including blunt chest trauma, penetrating abdominal trauma, and hemorrhagic shock. Therapeutic hypothermia (34°C was induced for 3 hours. We documented cardiovascular parameters and basic respiratory parameters. Pigs were euthanized after 15.5 hours. Results. Our polytrauma porcine model displayed sufficient trauma impact. Resuscitation showed adequate restoration of hemodynamics. Induced hypothermia had neither harmful nor major positive effects on the animals’ hemodynamics. Though heart rate significantly decreased and mixed venous oxygen saturation significantly increased during therapeutic hypothermia. Mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, and wedge pressure showed no significant differences comparing normothermic trauma and hypothermic trauma pigs during hypothermia. Conclusions. Induced hypothermia after polytrauma is feasible. No major harmful effects on hemodynamics were observed. Therapeutic hypothermia revealed hints for tissue protective impact. But the chosen length for therapeutic hypothermia was too short. Nevertheless, therapeutic hypothermia might be a useful tool for intensive care after polytrauma. Future studies should extend therapeutic hypothermia.

  4. A Novel Technique for Identifying Patients with ICU Needs Using Hemodynamic Features

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    A. Jalali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of patients requiring intensive care is a critical issue in clinical treatment. The objective of this study is to develop a novel methodology using hemodynamic features for distinguishing such patients requiring intensive care from a group of healthy subjects. In this study, based on the hemodynamic features, subjects are divided into three groups: healthy, risky and patient. For each of the healthy and patient subjects, the evaluated features are based on the analysis of existing differences between hemodynamic variables: Blood Pressure and Heart Rate. Further, four criteria from the hemodynamic variables are introduced: circle criterion, estimation error criterion, Poincare plot deviation, and autonomic response delay criterion. For each of these criteria, three fuzzy membership functions are defined to distinguish patients from healthy subjects. Furthermore, based on the evaluated criteria, a scoring method is developed. In this scoring method membership degree of each subject is evaluated for the three classifying groups. Then, for each subject, the cumulative sum of membership degree of all four criteria is calculated. Finally, a given subject is classified with the group which has the largest cumulative sum. In summary, the scoring method results in 86% sensitivity, 94.8% positive predictive accuracy and 82.2% total accuracy.

  5. Coronary heart disease incidence among non-Western immigrants compared to Danish-born people: effect of country of birth, migrant status, and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Anne; Zinckernagel, Line; Krasnik, Allan; Petersen, Jorgen H; Norredam, Marie

    2015-10-01

    Increasing global migration has made immigrants' health an important topic worldwide. We examined the effect of country of birth, migrant status (refugee/family-reunified) and income on coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence. This was a historical prospective register-based cohort study. The study cohort consisted of immigrants above 18 years from non-Western countries who had obtained a residence permit in Denmark as a refugee (n = 29,045) or as a family-reunified immigrant (n = 28,435) from 1 January 1993-31 December 1999 and a Danish-born reference population (n = 229,918). First-time CHD incidence was identified from 1 January 1993-31 December 2007. Incidence ratios for 11 immigrant groups were estimated using Cox regression analysis. Immigrants from Afghanistan, Iraq, Turkey, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, South Asia, the Former Yugoslavia, and the Middle East and North Africa had significantly higher incidences of CHD (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.75 to HR = 2.86; 95% CI: 2.01-4.08) compared with Danish-born people. Immigrants from Somalia, South and Middle America, Sub-Saharan Africa and women from East Asia and the Pacific did not differ significantly from Danish-born people, whereas immigrant men from East Asia and the Pacific had a significantly lower incidence (HR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.17-0.62). When also including migrant status, the higher incidences were reduced. Refugee men (HR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.11-1.65) and women (HR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65) had a significantly higher incidence of CHD than family-reunified immigrants. When migrant status and income were included simultaneously, the incidences decreased to an insignificant level for most immigrant groups. Most non-Western immigrant groups had a higher incidence of CHD than Danish-born people. The study revealed that migrant status and income are important underlying mechanisms of the effect of country of birth on CHD. © The European

  6. Is there a specific hemodynamic effect in reflexology? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jenny; Thomson, Patricia; Irvine, Kathleen; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-04-01

    Reflexology claims that the feet are representative of the body and that massage to specific points of the feet increases blood supply to "mapped" organs in the body. This review provides the first systematic evaluation of existing reflexology randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine whether there is any evidence to suggest the existence of a reflexology treatment-related hemodynamic effect; to examine whether reflexology researchers used study designs that systematically controlled for nonspecific effects in order to isolate this specific component; and to highlight some of the methodological challenges that need to be overcome to demonstrate specific and beneficial hemodynamic effects. Fifty-two RCTs of reflexology published from 1990 to September 2011 were initially retrieved. Cardiorespiratory Department, Highland Heartbeat Centre, Raigmore Hospital, Inverness. Adult subjects. Studies using reflexology foot massage techniques as the intervention versus sham reflexology treatment, simple foot massage, conventional treatment, or no treatment as the control were then selected. OUTCOME MEASURES included any hemodynamic parameter potentially involved in the regulation of circulating blood volume and flow, including heart rate and systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure. Seven RCTs suggested that reflexology has an effect on selected cardiovascular parameters; however, five of these delivered the reflexology intervention as a whole complex treatment, with the data collector often delivering the intervention themselves. This systematic review found that although reflexology has been shown to have an effect on selected hemodynamic variables, the lack of methodological control for nonspecific general massage effects means that there is little convincing evidence at this time to suggest the existence of a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect. Furthermore, the review found that few studies of reflexology controlled for nonspecific effects in order

  7. EVALUATION OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE ON HEMODYNAMICS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

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    Penchalaiah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine a newer generation highly selective alpha - 2 adrenergic agonist are well known to inhibit catecholamine release. The present study compares the effects of intravenously administered dexmedetomidine to attenuate hemodynamic response to pneumoperitoneum to laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. METHODOLOGY: 60 patients ASA Physical status I and II, aged between 18 and 50 years of either sex, scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecy stectomy were randomized in to 2 groups ( group D and S inn a double blind fashion to receive either Dexmedetomidine ( 1microgram/kg in 100ml of 0.9% normal saline or only 0.9%plain normal saline respectively. It is given 30 min prior to induction. Patient vitals like HR, SBP, DBP, MAP were monitored during the study at various time intervals. RESULTS: Following intubation and pneumoperitoneum there significant rise in HR, MAP, SBP, DBP in group S but no significant rise in Group D. CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomid ine given in a dose of 1microgram/kg as a premedication is e ffective in attenuating the hemodynamic responses in laparoscopic surgery

  8. Hemodynamics in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Tetsuhiro

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral hemodynamics in 15 patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH) were evaluated by measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity, using stable xenon-enhanced computed tomography. Their hematomas were removed by stereotactic aqua stream aspiration. The hemispheric and thalamic CBFs of patients with HICH were lower than those of hypertensive patients without hematomas. However, the hemispheric CBF increased according to how much of the hematoma was removed surgically. Thus, hemodynamics in patients with HICH can be improved by surgical hematoma removal, although some adjunct therapies are necessary in order to prevent secondary edema and the delayed neuronal death. (author)

  9. Avaliação do desempenho hemodinâmico do dispositivo de assistência ventricular InCor como substituto do coração esquerdo Analysis of the hemodynamic performance of the InCor ventricular assist device as a substitute for the left heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson BENÍCIO

    1999-07-01

    dispositivo foi melhor quanto maior o nível de vácuo no sistema de drenagem e com a utilização de cânula ventricular.BACKGROUND: The mechanical circulatory assistance is a therapeutic option in cases of cardiogenic shock refractory to the pharmacological treatment, and is frequently used as a bridge for heart transplantation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the action of the Ventricular Assist Device (VAD developed by the Bioengineering Division of the Instituto do Coração, implanted as a substitute of the left heart. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten Girolando calves with medium weight of 73 kg were studied. The VAD-InCor implant was accomplished with the drainage cannula positioned in the left atrium (LA or in the apex of the left ventricle and the replacement cannula implanted in the descending thoracic aorta. The pressures of the right and left heart, cardiac output and the flow of VAD were determined before and after the pharmacological induction of myocardial failure, at different levels of vacuum of the drainage system. RESULTS: Values of the flow of VAD with the drainage in LA were of 2.2 ± 0.5 l/min without vacuum, of 3.7 ± 0.4 with vacuum of 10 mmHg, of 4.3 ± 0.4 with vacuum of 20 mmHg and of 4.8 ± 0.6 with vacuum of 30 mmHg. The values of the pressure of LA were: 11.7 ± 6; 9.8 ± 5.3; 8.5 ± 4.4 and 5.6 ± 3.3 mmHg under the same conditions, respectively. With the ventricular cannula, the VAD flow was 4.2 ± 0.6 without vacuum and of 4.4 ± 0.7 with vacuum of 10 mmHg, with of LA pressure of 11.1 ± 2 and 10.3 ± 3.5 mmHg in the two conditions. Those results were observed in similar hemodynamic conditions, with the VAD flow responsible for a greater percentile of the total cardiac output according to the level of vacuum. That percentile was of 86 ± 13% with the atrial cannula and vacuum of 30 mmHg and of 97 ± 3% with the ventricular drainage and vacuum of 10 mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: The VAD-InCor demonstrated its effectiveness as a substitute of the left heart. The

  10. Enlarged Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rheumatic fever, a heart defect, infections (infectious endocarditis), connective tissue disorders, certain medications or radiation treatments for cancer, your heart may enlarge. Disease of the heart ...

  11. Connections between nutritional status and proton pump inhibitor therapy in patients scheduled for cardiovascular rehabilitation after treatment for ischaemic and valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boban, Marko; Persic, Viktor; Petricevic, Mate; Biocina, Bojan; Sipic, Tomislav; Pehar-Pejcnovic, Vesna; Balen, Sanja; Zulj, Marinko; Vcev, Aleksandar

    Multiple and yet uncertain connections exist between cardiovascular diseases and the nutritional status of patients, particularly in relation to cardiovascular treatments. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are among the most commonly used group of drugs. To analyse utilisation of PPI in association with nutritional risk of patients scheduled for rehabilitation after treatment for ischaemic and valvular heart disease. Retrospective analyses on a consecutive sample of patients, which included drug utilisation of PPI and nutritional risk screening, using a standardised NRS-2002 tool. The patients (n = 536) were divided into groups based on previous cardiovascular treatments and use of PPI. Nearly half of the patients (244, 46.1%) had PPI in their chronic therapy despite the clinically negligible prevalence of conditions that are their fundamental indications. The odds for using PPI in patients with increased nutritional risk, estimated by logistic regression, were 3.34 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.26-4.94), p 3: positive likelihood-ratio (LR) 2.35 (95% CI 2.10-2.60); negative LR 0.46 (95% CI 0.4-0.6); area under the curve (AUC) 0.720; p 6.36% (positive LR 2.22 [95% CI 2.00-2.50]; negative LR 0.41 [95% CI 0.30-0.50]; AUC 0.707; p < 0.001). Utilisation of PPI was found to be of relatively high prevalence and significantly associated with parameters of nutritional risk screening. Furthermore, it was in correlation with the age of patients and the existence of chronic kidney disease, which are well-established predispositions for poor nutritional status. Nutritional risk seems to be additionally negatively challenged by utilisation of PPI due to gastric malabsorption and anaemia.

  12. Sorafenib-Associated Heart Failure Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock after Treatment of Advanced Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Clinical Case Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sorafenib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, targets multiple tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs involved in angiogenesis and tumor growth. Studies suggest that inhibition of TKR impacts cardiomyocyte survival. Inhibition of VEGF signaling interrupts angiogenesis and is associated with the development of hypertension and compensatory hypertrophy. Compensated hypertrophy ultimately leads to heart failure. Case Description. A 76-year-old man with a past medical history of systolic heart failure due to ischemic cardiomyopathy and stage IIIC hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC presented with symptoms of decompensated heart failure. Four months prior to admission, he was started on sorafenib. Results. Our patient was treated with intravenous furosemide and guideline directed therapy. Clinical status was complicated by the development of low cardiac output and shock requiring inotropic support. Careful titration of heart failure medication led to hemodynamic improvement and discontinuation of dobutamine. Conclusion. Greater awareness of sorafenib cardiotoxicity is essential. As TKI usage grows for treatment of cancers, heart failure-related complications will increase. In our patient, routine heart failure management and cessation of sorafenib led to clinical improvement. Future studies on the treatment of sorafenib cardiotoxicity should be explored further in this unique patient population.

  13. Hemodynamic, biological, and right ventricular functional changes following intraatrial shunt repair in patients with flow-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Hsin; Roan, Jun-Neng; Wang, Jieh-Neng; Huang, Chien-Chi; Shih, Chao-Jung; Chen, Jyh-Hong; Wu, Jing-Ming; Lam, Chen-Fuh

    2017-07-01

    Atrial septal defects may result in pulmonary hypertension and right heart remodeling. We analyzed improvements in patients with flow-induced pulmonary hypertension and the activation of endothelial progenitor cells after flow reduction. This prospective cohort study included 37 patients who were admitted for an occluder implantation. Blood samples were collected before and after the procedure. We determined the number of endothelial progenitor cells in outgrowth colonies and serum Hsp27 concentrations. Daily performance and cardiothoracic ratio were reevaluated later. Closure of the defect significantly reduced the pulmonary pressure and B-type natriuretic peptide levels. The cardiothoracic ratio and daily performance status also improved. The number of endothelial progenitor cell outgrowth colony-forming units significantly increased and was positively correlated with daily performance. In patients with enhanced colony formation, Hsp27 levels were significantly increased. The implantation of an occluder successfully improved hemodynamic, right ventricular, and daily performance. Qualitative enhancement of colony formation for endothelial progenitor cells was also noted and positively correlated with daily performance. Closure of defects may serve as a valid, reliable model to obtain a deeper understanding of the modulation of endothelial progenitor cell activity and its relationship with pulmonary hypertension prognosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evolution from electrophysiologic to hemodynamic monitoring: the story of left atrial and pulmonary artery pressure monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre M Mooney

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a costly, challenging and highly prevalent medical condition. Hospitalization for acute decompensation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite application of evidence-based medical therapies and technologies, HF remains a formidable challenge for virtually all healthcare systems. Repeat hospitalizations for acute decompensated HF (ADHF can have major financial impact on institutions and resources. Early and accurate identification of impending ADHF is of paramount importance yet there is limited high quality evidence or infrastructure to guide management in the outpatient setting. Historically, ADHF was identified by physical exam findings or invasive hemodynamic monitoring during a hospital admission; however, advances in medical microelectronics and the advent of device-based diagnostics have enabled long-term ambulatory monitoring of HF patients in the outpatient setting. These monitors have evolved from piggybacking on cardiac implantable electrophysiologic devices to standalone implantable hemodynamic monitors that transduce left atrial or pulmonary artery pressures as surrogate measures of left ventricular filling pressure. As technology evolves, devices will likely continue to miniaturize while their capabilities grow. An important, persistent challenge that remains is developing systems to translate the large volumes of real-time data, particularly data trends, into actionable information that leads to appropriate, safe and timely interventions without overwhelming outpatient cardiology and general medical practices. Future directions for implantable hemodynamic monitors beyond their utility in heart failure may include management of other major chronic diseases such as pulmonary hypertension, end stage renal disease and portal hypertension.

  15. Evolution from electrophysiologic to hemodynamic monitoring: the story of left atrial and pulmonary artery pressure monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Deirdre M; Fung, Erik; Doshi, Rahul N; Shavelle, David M

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a costly, challenging and highly prevalent medical condition. Hospitalization for acute decompensation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite application of evidence-based medical therapies and technologies, HF remains a formidable challenge for virtually all healthcare systems. Repeat hospitalizations for acute decompensated HF (ADHF) can have major financial impact on institutions and resources. Early and accurate identification of impending ADHF is of paramount importance yet there is limited high quality evidence or infrastructure to guide management in the outpatient setting. Historically, ADHF was identified by physical exam findings or invasive hemodynamic monitoring during a hospital admission; however, advances in medical microelectronics and the advent of device-based diagnostics have enabled long-term ambulatory monitoring of HF patients in the outpatient setting. These monitors have evolved from piggybacking on cardiac implantable electrophysiologic devices to standalone implantable hemodynamic monitors that transduce left atrial or pulmonary artery pressures as surrogate measures of left ventricular filling pressure. As technology evolves, devices will likely continue to miniaturize while their capabilities grow. An important, persistent challenge that remains is developing systems to translate the large volumes of real-time data, particularly data trends, into actionable information that leads to appropriate, safe and timely interventions without overwhelming outpatient cardiology and general medical practices. Future directions for implantable hemodynamic monitors beyond their utility in heart failure may include management of other major chronic diseases such as pulmonary hypertension, end stage renal disease and portal hypertension.

  16. Rationale and study design of a patient-centered intervention to improve health status in chronic heart failure: The Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness (CASA) randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelman, David B; Allen, Larry A; Peterson, Jamie; Hattler, Brack; Havranek, Edward P; Fairclough, Diane L; McBryde, Connor F; Meek, Paula M

    2016-11-01

    While contemporary heart failure management has led to some improvements in morbidity and mortality, patients continue to report poor health status (i.e., burdensome symptoms, impaired function, and poor quality of life). The Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness (CASA) trial is a NIH-funded, three-site, randomized clinical trial that examines the effect of the CASA intervention compared to usual care on the primary outcome of patient-reported health status at 6months in patients with heart failure and poor health status. The CASA intervention involves a nurse who works with patients to treat symptoms (e.g., shortness of breath, fatigue, pain) using disease-specific and palliative approaches, and a social worker who provides psychosocial care targeting depression and adjustment to illness. The intervention uses a collaborative care team model of health care delivery and is structured and primarily phone-based to enhance reproducibility and scalability. This article describes the rationale and design of the CASA trial, including several decision points: (1) how to design a patient-centered intervention to improve health status; (2) how to structure the intervention so that it is reproducible and scalable; and (3) how to systematically identify outpatients with heart failure most likely to need and benefit from the intervention. The results should provide valuable information to providers and health systems about the use of team care to manage symptoms and provide psychosocial care in chronic illness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Long-Term Intermittent Work at High Altitude: Right Heart Functional and Morphological Status and Associated Cardiometabolic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Brito

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Living at high altitude or with chronic hypoxia implies functional and morphological changes in the right ventricle and pulmonary vasculature with a 10% prevalence of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH. The implications of working intermittently (day shifts at high altitude (hypobaric hypoxia over the long term are still not well-defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the right cardiac circuit status along with potentially contributory metabolic variables and distinctive responses after long exposure to the latter condition.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 120 healthy miners working at an altitude of 4,400–4,800 m for over 5 years in 7-day commuting shifts was designed. Echocardiography was performed on day 2 at sea level. Additionally, biomedical and biochemical variables, Lake Louise scores (LLSs, sleep disturbances and physiological variables were measured at altitude and at sea level.Results: The population was 41.8 ± 0.7 years old, with an average of 14 ± 0.5 (range 5–29 years spent at altitude. Most subjects still suffered from mild to moderate symptoms of acute mountain sickness (mild was an LLS of 3–5 points, including cephalea; moderate was LLS of 6–10 points (38.3% at the end of day 1 of the shift. Echocardiography showed a 23% mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP >25 mmHg, 9% HAPH (≥30 mmHg, 85% mild increase in right ventricle wall thickness (≥5 mm, 64% mild right ventricle dilation, low pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR and fairly good ventricle performance. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA (OR 8.84 (1.18–66.39; p < 0.05 and insulin (OR: 1.11 (1.02–1.20; p < 0.05 were associated with elevated mPAP and were defined as a cut-off. Interestingly, the correspondence analysis identified association patterns of several other variables (metabolic, labor, and biomedical with higher mPAP.Conclusions: Working intermittently at high altitude involves a distinctive pattern. The most relevant and

  18. Long-Term Intermittent Work at High Altitude: Right Heart Functional and Morphological Status and Associated Cardiometabolic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Julio; Siques, Patricia; López, Rosario; Romero, Raul; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Flores, Karen; Lüneburg, Nicole; Hannemann, Juliane; Böger, Rainer H

    2018-01-01

    Background: Living at high altitude or with chronic hypoxia implies functional and morphological changes in the right ventricle and pulmonary vasculature with a 10% prevalence of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH). The implications of working intermittently (day shifts) at high altitude (hypobaric hypoxia) over the long term are still not well-defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the right cardiac circuit status along with potentially contributory metabolic variables and distinctive responses after long exposure to the latter condition. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 120 healthy miners working at an altitude of 4,400-4,800 m for over 5 years in 7-day commuting shifts was designed. Echocardiography was performed on day 2 at sea level. Additionally, biomedical and biochemical variables, Lake Louise scores (LLSs), sleep disturbances and physiological variables were measured at altitude and at sea level. Results: The population was 41.8 ± 0.7 years old, with an average of 14 ± 0.5 (range 5-29) years spent at altitude. Most subjects still suffered from mild to moderate symptoms of acute mountain sickness (mild was an LLS of 3-5 points, including cephalea; moderate was LLS of 6-10 points) (38.3%) at the end of day 1 of the shift. Echocardiography showed a 23% mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) >25 mmHg, 9% HAPH (≥30 mmHg), 85% mild increase in right ventricle wall thickness (≥5 mm), 64% mild right ventricle dilation, low pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and fairly good ventricle performance. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) (OR 8.84 (1.18-66.39); p Working intermittently at high altitude involves a distinctive pattern. The most relevant and novel characteristics are a greater prevalence of elevated mPAP and HAPH than previously reported at chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH), which is accompanied by subsequent morphological characteristics. These findings are associated with cardiometabolic factors (insulin and ADMA

  19. Job resumption status, hindering factors, and interpersonal relationship within post-heart transplant 1 to 4 years as perceived by heart transplant recipients in Taiwan: a between-method triangulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, P H; Wang, S S; Chang, C L; Shih, F J

    2010-12-01

    This project examined heart transplant (HT) recipients' perspectives of (a) the changes in their working competence (WC), status for job resumption and related factors at 1- to 2-year, 2- to 3-year, and 3- to 4-year stages; and (b) impacts of HT on interpersonal relationships (IPR). We used a between-method triangulation (including qualitative and quantitative data) design. Quantitative data were collected using the Vertical Visual Analogue Scale and Taiwan's version of the World Health Organization Health-Related Quality-of-Life (HRQoL) questionnaire. Six qualitative semistructured questions were further applied to explore social and environmental domains. The Fifty subjects (86% males and 14% females) had an age range from 20 to 70 years old (mean, 47.68 years). Their post-HT time ranged from 1 to 4.1 years with 42%, 42%, and 16% at 1- to 2-, 2- to 3-, or 3- to 4-years post-HT, respectively. Within 6 months, 10% of administration or restaurant staff, and police resumed their jobs. At 6 to 12 months, 8% of administration, quality control, and design and planning staff resumed their jobs. At 12 months, 14% of educators, insurance personnel, managers, informatics engineers, and ironworkers resumed their jobs. Hindering factors to returning to work included (a) physical (ie, lack of energy, second heart attack, recurrence of rejection, physical discomforts of dizziness, memory lapses/lack of concentration or bone pain from osteoporosis); (b) psychological (ie, lack of confidence, worries about discrimination, being different, maladaptation); and (c) environmental (inadequate job opportunities due to poor socioeconomic conditions). Additionally, 34% reported worse IPR after HT due to diet limitations, slower pacing, less contacts with friends, and changes in personality. Reflections on both the meaning and value of life caused 10% to report better IPR with a better personality and positive mindset. By the end of the first postoperative year, the mean score of HRQoL in

  20. Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    Neurologic symptoms in the region of an internal carotid artery stenosis are considered to be embolic in most instances. Only in a subgroup has carotid occlusive disease with impairment of the collateral supply, caused a state of hemodynamic failure with marked reduction of perfusion pressure. Th...

  1. Hemodynamic responses to seated and supine lower body negative pressure - Comparison with +Gz acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Alvese; Sandler, Harold; Montgomery, Leslie D.

    1992-01-01

    The hemodynamic responses to LBNP in seated subjects and in subjects in supine body positions were compared and were correlated with hemodynamic changes which occurred during a simulated (by centrifugation) Shuttle reentry acceleration with a slow onset rate of 0.002 G/s and during gradual onset exposures to +3 Gz and +4 Gz. Results demonstrate that seated LBNP at a level of -40 mm Hg can serve as a static simulator for changes in the heart rate and in mean blood pressure induced by gradual onset acceleration stress occurring during Shuttle reentry. The findings also provide a rationale for using LBNP during weightlessness as a means of imposing G-loading on the circulation prior to reentry.

