The purpose of the study is to evaluate the number of patients with heart failure readmitted for renal failure to IU Health Bloomington within 30 days of hospital discharge in 2010, and to determine whether there are factors that might have been identified before the original discharge that would have prevented the readmission. The goal of the research is to identify factors from previous admissions of patients with heart failure that would have possibly predicted a subsequent admission for renal failure, so that interventions can be developed to prevent such readmissions. The results from this study are applicable to all primary care settings. A retrospective descriptive design was employed. Subjects were patients diagnosed with heart failure in 2010 and subsequently readmitted with renal failure within 30 days of their previous hospital admission. A retrospective chart review was completed extracting the variables blood urea nitrogen levels upon patients' discharge and readmission, serum creatinine levels upon discharge and readmission, weight in kilograms upon discharge and readmission, total intake and output during the first hospitalization, diuretic medication dosage, history of renal failure, history of renal insufficiency, and death. Renal failure may be a predictable complication of heart failure. Although there are varying secondary pathophysiologies, which could account for readmission with renal failure and the severity of the renal failure, more attention should be paid to the variables identified in this study. Case managers can play a crucial role in identifying potential patients with renal failure and, where possible, collaborating with other health care providers to proactively preventing renal complications in patients with heart failure.
Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet
Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure.
Pérez Calvo, J I; Josa Laorden, C; Giménez López, I
Renal function is one of the most consistent prognostic determinants in heart failure. The prognostic information it provides is independent of the ejection fraction and functional status. This article reviews the various renal function assessment measures, with special emphasis on the fact that the patient's clinical situation and response to the heart failure treatment should be considered for the correct interpretation of the results. Finally, we review the literature on the performance of tubular damage biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Kawarada, Osami; Yasuda, Satoshi; Noguchi, Teruo; Anzai, Toshihisa; Ogawa, Hisao
Atherosclerotic renal artery disease presents with a broad spectrum of clinical features, including heart failure as well as hypertension, and renal failure. Although recent randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate renal artery stenting can reduce blood pressure or the number of cardiovascular or renal events more so than medical therapy, increasing attention has been paid to flash pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure associated with atherosclerotic renal artery disease. This clinical entity "renovascular heart failure" is diagnosed retrospectively. Given the increasing global burden of heart failure, this review highlights the background and catheter-based therapeutic aspects for renovascular heart failure.
Sani, Mahmoud U.; Davison, Beth A.; Cotter, Gad; Sliwa, Karen; Edwards, Christopher; Liu, Licette; Damasceno, Albertino; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Ogah, Okechukwu S.; Mondo, Charles; Dzudie, Anastase; Ojji, Dike B.; Voors, Adrian A.
Aims In Western countries with typically elderly ischaemic acute heart failure patients, predictors and clinical outcome of renal dysfunction and worsening renal function are well described. However, the prevalence, predictors and clinical outcome of renal dysfunction in younger, mainly hypertensive
Damman, Kevin; Voors, Adriaan A.; Navis, Gerjan; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Hillege, Hans L.
Renal function is the most important predictor of clinical outcome in heart failure (HF). It is therefore essential to have accurate and reliable measurement of renal function and early specific markers of renal impairment in patients with HF. Several renal functional entities exist, including
Issa, Victor Sarli; Andrade, Lúcia; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides
Renal dysfunction is common during episodes of acute decompensated heart failure, and historical data indicate that the mean creatinine level at admission has risen in recent decades. Different mechanisms underlying this change over time have been proposed, such as demographic changes, hemodynamic and neurohumoral derangements and medical interventions. In this setting, various strategies have been proposed for the prevention of renal dysfunction with heterogeneous results. In the present article, we review and discuss the main aspects of renal dysfunction prevention according to the different stages of heart failure. PMID:23644863
Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a serious debilitating condition with poor survival rates and an increasing level of prevalence. Heart failure is associated with an increase in renal norepinephrine spillover, which is an independent predictor of mortality in HF patients. The excessive sympatho-excitation that is a hallmark of heart failure has long-term effects that contribute to disease progression. An increase in directly recorded renal sympathetic nerve activity has also been recorded in animal models of heart failure. This review will focus on the mechanisms controlling sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney during normal conditions and alterations in these mechanisms during heart failure. In particular the roles of afferent reflexes and central mechanisms will be discussed.
Sani, Mahmoud U; Davison, Beth A; Cotter, Gad; Sliwa, Karen; Edwards, Christopher; Liu, Licette; Damasceno, Albertino; Mayosi, Bongani M; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Mondo, Charles; Dzudie, Anastase; Ojji, Dike B; Voors, Adrian A
In Western countries with typically elderly ischaemic acute heart failure patients, predictors and clinical outcome of renal dysfunction and worsening renal function are well described. However, the prevalence, predictors and clinical outcome of renal dysfunction in younger, mainly hypertensive acute heart failure patients from Africa, have not been described. From 1006 patients enrolled in the sub-Saharan Africa Survey of Heart Failure (THESUS-HF), renal function was determined by the estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Worsening renal function was defined as an increase in creatinine ≤0.3 mg/dL (26.5 µmol/L) from baseline to day 7/discharge. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 52.4 (18.2) years, 481 (50.8%) were women and the predominant race was black African [932 of 946 (98.5%)]. Heart failure was most commonly a result of hypertension (n = 363, 39.5%) and only 7.8% had ischaemic heart failure. At hospital admission, 289 patients (30.6%) had an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤60 ml/min.1.73 m2 . Worsening renal function during hospitalization was detected in 53 (9.8 %) of 543 patients with a follow-up creatinine value, and was independently associated with the Western sub-Saharan region, body mass index, and the presence of rales. Worsening renal function was an independent predictor of death or readmission over 60 days [multivariable hazard ratio = 2.06 (1.10, 3.38); P = 0.023] and all-cause death over 180 days [multivariable hazard ratio =1.92 (1.08, 3.38); P = 0.025]. Renal dysfunction is also prevalent in younger non-ischaemic acute heart failure patients in Africa, but worsening renal function is less prevalent and has different predictors compared with Western cohorts. Nevertheless, worsening renal function is strongly and independently related with clinical outcome. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.
Givertz, Michael M; Postmus, Douwe; Hillege, Hans L; Mansoor, George A; Massie, Barry M; Davison, Beth A; Ponikowski, Piotr; Metra, Marco; Teerlink, John R; Cleland, John G F; Dittrich, Howard C; O'Connor, Christopher M; Cotter, Gad; Voors, Adriaan A
Prior studies have demonstrated adverse risk associated with baseline and worsening renal function in acute heart failure, but none has modeled the trajectories of change in renal function and their impact on outcomes. We used linear mixed models of serial measurements of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine to describe trajectories of renal function in 1962 patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction enrolled in the Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study of the Selective A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Rolofylline for Patients Hospitalized with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal Function study. We assessed risk of 180-day mortality and 60-day cardiovascular or renal readmission and used Cox regression to determine association between renal trajectories and outcomes. Compared with patients alive at 180 days, patients who died were older, had lower blood pressure and ejection fraction, and higher creatinine levels at baseline. On average for the entire cohort, creatinine rose from days 1 to 3 and increased further after discharge, with the trajectory dependent on the day of discharge. Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the rate of change in creatinine from baseline were the strongest independent predictors of 180-day mortality and 60-day readmission, whereas the rate of change of blood urea nitrogen from baseline was not predictive of outcomes. Baseline blood urea nitrogen>35 mg/dL and increase in creatinine>0.1 mg/dL per day increased the risk of mortality, whereas stable or decreasing creatinine was associated with reduced risk. Patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction demonstrate variable rise and fall in renal indices during and immediately after hospitalization. Risk of morbidity and mortality can be predicted based on baseline renal function and creatinine trajectory during the first 7 days. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00328692 and NCT
Wong, L. S.; Windt, W. A.; Roks, A. J.; van Dokkum, R. P.; Schoemaker, R. G.; de Zeeuw, D.; Henning, R. H.
Background. Renal failure aggravates pathological cardiac remodelling induced by myocardial infarction (MI). Cardiac remodelling is associated with telomere shortening, a marker for biological ageing. We investigated whether mild and severe renal failure shorten cardiac telomeres and excessively
Full Text Available Alberto Palazzuoli, Susanna Benincasa, Stefanie Grothgar, Pasquale Di Sipio, Giovanni Paganini, Marco Pellegrini, Ranuccio NutiDepartment of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Cardiology Section, Le Scotte Hospital, University of Siena, ItalyAbstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with a significant increase in death and cardiovascular mortality. However the exact mechanism by which CKD impairs the cardiovascular outcome is not well established. Some reasons may lie in the association of CKD with several other cardiovascular and noncardiovascular disorders including accelerated systemic atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, increased levels of inflammatory factors, anemic status, bone mineral dysfunction, electrolyte imbalance, and renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS activation. Therefore several risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, lipid disorders, and older age are common in both conditions. In patients affected with heart failure (HF a key role is represented by the neurohormonal activation. This condition causes fluid and sodium retention, peripheral vasoconstriction, as well as increased congestion and cardiac workload. Moreover, HF during the decompensated phases is often associated with a worsening renal function that leads to further RAAS activation, microvascular damage, and intrarenal flow redistribution. In order to clarify the interactions between these factors, several questions need to be answered: the universal definition of “worsening renal function,” the identification of the best laboratory parameters to investigate renal function in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and a better definition of the comorbidities’ role in the determination of the outcome, especially in patients with chronic HF. A clarification of these key points could lead to the individualization of new specific therapeutic targets and to a reduction in mortality and hospitalization in patients with HF and
Shirakabe, Akihiro; Hata, Noritake; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Okazaki, Hirotake; Matsushita, Masato; Shibata, Yusaku; Nishigoori, Suguru; Uchiyama, Saori; Asai, Kuniya; Shimizu, Wataru
Whether or not the definition of a worsening renal function (WRF) is adequate for the evaluation of acute renal failure in patients with acute heart failure is unclear. One thousand and eighty-three patients with acute heart failure were analysed. A WRF, indicated by a change in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/mL during the first 5 days, occurred in 360 patients while no-WRF, indicated by a change Acute kidney injury (AKI) upon admission was defined based on the ratio of the serum creatinine value recorded on admission to the baseline creatinine value and placed into groups based on the degree of AKI: no-AKI (n = 751), Class R (risk; n = 193), Class I (injury; n = 41), or Class F (failure; n = 98). The patients were assigned to another set of four groups: no-WRF/no-AKI (n = 512), no-WRF/AKI (n = 211), WRF/no-AKI (n = 239), and WRF/AKI (n = 121). A multivariate logistic regression model found that no-WRF/AKI and WRF/AKI were independently associated with 365 day mortality (hazard ratio: 1.916; 95% confidence interval: 1.234-2.974 and hazard ratio: 3.622; 95% confidence interval: 2.332-5.624). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the rate of any-cause death during 1 year was significantly poorer in the no-WRF/AKI and WRF/AKI groups than in the WRF/no-AKI and no-WRF/no-AKI groups and in Class I and Class F than in Class R and the no-AKI group. The presence of AKI on admission, especially Class I and Class F status, is associated with a poor prognosis despite the lack of a WRF within the first 5 days. The prognostic ability of AKI on admission may be superior to WRF within the first 5 days. © 2018 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.
Vujicić, Bozidar; Ruzić, Alen; Zaputović, Luka; Racki, Sanjin
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important clinical issue, especially in the setting of critical care. It has been shown in multiple studies to be a key independent risk factor for mortality, even after adjustment for demographics and severity of illness. There is wide agreement that a generally applicable classification system is required for AKI which helps to standardize estimation of severity of renal disfunction and to predict outcome associated with this condition. That's how RIFLE (Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-End-stage renal disease), and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) classifications for AKI were found in 2004 and 2007, respectively. In the clinical setting of heart failure, a positive fluid balance (often expressed in the literature as weight gain) is used by disease management programs as a marker of heart failure decompensation. Oliguria is defined as urine output less than 0,3 ml/kg/h for at least 24 h. Since any delay in treatment can lead to a dangerous progression of the AKI, early recognition of oliguria appears to be crucial. Critically ill patients with oliguric AKI are at increased risk for fluid imbalance due to widespread systemic inflammation, reduced plasma oncotic pressure and increased capillary leak. These patients are particulary at risk of fluid overload and therefore restrictive strategy of fluid administration should be used. Objective, rapid and accurate volume assessment is important in undiagnosed patients presenting with critical illness, as errors may result in interventions with fatal outcomes. The historical tools such as physical exam, and chest radiography suffer from significant limitations. As gold standard, radioisolopic measurement of volume is impractical in the acute care enviroment. Newer technologies offer the promise of both rapid and accurate bedside estimation of volume status with the potential to improve clinical outcomes. Blood assessment with bioimpendance vector analysis, and bedside ultrasound seem to be
Bosselmann, Helle; Egstrup, Michael; Rossing, Kasper
To assess whether the prognostic significance of cardiovascular (CV) biomarkers, is affected by renal dysfunction (RD) in systolic heart failure (HF).......To assess whether the prognostic significance of cardiovascular (CV) biomarkers, is affected by renal dysfunction (RD) in systolic heart failure (HF)....
Nammas, Wail; Koistinen, Juhani; Paana, Tuomas; Karjalainen, Pasi P
Heart failure syndrome results from compensatory mechanisms that operate to restore - back to normal - the systemic perfusion pressure. Sympathetic overactivity plays a pivotal role in heart failure; norepinephrine contributes to maintenance of the systemic blood pressure and increasing preload. Cardiac norepinephrine spillover increases in patients with heart failure; norepinephrine exerts direct toxicity on cardiac myocytes resulting in a decrease of synthetic activity and/or viability. Importantly, cardiac norepinephrine spillover is a powerful predictor of mortality in patients with moderate to severe HF. This provided the rationale for trials that demonstrated survival benefit associated with the use of beta adrenergic blockers in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Nevertheless, the MOXCON trial demonstrated that rapid uptitration of moxonidine (inhibitor of central sympathetic outflow) in patients with heart failure was associated with excess mortality and morbidity, despite reduction of plasma norepinephrine. Interestingly, renal norepinephrine spillover was the only independent predictor of adverse outcome in patients with heart failure, in multivariable analysis. Recently, renal sympathetic denervation has emerged as a novel approach for control of blood pressure in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. This article summarizes the available evidence for the effect of renal sympathetic denervation in the setting of heart failure. Key messages Experimental studies supported a beneficial effect of renal sympathetic denervation in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Clinical studies demonstrated improvement of symptoms, and left ventricular function. In heart failure and preserved ejection fraction, renal sympathetic denervation is associated with improvement of surrogate endpoints.
Grande, Dario; Terlizzese, Paola; Iacoviello, Massimo
Heart failure and kidney disease share common pathophysiological pathways which can lead to mutual dysfunction, known as cardiorenal syndrome. In heart failure patients, renal impairment is related to hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic factors. Both decreased renal blood flow and renal venous congestion due to heart failure could lead to impaired renal function. Kidney disease and worsening renal function are independently associated with poor prognosis in heart failure patients, both in acute and chronic clinical settings. The aim of this review is to assess the role of renal imaging modalities in the evaluation and management of heart failure patients. Renal imaging techniques could complete laboratory data, as estimated glomerular filtration rate, exploring different pathophysiological factors involved in kidney disease and adding valuable information about renal structure and function. In particular, Doppler examination of arterial and venous hemodynamics is a feasible and non invasive technique, which has proven to be a reliable method for prognostic stratification in patients with cardiorenal syndrome. The renal resistance index, a measure related to renal hemodynamics, can be calculated from the Doppler evaluation of arterial flow. Moreover, the analysis of Doppler venous flow patterns can integrate information from the arterial study and evaluate renal congestion. Other imaging modalities are promising, but still confined to research purposes.
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a major public health concern. Prediction models in heart failure have employed echocardiography and other advanced laboratory parameters in predicting the risk of mortality.However, most of the patients in the resource poor economies still do not have easy access to these advanced ...
Wright, David; Devonald, Mark Alexander John; Pirmohamed, Munir
The second most common cause of hospitalization due to adverse drug reactions in the UK is renal dysfunction due to diuretics, particularly in patients with heart failure, where diuretic therapy is a mainstay of treatment regimens. Therefore, the optimal frequency for monitoring renal function in these patients is an important consideration for preventing renal failure and hospitalization. This review looks at the current evidence for optimal monitoring practices of renal function in patients with heart failure according to national and international guidelines on the management of heart failure (AHA/NICE/ESC/SIGN). Current guidance of renal function monitoring is in large part based on expert opinion, with a lack of clinical studies that have specifically evaluated the optimal frequency of renal function monitoring in patients with heart failure. Furthermore, there is variability between guidelines, and recommendations are typically nonspecific. Safer prescribing of diuretics in combination with other antiheart failure treatments requires better evidence for frequency of renal function monitoring. We suggest developing more personalized monitoring rather than from the current medication‐based guidance. Such flexible clinical guidelines could be implemented using intelligent clinical decision support systems. Personalized renal function monitoring would be more effective in preventing renal decline, rather than reacting to it. PMID:28901643
Al-Naher, Ahmed; Wright, David; Devonald, Mark Alexander John; Pirmohamed, Munir
The second most common cause of hospitalization due to adverse drug reactions in the UK is renal dysfunction due to diuretics, particularly in patients with heart failure, where diuretic therapy is a mainstay of treatment regimens. Therefore, the optimal frequency for monitoring renal function in these patients is an important consideration for preventing renal failure and hospitalization. This review looks at the current evidence for optimal monitoring practices of renal function in patients with heart failure according to national and international guidelines on the management of heart failure (AHA/NICE/ESC/SIGN). Current guidance of renal function monitoring is in large part based on expert opinion, with a lack of clinical studies that have specifically evaluated the optimal frequency of renal function monitoring in patients with heart failure. Furthermore, there is variability between guidelines, and recommendations are typically nonspecific. Safer prescribing of diuretics in combination with other antiheart failure treatments requires better evidence for frequency of renal function monitoring. We suggest developing more personalized monitoring rather than from the current medication-based guidance. Such flexible clinical guidelines could be implemented using intelligent clinical decision support systems. Personalized renal function monitoring would be more effective in preventing renal decline, rather than reacting to it. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.
Dai, Qiming; Lu, Jing; Wang, Benwen; Ma, Genshan
This study aimed to investigate the clinical feasibility and effects of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation in patients with heart failure. A total of 20 patients with heart failure were enrolled, aged from 47 to 75 years (63±10 years). They were divided into the standard therapy (n = 10), and renal nerve radiofrequency ablation groups (n = 10). There were 15 males and 5 female patients, including 8 ischemic cardiomyopathy, 8 dilated cardiomyopathy, and 8 hypertensive cardiopathy. All of the patients met the criteria of New York Heart Association classes III-IV cardiac function. Patients with diabetes and renal failure were excluded. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation was performed on the renal artery wall under X-ray guidance. Serum electrolytes, neurohormones, and 24 h urine volume were recorded 24 h before and after the operation. Echocardiograms were performed to obtain left ventricular ejection fraction at baseline and 6 months. Heart rate, blood pressure, symptoms of dyspnea and edema were also monitored. After renal nerve ablation, 24 h urine volume was increased, while neurohormone levels were decreased compared with those of pre-operation and standard therapy. No obvious change in heart rate or blood pressure was recorded. Symptoms of heart failure were improved in patients after the operation. No complications were recorded in the study. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation may be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment for the patients with severe congestive heart failure.
Damman, Kevin; Kjekshus, John; Wikstrand, John; Cleland, John G. F.; Komajda, Michel; Wedel, Hans; Waagstein, Finn; McMurray, John J. V.
AimWe aimed to study the relationships of loop diuretic dose with renal function and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Methods and resultsLoop diuretic dose at baseline was recorded in patients included in the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure
Sheerin, Noella J; Newton, Phillip J; Macdonald, Peter S; Leung, Dominic Y C; Sibbritt, David; Spicer, Stephen Timothy; Johnson, Kay; Krum, Henry; Davidson, Patricia M
Acute decompensated heart failure is a common cause of hospitalisation. This is a period of vulnerability both in altered pathophysiology and also the potential for iatrogenesis due to therapeutic interventions. Renal dysfunction is often associated with heart failure and portends adverse outcomes. Identifying heart failure patients at risk of renal dysfunction is important in preventing progression to chronic kidney disease or worsening renal function, informing adjustment to medication management and potentially preventing adverse events. However, there is no working or consensus definition in international heart failure management guidelines for worsening renal function. In addition, there appears to be no concordance or adaptation of chronic kidney disease guidelines by heart failure guideline development groups for the monitoring of chronic kidney disease in heart failure. Our aim is to encourage the debate for an agreed definition given the prognostic impact of worsening renal function in heart failure. We present the case for the uptake of the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria for acute kidney injury with some minor alterations. This has the potential to inform study design and meta-analysis thereby building the knowledgebase for guideline development. Definition consensus supports data element, clinical registry and electronic algorithm innovation as instruments for quality improvement and clinical research for better patient outcomes. In addition, we recommend all community managed heart failure patients have their baseline renal function classified and routinely monitored in accordance with established renal guidelines to help identify those at increased risk for worsening renal function or progression to chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pinkham, Maximilian I; Loftus, Michael T; Amirapu, Satya; Guild, Sarah-Jane; Quill, Gina; Woodward, William R; Habecker, Beth A; Barrett, Carolyn J
Heart failure is characterized by the loss of sympathetic innervation to the ventricles, contributing to impaired cardiac function and arrhythmogenesis. We hypothesized that renal denervation (RDx) would reverse this loss. Male Wistar rats underwent myocardial infarction (MI) or sham surgery and progressed into heart failure for 4 wk before receiving bilateral RDx or sham RDx. After additional 3 wk, left ventricular (LV) function was assessed, and ventricular sympathetic nerve fiber density was determined via histology. Post-MI heart failure rats displayed significant reductions in ventricular sympathetic innervation and tissue norepinephrine content (nerve fiber density in the LV of MI+sham RDx hearts was 0.31 ± 0.05% vs. 1.00 ± 0.10% in sham MI+sham RDx group, P heart failure. Our findings show denervating the renal nerves improves cardiac sympathetic innervation and function in the post-MI failing heart. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Kumar, Sachin; Taylor, David O
Over a million patients get hospitalized with the diagnosis of acute decompensated heart failure which poses an insurmountable financial burden on the health care system. Heart failure alone incurs over 30 billion dollars with half the cost spent towards acute hospitalizations. Majority of the treatment strategies have focused towards decongesting patients which often comes with the cost of worsening renal function. Renal dysfunction in the setting of acute decompensated heart failure portends worse morbidity and mortality. Recently, there has been a change in the focus with shift towards therapies attempting to conserve renal function. In the past decade, we have witnessed several large randomized controlled trials testing the established as well as emerging therapies in this subset of population with mixed results. This review intends to provide a comprehensive overview of the pharmacologic therapies commonly utilized in the management of acute decompensated heart failure and the body of evidence supporting these strategies.
Meijers, Wouter C.; van der Velde, A. Rogier; Ruifrok, Willem P.; Schroten, Nicolas F.; Dokter, Martin M.; Damman, Kevin; Assa, Solmaz; Franssen, Casper F.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van Gilst, Wiek; Sillje, Herman H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.
Background-Galectin-3 is a biomarker for prognostication and risk stratification of patients with heart failure (HF). It has been suggested that renal function strongly relates to galectin-3 levels. We aimed to describe galectin-3 renal handling in HF. Methods and Results-In Sprague-Dawley rats, we
Schiller, Alicia M.; Haack, Karla K.V.; Pellegrino, Peter R.; Curry, Pamela L.; Zucker, Irving H.
A hallmark of chronic heart failure (CHF) is an increased sympathetic tone resulting in autonomic imbalance. Renal denervation (DNx) in CHF patients has resulted in symptomatic improvement, but the protective mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized in CHF, unilateral renal DNx would improve cardiac autonomic balance. The present study used conscious, chronically instrumented New Zealand White rabbits undergoing renal DNx prior to pacing-induced CHF. Four treatment groups were used: nonpace...
Meijers, Wouter C.; van der Velde, A. Rogier; Ruifrok, Willem P.; Schroten, Nicolas F.; Dokter, Martin M.; Damman, Kevin; Assa, Solmaz; Franssen, Casper F.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Sillj?, Herman H.; de Boer, Rudolf A
Background Galectin?3 is a biomarker for prognostication and risk stratification of patients with heart failure (HF). It has been suggested that renal function strongly relates to galectin?3 levels. We aimed to describe galectin?3 renal handling in HF. Methods and Results In Sprague?Dawley rats, we infused galectin?3 and studied distribution and renal clearance. Furthermore, galectin?3 was measured in urine and plasma of healthy controls, HF patients and hemodialysis patients. To mimic the hu...
Schiller, Alicia M.; Pellegrino, Peter R.; Zucker, Irving H.
The function of the renal nerves has been an area of scientific and medical interest for many years. The recent advent of a minimally invasive catheter-based method of renal denervation has renewed excitement in understanding the afferent and efferent actions of the renal nerves in multiple diseases. While hypertension has been the focus of much this work, less attention has been given to the role of the renal nerves in the development of chronic heart failure (CHF). Recent studies from our laboratory and those of others implicate an essential role for the renal nerves in the development and progression of CHF. Using a rabbit tachycardia model of CHF and surgical unilateral renal denervation, we provide evidence for both renal efferent and afferent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CHF. Renal denervation prevented the decrease in renal blood flow observed in CHF while also preventing increases in Angiotensin-II receptor protein in the microvasculature of the renal cortex. Renal denervation in CHF also reduced physiological markers of autonomic dysfunction including an improvement in arterial baroreflex function, heart rate variability, and decreased resting cardiac sympathetic tone. Taken together, the renal sympathetic nerves are necessary in the pathogenesis of CHF via both efferent and afferent mechanisms. Additional investigation is warranted to fully understand the role of these nerves and their role as a therapeutic target in CHF. PMID:26300788
Alicia Marie Schiller
Full Text Available The function of the renal nerves has been an area of scientific and medical interest for many years. The recent advent of a minimally invasive catheter-based method of renal denervation has renewed excitement in understanding the afferent and efferent actions of the renal nerves in multiple diseases. While hypertension has been the focus of much this work, less attention has been given to the role of the renal nerves in the development of chronic heart failure (CHF. Recent studies from our laboratory and those of others implicate an essential role for the renal nerves in the development and progression of CHF. Using a rabbit tachycardia model of CHF and surgical unilateral renal denervation, we provide evidence for both renal efferent and afferent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CHF. Renal denervation prevented the decrease in renal blood flow observed in CHF while also preventing increases in Angiotensin-II receptor protein in the microvasculature of the renal cortex. Renal denervation in CHF also reduced physiological markers of autonomic dysfunction including an improvement in arterial baroreflex function, heart rate variability, and decreased resting cardiac sympathetic tone. Taken together, the renal sympathetic nerves are necessary in the pathogenesis of CHF via both efferent and afferent
Zheng, Bin; Ma, Qin; Zheng, Li-Hong; Yong, Qiang; He, Yi-Hua; Liu, Jing-Hua
Previous data are controversial about the association of renal artery stenosis (RAS) with clinical outcome in patients with heart failure. Definition of RAS in previous studies might not be appropriate. By definition of RAS with renal duplex sonography, we investigated the association of RAS with clinical outcome in patients with heart failure. In this retrospective study, we identified 164 patients with heart failure (New York Heart Association classification ≥II; left ventricular ejection fraction renal duplex sonography during hospital stay. RAS was defined as renal-aortic ratio ≥3.5 or a peak systolic velocity ≥200 cm/s (or both), or occlusion of the renal artery. Categorical data of patients were compared using the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling technique was used to investigate the prognostic significance of possible predictors. Finally, 143 patients were enrolled. Median follow-up time was 32 months (1-53 months). Twenty-two patients were diagnosed as RAS by renal duplex sonography, including 13 unilateral RAS (3 left RAS, 10 right RAS) and 9 bilateral RAS. There were more all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death in patients with RAS than patients without RAS. By multivariate analysis, RAS was a significant predictor for all-cause death and cardiovascular death (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.155, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.546-11.164, P = 0.005; and HR = 3.483, 95% CI: 1.200-10.104, P = 0.022, respectively). As for composite endpoint events, including death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or intracranial hemorrhage, rehospitalization for cardiac failure, and renal replacement therapy, only angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker was significant predictor. RAS was not a significant predictor for composite endpoint events. Our data suggested that RAS is associated with a poorer clinical outcome in patients with heart failure.
Booth, Lindsea C.; May, Clive N.; Yao, Song T.
Renal nerves contain afferent, sensory and efferent, sympathetic nerve fibers. In heart failure (HF) there is an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), which can lead to renal vasoconstriction, increased renin release and sodium retention. These changes are thought to contribute to renal dysfunction, which is predictive of poor outcome in patients with HF. In contrast, the role of the renal afferent nerves remains largely unexplored in HF. This is somewhat surprising as there are multiple triggers in HF that have the potential to increase afferent nerve activity, including increased venous pressure and reduced kidney perfusion. Some of the few studies investigating renal afferents in HF have suggested that at least the sympatho-inhibitory reno-renal reflex is blunted. In experimentally induced HF, renal denervation, both surgical and catheter-based, has been associated with some improvements in renal and cardiac function. It remains unknown whether the effects are due to removal of the efferent renal nerve fibers or afferent renal nerve fibers, or a combination of both. Here, we review the effects of HF on renal efferent and afferent nerve function and critically assess the latest evidence supporting renal denervation as a potential treatment in HF. PMID:26483699
Rossignol, Patrick; Cleland, John G F; Bhandari, Sunil
We evaluated the effect of the selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone on renal function and the interaction between changes in renal function and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes in patients with heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction after an acute myocardial...... infarction in the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS)....
McAlister, Finlay A; Ezekowitz, Justin; Tarantini, Luigi
Prior studies in heart failure (HF) have used the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration Group (CKD-EPI) equation provides a more-accurate eGFR than the MDRD when compared...... against the radionuclide gold standard. The prevalence and prognostic import of renal dysfunction in HF if the CKD-EPI equation is used rather than the MDRD is uncertain....
Bosselmann, Helle Skovmand; Gislason, Gunnar; Gustafsson, Finn
Background- Renal dysfunction is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF), but whether this dysfunction progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unknown. Therefore, we examined incidence and predictors of ESRD in outpatients with HF. Methods and Results- Patients with systolic HF......(2), group II: 30 to 59 mL/min per 1.73 m(2), group III: 15 to 29 mL/min per 1.73 m(2), group IV:...
Damman, Kevin; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Felker, G. Michael; Lassus, Johan; Zannad, Faiez; Krum, Henry; McMurray, John J. V.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly prevalent in patients with chronic systolic heart failure. Therefore, evidence-based therapies are more and more being used in patients with some degree of renal dysfunction. However, most pivotal randomized clinical trials specifically excluded patients
Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitors have been shown to strengthen the effects of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). It has been well documented that angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors act beneficially in chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). In the present study, renal...
Emmens, Johanna E.; ter Maaten, Jozine M.; Matsue, Yuya; Metra, Marco; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R.; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth; Cleland, John G.; Givertz, Michael M.; Bloomfield, Daniel M.; Dittrich, Howard C.; Todd, John; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Hillege, Hans L.; Damman, Kevin; van der Meer, Peter; Voors, Adriaan A.
AimsUrinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a marker of tubular damage and associated with worse outcome in heart failure (HF). Plasma KIM-1 has not been described in HF. Methods and resultsIn a renal mechanistic cohort of 120 chronic HF patients, we established the association between plasma
Schou, Morten; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Torp-Pedersen, Christian
Renal dysfunction is associated with a variety of cardiac alterations including left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, LV dilation, and reduction in systolic and diastolic function. It is common and associated with an increased mortality risk in heart failure (HF) patients. This study was designed to...
Smilde, Tom; Hillege, Hans; Voors, Adriaan; Dunselman, P.H.J.; Van Veldhuisen, D.J.
We evaluated the prognostic value of renal function in an initially “untreated” population with mild heart failure and compared the prognosis of this population with a matched controlled population. During a follow-up of 13 years (mean 11.7), 90 patients (56%) died. Mortality was higher compared
Krishnamoorthy, Arun; Greiner, Melissa A; Sharma, Puza P; DeVore, Adam D; Johnson, Katherine Waltman; Fonarow, Gregg C; Curtis, Lesley H; Hernandez, Adrian F
Transient and persistent worsening renal function (WRF) may be associated with different risks during hospitalization for acute heart failure. We compared outcomes of patients hospitalized for acute heart failure with transient, persistent, or no WRF. We identified patients 65 years or older hospitalized with acute heart failure from a clinical registry linked to Medicare claims data. We defined WRF as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥ 0.3 mg/dL after admission. We further classified patients with WRF by the difference between admission and last recorded serum creatinine levels into transient WRF (acute heart failure were associated with higher adjusted risks for 90-day all-cause postadmission mortality. Patients with persistent WRF had worse outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...
Hussain, Imad; Alexander, Mariam P; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Pereira, Naveen L; Redfield, Margaret M
.... The source of Gal-3 in human HF, chronic kidney disease (CKD) or cardio-renal failure (HF+CKD) is unclear.ObjectiveTo assess Gal-3 presence and location in human heart or kidney tissue from patients with HF, CKD or HF...
Byrne, Christina; Abdulla, Jawdat
A 33-year-old woman with presumed essential hypertension and symptoms equivalent to New York Heart Association class II was suspected of heart failure and referred to echocardiography. The patient's ECG showed a left bundle branch block. Electrolytes, serum creatinine and estimated-glomerular filtration rate as well as urine test for protein were all normal. The patient had no peripheral oedema. The transthoracic echocardiography confirmed systolic and diastolic dysfunction and an ejection fraction of 25% and left ventricular hypertrophy. Ultrasound of renal arteries and renal CT angiography (renal CTA) revealed a significant stenosis and an aneurysm corresponding to the right renal artery with challenges to traditional interventions. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
V. D. Syvolap
Full Text Available The aim was to study prevalence of some risk factors of the renal dysfunction. Methods and results. 344 patients with ischemic chronic heart failure were included. Clinical, medical history, laboratory and instrumental data were analyzed. It was established that renal dysfunction is accompanied by traditional (age, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy and non-traditional risk factors (hyperuricemia, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial volume index, cystatin C whose role increases with a decrease in glomerular filtration rate. Conclusion. This shows the close relationship between traditional and non-traditional risk factors that contribute to the development of cardio-renal complications.