  2. The Effects of Hemodynamic Changes on Pulse Wave Velocity in Cardiothoracic Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Obata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of blood pressure on pulse wave velocity (PWV is well established. However, PWV variability with acute hemodynamic changes has not been examined in the clinical setting. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of hemodynamic changes on PWV in patients who undergo cardiothoracic surgery. Using data from 25 patients, we determined blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR, and the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT velocity-time integral. By superimposing the radial arterial waveform on the continuous wave Doppler waveform of the LVOT, obtained by transesophageal echo, we were able to determine pulse transit time and to calculate PWV, stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and systemic vascular resistance (SVR. Increases in BP, HR, and SVR were associated with higher values for PWV. In contrast increases in SV were associated with decreases in PWV. Changes in CO were not significantly associated with PWV.

  3. Hemodynamic and glucometabolic factors in the prediction of left ventricular filling pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, M; Nielsen, M L; Olesen, T B

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore possible hemodynamic and glucometabolic determinants of left ventricular filling pressures as assessed by the non-invasive surrogate marker, averaged E/é, in otherwise healthy, middle-aged male survivors from a random population sample. DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective.......01). We did not find any significant interactions in the prediction of E/é. CONCLUSION: In a prospective population-based cohort study including apparently healthy, middle-aged male subjects, higher age, BMI, and creatinine, but not SBP or HR, were significantly associated with higher left ventricular...... population-based cohort study examining associations between hemodynamic factors [systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR)), glucometabolic factors (fasting blood glucose, fasting plasma insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) derived indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-2B) and insulin sensitivity...

  4. [Dry immersion effects on the mechanisms of metabolic-reflex regulation of hemodynamics during muscular work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyĭ, Ia R; Bersenev, E Iu; Missina, S S; Borovik, A S; Sharova, A P; Vinogradova, O L

    2008-01-01

    Effects of 4-d dry immersion on metabolic-reflex regulation of hemodynamics were evaluated during local static work (30% of maximum voluntary effort) of the talocrural extensors. One group of immersed test-subjects received low-frequency electrostimulation of leg muscles to offset the immersion effect on EMG of working muscles. Metabolic-reflex regulation was evaluated through comparison of cardiovascular responses to physical tests with and w/o post-exercise vascular occlusion. Immersion vaguely increased heart rate and reduced systolic arterial pressure in resting subjects; however, it did not have a distinct effect on arterial pressure and HR during muscular work or metabolic-reflex potentiation of hemodynamic shifts.

  5. Hemodynamic Effect of Laser Therapy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomimura, Suely, E-mail: suelytomimura@uol.com.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biofotônica em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Silva, Bianca Passos Assumpção [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Sanches, Iris Callado [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional da UNINOVE (Brazil); Canal, Marina [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Unidade de Hipertensão e Central Médica de Laser do Instituto do Coração - Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor/HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Conti, Felipe Fernandes; Angelis, Katia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional da UNINOVE (Brazil); Chavantes, Maria Cristina [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biofotônica em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Unidade de Hipertensão e Central Médica de Laser do Instituto do Coração - Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor/HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is considered to be the greatest risk factor for the development of neuro-cardiovascular pathologies, thus constituting a severe Public Health issue in the world. The Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), or laser therapy, activates components of the cellular structure, therefore converting luminous energy into photochemical energy and leading to biophysical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The LLLT promotes cellular and tissue photobiomodulation by means of changes in metabolism, leading to molecular, cellular and systemic changes. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of low-level laser in the hemodynamic modulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats, in the long term. Animals (n = 16) were randomly divided into the Laser Group (n = 8), which received three weekly LLLT irradiations for seven weeks, and into the Sham Group (n = 8), which received three weekly simulations of laser for seven weeks, accounting for 21 applications in each group. After seven weeks, animals were cannulated by the implantation of a catheter in the left carotid artery. On the following day, the systemic arterial pressure was recorded. The Laser Group showed reduced levels of mean blood pressure, with statistically significant reduction (169 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 182 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group) and reduced levels of diastolic pressure (143 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 157 ± 3 mmHg from the Sham Group), revealing a 13 and 14 mmHg decrease, respectively. Besides, there was a concomitant important decline in heart rate (312 ± 14 bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm from the Sham Group). Therefore, laser therapy was able to produce hemodynamic changes, thus reducing pressure levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  6. Hemodynamic Effect of Laser Therapy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Tomimura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH is considered to be the greatest risk factor for the development of neuro-cardiovascular pathologies, thus constituting a severe Public Health issue in the world. The Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT, or laser therapy, activates components of the cellular structure, therefore converting luminous energy into photochemical energy and leading to biophysical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The LLLT promotes cellular and tissue photobiomodulation by means of changes in metabolism, leading to molecular, cellular and systemic changes. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of low-level laser in the hemodynamic modulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats, in the long term. Animals (n = 16 were randomly divided into the Laser Group (n = 8, which received three weekly LLLT irradiations for seven weeks, and into the Sham Group (n = 8, which received three weekly simulations of laser for seven weeks, accounting for 21 applications in each group. After seven weeks, animals were cannulated by the implantation of a catheter in the left carotid artery. On the following day, the systemic arterial pressure was recorded. The Laser Group showed reduced levels of mean blood pressure, with statistically significant reduction (169 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 182 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group and reduced levels of diastolic pressure (143 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 157 ± 3 mmHg from the Sham Group, revealing a 13 and 14 mmHg decrease, respectively. Besides, there was a concomitant important decline in heart rate (312 ± 14 bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm from the Sham Group. Therefore, laser therapy was able to produce hemodynamic changes, thus reducing pressure levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  7. Acute effects of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Thakran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term adverse cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco are well established, however, the effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamic have not been studied. We intended to analyze the acute effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled seven habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease with single vessel disease or double vessel disease satisfying the criteria for elective PCI. Patients were instructed to keep 1 g of crushed dried tobacco leaves in the mouth after a successful PCI. Lesion in last stented vessels was evaluated for fractional flow reserve (FFR, coronary flow reserve (CFR, and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR post-PCI, after 15 min and 30 min of tobacco chewing along with the measurement of serum cotinine levels. Results: Oral tobacco led to high levels of cotinine in the majority of patients. There was an insignificant rise in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure following tobacco consumption. Baseline CFR (median 1.6, range 1.1–5.5 was low in tobacco chewers after PCI even after optimum FFR (0.9 ± 0.05 in the majority of patients suggesting abnormal microvascular hemodynamics (high IMR in 3 patients, overall median 14.2, range 7–36.2. However, there was no significant change in the estimated CFR or IMR values following tobacco chewing. One patient had bradycardia and hypotension which may be related to vagal reaction or acute nicotine poisoning. Conclusion: Tobacco chewers have abnormal coronary microcirculation hemodynamics even following a successful PCI. However, the coronary micocirculation and hemodynamics do not change acutely following tobacco chewing despite high serum cotinine concentrations.

  8. Estimating Hemodynamic Responses to the Wingate Test Using Thoracic Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Astorino, Curtis Bovee, Ashley DeBoe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques including direct Fick and Doppler echocardiography are frequently used to assess hemodynamic responses to exercise. Thoracic impedance has been shown to be a noninvasive alternative to these methods for assessing these responses during graded exercise to exhaustion, yet its feasibility during supramaximal bouts of exercise is relatively unknown. We used thoracic impedance to estimate stroke volume (SV and cardiac output (CO during the Wingate test (WAnT and compared these values to those from graded exercise testing (GXT. Active men (n = 9 and women (n = 7 (mean age = 24.8 ± 5.9 yr completed two Wingate tests and two graded exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. During exercise, heart rate (HR, SV, and CO were continuously estimated using thoracic impedance. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to identify potential differences in hemodynamic responses across protocols. Results: Maximal SV (138.6 ± 37.4 mL vs. 135.6 ± 26.9 mL and CO (24.5 ± 6.1 L·min-1 vs. 23.7 ± 5.1 L·min-1 were similar (p > 0.05 between repeated Wingate tests. Mean maximal HR was higher (p < 0.01 for GXT (185 ± 7 b·min-1 versus WAnT (177 ± 11 b·min-1, and mean SV was higher in response to WAnT (137.1 ± 32.1 mL versus GXT (123.0 ± 32.0 mL, leading to similar maximal cardiac output between WAnT and GXT (23.9 ± 5.6 L·min-1 vs. 22.5 ± 6.0 L·min-1. Our data show no difference in hemodynamic responses in response to repeated administrations of the Wingate test. In addition, the Wingate test elicits similar cardiac output compared to progressive cycling to VO2max.

  9. Low-dose esmolol: hemodynamic response to endotracheal intubation in normotensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Lakshmanappa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose: Endotracheal intubation is a frequently utilized and highly invasive component of anesthesia that is often accompanied by potentially harmful hemodynamic pressor responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a single pre-induction 1 mg/kg bolus injection of esmolol for attenuating these hemodynamic responses to endotracheal intubation in normotensive patients. Material and methods: The study was composed of 100 randomly selected male and female patients between the ages of 18 and 60 that were scheduled for elective surgery and belonged to ASA grade I or II. Two minutes prior to intubation the control group received 10 mL of saline (n=50 and the experimental group received an injection of esmolol 1 mg/kg diluted to 10 mL (n=50. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and rate pressure product (RPP were compared to basal values before receiving medication (T-0, during pre-induction (T-1, induction (T-2, intubation (T-3, and post-intubation at 1 (T-4, 3 (T-6, 5 (T-8, and 10 (T-13 minutes. Results: Esmolol significantly attenuated the hemodynamic responses to endotracheal intubation at the majority of measured points. Attenuation of HR (10.8%, SBP (7.04%, DBP (3.99%, MAP (5%, and RPP (16.9% was observed in the esmolol group when compared to the control group values. Conclusions: A single pre-induction 1 mg/kg bolus injection of esmolol successfully attenuated the hemodynamic pressor response in normotensive patients. A significant attenuation of heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure was observed at the majority of measured time points in the esmolol administered group compared to the control group. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(2.000: 69-76

  10. Assessment of re-distribution and efficacy of stem cell transplantation in different heart status after acute myocardial infarction by MRI: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Minjie; Zhao Shihua; Song Peng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of MRI for assessment of re-distribution of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells injected intramyocardially in main organs (heart, liver, spleen and kidney) under different heart status (beating or arresting) in a porcine model. Methods: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from the male swine and labeled with iron oxide during culture. Acute myocardial infarction was created in female swine, one week later, the survivors were randomly divided into 4 groups. Cardiopulmonary bypass was set up to arrest the heart, and then labeled cells (1 × 10 8 ) were intramyocardially injected into the border of the infracted myocardium in group 1 (n=6). The same volume of cells was grafted into the beating heart in group 2 (n=6). In group 3 and 4, saline was injected into either the arresting or beating myocardium. Three days later, re-distribution of stem cells and cardiac function were assessed by T 2 * WI and cine MRI, respectively. All animals were sacrificed for histology and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of sex-determining region on Y-chromosome (SRY) investigation. The ANOVA and t test was used for statistics. Results: The left ventricular end- diastolic volume (LVEDV) before transplantation for group 1-4 were: (56.8±5.3), (54.8±6.8), (57.4±4.3) and (56.8±2.8) ml, and after transplantation for group 1-4 were: (65.2±5.2), (63.2± 3.7), (60.2±4.7) and (62.2±4.4) ml. The left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) before transplantation for group 1-4 were : (33.5±7.6), (32.3±5.3), (33.5±3.6) and (32.7±4.6) ml, and after transplantation for group 1-4 were: (37.3±5.6), (36.3±6.9), (34.3±5.4) and (36.3± 8.1) ml. The left ventricular EF values (LVEF) before transplantation for group 1-4 were: (42.3± 7.2)%, (41.7±6.8)%, (41.8±8.6)% and (42.7±7.7)%, and after transplantation for group 1- 4 were: (44.5±8.7)%, (43.1±7.4)%, (42.8±5.6)% and (43.3±8.4)%. The myocardial infarction

  11. Venous hemodynamic changes in lower limb venous disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Byung Boong; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Myers, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    ). Their aim was to confirm or dispel long-held hemodynamic principles and to provide a comprehensive review of venous hemodynamic concepts underlying the pathophysiology of lower limb venous disorders, their usefulness for investigating patients and the relevant hemodynamic changes associated with various...... forms of treatment. Chapter 1 is devoted to basic hemodynamic concepts and normal venous physiology. Chapter 2 presents the mechanism and magnitude of hemodynamic changes in acute deep vein thrombosis indicating their pathophysiological and clinical significance. Chapter 3 describes the hemodynamic...... changes that occur in different classes of chronic venous disease and their relation to the anatomic extent of disease in the macrocirculation and microcirculation. The next four chapters (Chapters 4-7) describe the hemodynamic changes resulting from treatment by compression using different materials...

  12. Hemodynamic responses during and after multiple sets of stretching exercises performed with and without the Valsalva maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tainah P; Farinatti, Paulo T V; Rubini, Ercole C; Silva, Elirez B; Monteiro, Walace D

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the acute hemodynamic responses to multiple sets of passive stretching exercises performed with and without the Valsalva maneuver. Fifteen healthy men aged 21 to 29 years with poor flexibility performed stretching protocols comprising 10 sets of maximal passive unilateral hip flexion, sustained for 30 seconds with equal intervals between sets. Protocols without and with the Valsalva maneuver were applied in a random counterbalanced order, separated by 48-hour intervals. Hemodynamic responses were measured by photoplethysmography pre-exercise, during the stretching sets, and post-exercise. The effects of stretching sets on systolic and diastolic blood pressure were cumulative until the fourth set in protocols performed with and without the Valsalva maneuver. The heart rate and rate pressure product increased in both protocols, but no additive effect was observed due to the number of sets. Hemodynamic responses were always higher when stretching was performed with the Valsalva maneuver, causing an additional elevation in the rate pressure product. Multiple sets of unilateral hip flexion stretching significantly increased blood pressure, heart rate, and rate pressure product values. A cumulative effect of the number of sets occurred only for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, at least in the initial sets of the stretching protocols. The performance of the Valsalva maneuver intensified all hemodynamic responses, which resulted in significant increases in cardiac work during stretching exercises.

  13. Potentialities of radioisotope aniocardiography in diagnosis of acquired heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, G.A.; Mikaelyan, R.S.; Dumpe, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    On the base of the examination of 40 patients with acquired heart diseases and 5 people without heart diseases for control determined are the most charactreristic signs of the acquired heart disease of visual observation on RPP transit (albumin of human serum labelled by sup(99m)Tc) through the heart cavities and magistral vessels. It is shown that there is a close connection between central and intracardial hemodynamics which permjts to judge on the cardiac output on the base of mean circulation time (MCT). Radioisotopic angiocardiography permits to find redistribution of lung blood flow in patients with acquired heart diseases, which can serve as indirect index of long hypertension

  14. Assessment of right ventricular longitudinal strain by 2D speckle tracking imaging compared with RV function and hemodynamics in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yidan; Wang, Yidan; Meng, Xiangli; Zhu, Weiwei; Lu, Xiuzhang

    2017-11-01

    The right ventricular longitudinal strain (RVLS) of pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients and its relationship with RV function parameters measured by echocardiography and hemodynamic parameters measured by right heart catheterization was investigated. According to the WHO functional class (FC), 66 PH patients were divided into FC I/II (group 1) and III/IV (group 2). RV function parameters were measured by echocardiographic examinations. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained by right heart catheterization. Patients in group 2 had higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP; P good sensitivity and specificity. Evidence has shown that RVLS measurement can provide the much-needed and reliable information on RV function and hemodynamics. Therefore, this qualifies as a patient-friendly approach for the clinical management of PH patients.

  15. Disease activity, obesity, functional disability, and depression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis : Impact on lipid status, glycoregulation, and risk for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, P; Bartolovic, D

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to estimate the impact of disease activity, obesity, functional disability, and depression on lipid status, glycoregulation, and risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 36 patients with RA (30 women and 6 men, mean age 54.9 years, mean disease duration 7.9 years) were included in this study. We estimated the impact of age, body mass index, disease activity [assessed by DAS28 index and C-reactive protein (CRP) value], functional ability (estimated using the HAQ disability index), and depression [assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)] on glycoregulation, lipid status, and risk for CHD in our patients. Glycoregulation was assessed by measuring insulin resistance, insulin, and glucose in blood. Lipids tested in blood included total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG). The 10-year risk for CHD was estimated using the Framingham risk score. Of 36 patients, 11 (30.6 %) fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome (MS). Ten of 11 patients (90.1 %) with MS have a 10-year risk for CHD greater than 10 % compared to only 3 of 25 patients (12 %) without MS (p = 0.0001). Patients with high disease activity had lower HDL values than patients with mild or moderate disease activity (1.4 vs. 1.7 mmol/l, p = 0.04). Significant correlations were observed between CRP level and insulinemia (ρ = 0.57, p = 0.003), as well as CRP level and the HOMA index (ρ = 0.59, p = 0.002). The body mass index (BMI) correlated significantly with total cholesterol (r = 0.46, p = 0.02), LDL (ρ = 0.41, p = 0.04), and TG (ρ = 0.65, p Obesity was found to be an independent risk factor for increased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and TG. Depressed patients with RA tend to be overweight or obese and, therefore, have an unfavorable lipid profile.

  16. INFLUENCE OF QUINAPRIL ON THE REGULATORY-ADAPTIVE STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE HYHA CLASS I: RESULTS OF NOT COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Tregubov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess effects of quinapril on the regulatory-adaptive status (RAS in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF NYHA class 1 and arterial hypertension (HT. Material and methods. Patients (n=49 with CHF NYHA class I and HT stage I–II (25 men and 24 women, aged 52.5±8.4 years were included into an open noncomparative study. A cardio-respiratory synchronization (CRS test, 6 minute walk test, treadmill test with evaluation of the maximal oxygen uptake during exercise, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography , determination of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP plasma level were performed at baseline and after 6 months of quinapril therapy. Results. The quinapril treatment (average daily dose 17.3±7.9 mg improved myocardium structural and functional parameters, increased the exercise tolerance, reduced neurohumoral activity , improved the RAS according to CRS test: increase in synchronization range of cardiorespiratory cycles per minute from 8.0±2.1 to 11.0±2.5 (Δ27.3%; p<0.01, as well as RAS index from 52.6±7.8 to 89.7±8.9 (Δ41.4%; p<0.01, and decrease in the duration of CRS development at the minimal border of cardiac cycles from 15.5±3.5 to 12.9±2.8 (Δ15.8%; p<0.01. Conclusion. Quinapril has a positive effect on the RAS in patients with CHF NYHA class I and HT of stage I–II.

  17. INFLUENCE OF QUINAPRIL ON THE REGULATORY-ADAPTIVE STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE HYHA CLASS I: RESULTS OF NOT COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Tregubov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess effects of quinapril on the regulatory-adaptive status (RAS in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF NYHA class 1 and arterial hypertension (HT. Material and methods. Patients (n=49 with CHF NYHA class I and HT stage I–II (25 men and 24 women, aged 52.5±8.4 years were included into an open noncomparative study. A cardio-respiratory synchronization (CRS test, 6 minute walk test, treadmill test with evaluation of the maximal oxygen uptake during exercise, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography , determination of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP plasma level were performed at baseline and after 6 months of quinapril therapy. Results. The quinapril treatment (average daily dose 17.3±7.9 mg improved myocardium structural and functional parameters, increased the exercise tolerance, reduced neurohumoral activity , improved the RAS according to CRS test: increase in synchronization range of cardiorespiratory cycles per minute from 8.0±2.1 to 11.0±2.5 (Δ27.3%; p<0.01, as well as RAS index from 52.6±7.8 to 89.7±8.9 (Δ41.4%; p<0.01, and decrease in the duration of CRS development at the minimal border of cardiac cycles from 15.5±3.5 to 12.9±2.8 (Δ15.8%; p<0.01. Conclusion. Quinapril has a positive effect on the RAS in patients with CHF NYHA class I and HT of stage I–II.

  18. INFLUENCE OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE ON REGULATORY AND ADAPTIVE STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE FUNCTIONAL CLASS I. RESULTS OF NOT COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Tregubov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate metoprolol succinate effect on regulatory and adaptive status (RAS of patients with сhronic heart failure (CHF functional class (FC I and arterial hypertension (HT I-II stages. Material and methods. 51 patients with CHF FC I and HT I-II stage, (30 men and 21 women aged 52.6±1.4 yeas. Cardio-respiratory synchronism (CRS test, 6-minute walking test, tread-mill burden test with registration of maximal oxygen consumption, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography and determination of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP blood level were performed initially and after 6 months of therapy with metoprolol succinate (dose 78.1±5.7 mg/day in sustained-release presentation. Results. Metoprolol succinate therapy had no significant effect on RAS (there was no unidirectional dynamics of the basic CRS test parameters: a range of synchronization decreased significantly from 8.8±0.4 to 7.2±0.6 сardio-respiratory cycles per minute (in 18%; р<0.05, and duration of CRS development on the minimal boundary from 18.8±2.2 to 14.3±1.2 сardiocycles (in 24%; р<0,05; RAS index considerably did not change, myocardium structure, exercise tolerance and neuro-humoral activity. Metoprolol therapy only moderately improved left ventricle diastolic function. Conclusion. Metoprolol succinate therapy has no significant effect on RAS of patients with CHF FC I and HT I-II stages.

  19. Radiographic Evaluation of Valvular Heart Disease With Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempel, Jason K; Bolen, Michael A; Renapurkar, Rahul D; Azok, Joseph T; White, Charles S

    2016-09-01

    Valvular heart disease is a group of complex entities with varying etiologies and clinical presentations. There are a number of imaging tools available to supplement clinical evaluation of suspected valvular heart disease, with echocardiography being the most common and clinically established, and more recent emergence of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as additional supportive techniques. Yet even with these newer and more sophisticated modalities, chest radiography remains one of the earliest and most common diagnostic examinations performed during the triage of patients with suspected cardiac dysfunction. Recognizing the anatomic and pathologic features of cardiac radiography including the heart's adaptation to varying hemodynamic changes can provide clues to the radiologist regarding the underlying etiology. In this article, we will elucidate several principles relating to chamber modifications in response to pressure and volume overload as well as radiographic appearances associated with pulmonary fluid status and cardiac dysfunction. We will also present a pattern approach to optimize analysis of the chest radiograph for valvular heart disease, which will help guide the radiologist down a differential diagnostic pathway and create a more meaningful clinical report.

  20. Hemodynamic monitoring in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voga, G

    1995-06-01

    Monitoring of vital functions is one of the most important and essential tools in the management of critically ill patients in the ICU. Today it is possible to detect and analyze a great variety of physiological signals by various noninvasive and invasive techniques. An intensivist should be able to select and perform the most appropriate monitoring method for the individual patient considering risk-benefit ratio of the particular monitoring technique and the need for immediate therapy, specific diagnosis, continuous monitoring and evaluation of morphology should be included. Despite rapid development of noninvasive monitoring techniques, invasive hemodynamic monitoring in still one of the most basic ICU procedures. It enables monitoring of pressures, flow and saturation, pressures in the systemic and pulmonary circulation, estimation of cardiac performance and judgment of the adequacy of the cardiocirculatory system. Carefully and correctly obtained information are basis for proper hemodynamic assessment which usually effects the therapeutic decisions.