Bosselmann, Helle; Tønder, Niels; Sölétormos, György
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction (RD) is associated with poor outcome in systolic heart failure (HF). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is not depressed to a greater extent in patients with RD compared to patients with normal renal function, but it is relatively unknown whether other measures...... no differences in frequency of atrial fibrillation, hypertension, diabetes and ischemic heart disease between eGFR groups (P > 0.05 for all). RD was associated with impaired global longitudinal strain (P = 0.018), increased E/e' (P = 0.032), larger left atria (P = 0.038) and increased levels of proANP (P
Iacoviello, Massimo; Leone, Marta; Antoncecchi, Valeria; Ciccone, Marco Matteo
Chronic kidney disease and its worsening are recurring conditions in chronic heart failure (CHF) which are independently associated with poor patient outcome. The heart and kidney share many pathophysiological mechanisms which can determine dysfunction in each organ. Cardiorenal syndrome is the condition in which these two organs negatively affect each other, therefore an accurate evaluation of renal function in the clinical setting of CHF is essential. This review aims to revise the parameters currently used to evaluate renal dysfunction in CHF with particular reference to the usefulness and the limitations of biomarkers in evaluating glomerular dysfunction and tubular damage. Moreover, it is reported the possible utility of renal arterial resistance index (a parameter associated with abnormalities in renal vascular bed) for a better assesment of kidney disfunction.
Voors, Adriaan A.; Dahlke, Marion; Meyer, Sven; Stepinska, Janina; Gottlieb, Stephen S.; Jones, Andrew; Zhang, Yiming; Laurent, Didier; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Navis, Gerjan J.
Background-Serelaxin is a promising therapy for acute heart failure. The renal hemodynamic effects of serelaxin in patients with chronic heart failure are unknown. Methods and Results-In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study, patients with New York Heart Association
Schaffer, J M; Chiu, P; Singh, S K; Oyer, P E; Reitz, B A; Mallidi, H R
In patients with end-stage heart failure (ESHF) who are candidates for isolated heart transplant (HRT), dialysis dependence (DD) is considered an indication for combined heart-kidney transplantation (HKT). HKT remains controversial in ESHF transplant candidates with nondialysis-dependent renal insufficiency (NDDRI). Using United Network for Organ Sharing data, we examined the cumulative incidences of transplant and mortality in patients with DD and NDDRI waitlisted for HKT or HRT. In all groups, 3-month waitlist mortality was dismal: 31% and 21% for HRT- and HKT-listed patients with DD and 12% and 7% for HRT- and HKT-listed patients with NDDRI. Five-year posttransplant survival was improved in HKT recipients compared with HRT recipients for both patients with DD (73% vs. 51%, pkidney transplant in patients who do not recover renal function after HRT), as opposed to HKT, maximizes organ benefit for patients with NDDRI and ESHF requires assessment. Nevertheless, given their dismal waitlist outcomes and excellent posttransplant results, we suggest that patients with DD and NDDRI with ESHF be considered for early listing and transplant. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
D. A. Lashkul
Full Text Available Chronic heart failure (CHF is one of the most common complications of cardiovascular disease. According multicenter studies conducted during recent years, coronary heart disease was the leading cause of heart failure and has been on average 64% of patients with chronic heart failure. The tight functional relationship of cardiovascular and urinary system causes a lot of interest to the functional state of kidneys in various cardiovascular diseases. Most risk factors for cardiovascular disease are common risk factors of renal failure. Causes significant differences in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in patients with chronic heart failure, defined as coronary artery disease and hypertension remain unclear. Need clarification prevalence of CKD among patients with CHF in general and in specific groups of patients. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence, correlation and statistical relationships of renal dysfunction with functional class, age and gender of patients with coronary heart disease and heart failure, were hospitalized. Materials and methods. Analyzed the medical cards 344 patients (286 men and 58 women with ischemic chronic heart failure, mean age 59.2±9.4 years. The etiology of heart failure in 298 (86.6% patients had a combination of coronary artery disease and essential hypertension in 46 (13.4% - CHD. Chronic heart failure 1 functional class (FC was diagnosed in 10 (2.9% patients, 2 FC - in 106 (31%, 3 FC - 207 (60.5% and 4 FC - 19 (5, 6% patients. Diabetes was 62 (18% patients. Myocardial infarction had a history of 245 (71.2% patients. Glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the formula MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease. Descriptive statistics are presented as mean±standard deviation for continuous variables and as percentages for categorical variables. Depending on the distribution of the analyzed parameters used unpaired Student's t-test or U-Mann-Whitney test. Comparisons among all
... heart failure due to systolic dysfunction. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 26, 2014. Colucci WS. ... patient with heart failure or cardiomyopathy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 26, 2014. Colucci WS. ...
Jorsal, Anders; Wiggers, Henrik; McMurray, John J V
This article briefly discusses the epidemiology of heart failure and diabetes and summarizes the key findings from the recent cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, with a focus on heart failure as an endpoint.......This article briefly discusses the epidemiology of heart failure and diabetes and summarizes the key findings from the recent cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, with a focus on heart failure as an endpoint....
Song-Yan Liao, MD
Full Text Available Summary: Renal denervation (RD is a potential novel nonpharmacological therapy for heart failure (HF. We performed bilateral catheter-based RD in 10 adult pigs and compared them with 10 control subjects after induction of HF to investigate the long-term beneficial effects of RD on left ventricular (LV function and regional norepinephrine gradient after conventional HF pharmacological therapy. Compared with control subjects, animals treated with RD demonstrated an improvement in LV function and reduction of norepinephrine gradients over the myocardium and kidney at 10-week follow-up. Our results demonstrated that effective bilateral RD decrease regional norepinephrine gradients and improve LV contractile function compared with medical therapy alone. Key Words: heart failure, left ventricular function, norepinephrine, renal denervation
Sinkeler, Steef J.; Damman, Kevin; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Hillege, Hans; Navis, Gerjan
The association between cardiac failure and renal function impairment has gained wide recognition over the last decade. Both structural damage in the form of systemic atherosclerosis and (patho) physiological hemodynamic changes may explain this association. As regards hemodynamic factors, renal
Heitmann, M; Davidsen, U; Stokholm, K H
The kidney and the neurohormonal systems are essential in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF) and the physiologic response. Routine treatment of moderate to severe CHF consists of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and beta-blockade. The need for control...... of renal function during initiation of ACE-inhibition in patients with CHF is well known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation by a combined alpha1-beta-blockade to diuretics and ACE-inhibition might improve cardiac function without reducing renal function....
Matsue, Yuya; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Kagiyama, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Kazuki; Kume, Teruyoshi; Okura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Makoto; Matsumura, Akihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Hashimoto, Yuji
Although intravenous diuretics have been mainstay drugs in patients with acute heart failure (AHF), they have been suggested to have some deleterious effects on prognosis. We postulated that renal function may modify their deleterious effects in AHF patients. The study population consisted of 1094 AHF patients from three hospitals. Renal dysfunction (RD) was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) renal function in AHF. This association may be one reason for poorer prognosis of AHF patients complicated with renal impairment.
D. A. Lashkul
Full Text Available Mitral regurgitation (MR - frequent complication of prolonged and severe coronary artery disease, left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LV of different genesis and plays an important role in the onset and progression of chronic heart failure (CHF. Aim. In order to identify relationships between severity of mitral regurgitation and renal function 318 patients with ischemic chronic heart failure were included. Methods and results. Biochemical analysis was used for study of the filtration capacity of the kidneys, echocardiography – the structural and functional parameters of the heart. It was established that the increase in severity of mitral regurgitation sweeping in chronic heart failure accompanied by a decline of kidney function, left ventricular ejection fraction, increase in left atrial volume index, increased systolic pulmonary artery pressure and E/Eann ratio increase. Conclusions. This indicates that mitral regurgitation formation of on the background of abnormal left ventricular remodeling in patients with ischemic chronic heart failure is associated with a reduction of kidney function and needs more attention in order to be detected at an earlier stage.
Full Text Available Objective: Patients with chronic renal insufficiency remaina risky subgroup in open heart surgery becauseof various reasons. The incidence of cardiovascular diseasein hemodialysis dependent renal failure is found tobe higher when compared with the normal population.Chronic dialysis is still a very important independent riskfactor for mortality and morbidity despite of many studies.In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the outcome ofpatients with chronic renal failure who had undergone toopen cardiac surgery.Methods: The medical charts of 36 patients on maintenancedialysis who underwent cardiovascular surgerywere retrospectively analyzed. Peroperative findings ofthese patients were analyzed from patients’ hospital records.Results: Twenty-seven men (75% and nine women(25% totally 36 patients were included to study. Themean age was 58.3±8.5 (range, 44-76 years. 12 patientsunderwent coronary artery bypass surgery, 10 hadconcomitant coronary artery bypass surgery and valvereplacements, five had valve replacements, three hadconcomitant coronary artery bypass surgery and left ventriculectomy,four had valve replacement with other valverepair, two had aortic surgery due to ascending aortic aneurysms.The mean cross clamp time was 78.1±31.3 minand the mean perfusion time was 158.8±92.2 min. Themean intensive care unit stay was 60±41 hours, and themean hospital stay was 12±5 days. Hospital mortality ratewas %38.8.Conclusions: Cardiac and renal functions are closely associatedwith each other. Cardiac surgery operations canbe applied to patients with end-stage renal failure underacceptable risks. Appropriate preoperative preparationwith good postoperative patient follow-up is necessary tohave acceptable levels of morbidity and mortality rates. JClin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (3: 335-338Key words: Cardiac surgery, chronic renal failure, mortality
Zamora, Elisabet; Lupón, Josep; de Antonio, Marta; Galán, Amparo; Domingo, Mar; Urrutia, Agustín; Troya, Maribel; Bayes-Genis, Antoni
Galectin-3 (Gal-3) has been associated with cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF) prognosis. Renal function is also a well known HF prognostic indicator. The link between renal insufficiency, HF, and Gal-3 is not completely elucidated. We explored the association between Gal-3 and renal function in a cohort of 876 consecutive ambulatory patients with HF (mean age: 68 years; mean left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 36%), 52.2% had HF etiology of ischemic heart disease. Circulating Gal-3 was highly correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated with either the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology (CKD-EPI) equation (r = -0.64) or the CKD-EPI-cystatin-C equation (r = -0.59) and with Cystatin-C levels (r = 0.70), after adjusting for age, sex, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, LVEF, and HF etiology (all prenal function in outpatients with HF. The value of Gal-3 for HF prognosis declined after adjusting for renal function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zakeri, Rosita; Burnett, John C.; Sangaralingham, S. Jeson
The public health and economic burden of heart failure (HF) is staggering and the need for relevant pathophysiologic and clinical biomarkers to advance the field and improve HF therapy remains high. Renal dysfunction is common among HF patients and is associated with increased HF hospitalization and mortality. It is widely recognized that mechanisms contributing to HF pathogenesis include a complex bidirectional interaction between the kidney and heart, encompassed by the term cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Among a new wave of urinary biomarkers germane to CRS, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has emerged as an innovative biomarker of renal structural and functional impairment in HF and chronic renal disease states. CNP is a hormone, synthesized in the kidney, and is an important regulator of cell proliferation and organ fibrosis. Hypoxia, cytokines and fibrotic growth factors, which are inherent to both cardiac and renal remodeling processes, are among the recognized stimuli for CNP production and release. In this review we aim to highlight current knowledge regarding the biology and pathophysiologic correlates of urinary CNP, and its potential clinical utility as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in HF and renal disease states. PMID:25512164
Gabrielsen, A; Bie, P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H
To examine if the neuroendocrine link between volume sensing and renal function is preserved in compensated chronic heart failure [HF, ejection fraction 0.29 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- SE)] we tested the hypothesis that intravascular and central blood volume expansion by 3 h of water immersion (WI) elicits...... sustained angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy, n = 9) absolute and fractional sodium excretion increased (P Renal free water clearance increased during WI in control subjects but not in HF......, albeit plasma vasopressin concentrations were similar in the two groups. In conclusion, the neuroendocrine link between volume sensing and renal sodium excretion is preserved in compensated HF. The natriuresis of WI is, however, modulated by the prevailing ANG II and Aldo concentrations. In contrast...
Nagaya, N; Miyatake, K; Uematsu, M; Oya, H; Shimizu, W; Hosoda, H; Kojima, M; Nakanishi, N; Mori, H; Kangawa, K
Ghrelin is a novel GH-releasing peptide that may also induce vasodilation and a positive energy balance through GH-independent mechanisms. However, the hemodynamic, renal, and hormonal effects of ghrelin in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) remain unknown. Accordingly, 12 patients with CHF were given an iv infusion of human ghrelin (0.1 microg/kg.min) or placebo. Ghrelin significantly decreased mean arterial pressure (-9 mm Hg, P Ghrelin significantly increased cardiac index (+25%, P ghrelin induced a marked increase in serum GH level (15-fold), associated with slight increases in circulating epinephrine, ACTH, cortisol, and PRL. Infusion of ghrelin did not significantly alter urine volume, urinary sodium excretion, or creatinine clearance. These hemodynamic, renal and hormonal parameters remained unchanged during placebo infusion. In summary, iv infusion of ghrelin, a potent GH-releasing peptide, had beneficial hemodynamic effects in patients with CHF in the absence of renal effects.
McCullough, Peter A; Jefferies, John L
Acute kidney injury complicates decompensated heart failure in ∼33% of cases and is associated with morbidity and mortality; thus, we sought to systematically review this topic in order to summarize novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Structured PubMed searches on these topics were conducted in February 2014 and relevant literature was identified. The PubMed search identified a total of 192 articles that were individually screened for inclusion in this analysis, and 58 were included. Acute kidney injury, defined by substantial increases in serum creatinine, is associated consistently with prolonged length of stay, rehospitalization, and mortality. Biomarker studies suggested that natriuretic peptides are prognostic for shorter- and longer-term mortality. Novel proteins indicating kidney damage and albumin in the urine are associated with acute kidney injury. The most promising acute pharmacologic treatment appears to be serelaxin, which has been shown to improve acute heart failure symptoms, hemodynamic parameters, and renal function. The presence of acute kidney injury results in worse clinical outcomes for patients with acute heart failure. Novel biomarkers and therapies hold the promise of improving both cardiac and renal outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patel, Hitesh C; Rosen, Stuart D; Hayward, Carl; Vassiliou, Vassilios; Smith, Gillian C; Wage, Ricardo R; Bailey, James; Rajani, Ronak; Lindsay, Alistair C; Pennell, Dudley J; Underwood, S Richard; Prasad, Sanjay K; Mohiaddin, Raad; Gibbs, J Simon R; Lyon, Alexander R; Di Mario, Carlo
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is associated with increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone. Attenuating the SNS with renal denervation (RDT) might be helpful and there are no data currently in humans with HFpEF. In this single-centre, randomized, open-controlled study we included 25 patients with HFpEF [preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, left atrial (LA) dilatation or LV hypertrophy and raised B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or echocardiographic assessment of filling pressures]. Patients were randomized (2:1) to RDT with the Symplicity™ catheter or continuing medical therapy. The primary success criterion was not met in that there were no differences between groups at 12 months for Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire score, peak oxygen uptake (VO2 ) on exercise, BNP, E/e', LA volume index or LV mass index. A greater proportion of patients improved at 3 months in the RDT group with respect to VO2 peak (56% vs. 13%, P = 0.025) and E/e' (31% vs. 13%, P = 0.04). Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate was comparable between groups. Two patients required plain balloon angioplasty during the RDT procedure to treat renal artery wall oedema. This study was terminated early because of difficulties in recruitment and was underpowered to detect whether RD improved the endpoints of quality of life, exercise function, biomarkers, and left heart remodelling. The procedure was safe in patients with HFpEF, although two patients did require intraprocedure renal artery dilatation. © 2016 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.
Wehbe, Edgard; Patarroyo, Maria; Taliercio, Jonathan J; Starling, Randall C; Nally, Joseph V; Tang, W H Wilson; Demirjian, Sevag
Recent reports have raised concerns regarding renal outcomes in patients with decompensated acute heart failure (HF) treated with slow continuous ultrafiltration (SCUF). The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for renal failure (RF) requiring dialysis in patients with acute HF initiated on SCUF. We studied 63 consecutive patients with acute HF who required SCUF because of congestion refractory to hemodynamically guided intensive medical therapy. Median serum creatinine at SCUF initiation was higher in patients who developed RF requiring dialysis [2.5 (interquartile range 1.8-3.3) vs 1.6 (1.2-2.3) mg/dL; P acute HF initiated on SCUF, onset of RF requiring dialysis is associated with high mortality. Systolic perfusion pressure which incorporates both perfusion and venous congestion parameters may present a modifiable risk factor for worsening RF during SCUF in acute HF patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Damman, Kevin; Masson, Serge; Lucci, Donata; Gorini, Marco; Urso, Renato; Maggioni, Aldo P.; Tavazzi, Luigi; Tarantini, Luigi; Tognoni, Gianni; Voors, Adriaan; Latini, Roberto
Background: Data on the natural change in renal function in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) are limited. Methods and Results: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was assessed over 36 months in 6934 patients included in the GISSI-HF study. Associations from baseline, changes in renal
Meijers, Wouter C; van der Velde, A Rogier; Ruifrok, Willem P; Schroten, Nicolas F; Dokter, Martin M; Damman, Kevin; Assa, Solmaz; Franssen, Casper F; Gansevoort, Ron T; van Gilst, Wiek H; Silljé, Herman H; de Boer, Rudolf A
Galectin-3 is a biomarker for prognostication and risk stratification of patients with heart failure (HF). It has been suggested that renal function strongly relates to galectin-3 levels. We aimed to describe galectin-3 renal handling in HF. In Sprague-Dawley rats, we infused galectin-3 and studied distribution and renal clearance. Furthermore, galectin-3 was measured in urine and plasma of healthy controls, HF patients and hemodialysis patients. To mimic the human situation, we measured galectin-3 before and after the artificial kidney. Infusion in rats resulted in a clear increase in plasma and urine galectin-3. Plasma galectin-3 in HF patients (n=101; mean age 64 years; 93% male) was significantly higher compared to control subjects (n=20; mean age 58 years; 75% male) (16.6 ng/mL versus 9.7 ng/mL, Prenal handling of galectin-3 in patients with HF may explain the described relation between renal function and galectin-3 and may account for the elevated plasma galectin-3 in HF. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Naila Atik Khan
Full Text Available Background : Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP is the diagnostic tool for acute heart failure (AHF.This natriuretic peptide level depends on renal function, through renal metabolism and excretion. Therefore we examined the effect ofrenal impairment on plasma BNP level during diagnosis of AHF.Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the effect of renal dysfunction on plasma BNP level and to determine appropriate cutoff value of plasma BNP to diagnose the patients of AHF with renal insufficiency.Methods: This cross sectional analytical study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU. The study was done among 90 AHF patients selected from cardiology emergency department during the period of July 2012 to June 2013. After enrollment plasma BNP concentration was measured and eGFR was estimated from serum creatinine by the four parameter Modification of Diet and Renal Disease (MORD equation and then grouped into two groups on the basis of empirical cut off value of eGFR 60 ml/min/1.73 m2Results: In this study a significant negative correlation was found between plasma BNP evel and eGFR (P<0.001 , with higher BNP levels observed as eGFR declined. The optimal BNP cutoff value for diagnosis of AHF patients with renal insufficiency was 824 pg/ml. At this cutoff level AHF with renal insufficiency could be diagnosed with sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 71 %, respectively.Conclusions: By adjusting the cutoff value, plasma BNP can be used to diagnose AHF with renal insufficiency with an acceptable sensitivity and specificity.
Chen, Pingan; Leng, Shuilong; Luo, Yishan; Li, Shaonan; Huang, Zicheng; Liu, Zhenxi; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Jie; Lei, Xiaoming
In dogs with heart failure (HF) induced by overload pressure, the role of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) on heart failure and in the renal artery is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy and safety of RSD in dogs with pressure overload-induced heart failure. Twenty mongrel dogs were divided into a sham-operated group, an HF group and an HF + RSD group. In the sham-operated group, the abdominal aorta was located but was not constricted, in the HF group, the abdominal aorta was constricted without RSD, and the HF+RSD group underwent RSD with constriction of the abdominal aorta after 10 weeks. Blood sampling assays, echocardiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) measurement and histopathological examination were performed. Renal sympathetic denervation caused a significant reduction in the levels of noradrenaline (166.62±6.84 vs. 183.48±13.66 pg/ml, P<0.05), plasma renin activity (1.93±0.12 vs. 2.10±0.13 ng/mlh, P<0.05) and B-type natriuretic peptide (71.14±3.86 vs. 83.15±5.73 pg/ml, P<0.05) at eight weeks after RSD in the HF+RSD group. Compared with the HF group at eight weeks, the left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole and end-systole were lower and the left ventricular ejection fraction was higher (all P<0.05) at eight weeks after RSD in the HF+RSD group. Intravenous ultrasound images showed no changes in the renal artery lumen, and intimal hyperplasia and vascular lumen stenosis were not observed after RSD. Renal sympathetic denervation could improve cardiac function in dogs with HF induced by pressure overload; RSD had no adverse influence on the renal artery. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.
Weidmann, Zoraida Moreno; Breidthardt, Tobias; Twerenbold, Raphael; Züsli, Christina; Nowak, Albina; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Erne, Paul; Rentsch, Katharina; de Oliveira, Mucio T; Gualandro, Danielle; Maeder, Micha T; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Pershyna, Kateryna; Stallone, Fabio; Haas, Laurent; Jaeger, Cedric; Wildi, Karin; Puelacher, Christian; Honegger, Ursina; Wagener, Max; Wittmer, Severin; Schumacher, Carmela; Krivoshei, Lian; Hillinger, Petra; Osswald, Stefan; Mueller, Christian
Renal function, as quantified by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), is a predictor of death in acute heart failure (AHF). It is unknown whether one of the clinically-available serum creatinine-based formulas to calculate eGFR is superior to the others for predicting mortality. We quantified renal function using five different formulas (Cockroft-Gault, MDRD-4, MDRD-6, CKD-EPI in patientsrenal function and in three vulnerable subgroups: women, patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction, and the elderly. The prognostic accuracy for readmission was poor for all equations, with an AUC around 0.5. Calculating eGFR using the Cockcroft-Gault formula assesses the risk of mortality in patients with AHF more accurately than other commonly used formulas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kute, Vivek B; Vanikar, Aruna V; Patel, Himanshu V; Gumber, Manoj R; Shah, Pankaj R; Engineer, Divyesh P; Balwani, Manish R; Gautam, Rajesh Singh; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Trivedi, Hargovind L
Chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are serious medical conditions with significant morbidity and mortality and often coexist. Because of perioperative risks in these patients, they may not be considered a candidate for renal transplantation (RTx). We compare retrospectively RTx outcomes [graft/patient survival, rejection rates and adverse cardiac events] in study group [low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 45% by echocardiogram, n = 63] and control group [normal LVEF ≥ 50%, n = 537] from a developing country. The mean EF was 35 ± 5.6 and 57 ± 3% for the study and control groups, respectively (p renal transplantation, this appears not to be the case. The outcomes between the 2 groups are comparable and transplant is an option for even low EF patients.
Jujo, Kentaro; Saito, Katsumi; Ishida, Issei; Furuki, Yuho; Kim, Ahsung; Suzuki, Yuki; Sekiguchi, Haruki; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa
Loop diuretics are first-line medications for congestive heart failure (CHF); however, they are associated with serious adverse effects, including decreased renal function, and sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin system activation. We tested whether tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, could reduce unfavourable furosemide-induced effects during CHF treatment. Sixty patients emergently hospitalized owing to CHF-induced dyspnea were randomly assigned to receive either 40 mg intravenous furosemide daily or 7.5 mg oral tolvaptan for 5 days after admission. Both groups also received intravenous carperitide and canrenoate potassium. As results, baseline patient characteristics were similar between the furosemide (n = 30) and the tolvaptan (n = 30) groups, with no significant difference in 5 day urine volume or fluid balance. Brain natriuretic peptide and body weight improvements were similar between groups. However, serum creatinine (Cr) level did not increase, and the incidence of worsening renal function was significantly lower in the tolvaptan group. Consequently, the Cr increase to gain 1000 mL urine was 2.5-fold lower in the tolvaptan group. Furthermore, the blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/Cr ratio significantly decreased in the tolvaptan group, suggesting that renal perfusion was preserved, and urea reuptake and passive water reabsorption were suppressed following tolvaptan treatment. Although catecholamine improvements after treatment were not significantly different, plasma renin activity was enhanced in the furosemide group. As compared with furosemide, tolvaptan in patients with acute heart failure is associated with comparable decongestion, better preservation of renal function and less activation of renin-angiotensin system. (UMIN 000014134).
Berra, Gregory; Garin, Nicolas; Stirnemann, Jérôme; Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Perrier, Arnaud; Carballo, Sebastian
The prognostic value of worsening renal function (WRF) in acute heart failure is debated. Moreover, it is not clear if the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in this context is detrimental. In a retrospective cohort study of 646 patients hospitalized for acute heart failure, the risk of death or readmission associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) present at admission, WRF during the 1st 7 days, and up-titration of ACEI/ARB were analyzed in a Cox proportional hazards model. AKI, WRF, hemoglobin concentration, ACEI/ARB up-titration, and use of loop diuretics before admission were significantly associated with the primary outcome in univariate analysis. In a multivariate model, the association remained significant for AKI (hazard ratio [HR] 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.47; P = .0002), WRF (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.45; P = .0059), and ACEI/ARB up-titration (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.97; P = .026). There was no excess mortality in patients with ACEI/ARB up-titration despite WRF. Both AKI and WRF are strongly associated with poor outcome in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure. ACEI/ARB up-titration seems to be protective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bruno, Noemi; ter Maaten, Jozine M; Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S; Vegter, Eline L; Valente, Mattia A E; van der Meer, Peter; de Boer, Rudolf A; van der Harst, Pim; Schmitter, Daniela; Metra, Marco; O'Connor, Christopher M; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth; Cleland, John G; Givertz, Michael M; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Dittrich, Howard C; Pinto, Yigal M; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans L; Berezikov, Eugene; Voors, Adriaan A
Deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) may be involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF) and renal disease. Our aim is to describe miRNA levels related to early worsening renal function in acute HF patients. We studied the association between 12 circulating miRNAs and Worsening Renal Function (WRF; defined as an increase in the serum creatinine level of 0.3mg per deciliter or more from admission to day 3), absolute change in creatinine and Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) from admission to day 3 in 98 patients hospitalized for acute HF. At baseline, circulating levels of all miRNAs were lower in patients with WRF, with statistically significant decreased levels of miR-199a-3p, miR-423-3p, and miR-let-7i-5p (p-valueacute HF were consistently lower in patients who developed worsening of renal function. MiR-199a-3p was the best predictor of WRF in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matsue, Yuya; Suzuki, Makoto; Torii, Sho; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Fukamizu, Seiji; Ono, Yuichi; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Kitai, Takeshi; Nishioka, Toshihiko; Sugi, Kaoru; Onishi, Yuko; Noda, Makoto; Kagiyama, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Kazuki; Goldsmith, Steven R
More efficacious and/or safer decongestive therapy is clearly needed in acute heart failure (AHF) patients complicated by renal dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that adding tolvaptan, an oral vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist, to conventional therapy with loop diuretics would be more effective treatment in this population. A multicenter, open-label, randomized control trial was performed, and 217 AHF patients with renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate 15-60 mL • min(-1) • 1.73 m(-2)) were randomized 1:1 to treatment with tolvaptan (n=108) or conventional treatment (n=109). The primary end point was 48-hour urine volume. The tolvaptan group showed more diuresis than the conventional treatment group (6464.4 vs 4999.2 mL; P tolvaptan group at all time points within 48 hours except 6 hours after enrollment. The rate of worsening of renal function (≥0.3 mg/dL increase from baseline) was similar between the tolvaptan and conventional treatment groups (24.1% vs 27.8%, respectively; P =.642). Adding tolvaptan to conventional treatment achieved more diuresis and relieved dyspnea symptoms in AHF patients with renal dysfunction. URL: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm/ Unique identifier: UMIN000007109. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sénéchal, Mario; Dorent, Richard; du Montcel, Sophie Tézénas; Ghossou, Jean-Jacques; Pavie, Alain; Petitclerc, Thierry; Dubois, Michelle; Isnard, Richard; Gandjbakhch, Iradj
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality after the first year of heart transplantation. End-stage renal failure (ESRF) is more frequent because of long-term survival. Impact of ESRF on cardiac mortality in heart transplant patients is unappreciated. The hypothesis of accelerated CAD in uremic patients has been suggested. In Pitié La Salpêtrière hospital, 1211 heart transplants have been performed between 1982 and 2001. Thirty-three patients have reached ESRF. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors responsible for ESRF and to appreciate the impact of ESRF on cardiac mortality. In cases at 6 months, serum creatinine tended to be higher (159 +/- 31 micromol/L vs. 141 +/- 44 micromol/L, p = 0.06) and cyclosporine (CSA) dosage (mg/kg) was significantly lower (5.4 +/- 1.8 mg/kg vs. 7.7 +/- 2.7 mg/ kg, p = 0.002). Mean triglyceride level after transplantation until dialysis was significantly lower in cases (2.18 +/- 0.82 mmol/L vs. 1.48 +/- 0.62 mmol/L, p = 0.002). In cases and controls, cardiac mortality was responsible for 67% (10 of 15) and 38% (three of eight) of all deaths, respectively. High triglyceride level (> or = 2 mmol/L) was associated with cardiac mortality [p cardiac free survival rates were significantly lower in cases than in controls (p nephrotoxicity could result from individually determined susceptibility and that hypertriglyceridemia may have a negative impact on renal function and cardiac mortality. The risk of cardiac mortality is increased in heart transplant patients with ESRF. The hypothesis of accelerated atherosclerosis in ESRF patients after heart transplantation leading to higher cardiac mortality incidence needs further study.
Conclusions: CRT was associated with stabilization of renal function in patients with severe LV dysfunction and improvement in stage 4 and 5 CKD. Improved renal function was associated with a lower mortality.
... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...
... Intramural Research Home / Heart Failure Heart Failure Also known as Congestive heart failure What ... diseases for many years that led to heart failure. Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital stays ...
... Intramural Research Home / Heart Failure Heart Failure Also known as Congestive heart failure What ... diseases for many years that led to heart failure. Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital stays ...
... Intramural Research Home / Heart Failure Heart Failure Also known as Congestive heart failure What ... diseases for many years that led to heart failure. Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital stays ...
Salah, Khibar; Kok, Wouter E; Eurlings, Luc W; Bettencourt, Paulo; Pimenta, Joana M; Metra, Marco; Verdiani, Valerio; Tijssen, Jan G; Pinto, Yigal M
The aim of this study was to analyze the dynamic changes in renal function in combination with dynamic changes in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Treatment of ADHF improves cardiac parameters, as reflected by lower levels of NT-proBNP. However this often comes at the cost of worsening renal parameters (e.g., serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], or serum urea). Both the cardiac and renal markers are validated indicators of prognosis, but it is not yet clear whether the benefits of lowering NT-proBNP are outweighed by the concomitant worsening of renal parameters. This study was an individual patient data analysis assembled from 6 prospective cohorts consisting of 1,232 patients hospitalized for ADHF. Endpoints were all-cause mortality and the composite of all-cause mortality and/or readmission for a cardiovascular reason within 180 days after discharge. A significant reduction in NT-proBNP was not associated with worsening of renal function (WRF) or severe WRF (sWRF). A reduction of NT-proBNP of more than 30% during hospitalization determined prognosis (all-cause mortality hazard ratio [HR]: 1.81; 95% confidence Interval [CI]: 1.32 to 2.50; composite endpoint: HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.64), regardless of changes in renal function and other clinical variables. When we defined prognosis, NT-proBNP changes during hospitalization for treatment of ADHF prevailed over parameters for worsening renal function. Severe WRF is a measure of prognosis, but is of lesser value than, and independent of the prognostic changes induced by adequate NT-proBNP reduction. This suggests that in ADHF patients it may be warranted to strive for an optimal decrease in NT-proBNP, even if this induces WRF. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Horng H; Anstrom, Kevin J; Givertz, Michael M; Stevenson, Lynne W; Semigran, Marc J; Goldsmith, Steven R; Bart, Bradley A; Bull, David A; Stehlik, Josef; LeWinter, Martin M; Konstam, Marvin A; Huggins, Gordon S; Rouleau, Jean L; O'Meara, Eileen; Tang, W H Wilson; Starling, Randall C; Butler, Javed; Deswal, Anita; Felker, G Michael; O'Connor, Christopher M; Bonita, Raphael E; Margulies, Kenneth B; Cappola, Thomas P; Ofili, Elizabeth O; Mann, Douglas L; Dávila-Román, Víctor G; McNulty, Steven E; Borlaug, Barry A; Velazquez, Eric J; Lee, Kerry L; Shah, Monica R; Hernandez, Adrian F; Braunwald, Eugene; Redfield, Margaret M
Small studies suggest that low-dose dopamine or low-dose nesiritide may enhance decongestion and preserve renal function in patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction; however, neither strategy has been rigorously tested. To test the 2 independent hypotheses that, compared with placebo, addition of low-dose dopamine (2 μg/kg/min) or low-dose nesiritide (0.005 μg/kg/min without bolus) to diuretic therapy will enhance decongestion and preserve renal function in patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction. Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation [ROSE]) of 360 hospitalized patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15-60 mL/min/1.73 m2), randomized within 24 hours of admission. Enrollment occurred from September 2010 to March 2013 across 26 sites in North America. Participants were randomized in an open, 1:1 allocation ratio to the dopamine or nesiritide strategy. Within each strategy, participants were randomized in a double-blind, 2:1 ratio to active treatment or placebo. The dopamine (n = 122) and nesiritide (n = 119) groups were independently compared with the pooled placebo group (n = 119). Coprimary end points included 72-hour cumulative urine volume (decongestion end point) and the change in serum cystatin C from enrollment to 72 hours (renal function end point). Compared with placebo, low-dose dopamine had no significant effect on 72-hour cumulative urine volume (dopamine, 8524 mL; 95% CI, 7917-9131 vs placebo, 8296 mL; 95% CI, 7762-8830 ; difference, 229 mL; 95% CI, -714 to 1171 mL; P = .59) or on the change in cystatin C level (dopamine, 0.12 mg/L; 95% CI, 0.06-0.18 vs placebo, 0.11 mg/L; 95% CI, 0.06-0.16; difference, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.08 to 0.10; P = .72). Similarly, low-dose nesiritide had no significant effect on 72-hour cumulative urine volume (nesiritide, 8574 mL; 95% CI, 8014-9134 vs placebo
Smilde, Tom D. J.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Navis, Gerjan; Voors, Adriaan A.; Hillege, Hans L.