  1. Biology and hemodynamics of aneurismal vasculopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Brina, Olivier; Gonzalez, Ana Marcos; Narata, Ana Paula; Ouared, Rafik; Karl-Olof, Lovblad

    2013-01-01

    Aneurysm vasculopathies represents a group of vascular disorders that share a common morphological diagnosis: a vascular dilation, the aneurysm. They can have a same etiology and a different clinical presentation or morphology, or have different etiology and very similar anatomical geometry. The biology of the aneurysm formation is a complex process that will be a result of an endogenous predisposition and epigenetic factors later on including the intracranial hemodynamics. We describe the biology of saccular aneurysms, its growth and rupture, as well as, current concepts of hemodynamics derived from application of computational flow dynamics on patient specific vascular models. Furthermore, we describe different aneurysm phenotypes and its extremely variability on morphological and etiological presentation

  2. Characterization of exercise limitations by evaluating individual cardiac output patterns : A prospective cohort study in patients with chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, R.F.; Niemeijer, V.M.; Wessels, B.; Jansen, J.P.; Wijn, P.F.F.; Doevendans, P.A.F.M.; Kemps, H.M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) suffer from exercise intolerance due to impaired central hemodynamics and subsequent alterations in peripheral skeletal muscle function and structure. The relative contribution of central versus peripheral factors in the reduced exercise capacity

  3. Characterization of exercise limitations by evaluating individual cardiac output patterns: a prospective cohort study in patients with chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, Ruud F.; Niemeijer, Victor M.; Wessels, Bart; Jansen, Jasper P.; Wijn, Pieter F. F.; Doevendans, Pieter A. F. M.; Kemps, Hareld M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) suffer from exercise intolerance due to impaired central hemodynamics and subsequent alterations in peripheral skeletal muscle function and structure. The relative contribution of central versus peripheral factors in the reduced exercise capacity is still

  4. Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    Neurologic symptoms in the region of an internal carotid artery stenosis are considered to be embolic in most instances. Only in a subgroup has carotid occlusive disease with impairment of the collateral supply, caused a state of hemodynamic failure with marked reduction of perfusion pressure...... stenosis. This is considered a result of chronic low perfusion pressure with subsequent loss of autoregulation, and autoregulatory control is first regained after some days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  5. HEMODYNAMIC EFFECTS OF XENON ANESTHESIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Bykov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at hemodynamic effects of xenon on operative interventions in children. Patients and methods: the study involved 30 5-17-year-old children – 10 (33.3% girls and 20 (66.7% boys with ASA score 1-3 admitted for surgical treatment. The children underwent endotracheal anesthesia with xenon-oxygen mixture (Xe:O2 = 60-65:30% and fentanyl (2.5‑3.5  mcg/kg per hour for the following operations: appendectomy – 10 (33.3% patients, herniotomy – 8 (26.7% patients, Ivanissevich procedure – 6 (20.0% patients, plastic surgery of posttraumatic defects of skin and soft tissues – 4 (13.3% patients, abdominal adhesiotomy – 2 (6.7% patients. Central hemodynamics was studied echocardiographically (Philips HD 11, the Netherlands using the Teichholz technique along the cephalocaudal axis (parasternal access. Results: the anesthesia was notable for hemodynamic stability during the operation: as a result, a statistically significant (p < 0.05 increase in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure by 10, 18 and 17%, respectively, was observed. Conclusion: the analysis demonstrated that xenon anesthesia improves lusitropic myocardial function statistically significantly increasing cardiac output by 12% by way of increasing stroke volume by 30%. 

  6. Effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator implantation on health status in patients with mild versus moderate symptoms of heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; van den Broek, Krista C; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2011-01-01

    Indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) have expanded to include patients with mild congestive heart failure (CHF) symptoms (New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class II) because of a demonstrated morbidity reduction in this subset of patients. However, little is known...

  7. Effects of 12 days exposure to simulated microgravity on central circulatory hemodynamics in the rhesus monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Koenig, S. C.; Krotov, V. P.; Fanton, J. W.; Korolkov, V. I.; Trambovetsky, E. V.; Ewert, D. L.; Truzhennikov, A.; Latham, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Central circulatory hemodynamic responses were measured before and during the initial 9 days of a 12-day 10 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) in 4 flight-sized juvenile rhesus monkeys who were surgically instrumented with a variety of intrathoracic catheters and blood flow sensors to assess the effects of simulated microgravity on central circulatory hemodynamics. Each subject underwent measurements of aortic and left ventricular pressures, and aortic flow before and during HDT as well as during a passive head-up postural test before and after HDT. Heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were measured, and dP/dt and left ventricular elastance was calculated from hemodynamic measurements. The postural test consisted of 5 min of supine baseline control followed by 5 minutes of 90 degrees upright tilt (HUT). Heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure showed no consistent alterations during HDT. Left ventricular elastance was reduced in all animals throughout HDT, indicating that cardiac compliance was increased. HDT did not consistently alter left ventricular +dP/dt, indicating no change in cardiac contractility. Heart rate during the post-HDT HUT postural test was elevated compared to pre-HDT while post-HDT cardiac output was decreased by 52% as a result of a 54% reduction in stroke volume throughout HUT. Results from this study using an instrumented rhesus monkey suggest that exposure to microgravity may increase ventricular compliance without alternating cardiac contractility. Our project supported the notion that an invasively-instrumented animal model should be viable for use in spaceflight cardiovascular experiments to assess potential changes in myocardial function and cardiac compliance.

  8. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  9. Role and Effectiveness of Percutaneous Arterial Embolization in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients with Ruptured Splanchnic Artery Pseudoaneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohan, Anthony; Eveno, Clarisse; Dautry, Raphael; Guerrache, Youcef; Camus, Marine; Boudiaf, Mourad; Gayat, Etienne; Dref, Olivier Le; Sirol, Marc; Soyer, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo assess the role and effectiveness of percutaneous arterial embolization (TAE) in patients with hemodynamic instability due to hypovolemic shock secondary to ruptured splanchnic artery pseudoaneurysms (SAPA).Materials and MethodsSeventeen patients (11 men, 6 women; mean age, 53 years) with hemodynamic instability (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) due to hypovolemic shock secondary to ruptured SAPA were treated by TAE. Clinical files, multidetector row computed tomography angiography, and angiographic examinations along with procedure details were reviewed.ResultsSeventeen SAPAs were present, predominantly located on gastroduodenal or pancreatic arteries (9/17; 53 %). Angiography showed extravasation of contrast medium from SAPA in 15/17 patients (88 %). Technical success rate of TAE was 100 %. TAE was performed using metallic coils in all patients (100 %), in association with gelatin sponge in 5/17 patients (29 %). TAE allowed controlling the bleeding and returning to normal hemodynamic status in 16/17 patients (94 %). In 1/17 patient (6 %), surgery was needed to definitively control the bleeding. The mortality and morbidity rate of TAE at 30 days were 0 and 12 %, respectively. Morbidity consisted in coil migration in 1/17 patient (6 %) and transient serum liver enzyme elevation in 1/17 patient (6 %).ConclusionTAE is an effective and safe treatment option for ruptured SAPA in hemodynamically unstable patients, with a success rate of 94 %. Our results suggest that TAE should be the favored option in patients with hemodynamic instability due to ruptured SAPA

  10. Role and Effectiveness of Percutaneous Arterial Embolization in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients with Ruptured Splanchnic Artery Pseudoaneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohan, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.dohan@lrb.aphp.fr [Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France); Eveno, Clarisse, E-mail: clarisse.eveno@lrb.aphp.fr [Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Dautry, Raphael, E-mail: raphael.dautry@lrb.aphp.fr; Guerrache, Youcef, E-mail: docyoucef05@yahoo.fr [Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France); Camus, Marine, E-mail: marine.camus@lrb.aphp.fr [Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Boudiaf, Mourad, E-mail: mourad.boudiaf@lrb.aphp.fr [Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France); Gayat, Etienne, E-mail: etienne.gayat@lrb.aphp.fr [Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Dref, Olivier Le, E-mail: olivier.ledref@lrb.aphp.fr; Sirol, Marc, E-mail: marc.sirol@lrb.aphp.fr; Soyer, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.soyer@lrb.aphp.fr [Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo assess the role and effectiveness of percutaneous arterial embolization (TAE) in patients with hemodynamic instability due to hypovolemic shock secondary to ruptured splanchnic artery pseudoaneurysms (SAPA).Materials and MethodsSeventeen patients (11 men, 6 women; mean age, 53 years) with hemodynamic instability (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) due to hypovolemic shock secondary to ruptured SAPA were treated by TAE. Clinical files, multidetector row computed tomography angiography, and angiographic examinations along with procedure details were reviewed.ResultsSeventeen SAPAs were present, predominantly located on gastroduodenal or pancreatic arteries (9/17; 53 %). Angiography showed extravasation of contrast medium from SAPA in 15/17 patients (88 %). Technical success rate of TAE was 100 %. TAE was performed using metallic coils in all patients (100 %), in association with gelatin sponge in 5/17 patients (29 %). TAE allowed controlling the bleeding and returning to normal hemodynamic status in 16/17 patients (94 %). In 1/17 patient (6 %), surgery was needed to definitively control the bleeding. The mortality and morbidity rate of TAE at 30 days were 0 and 12 %, respectively. Morbidity consisted in coil migration in 1/17 patient (6 %) and transient serum liver enzyme elevation in 1/17 patient (6 %).ConclusionTAE is an effective and safe treatment option for ruptured SAPA in hemodynamically unstable patients, with a success rate of 94 %. Our results suggest that TAE should be the favored option in patients with hemodynamic instability due to ruptured SAPA.

  11. Status of cardiovascular disease and stroke in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States: a science advisory from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos J; Allison, Matthew; Daviglus, Martha L; Isasi, Carmen R; Keller, Colleen; Leira, Enrique C; Palaniappan, Latha; Piña, Ileana L; Ramirez, Sarah M; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Sims, Mario

    2014-08-12

    AHA Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. This statement documents the status of knowledge regarding CVD among Hispanics and the sociocultural issues that impact all subgroups of Hispanics with regard to cardiovascular health. In this review, whenever possible, we identify the specific Hispanic subgroups examined to avoid generalizations. We identify specific areas for which current evidence was less robust, as well as inconsistencies and evidence gaps that inform the need for further rigorous and interdisciplinary approaches to increase our understanding of the US Hispanic population and its potential impact on the public health and cardiovascular health of the total US population. We provide recommendations specific to the 9 domains outlined by the chair to support the development of these culturally tailored and targeted approaches. Healthcare professionals and researchers need to consider the impact of culture and ethnicity on health behavior and ultimately health outcomes. There is a need to tailor and develop culturally relevant strategies to engage Hispanics in cardiovascular health promotion and cultivate a larger workforce of healthcare providers, researchers, and allies with the focused goal of improving cardiovascular health and reducing CVD among the US Hispanic population. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Metabolic and hemodynamic effects of saline infusion to maintain volemia on temporary abdominal aortic occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ferreira Amorim

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze hemodynamic and metabolic effects of saline solution infusion in the maintenance of blood volume in ischemia-reperfusion syndrome during temporary abdominal aortic occlusion in dogs. METHODS: We studied 20 dogs divided into 2 groups: the ischemia-reperfusion group (IRG, n=10 and the ischemia-reperfusion group with saline solution infusion aiming at maintaining mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressure between 10 and 20 mmHg (IRG-SS, n=10. All animals were anesthetized with sodium thiopental and maintained on spontaneous ventilation. Occlusion of the supraceliac aorta was obtained with inflation of a Fogarty catheter inserted through the femoral artery. After 60 minutes of ischemia, the balloon was deflated, and the animals were observed for another 60 minutes of reperfusion. RESULTS: IRG-SS dogs did not have hemodynamic instability after aortic unclamping, and the mean systemic blood pressure and heart rate were maintained. However, acidosis worsened, which was documented by a greater reduction of arterial pH that occurred especially due to the absence of a respiratory response to metabolic acidosis that was greater with the adoption of this procedure. CONCLUSION: Saline solution infusion to maintain blood volume avoided hemodynamic instability after aortic unclamping. This procedure, however, caused worsening in metabolic acidosis in this experimental model.

  13. Central Hemodynamics Measured During 5 Repetition Maximum Free Weight Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jonathan S; McLester, Cherilyn N; Evans, Thomas W; McLester, John R; Calloway, Jimmy P

    2018-01-01

    The PhysioFlow™ is a piece of equipment that uses bioimpedance cardiography to measure central hemodynamics. The purpose of this research was to explore the novel approach of monitoring central hemodynamics during free weight resistance exercise using bioimpedance cardiography throughout a 5 repetition maximum (5RM). Thirty participants ranging from beginner to advanced lifters (16 males and 14 females) completed a 5RM for back squat, seated push press, and bicep curl while connected to the PhysioFlow™ to assess the response of heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (Q), and ejection fraction (EF). Participants were cued for form and to breathe normally throughout the lifts. The PhysioFlow™ detected an increase in HR and Q for all lifts between rest and each repetition ( p 0.05) and no changes in EF or SV were detected when all repetitions were compared to each other for all lifts ( p > 0.05). In conclusion, the PhysioFlow™ was able to detect changes in HR and Q during dynamic free weight resistance exercise. This novel approach may provide a mechanism for monitoring central hemodynamics during free weight resistance training. However, more research needs to be conducted as the exercise protocol for this investigation did not allow for a comparison to a reference method.

  14. Hemodynamic Based Coronary Artery Aneurysm Thrombosis Risk Stratification in Kawasaki Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande Gutierrez, Noelia; Mathew, M.; McCrindle, B.; Kahn, A.; Burns, J.; Marsden, A.

    2017-11-01

    Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) as a result of Kawasaki Disease (KD) put patients at risk for thrombosis and myocardial infarction. Current AHA guidelines recommend CAA diameter >8 mm or Z-score >10 as the criterion for initiating systemic anticoagulation. Our hypothesis is that hemodynamic data derived from computational blood flow simulations is a better predictor of thrombosis than aneurysm diameter alone. Patient-specific coronary models were constructed from CMRI for a cohort of 10 KD patients (5 confirmed thrombosis cases) and simulations with fluid structure interaction were performed using the stabilized finite element Navier-Stokes solver available in SimVascular. We used a closed-loop lumped parameter network (LPN) to model the heart and vascular boundary conditions coupled numerically to the flow solver. An automated parameter estimation method was used to match LPN values to clinical data for each patient. Hemodynamic data analysis resulted in low correlation between Wall Shear Stress (WSS)/ Particle Residence Time (PRT) and CAA diameter but demonstrates the positive correlation between hemodynamics and adverse patient outcomes. Our results suggest that quantifying WSS and PRT should enable identification of regions at higher risk of thrombosis. We propose a quantitative method to non-invasively assess the abnormal flow in CAA following KD that could potentially improve clinical decision-making regarding anticoagulation therapy.

  15. Stabilizing effects of cool dialysate temperature on hemodynamic parameters in diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, A.; Shafiee, M.; Rowghani, K.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of cool dialysis on hemodynamic parameters and serum nitric oxide levels in diabetic patients, we studied 20 old (mean age 63.3+-7.5) chronic hemodialysis diabetics who were dialyzed twice, once using cool and once using standard (37 C) temperature dialysis solution. During the study, all the dialysis conditions were maintained the same except cooling the dailysate from 37C to 35C. Hemodynamic parameters including SBP, DBP and HR were measured hourly. Oral temperature was measured before and after dialysis. Serum urea and nitric oxide metabolites were determined before and after hemodialysis. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure decreased significantly during standard compared to cool dialysis. Maximum decrease of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure was observed during the third hour of dialysis and magnitude of decrease was 18, 17 and 14 percent for standard temperature and 6, 1, and 4 percent for cool dialysis, respectively. Heart rate did not differ significantly between the two study groups. Compared to the pre dialysis levels of serum nitric oxide metabolites, the post dialysis levels decreased significantly with cool and standard temperature dialysate (59+-5 vs. 37+-4, and 63+-7 vs. 41+-5, umol/L respectively, P<0.01). Cool dialysis could decrease episodes of hypotension and stabilized hemodynamic parameters in diabetic patients. Probably other mechanisms than increased serum nitric oxide levels may be involved in hemodialysis hypotension in this group of patients. (author)

  16. Hemodynamic forces regulate developmental patterning of atrial conduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Bressan

    Full Text Available Anomalous action potential conduction through the atrial chambers of the heart can lead to severe cardiac arrhythmia. To date, however, little is known regarding the mechanisms that pattern proper atrial conduction during development. Here we demonstrate that atrial muscle functionally diversifies into at least two heterogeneous subtypes, thin-walled myocardium and rapidly conducting muscle bundles, during a developmental window just following cardiac looping. During this process, atrial muscle bundles become enriched for the fast conduction markers Cx40 and Nav1.5, similar to the precursors of the fast conduction Purkinje fiber network located within the trabeculae of the ventricles. In contrast to the ventricular trabeculae, however, atrial muscle bundles display an increased proliferation rate when compared to the surrounding myocardium. Interestingly, mechanical loading of the embryonic atrial muscle resulted in an induction of Cx40, Nav1.5 and the cell cycle marker Cyclin D1, while decreasing atrial pressure via in vivo ligation of the vitelline blood vessels results in decreased atrial conduction velocity. Taken together, these data establish a novel model for atrial conduction patterning, whereby hemodynamic stretch coordinately induces proliferation and fast conduction marker expression, which in turn promotes the formation of large diameter muscle bundles to serve as preferential routes of conduction.

  17. Occupational exposure in hemodynamic; Exposicao ocupacional em hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Amanda J.; Fernandes, Ivani M.; Silva, Paula P. Nou; Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G., E-mail: ajsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: imfernandes@ipen.b, E-mail: ppsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: gmsordi@ipen.b, E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper has an objective to perform a radiometric survey at a hemodynamic service. Besides, it was intended to evaluate the effective dose of health professionals and to provide data which can contribute with minimization of exposures during the realization of hemodynamic procedure. The radiometric survey was realized in the real environment of work simulating the conditions of a hemodynamic study with a ionization chamber

  18. Central Hemodynamics and Arterial Stiffness in Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoloni, Elena; Pucci, Giacomo; Cannarile, Francesca; Battista, Francesca; Alunno, Alessia; Giuliani, Marco; Cafaro, Giacomo; Gerli, Roberto; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Although microvascular disease is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc), a higher prevalence of macrovascular disease and a poorer related prognosis have been reported in SSc than in the general population. The simultaneous assessment of prognostically relevant functional properties of larger and smaller arteries, and their effects on central hemodynamics, has never been performed in SSc using the state-of-the-art techniques. Thirty-four women with SSc (aged 61±15 years, disease duration 17±12 years, and blood pressure 123/70±18/11 mm Hg) and 34 healthy women individually matched by age and mean arterial pressure underwent the determination of carotid-femoral (aortic) and carotid-radial (upper limb) pulse wave velocity (a direct measure of arterial stiffness), aortic augmentation (a measure of the contribution of reflected wave to central pulse pressure), and aortobrachial pulse pressure amplification (brachial/aortic pulse pressure) through applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor). Patients and controls did not differ by carotid-femoral or carotid-radial pulse wave velocity. Aortic augmentation index corrected for a heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@75) was higher in women with SSc (30.9±16% versus 22.2±12%; P=0.012). Patients also had a lower aortobrachial amplification of pulse pressure (1.22±0.18 versus 1.33±0.25; P=0.041). SSc was an independent predictor of AIx@75 (direct) and pulse pressure amplification (inverse). Among patients, age, mean arterial pressure, and C-reactive protein independently predicted carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Age and mean arterial pressure were the only predictors of AIx@75. Women with SSc have increased aortic augmentation and decreased pulse pressure amplification (both measures of the contribution of reflected wave to central waveform) but no changes in aortic or upper limb arterial stiffness. Microvascular involvement occurs earlier than large artery stiffening in SSc. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. The Effects of a Multiflavonoid Supplement on Vascular and Hemodynamic Parameters following Acute Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Kappus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants can decrease oxidative stress and combined with acute exercise they may lead to further decreases in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 weeks of antioxidant supplementation on vascular distensibility and cardiovascular hemodynamics during postexercise hypotension. Methods. Twenty young subjects were randomized to placebo (=10 or antioxidant supplementation (=10 for two weeks. Antioxidant status, vascular distensibility, and hemodynamics were obtained before, immediately, and 30 minutes after an acute bout of aerobic exercise both before and after supplementation. Results. Two weeks of antioxidant supplementation resulted in a greater systolic blood pressure (SBP decrease during postexercise hypotension (PEH and significant decreases in augmentation index versus placebo (12.5% versus 3.5%, resp.. Also ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP increased significantly (interaction P = 0.024 after supplementation. Conclusion. Supplementation showed an additive effect on PEH associated with increased FRAP values and decreases in systolic blood pressure and augmentation index.

  20. The effects of a multiflavonoid supplement on vascular and hemodynamic parameters following acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Curry, Chelsea D; McAnulty, Steve; Welsh, Janice; Morris, David; Nieman, David C; Soukup, Jeffrey; Collier, Scott R

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants can decrease oxidative stress and combined with acute exercise they may lead to further decreases in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 weeks of antioxidant supplementation on vascular distensibility and cardiovascular hemodynamics during postexercise hypotension. Twenty young subjects were randomized to placebo (n = 10) or antioxidant supplementation (n = 10) for two weeks. Antioxidant status, vascular distensibility, and hemodynamics were obtained before, immediately, and 30 minutes after an acute bout of aerobic exercise both before and after supplementation. Two weeks of antioxidant supplementation resulted in a greater systolic blood pressure (SBP) decrease during postexercise hypotension (PEH) and significant decreases in augmentation index versus placebo (12.5% versus 3.5%, resp.). Also ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) increased significantly (interaction P = 0.024) after supplementation. Supplementation showed an additive effect on PEH associated with increased FRAP values and decreases in systolic blood pressure and augmentation index.

  1. Health in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Judith A A E; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2016-09-01

    Since the introduction of cardiac surgery, the prospects for children born with a cardiac defect have improved spectacularly. Many reach adulthood and the population of adults with congenital heart disease is increasing and ageing. However, repair of congenital heart disease does not mean cure. Many adults with congenital heart disease encounter late complications. Late morbidity can be related to the congenital heart defect itself, but may also be the consequence of the surgical or medical treatment or longstanding alterations in hemodynamics, neurodevelopment and psychosocial development. This narrative review describes the cardiac and non-cardiac long-term morbidity in the adult population with congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of aminophylline in refractory heart failure: a comparison to the vasodilator sodium nitroprusside, the old and the new.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBianco, R; Rosenfeld, S P; Katz, R J; Simpson, A G; Fletcher, R D; Singh, S

    1980-08-01

    Aminophylline [(theophylline ethylene diamine (TED)] reportedly improved cardiac hemodynamics by lowering vascular resistances and increasing contractility. TED as used clinically has not been compared to the vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (NP). To assess the relative hemodynamic effects of these two commonly used agents, the following comparison was made. Ten patients with congestive cardiomyopathy in chronic refractory heart failure [New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV] were studied. All patients demonstrated cardiomegaly by chest x ray and echocardiography (LVd = 6.3 +/- 0.7 cm) and markedly abnormal hemodynamics during baseline observations (see Table I). Hemodynamic measurements at baseline were compared after TED infusion (mean blood level = 16 +/- 12 micrograms/m/TED) and during intravenous NP. No significant changes in heart rate occurred during either therapeutic intervention; a fall in mean arterial pressure of 10 mmHg (p TED. Theophylline ethylene diamine demonstrated no detectable cardiac hemodynamic effects 60--90 min post infusion despite proven blood levels, whereas NP exhibited distinctly beneficial effects in this patient group. Previous studies demonstrating improved hemodynamics occurring with TED have been limited to the time of infusion or within the following 40 min, a time when TED blood levels are maximum and therefore closest to toxicity. The results of this study suggest that TED demonstrates no beneficial hemodynamic effects in refractory heart failure as early as 1 h after infusion despite blood levels in the therapeutic range.

  3. Time-Series Interactions of Gene Expression, Vascular Growth and Hemodynamics during Early Embryonic Arterial Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Goktas

    Full Text Available The role of hemodynamic forces within the embryo as biomechanical regulators for cardiovascular morphogenesis, growth, and remodeling is well supported through the experimental studies. Furthermore, clinical experience suggests that perturbed flow disrupts the normal vascular growth process as one etiology for congenital heart diseases (CHD and for fetal adaptation to CHD. However, the relationships between hemodynamics, gene expression and embryonic vascular growth are poorly defined due to the lack of concurrent, sequential in vivo data. In this study, a long-term, time-lapse optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging campaign was conducted to acquire simultaneous blood velocity, pulsatile micro-pressure and morphometric data for 3 consecutive early embryonic stages in the chick embryo. In conjunction with the in vivo growth and hemodynamics data, in vitro reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was performed to track changes in transcript expression relevant to histogenesis and remodeling of the embryonic arterial wall. Our non-invasive extended OCT imaging technique for the microstructural data showed continuous vessel growth. OCT data coupled with the PIV technique revealed significant but intermitted increases in wall shear stress (WSS between first and second assigned stages and a noticeable decrease afterwards. Growth rate, however, did not vary significantly throughout the embryonic period. Among all the genes studied, only the MMP-2 and CASP-3 expression levels remained unchanged during the time course. Concurrent relationships were obtained among the transcriptional modulation of the genes, vascular growth and hemodynamics-related changes. Further studies are indicated to determine cause and effect relationships and reversibility between mechanical and molecular regulation of vasculogenesis.

  4. Hemodynamic challenge to early mobilization after cardiac surgery: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Cassina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Active mobilization is a key component in fast-track surgical strategies. Following major surgery, clinicians are often reluctant to mobilize patients arguing that circulatory homeostasis would be impaired as a result of myocardial stunning, fluid shift, and autonomic dysfunction. Aims: We examined the feasibility and safety of a mobilization protocol 12-24 h after elective cardiac surgery. Setting and Design: This observational study was performed in a tertiary nonacademic cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit. Materials and Methods: Over a 6-month period, we prospectively evaluated the hemodynamic response to a two-staged mobilization procedure in 53 consecutive patients. Before, during, and after the mobilization, hemodynamics parameters were recorded, including the central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO 2 , lactate concentrations, mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, right atrial pressure (RAP, and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 . Any adverse events were documented. Results: All patients successfully completed the mobilization procedure. Compared with the supine position, mobilization induced significant increases in arterial lactate (34.6% [31.6%, 47.6%], P = 0.0022 along with reduction in RAP (−33% [−21%, −45%], P 10% and nine of them (17% required treatment. Hypotensive patients experienced a greater decrease in ScvO 2 (−18 ± 5% vs. −9 ± 4%, P = 0.004 with similar changes in RAP and HR. All hemodynamic parameters, but arterial lactate, recovered baseline values after resuming the horizontal position. Conclusions: Early mobilization after cardiac surgery appears to be a safe procedure as far as it is performed under close hemodynamic and clinical monitoring in an intensive care setting.

  5. Clofibrate prevents and reverses the hemodynamic manifestations of hyperthyroidism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Cruz, Antonio; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Soler, Agatángelo; Osuna, Antonio; Vargas, Félix

    2008-03-01

    This study analyzed the effects of the chronic administration of clofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) agonist, on the development and established hemodynamic, morphologic, metabolic, and renal manifestations of hyperthyroidism in rats. The prevention study used four groups of male Wistar rats: control, clofibrate (240 mg/kg/day by gavage), T(4)(75 microg thyroxine/rat/day s.c.), and T(4)+clofibrate. All treatments were maintained for 3 weeks. Body weight (BW), tail systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded weekly. Finally, temperature, SBP, pulse pressure (PP) and HR were recorded in conscious rats, and morphologic, metabolic, plasma, and renal variables were measured. The reversion study used two groups of rats, T(4)(treated for 6 weeks) and T(4)+clofibrate, measuring their hemodynamic variables and temperature for 3 weeks. T(4) increased BP, HR, PP, and temperature when compared with control rats. Clofibrate prevented and reversed the increase in SBP, HR, PP, and temperature produced by T(4) administration, reduced plasma thyroid hormone levels, and increased plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone values and phenol-uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyl-transferase (UGT) activity. However, clofibrate did not modify the cardiac or renal hypertrophy, polyphagia, polydipsia, or proteinuria of hyperthyroid rats. In normal rats, clofibrate treatment did not significantly change thyroid hormone levels, phenol-UGT activity, or any hemodynamic, morphologic, or renal variables. Chronic clofibrate treatment suppressed the hemodynamic manifestations and increased temperature of hyperthyroidism, an effect that can be produced by direct antithyroid effects. However, clofibrate administration did not modify the morphologic, metabolic, or renal alterations of hyperthyroid rats, indicating specificity in the antithyroid actions of clofibrate.

  6. Comparing the Rates of Dopamine Hemodynamic Effect Onset after Infusion through Peripheral Veins in Three Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokkyu Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Dopamine is an inotropic agent that is often selected for continuous infusion. For hemodynamic stability, the rate of infusion is controlled in the range of 5-15 μg/kg/min. This study aimed to compare the time intervals from the administration of dopamine to the onset of its hemodynamic effects when dopamine was administered through three different peripheral veins (the cephalic vein [CV], the great saphenous vein [GSV], and the external jugular vein [EJV]. Methods Patients in group 1, group 2, and group 3 received dopamine infusions in the CV, GSV, and EJV, respectively. A noninvasive continuous cardiac output monitor (NICCOMO™, Medis, Ilmenau, Germany was used to assess cardiac output (CO and systemic vascular resistance (SVR. Six minutes after intubation, baseline heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, CO, and SVR values were recorded and dopamine infusion was initiated at a dose of 10 μg/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 15 minutes postinfusion were recorded. Results No statistically significant differences were observed among the three groups with respect to the rate of hemodynamic change. In all groups, systolic BP, diastolic BP, MAP, and SVR tended to increase after decreasing for the first 4 minutes; in contrast, HR and CO decreased until 8 minutes, after which they tended to reach a plateau. Conclusions For patients under general anesthesia receiving dopamine at 10 μg/kg/min, there were no clinical differences in the effect of dopamine administered through three different peripheral veins.

  7. Nursing diagnoses in children with congenital heart disease: a survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins da Silva, Viviane; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Leite de Araujo, Thelma

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between nursing diagnoses and survival rates in children with congenital heart disease. A total of 270 observations were carried out in 45 children with congenital heart disease who were followed for 15 days. Differences in mean survival times were identified in children not more than 4 months of age with respect to the following diagnoses: impaired gas exchange, ineffective breathing pattern, activity intolerance, delayed growth and development, and decreased cardiac output. The main diagnoses are identified early in the hospitalization period and are conditions resulting from hemodynamic alterations and prescribed medical treatment. Congenital heart disease provokes serious hemodynamic alterations that generate human responses, which should be treated proactively.

  8. Central and peripheral hemodynamics in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; González-Alonso, J; Helge, J W

    2015-01-01

    In humans, arm exercise is known to elicit larger increases in arterial blood pressure (BP) than leg exercise. However, the precise regulation of regional vascular conductances (VC) for the distribution of cardiac output with exercise intensity remains unknown. Hemodynamic responses were assessed...... perfusion pressure to increase O2 delivery, allowing a similar peak VO2 per kg of muscle mass in both extremities. In summary, despite a lower Qpeak during arm cranking the cardiovascular strain is much higher than during leg pedalling. The adjustments of regional conductances during incremental exercise...... to exhaustion depend mostly on the relative intensity of exercise and are limb-specific....

  9. Direct myocardial perfusion imaging in valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, R.C.; Durante, M.L.; Villacorta, E.V.; Torres, J.F.; Monzon, O.P.

    1981-02-01

    Twenty two patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease - 21 having a history of heart failure - were studied using direct coronary injection of /sup 99m/Tc labelled MAA particles during the course of hemodynamic and arteriographic studies. Myocardial perfusion deficit patterns have been shown to be consistent or indicative of either patchy, regional or gross ischemia. In patients with history of documented heart failure 90% (18 cases) had ischemic perfusion deficit in the involved ventricle. We conclude that diminished myocardial blood flow is an important mechanism contributing to the development of heart failure.

  10. Direct myocardial perfusion imaging in valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, R.C.; Durante, M.L.; Villacorta, E.V.; Torres, J.F.; Monzon, O.P.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty two patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease - 21 having a history of heart failure - were studied using direct coronary injection of sup(99m)Tc labelled MAA particles during the course of hemodynamic and arteriographic studies. Myocardial perfusion deficit patterns have been shown to be consistent or indicative of either patchy, regional or gross ischemia. In patients with history of documented heart failure 90% (18 cases) had ischemic perfusion deficit in the involved ventricle. We conclude that diminished myocardial blood flow is an important mechanism contributing to the development of heart failure. (orig.) [de

  11. Pulmonary Hypertension in Congenital Heart Disease: Beyond Eisenmenger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Eric V; Leary, Peter J; Opotowsky, Alexander R

    2015-11-01

    Patients with adult congenital heart disease have an increased risk of developing pulmonary hypertension. There are several mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension in patients with adult congenital heart disease, and understanding them requires a systematic approach to define the patient's hemodynamics and physiology. This article reviews the updated classification of pulmonary hypertension in patients with adult congenital heart disease with a focus on pathophysiology, diagnostics, and the evaluation of pulmonary hypertension in special adult congenital heart disease populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  13. Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  14. Assessing the impact of sinus-saving modifications of carotid endarterectomy on autonomic regulation and central hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Фокин

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSuch complications as myocardial infarction, hyperperfusion syndrome and its effects, postoperative hematomes constitute a life-threatening event during early follow-up of carotid surgery. One of the main risk factors for these complications is a variation of central hemodynamics, especially that leading to arterial hypertension.ObjectiveThe study aimed to evaluate the safety of carotid sinus surgery as a way of preventing arterial hypertension after carotid artery reconstructions. The other objective was to compare the resultant data with the heart rate variations obtained during rhythmocardiography.MethodsThe study focused on central hemodynamics indicators and included 290 cases. All patients were broken down in two groups. 167 patients of the first group underwent dissection of carotid sinus nerves. The carotid sinus nerves of patients from the second group (123 patients were kept intact. Analysis of autonomic regulation of 13 patients from the first group and 17 patients from the other one was then carried out, with the heart rate variations accurately estimated at the neurocardiological laboratory.ResultsOn the first postoperative day all hemodynamic indicators (such as SBP, DBP, pulse pressure, heart rate in the second group were lower than those in the first group of patients (p<0.05, while tending to recover by the third day. This fact kept postoperative complications to a minimum. The patients from the second group also demonstrated a lower activity of the sympathetic nervous system and a higher activity of the parasympathetic one. These results explain the difference between the central hemodynamic indicators in two groups.ConclusionCarotid sinus-saving surgery decreases the risk of early postoperative complications caused by arterial hypertension. 

  15. Vitamin D and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall Brinkley, D; Ali, Omair M; Zalawadiya, Sandip K; Wang, Thomas J

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D is principally known for its role in calcium homeostasis, but preclinical studies implicate multiple pathways through which vitamin D may affect cardiovascular function and influence risk for heart failure. Many adults with cardiovascular disease have low vitamin D status, making it a potential therapeutic target. We review the rationale and potential role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and treatment of chronic heart failure. Substantial observational evidence has associated low vitamin D status with the risk of heart failure, ventricular remodeling, and clinical outcomes in heart failure, including mortality. However, trials assessing the influence of vitamin D supplementation on surrogate markers and clinical outcomes in heart failure have generally been small and inconclusive. There are insufficient data to recommend routine assessment or supplementation of vitamin D for the prevention or treatment of chronic heart failure. Prospective trials powered for clinical outcomes are warranted.

  16. Cardio MRI right heart assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genova, K.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In recent years, the evaluation of the function and morphology of the right heart caused increasing interest as right sided dysfunction is an important prognostic factor in many cardiovascular diseases. Modern MRI technique is the method of choice for precise assessment of the morphology and function of the right heart and is increasingly used in routine practice. What you will learn: Selecting appropriate techniques tailored to the morphology and function of right heart and conform to accepted standards is crucial for obtaining diagnostic imaging. This requires, as knowledge of the art of study, and diseases that assessment of right heart is key. The various techniques used and the specifics of the study protocol in the underlying disease leading to right dysfunction, consistent with standards and based on our experience will be presented. Discussion: The function of the right heart and in particular right sided function affects the prognosis of a number of cardiovascular diseases. Right sided morphology and function are assessed in terms of hemodynamic and prognostic significance in a number of heart and lung diseases. This enables clinicians to refine therapy, monitoring the effect of treatment and appropriate adjustment and precise timing invasive procedure or surgery. Knowing the capabilities and limitations of the method, combined with clinically - oriented approach are prerequisites for accurate and informative assessment of the right heart. Conclusion: Cardiac MRI is a method that allows precise , non-invasive and non- ionizing radiation morphological and functional assessment of the right heart, with the evaluation of the pulmonary circulation, which determines its key importance in conditions requiring assessment of right heart

  17. Ameliorative effect of Draba nemorosa extract on chronic heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of Draba nemorosa extract (DNE) on oxidative stress and hemodynamics in rats with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods: Adriamycin was used to establish CHF in Sprague Dawley (SD) rat model. Six groups of SD rats were used in this study: control group, CHF group, captopril ...

  18. Elevation of plasma milrinone concentrations in stage D heart failure associated with renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Zachary L; Calcutt, Marion W; Morrison, Thomas B; Akers, Wendell S; Davis, Mary Beth; Lenihan, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    To determine steady state milrinone concentrations in patients with stage D heart failure (HF) with and without renal dysfunction We retrospectively identified patients with stage D HF at a single medical center on continuous milrinonein fusion at the time of plasma collection for entry into a research registry database. Milrinone was prescribed and titrated to improve hemodynamic and clinical status by a cardiologist. Plasma samples were obtained at steady state milrinone concentrations. Patients were stratified by creatinine clearance (CrCl) into 4 groups: group 1 (CrCl >60 mL/min), group 2 (CrCl 60-30 mL/min), group 3 (CrCl milrinone hemodynamic changes by cardiac catheterization and electrophysiologic changes by implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) interrogation. A total of 29 patients were identified: group 1 (n=14), group 2 (n=10), group 3(n=3), and group 4 (n = 2). The mean infusion rate (0.391+0.08 mg/kg/min) did not differ between groups (P=0.14). The mean milrinone concentration was 451+243 ng/mL in group 1, 591+293 ng/mL in group 2, 1575+962 ng/mL in group 3, and 6252+4409 ng/mL in group 4 (Pmilrinone hemodynamic improvements between the groups (P=0.41). The ICD interrogation revealed limited comparisons, but 6 of the 8 post milrinone ventricular tachycardia episodes requiring defibrillation occurred in group 4 patients. Patients with stage D HF having severe renal dysfunction have elevated milrinone concentrations. Future studies of milrinone concentrations are warranted to investigate the potential risk of life-threatening arrhythmias and potential dosing regimens in renal dysfunction.

  19. Pulmonary Hypertension After Heart Transplantation in Patients Bridged with the Total Artificial Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rachit; Patel, Dhavalkumar B; Mankad, Anit K; Rennyson, Stephen L; Tang, Daniel G; Quader, Mohammed A; Smallfield, Melissa C; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Shah, Keyur B

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) among heart transplant recipients is associated with an increased risk of mortality. Pulmonary hemodynamics improves after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation; however, the impact of PH before total artificial heart (TAH) implantation on posttransplant hemodynamics and survival is unknown. This is a single center retrospective study aimed to evaluate the impact of TAH implantation on posttransplant hemodynamics and mortality in two groups stratified according to severity of PH: high (≥3 Woods units [WU]) and low (heart catheterization performed at baseline (before TAH) and posttransplant at 1 and 12 months. Patients in the high PVR group (n = 12) experienced improvement in PVR (baseline = 4.31 ± 0.7; 1-month = 1.69 ± 0.7, p heart transplantation (HT), but remained elevated. There was no significant difference in survival between the two groups at 12 months follow-up. Patients with high PVR who are bridged to transplant with TAH had improvement in PVR at 12 months after transplant, and the degree of PVR did not impact posttransplant survival.

  20. Comprehensive Approach to Heart Failure: an Urgent Need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanier Coll Muñoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure leads to the activation of a neurohormonal response that interacts with the hemodynamic changes, which are joined by functional and structural myocardial abnormalities, that may exist. This paper addresses the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the pathophysiology of heart failure and the use of non-invasive complementary methods that provide additional information necessary for the assessment and comprehensive management of patients, without losing the essential connection between the doctor and the patient.

  1. Central Hemodynamics and Oxygen Transport in Various Activation of Patients Operated On Under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Dzybinskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study central hemodynamics, the determinants of myocardial oxygen balance, and the parameters of oxygen transport in various activation of patients after surgery under extracorporeal circulation. Subjects and methods. Thirty-four patients aged 57.8±2.5 years who had coronary heart disease were divided into 2 groups: 1 those with late activation (artificial ventilation time 157±9 min and 2 those with immediate activation (artificial ventilation time 33±6 min. Group 2 patients were, if required, given fentanyl, midazolam, or myorelaxants. Results. During activation, there were no intergroup differences in the mean levels of the major parameters of cardiac pump function, in the determinants of coronary blood flow (coronary perfusion gradients and myocardial oxygen demand (the product of heart rate by systolic blood pressure, and in the parameters of oxygen transport, including arterial lactatemia. After tracheal extubation, the left ventricular pump coefficient was increased considerably (up to 3.8±0.2 and 4.4±0.2 gm/mm Hg/m2 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively; p<0.05 with minimum inotropic support (dopamine and/or dobutamine being used at 2.7±0.3 and 2.4±0.3 mg/kg/min, respectively. In both groups, there were no close correlations between the indices of oxygen delivery and consumption at all stages of the study, which was indicative of no transport-dependent oxygen uptake. Conclusion. When the early activation protocol was followed up, the maximum acceleration of early activation, including that using specific antagonists of anesthetics, has no negative impact on central hemodynamics, the determinants of myocardial oxygen balance and transport in patients operated on under extracorporeal circulation. Key words: early activation, surgery under extracorporeal circulation, tracheal extubation in the operating-room, central hemodynamics, oxygen transport.

  2. Hemodynamic and metabolic basis of impaired exercise tolerance in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubin, G.S.; Anderson, S.D.; Shen, W.F.; Choong, C.Y.; Alwyn, M.; Hillery, S.; Harris, P.J.; Kelly, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    Hemodynamic and metabolic changes were measured at rest and during exercise in 23 patients with chronic heart failure and in 6 control subjects. Exercise was limited by leg fatigue in both groups and capacity was 40% lower in the patients with failure. At rest, comparing patients with control subjects, heart rate and right atrial and pulmonary wedge pressure were higher; cardiac output, stroke volume and work indexes and ejection fraction were lower; mean arterial and right atrial pressure and systemic resistance were similar. During all phases of exercise in patients with heart failure, pulmonary wedge pressure and systemic vascular resistance were higher and pulmonary vascular resistance remained markedly elevated compared with values in control subjects. Cardiac output was lower in the patients with failure, but appeared to have the same physiologic distribution in both groups during exercise. Although arterial-femoral venous oxygen content difference was higher in patients with heart failure, this increase did not compensate for the reduced blood flow. Even though the maximal oxygen consumption was significantly reduced, femoral venous lactate and pH values were higher than values in control subjects, but femoral venous pH was similar in both groups at their respective levels of maximal exercise. Ejection fraction was lower in those with heart failure at rest and did not increase with exercise. Ventilation in relation to oxygen consumption was higher in patients with failure than in control subjects

  3. Cerebral hemodynamics and functional prognosis in hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Osamu; Nishikawa, Michio; Watanabe, Shu; Yamakawa, Hiroyasu; Kinoshita, Yoshimasa; Uno, Akira; Handa, Hajime (Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    The functional outcome of cerebral hemodynamics in the chronic stage of juvenile hydrocephalus was determined using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Five patients including three with aqueductal stenosis, one with post-meningitic hydrocephalus, and one case with hydrocephalus having developed after repair of a huge occipital encephalocele. Early images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were obtained 25 minutes after intravenous injection of 123-I-iodoamphetamine (IMP), and late images were scanned 3 hours later. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) was also measured using {sup 99m}Tc in three patients. Twenty cases with adult communicating hydrocephalus were also investigated from the point of view of shunt effectiveness. Although there was no remarkable change in the cerebrovascular bed in the juvenile cases, CBF of the remnant brain parenchyma was good irrespective of the degree of ventricular dilatation. There was a periventricular-related IMP uptake in each case; however, it somehow matched the ventricular span. Functional outcome one to 23 years after the initial shunt operation was good in every case, despite multiple shunt revisions. Redistribution on late images had no bearing on clinical states. In adult cases, 8 patients with effective shunting demonstrated a relatively localized periventricular low perfusion, with preoperative increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. On the contrary, 12 patients with no improvement with or without ventricular-reduced IMP uptake, despite low CSF pressure. The present study indicates that periventricular hemodynamics may play an important role in cerebral function compromised by hydrocephalus. (J.P.N.).

  4. Cerebral hemodynamics and functional prognosis in hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Osamu; Nishikawa, Michio; Watanabe, Shu; Yamakawa, Hiroyasu; Kinoshita, Yoshimasa; Uno, Akira; Handa, Hajime

    1989-01-01

    The functional outcome of cerebral hemodynamics in the chronic stage of juvenile hydrocephalus was determined using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Five patients including three with aqueductal stenosis, one with post-meningitic hydrocephalus, and one case with hydrocephalus having developed after repair of a huge occipital encephalocele. Early images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were obtained 25 minutes after intravenous injection of 123-I-iodoamphetamine (IMP), and late images were scanned 3 hours later. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) was also measured using 99m Tc in three patients. Twenty cases with adult communicating hydrocephalus were also investigated from the point of view of shunt effectiveness. Although there was no remarkable change in the cerebrovascular bed in the juvenile cases, CBF of the remnant brain parenchyma was good irrespective of the degree of ventricular dilatation. There was a periventricular-related IMP uptake in each case; however, it somehow matched the ventricular span. Functional outcome one to 23 years after the initial shunt operation was good in every case, despite multiple shunt revisions. Redistribution on late images had no bearing on clinical states. In adult cases, 8 patients with effective shunting demonstrated a relatively localized periventricular low perfusion, with preoperative increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. On the contrary, 12 patients with no improvement with or without ventricular-reduced IMP uptake, despite low CSF pressure. The present study indicates that periventricular hemodynamics may play an important role in cerebral function compromised by hydrocephalus. (J.P.N.)

  5. Hemodynamic Simulations in Dialysis Access Fistulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Riley, James; Aliseda, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis in patients with End-Stage Renal Disease. It has long been hypothesized that the hemodynamic and mechanical forces (such as wall shear stress, wall stretch, or flow- induced wall vibrations) constitute the primary external influence on the remodeling process. Given that nearly 50% of fistulae fail after one year, understanding fistulae hemodynamics is an important step toward improving patency in the clinic. We perform numerical simulations of the flow in patient-specific models of AV fistulae reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans with physiologically-realistic boundary conditions also obtained from Doppler ultrasound. Comparison of the flow features in different geometries and configurations e.g. end-to-side vs. side-to-side, with the in vivo longitudinal outcomes will allow us to hypothesize which flow conditions are conducive to fistulae success or failure. The flow inertia and pulsatility in the simulations (mean Re 700, max Re 2000, Wo 4) give rise to complex secondary flows and coherent vortices, further complicating the spatio- temporal variability of the wall pressure and shear stresses. Even in mature fistulae, the anastomotic regions are subjected to non-physiological shear stresses (>10.12pcPa) which may potentially lead to complications.

  6. Review: hemodynamic response to carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, D.G.

    1988-04-01

    Historically, and at present, carbon monoxide is a major gaseous poison responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. From threshold to maximal nonlethal levels, a variety of cardiovascular changes occur, both immediately and in the long term, whose homeostatic function it is to renormalize tissue oxygen delivery. However, notwithstanding numerous studies over the past century, the literature remains equivocal regarding the hemodynamic responses in animals and humans, although CO hypoxia is clearly different in several respects from hypoxic hypoxia. Factors complicating interpretation of experimental findings include species, CO dose level and rate, route of CO delivery, duration, level of exertion, state of consciousness, and anesthetic agent used. Augmented cardiac output usually observed with moderate COHb may be compromised in more sever poisoning for the same reasons, such that regional or global ischemia result. The hypotension usually seen in most animal studies is thought to be a primary cause of CNS damage resulting from acute CO poisoning, yet the exact mechanism(s) remains unproven in both animals and humans, as does the way in which CO produces hypotension. This review briefly summarizes the literature relevant to the short- and long-term hemodynamic responses reported in animals and humans. It concludes by presenting an overview using data from a single species in which the most complete work has been done to date.

  7. Hemodynamic variables predict outcome of emergency thoracotomy in the pediatric trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Deidre L; Dassinger, Melvin S; Bozeman, Andrew P; Porter, Austin; Maxson, R Todd

    2014-09-01

    Limited data exist regarding indications for resuscitative emergency thoracotomy (ETR) in the pediatric population. We attempt to define the presenting hemodynamic parameters that predict survival for pediatric patients undergoing ETR. We reviewed all pediatric patients (age <18years), entered into the National Trauma Data Bank from 2007 to 2010, who underwent ETR within one hour of ED arrival. Mechanism of injury and hemodynamics were analyzed using Chi squared and Wilcoxon tests. 316 children (70 blunt, 240 penetrating) underwent ETR, 31% (98/316) survived to discharge. Less than 5% of patients survived when presenting SBP was ≤50mmHg or heart rate was ≤70bpm. For blunt injuries there were no survivors with a pulse ≤80bpm or SBP ≤60mmHg. When survivors were compared to nonsurvivors, blood pressure, pulse, and injury type were statistically significant when treated as independent variables and in a logistic regression model. When ETR was performed for SBP ≤50mmHg or for heart rate ≤70bpm less than 5% of patients survived. There were no survivors of blunt trauma when SBP was ≤60mmHg or pulse was ≤80bpm. This review suggests that ETR may have limited benefit in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. New approach to intracardiac hemodynamic measurements in small animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Kristian; Olsen, Niels T; Dimaano, Veronica L

    2012-01-01

    Invasive measurements of intracardiac hemodynamics in animal models have allowed important advances in the understanding of cardiac disease. Currently they are performed either through a carotid arteriotomy or via a thoracotomy and apical insertion. Both of these techniques have disadvantages...... and are not conducive to repeated measurements. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a new technique for measuring intracardiac hemodynamics....