Background - Renal function is an important risk marker for morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure (CHF) and is often estimated with the use of creatinine-based formulas. However, these formulas have never been validated in a wide range of CHF patients. We validated 3 commonly used
Luo, Qingzhi; Jin, Qi; Zhang, Ning; Huang, Shangwei; Han, Yanxin; Lin, Changjian; Ling, Tianyou; Chen, Kang; Pan, Wenqi; Wu, Liqun
What is the central question of this study? In the present study, we investigated the effects of renal denervation on the vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation and the ventricular electrical properties in a rapid pacing-induced heart failure canine model. What is the main finding and its importance? Renal denervation significantly attenuated the process of heart failure and improved left ventricular systolic dysfunction, stabilized ventricular electrophysiological properties and decreased the vulnerability of the heart to ventricular fibrillation during heart failure. Thus, renal denervation can attenuate ventricular electrical remodelling and exert a potential antifibrillatory action in a pacing-induced heart failure canine model. In this study, we investigated the effects of renal denervation (RDN) on the vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation (VF) and the ventricular electrical properties in a canine model of pacing-induced heart failure (HF). Eighteen beagles were divided into the following three groups: control (n = 6), HF (n = 6) and HF+RDN (n = 6). Heart failure was induced by rapid right ventricular pacing. Renal denervation was performed simultaneously with the pacemaker implantation in the HF+RDN group. A 64-unipolar basket catheter was used to perform global endocardial mapping of the left ventricle. The restitution properties and dispersion of refractoriness were estimated from the activation recovery intervals (ARIs) by a pacing protocol. The VF threshold (VFT) was defined as the maximal pacing cycle length required to induce VF using a specific pacing protocol. The defibrillation threshold (DFT) was measured by an up-down algorithm. Renal denervation partly restored left ventricular systolic function and attenuated the process of HF. Compared with the control group, the VFT in the HF group was decreased by 27% (106 ± 8.0 versus 135 ± 10 ms, P Renal denervation significantly flattened the ventricular ARI restitution curve by 15% (1
Clinical trials update from the European Society of Cardiology-Heart Failure meeting 2015: AUGMENT-HF, TITRATION, STOP-HF, HARMONIZE, LION HEART, MOOD-HF, and renin-angiotensin inhibitors in patients with heart and renal failure.
Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Clark, Andrew L
This article provides an overview on the key trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of heart failure (HF) presented at the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) annual meeting held in Seville, Spain in May 2015. Trials reported include AUGMENT-AF (myocardial injections of calcium-alginate hydrogel), a propensity score-matched study of renin-angiotensin system antagonists in patients with HF and severe renal dysfunction, HARMONIZE (sodium zirconium cyclosilicate used to bind potassium), TITRATION, comparing two regimes for introducing LCZ696, STOP-HF, a trial of intramyocardial stromal cell-derived factor-1, MOOD-HF (escitalopram for patients with heart failure and depression), and LION HEART, a trial of intermittent levosimendan therapy. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary, since analyses may change in the final publication. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.
Palazzuoli, Alberto; Lombardi, Carlo; Ruocco, Gaetano; Padeletti, Margherita; Nuti, Ranuccio; Metra, Marco; Ronco, Claudio
Nearly a third of patients with acute heart failure experience concomitant renal dysfunction. This condition is often associated with increased costs of care, length of hospitalisation and high mortality. Although the clinical impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been well established, the exact clinical significance of worsening renal function (WRF) during the acute and post-hospitalisation phases is not completely understood. Therefore, it is still unclear which of the common laboratory markers are able to identify WRF at an early stage. Recent studies comparing CKD with WRF showed contradictory results; this could depend on a different WRF definition, clinical characteristics, haemodynamic disorders and the presence of prior renal dysfunction in the population enrolled. The current definition of acute cardiorenal syndrome focuses on both the heart and kidney but it lacks precise laboratory marker cut-offs and a specific diagnostic approach. WRF and CKD could represent different pathophysiological mechanisms in the setting of acute heart failure; the traditional view includes reduced cardiac output with systemic and renal vasoconstriction. Nevertheless, it has become a mixed model that encompasses both forward and backward haemodynamic dysfunction. Increased central venous pressure, renal congestion with tubular obliteration, tubulo-glomerular feedback and increased abdominal pressure are all potential additional contributors. The impact of WRF on patients who experience preserved renal function and individuals affected with CKD is currently unknown. Therefore it is extremely important to understand the origins, the clinical significance and the prognostic impact of WRF on CKD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.
CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...
Kajimoto, Katsuya; Sato, Naoki; Takano, Teruo
Renal insufficiency is a well-known predictor of adverse events in patients with acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS). However, it remains unclear whether there are subgroups of AHFS patients in whom renal insufficiency is related to a higher risk of adverse events because of the heterogeneity of this patient population. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between renal insufficiency, clinical features or comorbidities, and the risk of adverse events in patients with AHFS. Of 4842 patients enrolled in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Syndromes (ATTEND) registry, 4628 patients (95.6%) were evaluated in the present study in order to assess the relationship of renal insufficiency and clinical features or comorbidities with all-cause mortality after admission. Renal insufficiency was defined as an estimated creatinine clearance of ⩽40 mL/min (calculated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula) at admission. The median follow-up period after admission was 524 (391-789) days. The all-cause mortality rate after admission was significantly higher in patients with renal insufficiency (36.7%) than in patients without renal insufficiency (14.4%). Stratified analysis was performed in order to explore the heterogeneity of the influence of renal insufficiency on all-cause mortality. This analysis revealed that an ischaemic aetiology and a history of diabetes, atrial fibrillation, serum sodium, and anaemia at admission had significant influences on the relationship between renal insufficiency and all-cause mortality. The present study demonstrated that the relationship between renal insufficiency and all-cause mortality of AHFS patients varies markedly with clinical features or comorbidities and the mode of presentation due to the heterogeneity of this patient population.
George, Lekha K; Koshy, Santhosh K G; Molnar, Miklos Z; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun L; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P
Heart failure (HF) is associated with poor cardiac outcomes and mortality. It is not known whether HF leads to poor renal outcomes in patients with normal kidney function. We hypothesized that HF is associated with worse long-term renal outcomes. Among 3 570 865 US veterans with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL min-1 1.73 m-2 during October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006, we identified 156 743 with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis of HF. We examined the association of HF with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD), the composite of incident CKD or mortality, and rapid rate of eGFR decline (slopes steeper than -5 mL min-1 1.73 m-2 y-1) using Cox proportional hazard analyses and logistic regression. Adjustments were made for various confounders. The mean±standard deviation baseline age and eGFR of HF patients were 68±11 years and 78±14 mL min-1 1.73 m-2 and in patients without HF were 59±14 years and 84±16 mL min-1 1.73 m-2, respectively. HF patients had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiac, peripheral vascular and chronic lung diseases, stroke, and dementia. Incidence of CKD was 69.0/1000 patient-years in HF patients versus 14.5/1000 patient-years in patients without HF, and 22% of patients with HF had rapid decline in eGFR compared with 8.5% in patients without HF. HF patients had a 2.12-, 2.06-, and 2.13-fold higher multivariable-adjusted risk of incident CKD, composite of CKD or mortality, and rapid eGFR decline, respectively. HF is associated with significantly higher risk of incident CKD, incident CKD or mortality, and rapid eGFR decline. Early diagnosis and management of HF could help reduce the risk of long-term renal complications. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
... heart failure; Right-sided heart failure - cor pulmonale; Cardiomyopathy - heart failure; HF ... Disease Section. Heart Failure as a newly approved diagnosis for cardiac rehabilitation: challenges and opportunities. J Am ...
Sens, Florence; Schott-Pethelaz, Anne-Marie; Labeeuw, Michel; Colin, Cyrille; Villar, Emmanuel
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been proposed as a therapeutic option for patients with end-stage renal disease and associated congestive heart failure (CHF). Here, we compare mortality risks in these patients by dialysis modality by including all patients who started planned chronic dialysis with associated congestive heart failure and were prospectively enrolled in the French REIN Registry. Survival was compared between 933 PD and 3468 hemodialysis (HD) patients using a Kaplan-Meier model, Cox regression, and propensity score analysis. The patients were followed from their first dialysis session and stratified by modality at day 90 or last modality if death occurred prior. There was a significant difference in the median survival time of 20.4 months in the PD group and 36.7 months in the HD group (hazard ratio, 1.55). After correction for confounders, the adjusted hazard ratio for death in PD compared to the HD patients remained significant at 1.48. Subgroup analyses showed that the results were not changed with regard to the New York Heart Association stage, age strata, or estimated glomerular filtration rate strata at first renal replacement therapy. The use of propensity score did not change results (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.55). Thus, mortality risk was higher with PD than with HD among incident patients with end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. These results may help guide clinical decisions and also highlight the need for randomized clinical trials.
Miller, Wayne L; Borgeson, Daniel D; Grantham, J Aaron; Luchner, Andreas; Redfield, Margaret M; Burnett, John C
Aldosterone activation is central to the sodium–fluid retention that marks the progression of heart failure (HF). The actions of dietary sodium restriction, a mainstay in HF management, on cardiorenal and neuroendocrine adaptations during the progression of HF are poorly understood. The study aim was to assess the role of dietary sodium during the progression of experimental HF. Experimental HF was produced in a canine model by rapid right ventricular pacing which evolves from early mild HF to overt, severe HF. Dogs were fed one of three diets: (i) high sodium [250 mEq (5.8 g) per day, n =6]; (ii) standard sodium [58 mEq (1.3 g) per day, n =6]; and (iii) sodium restriction [11 mEq (0.25 g) per day, n =6]. During the 38-day study, haemodynamics, renal function, plasma renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone were measured. Changes in haemodynamics at 38 days were similar in all three groups, as were changes in renal function. Aldosterone activation was demonstrated in all three groups; however, dietary sodium restriction, in contrast to high sodium, resulted in early (10 days) activation of PRA and aldosterone. High sodium demonstrated significant suppression of aldosterone activation over the course of HF progression. Excessive dietary sodium restriction particularly in early stage HF results in early aldosterone activation, while normal and excess sodium intake are associated with delayed or suppressed activation. These findings warrant evaluation in humans to determine if dietary sodium manipulation, particularly during early stage HF, may have a significant impact on neuroendocrine disease progression.
Souza, Wysllenny Nascimento de; Araújo, Cristiane Maria Sá de; Silva, Silvia Alves da; Petribú, Marina de Moraes Vasconcelos
Valvular disease can course with heart failure (HF), anemia and renal dysfunction (RD), increasing the nutritional risk and worsening patient prognosis. To evaluate the prevalence of anemia and RD in patients with valvulopathy with or without HF, as well as establish a correlation with the nutritional status. A total of 104 patients admitted at the Clinic of Valvulopathy of PROCAPE/UPE, during the period of Aug-Oct/2008. The data were obtained from the nutritional and medical follow-up files. The collected variables were: sex, age, nutritional status according to the body mass index (BMI), presence of HF, anemia and RD. Anemia was considered when hemoglobin values were < 13 g/dl in men and < 12 g/dl in women. RD was established according to the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and it was calculated through the formula proposed by Cockcroft and Gault. The prevalence of anemia and RD was 71.1% and 68.8%, and 48.1% and 60.0%, in patients with and without HF, respectively, with a statistically significant difference for anemia (p = 0.022). Of the patients, 48.1% were eutrophic, 26.9% had excess weight and 25.0% presented some degree of malnutrition. The patients with HF presented a higher frequency of low weight (p = 0.020). The nutritional status was not associated with anemia (p = 0.117), but it was associated with RD, with renal function being decreased more often in patients with low weight (p = 0.000). When the prevalence of malnutrition, anemia and RD was compared between patients with and without HF, it showed statistical significance.
Echeverría, Juan C; Infante, Oscar; Pérez-Grovas, Héctor; González, Hortensia; José, Marco V; Lerma, Claudia
The aim of this work was to evaluate the short-term fractal index (α1 ) of heart rate variability (HRV) in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients by identifying the effects of orthostatism and hemodialysis (HD), and by evaluating the correlation between α1 and the mean RR interval from sinus beats (meanNN). HRV time series were derived from ECG data of 19 CRF patients and 20 age-matched healthy subjects obtained at supine and orthostatic positions (lasting 5 min each). Data from CRF patients were collected before and after HD. α1 was calculated from each time series and compared by analysis of variance. Pearson's correlations between meanNN and α1 were calculated using the data from both positions by considering three groups: healthy subjects, CRF before HD and CRF after HD. At supine position, α1 of CRF patients after HD (1.17 ± 0.30) was larger (P healthy subjects (0.89 ± 0.28) but not before HD (1.10 ± 0.34). α1 increased (P healthy subjects (1.29 ± 0.26) and CRF patients after HD (1.34 ± 0.31), but not before HD (1.25 ± 0.37). Whereas α1 was correlated (P healthy subjects (r = -0.562) and CRF patients after HD (r = -0.388), no significance in CRF patients before HD was identified (r = 0.003). Multiple regression analysis confirmed that α1 was mainly predicted by the orthostatic position (in all groups) and meanNN (healthy subjects and patients after HD), showing no association with the renal disease condition in itself. In conclusion, as in healthy subjects, α1 of CRF patients correlates with meanNN after HD (indicating a more irregular-like HRV behavior at slower heart rates). This suggests that CRF patients with stable blood pressure preserve a regulatory adaptability despite a shifted setting point of the heart period (i.e., higher heart rate) in comparison with healthy subjects. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Byrne, Christina; Abdulla, Jawdat
A 33-year-old woman with presumed essential hypertension and symptoms equivalent to New York Heart Association class II was suspected of heart failure and referred to echocardiography. The patient's ECG showed a left bundle branch block. Electrolytes, serum creatinine and estimated...
Differential Response to Low-Dose Dopamine or Low-Dose Nesiritide in Acute Heart Failure With Reduced or Preserved Ejection Fraction: Results From the ROSE AHF Trial (Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure).
Wan, Siu-Hin; Stevens, Susanna R; Borlaug, Barry A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Deswal, Anita; Felker, G Michael; Givertz, Michael M; Bart, Bradley A; Tang, W H Wilson; Redfield, Margaret M; Chen, Horng H
The ROSE AHF trial (Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure) found that when compared with placebo, neither low-dose dopamine (2 µg/kg per minute) nor low-dose nesiritide (0.005 μg/kg per minute without bolus) enhanced decongestion or preserved renal function in AHF patients with renal dysfunction. However, there may be differential responses to vasoactive agents in AHF patients with reduced versus preserved ejection fraction (EF). This post hoc analysis examined potential interaction between treatment effect and EF (EF ≤40% versus >40%) on the ROSE AHF end points. ROSE AHF enrolled AHF patients (n=360; any EF) with renal dysfunction. The coprimary end points were cumulative urine volume and the change in serum cystatin-C in 72 hours. The effect of dopamine (interaction P=0.001) and nesiritide (interaction P=0.039) on urine volume varied by EF group. In heart failure with reduced EF, urine volume was higher with active treatment versus placebo, whereas in heart failure with preserved EF, urine volume was lower with active treatment. The effect of dopamine and nesiritide on weight change, sodium excretion, and incidence of AHF treatment failure also varied by EF group (interaction Pfailure with reduced EF and worse clinical outcomes in heart failure with preserved EF. With nesiritide, there were no differences in clinical outcomes when compared with placebo in both heart failure with reduced EF and heart failure with preserved EF. In this post hoc analysis of ROSE AHF, the response to vasoactive therapies differed in patients with heart failure with reduced EF and heart failure with preserved EF. Investigations of AHF therapies should assess the potential for differential responses in AHF with preserved versus reduced EF. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01132846. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Wang, Neng; Zheng, Xiaoxin; Qian, Jin; Yao, Wei; Bai, Lu; Hou, Guo; Qiu, Xuan; Li, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Xuejun
The aim of the present study was to determine if renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) may alleviate isoproterenol-induced left ventricle remodeling, and to identify the underlying mechanism. A total of 70 rats were randomly divided into control (n=15), sham operation (n=15), heart failure (HF) with sham operation (HF + sham; n=20) and HF with treatment (HF + RSD; n=20) groups. The HF model was established by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol; six weeks later, 1eft ventricular internal diameter at end‑systole (LVIDs), left ventricular systolic posterior wall thickness (LVPWs), 1eft ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) were measured. Plasma norepinephrine (NE), angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone (ALD) levels were measured by ELISA. Myocardial collagen volume fraction (CVF) was determined by Masson's staining. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of ventricular transforming growth factor‑β (TGF‑β), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and microRNAs (miRs), including miR‑29b, miR‑30c and miR‑133a. The results demonstrated that LVIDs and LVPWs in the HF + RSD group were significantly decreased compared with the HF + sham group. By contrast, LVFS and LVEF in the HF + RSD group were significantly increased compared with the HF + sham group. RSD significantly reduced the levels of plasma NE, Ang II and ALD. CVF in the HF + RSD group was reduced by 38.1% compared with the HF + sham group. Expression levels of TGF‑β and CTGF were decreased, whereas those of miR‑29b, miR‑30c and miR‑133a were increased, in the HF + RSD group compared with the HF + sham group. These results indicated that RSD alleviates isoproterenol‑induced left ventricle remodeling potentially via downregulation of TGF‑β/CTGF and upregulation of miR‑29b, miR‑30c and miR‑133a. RSD may therefore be an effective non‑drug therapy for the
Kim, Min-Seok; Jeong, Tae-Dong; Han, Seung-Bong; Min, Won-Ki; Kim, Jae-Joong
This study sought to assess the relationship between serum concentrations of the soluble ST2 (sST2) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and investigate the role of sST2 as a prognosticator in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (HF) and renal insufficiency. sST2 was measured at admission and discharge in 66 patients hospitalized with acute decompensated HF and renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] renal insufficiency (eGFR renal function, even though BNP level was much higher in patients with severe renal insufficiency. During 3 month follow-up, 9 (13.6%) died and 16 (24.2%) were readmitted due to HF aggravation.On multivariate analysis, sST2 at discharge was independently associated with death or HF readmission during 3 months after discharge (hazard ratio, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.011-1.066, P = 0.006). In conclusion, sST2 is not affected by renal function compared with BNP in acute HF patients. The measurement of predischarge sST2 can be helpful in predicting short-term outcomes in acute decompensated HF patients with renal insufficiency.
Núñez, Julio; Garcia, Sergio; Núñez, Eduardo; Bonanad, Clara; Bodí, Vicent; Miñana, Gema; Santas, Enrique; Escribano, David; Bayes-Genis, Antonio; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Chorro, Francisco J; Sanchis, Juan
The changes in renal function that occurred in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are prevalent, and have multifactorial etiology and dissimilar prognosis. To what extent the prognostic role of such changes may vary according to the presence of renal insufficiency at admission is not clear. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether early creatinine changes (ΔCr) (admission to 48-72 hours) had an effect on 1-year mortality relative to the presence of renal insufficiency at admission. We included 705 consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of ADHF. Admission renal insufficiency was defined as serum creatinine ≥1.4mg/dl (A-RI cr ) or estimated glomerular filtration rate renal insufficiency (24.7% and 42.8% for A-RIcr and A-RIGFR, respectively) had higher prevalence of extreme values in ΔCr in either direction (increasing/decreasing). At 1-year follow-up, 114 (16.2%) deaths were registered. The multivariable analysis showed a significant interaction between admission renal insufficiency and ΔCr ( p=0.004 and p=0.019 for A-RIcr and A-RIGFR, respectively). In the presence of renal insufficiency, the continuum of ΔCr followed a positive and almost linear relationship with mortality risk. Conversely, in patients without renal insufficiency, those changes adopted a 'J-shape' trajectory with increased mortality at both ends of the curve distribution. In patients with ADHF the effect of ΔCr on 1-year mortality varied according to its magnitude and the presence of admission renal insufficiency. There was a graded-association with mortality when renal insufficiency was present on admission.
Hanatani, Akihisa; Shibata, Atsushi; Kitada, Ryouko; Iwata, Shinichi; Matsumura, Yoshiki; Doi, Atsushi; Sugioka, Kenichi; Takagi, Masahiko; Yoshiyama, Minoru
In patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction, high dose of diuretics are necessary to improve congestion, which may progress to renal dysfunction. We examined the efficacy of tolvaptan with reduction of loop diuretics to improve renal function in patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, randomized study in 44 patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction (serum creatinine concentration ≥1.1 mg/dl) treated with conventional diuretics. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: tolvaptan (15 mg) with a fixed dose of diuretics or with reducing to a half-dose of diuretics for 7-14 consecutive days. We examined the change of urine volume, body weight, serum creatinine and electrolyte concentrations in each group. Both groups demonstrated significant urine volume increase (724 ± 176 ml/day in the fixed-dose group and 736 ± 114 ml/day in the half-dose group) and body weight reduction (1.6 ± 1.5 kg and 1.6 ± 1.9 kg, respectively) from baseline, with no differences between the two groups. Serum creatinine concentration was significantly increased in the fixed-dose group (from 1.60 ± 0.47 to 1.74 ± 0.66 mg/dl, p = 0.03) and decreased in the half-dose group (from 1.98 ± 0.91 to 1.91 ± 0.97 mg/dl, p = 0.10). So the mean changes in serum creatinine concentration from baseline significantly differed between the two groups (0.14 ± 0.08 mg/dl in the fixed-dose group and -0.07 ± 0.19 mg/dl in the half-dose group, p = 0.006). The administration of tolvaptan with reduction of loop diuretics was clinically effective to ameliorate congestion with improving renal function in patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction.
Ripley, Toni L; Chonlahan, Jennifer S; Germany, Robin E
Candesartan cilexetil is a nonpeptide selective blocker of the angiotensin II receptor sub-type 1. It is a prodrug that is converted to its active metabolite during its variable absorption. It is highly protein bound with a small volume of distribution and a nine-hour half-life. Candesartan is one of two angiotensin receptor blockers approved for use in heart failure. MEDLINE was searched using OVID and PubMed to evaluate the evidence for using candesartan in patients with heart failure. Pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic evaluations, as well as clinical trials, were selected and are presented in this review. Clinical evidence supports the indication for use in systolic heart failure. Results for use in patients with diastolic heart failure were non-significant. Candesartan was well tolerated in the trials, with hyperkalemia, renal dysfunction, and hypotension being the most common adverse events. Use of angiotensin receptor blockers with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors needs further study; however, candesartan appears to provide added benefit in this setting. Candesartan is a safe and effective option for patients with systolic heart failure. Data regarding other angiotensin receptor blockers is underway. PMID:18046913
He, Jiang; Shlipak, Michael; Anderson, Amanda; Roy, Jason A; Feldman, Harold I; Kallem, Radhakrishna Reddy; Kanthety, Radhika; Kusek, John W; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Ricardo, Ana C; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Wolf, Myles; Zhang, Xiaoming; Raj, Dominic; Hamm, Lee
Heart failure is common in patients with chronic kidney disease. We studied risk factors for incident heart failure among 3557 participants in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study. Kidney function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using serum creatinine, cystatin C, or both, and 24-hour urine albumin excretion. During an average of 6.3 years of follow-up, 452 participants developed incident heart failure. After adjustment for age, sex, race, and clinical site, hazard ratio (95% CI) for heart failure associated with 1 SD lower creatinine-based eGFR was 1.67 (1.49, 1.89), 1 SD lower cystatin C-based-eGFR was 2.43 (2.10, 2.80), and 1 SD higher log-albuminuria was 1.65 (1.53, 1.78), all Pkidney function measures were simultaneously included in the model, lower cystatin C-based eGFR and higher log-albuminuria remained significantly and directly associated with incidence of heart failure. After adjusting for eGFR, albuminuria, and other traditional cardiovascular risk factors, anemia (1.37, 95% CI 1.09, 1.72, P=0.006), insulin resistance (1.16, 95% CI 1.04, 1.28, P=0.006), hemoglobin A1c (1.27, 95% CI 1.14, 1.41, Pkidney disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Matsue, Yuya; ter Maaten, Jozine M.; Suzuki, Makoto; Torii, Sho; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Fukamizu, Seiji; Ono, Yuichi; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Kitai, Takeshi; Nishioka, Toshihiko; Sugi, Kaoru; Onishi, Yuko; Noda, Makoto; Kagiyama, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Kazuki; van der Meer, Peter; Damman, Kevin; Voors, Adriaan A.; Goldsmith, Steven R.
Background: Poor response to diuretics is associated with worse prognosis in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). We hypothesized that treatment with tolvaptan improves diuretic response in patients with AHF. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of the AQUAMARINE open-label randomized
Damman, Kevin; Valente, Mattia A E; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Cleland, John G F; O'Connor, Christopher M; Metra, Marco; Ponikowski, Piotr; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth; Givertz, Michael M; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Hillege, Hans L; Voors, Adriaan A
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) to predict clinically relevant worsening renal function (WRF) in acute heart failure (AHF). Plasma NGAL and serum creatinine changes during the first 4 days of admission were investigated in 1447 patients hospitalized for AHF and enrolled in the Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study of the Selective A₁Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Rolofylline for Patients Hospitalized with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal Function (PROTECT) study. WRF was defined as serum creatinine rise ≥ 0.3 mg/dL through day 4. Biomarker patterns were described using linear mixed models. WRF developed in 325 patients (22%). Plasma NGAL did not rise earlier than creatinine in patients with WRF. After multivariable adjustment, baseline plasma NGAL, but not creatinine, predicted WRF. AUCs for WRF prediction were modest (renal or cardiovascular rehospitalization by 60 days than patients with WRF and a low baseline plasma NGAL (p for interaction = 0.024). A rise in plasma NGAL after baseline was associated with a worse outcome in patients with WRF, but not in patients without WRF ( p = 0.007). On the basis of these results, plasma NGAL does not provide additional, clinically relevant information about the occurrence of WRF in patients with AHF.
CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken once ...
... surgery; HF - surgery; Intra-aortic balloon pumps - heart failure; IABP - heart failure; Catheter based assist devices - heart failure ... problem may cause heart failure or make heart failure worse. Heart valve surgery may be needed to repair or ...
Hosoda, Junya; Ishikawa, Toshiyuki; Matsushita, Kohei; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Kimura, Yuichiro; Miyamoto, Mihoko; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Takamura, Takeshi; Sugano, Teruyasu; Ishigami, Tomoaki; Uchino, Kazuaki; Kimura, Kazuo; Umemura, Satoshi
Renal insufficiency is recognized as a predictor of mortality and adverse outcome in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the long-term clinical outcome of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in Japanese HF patients with renal insufficiency remains uncertain. We evaluated 67 consecutive patients who underwent CRT at our hospital. The patients were divided into two groups according to a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) cut-off value of 50ml/min, which is defined as the time at which patients should be referred to a nephrologist, by the Japanese Society of Nephrology. Follow-up echocardiographic findings and renal function were examined at 3-6 months after CRT. Then, we compared long-term clinical outcomes between the two groups, and analyzed the effect of CRT on renal function, echocardiographic parameters and cardiac survival. During a mean follow-up period of 30.3 months, patients with advanced renal insufficiency (e-GFR50ml/min) had significant higher all-cause mortality (log-rank p=0.033) and higher cardiac mortality combined with HF hospitalization (log-rank p=0.017) than patients with e-GFR≥50ml/min. Multivariate analysis revealed that advanced renal insufficiency was an independent predictor of cardiac mortality combined with HF hospitalization (odds ratio=3.01, p=0.008). Subgroup analysis in the baseline advanced renal insufficiency group revealed that patients with preserved renal function by CRT (<10% reduction in e-GFR) had a higher rate of decrease of left ventricular end-systolic diameter (-14.0% vs. -0.8%, p=0.023) and lower cardiac mortality combined with HF hospitalization (log-rank p=0.029) compared with patients with deterioration of renal function (≥10% reduction in e-GFR). The present study suggests that advanced renal insufficiency is quite useful for the prediction of worsening clinical outcomes in HF patients treated by CRT. Preservation of renal function by CRT brings about better cardiac survival through
Miller, Wayne L.; Borgeson, Daniel D.; Grantham, J. Aaron; Luchner, Andreas; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.
Aims Aldosterone activation is central to the sodium-fluid retention that marks the progression of heart failure (HF). The actions of dietary sodium restriction, a mainstay in HF management, on cardiorenal and neuroendocrine adaptations during the progression of HF are poorly understood. The study aim was to assess the role of dietary sodium during the progression of experimental HF. Methods and Results Experimental HF was produced in a canine model by rapid right ventricular pacing which evolves from early mild HF to overt, severe HF. Dogs were fed one of three diets: 1) high sodium [250 mEq (5.8 grams) per day, n=6]; 2) standard sodium [58 mEq (1.3 grams) per day, n=6]; and 3) sodium restriction [11 mEq (0.25 grams) per day, n=6]. During the 38 day study hemodynamics, renal function, renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone were measured. Changes in hemodynamics at 38 days were similar in all three groups, as were changes in renal function. Aldosterone activation was demonstrated in all three groups, however, dietary sodium restriction, in contrast to high sodium, resulted in early (10 days) activation of PRA and aldosterone. High sodium demonstrated significant suppression of aldosterone activation over the course of HF progression. Conclusions Excessive dietary sodium restriction particularly in early stage HF results in early aldosterone activation, while normal and excess sodium intake are associated with delayed or suppressed activation. These findings warrant evaluation in humans to determine if dietary sodium manipulation, particularly during early stage HF, may have a significant impact on neuroendocrine disease progression. PMID:25823360
Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Score Is Associated With Incident Heart Failure Hospitalization in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Without Previously Diagnosed Heart Failure: Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.
Mishra, Rakesh K; Yang, Wei; Roy, Jason; Anderson, Amanda H; Bansal, Nisha; Chen, Jing; DeFilippi, Christopher; Delafontaine, Patrice; Feldman, Harold I; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Kusek, John W; Lora, Claudia M; Rosas, Sylvia E; Go, Alan S; Shlipak, Michael G
Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for heart failure (HF). Patients with chronic kidney disease without diagnosed HF have an increased burden of symptoms characteristic of HF. It is not known whether these symptoms are associated with occurrence of new onset HF. We studied the association of a modified Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire with newly identified cases of hospitalized HF among 3093 participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study who did not report HF at baseline. The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was categorized into quartiles (Q1-4) with the lower scores representing the worse symptoms. Multivariable-adjusted repeated measure logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, clinical risk factors for HF, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide level and left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Over a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 4.3±1.6 years, there were 211 new cases of HF hospitalizations. The risk of HF hospitalization increased with increasing symptom quartiles; 2.62, 1.85, 1.14, and 0.74 events per 100 person-years, respectively. The median number of annual Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire assessments per participant was 5 (interquartile range, 3-6). The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was independently associated with higher risk of incident HF hospitalization in multivariable-adjusted models (odds ratio, 3.30 [1.66-6.52]; P=0.001 for Q1 compared with Q4). Symptoms characteristic of HF are common in patients with chronic kidney disease and are associated with higher short-term risk for new hospitalization for HF, independent of level of kidney function, and other known HF risk factors. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:May 9,2017 When heart failure (HF) ... Making This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...
Palazzuoli, Alberto; Pellegrini, Marco; Franci, Beatrice; Beltrami, Matteo; Ruocco, Gaetano; Gonnelli, Stefano; Angelini, Gianni D; Nuti, Ranuccio
Intravenous loop diuretics are still the cornerstone of therapy in acute decompensated heart failure, however, the optimal dosage and administration strategies remain poorly defined particularly in patients with an associated renal dysfunction. This is a single-center, pilot, randomized trial involving patients with acute HF and renal dysfunction. Patients were assigned to receive continuous furosemide infusion (cIV) or bolus injections of furosemide (iIV). Primary end points were the evaluation of urine output volumes, renal function, and b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels during treatment time. Secondary end point included: weight loss, length of hospitalization, differences in plasma electrolytes, need for additional treatment, and evaluation of cardiac events during follow-up period. 57 patients were included in the study. The cIV group showed an increase in urine output (2,505 ± 796 vs 2140 ± 468 ml/day, p diuretics are responsible for worsening renal function and to define the best modality of administration.
Nesiritide, renal function, and associated outcomes during hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure: results from the Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide and Decompensated Heart Failure (ASCEND-HF).
van Deursen, Vincent M; Hernandez, Adrian F; Stebbins, Amanda; Hasselblad, Vic; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Califf, Robert M; Gottlieb, Stephen S; O'Connor, Christopher M; Starling, Randall C; Tang, W H Wilson; McMurray, John J; Dickstein, Kenneth; Voors, Adriaan A
Contradictory results have been reported on the effects of nesiritide on renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. We studied the effects of nesiritide on renal function during hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure and associated outcomes. A total of 7141 patients were randomized to receive either nesiritide or placebo and creatinine was recorded in 5702 patients at baseline, after infusion, discharge, peak/nadir levels until day 30. Worsening renal function was defined as an increase of serum creatinine >0.3 mg/dL and a change of ≥25%. Median (25(th)-75(th) percentile) baseline creatinine was 1.2 (1.0-1.6) mg/dL and median baseline blood urea nitrogen was 25 (18-39) mmol/L. Changes in both serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were similar in nesiritide-treated and placebo-treated patients (P=0.20 and P=0.41) from baseline to discharge. In a multivariable model, independent predictors of change from randomization to hospital discharge in serum creatinine were a lower baseline blood urea nitrogen, higher systolic blood pressure, lower diastolic blood pressure, previous weight gain, and lower baseline potassium (all Prenal function during hospitalization was similar in the nesiritide and placebo group (14.1% and 12.8%, respectively; odds ratio with nesiritide 1.12; confidence interval, 0.95-1.32; P=0.19) and was not associated with death alone and death or rehospitalization at 30 days. However, baseline, discharge, and change in creatinine were associated with death alone and death or rehospitalization for heart failure (all tests, Prenal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Baseline, discharge, and change in renal function were associated with 30-day mortality or rehospitalization for heart failure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Congestive heart failure - children; Cor pulmonale - children; Cardiomyopathy - children; CHF - children; Congenital heart defect - heart failure in children; Cyanotic heart disease - heart failure in children; Birth defect of the heart - heart ...
Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments used to reduce progression rate of chronic renal failure? What are the effects of lifestyle changes used to reduce progression rate of chronic renal failure? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 44 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: angiotensin II receptor antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (with or without angiotensin II receptor antagonists), exercise, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, fibrates, lowering blood pressure below usual targets, nicotinates, psychoeducational intervention, smoking cessation, sodium (dietary), statins, structured programmes to achieve therapeutic goals, and targeted lowering of albuminuria/proteinuria.
Full Text Available Renal failure in obstetrics is rare but important complication, associated with significant mortality and long term morbidity.1,2 It includes acute renal failure due to obstetrical complications or due to deterioration of existing renal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the etiology and outcome of renal failure in obstetric patients. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 30 pregnant and puerperal women with acute renal failure or pre-existing renal disease developing renal failure during pregnancy between November 2007 to sep-2009. Patients who presented/developed ARF during the hospital stay were included in this study. RESULTS: Among 30 patients, mean age was 23 years and 33 years age group. 12 cases (40% patients were primigravidae and 9(30% patients were multigravidae and 9 cases (30% presented in post-partum period. Eighteen cases (60% with ARF were seen in third trimester, followed by in postpartum period 9 cases (30%. Most common contributing factors to ARF were Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome 60%, sepsis 56.6%, post abortal ARF 10%. DIC 40%. Haemorrhage as the aetiology for ARF was present 46%, APH in 20% and PPH in 26.6%. The type of ARF was renal in (63% and prerenal (36%; Oliguric seen in 10 patients (33% and high mortality (30%. Among the 20 pregnant patients with ARF, The average period of gestation was 33±2 weeks (30 -36 weeks, 5 cases (25% presented with intrauterine fetal demise and 18 cases (66% had preterm vaginal delivery and 2 cases (10% had induced abortion. And the average birth weight was 2±0.5 kg (1.5 kg. Eight cases (26% required dialysis. 80% of patients recovered completely of renal functions. 63% patients recovered without renal replacement therapy whereas 17% required dialysis. the maternal mortality was 20%, the main reason for mortality was septic shock and multi organ dysfunction (66%. CONCLUSION: ARF related pregnancy was seen commonly in the primigravidae and in the third trimester, the most
Stolfo, D; Stenner, E; Merlo, M; Porto, A G; Moras, C; Barbati, G; Aleksova, A; Buiatti, A; Sinagra, G
The significance of worsening renal function (WRF) in patients admitted for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is still controversial. We hypothesised that changes in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) might identify patients with optimal diuretic responsiveness resulting in transient WRF, not negatively affecting the prognosis. Our aim was to verify if in-hospital trends of BNP might be helpful in the stratification of patients with WRF after treatment for ADHF. 122 consecutive patients admitted for ADHF were enrolled. Brain natriuretic peptide and eGFR were evaluated at admission and discharge. A 20% relative decrease in eGFR defined WRF, whereas a BNP reduction ≥40% was considered significant. The primary combined endpoint was death/urgent heart transplantation and re-hospitalisation for ADHF. Worsening renal function occurred in 23% of patients without differences in outcome between patients with and without WRF (43% vs. 45%, p=0.597). A significant reduction in BNP levels over the hospitalisation occurred in 59% of the overall population and in 71% of patients with WRF. At a median follow-up of 13.0 (IQR 6-36) months, WRF patients with ≥40% BNP reduction had a lower rate of death/urgent heart transplantation/re-hospitalisation compared to WRF patients without BNP reduction (30% and 75%, respectively; p=0.007). Favourable BNP trend was the strongest variable in predicting the outcome in WRF patients (HR 0.222, 95% CI 0.066-0.753, p=0.016). Worsening renal function does not affect the prognosis of ADHF and, when associated with a significant BNP reduction, identifies patients with adequate decongestion at discharge and favourable outcome. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Parrinello, Gaspare; Torres, Daniele; Testani, Jeffrey M; Almasio, Piero Luigi; Bellanca, Michele; Pizzo, Giuseppina; Cuttitta, Francesco; Pinto, Antonio; Butler, Javed; Paterna, Salvatore
Renal dysfunction (RD) and venous congestion are related and common in heart failure (HF). Studies suggest that venous congestion may be the primary driver of RD in HF. In this study, we sought to investigate retrospectively the relationship between common measures of renal function with caval congestion and mortality among outpatients with HF and RD. We reviewed data from 103 HF outpatients (45 males, mean age 74 years, ejection fraction 41.8 ± 11.6 %) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25.5 (adjusted OR 2.98, p 0.015) and eGFR ≤ 45.8 (adjusted OR 5.38, p 0.002) identify patients at risk for caval congestion; a BUN/Cr > 23.7 was the best predictor of impaired collapsibility (adjusted OR 4.41, p 0.001). a BUN/Cr > 25.5 (HR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.21-3.94, p < 0.001) and NYHA class 3 (HR 2.91, 95 % CI 1.60-5.31, p < 0.0005) were independent risk factors associated with all-cause death during a median follow-up of 31 months. In outpatients with HF and RD, a higher BUN/Cr and lower eGFR are reliable renal biomarkers for caval congestion. The BUN/Cr is associated with long-term mortality and may help to stratify HF severity.
Mallick, Aditi; Januzzi, James L
The care of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure is being reshaped by the availability and understanding of several novel and emerging heart failure biomarkers. The gold standard biomarkers in heart failure are B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Novel biomarkers that are increasingly involved in the processes of myocardial injury, neurohormonal activation, and ventricular remodeling are showing promise in improving diagnosis and prognosis among patients with acute decompensated heart failure. These include midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, soluble ST2, galectin-3, highly-sensitive troponin, and midregional proadrenomedullin. There has also been an emergence of biomarkers for evaluation of acute decompensated heart failure that assist in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea, such as procalcitonin (for identification of acute pneumonia), as well as markers that predict complications of acute decompensated heart failure, such as renal injury markers. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology and usefulness of established and emerging biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Relation of Renal Function with Left Ventricular Systolic Function and NT-proBNP Level and Its Prognostic Implication in Heart Failure with Preserved versus Reduced Ejection Fraction: an analysis from the Korean Heart Failure (KorHF) Registry.
Park, Chan Soon; Park, Jin Joo; Oh, Il-Young; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Choi, Dong-Ju; Park, Hyun-Ah; Kang, Seok-Min; Yoo, Byung-Su; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Kim, Jae-Joong; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Chae, Shung Chull; Ryu, Kyu-Hyung; Oh, Byung-Hee
The relationship between ejection fraction (EF), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and renal function is unknown as stratified by heart failure (HF) type. We investigated their relation and the prognostic value of renal function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) vs. reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). NT-proBNP, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and EF were obtained in 1,932 acute heart failure (AHF) patients. HFrEF was defined as EFrenal dysfunction as GFRrenal dysfunction: 30≤GFRrenal dysfunction: GFRrenal dysfunction did not differ between HFpEF and HFrEF (49% vs. 52%, p=0.210). Patients with renal dysfunction had higher 12-month mortality in both HFpEF (7.9% vs. 15.2%, log-rank p=0.008) and HFrEF (8.6% vs. 16.8%, log-rank prenal dysfunction was an independent predictor of 12-month mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-3.11). When stratified according to EF: the prognostic value of severe renal dysfunction was attenuated in HFpEF patients (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 0.66-3.21) contrary to HFrEF patients (HR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.52-3.89). In AHF patients, the prevalence of renal dysfunction did not differ between HFpEF and HFrEF patients. However, the prognostic value of renal dysfunction was attenuated in HFpEF patients.
Frank Lloyd Dini
Full Text Available We compared the follow-up data on loop diuretic use and renal function, as assessed by serum creatinine levels, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, of two groups of consecutive ambulatory HF patients: 1 the clinically-guided group, in which management was clinically driven based on the institutional protocol of the HF Unit of the Cardiovascular and Thoracic Department of Pisa (standard of care and 2 the echo and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP guided group (patients conforming to the protocol of the Network Labs Ultrasound (NEBULA in HF Study Group: Pisa, Perugia, Pavia; Verona, Auckland, and Veruno, in which therapy was delivered according to the serial assessment of BNP and echocardiography. Patients whose follow-up was based on standard of care had a significant higher prevalence of worsening renal function, that was likely related to higher diuretic dosages, whilst, a better management of renal function was observed in the echo-BNP-guided group. The data is related to “Echo and natriuretic peptide guided therapy improves outcome and reduces worsening renal function in systolic heart failure: An observational study of 1137 outpatients” (A. Simioniuc, E. Carluccio, S. Ghio, A. Rossi, P. Biagioli, G. Reboldi, G.G. Galeotti, F. Lu, C. Zara, G. Whalley, P.G. Temporelli, F.L. Dini, 2016; K.J. Harjai, H.K. Dinshaw, E. Nunez, M. Shah, H. Thompson, T. Turgut, H.O. Ventura, 1999; A. Ahmed, A. Husain, T.E. Love, G. Gambassi, L.J. Dell׳Italia, G.S. Francis, M. Gheorghiade, R.M. Allman, S. Meleth, R.C. Bourge, 2006 [1–3].
admissions.3 Therefore, heart failure is also an expensive disease. Pathophysiology. The first step in the ... hypertrophy or injury due to a valvular problem. This myocardial injury leads to ... heart failure is also an expensive disease. Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, hypertension, obesity.
Tang, W. H. Wilson; Dupont, Matthias; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Hsu, Amy P.; Felker, G. Michael; Butler, Javed; Metra, Marco; Anker, Stefan D.; Troughton, Richard W.; Gottlieb, Stephen S.; McMurray, John J.; Armstrong, Paul W.; Massie, Barry M.; Califf, Robert M.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Starling, Randall C.
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive values of baseline and changes in cystatin C (CysC) and its derived equations for short-term adverse outcomes and the effect of nesiritide therapy on CysC in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). BACKGROUND Newer renal.
The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation outperforms the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in chronic systolic heart failure
Valente, Mattia A. E.; Hillege, Hans L.; Navis, Gerjan; Voors, Adriaan A.; Dunselman, Peter H. J. M.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Damman, Kevin
Aims The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula estimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR) better than the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (sMDRD) formula in numerous populations. It has not previously been validated in heart failure patients. Methods
... second installment explains heart failure with muscle intact. Queen Latifah and her mom, Rita, share their personal ... a Heart Attack 10 Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate *Red Dress ™ DHHS, Go Red ™ AHA ; National Wear Red ...
... second installment explains heart failure with muscle intact. Queen Latifah and her mom, Rita, share their personal ... a Heart Attack 10 Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate *Red Dress ™ DHHS, Go Red ™ AHA ; National Wear Red ...
Fukuta, Hidekatsu; Goto, Toshihiko; Wakami, Kazuaki; Ohte, Nobuyuki
Despite the recent advances in the management of heart failure, the mortality of heart failure patients remains high. It is of urgent need to develop new therapy for heart failure. Heart failure is characterized by increased sympathetic activity, and chronic sympathetic activation is involved in the maintenance of the pathological state. Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) has emerged as an invasive but safe approach that can reduce sympathetic activation. Studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the effect of RDN in heart failure patients due to limited power with small sample sizes. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of the effect of RDN on heart failure patients with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF). An electronic search for studies examining the effect of RDN on LV function in heart failure patients with reduced EF was conducted. Two controlled (80 patients) and 2 uncontrolled studies (21 patients) were included in this meta-analysis. In the pooled analysis, 6 months after RDN, there was a greater increase in EF (weighted mean difference [95% CI] = 8.63 [6.02, 11.24] %) and a greater decrease in LV end-diastolic diameter (-0.58 [-0.83, -0.34] cm) in RDN group than in control group. No serious adverse events such as acute renal artery stenosis and dissection occurred. Our meta-analysis of feasibility studies suggests that RDN may improve LV function in heart failure patients with reduced EF, providing the rationale to conduct next phase trials to confirm the observed potential benefits of RDN.
Larina, V N; Bart, B Ia; Raspopova, T N; Larin, V G
to assess impact of anemia on chronic heart failure (CHF) course in elderly patients in primary care setting. Methods. We examined 164 outpatients (n=164) aged 60-85 years with clinically stable CHF due to ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension. All patients underwent clinical, laboratorial evaluation, ECG, EchoCG measurements, 6 min walk test. Patients were categorized according to the presence of anemia, as defined by the WHO criteria (hemoglobin levels Hb>9 g/dl). It was associated with diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [R] 2.2, 95% CI 1.03-4.69, =0.041), high creatinine level (R 2.76, 95% CI 1.25-6.12, =0.012) and chronic kidney disease (R 5.66, 95% CI 2.51-12.77, 75 years (R 3.58, 95% CI 1.59-7.99, =0.002), diabetes (R 2.68, 95% CI 1.19-6.04, =0.018), history of myocardial infarction (R 2.7, 95% CI 1.24-6.04, =0.013), systolic blood pressure 130 mmol/l (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.51-8.22, =0.004) were predictors of mortality of elderly patients with CRAS. Conclusions. CHF patients with and without anemia had similar survival but survival of those with CRAS was worse compared with patients without anemia and preserved kidney function. Age >75 years, diabetes mellitus, history of myocardial infarction, low systolic blood pressure, complete LBBB, high creatinine level were predictors of mortality in patients with CRAS.
Wang, Yanbo; Gu, Xinshun; Fan, Weize; Fan, Yanming; Li, Wei; Fu, Xianghua
To investigate the effect of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) on renal function in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Consecutive patients with AHF following AMI were enrolled in this clinical trial. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive rhBNP (rhBNP group) or nitroglycerin (NIT group). Patients in the rhBNP group received rhBNP 0.15 μg /kg bolus injection after randomization followed by an adjusted-dose (0.0075-0.020 μg/kg/min) for 72 hours, while patients in NIT received infusion of nitroglycerin with an adjusted-dose (10-100 μg/kg/min) for 72 hours in NIT group. Standard clinical and laboratory data were collected. The levels of serum creatinine (SCr), urea, β-2 microglobulin and cystatin C were measured at baseline and repeated at the end of the 24, 48 and 72 hours after infusion. The primary end point was the incidence of acute renal dysfunction, which was defined as an increase in SCr > 0.5 mg/dl (> 44.2 μmol/L) or 25% above baseline SCr value. The occurrence of major adverse cardiac event (MACE) was followed up for 1 month. Of the 50 patients enrolled, 26 were randomly assigned to rhBNP and 24 to nitroglycerin (NIT). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The baseline concentrations of SCr, urea, β-2 microglobulin and cystatin C at admission were similar in the two groups. However, the concentrations of SCr and urea were significantly higher in rhBNP group than those in NIT group at hour 24 and 48 after treatments (all P acute renal dysfuntion in rhBNP group was higher (9/26 vs. 2/24, P = 0.040). The results of multiple logistic regression found that the use of rhBNP was an independent predictor of acute renal dysfunction in patients with AHF following AMI (OR, 0.162; 95% CI, 0.029 to 0.909; P = 0.039). the incidence of acute renal dysfuntion in rhBNP group was higher, and the use of rhBNP was an
... About Heart Failure Module 6: Managing Feelings About Heart Failure Download Module Order Hardcopy Heart failure can cause ... professional help for emotional problems. Common Feelings About Heart Failure It is common for people to feel depressed ...
Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Chronic heart failure (CHF is highly prevalent and constitutes an important public health problem around the world. In spite of a large number of pharmacological agents that successfully decrease mortality in CHF, the effects on exercise tolerance and quality of life are modest. Renal dysfunction is extremely common in patients with CHF and it is strongly related not only to increased mortality and morbidity but to a significant decrease in exercise tolerance, as well. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence and influence of the renal dysfunction on functional capacity in the elderly CHF patients. Methods. We included 127 patients aged over 65 years in a stable phase of CHF. The diagnosis of heart failure was based on the latest diagnostic principles of the European Society of Cardiology. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGRF was determined by the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD2 formula, and patients were categorized using the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI classification system. Functional capacity was determined by the 6 minute walking test (6MWT. Results. Among 127 patients, 90 were men. The average age was 72.5 ± 4.99 years and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 40.22 ± 9.89%. The average duration of CHF was 3.79 ± 4.84 years. Ninty three (73.2% patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA class II and 34 (26.8% in NYHA class III. Normal renal function (eGFR ≥ 90 mL/min had 8.9% of participants, 57.8% had eGFR between 60-89 mL/min (stage 2 or mild reduction in GFR according to K/DOQI classification, 32.2% had eGFR between 30-59 mL/min (stage 3 or moderate reduction in GFR and 1.1% had eGFR between 15-29 mL/min (stage 4 or severe reduction in GFR. We found statistically significant correlation between eGFR and 6 minute walking distance (6MWD (r = 0.390, p < 0.001, LVEF (r = 0.268, p < 0.05, NYHA class (ς = -0.269, p < 0.05 and age (r = - 0
Kajimoto, Katsuya; Sato, Naoki; Keida, Takehiko; Sakata, Yasushi; Takano, Teruo
The relationship among anemia, renal dysfunction, left ventricular ejection fraction, and outcomes of patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cardiorenal anemia syndrome and postdischarge outcomes in patients hospitalized for heart failure with a preserved or reduced ejection fraction. Of 4842 patients enrolled in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Syndromes Registry between April 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011, 4393 patients were evaluated to investigate the association among anemia, renal dysfunction, preserved or reduced ejection fraction, and the primary end point (mortality and readmission for heart failure since discharge). The patients were divided into four groups on the basis of eGFR and hemoglobin at discharge. The median follow-up period after discharge was 432 (range=253-659) days. The primary end point was reached in 37.6% and 34.8% of the preserved and reduced ejection fraction groups, respectively. After adjustment for multiple comorbidities, there was no significant association of either renal dysfunction or anemia alone with the primary end point in patients with preserved ejection fraction, but the combination of renal dysfunction and anemia was associated with a significantly higher risk than that without either condition (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.12; Prenal dysfunction alone (hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.25; P=0.002) and also, renal dysfunction plus anemia relative to the risk without either condition (hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.62 to 2.96; Prenal dysfunction combined with anemia is associated with an increased risk of adverse postdischarge outcomes in patients with preserved ejection fraction, whereas renal dysfunction is an independent predictor of the risk of adverse outcomes in patients with reduced ejection fraction, regardless of anemia. Copyright © 2014 by the American
Clarke, Megan M; Dorsch, Michael P; Kim, Susie; Aaronson, Keith D; Koelling, Todd M; Bleske, Barry E
To identify baseline predictors of worsening renal function (WRF) in an acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) patient population receiving continuous infusion loop diuretics. Retrospective observational analysis. Academic tertiary medical center. A total of 177 patients with ADHF receiving continuous infusion loop diuretics from January 2006 through June 2009. The mean patient age was 61 years, 63% were male, ~45% were classified as New York Heart Association functional class III, and the median length of loop diuretic infusion was 4 days. Forty-eight patients (27%) developed WRF, and 34 patients (19%) died during hospitalization. Cox regression time-to-event analysis was used to determine the time to WRF based on different demographic and clinical variables. Baseline serum albumin 3 g/dl or less was the only significant predictor of WRF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60-5.16, p=0.0004), which remained significant despite adjustments for other covariates. Serum albumin 3 g/dl or less is a practical baseline characteristic associated with the development of WRF in patients with ADHF receiving continuous infusion loop diuretics. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Ahmad, Tariq; Jackson, Keyanna; Rao, Veena S; Tang, W H Wilson; Brisco-Bacik, Meredith A; Chen, Horng H; Felker, G Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F; O'Connor, Christopher M; Sabbisetti, Venkata S; Bonventre, Joseph V; Wilson, F Perry; Coca, Steven G; Testani, Jeffrey M
Background -Worsening renal function (WRF) in the setting of aggressive diuresis for acute heart failure (AHF) treatment may reflect renal tubular injury or simply indicate a hemodynamic or functional change in glomerular filtration. Well-validated tubular injury biomarkers-NAG, NGAL, and KIM-1- are now available that can quantify the degree of renal tubularinjury. The ROSE-AHF trial provides an experimental platform for the study of mechanisms of WRF during aggressive diuresis for AHF, as the ROSE-AHF protocol dictated high dose loop diuretic therapy in all patients. We sought to determine whether tubular injury biomarkers are associated with WRF in the setting of aggressive diuresis and its association with prognosis. Methods -Patients in the multicenter ROSE-AHF trial with baseline and 72-hour urine tubular injury biomarkers were analyzed ( N =283). WRF was defined as a ≥20% decrease in glomerular filtration rate estimated using cystatin C. Results -Consistent with protocol driven aggressive dosing of loop diuretics, participants received a median 560 mg of IV furosemide equivalents (IQR 300-815 mg) which induced a urine output of 8425 mL (IQR 6341-10528 ml) over the 72-hour intervention period. Levels of NAG and KIM-1 did not change with aggressive diuresis ( P >0.59, both), whereas levels of NGAL decreased slightly [-8.7 ng/mg (-169, 35 ng/mg), P renal tubular injury: NGAL ( P =0.21), NAG ( P =0.46), or KIM-1 ( P =0.22). Increases in NGAL, NAG, and KIM-1 were paradoxically associated with improved survival (adjusted HR: 0.80 per 10 percentile increase, 95% CI: 0.69-0.91; P =0.001). Conclusions -Kidney tubular injury does not appear to have an association with WRF in the context of aggressive diuresis of AHF patients. These findings reinforce the notion that the small to moderate deteriorations in renal function commonly encountered with aggressive diuresis are dissimilar from traditional causes of acute kidney injury.
Damman, Kevin; Voors, Adriaan A; Navis, Gerjan; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans L
The frequently occurring condition of renal failure in heart failure (HF) has been termed the cardiorenal syndrome. However, the importance of renal insufficiency in HF has only been embraced in the last decade, and therefore, the pathophysiology of cardiorenal failure is still poorly understood. The main driving force of renal failure in HF is probably hemodynamic derangement, with both reduced renal perfusion and increased venous pressure as the most important driving forces. Different cardiorenal connectors may modulate this relationship. Furthermore, renal failure is not only limited to reduced filtration but also includes glomerular hypertension and tubulointerstitial hypoxia, leading to loss of glomerular integrity and tubular damage. Recognition of these key pathophysiologic pathways in the concept of the cardiorenal syndrome is needed to value the interrelationship and incremental contribution of different risk markers and possible new treatments to improve renal function and outcome in this complex and bidirectional interplay between the heart and the kidney. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Pan, Qiang; Appel, Lawrence; Bellovich, Keith; Chen, Jing; Feldman, Harold; Fischer, Michael J; Ham, L L; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard G; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Rosas, Sylvia E; Scialla, Julia J; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob
Serum bicarbonate varies over time in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and this variability may portend poor cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct a time-updated longitudinal analysis to evaluate the association of serum bicarbonate with long-term clinical outcomes: heart failure, atherosclerotic events, renal events (halving of estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] or end-stage renal disease), and mortality. Serum bicarbonate was measured annually, in 3586 participants with CKD, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Marginal structural models were created to allow for integration of all available bicarbonate measurements and proper adjustment for time-dependent confounding. During the 6 years follow-up, 512 participants developed congestive heart failure (26/1000 person-years) and 749 developed renal events (37/1000 person-years). The risk of heart failure and death was significantly higher for participants who maintained serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L for the entire duration of follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 2.23, and HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.82, respectively) compared with participants who kept their bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L, after adjusting for demographics, co-morbidities, medications including diuretics, eGFR, and proteinuria. Participants who maintained serum bicarbonate renal disease progression (HR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.57) compared with participants with bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L. In this large CKD cohort, persistent serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of heart failure events and mortality. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal range of serum bicarbonate in CKD to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Hu, Wei; Zhao, Qing-yan; Yu, Sheng-bo; Sun, Bin; Chen, Liao; Cao, Sheng; Guo, Rui-qiang
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether transcatheter renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) interfere with the development of left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony during the progression of heart failure (HF). Nineteen beagles were randomly divided into sham-operated group (six dogs), control group (seven dogs), and RSD group (six dogs). Sham-operated group were implanted with pacemakers without pacing; Control group were implanted with pacemakers and underwent 3 weeks of rapid right ventricular pacing; and RSD group underwent catheter-based RSD bilaterally and were simultaneously implanted with pacemakers. Both LV strain and LV dyssynchrony were analyzed via 2D speckle-tracking strain echocardiography to evaluate LV function. Longitudinal dyssynchrony was determined as the standard deviation for time-to-peak speckle-tracking strain on apical 4- and 2-chamber views. Radial and circumferential dyssynchrony was determined as the standard deviation for time-to-peak speckle-tracking strain in mid- and base-LV short-axis views. Each myocardial function was also evaluated by averaging the peak systolic strains. LV systolic pressure (LVSP) and LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were measured. The LV interstitial fibrosis was determined by histological analysis. Plasma angiotensin II (Ang II), aldosterone and norepinephrine (NE) levels were also measured. After 3 weeks, all of the dogs in both the control and RSD groups showed greater LV end-diastolic volume compared with the sham-operated group; however, the dogs in the RSD group had a higher LV ejection fraction (LVEF) than the dogs in the control group (pleft ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony during the progression of heart failure in dogs.
Xiong, Bo; Wang, Chunbin; Yao, Yuanqing; Huang, Yuwen; Tan, Jie; Cao, Yin; Zou, Yanke; Huang, Jing
Conflicting renal effects of nesiritide have been reported in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. To answer this controversy, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the influence of nesiritide on renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Articles were obtained from PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library and reference review. Randomized controlled studies that investigated the effects of continuous infusion of nesiritide on renal function in adult patients with acute decompensated heart failure were included and analyzed. Fixed-effect model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) and weight mean difference (WMD). The quality assessment of each study, subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analyses were performed. Fifteen randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion. Most of included studies had relatively high quality and no publication bias was found. Overall, compared to control therapies, nesiritide might increase the risk of worsening renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.15, P = 0.023). In subgroup analysis, high-dose nesiritide strongly associated with renal dysfunction (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.19-2.00, P = 0.001), but no statistical differences were observed in standard-dose (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.98-1.12, P = 0.213), low-dose groups (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.74-1.37, P = 0.968) and same results were identified in the subgroup analysis of placebo controlled trials. Peak mean change of serum creatinine from baseline was no significant difference (WMD -2.54, 95% CI -5.76-0.67, P = 0.121). In our meta-analysis, nesiritide may have a dose-dependent effect on renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. High-dose nesiritide is likely to increase the risk of worsening renal function, but standard-dose and low-dose nesiritide probably have no impact on renal function. These findings could be helpful to optimize the use of
O'Meara, Eileen; Rouleau, Jean L; White, Michel; Roy, Karine; Blondeau, Lucie; Ducharme, Anique; Neagoe, Paul-Eduard; Sirois, Martin G; Lavoie, Joël; Racine, Normand; Liszkowski, Mark; Madore, François; Tardif, Jean-Claude; de Denus, Simon
Anemia is a highly prevalent and strong independent prognostic marker in heart failure (HF), yet this association is not completely understood. Whether anemia is simply a marker of disease severity and concomitant chronic kidney disease or represents the activation of other detrimental pathways remains uncertain. We sought to determine which pathophysiological pathways are exacerbated in patients with HF, reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and anemia in comparison with those without anemia. In a prospective study involving 151 patients, selected biomarkers were analyzed, each representing proposed contributive mechanisms in the pathophysiology of anemia in HF. We compared clinical, echocardiographic, and circulating biomarkers profiles among patients with HFrEF and anemia (group 1), HFrEF without anemia (group 2), and chronic kidney disease with preserved EF, without established HF (chronic kidney disease control group 3). We demonstrate here that many processes other than those related to chronic kidney disease are involved in the anemia-HF relationship. These are linked to the pathophysiological mechanisms pertaining to left ventricular systolic dysfunction and remodeling, systemic inflammation and volume overload. We found that levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10, specific markers of cardiac remodeling (procollagen type III N-terminal peptide, matrix metalloproteinase-2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1, left atrial volume), myocardial stretch (NT-proBNP [N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide]), and myocyte death (troponin T) are related to anemia in HFrEF. Anemia is strongly associated not only with markers of more advanced and active heart disease but also with the level of renal dysfunction in HFrEF. Increased myocardial remodeling, inflammation, and volume overload are the hallmarks of patients with anemia and HF. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00834691. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Szummer, Karolina; Evans, Marie; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Alehagen, Urban; Dahlström, Ulf; Benson, Lina; Lund, Lars H
It is unknown how the creatinine-based renal function estimations differ for dose adjustment cut-offs and risk prediction in patients with heart failure. The renal function was similar with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) (median 59 mL/min/1.73 m2, IQR 42 to 77) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD) (59 mL/min/1.73 m2, IQR 43 to 75) and slightly lower with the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation (57 mL/min, IQR 39 to 82). Across the commonly used renal function stages, the CKD-EPI and the MDRD classified patients into the same stage in 87.2% (kappa coefficient 0.83, pHeart Failure Registry (n= 40 736) with standardised creatinine values between 2000 and 2012 had their renal function estimated with the CKD-EPI, the MDRD and the CG. Agreement between the formulas was compared for categories. Prediction of death was assessed with c-statistics and with NRI. The choice of renal function estimation formula has clinical implications and differing results at various cut-off levels. For prognosis, the CG predicts mortality better than the CKD-EPI and MDRD.
Sarwar, Chaudhry M S; Papadimitriou, Lampros; Pitt, Bertram; Piña, Ileana; Zannad, Faiez; Anker, Stefan D; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Butler, Javed
.... Heart failure patients have a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease, which further heightens the risk of hyperkalemia, especially when renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors are used...
Hamilton, D. V.; Kelly, Moira B.; Pryor, J. S.
Acute renal failure secondary to ureteric obstruction is described in a primigravida with twin gestation and polyhydramnios. Relief of the obstruction occurred on drainage of the liquor and return to normal renal function following delivery.
García-Blas, Sergio; Bonanad, Clara; Llàcer, Pau; Ventura, Silvia; Núñez, José María; Sánchez, Ruth; Chamorro, Carlos; Fácila, Lorenzo; de la Espriella, Rafael; Vaquer, Juana María; Cordero, Alberto; Roqué, Mercè; Ortiz, Víctor; Racugno, Paolo; Bodí, Vicent; Valero, Ernesto; Santas, Enrique; Moreno, María Del Carmen; Miñana, Gema; Carratalá, Arturo; Bondanza, Lourdes; Payá, Ana; Cardells, Ingrid; Heredia, Raquel; Pellicer, Mauricio; Valls, Guillermo; Palau, Patricia; Bosch, María José; Raso, Rafael; Sánchez, Andrés; Bertomeu-González, Vicente; Bertomeu-Martínez, Vicente; Montagud-Balaguer, Vicente; Albiach-Montañana, Cristina; Pendás-Meneau, Jezabel; Marcaida, Goitzane; Cervantes-García, Sonia; San Antonio, Rodolfo; de Mingo, Elisabet; Chorro, Francisco J; Sanchis, Juan; Núñez, Julio
The optimal treatment of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and cardiorenal syndrome type 1 (CRS-1) is far from being well-defined. Arterial hypoperfusion in concert with venous congestion plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of CRS-I. Plasma carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) has emerged as a surrogate of fluid overload in AHF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of CA125 for tailoring the intensity of diuretic therapy in patients with CRS-1. Multicenter, open-label, parallel clinical trial, in which patients with AHF and serum creatinine ≥ 1.4mg/dL on admission will be randomized to: a) standard diuretic strategy: titration-based on conventional clinical and biochemical evaluation, or b) diuretic strategy based on CA125: high dose if CA125 > 35 U/mL, and low doses otherwise. The main endpoint will be renal function changes at 24 and 72hours after therapy initiation. Secondary endpoints will include: a) clinical and biochemical changes at 24 and 72hours, and b) renal function changes and major clinical events at 30 days. The results of this study will add important knowledge on the usefulness of CA125 for guiding diuretic treatment in CRS-1. In addition, it will pave the way toward a better knowledge of the pathophysiology of this challenging situation. We hypothesize that higher levels of CA125 will identify a patient population with CRS-1 who could benefit from the use of a more intense diuretic strategy. Conversely, low levels of this glycoprotein could select those patients who would be harmed by high diuretic doses. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kim E Jie
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combined heart and renal failure is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory, non-hematopoietic effects of erythropoietin (EPO treatment have been proposed. Monocytes may act as biosensors of the systemic environment. We hypothesized that monocyte transcriptomes of patients with cardiorenal syndrome (CRS reflect the pathophysiology of the CRS and respond to short-term EPO treatment at a recommended dose for treatment of renal anemia. METHODS: Patients with CRS and anemia (n = 18 included in the EPOCARES trial were matched to healthy controls (n = 12. Patients were randomized to receive 50 IU/kg/week EPO or not. RNA from CD14(+-monocytes was subjected to genome wide expression analysis (Illumina at baseline and 18 days (3 EPO injections after enrolment. Transcriptomes from patients were compared to healthy controls and effect of EPO treatment was evaluated within patients. RESULTS: In CRS patients, expression of 471 genes, including inflammation and oxidative stress related genes was different from healthy controls. Cluster analysis did not separate patients from healthy controls. The 6 patients with the highest hsCRP levels had more differentially expressed genes than the 6 patients with the lowest hsCRP levels. Analysis of the variation in log(2 ratios of all individual 18 patients indicated that 4 of the 18 patients were different from the controls, whereas the other 14 were quite similar. After short-term EPO treatment, every patient clustered to his or her own baseline transcriptome. Two week EPO administration only marginally affected expression profiles on average, however, individual gene responses were variable. CONCLUSIONS: In stable, treated CRS patients with mild anemia, monocyte transcriptomes were modestly altered, and indicated imprints of inflammation and oxidative stress. EPO treatment with a fixed dose has hematopoietic effects, had no appreciable beneficial
Anaemia is a relatively frequent co-morbidity of chronic heart as well as chronic renal failure. In both conditions, it represents a strong and independent predictor of increased morbidity and mortality. Aetiology of this anaemia is multi-factorial. A number of various factors play a role in its development, e.g. inadequate erythropoietin production in the kidneys, bone marrow inhibition, iron deficiency as well as haemodilution associated with fluid retention. Treatment strategies aim at two directions. One is the stimulation of erythropoiesis with recombinant human erythropoietin or its analogues such as darbepoetin alpha. The other involves iron substitution, administered preferably intravenously for improved efficacy and tolerability. Clinical studies evaluating treatment of anaemia in chronic heart failure with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents conducted so far were ofa small scale, were not controlled with placebo and usually assessed proxy parameters. Their results suggested that effective treatment of anaemia in patients with chronic heart failure improves exertion tolerance, clinical status (NYHA class) as well as the quality of life and reduces the need for blood transfusions. Recently completed TREAT study was the first large morbidity and mortality study evaluating treatment of anaemia with an erythropoietin analogue compared to placebo. On a sample of more than 4000 patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure and significant anaemia, this study has shown that effective treatment of anaemia with darbepoetin alpha did not affect at all the incidence of cardiovascular and renal events; on the other hand, it had lead to a nearly two-fold increase in the incidence of cerebrovascular events. Some doubts about the safety of treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents have occurred in the past based on the studies of anaemia treatment in patients with cancer and renal diseases. An answer to the question whether the treatment of anaemia
Wang, Xiaozhan; Zhao, Qingyan; Deng, Hongping; Wang, Xule; Guo, Zongwen; Dai, Zixuan; Xiao, Jinping; Wan, Peixing; Huang, Congxin
Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with sympathetic activation. Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) can suppress AF vulnerability. The impact of RSD on atrial electrophysiology in experimental HF is unclear. Twenty-two beagles were randomized into control, HF, and HF + RSD groups. Control dogs were implanted cardiac pacemakers without pacing. Dogs in the HF group underwent right ventricular pacing for 3 weeks at 240 beats/min to induce HF. The dogs in the HF + RSD group received RSD and underwent the same HF-inducing procedure. The P-wave dispersion was higher in HF dogs than in the control and HF + RSD dogs (19 ± 3.1 ms vs 13 ± 2.3 ms, 15 ± 2.9 ms, P = 0.04). Conduction time within the interatrium was significantly longer in the HF dogs than that in the control and HF + RSD dogs (39 ± 4 ms vs 31 ± 3 ms, 33 ± 4 ms; P = 0.03). Window of vulnerability (WOV) of AF was widened in the HF dogs than in the HF + RSD dogs (37 ± 5 ms vs 14 ± 3 ms; P RSD dogs (1.8 ± 0.6 V vs 2.5 ± 0.6 V, 2.4 ± 0.4 V; P = 0.04). RSD could reverse the atrial electrical remodeling and decrease AF inducibility in dogs with pacing-induced HF. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
mia (28%), and congenital heart disease (25 %). There was a case-fatality rate of 24% among the study population. Poor prognostic indices identiﬁed were age below one year or above 5years, presence of underlying acute respiratory in- fections, rheumatic heart disease and renal disorders. Conclusion: Heart failure in ...