  9. Development of BOLD signal hemodynamic responses in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arichi, T.; Varela, M.; Melendez-Calderon, A.; Allievi, A.; Merchant, N.; Tusor, N.; Counsell, S.J.; Burdet, E.; Beckmann, Christian; Edwards, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    In the rodent brain the hemodynamic response to a brief external stimulus changes significantly during development. Analogous changes in human infants would complicate the determination and use of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in developing

  10. Current status of cardiovascular surgery in Japan 2013 and 2014: A report based on the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database. 2: Congenital heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yasutaka; Hirahara, Norimichi; Murakami, Arata; Motomura, Noboru; Miyata, Hiroaki; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2018-01-01

    We analyzed the mortality and morbidity of congenital heart surgery in Japan using the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database (JCVSD). Data regarding congenital heart surgery performed between January 2013 and December 2014 were obtained from JCVSD. The 20 most frequent procedures were selected and the mortality rates and major morbidities were analyzed. The mortality rates of atrial septal defect repair and ventricular septal defect repair were less than 1%, and the mortality rates of tetralogy of Fallot repair, complete atrioventricular septal defect repair, bidirectional Glenn, and total cavopulmonary connection were less than 2%. The mortality rates of the Norwood procedure and total anomalous pulmonary venous connection repair were more than 10%. The rates of unplanned reoperation, pacemaker implantation, chylothorax, deep sternal infection, phrenic nerve injury, and neurological deficit were shown for each procedure. Using JCVSD, the national data for congenital heart surgery, including postoperative complications, were analyzed. Further improvements of the database and feedback for clinical practice are required.

  11. Severe carotid stenosis and impaired cerebral hemodynamics can influence cognitive deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Perozzi, Cecilia; Altamura, Claudia; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Luzzi, Simona; Bartolini, Marco; Provinciali, Leandro; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2013-06-04

    To evaluate whether severe carotid stenosis and related hemodynamics impairment may increase the risk of cognitive deterioration in asymptomatic subjects. A total of 210 subjects with unilateral asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis and 109 healthy controls were included and prospectively evaluated for a 36-month period. At entry, demographics, vascular risk profile, and pharmacologic treatments were defined. Cerebral hemodynamics was assessed by transcranial Doppler-based breath-holding index (BHI) test. Cognitive status was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at entry and at the end of the follow-up period. Cognitive deterioration was defined as a decrease in the MMSE score of 3 points or more during the overall follow-up period. Subjects with carotid stenosis showed an increased probability of developing cognitive deterioration compared with the group without stenosis (odds ratio [OR] 4.16 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.89-9.11]; p < 0.001). The presence of an impaired BHI ipsilateral to the stenosis was associated with an increased incidence of reduction in cognitive performance (OR 14.66 [95% CI 7.51-28.59]; p < 0.001). Our findings show that the presence of a severe carotid stenosis influences cognitive deterioration over a 36-month period in asymptomatic subjects. An associated hemodynamic impairment significantly increases the risk. Evaluation of functional consequences of carotid stenosis may offer the opportunity to select a group with an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment from subjects with asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis.

  12. Higher dietary magnesium intake and higher magnesium status are associated with lower prevalence of coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gant, C.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Binnenmars, S.H.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Navis, G.; Laverman, G.D.

    2018-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the handling of magnesium is disturbed. Magnesium deficiency may be associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated the associations between (1) dietary magnesium intake; (2) 24 h urinary magnesium excretion; and (3) plasma magnesium

  13. Physical work demands, hypertension status, and risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen Male Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality from high physical work demands has been observed among men with low physical fitness and leisure time physical activity. We tested whether hypertensive men are at a particularly high risk of IHD mortality when exposed to high physical work...

  14. Hemodynamic Consequences for Circuit Weight Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, T. Earl; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study of high sustained heart rates observed during circuit weight training involving high resistance and low repetitions indicates that such training has no concurrent cardiovascular training effect. (MB)

  15. A case of peripartum heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Vinci

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old woman was admitted in congestive heart failure (CHF 3 days after delivery. She had no history of cardiovascular disease and impaired left ventricular Ejection Fraction (EF 35%. She underwent complete heart catheterisation, selective coronary angiography and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy (EMB.Coronary arteries were normal and EMB revealed active virus negative myocarditis. Serum was positive for anti-heart autoantibodies (AHA. Thus myocarditis was classified as autoimmune and the patient was treated with immunosuppressive therapy, with clinical and hemodynamic improvement. At 27 months follow-up EMB showed healed myocarditis. Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM is a rare disorder in which left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure occur in the peripartum period in previously healthy women. The etiology is still unknown but a sizable proportion of patients may have an underlying organ-specific autoimmune myocarditis.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of valvular heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ståhlberg, F; Thomsen, C

    1999-01-01

    The optimum management of patients with valvular heart diseases requires accurate and reproducible assessment of the valvular lesion and its hemodynamic consequences. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as volume measurements, signal-void phenomena, and velocity mapping, can be used...... in an integrated approach to gain qualitative and quantitative information on valvular heart disease as well as ventricular dimensions and functions. Thus, MRI may be advantageous to the established diagnostic tools in assessing the severity of valvular heart disease as well as monitoring the lesion and predicting...... the optimal timing for valvular surgery. This paper reviews the validation of these MRI techniques in assessing valvular heart disease and discusses some typical pitfalls of the techniques, including suggestions for solutions.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 1999;10:627-638....

  17. Collateral circulation alters downstream hemodynamic stress caused by intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Dornbos, David; Pu, Yuehua; Leng, Xinyi; Song, Ligang; Jia, Baixue; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, David; Miao, Zhongrong; Wang, Yilong; Liu, Liping; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-06-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) accurately predicts the degree of stenosis and is now widely used to identify clinically significant severe coronary artery lesions. In the current study, we utilized a similar indicator, fractional flow (FF), to determine the hemodynamic impact of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) and to assess the correlation of FF with the severity of stenosis and collateral circulation. Patients with symptomatic ICAS (70-99% stenosis) confirmed on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were consecutively recruited. FF was obtained during DSA examination with the use of pressure sensors and was measured as a ratio, comparing measurements distal to an ICAS lesion (Pd) and within the aorta (Pa). The degree of leptomeningeal collateralization was graded from zero (absent) to four (complete compensatory). The correlation between FF, anatomical stenosis, and collateral status was then analyzed. Twenty-five patients with a mean age of 55.6 years were analyzed. The median percentage of stenosis and median FF were 82.3 and 0.68%, respectively. Eleven patients were found to have poor collateralization (grade 0-2), and fourteen patients were identified with good collateral circulation (grade 3-4). Overall, the hemodynamic impact of an atherosclerotic lesions worsened (decreased FF) as the percentage of stenosis increased, although this did not reach statistical significance (r = -0.398, p = 0.06). However, the status of collateralization significantly altered this correlation, worsening the hemodynamic impact in patients with poor collateral circulation (r = -0.677, p = 0.032). There was no difference in patients with good collateral circulation (r = -0.279, p = 0.356). An anatomically severe (70-99%) symptomatic ICAS lesion may generate significant hemodynamic stress downstream as assessed by the indicator FF, particularly in patients with poor collateral circulation. Further, good collateralization may mitigate this

  18. Hemodynamic characteristics of early stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Masatoshi; Tomita, Shusuke; Tochio, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Hemodynamic characteristics were studied by using in vivo vascular imaging techniques in 17 resected early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (e-HCC) by comparing them with 49 resected advanced HCCs (ad-HCC) less than 3 cm in diameter. In this study, e-HCC was defined as the nodule being uniformly composed of well-differentiated HCC or adenomatous hyperplastic nodule containing well-differentiated HCC foci within the nodule. In vivo vascular imaging techniques are as follows; US angiography with intraarterial CO 2 microbubbles were performed to assess the tumor arterial vascularity, and CT during arterial portography (CTAP) was performed to assess the portal perfusion within the nodule. Of 17 e-HCC nodules 5 were hypervascular, 5 were isovascular, 4 were hypovascular, and 3 were vascular spot in hypovascular pattern in contrast to 49 ad-HCC nodules, 43 of which were hypervascular and 6 were isovascular. Of 14 e-HCCs, 9 nodules showed perfusion defect and 5 did not on CTAP, whereas all 37 ad-HCCs on which CTAP was performed, showed perfusion defect. Forty-one percent (7/17) of e-HCC showed fatty metamorphosis in contrast to 8% (4/49) of ad-HCC. In conclusion, hemodynamic characteristics of e-HCC are summarized as follows. (1) Arterial tumor neovascularization is relatively low. (2) Portal perfusion is present in some of e-HCC cases. (3) Hypoperfusion state both from arterial and portal supply is present in some of e-HCC cases. (4) Vascular spot in hypovascular pattern is characteristic arterial pattern in AH containing HCC foci. (5) Fatty metamorphosis may be related with hypoperfusion state of the nodule in e-HCC. (author)

  19. Heart Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health! Get a free badge or banner to post to your website or blog. Are you at risk for heart disease? Here's how to find out . Planning to use The Heart Truth logo? Check out our logo guidelines and downloads. ...

  20. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it may be caused by diseases, such as connective tissue disorders, excessive iron buildup in your body (hemochromatosis), the buildup of abnormal proteins (amyloidosis) or by some cancer treatments. Causes of heart infection A heart infection, ...

  1. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family history of heart attack race – African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and native Hawaiians are at ... Your doctor will prescribe the medicines that are right for you. If you have had a heart ...

  2. A new CT-score as index of hemodynamic changes in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Maria Barbara; Giannotta, Marica; Palazzini, Massimiliano; Cefarelli, Mariano; Martìn Suàrez, Sofia; Gotti, Enrico; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Zompatori, Maurizio; Galiè, Nazzareno

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the relationship between radiological and hemodynamic parameters in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We introduced a new CT-score to evaluate hemodynamic changes, only employing CT-pulmonary angiography (CTPA). 145 patients affected by CTEPH underwent hemodynamic and CTPA evaluation. Among these 145 patients, 69 underwent pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) and performed a CTPA evaluation even after surgery. Hemodynamic assessment considered the values of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), obtained through right heart catheterization (RHC). Radiological evaluation included CTPA signs of pulmonary hypertension. A highly significant statistical correlation was observed between the new CT-score and both mPAP and PVR (p < 0.000) in the whole sample and also in the subgroup who underwent PEA. In addition, mPAP and PVR showed an important association with the severity of mosaic perfusion (p < 0.000). mPAP also correlated with main pulmonary artery diameter (p < 0.01); a significant association was found in both between PVR and tricuspid regurgitation(p < 0.000) and with PVR and presence of unilateral or bilateral pulmonary thromboembolic occlusion (p < 0.05). Our results confirm the diagnostic role of CTPA in evaluating patients with CTEPH and in addition open a new horizon in assessing hemodynamic changes in patients with CTEPH, only employing a CTPA, especially when RHC is contraindicated or not possible.

  3. Heart pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation; Artificial pacemaker; Permanent pacemaker; Internal pacemaker; Cardiac resynchronization therapy; CRT; Biventricular pacemaker; Arrhythmia - pacemaker; Abnormal heart ...

  4. Fatty Acid Oxidation Is Preserved Regardless of Impaired Uptake in the Chronically Failing Rat Heart

    OpenAIRE

    TACHIKAWA, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid is used as a major fuel in the fasting heart, but the precise metabolism in the failing heart remains unknown. We assessed the hypothesis that the fatty acid metabolism might be impaired or delayed during heart failure. We examined in vivo kinetics of an isotope-labeled fatty acid analogue and its substrates as well as hemodynamic parameters and histopathological findings in a rat model of postmyocarditic dilated cardiomyopathy. Rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) was ind...

  5. Ionizing radiation occupational exposure in the hemodynamics services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronchi, Claudia Carla

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the ionizing radiation occupational exposure in the hemodynamic services of two large scale hospitals (Hospital A and Hospital B) of the Sao Paulo city. The research looked into annual doses that 279 professionals of the hemodynamic services were exposed to between 1991 and 2002. The data analyzed was collected from the database of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) for Hospital A, and from the Radiological Protection Department of Hospital B. Besides this, measures of hands and crystalline lens equivalent doses were performed during hemodynamic procedures of the physicians, assistant physicians and nursing assistants with TL dosimeters (CaSO 4 :Dy + Teflon R) produced at IPEN. The safety procedures adopted by the hospitals were verified with the aid of a specific questionnaire for the hemodynamic services. Finally, a profile of the professionals that work in cardiac catheterism laboratories of the hemodynamic services was delineated, considering the variables of individual monitoring time, age and sex. This study allowed for observation of the behavior of the professionals' annual doses of these hemodynamic services in relation to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear and the Secretaria de Vigilancia Sanitaria limits. It showed that the annual doses of the same specialized occupations would vary from one hospital to another. It further showed the need of individual monitoring of the physicians' unprotected body parts (hands and crystalline lens) during the hemodynamic procedures. (author)

  6. Hemodynamic Perturbations in Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery: First Detailed Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumul Chowdhury

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodynamic perturbations can be anticipated in deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery and may be attributed to multiple factors. Acute changes in hemodynamics may produce rare but severe complications such as intracranial bleeding, transient ischemic stroke and myocardium infarction. Therefore, this retrospective study attempts to determine the incidence of hemodynamic perturbances (rate and related risk factors in patients undergoing DBS surgery.Materials and Methods: After institutional approval, all patients undergoing DBS surgery for the past 10 years were recruited for this study. Demographic characteristics, procedural characteristics and intraoperative hemodynamic changes were noted. Event rate was calculated and the effect of all the variables on hemodynamic perturbations was analyzed by regression model.Results: Total hemodynamic adverse events during DBS surgery was 10.8 (0–42 and treated in 57% of cases.Conclusion: Among all the perioperative variables, the baseline blood pressure including systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure was found to have highly significant effect on these intraoperative hemodynamic perturbations.

  7. Longitudinal Hemodynamics of Transcatheter and Surgical Aortic Valves in the PARTNER Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela S; Leon, Martin B; Mack, Michael J; Svensson, Lars G; Webb, John G; Hahn, Rebecca T; Pibarot, Philippe; Weissman, Neil J; Miller, D Craig; Kapadia, Samir; Herrmann, Howard C; Kodali, Susheel K; Makkar, Raj R; Thourani, Vinod H; Lerakis, Stamatios; Lowry, Ashley M; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Finn, Matthew T; Alu, Maria C; Smith, Craig R; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2017-11-01

    Use of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for severe aortic stenosis is growing rapidly. However, to our knowledge, the durability of these prostheses is incompletely defined. To determine the midterm hemodynamic performance of balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valves. In this study, we analyzed core laboratory-generated data from echocardiograms of all patients enrolled in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) 1 Trial with successful TAVR or surgical AVR (SAVR) obtained preimplantation and at 7 days, 1 and 6 months, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years postimplantation. Patients from continued access observational studies were included for comparison. Successful implantation after randomization to TAVR vs SAVR (PARTNER 1A; TAVR, n = 321; SAVR, n = 313), TAVR vs medical treatment (PARTNER 1B; TAVR, n = 165), and continued access (TAVR, n = 1996). Five-year echocardiogram data were available for 424 patients after TAVR and 49 after SAVR. Death or reintervention for aortic valve structural indications, measured using aortic valve mean gradient, effective orifice area, Doppler velocity index, and evidence of hemodynamic deterioration by reintervention, adverse hemodynamics, or transvalvular regurgitation. Of 2795 included patients, the mean (SD) age was 84.5 (7.1) years, and 1313 (47.0%) were female. Population hemodynamic trends derived from nonlinear mixed-effects models showed small early favorable changes in the first few months post-TAVR, with a decrease of -2.9 mm Hg in aortic valve mean gradient, an increase of 0.028 in Doppler velocity index, and an increase of 0.09 cm2 in effective orifice area. There was relative stability at a median follow-up of 3.1 (maximum, 5) years. Moderate/severe transvalvular regurgitation was noted in 89 patients (3.7%) after TAVR and increased over time. Patients with SAVR showed no significant changes. In TAVR, death/reintervention was associated with lower ejection fraction, stroke volume

  8. Assessment of selenium and zinc status in Korean middle-aged male patients with coronary heart disease using neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ok Hee; Kim, Bo Ha; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Yong Sam

    2005-01-01

    The presented study aimed to evaluate the selenium and zinc status of Korean middle -aged male patients with CHD. The serum concentration of zinc and selenium was measured by Neutron activation analysis method. The mean serum selenium and zinc concentrations of patients were 94.9 μg/l and 826.4 μg/l, respectively compared to the 97.8μg/l, 891.6 μg/l of control group, showing no any difference in selenium status, but showed significant difference for zinc status of middle -aged men. The deficiency of zinc in control group was 9.8%, but that was 31.3% in patient group. Conclusively, this study indicated that zinc status, which is associated with inflammatory reaction, is low in Korean male patients with CHD

  9. Comparison of hemodynamics during hyperthermal immersion and exercise testing in apparently healthy females aged 50-60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietava, Jan; Vohnout, Branislav; Valent, Denis; Celko, Juraj

    2004-07-01

    Owing to excessive worries regarding adverse cardiac events, hyperthermal balneotherapy for patients with coronary artery disease is underprescribed. However, very few cardiac events occur in similar heat stress during Finnish sauna bathing. Exercise testing has proven to be a safe diagnostic procedure even in survivors of myocardial infarction. We compared the effects of hyperthermal immersion and exercise testing on cardiac hemodynamics in 21 apparently healthy women aged 50-60 years. The maximal symptom-limited bicycle exercise test was performed according to the modified protocol of Wasserman. Hyperthermal immersion was carried out in 40 degrees C water and was completed by increasing the core temperature by about 2 degrees C. The left ventricular function was evaluated using continuous measurement of thoracic electric bioimpedance during both tests. The blood pressure, index of contractility and heart rate were measured directly, whereas the cardiac index, left cardiac work index and systemic vascular resistance index were calculated. The hemodynamic response, as assessed at continuous non-invasive monitoring, showed substantial differences between hyperthermal immersion and exercise testing. Overall, we found a significantly lower hemodynamic load during hyperthermal immersion in comparison with exercise testing. Entering the bath, there was a significant decrease in the left cardiac work, contractility and blood pressure. We recorded a slight increase in the heart rate towards peak hyperthermal immersion. However, other modulators such as the mean arterial pressure, index of contractility, cardiac index and left cardiac work index decreased even below resting values. Excessive hyperthermal immersion induced a lower hemodynamic load in apparently healthy women than standard maximal exercise testing.

  10. Hemodynamic, morphometric and autonomic patterns in hypertensive rats - renin-angiotensin system modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Zamo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop left ventricular hypertrophy, increased blood pressure and blood pressure variability, which are important determinants of heart damage, like the activation of renin-angiotensin system. AIMS: To investigate the effects of the time-course of hypertension over 1 hemodynamic and autonomic patterns (blood pressure; blood pressure variability; heart rate; 2 left ventricular hypertrophy; and 3 local and systemic Renin-angiotensin system of the spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Male spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomized into two groups: young (n=13 and adult (n=12. Hemodynamic signals (blood pressure, heart rate, blood pressure variability (BPV and spectral analysis of the autonomic components of blood pressure were analyzed. LEFT ventricular hypertrophy was measured by the ratio of LV mass to body weight (mg/g, by myocyte diameter (μm and by relative fibrosis area (RFA, %. ACE and ACE2 activities were measured by fluorometry (UF/min, and plasma renin activity (PRA was assessed by a radioimmunoassay (ng/mL/h. Cardiac gene expressions of Agt, Ace and Ace2 were quantified by RT-PCR (AU. RESULTS: The time-course of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats increased BPV and reduced the alpha index in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats. Adult rats showed increases in left ventricular hypertrophy and in RFA. Compared to young spontaneously hypertensive rats, adult spontaneously hypertensive rats had lower cardiac ACE and ACE2 activities, and high levels of PRA. No change was observed in gene expression of Renin-angiotensin system components. CONCLUSIONS: The observed autonomic dysfunction and modulation of Renin-angiotensin system activity are contributing factors to end-organ damage in hypertension and could be interacting. Our findings suggest that the management of hypertensive disease must start before blood pressure reaches the highest stable levels and the consequent

  11. Transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin in healthy persons: acute effects on skin temperature and hemodynamic orthostatic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Augusta Boeckh Haebisch

    Full Text Available In order to find an explanation for individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN we studied the skin temperature and hemodynamic reactions in 63 healthy persons. The data were obtained before and after the application of GTN and Glycerin (GL placebo patches, during one hour. The skin temperature was measured on both forearms, the local (left sided and systemic (right sided reaction on GTN was related to the skin fold and the calculated body fat content. The bilateral rise of skin temperature and its duration was higher and longer in obese than in lean persons mainly in obese women. The UV induced thermo and the later photothermoreaction (Erythema was reduced on the left forearm after the application of GTN and GL patches. The observed hemodynamic GTN effect confirmed known postural reactions, such as decreased arterial pressure (ΔmAP = -2.9%, increased heart rate (ΔHR = +7,4% and QTc prolongation (ΔQTc = +4,9% in upright position. An adverse drug effect with increased mean blood pressure (ΔmAP = +12% and increased heart rate (ΔHR = + 10.4% mainly in supine position was observed in 11 % of the participants, but only in men. Such a reaction was already described by Murell, 1879. Individual GTN effects were analyzed and related to habits and family history. In male smokers and in persons with hypertensive and diabetic close relatives, the hypotensive GTN effect was accentuated in supine position. In the upright position the group with hypertensives in the family presented a moderate hypotensive reaction without secondary tachycardia and the smokers presented only a slightly increased heart rate. Our observations suggest that individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN with its active component nitric oxide (NO depends on physiological conditions, related to endogenous vasoactive substances, mainly the interaction with EDRF (the endogenous NO and the activity of the Renin-Angiotensin System.

  12. The Adverse Events and Hemodynamic Effects of Adenosine-Based Cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigtlander, Thomas; Magedanz, Annett; Schmermund, Axel; Bramlage, Peter; Elsaesser, Amelie; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Mohrs, Oliver K.

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to prospectively assess the adverse events and hemodynamic effects associated with an intravenous adenosine infusion in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease and who were undergoing cardiac MRI. One hundred and sixty-eight patients (64 ± 9 years) received adenosine (140 μg/kg/min) during cardiac MRI. Before and during the administration, the heart rate, systemic blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were monitored using a MRI-compatible system. We documented any signs and symptoms of potential adverse events. In total, 47 out of 168 patients (28%) experienced adverse effects, which were mostly mild or moderate. In 13 patients (8%), the adenosine infusion was discontinued due to intolerable dyspnea or chest pain. No high grade atrioventricular block, bronchospasm or other life-threatening adverse events occurred. The hemodynamic measurements showed a significant increase in the heart rate during adenosine infusion (69.3 ± 11.7 versus 82.4 ± 13.0 beats/min, respectively; p < 0.001). A significant but clinically irrelevant increase in oxygen saturation occurred during adenosine infusion (96 ± 1.9% versus 97 ± 1.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The blood pressure did not significantly change during adenosine infusion (systolic: 142.8 ± 24.0 versus 140.9 ± 25.7 mmHg; diastolic: 80.2 ± 12.5 mmHg versus 78.9 ± 15.6, respectively). This study confirms the safety of adenosine infusion during cardiac MRI. A considerable proportion of all patients will experience minor adverse effects and some patients will not tolerate adenosine infusion. However, all adverse events can be successfully managed by a radiologist. The increased heart rate during adenosine infusion highlights the need to individually adjust the settings according to the patient, e.g., the number of slices of myocardial perfusion imaging.