Heart failure can be defined as a clinical syndrome in which a structural or functional cardiac abnormality impairs the capacity of the ventricle to fill or eject enough blood for the requirements of the body. Acute heart failure syndrome represents a complex, heterogeneous set of clinical conditions, all with the common.
Damman, Kevin; Masson, Serge; Lucci, Donata; Gorini, Marco; Urso, Renato; Maggioni, Aldo P; Tavazzi, Luigi; Tarantini, Luigi; Tognoni, Gianni; Voors, Adriaan; Latini, Roberto
Data on the natural change in renal function in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) are limited. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was assessed over 36 months in 6934 patients included in the GISSI-HF study. Associations from baseline, changes in renal function, and occurrence of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization were assessed. Mean age was 67 years, mainly men (78%), and mean eGFR was 68 mL • min(-1) • 1.73 m(-2). Change in eGFR in the 1st year was -1.5 ± 16 mL • min(-1) • 1.73 m(-2), and over 36 months it was -3.7 ± 18 mL • min(-1) • 1.73 m(-2). Over the latter period, only 25% deteriorated ≥1 Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiatives (KDOQI) class of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen percent of patients had >15 mL • min(-1) • 1.73 m(-2) decrease in eGFR in the 1st 12 months. Lower eGFR was associated with outcome: hazard ratio (HR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.10 (P 15 mL • min(-1) • 1.73 m(-2) in the 1st year showed the highest risk of events (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.10-1.36; P renal function over time in patients with chronic HF was modest. Only 25% deteriorated ≥1 KDOQI class of CKD after 3 years. Any decrease in eGFR over time was associated with strongly increased event rates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hyponatremia is one of the newer and emerging risk factors for an adverse prognosis in chronic heart failure. Why decreased serum sodium is associated with worse prognosis remains unclear. It may reflect worsening heart failure and the deleterious effects of activation of neurohormones. The mechanism of hyponatremia in heart failure also remains unclear. A relatively greater degree of free-water retention compared to sodium retention is probably the major mechanism. The treatment of significant hyponatremia in heart failure is difficult. The conventional treatments such as fluid restriction, infusion of hypertonic saline, and aggressive diuretic therapies are not usually effective. Vasopressin receptor antagonists have been shown to enhance aquaresis and correct hyponatremia. However, long-term beneficial effects of such treatments in chronic heart failure have not been documented.
Schievink, Bauke; de Zeeuw, Dick; Smink, Paul A
as doubling serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease and hospitalization for heart failure. RESULTS: The PRE score predicted renal risk changes of -23% and -30% for atrasentan 0.75 and 1.25 mg/day, respectively. PRE scores also predicted a small non-significant increase in heart failure risk for atrasentan...... from the RADAR/JAPAN study to predict the effect of atrasentan on renal and heart failure outcomes. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc analysis of the RADAR/JAPAN randomized clinical trials in which 211 patients with type-2 diabetes and nephropathy were randomly assigned to atrasentan 0.75 mg/day, 1.......25 mg/day, or placebo. A PRE score was developed in a background set of completed clinical trials using multivariate Cox models. The score was applied to baseline and week-12 risk marker levels of RADAR/JAPAN participants, to predict atrasentan effects on clinical outcomes. Outcomes were defined...
Tang, W H Wilson; Dupont, Matthias; Hernandez, Adrian F; Voors, Adriaan A; Hsu, Amy P; Felker, G Michael; Butler, Javed; Metra, Marco; Anker, Stefan D; Troughton, Richard W; Gottlieb, Stephen S; McMurray, John J; Armstrong, Paul W; Massie, Barry M; Califf, Robert M; O'Connor, Christopher M; Starling, Randall C
The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive values of baseline and changes in cystatin C (CysC) and its derived equations for short-term adverse outcomes and the effect of nesiritide therapy on CysC in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Newer renal biomarkers or their derived estimates of renal function have demonstrated long-term prognostic value in chronic heart failure. CysC levels were measured in sequential plasma samples from 811 subjects with ADHF who were enrolled in the ASCEND-HF (Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure) biomarker sub-study (randomized to nesiritide therapy vs. placebo), and followed for all-cause death (180 days) and recurrent hospital stay (30 days). Median CysC levels were 1.49 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.20 to 1.96) mg/l at baseline, 1.56 (IQR: 1.28 to 2.13) mg/l at 48 to 72 h, and 1.58 (IQR: 1.24 to 2.11) mg/l at 30 days. Higher baseline (but not follow-up) CysC levels were associated with increased risk of 30-day adverse events and less improvement in dyspnea after 24 h as well as 180-day mortality, although not incremental to blood urea nitrogen. Worsening renal function (defined as a 0.3 mg/l increase in CysC) occurred in 161 of 701 (23%) patients, but it was not predictive of adverse events. Changes in CysC levels were similar between the nesiritide and placebo groups. Our findings confirmed the prognostic value of baseline CysC levels in the setting of ADHF. However, worsening renal function based on CysC rise was not predictive of adverse events. Nesiritide did not worsen renal function compared with placebo. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de insuficiencia renal determinada por la depuración de creatinina, es alta tanto en hombres como en mujeres evaluados en la clínica de falla cardiaca, lo cual conduce a replantear los esquemas de manejo dependiendo de la función renal ya que algunos de los medicamentos utilizados son nefrotóxicos o incrementan los niveles de potasio. Por lo tanto, la valoración de la función renal mediante la utilización de la depuración de creatinina por medio de la fórmula de Cockcroft, puede ser más conveniente que sólo basarse en la creatinina, por lo cual se recomienda realizarla en todos los pacientes que se estén siguiendo en las clínicas de falla cardiaca al igual que al considerar cambios en el esquema de manejo médico.Background: patients with heart failure have an increased morbidity to the extend that they present impaired renal function, taking as a predictor of adverse events the elevation of creatinine clearance. Methods: a descriptive analysis of patients attending the heart failure clinic of the Shaio Clinic from January 1997 until October 2009 was realized, in order to know their renal function through creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft formula. Risk factors taken into account were the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and dyslipidemia, and some drugs that can affect renal function, such as spironolactone, digitalis, angiotensin-converting enzyme and antagonists of angiotensin II receptors were also assessed, as well as the etiology correlated with creatinine clearance. Results: 1,123 patients were registered in the data base, of whom 557 (49.6% meet the inclusion criteria, and of these 461 (82.8% present impaired renal function. 301 (65% are males and 160 (35% female. Based on the creatinine clearance, the finding were: between 60-89 mL/min 172 patients (37.6%; between 30-59 mL/min 240 patients(51.8%; between 15-29 mL/min 42 patients (9.1%; less than 15 mL/min 7 patients(1.5%. Among the risk factors we
... High Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Heart Failure Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... not mean that the heart has stopped beating. Heart Failure in the United States About 5.7 million ...
Chevalier, R.L.; Campbell, F.; Brenbridge, A.N.
Sixteen infants, 2 to 35 days of age, had acute renal failure, a diagnosis based on serum creatinine concentrations greater than 1.5 mg/dL for at least 24 hours. Eight infants were oliguric (urine flow less than 1.0 mL/kg/h) whereas the remainder were nonoliguric. To determine clinical parameters useful in prognosis, urine flow rate, duration of anuria, peak serum creatinine, urea (BUN) concentration, and nuclide uptake by scintigraphy were correlated with recovery. Nine infants had acute renal failure secondary to perinatal asphyxia, three had acute renal failure as a result of congenital cardiovascular disease, and four had major renal anomalies. Four oliguric patients died: three of renal failure and one of heart failure. All nonoliguric infants survived with mean follow-up serum creatinine concentration of 0.8 +/- 0.5 (SD) mg/dL whereas that of oliguric survivors was 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/dL. Peak serum creatinine concentration did not differ between those patients who were dying and those recovering. All infants who were dying remained anuric at least four days and revealed no renal uptake of nuclide. Eleven survivors were anuric three days or less, and renal perfusion was detectable by scintigraphy in each case. However, the remaining survivor (with bilateral renal vein thrombosis) recovered after 15 days of anuria despite nonvisualization of kidneys by scintigraphy. In neonates with ischemic acute renal failure, lack of oliguria and the presence of identifiable renal uptake of nuclide suggest a favorable prognosis.
Acute Kidney Injury in Heart Failure Revisited-The Ameliorating Impact of "Decongestive Diuresis" on Renal Dysfunction in Type 1 Acute Cardiorenal Syndrome: Accelerated Rising Pro B Naturetic Peptide Is a Predictor of Good Renal Prognosis.
Onuigbo, Macaulay Amechi Chukwukadibia; Agbasi, Nneoma; Sengodan, Mohan; Rosario, Karen Flores
There is mounting evidence that forward heart failure as manifested by low cardiac output alone does not define the degree of renal dysfunction in cardiorenal syndrome. As a result, the term "congestive renal failure" was coined in 2012 by Ross to depict the role of renal venous hypertension in type 1 acute cardiorenal syndrome. If so, aggressive decongestive therapies, either through mechanical ultrafiltration with dialysis machines or pharmacologic ultrafiltration with potent diuretics, would lead to improved cardio and renal outcomes. Nevertheless, as recently as 2012, a review of this literature had concluded that a renal venous hypertension-directed approach using diuretics to manage cardio-renal syndrome was yet to be fully investigated. We, in this review, with three consecutive case series, describe our experience with pharmacologic decongestive diuresis in this paradigm of care and argue for studies of such therapeutic interventions in the management of cardiorenal syndrome. Finally, based on our observations in the Renal Unit, Mayo Clinic Health System, in Northwestern Wisconsin, we have hypothesized that patients with cardiorenal syndrome presenting with accelerated rising Pro B Naturetic Peptide levels appear to represent a group that would have good cardio- and renal-outcomes with such decongestive pharmacologic therapies.
Dopamine is widely used in critical care to prevent renal function loss. Nevertheless sufficient evidence is still lacking of reduction in end points like mortality or renal replacement therapy. Dopaminergic treatment in chronic heart failure (CHF) has provided an example of unexpected adverse
Full Text Available Lung function abnormalities both at rest and during exercise are frequently observed in patients with chronic heart failure, also in the absence of respiratory disease. Alterations of respiratory mechanics and of gas exchange capacity are strictly related to heart failure. Severe heart failure patients often show a restrictive respiratory pattern, secondary to heart enlargement and increased lung fluids, and impairment of alveolar-capillary gas diffusion, mainly due to an increased resistance to molecular diffusion across the alveolar capillary membrane. Reduced gas diffusion contributes to exercise intolerance and to a worse prognosis. Cardiopulmonary exercise test is considered the “gold standard” when studying the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic adaptations to exercise in cardiac patients. During exercise, hyperventilation and consequent reduction of ventilation efficiency are often observed in heart failure patients, resulting in an increased slope of ventilation/carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2 relationship. Ventilatory efficiency is as strong prognostic and an important stratification marker. This paper describes the pulmonary abnormalities at rest and during exercise in the patients with heart failure, highlighting the principal diagnostic tools for evaluation of lungs function, the possible pharmacological interventions, and the parameters that could be useful in prognostic assessment of heart failure patients.
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000365.htm Heart failure - palliative care To use the sharing features on this page, ... you may want to discuss the option of palliative or comfort care with your providers and loved ones. Many people ...
Roger, Véronique L
Heart failure (HF) has been singled out as an epidemic and is a staggering clinical and public health problem, associated with significant mortality, morbidity, and healthcare expenditures, particularly among those aged ≥65 years...
John JV Mcmurray
reduced by 12% in the two CHARM trials in patients with low LVEF. CHARM succeeded in answering a number of questions about the safety and efficacy of ARB use in heart failure. It showed evidence for a clinical benefit of candesartan both additive to and independent of ACE-I use. The benefits in terms of clinical outcomes were seen irrespective of β-blocker usage. Benefits in patients with preserved LVEF were shown in the proportion of patients hospitalised with worsening heart failure and in overall number of admissions for heart failure. Candesartan had expected effects on blood pressure and renal function, emphasising the need for careful patient monitoring.
John JV McMurray
reduced by 12% in the two CHARM trials in patients with low LVEF.CHARM succeeded in answering a number of questions about the safety and efficacy of ARB use in heart failure. It showed evidence for a clinical benefit of candesartan both additive to and independent of ACE-I use. The benefits in terms of clinical outcomes were seen irrespective of β-blocker usage. Benefits in patients with preserved LVEF were shown in the proportion of patients hospitalised with worsening heart failure and in overall number of admissions for heart failure. Candesartan had expected effects on blood pressure and renal function, emphasising the need for careful patient monitoring.
The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation outperforms the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in chronic systolic heart failure.
Valente, Mattia A E; Hillege, Hans L; Navis, Gerjan; Voors, Adriaan A; Dunselman, Peter H J M; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Damman, Kevin
The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula estimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR) better than the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (sMDRD) formula in numerous populations. It has not previously been validated in heart failure patients. The GFR was measured in 120 patients with chronic systolic heart failure (CHF) using [(125)I]iothalamate clearance (GFR(IOTH)) and estimated using the sMDRD and CKD-EPI equations. Accuracy, bias, and prognostic performance were compared. Cockcroft-Gault, CKD-EPI serum cystatin C, and CKD-EPI creatinine-serum cystatin C equations were compared in secondary analyses. Mean age was 59 ± 12 years, 80% were male. Mean LVEF was 29 ± 10%. Mean GFR(IOTH) was 74 ± 27 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and mean estimated GFR was 66 ± 23 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (CKD-EPI) and 63 ± 21 mL/min/1.73m(2) (sMDRD). CKD-EPI showed less bias than sMDRD (-8 ± 15 vs. -11 ± 16 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P heart failure patients, particularly those with preserved or moderately impaired renal function. First published online by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2013.
Damman, Kevin; Testani, Jeffrey M.
Heart and kidney are closely related in the clinical syndrome of heart failure (HF). It is now sufficiently clear that renal dysfunction occurs frequently in all phenotypes of HF, and when present, it is associated with higher mortality and morbidity. While the pathophysiology is multifactorial, the
Cardiac arrhythmias are very common in the setting of heart failure, with atrial and ventricular arrhythmias often present in the same patient. The risk and the benefit of antiarrhythmic therapies are still a matter of debate. Class I antiarrhythmic drugs should be avoided in patients with heart failure, cardiac ischemia, or previous myocardial infarction. Beta-blocker agents reduce morbidity and decrease mortality in patients suffering from moderate to severe heart failure. Amiodarone may be beneficial in patients with advanced heart failure and increased resting heart rates. This class III drug may be effective to suppress episodes of atrial fibrillation but can also be beneficial in reducing ventricular response by slowing atrioventricular conduction during chronic atrial fibrillation. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) markedly reduce sudden cardiac death in patients with ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. In patients with advanced heart failure, however, the ICD may not markedly extend survival. Recently analyzed data from the Canadian Implantable Defibrillator Study (CIDS), Antiarrhythmics Versus Implantable Defibrillators (AVID) registry, Multicenter Unsustained Tachycardia Trial (MUSTT), and Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT) have consistently shown that it is the sickest patient who benefits the most from ICD therapy. Patients with markedly depressed ejection fraction (death will translate into a reduction of all-cause mortality. For patients resuscitated from sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation, an ICD or, in some cases, amiodarone should be considered. Catheter or surgical ablation can be considered for selected patients with ventricular tachycardia.
Acute Kidney Injury in Heart Failure Revisited—The Ameliorating Impact of “Decongestive Diuresis” on Renal Dysfunction in Type 1 Acute Cardiorenal Syndrome: Accelerated Rising Pro B Naturetic Peptide Is a Predictor of Good Renal Prognosis
Macaulay Amechi Chukwukadibia Onuigbo
Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that forward heart failure as manifested by low cardiac output alone does not define the degree of renal dysfunction in cardiorenal syndrome. As a result, the term “congestive renal failure” was coined in 2012 by Ross to depict the role of renal venous hypertension in type 1 acute cardiorenal syndrome. If so, aggressive decongestive therapies, either through mechanical ultrafiltration with dialysis machines or pharmacologic ultrafiltration with potent diuretics, would lead to improved cardio and renal outcomes. Nevertheless, as recently as 2012, a review of this literature had concluded that a renal venous hypertension-directed approach using diuretics to manage cardio-renal syndrome was yet to be fully investigated. We, in this review, with three consecutive case series, describe our experience with pharmacologic decongestive diuresis in this paradigm of care and argue for studies of such therapeutic interventions in the management of cardiorenal syndrome. Finally, based on our observations in the Renal Unit, Mayo Clinic Health System, in Northwestern Wisconsin, we have hypothesized that patients with cardiorenal syndrome presenting with accelerated rising Pro B Naturetic Peptide levels appear to represent a group that would have good cardio- and renal-outcomes with such decongestive pharmacologic therapies.
Acute Kidney Injury in Heart Failure Revisited—The Ameliorating Impact of “Decongestive Diuresis” on Renal Dysfunction in Type 1 Acute Cardiorenal Syndrome: Accelerated Rising Pro B Naturetic Peptide Is a Predictor of Good Renal Prognosis
Agbasi, Nneoma; Sengodan, Mohan; Rosario, Karen Flores
There is mounting evidence that forward heart failure as manifested by low cardiac output alone does not define the degree of renal dysfunction in cardiorenal syndrome. As a result, the term “congestive renal failure” was coined in 2012 by Ross to depict the role of renal venous hypertension in type 1 acute cardiorenal syndrome. If so, aggressive decongestive therapies, either through mechanical ultrafiltration with dialysis machines or pharmacologic ultrafiltration with potent diuretics, would lead to improved cardio and renal outcomes. Nevertheless, as recently as 2012, a review of this literature had concluded that a renal venous hypertension-directed approach using diuretics to manage cardio-renal syndrome was yet to be fully investigated. We, in this review, with three consecutive case series, describe our experience with pharmacologic decongestive diuresis in this paradigm of care and argue for studies of such therapeutic interventions in the management of cardiorenal syndrome. Finally, based on our observations in the Renal Unit, Mayo Clinic Health System, in Northwestern Wisconsin, we have hypothesized that patients with cardiorenal syndrome presenting with accelerated rising Pro B Naturetic Peptide levels appear to represent a group that would have good cardio- and renal-outcomes with such decongestive pharmacologic therapies. PMID:28850085
Eisenhofer, G.; Huysmans, F.T.M.; Pacak, K.; Walther, M.M.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Lenders, J.W.M.
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in renal failure poses a diagnostic dilemma due to lack of reliability of conventional urinary measurements of catecholamine excess. Measurements of the plasma metanephrines, normetanephrine and metanephrine (the O-methylated metabolites of norepinephrine
Vazir, Ali; Simpkin, Victoria L; Marino, Philip; Ludman, Andrew; Banya, Winston; Tavazzi, Guido; Bastin, Anthony J; Trenfield, Sarah; Ghori, Arshad; Alexander, Peter D; Griffiths, Mark; Price, Susanna; Sharma, Rakesh; Cowie, Martin R
Patients with acute decompensated heart failure with diuretic resistance (ADHF-DR) have a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to assess in patients with ADHF-DR, whether haemodynamic changes during ultrafiltration (UF) are associated with changes in renal function (Δcreatinine) and whether Δcreatinine post UF is associated with mortality. Seventeen patients with ADHF-DR underwent 20 treatments with UF. Serial bloods (4-6 hourly) from the onset of UF treatment were measured for renal function, electrolytes and central venous saturation (CVO2). Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to assess the relationship between changes in markers of haemodynamics [heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), packed cell volume (PCV) and CVO2] and Δcreatinine. Patients were followed up and mortality recorded. Cox-regression survival analysis was performed to determine covariates associated with mortality. Renal function worsened after UF in 17 of the 20 UF treatments (baseline vs. post UF creatinine: 164±58 vs. 185±69μmol/l, Pchanges in SBP, HR and PCV [Pchanges during UF as measured by the surrogate of cardiac output was associated with Δcreatinine. Worsening renal function at end of UF treatment occurred in the majority of patients and was associated with mortality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Fröhlich, Hanna; Nelges, Christoph; Täger, Tobias; Schwenger, Vedat; Cebola, Rita; Schnorbach, Johannes; Goode, Kevin M; Kazmi, Syed; Katus, Hugo A; Cleland, John G F; Clark, Andrew L; Frankenstein, Lutz
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have become cornerstones of therapy for chronic heart failure (CHF). Guidelines advise high target doses for ACEIs/ARBs, but fear of worsening renal function may limit dose titration in patients with concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this retrospective observational study, we identified 722 consecutive patients with systolic CHF, stable CKD stage III/IV (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 15-60 mL min(-1) 1.73 m(-2)) and chronic ACEI/ARB treatment from the outpatient heart failure clinics at the Universities of Hull, UK, and Heidelberg, Germany. Change of renal function, worsening CHF, and hyperkalemia at 12-month follow-up were analyzed as a function of both baseline ACEI/ARB dose and dose change from baseline. ΔeGFR was not related to baseline dose of ACEI/ARB (P = .58), or to relative (P = .18) or absolute change of ACEI/ARB dose (P = .21) during follow-up. Expressing change of renal function as a categorical variable (improved/stable/decreased) as well as subgroup analyses with respect to age, sex, New York Heart Association functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, concomitant aldosterone antagonists, CKD stage, hypertension, ACEI vs ARB, and congestion status yielded similar results. There was no association of dose/dose change with incidence of either worsening CHF or hyperkalemia. In patients with systolic CHF and stable CKD stage III/IV, neither continuation of high doses of ACEI/ARB nor up-titration was related to adverse changes in longer-term renal function. Conversely, down-titration was not associated with improvement in eGFR. Use of high doses of ACEI/ARB and their up-titration in patients with CHF and CKD III/IV may be appropriate provided that the patient is adequately monitored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hamilton, D. V.; Kelly, Moira B.; Pryor, J. S.
Acute renal failure secondary to ureteric obstruction is described in a primigravida with twin gestation and polyhydramnios. Relief of the obstruction occurred on drainage of the liquor and return to normal renal function following delivery. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7022419
Effects of ventriculoarterial coupling changes on renal function, echocardiographic indices and energy efficiency in patients with acute decompensated systolic heart failure under furosemide and dopamine treatment: a comparison of three therapeutic protocols.
Antoniou, Christos-Konstantinos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Lerakis, Stamatios; Manolakou, Panagiota; Pitsavos, Christos; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitrios
Ventriculoarterial coupling (VAC) status relates to tissue perfusion and its optimization may improve organ function and energy efficiency (EE) of the cardiovascular system. The effects of non-invasively calculated VAC improvement on echocardiographic parameters, renal function indices and EE improvement in patients with acute decompensated systolic heart failure were studied. Furthermore, effects of different treatment modalities on VAC, renal function and echocardiographic parameters were compared. Systolic heart failure patients with ejection fraction Renal function was evaluated using serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. VAC and EE were assessed noninvasively, by echocardiography. Significant correlations were noted between VAC improvement and improvements in EE and serum creatinine (rho=0.96, pacute decompensated systolic heart failure. Dopamine and furosemide combination seemed to improve VAC and diastolic function but only had a borderline effect on renal function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bart, Bradley A; Boyle, Andrew; Bank, Alan J; Anand, Inder; Olivari, Maria Teresa; Kraemer, Mark; Mackedanz, Shari; Sobotka, Paul A; Schollmeyer, Mike; Goldsmith, Steven R
...) in patients admitted with decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF). Ultrafiltration for CHF is usually reserved for patients with renal failure or those unresponsive to pharmacologic management...
Elsharawy, Sahar; Raslan, Lila; Morsy, Saed; Hassan, Basheir; Khalifa, Naglaa
Acute heart failure (AHF) is frequently associated with worsening renal function in adult patients. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) serves as an early marker for acute renal tubular injury. To assess the role of plasma NGAL in predicting worsening renal function (WRF) in children with AHF, we studied 30 children hospitalized for AHF; children with history of chronic renal disease or on nephrotoxic drugs were excluded. Twenty age- and sex-matched healthy children were included in the study as a control group. Echocardiographic examination was performed on admission. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and plasma NGAL levels were measured on admission and 72 h later. Seventeen (56.6%) patients developed WRF within the three-day follow-up period. At presentation, plasma NGAL level was significantly elevated in children who developed WRF. Admission plasma NGAL level correlated with renal parameters (BUN, creatinine and eGFR) as well as with left ventricular systolic parameters (ejection fraction and fractional shortening). For prediction of WRF, admission plasma, NGAL level>27.5 μg/L had sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 68%, respectively. The area under the receiver-operator curve was higher for NGAL (0.869) than for BUN (0.569) or eGFR (0.684). We conclude that admission plasma NGAL level can predict WRF in children hospitalized for AHF.
Szummer, Karolina; Evans, Marie; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Alehagen, Urban; Dahlström, Ulf; Benson, Lina; Lund, Lars H
Background It is unknown how the creatinine-based renal function estimations differ for dose adjustment cut-offs and risk prediction in patients with heart failure. Method and results The renal function was similar with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) (median 59 mL/min/1.73 m2, IQR 42 to 77) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD) (59 mL/min/1.73 m2, IQR 43 to 75) and slightly lower with the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation (57 mL/min, IQR 39 to 82). Across the commonly used renal function stages, the CKD-EPI and the MDRD classified patients into the same stage in 87.2% (kappa coefficient 0.83, prenal function estimated with the CKD-EPI, the MDRD and the CG. Agreement between the formulas was compared for categories. Prediction of death was assessed with c-statistics and with NRI. Conclusion The choice of renal function estimation formula has clinical implications and differing results at various cut-off levels. For prognosis, the CG predicts mortality better than the CKD-EPI and MDRD. PMID:28761677
Pitt, B; Rossignol, P
Patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) are at increased risk of death and hospitalizations for HF. Numerous registries have reported a large and persistent gap between real-life practice in the use of life-saving evidence-based therapies, such as renin angiotensin system inhibitors, beta blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), and recommended practices in international guidelines. The fears of inducing hyperkalemia and/or worsening renal function are the main triggers of this underuse. © 2017 ASCPT.
Siddappa, Sujatha; Mythri, K M; Kowsalya, R; Parekh, Ashish
Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.
Full Text Available Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.
Yao, Wei; Wang, Neng; Qian, Jin; Bai, Lu; Zheng, Xiaoxin; Hou, Guo; Qiu, Xuan; Yang, Bo
Chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) is the end outcome of organic heart diseases and one of the major diseases harmful to human health. Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is the anatomical basis of transcatheter renal sympathetic nerve ablation within the renal artery. To date, the roles of norepinephrine and angiotensin II (Ang II) in myocardial apoptosis and their underlying mechanisms have not been well explored. The aim of the present study was to verify the hypothesis that RSD is likely to inhibit myocardial apoptosis by inhibiting the release of norepinephrine and Ang II. An isoproterenol-induced CHF rat model was established, and the effects of RSD on myocardial apoptosis were examined using flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. The expression of factors associated with myocardial apoptosis, including p53, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), caspase-2 and -3, were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The results indicated that the mRNA levels of p53, TNF-α, NF-κB, caspase-2 and -3 were significantly reduced in the myocardial tissues of rats in the CHF+RSD group when compared with the levels in the CHF+sham group (PRSD group in comparison with the CHF+sham group (PRSD group compared with that in the CHF+sham group (PRSD in the treatment of CHF.
Balling, Louise; Gustafsson, Finn
Heart failure (HF) is one of the most common causes of hospitalization and mortality in the modern Western world and an increasing proportion of the population will be affected by HF in the future. Although HF management has improved quality of life and prognosis, mortality remains very high...
Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Visnar-Perovic, Alenka
Many chronic renal diseases lead to the final common state of decrease in renal size, parenchymal atrophy, sclerosis and fibrosis. The ultrasound image show a smaller kidney, thinning of the parenchyma and its hyperechogenicity (reflecting sclerosis and fibrosis). The frequency of renal cysts increases with the progression of the disease. Ultrasound generally does not allow for the exact diagnosis of an underlying chronic disease (renal biopsy is usually required), but it can help to determine an irreversible disease, assess prognosis and avoid unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. The main exception in which the ultrasound image does not show a smaller kidney with parenchymal atrophy is diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of chronic and end-stage renal failure in developed countries in recent years. In this case, both renal size and parenchymal thickness are preserved until end-stage renal failure. Doppler study of intrarenal vessels can provide additional information about microvascular and parenchymal lesions, which is helpful in deciding for or against therapeutic intervention and timely planning for optimal renal replacement therapy option.
Faris, Rajaa F; Flather, Marcus; Purcell, Henry; Poole-Wilson, Philip A; Coats, Andrew J S
Chronic heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diuretics are regarded as the first-line treatment for patients with congestive heart failure since they provide symptomatic relief. The effects of diuretics on disease progression and survival remain unclear. To assess the harms and benefits of diuretics for chronic heart failure Updated searches were run in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL Issue 1 of 4, 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to 22 February 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 07) and HERDIN database (1990 to February 2011). We hand searched pertinent journals and reference lists of papers were inspected. We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field. No language restrictions were applied. Double-blinded randomised controlled trials of diuretic therapy comparing one diuretic with placebo, or one diuretic with another active agent (e.g. ACE inhibitors, digoxin) in patients with chronic heart failure. Two authors independently abstracted the data and assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of each trial. Extracted data were analysed by determining the odds ratio for dichotomous data, and difference in means for continuous data, of the treated group compared with controls. The likelihood of heterogeneity of the study population was assessed by the Chi-square test. If there was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity and pooling of results was clinically appropriate, a combined estimate was obtained using the fixed-effects model. This update has not identified any new studies for inclusion. The review includes 14 trials (525 participants), 7 were placebo-controlled, and 7 compared diuretics against other agents such as ACE inhibitors or digoxin. We analysed the data for mortality and for worsening heart failure. Mortality data were available in 3 of the placebo-controlled trials (202 participants). Mortality was lower for participants treated with diuretics than for
T. van Gelder (Teun); R. Zietse (Bob); C.J. Hesse (Cees); W. Weimar (Willem); A.H.M.M. Balk (Aggie); B. Mochtar (Bas)
textabstractBACKGROUND: In Rotterdam 304 heart transplants have been performed since 1984. End-stage renal failure, necessitating renal replacement therapy, has developed in 24 patients (8%) after an interval of 25-121 months (median 79 months). After starting renal
Full Text Available Introduction . Pseudoporphyria is a rare disease associated with chronic renal failure. Symptoms of pseudoporphyria may develop in response to UV exposure and medications. The literature reports cases of pseudoporphyria in patients infected with hepatis C virus, HIV and undergoing dialysis therapy. Objective . Presentation of the case of a patient with pseudoporphyria and uraemic pruritus, and overview of therapeutic management. Case report . A 64-year-old male patient, who had been on dialysis for chronic renal failure secondary to type 2 diabetes for the past 11 years, presented with tense bullae located on sun-exposed skin which had persisted for the previous 5 months. The patient was diagnosed with pseudoporphyria, and treatment was prescribed including N-acetylcysteine, chloroquine, paroxetine and mianserin. An improvement in the patient’s clinical condition and a regression of pruritus were achieved. Conclusions . Patients with renal failure may develop symptoms of pseudoporphyria requiring differentiation from porphyria cutanea tarda.
Weismann, D; Wiedmann, S; Bala, M; Frantz, S; Fassnacht, M
Obesity is an important risk factor for the development of heart failure. In normotensive obese patients, a reduced peripheral resistance is typically observed and is accompanied by an increased fluid volume and an increase in cardiac work, resulting in hypertrophy and diastolic heart failure, which can be visualized with echocardiography. However, in the presence of arterial hypertension cardiac geometry is not different to hypertensive heart disease without obesity. Furthermore, the typical changes found with obesity, such as reduced peripheral resistance and increased blood volume, are no longer present. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is very common in obesity and warrants screening but levels of the heart failure marker N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) might be misleading as the values are lower in obesity than in normal weight controls. Body weight reduction is advisable but difficult to achieve and much more difficult to maintain. Furthermore, diet and exercise has not been proven to enhance life expectancy in obesity. However, with bariatric surgery, long-term weight reduction can be achieved and mortality can be reduced. With effective weight loss and improved clinical outcome after bariatric surgery, treatment of obesity has shifted much more into focus. Regardless of technical challenges in the work-up of obese patients, clinical symptoms suggestive of cardiac disorders warrant prompt investigation with standard techniques following recommendations as established for normal weight patients.
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Antonio Francesco Corno
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION.Surgically induced, combined volume and pressure overload has been used in rabbits to create a simplified and reproducible model of acute left ventricular (LV failure.MATERIALS AND METHODS.New Zealand white male rabbits (n=24, mean weight 3.1±0.2kg were randomly assigned to either the Control group (n=10 or to the Heart Failure group (HF, n=14. Animals in the Control group underwent sham procedures. Animals in the HF group underwent procedures to induce LV volume overload by inducing severe aortic valve regurgitation with aortic cusp disruption and pressure overload using an occlusive silver clip positioned around the pre-renal abdominal aorta.RESULTS.Following Procedure-1 (volume overload echocardiography confirmed severe aortic regurgitation in all animals in the HF group, with increased mean pulse pressure difference from 18±3mmHg to 38±3mmHg (P
... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure Updated:Sep 27,2017 Following recommendations about diet, ... making. This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...
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... second installment explains heart failure with muscle intact. Queen Latifah and her mom, Rita, share their personal ... a Heart Attack 10 Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate *Red Dress ™ DHHS, Go Red ™ AHA ; National Wear Red ...
Full Text Available Bartosz Lasota,1 Katarzyna Mizia-Stec212nd Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 21st Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, PolandAbstract: Copeptin is a novel indicator of arginine–vasopressin activation in the body. Its value has primarily been documented in acute life-threatening conditions mediated by the stress response system. Recently, some studies have revealed copeptin's promising role as a marker in cardiovascular diseases. In our review, we summarize the current knowledge on copeptin in pathophysiology, as well as in risk assessment in different clinical settings involving the cardiovascular system with a special focus on heart failure.Keywords: copeptin, heart failure, arginine–vasopressin
Almueilo, Samir H
Renal dysfunction is encountered in 20-25% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) at the time of diagnosis. There is often a precipitating event. Several biochemical and clinical correlations with renal failure in MM have been reported. Renal failure in MM is associated with worse outcome of the disease. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 64 patients with MM admitted to our institution during the period January 1992 to December 2012. Abnormal renal function was observed in 24 (37.5%) patients and 17 (26.6%) of them had renal failure; 14 of the 17 (82.4%) of patients with renal failure had Stage III MM. Urine Bence- Jones protein was positive in ten (58.8%) patients with renal failure versus ten (21.3%) patients without renal failure (P = 0.004). Potential precipitating factors of renal failure were determined in nine patients. Renal function normalized in 11 patients with simple measures, while six patients required hemodialysis; one remained dialysis dependent till time of death. Early mortality occurred in five (29.4%) patients with renal failure as compared with two (4.3%) patients in the group without renal failure (P = 0.005). In conclusion, renal failure is associated with a higher tumor burden and Bence-Jones proteinuria in patients with MM. It is reversible in the majority of patients; however, early mortality tends to be higher in patients with persistent renal failure.
Incidence, Determinants, and Prognostic Significance of Hyperkalemia and Worsening Renal Function in Patients With Heart Failure Receiving the Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist Eplerenone or Placebo in Addition to Optimal Medical Therapy Results From the Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization and Survival Study in Heart Failure (EMPHASIS-HF)
Rossignol, Patrick; Dobre, Daniela; McMurray, John J. V.; Swedberg, Karl; Krum, Henry; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Shi, Harry; Messig, Michael; Vincent, John; Girerd, Nicolas; Bakris, George; Pitt, Bertram; Zannad, Faiez
Background Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists improve outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure but may induce worsening of renal function (WRF) and hyperkalemia (HK). We assessed the risk factors for mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist-related WRF and for HK, as well as the association
De Pergola, Giovanni; Nardecchia, Adele; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Triggiani, Vincenzo; Guastamacchia, Edoardo; Minischetti, Manuela Castiglione; Silvestris, Franco
Epidemiological studies have recently shown that obesity, and abdominal obesity in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). Higher cardiac oxidative stress is the early stage of heart dysfunction due to obesity, and it is the result of insulin resistance, altered fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and impaired mitochondrial biogenesis. Extense myocyte hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis are early microscopic changes in patients with HF, whereas circumferential strain during the left ventricular (LV) systole, LV increase in both chamber size and wall thickness (LV hypertrophy), and LV dilatation are the early macroscopic and functional alterations in obese developing heart failure. LV hypertrophy leads to diastolic dysfunction and subendocardial ischemia in obesity, and pericardial fat has been shown to be significantly associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. Evolving abnormalities of diastolic dysfunction may include progressive hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction, and various degrees of eccentric and/or concentric LV hypertrophy may be present with time. Once HF is established, overweight and obese have a better prognosis than do their lean counterparts with the same level of cardiovascular disease, and this phenomenon is called "obesity paradox". It is mainly due to lower muscle protein degradation, brain natriuretic peptide circulating levels and cardio-respiratory fitness than normal weight patients with HF.
De Vecchis, R; Esposito, C; Ariano, C; Cantatrione, S
In advanced congestive heart failure (CHF), intravenous (i.v.) inotropic agents, i.v. diuretics, ultrafiltration, and hemodialysis have been shown to not yield better clinical outcomes. In this scenario, the simultaneous administration of hypertonic saline solution (HSS) and furosemide may offer a more effective therapeutic option with a good safety profile. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to compare combined therapy, consisting of i.v. furosemide plus concomitant administration of HSS, with i.v. furosemide alone for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). The outcomes we chose were all-cause mortality, risk of re-hospitalization for ADHF, length of hospital stay, weight loss, and variation of serum creatinine. Based on five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 1,032 patients treated with i.v. HSS plus furosemide vs. 1,032 patients treated with i.v. furosemide alone, a decrease in all-cause mortality in patients treated with HSS plus furosemide was proven [RR = 0.57; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.44-0.74, p = 0.0003]. Likewise, combined therapy with HSS plus furosemide was shown to be associated with a reduced risk of ADHF-related re-hospitalization (RR = 0.51; 95 % CI = 0.35-0.75, p = 0.001). Besides, combined therapy with HSS plus furosemide was found to be associated with a reduced length of hospital stay (p = 0.0002), greater weight loss (p furosemide for diuretic-resistant CHF patients led to a better renal safety profile and improved clinical endpoints such as mortality and heart failure-related hospitalizations.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate hemodynamics, endothelium function of kidneys and platelets depending on the body mass index (BMI in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and preserved systolic function. 42 patients (mean age - 76,690,83 years with CHF II-III FC NYHA with preserved systolic function (LVEF>45% were enrolled. Echocardiography was performed, endothelial function, serum creatinine levels and microalbuminuria were determined in patients. BMI and glomerulation filtration rate were calculated by formulas. The morphological and functional status of platelets was estimated by electronic microscopy. It was defined that increased BMI in patients with CHF and preserved systolic function determines the structural and functional changes of the myocardium and leads to the endothelial and renal functional changes. An increased risk of thrombogenesis was established in patients with overweight and obesity.
Thirumavalavan, Nannan; Wilken, Nathan A; Ramasamy, Ranjith
The prevalence of both hypogonadism and renal failure is increasing. Hypogonadism in men with renal failure carries with it significant morbidity, including anemia and premature cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear whether testosterone therapy can affect the morbidity and mortality associated with renal failure. As such, in this review, we sought to evaluate the current literature addressing hypogonadism and testosterone replacement, specifically in men with renal failure. The articles chosen for this review were selected by performing a broad search using Pubmed, Embase and Scopus including the terms hypogonadism and renal failure from 1990 to the present. This review is based on both primary sources as well as review articles. Hypogonadism in renal failure has a multifactorial etiology, including co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, old age and obesity. Renal failure can lead to decreased luteinizing hormone production and decreased prolactin clearance that could impair testosterone production. Given the increasing prevalence of hypogonadism and the potential morbidity associated with hypogonadism in men with renal failure, careful evaluation of serum testosterone would be valuable. Testosterone replacement therapy should be considered in men with symptomatic hypogonadism and renal failure, and may ameliorate some of the morbidity associated with renal failure. Patients with all stages of renal disease are at an increased risk of hypogonadism that could be associated with significant morbidity. Testosterone replacement therapy may reduce some of the morbidity of renal failure, although it carries risk.
McAlister, Finlay A; Ezekowitz, Justin; Tarantini, Luigi; Squire, Iain; Komajda, Michel; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Gotsman, Israel; Whalley, Gillian; Earle, Nikki; Poppe, Katrina K; Doughty, Robert N
Prior studies in heart failure (HF) have used the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration Group (CKD-EPI) equation provides a more-accurate eGFR than the MDRD when compared against the radionuclide gold standard. The prevalence and prognostic import of renal dysfunction in HF if the CKD-EPI equation is used rather than the MDRD is uncertain. We used individual patient data from 25 prospective studies to stratify patients with HF by eGFR using the CKD-EPI and the MDRD equations and examined survival across eGFR strata. In 20 754 patients (15 962 with HF with reduced ejection fraction [HF-REF] and 4792 with HF with preserved ejection fraction [HF-PEF]; mean age, 68 years; deaths per 1000 patient-years, 151; 95% CI, 146-155), 10 589 (51%) and 11 422 (55%) had an eGFR <60 mL/min using the MDRD and CKD-EPI equations, respectively. Use of the CKD-EPI equation resulted in 3760 (18%) patients being reclassified into different eGFR risk strata; 3089 (82%) were placed in a lower eGFR category and exhibited higher all-cause mortality rates (net reclassification improvement with CKD-EPI, 3.7%; 95% CI, 1.5%-5.9%). Reduced eGFR was a stronger predictor of all-cause mortality in HF-REF than in HF-PEF. Use of the CKD-EPI rather than the MDRD equation to calculate eGFR leads to higher estimates of renal dysfunction in HF and a more-accurate categorization of mortality risk. Renal function is more closely related to outcomes in HF-REF than in HF-PEF.
Worsening renal function and outcome in heart failure patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction and the impact of angiotensin receptor blocker treatment : data from the CHARM-study programme
Damman, Kevin; Solomon, Scott D.; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Swedberg, Karl; Yusuf, Salim; Young, James B.; Rouleau, Jean L.; Granger, Christopher B.; McMurray, John J. V.
Aims We investigated the association between worsening renal function (WRF) that occurs during renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition initation and outcome in heart failure (HF) patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and compared this with HF patients with reduced ejection
Safety and Efficacy of Eplerenone in Patients at High Risk for Hyperkalemia and/or Worsening Renal Function Analyses of the EMPHASIS-HF Study Subgroups (Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization And SurvIval Study in Heart Failure)
Eschalier, Romain; McMurray, John J. V.; Swedberg, Karl; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Krum, Henry; Pocock, Stuart J.; Shi, Harry; Vincent, John; Rossignol, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram
Objectives The study sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of eplerenone in patients at high risk for hyperkalemia or worsening renal function (WRF) in EMPHASIS-HF, a trial that enrolled patients at least 55 years old with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), in New York
Wong, Liza S. M.; van der Harst, Pim; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Huzen, Jardi; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.
During normal aging, the heart undergoes functional, morphological and cellular changes. Although aging per se does not lead to the expression of heart failure, it is likely that age-associated changes lower the threshold for the manifestation of signs and symptoms of heart failure. In patients, the
Hari, Pankaj; Singla, Ish Kumar; Mantan, Mukta; Kanitkar, Madhuri; Batra, Bobby; Bagga, Arvind
To determine the etiology of chronic renal failure amongst children attending the Pediatric Nephrology services at a tertiary care center. We reviewed the records of 305 children, diagnosed to have chronic renal failure (CRF) over a 7-year period. CRF was defined as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) below 50-mL/1.73 m2/min persisting for more than 3 months. The mean age at onset and presentation of CRF in these patients was 5.9 and 8 years respectively. Ninety-six children were below 5 years of age. Mean (SD) levels of blood urea and creatinine at presentation were 150 and 4.6 mg/dL respectively. The median GFR at presentation was 18.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) while 25.3 patients were already in end stage renal failure indicating that these patients were referred late. The mean (SD) hemoglobin at presentation was 7.6 (2.6) g/dL. The mean height and weight SD scores were 2.9 and 2.4 respectively. Obstructive uropathy was the commonest cause of CRF present in 97 children. Other causes included chronic glomerulonephritis in 84, reflux nephropathy in 51, hereditary nephritis in 20, renal dysplasia in 15 and hemolytic uremic syndrome in 5 children. The mean (SD) duration of follow-up was 11(15) months. Peritoneal or hemodialysis was performed in 63 patients. Fifteen patients underwent a live-related renal transplantation. The rest opted out of dialysis program and were conservatively managed due to financial constraints. The commonest causes of CRF were obstructive and reflux nephropathy. A significant proportion of patients presented late; had severe CRF and were malnourished and stunted. Majority of these were managed conservatively due to lack of financial resources.
Peco-Antić Amira; Kostić Mirjana; Spasojević Brankica; Miloševski-Lomić Gordana; Paripović Dušan; Kruščić Divna; Cvetković Mirjana
Introduction/Objective. Jeune syndrome (JS) is a rare hereditary ciliopathy characterized by asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy, shortened limbs and brachydactyly. Extraskeletal anomalies such as chronic renal failure (CRF), hepatic fibrosis, and retinitis pigmentosa may be a part of the JATD phenotype. The aim of this study is to present long-term follow-up of JS patients with early progressive kidney disease. Methods. This is a retrospective study of pediatric patients with JS and CRF who were...
Vishram-Nielsen, Julie K; Gustafsson, Finn
Despite the introduction of multiple new pharmacological agents over the past three decades in the field of heart failure (HF), overall prognosis remains poor. Hyponatremia is prevalent in HF patients and has been suggested as a contributor to poor response to standard therapy. Elevated levels...... by the V2 receptors in the renal collecting tubules. The optimal use of VRAs is yet to be determined, especially in patients with congestive HF. Although long-term effects on improvement in mortality have not been shown in the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan...
Body fluid volume regulation is a complex process involving the interaction of various afferent (sensory) and neurohumoral efferent (effector) mechanisms. Historically, most studies focused on the body fluid dynamics in heart failure (HF) status through control of the balance of sodium, potassium, and water in the body, and maintaining arterial circulatory integrity is central to a unifying hypothesis of body fluid regulation in HF pathophysiology. The pathophysiologic background of the biochemical determinants of vascular volume in HF status, however, has not been known. I recently demonstrated that changes in vascular and red blood cell volumes are independently associated with the serum chloride concentration, but not the serum sodium concentration, during worsening HF and its recovery. Based on these observations and the established central role of chloride in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, I propose a unifying hypothesis of the "chloride theory" for HF pathophysiology, which states that changes in the serum chloride concentration are the primary determinant of changes in plasma volume and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system under worsening HF and therapeutic resolution of worsening HF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Palazzuoli, Alberto; Ruocco, Gaetano; Beltrami, Matteo; Franci, Beatrice; Pellegrini, Marco; Lucani, Barbara; Nuti, Ranuccio; Ronco, Claudio
Abstract Background: The role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been described in chronic heart failure (HF), however less data are available in patients admitted for acute HF. We evaluated the role of NGAL in predicting in-hospital worsening renal function (WRF) and post-discharge follow-up during six months period in patients with acute HF. All patients were submitted to creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurement during hospitalization and before discharge. Patients with chronic kidney dysfunction (CKD) demonstrated higher NGAL respect to subject with preserved renal function (241 ± 218 and 130 ± 80 ng/ml; P = 0.0001). In subgroup that developed WRF during hospitalization, NGAL levels were significantly increased respect to patients without WRF (272 ± 205 versus 136 ± 127 ng/ml; P = 0.0001). A cut off of 134 ng/ml has been related to WRF with good sensibility and specificity (92% and 71% AUC 0.83; P = 0.001). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that cut-off of 134 ng/ml was the only marker related to death (HR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.24-2.45; P 130 ng/ml was associated with adverse events during a six-month period. Admission NGAL measurement appears a sensible tool for in-hospital WRF prediction as well as an early marker for adverse outcome during post discharge vulnerable phase.
... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Failure in Children and Adolescents Updated:May 8,2017 ... lives. This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure Introduction Types of Heart ...
Ashrafian, Houman; Frenneaux, Michael P; Opie, Lionel H
Although neurohumoral antagonism has successfully reduced heart failure morbidity and mortality, the residual disability and death rate remains unacceptably high. Though abnormalities of myocardial metabolism are associated with heart failure, recent data suggest that heart failure may itself promote metabolic changes such as insulin resistance, in part through neurohumoral activation. A detrimental self-perpetuating cycle (heart failure --> altered metabolism --> heart failure) that promotes the progression of heart failure may thus be postulated. Accordingly, we review the cellular mechanisms and pathophysiology of altered metabolism and insulin resistance in heart failure. It is hypothesized that the ensuing detrimental myocardial energetic perturbations result from neurohumoral activation, increased adverse free fatty acid metabolism, decreased protective glucose metabolism, and in some cases insulin resistance. The result is depletion of myocardial ATP, phosphocreatine, and creatine kinase with decreased efficiency of mechanical work. On the basis of the mechanisms outlined, appropriate therapies to mitigate aberrant metabolism include intense neurohumoral antagonism, limitation of diuretics, correction of hypokalemia, exercise, and diet. We also discuss more novel mechanistic-based therapies to ameliorate metabolism and insulin resistance in heart failure. For example, metabolic modulators may optimize myocardial substrate utilization to improve cardiac function and exercise performance beyond standard care. The ultimate success of metabolic-based therapy will be manifest by its capacity further to lessen the residual mortality in heart failure.
Full Text Available Jacqueline B Palmer,1 Howard S Friedman,2 Katherine Waltman Johnson,1 Prakash Navaratnam,2 Stephen S Gottlieb3 1Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2DataMed Solutions, LLC, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Data comparing effects of transient worsening renal function (WRFt and persistent WRF (WRFp on outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (AHF are lacking. We determined the characteristics of hospitalized AHF patients who experienced no worsening renal function (non-WRF, WRFt, or WRFp, and the relationship between cohorts and AHF-related outcomes. Methods and results: A patient’s first AHF hospitalization (index was identified in the Cerner Health Facts® database (January 2008-March 2011. Patients had WRF if serum creatinine (SCr was ≥0.3 mg/dL and increased ≥25% from baseline, and they were designated as WRFp if present at discharge or WRFt if not present at discharge. A total of 55,436 patients were selected (non-WRF =77%, WRFp =10%, WRFt =13%. WRFp had greater comorbidity burden than WRFt. At index hospitalization, WRFp patients had the highest mortality, whereas WRFt patients had the longest length of stay (LOS and highest costs. These trends were observed at 30, 180, and 365 days postdischarge and confirmed by multivariable analyses. WRF patients had more AHF-related readmissions than non-WRF patients. In sensitivity analyses of the patient subset with live index hospitalization discharges, postdischarge LOS and costs were highest in WRFt patients, whereas mortality associated with a HF hospitalization was significantly higher for WRF patients vs non-WRF patients, with no difference between WRFp and WRFt. Conclusion: In patients hospitalized for AHF, WRFp was associated with the highest mortality, whereas WRFt was associated with the highest LOS and costs. WRF patients had higher readmissions than non
Cardiac Failure; Heart Failure; Congestive Heart Failure; Heart Failure, Congestive; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders; Chronic Insomnia; Disorders of Initiating and Maintaining Sleep; Fatigue; Pain; Depressive Symptoms; Sleep Disorders; Anxiety
Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Jeune syndrome (JS is a rare hereditary ciliopathy characterized by asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy, shortened limbs and brachydactyly. Extraskeletal anomalies such as chronic renal failure (CRF, hepatic fibrosis, and retinitis pigmentosa may be a part of the JATD phenotype. The aim of this study is to present long-term follow-up of JS patients with early progressive kidney disease. Methods. This is a retrospective study of pediatric patients with JS and CRF who were treated at the University Children’s Hospital between January 1980 and December 2014. The patients’ data were retrospectively reviewed from the medical records. Results. There were thirteen patients from 11 families, five girls and eight boys mean aged 4.3 years at the time of diagnosis. All of the patients had characteristic skeletal findings, retinal degeneration and an early onset of CRF at age range from 1.5 to 7 years. Five patients had neonatal respiratory distress and congenital liver fibrosis was diagnosed in five patients. One patient died due to complications of CRF, while others survived during follow-up of mean 11 years. IFT140 mutations were found in four genetically tested patients. Conclusion. The average incidence rate of JS with renal phenotype in Serbia was about 0.2 per one million of child population. Long-term survival of JS patients depends on renal replacement therapy, while skeletal dysplasia, growth failure, respiratory and eyes problems have impact on the patients’ quality of life.
Savic-Radojevic, A; Pljesa-Ercegovac, M; Matic, M; Simic, D; Radovanovic, S; Simic, T
Although substantial improvements have been made in majority of cardiac disorders, heart failure (HF) remains a major health problem, with both increasing incidence and prevalence over the past decades. For that reason, the number of potential biomarkers that could contribute to diagnosis and treatment of HF patients is, almost exponentially, increasing over the recent years. The biomarkers that are, at the moment, more or less ready for use in everyday clinical practice, reflect different pathophysiological processes present in HF. In this review, seven groups of biomarkers associated to myocardial stretch (mid-regional proatrial natriuretic peptide, MR-proANP), myocyte injury (high-sensitive troponins, hs-cTn; heart-type fatty acid-binding protein, H-FABP; glutathione transferase P1, GSTP1), matrix remodeling (galectin-3; soluble isoform of suppression of tumorigenicity 2, sST2), inflammation (growth differentiation factor-15, GDF-15), renal dysfunction (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL; kidney injury molecule-1, KIM-1), neurohumoral activation (adrenomedullin, MR-proADM; copeptin), and oxidative stress (ceruloplasmin; myeloperoxidase, MPO; 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG; thioredoxin 1, Trx1) in HF will be overviewed. It is important to note that clinical value of individual biomarkers within the single time points in both diagnosis and outcome prediction in HF is limited. Hence, the future of biomarker application in HF lies in the multimarker panel strategy, which would include specific combination of biomarkers that reflect different pathophysiological processes underlying HF. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schjødt, Inge; Nakano, Anne; Egstrup, Kenneth
AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Heart Failure Registry (DHFR) is to monitor and improve the care of patients with incident heart failure (HF) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: The DHFR includes inpatients and outpatients (≥18 years) with incident HF. Reporting to the DHFR is mandatory for the ...
This thesis examined differences between men and women with heart failure. First, it was shown that biological sex is a strong modulator in the clinical expression of various cardiomyopathies. In the general population it was shown that men are more likely to develop heart failure with reduced
Piepoli, Massimo F
The reduction of exercise capacity with early occurrence of fatigue and dyspnea is a hallmark of heart failure syndrome. There are objective similarities between heart failure and muscular deconditioning. Deficiencies in peripheral blood flow and skeletal muscle function, morphology, metabolism, and function are present. The protective effects of physical activity have been elucidated in many recent studies: training improves ventilatory control, skeletal muscle metabolism, autonomic nervous system, central and peripheral circulation, and heart function. These provide the physiologic basis to explain the benefits in terms of survival and freedom from hospitalization demonstrated by physical training also in heart failure.
van Deursen, Vincent M.; Damman, Kevin; Voors, Adriaan A.; van der Wal, Martje H.; Jaarsma, Tiny; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Hillege, Hans L.
Background In patients with heart failure, renal dysfunction is associated with a poor outcome. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a novel marker of renal tubular damage, in patients with heart failure with or without renal
Rosenberg, J.; Gustafsson, F.
Background: beta-Blockers are a cornerstone in the treatment of systolic heart failure treatment, but not all beta-blockers are effective or in this setting. Objective: To define the role of bisoprolol, a highly selective beta(1)-antagonist in congestive heart failure due to systolic dysfunction....... Methods: Using the keywords 'bisoprolol' and 'heart failure' PubMed and BIOSIS databases were searched for information regarding pharmacology and relevant randomised clinical trials. Supplementary publications were acquired by scrutinising reference lists of relevant papers. Additional information...... was obtained from the FDA website. Conclusion: Bisoprolol is an effective and well-tolerated first-line beta-blocker for patients with systolic heart failure. The knowledge is primarily based on study patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure from the three CIBIS trials Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...
Lehrke, Michael; Marx, Nikolaus
Epidemiologic and clinical data from the last 2 decades have shown that the prevalence of heart failure in diabetes is very high, and the prognosis for patients with heart failure is worse in those with diabetes than in those without diabetes. Experimental data suggest that various mechanisms contribute to the impairment in systolic and diastolic function in patients with diabetes, and there is an increased recognition that these patients develop heart failure independent of the presence of coronary artery disease or its associated risk factors. In addition, current clinical data demonstrated that treatment with the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin reduced hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk. This review article summarizes recent data on the prevalence, prognosis, pathophysiology, and therapeutic strategies to treat patients with diabetes and heart failure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andreoli, Sharon Phillips
Acute renal failure in the newborn is a common problem and is typically classified as prerenal, intrinsic renal disease including vascular insults, and obstructive uropathy. In the newborn, renal failure may have a prenatal onset in congenital diseases such as renal dysplasia with or without obstructive uropathy and in genetic diseases such as autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Acute renal failure in the newborn is also commonly acquired in the postnatal period because of hypoxic ischemic injury and toxic insults. Nephrotoxic acute renal failure in newborns is usually associated with aminoglycoside antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications used to close a patent ductus arteriosis. Alterations in renal function occur in approximately 40% of premature newborns who have received indomethacin and such alterations are usually reversible. Renal artery thrombosis and renal vein thrombosis will result in renal failure if bilateral or if either occurs in a solitary kidney. Cortical necrosis is associated with hypoxic/ischemic insults due to perinatal anoxia, placenta abruption and twin-twin or twin-maternal transfusions with resultant activation of the coagulation cascade. As in older children, hospital acquired acute renal failure is newborns is frequently multifactorial in origin. Although the precise incidence and prevalence of acute renal failure in the newborn is unknown, several studies have shown that acute renal failure is common in the neonatal intensive care unit. Recent interesting studies have demonstrated that some newborns may have genetic risks factors for acute renal failure. Once intrinsic renal failure has become established, management of the metabolic complications of acute renal failure continues to involve appropriate management of fluid balance, electrolyte status, acid-base balance, nutrition and the initiation of renal replacement therapy when appropriate. Renal replacement therapy may be provided by peritoneal dialysis
D. A. Lashkul
Full Text Available Improvement of the treatment of cardiovascular disease has led to an increase number of patients with chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF, but at the moment there is no differentiated approach based on the principles of evidence-based medicine. Aim. To investigate the effect of modern combined drug therapy for long-term prognosis in patients with ischemic HFpEF and renal dysfunction. Materials and methods. The study involved 243 patients (80.3% men with ischemic HFpEF with renal dysfunction (age 58.7±9.3 years. Therapy included: ACE inhibitors/ARBs (98.3 %, statins (95.9 %, antiplatelet agents (94.2 %, beta blockers (91.3 %, diuretics (53.5 %, trimetazidine (30.9 %, calcium antagonists (26.3 %, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (16.5 %, amiodarone (11.9 %. The follow-up period was 3 years. The cumulative survival curves were constructed by the Kaplan-Meier method using and groups were compared with the log-rank test. Results. It was found that the torasemide inclusion in the therapy of patients with ischemic HFpEF and renal dysfunction in comparison with furosemide was accompanied by a reduction in adverse cardiovascular events (hazard ratio (HR 4.92; 95% CI 1.47-16.4; p=0.009, ARB has a positive effect (HR 0.46; 95% CI 0.21-1.07; p=0.07, and the inclusion of amiodarone was accompanied by an increase number of adverse events (HR 3.27; 95% CI 1.38-7.74, p=0.006. Beta-blockers reduced the risk of sudden cardiac death (HR 0.09; 95% CI 0.01-0.58, p=0.01. It was found that amiodarone (HR 4.69; 95% CI 1.26-17.3; p=0.02 and AMR (HR 4.81; 95% CI 1.62-14.3; p=0.004 increased the risk of hospitalization. Conclusion. As a result of a three-year follow-up of patients with ischemic HFpEF and renal dysfunction it was found that among diuretics torasemide has preference over furosemide in respect of the impact on cumulative endpoint. Beta-blockers were effective in preventing sudden cardiac death, and angiotensin II receptor
... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:May 9, ... you? This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...
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Nieves, L Celeste; Mehrtens, Gia M; Pores, Noah; Pickrell, Christie; Tanis, James; Satty, Timothy; Chuang, Michelle; Young, Tina C; Merlin, Mark A
The most effective dose of prehospital furosemide in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) has not yet been identified and concerns of worsening renal function have limited its use. To assess if administering high-dose furosemide is associated with worsening renal function. The authors conducted a 2-center chart review for patients who presented via a single Emergency Medical Service (EMS) from June 5, 2009 through May 17, 2013. Inclusion criteria were shortness of breath, primarily coded as ADHF, and the administration of furosemide prior to emergency department (ED) arrival. A total of 331 charts were identified. The primary endpoint was an increase in creatinine (Cr) of more than 0.3 mg/dL from admission to any time during hospital stay. Exploratory endpoints included survival, length-of-stay (LOS), disposition, urine output in the ED, change in BUN/Cr from admission to discharge, and change in Cr from admission to 72 hours and discharge. When treated as a binary variable, there was no association observed between an increase in Cr of more than 0.3 mg/dL and prehospital furosemide dose. Baseline characteristics found to be associated with dose were included in the logistic regression model. Lowering the dose of prehospital furosemide was associated with higher odds of attaining a 0.3 mg/dL increase in Cr (adjusted OR = 1.49 for a 20 mg decrease; P = .019). There was no association found with any of the exploratory endpoints. Patients who received higher doses of furosemide prehospitally were less likely to have an increase of greater than 0.3 mg/dL in Cr during the hospital course.
Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian; Frankenstein, Lutz
Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases.
Aronow, Wilbert S
Factors predisposing the older person with acute myocardial infarction (MI) to develop heart failure (HF) include an increased prevalence of MI, multivessel coronary artery disease, decreased left ventricular (LV) contractile reserve, impairment of LV diastolic relaxation, increased hypertension, LV hypertrophy, diabetes mellitus, valvular heart disease, and renal insufficiency. HF associated with acute MI should be treated with a loop diuretic. The use of nitrates, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, aldosterone antagonists, beta-blockers, digoxin, and positive inotropic drugs; treatment of arrhythmias and mechanical complications; and indications for use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, S; Rossignol, P; Willis, S; Zannad, F; Mentz, R; Pocock, S; Bisognano, J; Nadim, Y; Geller, N; Ruble, S; Linde, C
Hypertension (HTN) and heart failure (HF) have a significant global impact on health, and lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Despite recent advances in pharmacologic and device therapy for these conditions, there is a need for additional treatment modalities. Patients with sub-optimally treated HTN have increased risk for stroke, renal failure and heart failure. The outcome of HF patients remains poor despite modern pharmacological therapy and with established device therapies such as CRT and ICDs. Therefore, the potential role of neuromodulation via renal denervation, baro-reflex modulation and vagal stimulation for the treatment of resistant HTN and HF is being explored. In this manuscript, we review current evidence for neuromodulation in relation to established drug and device therapies and how these therapies may be synergistic in achieving therapy goals in patients with treatment resistant HTN and heart failure. We describe lessons learned from recent neuromodulation trials and outline strategies to improve the potential for success in future trials. This review is based on discussions between scientists, clinical trialists, and regulatory representatives at the 11th annual CardioVascular Clinical Trialist Forum in Washington, DC on December 5-7, 2014. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Núñez, Julio; Miñana, Gema; Santas, Enrique; Bertomeu-González, Vicente
Cardiorenal syndrome has been defined as the simultaneous dysfunction of both the heart and the kidney. Worsening renal function that occurs in patients with acute heart failure has been classified as cardiorenal syndrome type 1. In this setting, worsening renal function is a common finding and is due to complex, multifactorial, and not fully understood processes involving hemodynamic (renal arterial hypoperfusion and renal venous congestion) and nonhemodynamic factors. Traditionally, worsening renal function has been associated with worse outcomes, but recent findings have revealed mixed and heterogeneous results, perhaps suggesting that the same phenotype represents a diversity of pathophysiological and clinical situations. Interpreting the magnitude and chronology of renal changes together with baseline renal function, fluid overload status, and clinical response to therapy might help clinicians to unravel the clinical meaning of renal function changes that occur during an episode of heart failure decompensation. In this article, we critically review the contemporary evidence on the pathophysiology and clinical aspects of worsening renal function in acute heart failure. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Pecini, Redi; Møller, Daniel Vega; Torp-Pedersen, Christian
BACKGROUND: The impact of heart failure (HF) etiology on prognosis of HF is not well known. METHODS: 3078 patients (median age 75years, 61% male) hospitalized with HF were studied. Patients were classified into six etiology groups: hypertension (HTN, 13.9%), ischemic heart disease (IHD, 42...
Mikolasevic, Ivana; Orlic, Lidija; Zaputovic, Luka; Racki, Sanjin; Cubranic, Zlatko; Anic, Kata; Devcic, Bosiljka; Stimac, Davor
In recent years, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was recognized as an important factor in chronic kidney disease (CKD) pathogenesis. The concentrations of serum aminotransferases in both chronic dialysis and chronic renal failure (CRF) patients most commonly fall within the lower end of the range of normal values. The aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of four liver tests and four biological scores in detection of NAFLD in comparison with transient elastography (TE) findings in different groups of patients. The study was cross-sectional analysis collected data from a single tertiary care center. Of 202 patents there were 52 patients with CKD, 50 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with haemodialysis (HD), 50 renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and 50 patients with proven coronary heart disease (CHD). Fifty sex- and age-matched individuals without NAFLD and with normal liver and kidney function tests served as controls. With the help of TE (FibroScan®, Echosense SA, Paris, France), liver stiffness was selected as the parameter to quantify liver fibrosis and Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) was used to detect and quantify liver steatosis. According to the CAP findings 76.9 %CKD patients, 82 %HD patients, 74 %RTRs and 69.1 % CHD patients had CAP > 238 dB.m(-1) and thus by definition NAFLD. We have found that ALT, AST and GGT levels were positively correlated with CAP values while ALT and AST showed positive correlation with liver stiffness acquired with TE only in CHD patients. According to TE findings APRI (AUC 0.796) and FIB-4 (AUC 0.790) scores were correlated with the presence of fibrosis, while HIS score was correlated with the presence of steatosis (AUC 0.867) only in CHD patients. Liver tests and biological scores are not useful for NAFLD detection in CRF patients. TE with CAP provides the opportunity of noninvasive screening for NAFLD as well as liver fibrosis in patients with CRF.
Uchino, Shigehiko; Doig, Gordon S.; Bellomo, Renaldo; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Morgera, Stanislao; Schetz, Miet; Tan, Ian; Bouman, Catherine; Nacedo, Ettiene; Gibney, Noel; Tolwani, Ashita; Ronco, Claudio; Kellum, John A.
According to recent research, diuretics may increase mortality in acute renal failure patients. The administration of diuretics in such patients has been discouraged. Our objective was to determine the impact of diuretics on the mortality rate of critically ill patients with acute renal failure.
Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Börste, Rita
Heart failure is one of the most urgent medical and socio-economic challenges of the 21(st) century. Up to three million people are affected in Germany; this means one in ten people over the age of 65 live with heart failure. The current demographic changes will accentuate the importance of this grave health problem. The care of patients with heart failure, as well as the associated research mandates a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach. The Competence Network Heart Failure (CNHF) pursues this objective. CNHF is a research alliance with 11 sites in Germany and was funded by the Federal Ministry of Research (BMBF) from 2003 through 2014. Since January 2015, the network has been an associate cooperating partner of the German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK). During the 12-year funding period by the BMBF, scientists in the field of heart failure from 30 university hospitals, 5 research institutes, 7 heart centers, 17 cardiovascular clinics, over 200 general practitioners, 4 rehabilitation clinics, as well as numerous organizations and associations were involved in cooperative CNHF research. In the context of 22 projects, the CNHF covered basic, clinical, and health care research, and generated numerous groundbreaking insights into disease mechanisms, as well as diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, which are documented in more than 350 publications. With its central study database and bank of biomaterials, the network has set up a Europe-wide unique research resource, which can be used in the future for national and international cooperations with the DZHK and other partners. Furthermore, the CNHF strongly promotes nation- and Europe-wide public relations and heart failure awareness activities.