  13. Permanent education that approaches radiation protection in hemodynamic service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flor, Rita de Cassia; Anjos, Djeniffer Valdirene dos

    2011-01-01

    In the hemodynamic services that apply ionizing radiation yet exist the necessity of capacitation of workers for actuation in those areas. So, this qualitative study performed in a hemodynamic service at Sao Jose, Santa Catarina, Brazil, had the objective to analyse how are developed the permanent education programs and the real necessity of workers. The results have shown that the workers are longing for their qualification and formation, as generally they are admitted with not any qualification for those services. So, the workers that realize the on duty hemodynamic service praxis must do it in a conscious manner and the E P is a way for to adopt good practice in radiological protection

  14. Characterization of a novel symptom of advanced heart failure: bendopnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Jennifer T; Turer, Aslan T; Gualano, Sarah K; Ayers, Colby R; Velez-Martinez, Mariella; Mishkin, Joseph D; Patel, Parag C; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Markham, David W; Levine, Benjamin D; Drazner, Mark H

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to examine the frequency and hemodynamic correlates of shortness of breath when bending forward, a symptom we have termed "bendopnea." Many heart failure patients describe bendopnea such as when putting on their shoes. This symptom has not previously been characterized. We conducted a prospective study of 102 subjects with systolic heart failure referred for right-heart catheterization. Time to onset of bendopnea was measured prior to catheterization. Forty-six subjects also underwent hemodynamic assessment when sitting and bending. Hemodynamic profiles were assigned on the basis of whether pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) was ≥ 22 mm Hg and cardiac index (CI) was ≤ 2.2 l/min/m(2). Bendopnea was present in 29 of 102 (28%) subjects with median (25th, 75th percentiles) time to onset of 8 (7, 11) seconds. Subjects with bendopnea had higher supine right atrial pressure (RAP) (p = 0.001) and PCWP (p = 0.0004) than those without bendopnea but similar CI (p = 0.2). RAP and PCWP increased comparably in subjects with and without bendopnea when bending, but CI did not change. In those with, versus without, bendopnea, there was more than a 3-fold higher frequency of a supine hemodynamic profile consisting of elevated PCWP with low CI (55% vs. 16%, respectively, p < 0.001) but no association with a profile of elevated PCWP with normal CI (p = 0.95). Bendopnea is mediated via a further increase in filling pressures during bending when filling pressures are already high, particularly if CI is reduced. Awareness of bendopnea should improve noninvasive assessment of hemodynamics in subjects with heart failure. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Current strategies for preventing renal dysfunction in patients with heart failure: a heart failure stage approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Victor Sarli; Andrade, Lúcia; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is common during episodes of acute decompensated heart failure, and historical data indicate that the mean creatinine level at admission has risen in recent decades. Different mechanisms underlying this change over time have been proposed, such as demographic changes, hemodynamic and neurohumoral derangements and medical interventions. In this setting, various strategies have been proposed for the prevention of renal dysfunction with heterogeneous results. In the present article, we review and discuss the main aspects of renal dysfunction prevention according to the different stages of heart failure. PMID:23644863

  16. Implanted artificial heart with radioisotope power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumakov, V I; Griaznov, G M; Zhemchuzhnikov, G N; Kiselev, I M; Osipov, A P

    1983-02-01

    An atomic artificial heart for orthotopic implantation was developed with the following characteristics: volume, 1.2 L; weight, 1.5 kg; radioisotope power, 45 W; operating life, up to 5 years; hemodynamics, similar to natural hemodynamics. The artificial heart includes a thermal drive with systems for regulating power, feeding steam into the cylinders, return of the condensate to the steam generator, and delivery of power to the ventricles and heat container. The artificial heart is placed in an artificial pericardium partially filled with physiologic solution. It uses a steam engine with two operating cylinders that separately drive the left and right ventricles. There is no electronic control system in the proposed design. The operation of the heat engine is controlled, with preservation of autoregulation by the vascular system of the body. The separate drives for the ventricles is of primary importance as it provides for operation of the artificial heart through control of cardiac activity by venous return. Experimental testing on a hydromechanical bench demonstrated effective autoregulation.

  17. Extra-cardiac manifestations of adult congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Stephen A; Ward, Cary; Krasuski, Richard A

    2016-10-01

    Advancement in correction or palliation of congenital cardiac lesions has greatly improved the lifespan of congenital heart disease patients, resulting in a rapidly growing adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population. As this group has increased in number and age, emerging science has highlighted the systemic nature of ACHD. Providers caring for these patients are tasked with long-term management of multiple neurologic, pulmonary, hepatic, renal, and endocrine manifestations that arise as syndromic associations with congenital heart defects or as sequelae of primary structural or hemodynamic abnormalities. In this review, we outline the current understanding and recent research into these extra-cardiac manifestations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Levosimendan for Hemodynamic Support after Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, Giovanni; Lomivorotov, Vladimir V; Alvaro, Gabriele; Lobreglio, Rosetta; Pisano, Antonio; Guarracino, Fabio; Calabrò, Maria G; Grigoryev, Evgeny V; Likhvantsev, Valery V; Salgado-Filho, Marcello F; Bianchi, Alessandro; Pasyuga, Vadim V; Baiocchi, Massimo; Pappalardo, Federico; Monaco, Fabrizio; Boboshko, Vladimir A; Abubakirov, Marat N; Amantea, Bruno; Lembo, Rosalba; Brazzi, Luca; Verniero, Luigi; Bertini, Pietro; Scandroglio, Anna M; Bove, Tiziana; Belletti, Alessandro; Michienzi, Maria G; Shukevich, Dmitriy L; Zabelina, Tatiana S; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2017-05-25

    Acute left ventricular dysfunction is a major complication of cardiac surgery and is associated with increased mortality. Meta-analyses of small trials suggest that levosimendan may result in a higher rate of survival among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients in whom perioperative hemodynamic support was indicated after cardiac surgery, according to prespecified criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (in a continuous infusion at a dose of 0.025 to 0.2 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute) or placebo, for up to 48 hours or until discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU), in addition to standard care. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. The trial was stopped for futility after 506 patients were enrolled. A total of 248 patients were assigned to receive levosimendan and 258 to receive placebo. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality between the levosimendan group and the placebo group (32 patients [12.9%] and 33 patients [12.8%], respectively; absolute risk difference, 0.1 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.7 to 5.9; P=0.97). There were no significant differences between the levosimendan group and the placebo group in the durations of mechanical ventilation (median, 19 hours and 21 hours, respectively; median difference, -2 hours; 95% CI, -5 to 1; P=0.48), ICU stay (median, 72 hours and 84 hours, respectively; median difference, -12 hours; 95% CI, -21 to 2; P=0.09), and hospital stay (median, 14 days and 14 days, respectively; median difference, 0 days; 95% CI, -1 to 2; P=0.39). There was no significant difference between the levosimendan group and the placebo group in rates of hypotension or cardiac arrhythmias. In patients who required perioperative hemodynamic support after cardiac surgery, low-dose levosimendan in addition to standard care did not result in lower 30-day mortality than placebo

  19. The hemodynamic repercussions of the autonomic modulations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Igor Victorovich Lakhno

    2017-01-16

    Jan 16, 2017 ... autonomic balance, arterial and venous hemodynamic Doppler indices and CTG variables in case of nor- mal fetal ... score of decelerations. Results: The .... puter electrocardiographic system ''Cardiolab Baby Card” (Scien-.

  20. Echocardiography-based hemodynamic management of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction: a feasibility and safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillcutt, Sasha K; Montzingo, Candice R; Agrawal, Ankit; Khaleel, Maseeha S; Therrien, Stacey L; Thomas, Walker R; Porter, Thomas R; Brakke, Tara R

    2014-11-01

    Patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) are at increased risk of postoperative adverse events. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of using echocardiography-guided hemodynamic management (EGHEM) during surgery in subjects with LVDD compared to conventional management. The feasibility of using echocardiography to direct a treatment algorithm and clinical outcomes were compared for safety between groups. Subjects were screened for LVDD by preoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and randomized to the conventional or EGHEM group. Subjects in EGHEM received hemodynamic management based on left ventricular filling patterns on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Primary outcomes measured were the feasibility to obtain TEE images and follow a TEE-based treatment algorithm. Safety outcomes also compared the following clinical differences between groups: length of hospitalization, incidence of atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure (CHF), myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack and renal failure measured 30 days postoperatively. Population consisted of 28 surgical subjects (14 in conventional group and 14 in EGHEM group). Mean subject age was 73.4 ± 6.7 years (36% male) in conventional group and 65.9 ± 14.4 years (36% male) in EGHEM group. Procedures included orthopedic (conventional = 29%, EGHEM 36%), general (conventional = 50%, EGHEM = 36%), vascular (conventional = 7%, EGHEM = 21%), and thoracic (conventional = 14%, EGHEM = 7%). There was no statistically significant difference in adverse clinical events between the 2 groups. The EGHEM group had less CHF, atrial fibrillation, and shorter length of stay. Echocardiography-guided hemodynamic management of patients with LVDD during surgery is feasible and may be a safe alternative to conventional management. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of pleural effusion drainage on oxygenation, respiratory mechanics, and hemodynamics in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razazi, Keyvan; Thille, Arnaud W; Carteaux, Guillaume; Beji, Olfa; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Brochard, Laurent; Mekontso Dessap, Armand

    2014-09-01

    In mechanically ventilated patients, the effect of draining pleural effusion on oxygenation is controversial. We investigated the effect of large pleural effusion drainage on oxygenation, respiratory function (including lung volumes), and hemodynamics in mechanically ventilated patients after ultrasound-guided drainage. Arterial blood gases, respiratory mechanics (airway, pleural and transpulmonary pressures, end-expiratory lung volume, respiratory system compliance and resistance), and hemodynamics (blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output) were recorded before and at 3 and 24 hours (H24) after pleural drainage. The respiratory settings were kept identical during the study period. The mean volume of effusion drained was 1,579 ± 684 ml at H24. Uncomplicated pneumothorax occurred in two patients. Respiratory mechanics significantly improved after drainage, with a decrease in plateau pressure and a large increase in end-expiratory transpulmonary pressure. Respiratory system compliance, end-expiratory lung volume, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio all improved. Hemodynamics were not influenced by drainage. Improvement in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio from baseline to H24 was positively correlated with the increase in end-expiratory lung volume during the same time frame (r = 0.52, P = 0.033), but not with drained volume. A high value of pleural pressure or a highly negative transpulmonary pressure at baseline predicted limited lung expansion following effusion drainage. A lesser improvement in oxygenation occurred in patients with ARDS. Drainage of large (≥500 ml) pleural effusion in mechanically ventilated patients improves oxygenation and end-expiratory lung volume. Oxygenation improvement correlated with an increase in lung volume and a decrease in transpulmonary pressure, but was less so in patients with ARDS.

  2. "COMPARISON OF HEMODYNAMIC CHANGES AFTER INSERTION OF LARYNGEAL MASK AIRWAY, FACEMASK AND ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Montazari

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic changes are major hazards of general anesthesia and are probably generated by direct laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. We designed this prospective randomised study to assess the cardiovascular changes after either laryngeal mask airway (LMA, face mask (FM or endotracheal tube (ETT insertion in the airway management of adult patients anesthetised with nitrous oxide and halothane. A total of 195 healthy normotensive adult patients with normal airways were randomly assigned to one of the three groups according to their airway management (n= 65 each for transurethral lithotripsy procedures. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP values were recorded before the induction of anesthesia, and then every three minutes until 30 min thereafter. The mean maximum HR and MAP values obtained during 15 and 30 minutes after insertion of LMA were 81±13, 73±8 bpm and 82±14, 79 ±11 mmHg, respectively which were significantly smaller compared to those with FM (84±12, 80±6 bpm and 86±10, 83±13 mmHg and ETT (96±8, 88±7 bpm and 91±11, 82±9 mmHg (P< 0.05. Direct stimulation of the trachea appears to be a major cause of the hemodynamic changes associated with tracheal intubation during general anesthesia, but why hemodynamic changes in LMA were smaller than facemask needs further study. In healthy normotensive patients the use of LMA for the airway management during general anesthesia results in a smaller cardiovascular change than FM and ETT.

  3. Fluid mechanics of heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganathan, Ajit P; He, Zhaoming; Casey Jones, S

    2004-01-01

    Valvular heart disease is a life-threatening disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide and leads to approximately 250,000 valve repairs and/or replacements each year. Malfunction of a native valve impairs its efficient fluid mechanic/hemodynamic performance. Artificial heart valves have been used since 1960 to replace diseased native valves and have saved millions of lives. Unfortunately, despite four decades of use, these devices are less than ideal and lead to many complications. Many of these complications/problems are directly related to the fluid mechanics associated with the various mechanical and bioprosthetic valve designs. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art experimental and computational fluid mechanics of native and prosthetic heart valves in current clinical use. The fluid dynamic performance characteristics of caged-ball, tilting-disc, bileaflet mechanical valves and porcine and pericardial stented and nonstented bioprostheic valves are reviewed. Other issues related to heart valve performance, such as biomaterials, solid mechanics, tissue mechanics, and durability, are not addressed in this review.

  4. Effects of Melatonin and Epiphyseal Proteins on Fluoride-Induced Adverse Changes in Antioxidant Status of Heart, Liver, and Kidney of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Bharti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several experimental and clinical reports indicated the oxidative stress-mediated adverse changes in vital organs of human and animal in fluoride (F toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis epiphyseal (pineal proteins (BEP and melatonin (MEL against F-induced oxidative stress in heart, liver, and kidney of experimental adult female rats. To accomplish this experimental objective, twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (123–143 g body weights were divided into four groups, namely, control, F, F + BEP, and F + MEL and were administered sodium fluoride (NaF, 150 ppm elemental F in drinking water, MEL (10 mg/kg BW, i.p., and BEP (100 µg/kg BW, i.p. for 28 days. There were significantly P<0.05 high levels of lipid peroxidation and catalase and low levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues of F-treated rats. Administration of BEP and MEL in F-treated rats, however, significantly P<0.05 attenuated these adverse changes in all the target components of antioxidant defense system of cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. The present data suggest that F can induce oxidative stress in liver, heart, and kidney of female rats which may be a mechanism in F toxicity and these adverse effects can be ameliorated by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis epiphyseal proteins and melatonin by upregulation of antioxidant defense system of heart, liver, and kidney of rats.

  5. Imaging technique and current status of valvular heart disease using cardiac MRI; Untersuchungstechniken und Stellenwert der MRT bei der Diagnostik von Herzklappenerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, J.; Sohns, J.M. [Universitaetsmedizin Goettingen, Georg-August-Universitaet, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The main indications for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of valvular heart disease are pathologies of the aortic and pulmonary valve. For mitral and tricuspid valve pathologies MRI is not the first line modality as these are usually well visualized by echocardiography. The advantages of MRI in valvular heart disease are a high reliability in the evaluation of ventricular volumes and function as well as the assessment of the perivalvular arterial or atrial structures. This reliability and the limitless access to any imaging plane partially compensates for the lower temporal and spatial resolution in comparison to echocardiography. In patients with congenital heart disease, cardiac MRI is established as a valuable diagnostic tool in daily clinical management, especially for the evaluation of pulmonary valve defects. Nevertheless, echocardiography remains the first-line diagnostic imaging tool for the foreseeable future. (orig.) [German] Die Untersuchung der Herzklappen in der MRT umfasst derzeit v. a. die Aorten- und Pulmonalisklappe. Pathologien der atrioventrikulaeren Klappen bilden demgegenueber nur selten die zentrale Fragestellung einer kardialen MRT-Untersuchung, da diese normalerweise einer echokardiographischen Untersuchung gut zugaenglich sind. Die Staerke der MRT ist die hohe Zuverlaessigkeit, mit der neben der Klappenmorphologie und -funktion die Funktionsparameter des jeweiligen Ventrikels und die Morphologie der nachgeschalteten Arterien bestimmt werden koennen. Dadurch kann die MRT die prinzipielle Schwaeche in der Orts- und Zeitaufloesung gegenueber der Echokardiographie teilweise kompensieren. Bei Patienten mit kongenitalen Herzvitien ist die MRT-basierte Klappendiagnostik fester Bestandteil des klinischen Managements. Das gilt besonders fuer die Evaluation der Pulmonalisklappe. Die Echokardiographie bleibt absehbar die Modalitaet der ersten Wahl fuer die Klappendiagnostik am Herzen. (orig.)

  6. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    by LT(4) (p treatment in SH results in changes in hemodynamic parameters of potentially beneficial character. SH and overt hypothyroidism should......In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH......) and T(3) estimates) LT(4) treatment resulted in 6% reduction in supine MAP (p treatment (p

  7. Reliability of oscillometric central hemodynamic responses to an orthostatic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Stoner, Lee; Bonner, Chantel; Credeur, Daniel; Lambrick, Danielle; Faulkner, James; Wadsworth, Daniel; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundMonitoring central hemodynamic responses to an orthostatic challenge may provide important insight into autonomic nervous system function. Oscillometric pulse wave analysis devices have recently emerged, presenting clinically viable options for investigating central hemodynamic properties. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether oscillometric pulse wave analysis can be used to reliably (between-day) assess central blood pressure and central pressure augmentation (a...

  8. Effects of transfer from the operating room to the intensive care unit after cardiac surgery on hemodynamics and blood gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, S.; Gurkan, S.; Ustabasi, Z.; Atilgan, Y.; Sari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the effect of transferring open-heart surgery patients from the operating room to the intensive care unit on hemodynamic parameters and blood gases. The study was conducted as a prospective, observational study at the German Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey in 2007. Hemodynamic, blood gas values and oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry SpO2 values were recorded in 37 patients who undergone open-heart surgery. Data were evaluated by descriptive statistical methods, Friedman's test and correlation analysis. Thirty-seven patients were included in this study. The low systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure values prior to transfer, while patients were still under the effect of anesthesia, increased during the transfer and to one and 30 minutes after completion of transfer and return to normal values p<0.05. The SpO2 value measured at 30 minutes after completion of transfer was higher than the first value p<0.05. The pH p<0.001 and arterial partial pressure of oxygen p<0.001 values at the beginning of the transfer had significantly increased at the end of transfer and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide values had significantly decreased p<0.001. The transfer of open-heart surgery patients was observed to safe. (author)

  9. Remote patient monitoring in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Mishkin, Aaron; Aronow, Wilbert S; Kalra, Ankur; Frishman, William H

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) poses a significant economic burden on our health-care resources with very high readmission rates. Remote monitoring has a substantial potential to improve the management and outcome of patients with HF. Readmission for decompensated HF is often preceded by a stage of subclinical hemodynamic decompensation, where therapeutic interventions would prevent subsequent clinical decompensation and hospitalization. Various methods of remote patient monitoring include structured telephone support, advanced telemonitoring technologies, remote monitoring of patients with implanted cardiac devices such as pacemakers and defibrillators, and implantable hemodynamic monitors. Current data examining the efficacy of remote monitoring technologies in improving outcomes have shown inconsistent results. Various medicolegal and financial issues need to be addressed before widespread implementation of this exciting technology can take place.

  10. Postural hemodynamic changes after turning to prone position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микола Віталійович Лизогуб

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background of study. Prone position is one of the most complex positions for anesthesiologist as it is accompanied by several physiological changes that can lead to specific complications. Hemodynamic changes are most controversial.Aim of study was to establish hemodynamic changes in non-anaesthetized patients in prone position depending on body mass index.Material and methods. We examined central hemodynamics in 40 patients the day before surgery using thoracic rheography in supine position, in prone position 5 min after turning and in prone position 20 min after turning. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to body mass index (18-25 and 26-35.Results. Patients with normal body weight did not have any hemodynamic changes after turning to prone position. Patients with increased body weight had higher cardiac index. After turning to prone position obese patients’ cardiac output and cardiac index reduced 22% comparing with supine position. After 20 min in prone position these hemodynamic parameters were found to be reduced to the same level.Conclusion. Significant hemodynamic changes after turning from supine to prone position were revealed only in patients with increased body mass index. In these patients cardiac index in prone position was reduced by 22% comparing to supine position

  11. CT of hemodynamically unstable abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petridis, A.; Pilavaki, M.; Vafiadis, E.; Palladas, P.; Finitsis, S.; Drevelegas, A.

    1999-01-01

    This article is an appraisal of the use of CT in the management of patients with unstable abdominal trauma. We examined 41 patients with abdominal trauma using noncontrast dynamic CT. In 17 patients a postcontrast dynamic CT was also carried out. On CT, 25 patients had hemoperitoneum. Thirteen patients had splenic, 12 hepatic, 6 pancreatic, 8 bowel and mesenteric, 12 renal and 2 vascular injuries. Seven patients had retroperitoneal and 2 patients adrenal hematomas. All but five lesions (three renal, one pancreatic, and one splenic) were hypodense when CT was performed earlier than 8 h following the injury. Postcontrast studies (n = 17), revealed 4 splenic, 3 hepatic, 1 pancreatic, 3 renal, and 2 bowel and mesenteric injuries beyond what was found on noncontrast CT. Surgical confirmation (n = 21) was obtained in 81.81 % of splenic, 66.66 % of hepatic, 83.33 % of pancreatic, 100 % of renal, 100 % of retroperitoneal, and 85.71 % of bowel and mesenteric injuries. The majority of false diagnoses was obtained with noncontrast studies. Computed tomography is a remarkable method for evaluation and management of patients with hemodynamically unstable abdominal trauma, but only if it is revealed in the emergency room. Contrast injection, when it could be done, revealed lesions that were not suspected on initial plain scans. (orig.)

  12. CT of hemodynamically unstable abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petridis, A.; Pilavaki, M.; Vafiadis, E.; Palladas, P.; Finitsis, S.; Drevelegas, A. [Department of Radiology, General Hospital ``G. Papanikolaou,`` Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-03-01

    This article is an appraisal of the use of CT in the management of patients with unstable abdominal trauma. We examined 41 patients with abdominal trauma using noncontrast dynamic CT. In 17 patients a postcontrast dynamic CT was also carried out. On CT, 25 patients had hemoperitoneum. Thirteen patients had splenic, 12 hepatic, 6 pancreatic, 8 bowel and mesenteric, 12 renal and 2 vascular injuries. Seven patients had retroperitoneal and 2 patients adrenal hematomas. All but five lesions (three renal, one pancreatic, and one splenic) were hypodense when CT was performed earlier than 8 h following the injury. Postcontrast studies (n = 17), revealed 4 splenic, 3 hepatic, 1 pancreatic, 3 renal, and 2 bowel and mesenteric injuries beyond what was found on noncontrast CT. Surgical confirmation (n = 21) was obtained in 81.81 % of splenic, 66.66 % of hepatic, 83.33 % of pancreatic, 100 % of renal, 100 % of retroperitoneal, and 85.71 % of bowel and mesenteric injuries. The majority of false diagnoses was obtained with noncontrast studies. Computed tomography is a remarkable method for evaluation and management of patients with hemodynamically unstable abdominal trauma, but only if it is revealed in the emergency room. Contrast injection, when it could be done, revealed lesions that were not suspected on initial plain scans. (orig.) With 6 figs., 5 tabs., 20 refs.

  13. [Hemodynamic phenomena in retrobulhar and eyeball vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzejewska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate factors connected with blood flow and indices regulating vascular diameter and some parameters influencing retrobulbar circulation such as type of vascular resistance, anatomical structure of vascular wall and vessel lumen. Neurogenic and angiogenic factors, rheological blood composition, presence of anatomical and pathological obstructions on blood flow pathway as well as degree of development of collateral circulation pathways--have influence on the volume and blood flow velocity in eyeball. There were discussed bulbar circulation hemodynamics, emphasizing the importance of perfusion pressure. The role of risk factors was underlined for pathological lesions in vessels supplying blood to eyeball and in ophthalmic artery (OA) and its collaterals, in central retinal artery (CRA) as well as posterior ciliary arteries (PCAs), and in venous system carrying away blood from eye. IN CONCLUSION--the results of many studies of retrobulbar blood flow in different types of ophthalmic diseases of the vascular etiopathogenesis indicate that registry of the mean values of blood flow parameters and vascular resistance indices parallel to measurement of blood flow spectrum in OA, CRA, PCAs arteries, might contribute much information to explain or to evaluate nature of pathological changes in retinal and choroidal circulation.

  14. Inhibition of warm ischemic injury to rat liver, pancreas, and heart grafts by controlling the nutritional status of both donor and recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, V; Sumimoto, R; Fukuda, Y; Southard, J H; Asahara, T; Dohi, K

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of donor fasting with or without the use of an essential fatty acids deficiency (EFAD) diet in the recipient using rat heart, pancreas, and liver transplant models. We then compared the survivals, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) response, and white cell accumulation in rats in order to clarify the mechanisms of the beneficial effect of donor fasting and recipient EFAD. It was found that when the grafts were obtained from fasted donors and then transplanted into fed recipients, the survival rate was significantly higher for all three grafts than for those obtained from fed rats and transplanted into fed rats. The best survival was seen for pancreas grafts obtained from fasted donors and then transplanted into EFAD recipients. TNF-alpha secretion was significantly suppressed in both fasted and EFAD rats, and both the total cell count and neutrophil count were suppressed in EFAD rats. These results clearly indicate that in addition to liver grafts, both heart and pancreas grafts obtained from fasted animals are more tolerant to warm ischemic injury. Furthermore, the combination of donor fasting and recipient EFAD acts synergistically to inhibit the post-transplantation inflammatory reaction (through decreased TNF-alpha secretion and white cell accumulation), thus resulting in an improved survival.