Sérgio Mussi Guimarães
Full Text Available Nutritional status has been considered to be one of the possible determinants of mortality rates in cases of acute renal failure (ARF. However, most studies evaluating possible mortality indicators in ARF cases have not focused on the nutritional status, possibly because of the difficulties involved in assessing the nutritional status of critically ill patients. Although the traditional methods for assessing nutritional status are used for ARF patients, they are not the best choice in this population. The use of nutritional support for these patients has produced conflicting results regarding morbidity and mortality. This review covers the mechanisms and indicators of malnutrition in ARF cases and the types of nutritional support that may be used.
Payne-Emerson, Heather; Lennie, Terry A
There are a number of factors related to heart failure pathophysiology and treatment that influence nutrient requirements for patients. These include catabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, diuretic use, and presence of comorbidities. On the other hand, there is evidence that specific nutrients can alter heart failure pathophysiology. This article reviews the current evidence for nutritional recommendations regarding sodium and fluid restriction, macro- and micronutrient intake, and dietary changes required by the presence of common comorbidities.
Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, B; Nadziakiewicz, P; Zakliczynski, M; Szczurek, W; Chraponski, J; Zembala, M; Gasior, M
The evaluation of prognosis and determination of a long-term treatment strategy is an important element of management in patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic value of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and its modifications, MELD and serum sodium (MELD-Na) and MELD excluding the international normalized ratio (MELD-XI), as well as other independent risk factors for death during a 4-year follow-up. We analyzed retrospectively 143 patients with advanced HF, evaluated for heart transplant between 2009 and 2011. Patients using warfarin were excluded from the study. The long-term follow-up data were obtained during follow-up visits and/or phone contact with the patients or their families. The age of the patients was 54 (48-59) years and 88.1% of patients were male. Mortality rate during the follow-up period was 49%. The MELD scores (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; P < .001), as well as serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; HR, 1.01; P < .01) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP; HR, 1.01; P < .05) levels, were independent risk factors for death. Receiver operator characteristic analysis indicated that a MELD cutoff of 10 (area under the curve [AUC], 0.756; P < .0001], MELD-XI cutoff of 13.0 (AUC, 0.720; P < .0001), MELD-Na cutoff of 13.0 (AUC, 0.813; P < .0001), hs-CRP cutoff of 4.02 (AUC, 0.686; P < .001), and NT-proBNP cutoff of 1055 (AUC, 0.722; P < .001) were the best predictive values as predictors of death. MELD, MELD-Na, and MELD-XI scores are prognostic factors for death during a 4-year follow-up. A high MELD score is an independent prognostic factor for death. NT-proBNP and hs-CRP serum concentrations are other independent factors influencing death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Conditions Action myoclonus–renal failure syndrome Action myoclonus–renal failure syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Action myoclonus–renal failure (AMRF) syndrome causes episodes of involuntary muscle jerking ...
Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in the last few years in the management of heart failure. In particular, several trials have given significant results. It has become apparent that heart failure may be prevented in some patients by treatment of risk factors such as coronary artery disease.Experience with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors has shown that the survival and symptomatic benefits do last in the long term, and confirm that they are the first-line treatment in heart failure.The results of a number of trials using the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs candesartan, valsartan and losartan are presented and discussed. There is also some experience now in the use of candesartan for patients with heart failure and preserved left ventricular systolic function.The COMET trial compared the β-blockers carvedilol and metoprolol tartrate, and suggests that there may be differences in clinical effect between β-blockers.The selective aldosterone receptor blocker eplerenone was evaluated in the EPHESUS trial in post-MI patients with signs of heart failure.Based on these clinical trials, heart failure guidelines are now being updated.
Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in the last few years in the management of heart failure. In particular several trials have given significant results. It has become apparent that heart failure may be prevented in some patients by treatment of risk factors such as coronary artery disease. Experience with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors has shown that the survival and symptomatic benefits do last in the long term, and confirm that they are the first-line treatment in heart failure. The results of a number of trials using the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs candesartan, valsartan and losartan are presented and discussed. There is also some experience now in the use of candesartan for patients with heart failure and preserved left ventricular systolic function. The COMET trial compared the β-blockers carvedilol and metoprolol tartrate, and suggests that there may be differences in clinical effect between β-blockers. The selective aldosterone receptor blocker eplerenone was evaluated in the EPHESUS trial in post-MI patients with signs of heart failure. Based on these clinical trials, heart failure guidelines are now being updated.
Brassard, Patrice; Gustafsson, Finn
Exercise tolerance is affected in patients with heart failure (HF). Although the inability of the heart to pump blood to the working muscle has been the conventional mechanism proposed to explain the lowered capacity of patients with HF to exercise, evidence suggests that the pathophysiological...
respiratory tract infections (36%), intrinsic heart disease. (31%) and severe ... becomes unable to deliver an adequate cardiac output to meet ..... room setting. Nig. J paediat 1990; 17: 1 –6. Olowu AO. Studies on heart failure in Sagamu. Nig J Paediatr. 1993; 20: 29 – 34. Shann F, MacGregor D, Richens J et al. Cardiac ...
Schjødt, Inge; Nakano, Anne; Egstrup, Kenneth
AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Heart Failure Registry (DHFR) is to monitor and improve the care of patients with incident heart failure (HF) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: The DHFR includes inpatients and outpatients (≥18 years) with incident HF. Reporting to the DHFR is mandatory......: The main variables recorded in the DHFR are related to the indicators for quality of care in patients with incident HF: performance of echocardiography, functional capacity (New York Heart Association functional classification), pharmacological therapy (angiotensin converting enzyme/angiotensin II...
Druck, M N
The author describes the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure and outlines treatment based on the mechanism and hemodynamics of heart failure. He discusses vasodilator therapy, ACE inhibitors in heart failure, and initiation of treatment. The paper concludes with a short discussion of methods of treating refractory heart failure.
Druck, Maurice N.
The author describes the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure and outlines treatment based on the mechanism and hemodynamics of heart failure. He discusses vasodilator therapy, ACE inhibitors in heart failure, and initiation of treatment. The paper concludes with a short discussion of methods of treating refractory heart failure.
... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Causes and Risks for Heart Failure Updated:Feb 13,2018 Who Develops Heart Failure ( ... HF. This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...
Liu, Peter P
One of the most important comorbidities in heart failure is renal dysfunction. Diminished estimated glomerular filtration rate is a potent predictor of cardiovascular mortality and complications. On the other hand, worsening heart failure or acute decompensated heart failure can accelerate worsening of renal function--the so-called cardiorenal syndrome. Risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, elderly age, and prior history of heart or renal failure. The pathophysiology of the cardiorenal syndrome involves intrarenal hemodynamics, transrenal perfusion pressure and systemic neurohormonal factors. Clinical management of the patient with cardiorenal syndrome includes the challenge of diuretic resistance, which may involve correcting the underlying cause, combination diuretics or diuretic infusions. The key to improved outcome is the optimization of proven heart failure therapies. The use of vasodilator therapy is the current mainstay of treatment. Nesiritide, or recombinant B-type natriuretic peptide, has courted controversy regarding its role in cardiorenal syndrome. However, data are emerging that low doses appear to be renal-protective. Other more recent strategies include ultrafiltration, vasopressin antagonists and adenosine antagonists. All of these newer modalities promise more rapid volume removal, but their ultimate impact on survival or preservation of renal function is unknown at the present time. Because of the complex nature of these patients, and the compromised outcome, it is important that cardiologists, nephrologists and internists all work together toward the common goal of protecting the patient with cardiorenal syndrome, and use the best available evidence for management.
Pfeffer, Marc A
This article discusses the role of hypertension in heart failure. Elevated blood pressure has the greatest population attributable risk for the development of heart failure. The mortality rates following the clinical recognition of heart failure is increased multifold. The treatment of hypertension with antihypertensive agents is particularly effective in preventing heart failure, which makes it the most effective therapy for heart failure. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ebong, Imo A.; Goff, David C.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Chen, Haiying; Bertoni, Alain G.
Heart failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and its prevalence continues to rise. Because obesity has been linked with heart failure, the increasing prevalence of obesity may presage further rise in heart failure in the future. Obesity-related factors are estimated to cause 11% of heart failure cases in men and 14% in women. Obesity may result in heart failure by inducing hemodynamic and myocardial changes that lead to cardiac dysfunction, or due to an increased predisposition...
Pecini, Redi; Møller, Daniel Vega; Torp-Pedersen, Christian
BACKGROUND: The impact of heart failure (HF) etiology on prognosis of HF is not well known. METHODS: 3078 patients (median age 75years, 61% male) hospitalized with HF were studied. Patients were classified into six etiology groups: hypertension (HTN, 13.9%), ischemic heart disease (IHD, 42...... risk, HR 1.71 (CI: 1.3-2.2, p/=30% (HR 1.3, CI: 1.0-1.5, p=0.03), compared to the reference (p-value for interaction...
Riehle, Christian; Abel, E. Dale
Heart failure is associated with generalized insulin resistance. Moreover, insulin resistant states such as type 2 diabetes and obesity increases the risk of heart failure even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. Insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes alters the systemic and neurohumoral milieu leading to changes in metabolism and signaling pathways in the heart that may contribute to myocardial dysfunction. In addition, changes in insulin signaling within cardiomyocytes develop in the failing heart. The changes range from activation of proximal insulin signaling pathways that may contribute to adverse left ventricular remodeling and mitochondrial dysfunction to repression of distal elements of insulin signaling pathways such as forkhead (FOXO) transcriptional signaling or glucose transport which may also impair cardiac metabolism, structure and function. This article will review the complexities of insulin signaling within the myocardium and ways in which these pathways are altered in heart failure or in conditions associated with generalized insulin resistance. The implications of these changes for therapeutic approaches to treating or preventing heart failure will be discussed. PMID:27034277
de Zeeuw, D.; Apperloo, AJ; de Jong, P.
There is growing evidence that treatment of patients with renal function impairment will undergo a major shift within the next few years. Along with more or less successful attempts to alleviate the signs and symptoms of reduced renal function, new insights into renal pathophysiology as well as new
... tests to check how well your heart was working. What to Expect at Home Your energy will slowly return. You may need ... erection problems without checking first. Make sure your home is set up to be safe and easy ... appointments at your provider's office. You will likely need to have certain lab ...
Hinojosa, Fabiola Quinteros; Revelo, Margarita; Salazar, Alexander; Maggi, Genaro; Schiraldi, Renato; Brogly, Nicolas; Gilsanz, Fernando
Inotropic drugs are part of the treatment of heart failure; however, inotropic treatment has been largely debated due to the increased incidence of adverse effects and increased mortality. Recently levosimendan, an inotropic positive agent, has been proved to be effective in acute heart failure, reducing the mortality and improving cardiac and renal performance. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman with history of heart and renal failure and hip fracture. Levosimendan was used in preoperative preparation as an adjuvant therapy, to improve cardiac and renal function and to allow surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Orlandi, Cesare; Zimmer, Christopher A; Gheorghiade, Mihai
Tolvaptan is an oral, once-daily nonpeptide arginine vasopressin V(2)-receptor antagonist under development for the treatment of hyponatremia and congestive heart failure. In Phase II clinical trials, tolvaptan, in addition to standard therapy, increased fluid loss, resulting in decreased body weight and improved edema and serum sodium without affecting blood pressure, heart rate or renal function in patients with heart failure. The compound appeared to be well tolerated and dose-dependent adverse events were generally realated to its pharmacological activity, such as thirst and dry mouth. In patients with hyponatremia, tolvaptan appears to be more effective than fluid restriction at improving sodium levels without an increase in adverse events. An international Phase III outcome study; Efficacy of Vasopressin antagonism in hEaRt failurE outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST), evaluating the long-term efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in patients hospitalized with worsening heart failure, is currently ongoing.
iodinated compound is reported. The clinical findings and course are presented, with particular emphasis on the fact that there appeared to be no underlying or associated disorder which may have cause the renal failure, other than possible mild ...
Cosín Aguilar, J; Hernándiz Martínez, A
n 1987 the results of the Consensus study were published, and showed that enalapril, an angiotensin convertor enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), was able to modify the clinical course of the heart failure syndrome thereby reducing mortality. Other ACEI later demonstrated the same effect on the different degrees of symptomatic heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, myocardial infarction and more recently in diabetic patients. In 1996 studies on the betablockers carvedilol, bisoprolol and metoprolol showed their efficacy in reducing deaths due to progressive heart impairment and sudden death in chronic heart failure. The RALES study showed that small doses of spironolactone also improved the prognosis on this disease. Digital improves the quality of life but not the survival rate. Only amiodarone (among the antiarrhythmics) reduces sudden death. Other drugs and groups of drugs can not be considered for chronic outpatient treatment of heart failure. Multicenter trials make it possible to obtain scientific evidence for establishing rational treatments. Many groups of patients such as women, elderly people and the more severe cases of the disease are often not included in these trials. Occasionally, multicenter trials are badly designed (CIBIS and MCD), which in the case of betablockers, led to a substantial delay in their administration. Other times, as in the ELITE study, the results were badly interpreted. The knowledge obtained from these studies is slow in reaching patients, with few patients taking betablockers. It is known that most patients do not take the doses found to be effective in multicenter trials.
Costanzo, Maria Rosa; Ronco, Claudio; Abraham, William T.; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Barasch, Jonathan; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Gottlieb, Stephen S.; Jaski, Brian E.; Kazory, Amir; Levin, Allison P.; Levin, Howard R.; Marenzi, Giancarlo; Mullens, Wilfried; Negoianu, Dan; Redfield, Margaret M.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Testani, Jeffrey M.; Voors, Adriaan A.
More than 1 million heart failure hospitalizations occur annually, and congestion is the predominant cause. Rehospitalizations for recurrent congestion portend poor outcomes independently of age and renal function. Persistent congestion trumps serum creatinine increases in predicting adverse heart
Predictors of postdischarge outcomes from information acquired shortly after admission for acute heart failure: a report from the Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study of the Selective A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Rolofylline for Patients Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal Function (PROTECT) Study.
Cleland, John G; Chiswell, Karen; Teerlink, John R; Stevens, Susanna; Fiuzat, Mona; Givertz, Michael M; Davison, Beth A; Mansoor, George A; Ponikowski, Piotr; Voors, Adriaan A; Cotter, Gad; Metra, Marco; Massie, Barry M; O'Connor, Christopher M
Acute heart failure is a common reason for admission, and outcome is often poor. Improved prognostic risk stratification may assist in the design of future trials and in patient management. Using data from a large randomized trial, we explored the prognostic value of clinical variables, measured at hospital admission for acute heart failure, to determine whether a few selected variables were inferior to an extended data set. The prognostic model included 37 clinical characteristics collected at baseline in PROTECT, a study comparing rolofylline and placebo in 2033 patients admitted with acute heart failure. Prespecified outcomes at 30 days were death or rehospitalization for any reason; death or rehospitalization for cardiovascular or renal reasons; and, at both 30 and 180 days, all-cause mortality. No variable had a c-index>0.70, and few had values>0.60; c-indices were lower for composite outcomes than for mortality. Blood urea was generally the strongest single predictor. Eighteen variables contributed independent prognostic information, but a reduced model using only 8 items (age, previous heart failure hospitalization, peripheral edema, systolic blood pressure, serum sodium, urea, creatinine, and albumin) performed similarly. For prediction of all-cause mortality at 180 days, the model c-index using all variables was 0.72 and for the simplified model, also 0.72. A few simple clinical variables measured on admission in patients with acute heart failure predict a variety of adverse outcomes with accuracy similar to more complex models. However, predictive models were of only moderate accuracy, especially for outcomes that included nonfatal events. Better methods of risk stratification are required. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00328692 and NCT00354458.
Anemia, disfunção renal e desnutrição associadas à insuficiência cardíaca em pacientes valvopatas Anemia, renal dysfunction and malnutrition associated with heart failure in patients with valvulopathy
Wysllenny Nascimento de Souza
Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A doença valvar pode cursar com insuficiência cardíaca (IC, anemia e disfunção renal (DR, aumentando o risco nutricional e piorando o prognóstico dos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de anemia e DR em pacientes portadores de valvopatias com ou sem IC, bem como estabelecer correlação com o estado nutricional. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 104 pacientes internados na enfermaria de valvopatias do PROCAPE/UPE, no período de ago-out/2008. Os dados foram obtidos das fichas de acompanhamento nutricional e dos prontuários. As variáveis coletadas foram: sexo, idade, estado nutricional segundo o índice de massa corpórea (IMC, presença de IC, anemia, DR. Considerou-se como anemia valores de hemoglobina BACKGROUND: Valvular disease can course with heart failure (HF, anemia and renal dysfunction (RD, increasing the nutritional risk and worsening patient prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of anemia and RD in patients with valvulopathy with or without HF, as well as establish a correlation with the nutritional status. METHODS: A total of 104 patients admitted at the Clinic of Valvulopathy of PROCAPE/UPE, during the period of Aug-Oct/2008. The data were obtained from the nutritional and medical follow-up files. The collected variables were: sex, age, nutritional status according to the body mass index (BMI, presence of HF, anemia and RD. Anemia was considered when hemoglobin values were < 13 g/dl in men and < 12 g/dl in women. RD was established according to the glomerular filtration rate (GFR and it was calculated through the formula proposed by Cockcroft and Gault. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia and RD was 71.1% and 68.8%, and 48.1% and 60.0%, in patients with and without HF, respectively, with a statistically significant difference for anemia (p = 0.022. Of the patients, 48.1% were eutrophic, 26.9% had excess weight and 25.0% presented some degree of malnutrition. The patients with HF presented a higher
Wong, L; Chee, Y R; Healy, D G; Egan, J J; Sadlier, D M; O'Meara, Y M
Chronic kidney disease is a frequent complication following heart and combined heart-lung transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyse the outcome of a subsequent renal transplant in heart, lung and heart-lung transplantation recipients. All heart, lung and heart-lung transplant recipients who received a subsequent renal transplant over a 27-year period in a national heart and lung transplant centre were included in this study. A total of 18 patients who had previously undergone heart (n = 6), lung (n = 7) and heart-lung (n = 5) transplantation received a renal transplant. The mean duration to development of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) was 115 ± 45.9 months. The most common contributor to ESKD was calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity. The 5-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 91.7 and 85.6%, respectively. The median creatinine level at the most recent follow-up was 123 μmol/L, IQR 90.8-147.5. The overall outcome of renal transplantation following previous non-renal solid organ transplantation is excellent considering the medical complexity and co-morbidities of this patient population. Renal transplantation represents an important treatment option for ESKD in non-renal solid organ transplant recipients.
Chow, Kai Ming; Szeto, Cheuk Chun; Hui, Andrew Che-Fai; Li, Philip Kam-Tao
Neurological complications of antibiotics are relatively common in renal failure. Central nervous system neurotoxicity due to penicillin and beta-lactam antibiotics is best documented with fewer accounts of ototoxicity, peripheral nerve toxicity and neuromuscular blockade. In the context of risk stratification, the goal of this review is to explore the mosaic of factors in renal impairment that may contribute to susceptibility to antibiotic neurotoxicity. Improved knowledge of the pathogenesis of these formidable adverse events among the renal failure subjects should help prevent antibiotic neurotoxicity in the future.
Peces, R; Canora, J; Venegas, J L
Acute and chronic renal failure secondary to bilateral severe hydroureteronephrosis is a rare sequela of uterine prolapse. We report a case of neglected complete uterine prolapse in a 72-year-old patient resulting in bilateral hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and chronic renal failure. In an attempt to diminish the ureteral obstruction a vaginal pessary was used to reduce the uterine prolapse. Finally, surgical repair of prolapse by means of a vaginal hysterectomy was performed. In conclusion, all patients presenting with complete uterine prolapse should be screened to exclude urinary tract obstruction. If present, obstructive uropathy should be relieved by the reduction or repair of the prolapse before irreversible renal damage occurs.
Pocock, Stuart J; Ariti, Cono A; McMurray, John J V
AimsUsing a large international database from multiple cohort studies, the aim is to create a generalizable easily used risk score for mortality in patients with heart failure (HF).Methods and resultsThe MAGGIC meta-analysis includes individual data on 39 372 patients with HF, both reduced...
Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure (HF) or both syndromes are the most common reasons for dyspnea in the elderly. Currently there is no standard to diagnose COPD and multiple definitions (fixed ratio [GOLD], lower limit of normal [LLN]) are discussed. Further,
Quader, Mohammed A; Goodreau, Adam M; Shah, Keyur B; Katlaps, Gundars; Cooke, Richard; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna F; Wolfe, Luke G; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar
Heart failure patients requiring total artificial heart (TAH) support often have concomitant renal insufficiency (RI). We sought to quantify renal function recovery in patients supported with TAH at our institution. Renal function data at 30, 90, and 180 days after TAH implantation were analyzed for patients with RI, defined as hemodialysis supported or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m. Between January 2008 and December 2013, 20 of the 46 (43.5%) TAH recipients (age 51 ± 9 years, 85% men) had RI, mean preoperative eGFR of 48 ± 7 ml/min/1.73 m. Renal function recovery was noted at each follow-up interval: increment in eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m) at 30, 90, and 180 days was 21 ± 35 (p = 0.1), 16.5 ± 18 (p = 0.05), and 10 ± 9 (p = 0.1), respectively. Six patients (30%) required preoperative dialysis. Of these, four recovered renal function, one remained on dialysis, and one died. Six patients (30%) required new-onset dialysis. Of these, three recovered renal function and three died. Overall, 75% (15 of 20) of patients' renal function improved with TAH support. Total artificial heart support improved renal function in 75% of patients with pre-existing significant RI, including those who required preoperative dialysis.
Schjødt, Inge; Nakano, Anne; Egstrup, Kenneth
AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Heart Failure Registry (DHFR) is to monitor and improve the care of patients with incident heart failure (HF) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: The DHFR includes inpatients and outpatients (≥18 years) with incident HF. Reporting to the DHFR is mandatory......: The main variables recorded in the DHFR are related to the indicators for quality of care in patients with incident HF: performance of echocardiography, functional capacity (New York Heart Association functional classification), pharmacological therapy (angiotensin converting enzyme/angiotensin II...... antagonist inhibitors, beta-blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist), nonpharmacological therapy (physical training, patient education), 4-week readmission rate, and 1-year mortality. Furthermore, basic patient characteristics and prognostic factors (eg, smoking and alcohol) are recorded...
Increased incidence of cancer at various sites is observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Certain malignant diseases, such as lymphomas and carcinomas of the kidney, prostate, liver and uterus, show an enhanced prevalence compared with the general population. In particular, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows an excess incidence in ESRD patients. A multitude of factors, directly or indirectly associated with the renal disease and the treatment regimens, may contribute to the increased tumor formation in these patients. Patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) are prone to develop acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which may subsequently lead to the development of RCC. In pre-dialysis patients with coexistent renal disease, as in dialysis and transplant patients, the presence of ACKD may predispose to RCC. Previous use of cytotoxic drugs (eg, cyclophosphamide) or a history of analgesic abuse, are additional risk factors for malignancy. Malignancy following renal transplantation is an important medical problem during the follow-up. The most common malignancies are lymphoproliferative disorders (early after transplantation) and skin carcinomas (late after transplantation). Another important confounder for risk of malignancy after renal transplantation is the type of immunosuppression. The type of malignancy is different in various countries and dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Finally, previous cancer treatment in a uremic patient on the transplant waiting list is of great importance in relation to waiting time and post-malignancy screening.
Prevalência de anemia e insuficiência renal em portadores de insuficiência cardíaca não-hospitalizados Prevalencia de anemia e insuficiencia renal en portadores de insuficiencia cardiaca no hospitalizados Prevalence of anemia and renal insufficiency in non-hospitalized patients with heart failure
Francisco José Farias Borges dos Reis
,6% presentaba insuficiencia renal de moderada a severa (TFG BACKGROUND: Heart Failure (HF is a common disease with a high rate of mortality. Anemia and renal failure (RF are often found in patients with HF associated with higher severity of the heart disease and a worse prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of anemia and RF, as well as the association between these two conditions, in non-hospitalized patients with HF. METHODS: Patients treated at the HF Outpatient Clinic of a university hospital were followed from July 2003 to November 2006. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels < 13 mg/dl for men and 12 mg/dl for women. Renal function was assessed by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR, calculated by the simplified formula of the MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study. RESULTS: Of the 345 patients included in this study, 26.4% (n = 91 had anemia and 29.6% had moderate to severe renal failure (GFR < 60 ml/min. The association between anemia and a higher prevalence of renal failure was statistically significant (41.8% vs. 25.2%; p = 0.005. The patients at functional class III and IV presented a higher incidence of anemia (39.0% vs. 19.4%; p <0.001 and renal failure (38.2% vs. 24.8%; p = 0.007. No association was observed between anemia or renal failure and history of hypertension, diabetes, systolic function or etiology of HF. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia and renal failure was high in this population and was associated with the severity of the HF (functional classes III and IV.
... for children; Cor pulmonale - home monitoring for children; Cardiomyopathy - heart failure home monitoring for children ... PF, Lougheed J, Dancea A, et al. Presentation, diagnosis, and medical management of heart failure in children: ...
Alghamdi, Faisal; Chan, Michael
Heart failure is a major chronic illness with no definitive cure. With improving healthcare and with an aging population in many countries, heart failure has become a common disease of the elderly. Pharmacological management of heart failure in the elderly remains a challenge. The syndrome of heart failure cannot be isolated from other comorbidities, which are very common in this population. The purpose of this review is to assist practicing clinicians to more effectively make decisions about management of heart failure in the elderly. In this review, we will try to integrate recent research studies, recent guidelines, and new treatment modalities, and discuss some controversies. In general, the elderly patient with heart failure should be treated according to current heart failure guidelines; however, untailored heart failure management may cause untoward effects in this age group and may worsen clinical outcome.
... news/fullstory_166896.html Fewer Americans Hospitalized for Heart Failure But blacks still face far greater odds than ... HealthDay News) -- The number of Americans hospitalized for heart failure has dropped substantially since 2002, but blacks still ...
Grove, E L; Abrahamsen, B; Vestergaard, P
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of heart failure in patients treated with bisphosphonates.......The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of heart failure in patients treated with bisphosphonates....
DEMİR BARUTCU, Canan
Congestive heart failure is an international health problem with its high incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality rates. Congestive heart failure is the most common reason of hospitalization in patients older than 65 and it causes more than a million hospitalizations a year. Patients with congestive heart failure experience a number of complications due to physiopathologic reasons, side effects of drugs, accompanying comorbid diseases and limitations caused by congestive heart failure....
Liu, Licette C. Y.; Damman, Kevin; Lipsic, Eric; Maass, Alexander H.; Rienstra, Michiel; Westenbrink, B. Daan
Heart failure has become the cardiovascular epidemic of the century. The European Journal of Heart Failure is dedicated to the advancement of knowledge in the field of heart failure management. In 2012 and 2013, several pioneering scientific discoveries and paradigm-shifting clinical trials have
Krishnamoorthy, Arun; Felker, G Michael
Fluid removal and relief of congestion are central to treatment of acute heart failure. Diuretics have been the decongestive mainstay but their known limitations have led to the exploration of alternative strategies. This review compares diuretics with ultrafiltration and examines the recent evidence evaluating their use. Relevant recent studies are the Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation trial (of diuretics) and the Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (of ultrafiltration). The Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation study evaluated strategies of loop diuretic use during acute heart failure (continuous infusion versus intermittent bolus and high dose versus low dose). After 72 h, there was no significant difference with either comparison for the coprimary end points. Patients treated with a high-dose strategy tended to have greater diuresis and more decongestion compared with low-dose therapy, at the cost of transient changes in renal function. The Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure study showed that in acute heart failure patients with persistent congestion and worsening renal function, ultrafiltration, as compared with a medical therapy, was associated with similar weight loss but greater increase in serum creatinine and more adverse events. Decongestion remains a major challenge in acute heart failure. Although recent studies provide useful data to guide practice, the relatively poor outcomes point to the continued need to identify better strategies for safe and effective decongestion.
Mohammadi Manesh, Reza; Hosseini Safa, Ahmad; Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Jafari, Rasool; Bahadoran, Mehran; Yousefi, Morteza; Nasri, Hamid; Yousofi Darani, Hossein
Suppression of the human immune system results in an increase in susceptibility to infection by various infectious agents. Conditions such as AIDS, organ transplantation and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) are the most important cause of insufficient immune response against infections. Long term renal disorders result in uremia, which can suppress human immune system. Parasitic infections are one of the most important factors indicating the public health problems of the societies. These infections can be more hostile and life threatening in susceptible individuals than in the normal people. In these patients some parasitic infections such as blastocystiosis, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis have been reported to be more prevalent. This review aimed to give an overview about parasitic infections in patients with renal disorders.
Full Text Available Hammam D Zmily1, Suleiman Daifallah2, Jalal K Ghali31Wayne State University/Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA; 2John D Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA; 3Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Tolvaptan is the first FDA-approved oral V2 receptor antagonist for the treatment of euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia, in patients with conditions associated with free water excess such as heart failure, cirrhosis, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Tolvaptan inhibits the binding of arginine vasopressin to the V2 receptors on the collecting ducts of the kidneys resulting in aquaresis, the electrolytes sparing excretion of water. This article reviews the accumulated experience with tolvaptan and all the major clinical trials that were conducted to study its safety and efficacy and concludes by summarizing clinicians’ views of its current application in clinical practice.Keywords: arginine vasopressin antagonist, tolvaptan, heart failure, hyponatremia
Self-perceived symptoms and care needs of patients with severe to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure or chronic renal failure and its consequences for their closest relatives: the research protocol
Schols Jos MGA
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research shows that the prevalence of patients with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, congestive heart failure (CHF and chronic renal failure (CRF continues to rise over the next years. Scientific studies concerning self-perceived symptoms and care needs in patients with severe to very severe COPD, CHF and CRF are scarce. Consequently, it will be difficult to develop an optimal patient-centred palliative care program for patients with end-stage COPD, CHF or CRF. The present study has been designed to assess the symptoms, care needs, end-of-life care treatment preferences and communication needs of patients with severe to very severe COPD, CHF or CRF. Additionally, family distress and care giving burden of relatives of these patients will be assessed. Methods/design A cross-sectional comparative and prospective longitudinal study in patients with end-stage COPD, CHF or CRF has been designed. Patients will be recruited by their treating physician specialist. Patients and their closest relatives will be visited at baseline and every 4 months after baseline for a period of 12 months. The following outcomes will be assessed during home visits: self-perceived symptoms and care needs; daily physical functioning; general health status; end-of-life care treatment preferences; end-of-life care communication and care-giver burden of family caregivers. Additionally, end-of-life care communication and prognosis of survival will be assessed with the physician primarily responsible for the management of the chronic organ failure. Finally, if patients decease during the study period, the baseline preferences with regard to life-sustaining treatments will be compared with the real end-of-life care. Discussion To date, the symptoms, care needs, caregiver burden, end-of-life care treatment preferences and communication needs of patients with very severe COPD, CHF or CRF remain unknown. The present study will
Zmily HD; Daifallah S; Ghali JK
Hammam D Zmily1, Suleiman Daifallah2, Jalal K Ghali31Wayne State University/Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA; 2John D Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA; 3Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Tolvaptan is the first FDA-approved oral V2 receptor antagonist for the treatment of euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia, in patients with conditions associated with free water excess such as heart failure, cirrhosis, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormon...
Boero, R; Pignataro, A; Ferro, M; Quarello, F
The aim of this work was to review evidence on the role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in chronic renal failure (CRF). Three main points are discussed: 1) SNS and pathogenesis of arterial hypertension; 2) SNS and cardiovascular risk; 3) implication of SNS in arterial hypotension during hemodialysis. Several lines of evidence indicate the presence of a sympathetic hyperactivity in CRF, and its relationship with arterial hypertension. It is suggested that diseased kidneys send afferent nervous signals to central integrative sympathetic nuclei, thus contributing to the development and maintenance of arterial hypertension. The elimination of these impulses with nephrectomy could explain the concomitant reduction of blood pressure. Several experiments confirmed this hypothesis. Regarding SNS and cardiovascular risk, some data suggest that reduced heart rate variability identifies an increased risk for both all causes and sudden death, independently from other recognized risk factors. Symptomatic hypotension is a common problem during hemodialysis treatment, occurring in approximately 20-30% of all hemodialysis sessions and is accompanied by acute withdrawal of sympathetic activity, vasodilation and relative bradicardia. This reflex is thought to be evoked by vigorous contraction of a progressively empty left ventricle, activating cardiac mechanoceptors. This inhibits cardiovascular centers through vagal afferents, and overrides the stimulation by baroreceptor deactivation. Alternative explanations include cerebral ischemia and increased production of nitric oxide, which inhibit central sympathetic activity. It is hoped that therapies aimed at modulating sympathetic nerve activity in patients with CRF will ameliorate their prognosis and quality of life.
Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D
The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during....../ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...... of a standardized method we show that the calcium set-point is normal or slightly elevated, indicating normal parathyroid reactivity to calcium in chronic renal failure....
Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D
/ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...... of a standardized method we show that the calcium set-point is normal or slightly elevated, indicating normal parathyroid reactivity to calcium in chronic renal failure.......The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during...
de Boer, Rudolf A; Daniels, Lori B; Maisel, Alan S; Januzzi, James L
Since natriuretic peptides were successfully integrated into the clinical practice of heart failure (HF), the possibility of using new biomarkers to advance the management of affected patients has been explored. While a huge number of candidate HF biomarkers have been described recently, very few have made the difficult translation from initial promise to clinical application. These markers mirror the complex pathophysiology of heart failure at various levels: cell loss (troponin), fibrosis (ST2 and galectin-3), infection (procalcitonin), and renal disease (several renal markers). In this review, we examine the best emerging candidates for clinical assessment and management of patients with HF. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.
Costanzo, Maria Rosa; Ronco, Claudio; Abraham, William T.; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Barasch, Jonathan; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Gottlieb, Stephen S.; Jaski, Brian E.; Kazory, Amir; Levin, Allison P.; Levin, Howard R.; Marenzi, Giancarlo; Mullens, Wilfried; Negoianu, Dan; Redfield, Margaret M.; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Testani, Jeffrey M.; Voors, Adriaan A.