  15. Clinical, morphological, and hemodynamic independent characteristic factors for rupture of posterior communicating artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Jing, Linkai; Liu, Jian; Li, Chuanhui; Fan, Jixing; Wang, Shengzhang; Li, Haiyun; Yang, Xinjian

    2016-08-01

    To identify clinical, morphological, and hemodynamic independent characteristic factors that discriminate posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm rupture status. 173 patients with single PCoA aneurysms (108 ruptured, 65 unruptured) between January 2012 and June 2014 were retrospectively collected. Patient-specific models based on their three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography images were constructed and analyzed by a computational fluid dynamic method. All variables were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Two clinical factors (younger age and atherosclerosis), three morphological factors (higher aspect ratio, bifurcation type, and irregular shape), and six hemodynamic factors (lower mean and minimum wall shear stress, higher oscillatory shear index, a greater portion of area under low wall shear stress, unstable and complex flow pattern) were significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm rupture. Independent factors characterizing the rupture status were identified as age (OR 0.956, p=0.015), irregular shape (OR 6.709, pPCoA aneurysm rupture were younger age, irregular shape, and low minimum wall shear stress. This may be useful for guiding risk assessments and subsequent treatment decisions for PCoA aneurysms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Effects of Propofol and Midazolam on Newborns’ Apgar Scores and Mothers’ Hemodynamic under Spinal Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Kalani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, cesarean section is the most prevalent surgical procedure in women and the anesthesia performed for it has turned into a selective technique. This study compared the effects of midazolam and propofol on newborns’ Apgar scores and on the hemodynamic status of the mothers undergoing cesarean sections. This research, in the form of a double-blind clinical trial, was carried out on forty-two15 - 35 year-old of class ASAI and II pregnant women who underwent cesarean section. Using the simple random method, they were divided into two groups of equal members: 21 in the Propofol and 21 in the midazolam groups. The newborns’ Apgar scores were recorded 1 and 5 minutes after birth and the mothers’ hemodynamic status 3, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 minutes into the surgical procedure. The data was analyzed using SPSS, the repeated measurement test, and the independent t-test. One and five minutes after birth, there were no significant differences between the newborns’ Apgar scores in the two groups (p=0.08, or between the two groups (p=0.33. Results showed there were no statistically significant differences between the Apgar scores of the newborns at low doses of midazolam and propofol.

  17. Heart regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Hemodynamic and antipyretic effects of paracetamol, metamizol and dexketoprofen in critical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, P; Zapata, L; Gich, I; Mancebo, J; Betbesé, A J

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to study the antipyretic and hemodynamic effects of three different drugs used to treat fever in critically ill patients. Prospective, observational study in a 16-bed, general ICU of a university hospital. We studied 150 patients who had a febrile episode (temperature>38°C): 50 received paracetamol, 50 metamizol and 50 dexketoprofen. None. Body temperature, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure, heart rate, central venous pressure and oxygen saturation were determined at baseline and at 30, 60 and 120minutes after infusion of the drug. Additionally, we recorded temperature 180minutes after starting drug infusion. Diuresis and the need for or change of dose of vasodilator or vasoconstrictor drugs were also recorded. Patient characteristics, baseline temperature and hemodynamics were similar in all groups. We observed a significant decrease of at least 1°C in temperature after 180minutes in 38 patients treated with dexketoprofen (76%), in 36 with metamizol (72%), and in 20 with paracetamol (40%) (pdexketoprofen (p=0.005). Dexketoprofen was the most effective antipyretic agent at the doses tested. Although all three drugs reduced mean arterial pressure, the reduction with paracetamol was less pronounced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea on hemodynamic parameters in patients entering cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Trent A; Aron, Adrian; Newsome, Laura J; Austin, Joseph L; Shafer, Brooke M

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent form of sleep-disordered breathing. Evidence suggests that OSA may lead to cardiac remodeling, although the literature is equivocal. Previous literature suggests a high percentage of individuals entering a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program also have OSA. The objective of this study was to determine whether resting hemodynamic variables were altered in OSA subjects entering CR compared with those without OSA, as determined by impedance cardiography. Subjects entering an early outpatient CR program were screened for OSA using an at-home screening device and verified by a sleep physician. Subjects were divided into an OSA group (n = 48) or a control group (n = 25) on the basis of the screening results. Hemodynamic variables were measured during supine rest using impedance cardiography. A 6-minute walk test was performed to assess functional capacity. The proportion of cardiac diagnoses was similar between groups. Overall, 66% of the subjects were positive for OSA. Subject groups did not differ by age, body mass index, heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, or functional capacity. Cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, contractility index, and left cardiac work index were all significantly decreased in the OSA group compared with the control group (P disadvantage in recovering from their cardiac event, and place them at increased risk for secondary complications.

  20. Comparing Pre- and Post-Operative Fontan Hemodynamic Simulations: Implications for the Reliability of Surgical Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Christopher M.; de Zélicourt, Diane A.; Restrepo, Maria; Rossignac, Jarek; Spray, Thomas L.; Kanter, Kirk R.; Fogel, Mark A.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Virtual modeling of cardiothoracic surgery is a new paradigm that allows for systematic exploration of various operative strategies and uses engineering principles to predict the optimal patient-specific plan. This study investigates the predictive accuracy of such methods for the surgical palliation of single ventricle heart defects. Methods Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based surgical planning was used to model the Fontan procedure for four patients prior to surgery. The objective for each was to identify the operative strategy that best distributed hepatic blood flow to the pulmonary arteries. Post-operative magnetic resonance data were acquired to compare (via CFD) the post-operative hemodynamics with predictions. Results Despite variations in physiologic boundary conditions (e.g., cardiac output, venous flows) and the exact geometry of the surgical baffle, sufficient agreement was observed with respect to hepatic flow distribution (90% confidence interval-14 ± 4.3% difference). There was also good agreement of flow-normalized energetic efficiency predictions (19 ± 4.8% error). Conclusions The hemodynamic outcomes of prospective patient-specific surgical planning of the Fontan procedure are described for the first time with good quantitative comparisons between preoperatively predicted and postoperative simulations. These results demonstrate that surgical planning can be a useful tool for single ventricle cardiothoracic surgery with the ability to deliver significant clinical impact. PMID:22777126

  1. Left Ventricular Myocardial Function in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: Relation to Right Ventricular Performance and Hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Dale A; Slorach, Cameron; Patel, Sonali S; Redington, Andrew N; Ivy, D Dunbar; Mertens, Luc; Younoszai, Adel K; Friedberg, Mark K

    2015-08-01

    Through ventricular interdependence, pulmonary hypertension (PH) induces left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that LV strain/strain rate, surrogate measures of myocardial contractility, are reduced in pediatric PH and relate to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional measures of PH. At 2 institutions, echocardiography was prospectively performed in 54 pediatric PH patients during cardiac catheterization, and in 54 matched controls. Patients with PH had reduced LV global longitudinal strain (LS; -18.8 [-17.3 to -20.4]% versus -20.2 [-19.0 to -20.9]%; P=0.0046) predominantly because of reduced basal (-12.9 [-10.8 to -16.3]% versus -17.9 [-14.5 to -20.7]%; Pright ventricular free-wall LS (r=0.64; PBrain natriuretic peptide levels correlated moderately with septal LS (r=0.48; P=0.0038). PH functional class correlated moderately with LV free-wall LS (r=-0.48; P=0.0051). The septum, shared between ventricles and affected by septal shift, was the most affected LV region in PH. Pediatric PH patients demonstrate reduced LV strain/strain rate, predominantly within the septum, with relationships to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional PH measures. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Systemic Hemodynamic Atherothrombotic Syndrome and Resonance Hypothesis of Blood Pressure Variability: Triggering Cardiovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, Kazuomi

    2016-07-01

    Blood pressure (BP) exhibits different variabilities and surges with different time phases, from the shortest beat-by-beat to longest yearly changes. We hypothesized that the synergistic resonance of these BP variabilites generates an extraordinarily large dynamic surge in BP and triggers cardiovascular events (the resonance hypothesis). The power of pulses is transmitted to the peripheral sites without attenuation by the large arteries, in individuals with stiffened arteries. Thus, the effect of a BP surge on cardiovascular risk would be especially exaggerated in high-risk patients with vascular disease. Based on this concept, our group recently proposed a new theory of systemic hemodynamic atherothromboltic syndrome (SHATS), a vicious cycle of hemodynamic stress and vascular disease that advances organ damage and triggers cardiovascular disease. Clinical phenotypes of SHATS are large-artery atherothombotic diseases such as stroke, coronary artery disease, and aortic and pheripheral artery disease; small-artery diseases, and microcirculation-related disease such as vascular cognitive dysfunction, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. The careful consideration of BP variability and vascular diseases such as SHATS, and the early detection and management of SHATS, will achieve more effective individualized cardiovascular protection. In the near future, information and communication technology-based 'anticipation medicine' predicted by the changes of individual BP values could be a promising approach to achieving zero cardiovascular events.

  3. Hemodynamic effects of 6% hydroxyethyl starch infusion in sevoflurane-anesthetized thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Minoru; Kurimoto, Shinjiro; Tokushige, Hirotaka; Kuroda, Taisuke; Ishikawa, Yuhiro

    2013-07-31

    To determine hemodynamic effects of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) infusion during anesthesia in horses, incremental doses of 6% HES were administered to 6 healthy Thoroughbred horses. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine, guaifenesin and thiopental and maintained with sevoflurane at 2.8% of end-tidal concentration in all horses. The horses were positioned in right lateral recumbency and administered 3 intravenous dose of 6% HES (5 ml/kg) over 15 min with 15-min intervals in addition to constant infusion of lactated Ringer's solution at 10 ml/kg/hr. Hemodynamic parameters were measured before and every 15 min until 90 min after the administration of 6% HES. There was no significant change in heart rate and arterial blood pressures throughout the experiment. The HES administration produced significant increases in mean right atrial pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output (CO) and decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) in a dose-dependent manner. There was no significant change in electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)) throughout the experiment, however, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, and total protein and albumin concentrations decreased in a dose-dependent manner following the HES administration. In conclusion, the HES administration provides a dose-dependent increase in CO, but has no impact upon arterial blood pressures due to a simultaneous decrease in SVR.

  4. Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    McMurray, John; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure.

  5. Artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-18

    Super-pure plutonium-238 could use heat produced during fission to power an implanted artificial heart. Three model hearts have worked for some time. Concern that excess heat would make the procedure unsafe for humans has broadened the search for another energy source, such as electrohydraulic drive or an external power battery. A back pack approach may provide an interim solution until materials are developed which can withstand heart activity and be small enough for implantation.

  6. Types of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  7. [Experts consensus on the management of the right heart function in critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X T; Liu, D W; Zhang, H M; Long, Y; Guan, X D; Qiu, H B; Yu, K J; Yan, J; Zhao, H; Tang, Y Q; Ding, X; Ma, X C; Du, W; Kang, Y; Tang, B; Ai, Y H; He, H W; Chen, D C; Chen, H; Chai, W Z; Zhou, X; Cui, N; Wang, H; Rui, X; Hu, Z J; Li, J G; Xu, Y; Yang, Y; Ouyan, B; Lin, H Y; Li, Y M; Wan, X Y; Yang, R L; Qin, Y Z; Chao, Y G; Xie, Z Y; Sun, R H; He, Z Y; Wang, D F; Huang, Q Q; Jiang, D P; Cao, X Y; Yu, R G; Wang, X; Chen, X K; Wu, J F; Zhang, L N; Yin, M G; Liu, L X; Li, S W; Chen, Z J; Luo, Z

    2017-12-01

    not be considered as a routine excuse for maintaining higher central venous pressure. (24) When left ventricular dilation, attention should be paid to the effect of left ventricle on right ventricular diastolic function. (25) The impact of left ventricular function should be excluded when the contractility of the right ventricle is decreased. (26) When the right heart load increases acutely, the shunt between the left and right heart should be monitored. (27) Attention should be paid to the increase of central venous pressure caused by right ventricular dysfunction and its influence on microcirculation blood flow. (28) When the vasoactive drugs was used to reduce the pressure of pulmonary circulation, different effects on pulmonary and systemic circulation should be evaluated. (29) Right atrial pressure is an important factor affecting venous return. Attention should be paid to the influence of the pressure composition of the right atrium on the venous return. (30) Attention should be paid to the role of the right ventricle in the acute pulmonary edema. (31) Monitoring the difference between the mean systemic filling pressure and the right atrial pressure is helpful to determine whether the infusion increases the venous return. (32) Venous return resistance is often considered to be a insignificant factor that affects venous return, but attention should be paid to the effect of the specific pathophysiological status, such as intrathoracic hypertension, intra-abdominal hypertension and so on. Consensus can promote right heart function management in critically ill patients, optimize hemodynamic therapy, and even affect prognosis.

  8. The effect of intravenous PACAP38 on cerebral hemodynamics in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Steffen; Sitarz, John Thomas; Petersen, Kenneth Ahrend

    2007-01-01

    .9+/-22.4% (Peffect on rCBF in healthy volunteers. The marked increase in heart rate and the reduction in rCBF caused by decreased P(et)CO(2) are important dose-limiting factors to consider in future clinical studies.......PACAP38 is an endogenous peptide located in trigeminal perivascular nerve fibers in the brain. It reduces neuronal loss and infarct size in animal stroke models and has been proposed a candidate substance for human clinical studies of stroke. The effect on systemic hemodynamics and regional......CBF was measured with SPECT and (133)Xe inhalation and mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery was measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. End tidal partial pressure of CO(2) (P(et)CO(2)) and vital parameters were recorded throughout the 2 hour study period. PACAP38 decreased rCBF in all...

  9. Complement, circulating immine complexes and cenral hemodynamics in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, A.I.; Fedoseeva, V.N.; Mol'kov, Yu.N.; Evstaf'ev, Yu.A.; Bochkarev, E.G.; Shcheglova, V.T.

    1987-01-01

    By means of radiocardiography and radiometry central hemodynamic parameters were measured, using 131 I-labelled human serum albumin, pulmonary-artery systolic pressure (PASP) was assessed indirectly, and serum complement and circulating immune complexes (CIC) were measured before 48 hours after subcutaneous administration of 20 TU tuberculin in 65 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis, 25 clinically-cured tuberculosis patients and 16 patients with chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases (CNPD). A potent direct correlation was demonstrated between the CIC level and PASP elevation. It is suggested that close correlation between CIC and PASP elevation may be evidence of their pathogenetic involvement in chronic pulmonary heart, as well as the fact that prolonged and effective chemotherapy weakens adverse cardiovascular effects of immunologic factors, which can however persist in some individuals even after they are apparently cured from tuberculosis

  10. Relation of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and their prognostic power in chronic stable heart failure to obesity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Remppis, Andrew; Nelles, Manfred; Schaelling, Bernd; Schellberg, Dieter; Katus, Hugo; Zugck, Christian

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) level and resultant prognostic capacity in chronic heart failure (CHF) controlled for known confounders. We formed 206 triplets of patients (n = 618) with stable systolic CHF matched with respect to age, sex, renal function (MDRD, modification of diet in renal disease formula), and NYHA class, each with a BMI >30 kg/m(2) (group 3), 20-24.9 kg/m(2) (group 1), and 25-29.9 kg/m(2) (group 2). BMI conveys a 4% drop in NTproBNP per unit increase. This influence remained significant after correction for age, sex, MDRD, NYHA, heart rate, rhythm, and ejection fraction. NTproBNP remained an independent predictor of adverse outcome after correction for age, sex, BMI, NYHA, MDRD, and ejection fraction. Despite numerical differences, prognostic power was comparable between BMI groups (log-transformed NTproBNP; group 1: hazard ratio (HR) 1.435, 95% CI 1.046-1.967, chi(2) 5.02, P = 0.03; group 2: HR 1.604, 95% CI 1.203-2.138, chi(2) 10.36, P = 0.001; group 3: HR 1.735, 95% CI 1.302-2.313, chi(2) 14.12, P = 0.0002) (P = NS, all). An NTproBNP correction factor was calculated. Even matched for NYHA, age, sex, and renal function, BMI exerts a significant and independent inverse influence on NTproBNP in patients with stable CHF. NTproBNP retained equal statistical power in all three BMI groups.

  11. Central Hemodynamic Features in Elderly Patients During General Anesthesia with Sevoflurane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Petrov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reduce the number of perioperative cardiovascular events in elderly patients during traditional cholecystectomy, by using anesthesia based on sevoflurane (SF and fentanyl (FL. Subjects and methods. Forty-eight patients aged 60 to 75 years, who were divided into 2 groups, operated on by a classical surgical technique for chronic calculous cholecystitis in the presence of concomitant coronary heart disease and essential hypertension, and had grade 3 surgical risk according to the classification of the Moscow Research Society of Anesthesiologists and Reanimatologists, were examined. Premedicaton was routine. The induction of anesthesia was as follows: intravenous propofol (PF (1.8±0.2 mg/kg and FL (2.2±0.4 mg/kg in Groups 1 and 2. General anesthesia (GA was maintained by SF (1.1±0.2 MAC and FL (2.4±0.4 jBg/kg/hr in Group 1 (n=25 and by PF (2.0—4.0 mg/kg/hr and FL (3.5±0.7 ^Bg/kg/hr in Group 2 (n=23. In both groups, mechanical ventilation was as follows: N2O:O2 = 2:1; air flow, 6 l/min. Myoplegia was rocuronium bromide (RB (0.075—0.1 mg/kg in Group 1 and RB (0.15 mg/kg in Group 2. Hemodynamics was studied during 5 stages of surgery. Results. Central hemodynamics (CH was rather stable in patients after GA with SF. Significant CH changes were noted only during the traumatic stage of surgery, which were less pronounced than those in patients following GA with PF. CH parameters returned gradually to the baseline values at the end of surgery and virtually to the background values after tracheal extubation. The patients under GA with PF showed significant CH changes at all stages of the study. Conclusion. Analysis of the systemic hemodynamic changes induced by the use of SF and PF suggests that GA with SF in elderly patients is more preferable than that in those with PF. Key words: sevoflurane, hemodynamics, elderly.

  12. Hypertrophic response to hemodynamic overload: role of load vs. renin-angiotensin system activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, M.; Carabello, B. A.; Conrad, C. C.; Buckley, J. M.; DeFreyte, G.; Barnes, M.; Tomanek, R. J.; Wei, C. C.; Dell'Italia, L. J.; Cooper, G. 4th; hide

    1999-01-01

    Myocardial hypertrophy is one of the basic mechanisms by which the heart compensates for hemodynamic overload. The mechanisms by which hemodynamic overload is transduced by the cardiac muscle cell and translated into cardiac hypertrophy are not completely understood. Candidates include activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and angiotensin II receptor (AT1) stimulation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that load, independent of the RAS, is sufficient to stimulate cardiac growth. Four groups of cats were studied: 14 normal controls, 20 pulmonary artery-banded (PAB) cats, 7 PAB cats in whom the AT1 was concomitantly and continuously blocked with losartan, and 8 PAB cats in whom the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was concomitantly and continuously blocked with captopril. Losartan cats had at least a one-log order increase in the ED50 of the blood pressure response to angiotensin II infusion. Right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy was assessed using the RV mass-to-body weight ratio and ventricular cardiocyte size. RV hemodynamic overload was assessed by measuring RV systolic and diastolic pressures. Neither the extent of RV pressure overload nor RV hypertrophy that resulted from PAB was affected by AT1 blockade with losartan or ACE inhibition with captopril. RV systolic pressure was increased from 21 +/- 3 mmHg in normals to 68 +/- 4 mmHg in PAB, 65 +/- 5 mmHg in PAB plus losartan and 62 +/- 3 mmHg in PAB plus captopril. RV-to-body weight ratio increased from 0.52 +/- 0.04 g/kg in normals to 1.11 +/- 0.06 g/kg in PAB, 1.06 +/- 0.06 g/kg in PAB plus losartan and 1.06 +/- 0.06 g/kg in PAB plus captopril. Thus 1) pharmacological modulation of the RAS with losartan and captopril did not change the extent of the hemodynamic overload or the hypertrophic response induced by PAB; 2) neither RAS activation nor angiotensin II receptor stimulation is an obligatory and necessary component of the signaling pathway that acts as an intermediary coupling load to the

  13. An investigation of patterns in hemodynamic data indicative of impending hypotension in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Joon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the intensive care unit (ICU, clinical staff must stay vigilant to promptly detect and treat hypotensive episodes (HEs. Given the stressful context of busy ICUs, an automated hypotensive risk stratifier can help ICU clinicians focus care and resources by prospectively identifying patients at increased risk of impending HEs. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible existence of discriminatory patterns in hemodynamic data that can be indicative of future hypotensive risk. Methods Given the complexity and heterogeneity of ICU data, a machine learning approach was used in this study. Time series of minute-by-minute measures of mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, pulse pressure, and relative cardiac output from 1,311 records from the MIMIC II Database were used. An HE was defined as a 30-minute period during which the mean arterial pressure was below 60 mmHg for at least 90% of the time. Features extracted from the hemodynamic data during an observation period of either 30 or 60 minutes were analyzed to predict the occurrence of HEs 1 or 2 hours into the future. Artificial neural networks (ANNs were trained for binary classification (normotensive vs. hypotensive and regression (estimation of future mean blood pressure. Results The ANNs were successfully trained to discriminate patterns in the multidimensional hemodynamic data that were predictive of future HEs. The best overall binary classification performance resulted in a mean area under ROC curve of 0.918, a sensitivity of 0.826, and a specificity of 0.859. Predicting further into the future resulted in poorer performance, whereas observation duration minimally affected performance. The low prevalence of HEs led to poor positive predictive values. In regression, the best mean absolute error was 9.67%. Conclusions The promising pattern recognition performance demonstrates the existence of discriminatory patterns in hemodynamic data that can indicate

  14. The role of erythropoietin stimulating agents in anemic patients with heart failure: solved and unresolved questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazzuoli A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Palazzuoli, Gaetano Ruocco, Marco Pellegrini, Carmelo De Gori, Gabriele Del Castillo, Nicola Giordano, Ranuccio NutiDepartment of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Cardiology Section, Le Scotte Hospital, University of Siena, Siena, ItalyAbstract: Anemia is a common finding in congestive heart failure (CHF and is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. Several conditions can cause depression of erythroid progenitor cells: reduction of iron absorption and reuptake, decreased bone marrow activity, reduced endogenous erythropoietin production, and chronic inflammatory state. Anemia’s etiology in CHF is complex and partially understood; it involves several systems including impaired hemodynamic condition, reduced kidney and bone perfusion, increased inflammatory activity, and neurohormonal overdrive. The use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs such as erythropoietin and its derivatives is recently debated; the last interventional trial seems to demonstrate a neutral or negative effect in the active arm with darbepoetin treatment. The current data is opposite to many single blind studies and previous meta-analysis showing an improvement in quality of life, New York Heart Association class, and exercise tolerance using ESA therapy. These contrasting data raise several concerns regarding the target of hemoglobin levels needing intervention, the exact anemia classification and categorization, and the standardization of hematocrit cutoffs. Some cardiac and systemic conditions (ie, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, prothrombotic status may predispose to adverse events, and ESA administration should be avoided. To prevent the negative effects, high-dosage and chronic administration should be avoided. Clarification of these items could probably identify patients that may benefit from additional iron or ESA treatment. In this review, we discuss the interventional trials made in anemic heart failure patients, the

  15. Emotional, neurohormonal, and hemodynamic responses to mental stress in Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeijers, Loes; Szabó, Balázs M; van Dammen, Lotte; Wonnink, Wally; Jakobs, Bernadette S; Bosch, Jos A; Kop, Willem J

    2015-06-01

    Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by apical ballooning of the left ventricle and symptoms and signs mimicking acute myocardial infarction. The high catecholamine levels in the acute phase of TTC and common emotional triggers suggest a dysregulated stress response system. This study examined whether patients with TTC show exaggerated emotional, neurohormonal, and hemodynamic responses to mental stress. Patients with TTC (n = 18; mean age 68.3 ± 11.7, 78% women) and 2 comparison groups (healthy controls, n = 19; mean age 60.0 ± 7.6, 68% women; chronic heart failure, n = 19; mean age 68.8 ± 10.1, 68% women) performed a structured mental stress task (anger recall and mental arithmetic) and low-grade exercise with repeated assessments of negative emotions, neurohormones (catecholamines: norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones: adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], cortisol), echocardiography, blood pressure, and heart rate. TTC was associated with higher norepinephrine (520.7 ± 125.5 vs 407.9 ± 155.3 pg/ml, p = 0.021) and dopamine (16.2 ± 10.3 vs 10.3 ± 3.9 pg/ml, p = 0.027) levels during mental stress and relatively low emotional arousal (p stress and exercise were elevated in TTC compared with healthy controls. No evidence was found for a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or hemodynamic responses. Patients with TTC showed blunted emotional arousal to mental stress. This study suggests that catecholamine hyper-reactivity and not emotional hyper-reactivity to stress is likely to play a role in myocardial vulnerability in TTC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Total donor ischemic time: relationship to early hemodynamics and intensive care morbidity in pediatric cardiac transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Warren; Carr, Michelle; Ridout, Deborah; Carter, Katherine; Hulme, Sara Louise; Simmonds, Jacob; Elliott, Martin; Hoskote, Aparna; Burch, Michael; Brown, Kate L

    2011-11-01

    Single-center studies have failed to link modest increases in total donor ischemic time to mortality after pediatric orthotopic heart transplant. We aimed to investigate whether prolonged total donor ischemic time is linked to pediatric intensive care morbidity after orthotopic heart transplant. Retrospective cohort review. Tertiary pediatric transplant center in the United Kingdom. Ninety-three pediatric orthotopic heart transplants between 2002 and 2006. Total donor ischemic time was investigated for association with early post-orthotopic heart transplant hemodynamics and intensive care unit morbidities. Of 43 males and 50 females with median age 7.2 (interquartile range 2.2, 13.0) yrs, 62 (68%) had dilated cardiomyopathy, 20 (22%) had congenital heart disease, and nine (10%) had restrictive cardiomyopathy. The mean total donor ischemic time was 225.9 (sd 65.6) mins. In the first 24 hrs after orthotopic heart transplant, age-adjusted mean arterial blood pressure increased (p total donor ischemic time was significantly associated with lower mean arterial blood pressure (p care unit (p = .004), and longer post-orthotopic heart transplant stay in hospital (p = .02). Total donor ischemic time was not related to levels of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (p = .62), left atrial pressure (p = .38), or central venous pressure (p = .76) early after orthotopic heart transplant. Prolonged total donor ischemic time has an adverse effect on the donor organ, contributing to lower mean arterial blood pressure, as well as more prolonged ventilation and intensive care unit and hospital stays post-orthotopic heart transplant, reflecting increased morbidity.

  17. Employment after heart transplantation among adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Dmitry; Chou, Helen; Hayes, Don; Tobias, Joseph D; Galantowicz, Mark; McConnell, Patrick I

    2017-12-01

    Adults with congenital heart disease may require heart transplantation for end-stage heart failure. Whereas heart transplantation potentially allows adults with congenital heart disease to resume their usual activities, employment outcomes in this population are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and predictors of work participation after heart transplantation for congenital heart disease. Retrospective review of a prospective registry. United Network for Organ Sharing registry of transplant recipients in the United States. Adult recipients of first-time heart transplantation with a primary diagnosis of congenital heart disease, performed between 2004 and 2015. None. Employment status reported by transplant centers at required follow-up intervals up to 5 y posttransplant. Among 470 patients included in the analysis (mean follow-up: 5 ± 3 y), 127 (27%) worked after transplant, 69 (15%) died before beginning or returning to work, and 274 (58%) survived until censoring, but did not participate in paid work. Multivariable competing-risks regression analysis examined characteristics associated with posttransplant employment, accounting for mortality as a competing outcome. In descriptive and multivariable analysis, pretransplant work participation was associated with a greater likelihood of posttransplant employment, while the use of Medicaid insurance at the time of transplant was associated with a significantly lower likelihood of working after transplant (subhazard ratio compared to private insurance: 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.95; P = .032). Employment was rare after heart transplantation for congenital heart disease, and was significantly less common than in the broader population of adults with congenital heart disease. Differences in return to work were primarily related to pretransplant employment and the use of public insurance, rather than clinical characteristics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Impaired Central Pulsatile Hemodynamics in Children and Adolescents With Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Andrea; Salvi, Paolo; Marelli, Susan; Gao, Lan; Salvi, Lucia; Faini, Andrea; Trifirò, Giuliana; Carretta, Renzo; Pini, Alessandro; Parati, Gianfranco

    2017-11-07

    Marfan syndrome is characterized by aortic root dilation, beginning in childhood. Data about aortic pulsatile hemodynamics and stiffness in pediatric age are currently lacking. In 51 young patients with Marfan syndrome (12.0±3.3 years), carotid tonometry was performed for the measurement of central pulse pressure, pulse pressure amplification, and aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity). Patients underwent an echocardiogram at baseline and at 1 year follow-up and a genetic evaluation. Pathogenetic fibrillin-1 mutations were classified between "dominant negative" and "haploinsufficient." The hemodynamic parameters of patients were compared with those of 80 sex, age, blood pressure, and heart-rate matched controls. Central pulse pressure was significantly higher (38.3±12.3 versus 33.6±7.8 mm Hg; P =0.009), and pulse pressure amplification was significantly reduced in Marfan than controls (17.9±15.3% versus 32.3±17.4%; P Marfan and controls (4.98±1.00 versus 4.75±0.67 m/s). In the Marfan group, central pulse pressure and pulse pressure amplification were independently associated with aortic diameter at the sinuses of Valsalva (respectively, β=0.371, P =0.010; β=-0.271, P =0.026). No significant difference in hemodynamic parameters was found according to fibrillin-1 genotype. Patients who increased aortic Z-scores at 1-year follow-up presented a higher central pulse pressure than the remaining (42.7±14.2 versus 32.3±5.9 mm Hg; P =0.004). Central pulse pressure and pulse pressure amplification were impaired in pediatric Marfan syndrome, and associated with aortic root diameters, whereas aortic pulse wave velocity was similar to that of a general pediatric population. An increased central pulse pressure was present among patients whose aortic dilatation worsened at 1-year follow-up. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. Hemodynamic Effects of Ventricular Assist Device Implantation on Norwood, Glenn, and Fontan Circulation: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Molfetta, Arianna; Amodeo, Antonio; Gagliardi, Maria G; Trivella, Maria G; Fresiello, Libera; Filippelli, Sergio; Toscano, Alessandra; Ferrari, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    The growing population of failing single-ventricle (SV) patients might benefit from ventricular assist device (VAD) support as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, the documented experience is limited to isolated case reports. Considering the complex and different physiopathology of Norwood, Glenn, and Fontan patients and the lack of established experience, the aim of this work is to realize and test a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system able to simulate SV hemodynamics and VAD implantation effects to support clinical decision. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic data of 30 SV patients (10 Norwood, 10 Glenn, and 10 Fontan) were retrospectively collected and used to simulate patients' baseline. Then, the effects of VAD implantation were simulated. Simulation results suggest that the implantation of VAD: (i) increases the cardiac output and the mean arterial systemic pressure in all the three palliation conditions (Norwood 77.2 and 19.7%, Glenn 38.6 and 32.2%, and Fontan 17.2 and 14.2%); (ii) decreases the SV external work (Norwood 55%, Glenn 35.6%, and Fontan 41%); (iii) decreases the pressure pulsatility index (Norwood 65.2%, Glenn 81.3%, and Fontan 64.8%); (iv) increases the pulmonary arterial pressure in particular in the Norwood circulation (Norwood 39.7%, Glenn 12.1% and Fontan 3%); and (v) decreases the atrial pressure (Norwood 2%, Glenn 10.6%, and Fontan 8.6%). Finally, the VAD work is lower in the Norwood circulation (30.4 mL·mm Hg) in comparison with Fontan (40.3 mL·mm Hg) and to Glenn (64.5 mL·mm Hg) circulations. The use of VAD in SV physiology could be helpful to bridge patients to heart transplantations by increasing the CO and unloading the SV with a decrement of the atrial pressure and the SV external work. The regulation of the pulmonary flow is challenging because the Pap is increased by the presence of VAD. The hemodynamic changes are different in the different SV palliation step. The use of numerical models

  20. Differences of psychological features in patients with heart failure with regard to gender and aetiology - Results of a CAPS-LOCK-HF (Complex Assessment of Psychological Status Located in Heart Failure) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orszulak, Michal; Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna; Siennicka, Agnieszka; Goscinska-Bis, Kinga; Waga, Karolina; Wojcik, Maciej; Blaszczyk, Robert; Michalski, Blazej; Szymanski, Filip M; Ptaszynska-Kopczynska, Katarzyna; Kopec, Grzegorz; Nadrowski, Pawel; Hrynkiewicz-Szymanska, Anna; Krzych, Lukasz; Jankowska, Ewa A

    2016-09-15

    Objective of the study was to assess the psychological state of HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with regard to gender and aetiology. 758 patients with HFrEF (mean age - 64±11years, men - 79%, NYHA class III-IV - 40%, ischemic aetiology - 61%) in a prospective Polish multicenter Caps-Lock-HF study. Scores on five different self-report inventories: CISS, MHLC, GSES, BDI and modified Mini-MAC were compared between the sexes taking into account the aetiology of HFrEF. There were differences in the CISS and BDI score between the genders - women had higher CISS (emotion- and avoidance-oriented) and BDI (general score - 14.2±8.7 vs 12.3±8.6, Ppsychological data made a significant additional contribution to the prediction of depression status. There are distinct differences in psychological features with regard to gender in patients with HFrEF. Women demonstrate less favourable psychological characteristics. Gender-related differences in BDI score are especially explicit in patients with ischemic aetiology of HF. The BDI score is related to psychological predisposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hemodynamic Evaluation of a Biological and Mechanical Aortic Valve Prosthesis Using Patient-Specific MRI-Based CFD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmeier, Florian; Nordmeyer, Sarah; Yevtushenko, Pavlo; Bruening, Jan; Berger, Felix; Kuehne, Titus; Goubergrits, Leonid; Kelm, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Modeling different treatment options before a procedure is performed is a promising approach for surgical decision making and patient care in heart valve disease. This study investigated the hemodynamic impact of different prostheses through patient-specific MRI-based CFD simulations. Ten time-resolved MRI data sets with and without velocity encoding were obtained to reconstruct the aorta and set hemodynamic boundary conditions for simulations. Aortic hemodynamics after virtual valve replacement with a biological and mechanical valve prosthesis were investigated. Wall shear stress (WSS), secondary flow degree (SFD), transvalvular pressure drop (TPD), turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and normalized flow displacement (NFD) were evaluated to characterize valve-induced hemodynamics. The biological prostheses induced significantly higher WSS (medians: 9.3 vs. 8.6 Pa, P = 0.027) and SFD (means: 0.78 vs. 0.49, P = 0.002) in the ascending aorta, TPD (medians: 11.4 vs. 2.7 mm Hg, P = 0.002), TKE (means: 400 vs. 283 cm 2 /s 2 , P = 0.037), and NFD (means: 0.0994 vs. 0.0607, P = 0.020) than the mechanical prostheses. The differences between the prosthesis types showed great inter-patient variability, however. Given this variability, a patient-specific evaluation is warranted. In conclusion, MRI-based CFD offers an opportunity to assess the interactions between prosthesis and patient-specific boundary conditions, which may help in optimizing surgical decision making and providing additional guidance to clinicians. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Physical Heart Failure Simulation System Utilizing the Total Artificial Heart and Modified Donovan Mock Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jessica R; DeCook, Katrina J; Tran, Phat L; Betterton, Edward; Smith, Richard G; Larson, Douglas F; Khalpey, Zain I; Burkhoff, Daniel; Slepian, Marvin J

    2017-07-01

    With the growth and diversity of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) systems entering clinical use, a need exists for a robust mock circulation system capable of reliably emulating and reproducing physiologic as well as pathophysiologic states for use in MCS training and inter-device comparison. We report on the development of such a platform utilizing the SynCardia Total Artificial Heart and a modified Donovan Mock Circulation System, capable of being driven at normal and reduced output. With this platform, clinically relevant heart failure hemodynamics could be reliably reproduced as evidenced by elevated left atrial pressure (+112%), reduced aortic flow (-12.6%), blunted Starling-like behavior, and increased afterload sensitivity when compared with normal function. Similarly, pressure-volume relationships demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to afterload and decreased Starling-like behavior in the heart failure model. Lastly, the platform was configured to allow the easy addition of a left ventricular assist device (HeartMate II at 9600 RPM), which upon insertion resulted in improvement of hemodynamics. The present configuration has the potential to serve as a viable system for training and research, aimed at fostering safe and effective MCS device use. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Hemodynamics Modeling and Simulation of Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a general agreement that hemodynamics plays very important role in the initiation, growth, and rupture of cerebral aneurysms and hemodynamics in the anterior communicating artery aneurysms is considered the most complex in all cerebral aneurysms and it is difficult to find some reasonable relationship between the hemodynamics parameters and the rupture risk. In this paper, the 3D geometries of four anterior communicating artery aneurysms were generated from the CTA data and the computational models with bilateral feeding arteries for the four aneurysms were constructed. The blood flow was simulated by computational fluid dynamics software and the hemodynamics parameters such as velocity, wall shear stress, and oscillatory shear index were calculated. The following results were observed: one of the four models only needs the left feeding artery; the max normalized wall shear stress locates at the aneurysmal neck of the largest aneurysm; the max oscillatory shear index locates at the aneurysmal sac of the largest aneurysm. The conclusion was drawn that the anterior communicating artery aneurysm has higher rupture risk from the hemodynamics viewpoint if the max wall shear stress locates at the neck and the max oscillatory shear index locates at the dome.

  4. Unraveling the relationship between arterial flow and intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Hernán G; Bonnefous, Odile

    2015-02-26

    Arterial flow rate affects intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics but it is not clear how their relationship is. This uncertainty hinders the comparison among studies, including clinical evaluations, like a pre- and post-treatment status, since arterial flow rates may differ at each time acquisition. The purposes of this work are as follows: (1) To study how intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics changes within the full physiological range of arterial flow rates. (2) To provide characteristic curves of intra-aneurysmal velocity, wall shear stress (WSS) and pressure as functions of the arterial flow rate. Fifteen image-based aneurysm models were studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The full range of physiological arterial flow rates reported in the literature was covered by 11 pulsatile simulations. For each aneurysm, the spatiotemporal-averaged blood flow velocity, WSS and pressure were calculated. Spatiotemporal-averaged velocity inside the aneurysm linearly increases as a function of the mean arterial flow (minimum R(2)>0.963). Spatiotemporal-averaged WSS and pressure at the aneurysm wall can be represented by quadratic functions of the arterial flow rate (minimum R(2)>0.996). Quantitative characterizations of spatiotemporal-averaged velocity, WSS and pressure inside cerebral aneurysms can be obtained with respect to the arterial flow rate. These characteristic curves provide more information of the relationship between arterial flow and aneurysm hemodynamics since the full range of arterial flow rates is considered. Having these curves, it is possible to compare experimental studies and clinical evaluations when different flow conditions are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  6. Air tamponade of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołota, Janusz J; Orłowski, Tadeusz; Iwanowicz, Katarzyna; Snarska, Jadwiga

    2016-06-01

    Pneumopericardium is a rare disease defined as the presence of air or gas in the pericardial sac. Among the etiological factors, the following stand out: chest trauma, barotrauma, air-containing fistulas between the pericardium and the surrounding structures, secondary gas production by microorganisms growing in the pericardial sac, and iatrogenic factors. Until now, spontaneous pneumopericardium has been considered a harmless and temporary state, but a review of clinical cases indicates that the presence of air in the pericardium can lead to cardiac tamponade and life-threatening hemodynamic disturbances. We present the case of an 80-year-old patient with a chronic bronchopericardial fistula, who suffered from a cardiac arrest due to air tamponade of the heart.

  7. Surface Modification using Plasma treatments and Adhesion Peptide for Durable Tissue-Engineered Heart Valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young mee; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Artificial heart valves are used in valvular heart diseases, but these valves have disadvantages that they cannot grow, repair and remodel. In current study, the strategies to development of in vitro cultured functional tissue by tissue engineering is available to heart valve disease. In the point of using viable autolougous cells, tissue engineered heart valves have some advantage to include that they can repair, remodel, and grow. Because heart valve is placed under the strong shear stress condition by pumping of heart, the durability of tissue-engineered heart valves is now questionable. The purpose of the study is to evaluate of the durability of tissue engineered heart valve with surface modified scaffolds under hemodynamic conditions

  8. Ocular hemodynamics and glaucoma: the role of mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alon; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Arciero, Julia C; Amireskandari, Annahita; Tobe, Leslie A; Siesky, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the role of mathematical modeling in studying ocular hemodynamics, with a focus on glaucoma. We reviewed recent literature on glaucoma, ocular blood flow, autoregulation, the optic nerve head, and the use of mathematical modeling in ocular circulation. Many studies suggest that alterations in ocular hemodynamics play a significant role in the development, progression, and incidence of glaucoma. Although there is currently a limited number of studies involving mathematical modeling of ocular blood flow, regulation, and diseases (such as glaucoma), preliminary modeling work shows the potential of mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute most significantly to glaucoma progression. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool when used synergistically with clinical and laboratory data in the study of ocular blood flow and glaucoma. The development of models to investigate the relationship between ocular hemodynamic alterations and glaucoma progression will provide a unique and useful method for studying the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

  9. Invasive and noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring of patients with cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmahos, G C; Wo, C C; Demetriades, D; Bishop, M H; Shoemaker, W C

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen patients with hemodynamic instability from acute cerebrovascular accidents were evaluated shortly after arrival at the emergency department of a university-run county hospital with both invasive Swan-Ganz pulmonary artery catheter placement and a new, noninvasive, thoracic electrical bioimpedance device. Values were recorded and temporal patterns of survivors and nonsurvivors were described. Cardiac indices obtained simultaneously by the 2 techniques were compared. Of the 17 patients, 11 (65%) died. Survivors had higher values than nonsurvivors for mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, and oxygen saturation, delivery, and consumption at comparable times. Cardiac index values, as measured by invasive and noninvasive methods, were correlated. We concluded that hemodynamic monitoring in an acute care setting may recognize temporal circulatory patterns associated with outcome. Noninvasive electrical bioimpedance technology offers a new method for early hemodynamic evaluation. Further research in this area is warranted. PMID:9682626

  10. [Unit of hemodynamics: the production of the knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linch, Graciele Fernanda da Costa; Guido, Laura de Azevedo; Pitthan, Luiza de Oliveira; Umann, Juliane

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed at doing an integrative review that has as objective to investigate what has been published on nursing in hemodynamic in the following data bases: Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS), and Nursing Database (BDENF); with the descriptors: Enfermagem and Hemodinâmica and Nursing and Hemodynamics. The data indicate that the studies in his majority were developed by nurses, and made a list to the presence of nursing, there were still boarded aspects made a list to the reprocess of catheters and health of the professionals of nursing. Nevertheless, it is noticeable that the publication of works connected with the thematic of hemodynamic is limited. However, they demonstrate the predominance of inquiries and reports making a list to the aspects of the presence of nursing in this sector which may represent the necessities and the problems that permeate the work.

  11. The nursing perspective on monitoring hemodynamics and oxygen transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dawn; Hazinski, Mary Fran

    2011-07-01

    Maintenance of adequate systemic oxygen delivery requires careful clinical assessment integrated with hemodynamic measurements and calculations to detect and treat conditions that may compromise oxygen delivery and lead to life-threatening shock, respiratory failure, or cardiac arrest. The bedside nurse constantly performs such assessments and measurements to detect subtle changes and trends in patient condition. The purpose of this editorial is to highlight nursing perspectives about the hemodynamic and oxygen transport monitoring systems summarized in the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society Evidence- Based Review and Consensus Statement on Monitoring of Hemodynamics and Oxygen Transport Balance. There is no substitute for the observations of a knowledgeable and experienced clinician who understands the patient's condition and potential causes of deterioration and is able to evaluate response to therapy.

  12. Pulmonary hemodynamic profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portillo K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Karina Portillo,1 Yolanda Torralba,1,2 Isabel Blanco,1,2 Felip Burgos,1,2 Roberto Rodriguez-Roisin,1,2 Jose Rios,3 Josep Roca,1,2 Joan A Barberà1,21Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Clínic-Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi iSunyer (IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Madrid, Spain; 3Biostatistics and Data Management Core Facility, Hospital Clínic-Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi iSunyer (IDIBAPS, Biostatistics Unit, School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainIntroduction: Few data are available in regards to the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH in the broad spectrum of COPD. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of PH in a cohort of COPD patients across the severity of airflow limitation, and reporting the hemodynamic characteristics at rest and during exercise.Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis on COPD patients who underwent right-heart catheterization in our center with measurements obtained at rest (n=139 and during exercise (n=85. PH was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP ≥25 mmHg and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure <15 mmHg. Exercise-induced PH (EIPH was defined by a ratio of ∆mPAP/∆cardiac output >3.Results: PH was present in 25 patients (18%. According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD classification, PH prevalence in GOLD 2 was 7% (3 patients; 25% (14 patients in GOLD 3; and 22% (8 patients in GOLD 4. Severe PH (mPAP ≥35 mmHg was identified in four patients (2.8%. Arterial partial oxygen pressure was the outcome most strongly associated with PH (r=-0.29, P<0.001. EIPH was observed in 60 patients (71% and had a similar prevalence in both GOLD 2 and 3, and was present in all GOLD 4 patients. Patients with PH had lower cardiac index during exercise than patients without PH (5

  13. Combined effect of educational status and cardiovascular risk factors on the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Ferrario, Marco M

    2017-01-01

    Background The combined effect of social status and risk factors on the absolute risk of cardiovascular disease has been insufficiently investigated, but results provide guidance on who could benefit most through prevention. Methods We followed 77,918 cardiovascular disease-free individuals aged 35......-74 years at baseline, from 38 cohorts covering Nordic and Baltic countries, the UK and Central Europe, for a median of 12 years. Using Fine-Gray models in a competing-risks framework we estimated the effect of the interaction of education with smoking, blood pressure and body weight on the cumulative risk...... genders. Less educated men and women with a cluster of two or more risk factors had an added cardiovascular disease risk of 3.6% (+0.1%, +7.0%) and of 2.6% (-0.5%, +5.6%), respectively, compared with their more educated counterparts. Conclusions Socially disadvantaged subjects have more to gain from...

  14. Effects of dietary extra virgin olive oil and its fractions on antioxidant status and DNA damage in the heart of rats co-exposed to aluminum and acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Khemakhem, Mouna; Boudawara, Ons; Marrekchi, Rim; Jamoussi, Kamel; Ben Amar, Raja; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba; Grati Kamoun, Naziha

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress generated by an excessive production of free radicals has been linked to the development of several health problems such as cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the protective efficacy of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) and its lipophilic fraction (OOLF) and hydrophilic fraction (OOHF) against the cardiotoxicity and DNA damage induced by co-exposure to aluminum (AlCl3) and acrylamide (ACR). Rats were divided into eight groups of six each: controls, AlCl3 (50 mg per kg body weight) administered via drinking water and ACR (20 mg per kg body weight) given by gavage, combined group plus EVOO (300 μl); combined group plus the hydrophilic fraction (1 ml); combined group plus the lipophilic fraction (300 μl); extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its fractions were administered daily by gavage for 21 days. Three other groups, considered as positive controls, received either EVOO, OOLF or OOLH. Exposure of rats to both AlCl3 and ACR provoked oxidative stress objectified by an increase in MDA, AOPP and a decrease in GSH, NPSH and vitamin C levels. The activities of CAT, GPx and SOD were also decreased. EVOO and its OOLF fraction exhibited a pronounced enhancement of antioxidant status while a partial recovery in the antioxidant status was obtained with the OOHF fraction. Plasma LDH and CK activities, TC, LDL-C levels, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were increased, while HDL-C and TG decreased in rats treated with both AlCl3 and ACR. Co-administration of EVOO, OOLF or OOHF to treated rats restored cardiac biomarkers and lipid profile to near-normal values. Histological studies and DNA damage confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of EVOO and its two fractions. Our results suggest that extra virgin olive oil and its two fractions can decrease the frequency of cardiac complications and genotoxicity.

  15. Periodontal status affects C-reactive protein and lipids in patients with stable heart disease from a tertiary care cardiovascular clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Manuela F; Montenegro, Marlon M; Furtado, Mariana V; Polanczyk, Carisi A; Rösing, Cassiano K; Haas, Alex N

    2014-04-01

    There are scarce data on the impact of the periodontal condition in the control of biomarkers in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study is to assess whether periodontal inflammation and tissue breakdown are associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipids in patients with stable heart disease. This cross-sectional study included 93 patients with stable coronary artery disease (57 males; mean age: 63.5 ± 9.8 years) who were in outpatient care for at least 6 months. After applying a structured questionnaire, periodontal examinations were performed by two calibrated periodontists in six sites per tooth at all teeth. Blood samples were collected from patients on the day of periodontal examination to determine levels of CRP, lipids, and glycated hemoglobin. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to evaluate the association among different periodontal and blood parameters controlling for sex, body mass index, glycated hemoglobin, use of oral hypoglycemic drugs, and smoking. Overall, the sample presented high levels of periodontal inflammation and tissue breakdown. Unadjusted mean concentrations of triglycerides (TGs), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose were significantly higher in individuals with severe periodontitis. When multiple linear regression models were applied, number of teeth with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm and presence of severe periodontitis were significantly associated with higher CRP concentrations. Bleeding on probing was significantly associated with TGs, total cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In this sample of patients with stable CVD, current periodontal inflammation and tissue breakdown are associated with cardio