More than 1 million heart failure hospitalizations occur annually, and congestion is the predominant cause. Rehospitalizations for recurrent congestion portend poor outcomes independently of age and renal function. Persistent congestion trumps serum creatinine increases in predicting adverse heart failure outcomes. No decongestive pharmacological therapy has reduced these harmful consequences. Simplified ultrafiltration devices permit fluid removal in lower-acuity hospital settings, but with conflicting results regarding safety and efficacy. Ultrafiltration performed at fixed rates after onset of therapy-induced increased serum creatinine was not superior to standard care and resulted in more complications. In contrast, compared with diuretic agents, some data suggest that adjustment of ultrafiltration rates to patients’ vital signs and renal function may be associated with more effective decongestion and fewer heart failure events. Essential aspects of ultrafiltration remain poorly defined. Further research is urgently needed, given the burden of congestion and data suggesting sustained benefits of early and adjustable ultrafiltration. PMID:28494980
Rubio Gracia, J; Sánchez Marteles, M; Pérez Calvo, J I
Systemic venous congestion has gained significant importance in the interpretation of the pathophysiology of acute heart failure, especially in the development of renal function impairment during exacerbations. In this study, we review the concept, clinical characterisation and identification of venous congestion. We update current knowledge on its importance in the pathophysiology of acute heart failure and its involvement in the prognosis. We pay special attention to the relationship between abdominal congestion, the pulmonary interstitium as filtering membrane, inflammatory phenomena and renal function impairment in acute heart failure. Lastly, we review decongestion as a new therapeutic objective and the measures available for its assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
O'Connor, C. M.; Starling, R. C.; Hernandez, A. F.; Armstrong, P. W.; Dickstein, K.; Hasselblad, V.; Heizer, G. M.; Komajda, M.; Massie, B. M.; McMurray, J. J. V.; Nieminen, M. S.; Reist, C. J.; Rouleau, J. L.; Swedberg, K.; Adams, K. F.; Anker, S. D.; Atar, D.; Battler, A.; Botero, R.; Bohidar, N. R.; Butler, J.; Clausell, N.; Corbalan, R.; Costanzo, M. R.; Dahlstrom, U.; Deckelbaum, L. I.; Diaz, R.; Dunlap, M. E.; Ezekowitz, J. A.; Feldman, D.; Felker, G. M.; Fonarow, G. C.; Gennevois, D.; Gottlieb, S. S.; Hollander, J. E.; Howlett, J. G.; Hudson, M. P.; Kociol, R. D.; Krum, H.; Laucevicius, A.; Levy, W. C.; Mendez, G. F.; Metra, M.; Mittal, S.; Oh, B. -H.; Pereira, N. L.; Ponikowski, P.; Wilson, W. H.; Tanomsup, S.; Teerlink, J. R.; Triposkiadis, F.; Troughton, R. W.; Voors, A. A.; Whellan, D. J.; Zannad, F.; Califf, R. M.; Hill, Joseph A.
Background Nesiritide is approved in the United States for early relief of dyspnea in patients with acute heart failure. Previous meta-analyses have raised questions regarding renal toxicity and the mortality associated with this agent. Methods We randomly assigned 7141 patients who were
Zhang, Yingying; Bauersachs, Johann; Langer, Harald F
Elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory biomarkers in patients with both ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart failure (HF) correlate with disease severity and prognosis. Experimental studies have shown activation of immune response mechanisms in the heart to provoke cardiac adverse remodelling and cause left ventricular dysfunction. Consequently, most of the clinical trials targeting elements of the immune response in HF attempted to modulate the inflammatory response. Surprisingly, clinical studies targeting immune effectors were either neutral or even increased pre-specified clinical endpoints, and some studies resulted in worsening of HF. This review discusses immune mediators involved in the pathogenesis and progression of HF and potential therapeutic applications targeting inflammation in HF. Besides more obvious settings featuring immune activation such as inflammatory or ischaemic cardiomyopathy, the relevance of immune activation in acute or chronic HF of other origins, including volume overload or valvular heart disease, is highlighted. Understanding how cell-specific and molecular mechanisms of the immune response interfere with cardiac remodelling in HF may open new avenues to design biomarkers or druggable targets. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.
Kjaergaard, Jesper; Akkan, Dilek; Iversen, Kasper Karmark
Pulmonary hypertension is a well-known complication in heart failure, but its prognostic importance is less well established. This study assessed the risk associated with pulmonary hypertension in patients with heart failure with preserved or reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fractions...... obstructive lung disease, heart failure, and impaired renal function. In conclusion, pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased short- and long-term mortality in patients with reduced LV ejection fractions and also in patients with preserved LV ejection fractions........ Patients with known or presumed heart failure (n = 388) underwent the echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary systolic pressure and LV ejection fraction. Patients were followed for up to 5.5 years. Increased pulmonary pressure was associated with increased short- and long-term mortality (p
Full Text Available Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet, water-soluble substance from the group of dihydric alcohols. As a result of taking ethylene-containing material for suicide purpose or as an accident, serious metabolic acidosis, central nervous system depression and oliguric acute renal failure occur. Early diagnosis and treatment can reduce mortality at a significant level. We present a case with severe metabolic acidosis, coma and acute renal failure due to ethylene glycol intoxication after drinking antifreeze accidentally. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(1.000: 67-69
Luciana Andrea Avena Smeili
Full Text Available Bladder rupture is a rare condition associated with significant morbidityand mortality. It is classified into traumatic, nontraumatic or idiopathic andspontaneous. The nonspecific initial clinical presentation is followed bydiscomfort in the lower abdomen, oliguria, hematuria and ascitis. Laboratoryabnormalities simulate the picture of acute renal failure and occurs by amechanism called auto reverse dialysis, with absorption of excreta throughthe peritoneal membrane. The authors describe a case of bladder rupturein morphologically and functionally normal urinary bladder associated withalcohol intake in young healthy man, manifested by abdominal discomfort,pseudo renal failure and massive ascitis. The diagnosis was made by anabdominal multidetector computed tomography confirmed by the finding of7 cm laceration at laparotomy.
Andreasen, F.; Eriksen, U.H.; Guul, S.-J.
Farmakologi, bendroflumethiazide, diuretics, heart failure, bumethanide, ergometry plasma lactate......Farmakologi, bendroflumethiazide, diuretics, heart failure, bumethanide, ergometry plasma lactate...
Bergler-Klein, J; Pirich, C; Laufer, G; Grimm, M; Regele, H; Mayer, G; Oberbauer, R
It is unclear whether patients with heart failure and renal insufficiency should receive a simultaneous heart and kidney transplant or whether a single heart transplantation is sufficient to restore native renal function. We analyzed the renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration of the native and transplant kidneys in eight patients long term after simultaneous heart and kidney transplantation using a dynamic MAG3 radioisotope scan and serum creatinine determinations. All subjects had been hemodialysis dependent before transplantation. Seven patients suffered from an intrinsic renal disease that were diabetic nephropathy in three cases, small fibrotic kidneys of undetermined origin in two cases, one lupus nephritis, and cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in one patient who had a previous heart transplant. In one patient renal insufficiency was considered to be solely due to renal hypoperfusion because no intrinsic renal disease could be detected. All patients were on cyclosporine-based triple immunosuppression, transplanted for 4 to 10 years, exhibited cardiac ejection fractions of more than 50% and had normal serum creatinine values. Radioisotopic scan showed no function of the native kidneys in all seven patients with intrinsic renal disease but exhibited normal function of the native kidneys as well as the renal transplant in the patient without intrinsic kidney disease before transplantation. These data suggest that a simultaneous heart and kidney transplantation is necessary in patients with cardiomyopathy and renal insufficiency due to primary kidney disease, but not in those with hemodynamically mediated renal failure, even if an immunosuppressive regimen with calcineurin inhibitors is used.
Angela, Butnariu; Gabriel, Samasca
Heart failure in children presents important characteristic features different from adult congestive failure, from a pathophysiological and mostly from an etiopathogenic point of view. Heart failure in children is, in most cases, a consequence of congenital structural cardiac abnormalities that remained unoperated, underwent a palliative operation or presented post-surgery complications, or of cardiomyopathy. Based on the nature of the clinical presentation, new onset heart failure can be dif...
Solução salina hipertônica para prevenção de insuficiência renal em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca descompensada e hiponatremia Hypertonic saline solution for renal failure prevention in patients with decompensated heart failure
Victor Sarli Issa
insuficiência renal.BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia and congestive phenomena indicate a bad prognosis in decompensated heart failure. The occurrence of renal failure is associated to an increased death risk. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the hypertonic saline solution in patients with decompensated heart failure for renal failure prevention. METHODS: Patients with decompensated heart failure, congestion and hyponatremia participated in the study. In addition to the standard treatment, the patients received hypertonic saline solution and were submitted to clinical as well as laboratory assessment. RESULTS: Nine patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 55 + 14.2 years, being 5 male (55.5% and 4 (44.5% female patients. All of them presented functional class III-IV of the New York Heart Association (NYHA, and 5 (55.5% received dobutamine. All of them presented initial creatinine > 1.4 mg/dl. The mean tonicity of the solution was 4.39% + 0.018% (2.5% to 7.5% and the duration of treatment was 4.9 days + 4.1 days (1-15 days. There were no severe adverse effects; none of the patients presented clinical worsening or neurologic disorders; hypokalemia occurred in 4 cases (44.5%. The comparison of the variables before and after treatment showed a decrease in urea (105 mg/dl + 74.8 mg/dl vs. 88 mg/dl + 79.4 mg/dl; p = 0.03 and increase in the urinary volume (1,183 ml/day vs. 1,778 ml/day; p = 0.03; there was no tendency to creatinine decrease (2.0 mg/dl + 0.8 mg/dl vs. 1.7 mg/dl + 1.0 mg/dl; p = 0.08. Despite the elevation in sodium levels (131 mEq/l + 2.8 mEq/l vs. 134 mEq/l + 4.9 mEq/l and weight decrease (69.5 kg + 18.6 kg vs. 68.2 kg + 17.1 kg, there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: The use of hypertonic saline solution in patients with decompensated heart failure can be a safe therapeutic method and potentially related to clinical improvement and renal failure prevention.
Lerma, Claudia; Echeverría, Juan C.; Infante, Oscar; Pérez-Grovas, Héctor; González-Gómez, Hortensia
The scaling properties of heart rate variability data are reliable dynamical features to predict mortality and for the assessment of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this manuscript was to determine if the scaling properties, as provided by the sign and magnitude analysis, can be used to differentiate between pathological changes and those adaptations basically introduced by modifications of the mean heart rate in distinct manoeuvres (active standing or hemodialysis treatment, HD), as well as clinical conditions (end stage renal disease, ESRD). We found that in response to active standing, the short-term scaling index (α1) increased in healthy subjects and in ESRD patients only after HD. The sign short-term scaling exponent (α1sign) increased in healthy subjects and ESRD patients, showing a less anticorrelated behavior in active standing. Both α1 and α1sign did show covariance with the mean heart rate in healthy subjects, while in ESRD patients, this covariance was observed only after HD. A reliable estimation of the magnitude short-term scaling exponent (α1magn) required the analysis of time series with a large number of samples (>3000 data points). This exponent was similar for both groups and conditions and did not show covariance with the mean heart rate. A surrogate analysis confirmed the presence of multifractal properties (α1magn > 0.5) in the time series of healthy subjects and ESDR patients. In conclusion, α1 and α1sign provided insights into the physiological adaptations during active standing, which revealed a transitory impairment before HD in ESRD patients. The presence of multifractal properties indicated that a reduced short-term variability does not necessarily imply a declined regulatory complexity in these patients.
Rao, Nitesh; Worthley, Matthew; Disney, Patrick; Faull, Randall
Arteriovenous (AV) fistulas with high blood flow rate are necessary for adequate hemodialysis, but they can also cause significant hemodynamic changes, including raised cardiac output, left ventricular hypertrophy and occasionally overt cardiac failure (Basile et al., Nephrol Dial Transplant, 23, 2008, 282; Unger et al., Am J Transplant, 4, 2004, 2038). We now report a case of rapid and dramatic improvement in symptomatic right heart failure due to severe tricuspid regurgitation following ligation of an arteriovenous fistula. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed before and after the ligation of fistula showed striking improvement in both the tricuspid regurgitation and right ventricular dimensions, with minimal impact on left ventricular mass, size, and function. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Resch, M; Banas, B; Endemann, D; Mack, M; Riegger, G A J; Gröne, H J; Krämer, B K
A 15-year-old girl with a history of Kawasaki disease was admitted to our nephrological department due to acute renal failure. Despite antibiotic therapy because of fever and the symptoms of a pharyngitis in the last few days, the girl showed persisting fever and developed arthralgias, an exanthema and a rising serum creatinine as well as anuria. A wide variety of differential diagnoses has to be thought of because of the history of the Kawasaki disease (symptoms like fever, pharyngitis, exanthema and arthralgia), i.e. hemolytic-uremic syndrome, vasculitis, ascending infection, postinfection glomerulonephritis. In consideration of etiologically unclear "rapidly progressive renal failure" with anuria and thrombocytopenia an immediate renal biopsy was done and revealed a severe drug induced acute interstitial nephritis. Due to this diagnosis we treated the patient with corticosteroids. Within 4 weeks serum creatinine declined to 1.8 mg/dl but did not normalize.
Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D
/ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...
Accidental poisoning is common in children. Potassium bromate is a commonly used additive and raising agent in many edibles particularly bread, a staple food worldwide, yet its accidental poisoning has hitherto, not been documented in Nigeria. We report an unusual case of acute renal failure following accidental ...
Acute renal failure due to herbal medicine among Bantu patients is not uncommon. In many of the patients a history of herbal ingestion is not forthcoming except on direct questioning; even if a history is obtained it is diffi- cult to ascertain whether the herbal medicine is responsible as the patient could have taken herbal ...
. Summary. Okeniyi JAO, Aladekomo TA, Oyelami 0A. Acute Renal Failure following Accidental. Potassium ... Serum Electrvgyte and Urea lef in the Patient '. ' D91 4 Dry 7 D49! ... determination of bromate residues with accuracy in a variety of ...
Aspromonte, Nadia; Cruz, Dinna N; Valle, Roberto; Ronco, Claudio
The pathophysiology of acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS), defined as a change or worsening in heart failure symptoms and signs, is complex. The variety of adverse neurohormonal adaptations includes increased levels of plasma renin, aldosterone and angiotensin II, all responsible for cardio-renal dysfunction. In fact, such alterations result in an array of clinical changes that include abnormal haemodynamics, altered ventricular filling pressures, pathological neurohormonal responses, leading to fluid overload, congestion and ultimately heart failure symptoms. Clinical pictures can be various: in spite of a usual improvement in dyspnoea, little weight change and significant morbidity are generally observed during hospitalization. Short-term outcomes are characterized by a high 60-day re-hospitalization and high mortality rates; apparently, both can be predicted from pre-discharge characteristics. The most frequently used treatments for AHF care include diuretics, inotropic agents, and vasodilator/vasoactive agents; however, the final therapeutic strategy is often individualized. Diuretics are currently the most used agents, but resistance to diuretic therapy is common. In addition, several studies have demonstrated that aggressive diuresis can contribute to reduced renal function, and high doses of diuretics have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Many patients with AHFS also suffer from acute or from chronic renal dysfunction (cardio-renal syndromes type 1 and 2, respectively), which further complicate the outcomes and treatment strategies. A personalized patient evaluation of the combined heart and kidney functions is advised to implement the best possible multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach.
Di Nicolò, Pierpaolo
Renal involvement in some forms of acute or chronic diseases, such as heart failure or sepsis, presents with a complex pathophysiological basis that is not always clearly distinguishable. In these clinical settings, kidney failure is traditionally and almost exclusively attributed to renal hypoperfusion and it is commonly accepted that causal elements are pre-renal, such as a reduction in the ejection fraction or absolute or relative hypovolemia acting directly on oxygen transport mechanisms and renal autoregulation systems, causing a reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Nevertheless, the concept emerging from accumulating clinical and experimental evidence is that in complex clinical pictures, kidney failure is strongly linked to the hemodynamic alterations occurring in the renal venous micro and macrocirculation. Accordingly, the transmission of the increased venous pressure to the renal venous compartment and the consequent increasing renal afterload has a pivotal role in determining and sustaining the kidney damage. The aim of this review was to clarify the physiopathological aspects of the link between worsening renal function and renal venous hypertension, analyzing the prognostic and therapeutic implications of the so-called congestive kidney failure in cardio-renal syndrome and in other clinical contexts of its possible onset.
Muhamed Al Rohani
Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is defined as a rapid decrease in the glomerular filtration rate, occurring over a period of hours to days. The Science and Technology University Hospital, Sana′a, is a referral hospital that caters to patients from all parts of Yemen. The aim of this study is to have a deeper overview about the epidemiological status of ARF in Yemeni patients and to identify the major causes of ARF in this country. We studied 203 patients with ARF over a period of 24 months. We found that tropical infectious diseases constituted the major causes of ARF, seen in 45.3% of the patients. Malaria was the most important and dominant infectious disease causing ARF. Hypotension secondary to infection or cardiac failure was seen in 28.6% of the patients. Obstructive nephropathy due to urolithiasis or prostate enlargement was the cause of ARF in a small number of patients. ARF was a part of multi-organ failure in 19.7% of the patients, and was accompanied by a high mortality rate. Majority of the patients were managed conservatively, and only 39.9% required dialysis. Our study suggests that early detection of renal failure helps improve the outcome and return of renal function to normal. Mortality was high in patients with malaria and in those with associated hepatocellular failure.
Trullàs, Joan Carles; Morales-Rull, José Luis; Formiga, Francesc
Diuretics are widely recommended in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Unfortunately, despite their widespread use, limited data are available from randomized clinical trials to guide clinicians on the appropriate management of diuretic therapy. Loop diuretics are considered the first-line diuretic therapy, especially intravenous furosemide, but the best mode of administration (high-dose versus low-dose and continuous infusion versus bolus) is unclear. When diuretic resistance develops, different therapeutic strategies can be adopted, including combined diuretic therapy with thiazide diuretics and/or aldosterone antagonists. Low or "non-diuretic" doses (25-50mg QD) of aldosterone antagonists have been demonstrated to confer a survival benefit in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction and consequently should be prescribed in all such patients, unless contraindicated by potassium and/or renal function values. There is less evidence on the use of aldosterone antagonists at higher or "diuretic" doses (≥ 100mg QD) but these drugs could be useful in relieving congestive symptoms in combination with furosemide. Thiazide diuretics can also be helpful as they have synergic effects with loop diuretics by inhibiting sodium reabsorption in distal parts of the nephron. The effect of diuretic therapy in AHF should be monitored with careful observation of clinical signs and symptoms of congestion. Serum electrolytes and kidney function should also be monitored during the use of intravenous diuretics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Since cardiorenal dysfunction is usually secondary to multiple factors acting in concert (and not only reduced cardiac output in the present paper we are going to focus on the interrelationship between heart failure with normal ejection fraction and the development of cardiorenal syndrome. The coexistence of renal impairment in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (CRS type 2 and 4 is common especially in older females with hypertension and/or diabetes. It can be hypothesized that the incidence of this disease association is growing, while clinical trials enrolling these patients are still lacking. The main mechanisms thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of this condition are represented by the increase of intra-abdominal and central venous pressure and the activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Differently from CRS in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, the involvement of the kidney may be under-diagnosed in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction and the optimal therapeutic strategy in this condition, though challenging, is far to be completely elucidated. Further studies are needed to assess the best therapeutic regimen in patients with renal dysfunction (and worsening and heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.
Lazzeri, Chiara; Valente, Serafina; Tarquini, Roberto; Gensini, Gian Franco
Since cardiorenal dysfunction is usually secondary to multiple factors acting in concert (and not only reduced cardiac output) in the present paper we are going to focus on the interrelationship between heart failure with normal ejection fraction and the development of cardiorenal syndrome. The coexistence of renal impairment in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (CRS type 2 and 4) is common especially in older females with hypertension and/or diabetes. It can be hypothesized that the incidence of this disease association is growing, while clinical trials enrolling these patients are still lacking. The main mechanisms thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of this condition are represented by the increase of intra-abdominal and central venous pressure and the activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Differently from CRS in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, the involvement of the kidney may be under-diagnosed in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction and the optimal therapeutic strategy in this condition, though challenging, is far to be completely elucidated. Further studies are needed to assess the best therapeutic regimen in patients with renal dysfunction (and worsening) and heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. PMID:21331316
Disfunção renal e anemia em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida versus normal Renal dysfunction and anemia in patients with heart failure with reduced versus normal ejection fraction
Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A presença de anemia e de disfunção renal confere mau prognóstico em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC e fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFER. O impacto em pacientes com IC e fração de ejeção normal (ICFEN é pouco estudado. OBJETIVOS: Estudar a prevalência e o prognóstico da anemia e da disfunção renal (DR em pacientes com IC de acordo com o tipo de disfunção ventricular. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados prospectivamente 209 pacientes com IC crônica estável. Pacientes com fração de ejeção BACKGROUND: The presence of anemia and renal dysfunction grants a bad prognosis for patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFREF. The impact on patients with heart failure and normal ejection fraction (HFNEF is not widely studied. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and the prognosis of anemia and renal dysfunction (RD in patients with heart failure according to the type of ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 209 patients with chronic and stable heart failure were prospectively studied. Individuals with ejection fraction <50% were considered as HFREF patients. Anemia was defined, based on WHO criteria, as hemoglobin <13 g/dl for men and <12 g/dl for women. Renal function was calculated by means of the Simplified Modified Diet Renal Disease (sMDRD formula. Hospitalizations, emergency admittances and obit by cardiac causes were considered as cardiac events. RESULTS: Ninety patients had HFREF and 119 had HFNEF. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR was smaller in HFREF group (57.6 ± 66.2 versus 94.8 ± 36.6 ml/min/1.73m²; p=0.01. There was no difference in the prevalence of anemia between groups (23.3% versus 18.5%; p=0.34. Moderate to severe RD prevalence was higher in HFREF group (32.2% versus 16.8%; p=0.01. RD was the only factor associated with anemia that was independently associated with cardiac events (HR 2.52; 95%CI=1.27-5.2; p=0.01. CONCLUSION: RD was less prevalent in HFNEF, while the
Clauser, M; Altenberger, J
Obesity as well as cardiac cachexia in heart failure patients are not fully understood and therefore of high scientific interest. Obesity as a common risk factor for cardiovascular disease is associated with a high mortality. In contrast obesity in patients suffering from chronic heart failure seems to be accompanied with a favorable outcome in contrast to people with normal weight, known as the obesity paradox. In the last decade there has been growing interest in cachexia, which is common in advanced stages of chronic diseases, such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cancer and renal failure and is associated with a poor prognosis. Until now cachexia has been underdiagnosed and undertreated. This review discusses the complex underlying pathomechanisms as well as potential therapeutic approaches.
Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Butler, Javed
The heart failure epidemic calls for urgent prevention efforts. Hypertension is present in the majority of individuals who develop heart failure and carries the highest population-attributable risk for heart failure together with coronary heart disease. Therefore, hypertension is a natural prime target for prevention interventions. However, a substantial proportion of heart failure develops among individuals with a systolic BP (SBP) level below current therapeutic target recommendations (140 mmHg or 130 mmHg for high-risk groups), which are accepted as 'normal' levels, underlining the importance of prehypertension for heart failure development. Prevalence and incidence of both hypertension and prehypertension are high. Efforts to prevent or attenuate BP rise could lead to a substantial reduction of complications, including heart failure development. Lifestyle modifications play a crucial role in preventing elevation of BP levels and better control of high BP. Weight loss, control of sodium intake and diet, and physical activity are essential steps towards this direction. However, when medications are needed to reduce BP levels, the selection of the appropriate agent is important not only for effective control of BP but also to reduce hypertension-related complications. Diuretics and renin-angiotensin system modulators seem to be the most effective agents for heart failure prevention according to the existing evidence. Patients with heart failure and hypertension should be treated for hypertension based on the same principles, although medication selection should take into account concomitant medications, other risk factors and type of heart failure (reduced vs preserved left ventricular ejection fraction).
Ebong, Imo A; Goff, David C; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Chen, Haiying; Bertoni, Alain G
Heart failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and its prevalence continues to rise. Because obesity has been linked with heart failure, the increasing prevalence of obesity may presage further rise in heart failure in the future. Obesity-related factors are estimated to cause 11% of heart failure cases in men and 14% in women. Obesity may result in heart failure by inducing haemodynamic and myocardial changes that lead to cardiac dysfunction, or due to an increased predisposition to other heart failure risk factors. Direct cardiac lipotoxicity has been described where lipid accumulation in the heart results in cardiac dysfunction inexplicable of other heart failure risk factors. In this overview, we discussed various pathophysiological mechanisms that could lead to heart failure in obesity, including the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac lipotoxicity. We defined the obesity paradox and enumerated various premises for the paradoxical associations observed in the relationship between obesity and heart failure. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Divakaran, Vijay; Mehta, Sachin; Yao, David; Hassan, Saamir; Simpson, Steven; Wiegerinck, Erwin; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Mann, Douglas L.; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid
Anemia is a common finding among patients with chronic heart failure. Although co-morbidities, such as kidney failure, might contribute to the pathogenesis of anemia, many patients with heart failure do not have any other obvious etiology for their anemia. We investigated whether anemia in heart failure is associated with an elevation in hepcidin concentration. We used time-of-flight mass spectrometry to measure hepcidin concentration in urine and serum samples of patients with heart failure and in control subjects. We found that the concentration of hepcidin was lower in urine samples of patients with heart failure compared to those of control subjects. Serum hepcidin was also reduced in heart failure but was not significantly lower than that in controls. There were no significant differences between hepcidin levels in patients with heart failure and anemia compared to patients with heart failure and normal hemoglobin. We concluded that hepcidin probably does not play a major role in pathogenesis of anemia in patients with chronic heart failure. PMID:21080339
Girman, C J; Kou, T D; Brodovicz, K; Alexander, C M; O'Neill, E A; Engel, S; Williams-Herman, D E; Katz, L
Progressive decline in renal function has been well described in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, but few studies have assessed the risk of acute renal failure in a large population of patients with Type 2 diabetes. This study quantified the risk of acute renal failure associated with Type 2 diabetes in the General Practice Research Database from the UK. Patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 119,966) and patients without diabetes (n = 1,794,516) were identified in the General Practice Research Database. Patients with end-stage renal disease were excluded. Crude incidence and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of acute renal failure were estimated for patients with diabetes relative to those without diabetes. Cox regression models were adjusted for a variety of comorbidities. Increase of acute renal failure risk resulting from additive effects of specific co-morbidities with Type 2 diabetes was also assessed. Between 2003 and 2007, acute renal failure incidence was 198 per 100,000 person-years in patients with Type 2 diabetes compared with 27 per 100,000 patients-years among patients without diabetes (crude hazard ratio 8.0, 95% CI 7.4-8.7). Risk of acute renal failure for patients with Type 2 diabetes remained significant, but was attenuated in multivariate analyses adjusting for various comorbidities (adjusted hazard ratio 2.5, 95% CI 2.2-2.7). Age and specific comorbidities (chronic kidney disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure) were also associated with increased risk of acute renal failure in Type 2 diabetes. Patients with Type 2 diabetes have increased risk for acute renal failure compared with patients without diabetes, even after adjustment for known risk factors, particularly in the elderly and those with other comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease, congestive heart failure and hypertension. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.
Keith, Mary E; Walsh, Natalie A; Darling, Pauline B; Hanninen, Stacy A; Thirugnanam, Subarna; Leong-Poi, Howard; Barr, Aiala; Sole, Michael J
The impact of heart failure and its treatment on specific nutrient requirements is unknown. Furthermore, depletion of water-soluble B vitamins that play key roles in the production of cellular energy in patients with heart failure can contribute to depletion of energy reserves observed in the failing heart. A cross-sectional study recently reported that approximately one third of hospitalized patients with heart failure had tissue levels suggestive of thiamin deficiency (vitamin B-1). Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) are similar to thiamin in that they are water-soluble, subject to renal excretion, have limited tissue storage, and are dependent on intake. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the status of these B vitamins may also be adversely affected by heart failure. As a result, the prevalence of patients at risk of vitamin B-2 (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient > or = 1.2) and B-6 deficiency (plasma B-6 vitamin B-2 deficiency, while 38% had evidence of B-6 deficiency. These prevalence rates were significantly higher than those observed in the volunteers without heart failure (2% and 19%, respectively; P B-vitamin-containing supplements by patients with heart failure did not significantly reduce deficiency rates in comparison with those who did not use supplements (B-2 P=0.38 or B-6 P=0.18)). Finally, while 80% of patients with heart failure took diuretics, neither the dose nor the duration of furosemide use was related to the presence of either B-2 or B-6 deficiency. Given the physiologic importance of these vitamins, further investigations aimed at determining the effect of heart failure on specific nutrient requirements as well as the safety and efficacy of B-vitamin supplementation are warranted.
Farmakis, Dimitrios; Alvarez, Julian; Gal, Tuvia Ben
Levosimendan is a positive inotrope with vasodilating properties (inodilator) indicated for decompensated heart failure (HF) patients with low cardiac output. Accumulated evidence supports several pleiotropic effects of levosimendan beyond inotropy, the heart and decompensated HF. Those effects...
Bolger, Aidan P; Gatzoulis, Michael A
Injury to the myocardium disrupts geometric integrity and results in changes to intracardiac pressure, wall stress and tension, and the pattern of blood flow through the heart. Significant disruption to pump function results in heart failure which is defined in terms of symptoms: breathlessness and fatigue, signs of salt and water retention, and neurohormonal activation. This syndrome most commonly occurs in the context of injury due to ischaemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy but because patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) are born with sometimes gross distortions of cardiac anatomy they too are subject to the forces that drive heart failure. This paper explores the available data relating to the clinical and neurohormonal manifestations of heart failure in patients with congenital heart disease and describes how, by additionally exploring events at a cellular level, we may be able to arrive at a definition of heart failure relevant to this population.
Choy, Christine K; Rodgers, Jo E; Nappi, Jean M; Haines, Stuart T
Diabetes mellitus and heart failure are common comorbidities, and their prevalence has increased significantly over the past decade. We examined the relationships between diabetes and heart failure, the effect of commonly prescribed antidiabetic drugs on the development of heart failure, and the benefits and risks of recommended heart failure therapies in patients with diabetes. Compared with patients with heart failure who do not have diabetes, patients with both diabetes and heart failure have a poorer prognosis, including a 1.5-2-fold higher risk of mortality. Based on the results of randomized controlled trials, insulin and sulfonylureas do not appear to protect against or contribute to the development of new-onset heart failure, whereas metformin may modestly reduce the risk. The use of metformin in patients with established heart failure is controversial; retrospective analyses have shown that metformin may have a beneficial effect on outcomes, but there are no prospective, randomized clinical trials to support its use in this population. The thiazolidinediones, however, contribute to the development of heart failure and increase the risk of heart failure exacerbations particularly when used in combination with insulin. Recommendations for the treatment of symptomatic heart failure in patients with diabetes have been largely derived from post hoc analyses or preplanned subgroup analyses in landmark clinical trials. The data clearly support the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for both the prevention and treatment of symptomatic heart failure in patients with diabetes. Despite concerns regarding the potential risks of beta-blockers in patients with diabetes, these drugs have a clear mortality benefit in patients with stages B and C heart failure. Therefore, patients with diabetes should not be denied beta-blocker therapy unless there is a clear contraindication. Likewise, aldosterone receptor antagonists
Saour, Basil; Smith, Bryan; Yancy, Clyde W
The Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention estimates that 5.7 million adults in the United States suffer from heart failure and 1 in 9 deaths in 2009 cited heart failure as a contributing cause. Almost 50% of patients who are diagnosed with heart failure die within 5 years of diagnosis. Cardiovascular disease is a public health burden. The prognosis of patients with heart failure has improved significantly. However, the risk for death remains high. Managing sudden death risk and intervening appropriately with primary or secondary prevention strategies are of paramount importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cruz, D. N.; Perazella, M.A.
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a relatively frequent complication associated with heart transplantation. It develops in the first few days postoperatively and is characterized by oliguria with laboratory and urinary indices typical of pre-renal azotemia. Cyclosporine, especially with higher doses, is one of the many factors which play an integral part in the nephrotoxicity following cardiac transplant. Poor preoperative renal function and perioperative hemodynamic compromise may also contribute...
Kupper, N.; Pelle, A.J.M.; Szabó, B.M.; Denollet, J.
Background Anemia is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. Contributors to the risk of anemia in HF include hemodilution, renal dysfunction and inflammation. Hemoglobin levels may also be negatively affected by alterations in stress regulatory systems. Therefore,
Elung-Jensen, T; Heisterberg, J; Kamper, A L
BACKGROUND: Most angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and their metabolites are excreted renally and doses should hence be reduced in renal insufficiency. We studied whether the dosage of enalapril in daily clinical practice is associated with drug accumulation of enalaprilat in chronic...... was 10 (2.5-20) mg and the trough serum concentration of enalaprilat was 31.8 (concentrations of enalaprilat than has been reported in subjects with normal kidney function, and a marked elevation of serum enalaprilat was observed......-68) ml/minute and correlated linearly with GFR (r=0.86, p=0.003). Intra-subject day-to-day variation in trough concentrations was 19.7%. CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic renal failure given small or moderately high doses of enalapril may thus have markedly elevated levels of serum enalaprilat. Whether...
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI hemorrhage is a frequent and sometimes life-threatening complication of end-stage renal failure. Angiodysplasia (AD, vascular malformation, is the most common cause of recurrent lower-intestinal hemorrhage in patients with renal failure. We report four chronic hemodialysis patients with AD. All patients presented with severe anemia requiring transfusion. GI hemorrhage ceased spontaneously in three cases and after treatment with argon plasma coagulation in another. Diagnosis of AD is usually challenging, since its cause is still unknown, and its clinical presentation is variable. Lesions are multiple in 40-75% of cases, often located in the stomach and duodenum but can affect the colon and the jejunum. Diagnosis is improved by endoscopy which has a much higher sensitivity compared to angiography. Capsular endoscopy may reveal the hemorrhage site in the small intestine when regular endoscopy fails, and therapeutic intervention usually include argon plasma coagulation.
Bouhbouh, Souad; Haverkamp, Leonie; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Wolff, Frederik A; Barendregt, Jos N M
Ingestion of certain Cortinarius species may lead to renal failure. In the Netherlands, this type of poisoning has not been previously described. A 58-year-old female presented with headache, vomiting and oliguria, preceded by a few days of burning, painful thirst and malaise. She had acute and irreversible renal failure of unknown cause. History revealed that two days before the onset of her symptoms, she had eaten a ragout prepared with mushrooms that were picked in a forest. A renal biopsy demonstrated interstitial nephritis with proximal tubular necrosis. In the leftovers of the ragout two fragments of Cortinarius mushroom, probably belonging to the complex of Cortinarius cinnamomeus (cinnamon webcap), were found. First signs and symptoms, and the course are compatible with those described in the literature on Cortinarius poisoning. Despite haemodialysis and administration of acetylcysteine and glucocorticoids, her renal function did not recover. This case is the first description of mushroom poisoning by a species of the genus Cortinarius in the Netherlands.
O'Toole, Sam M; Pathak, Neha; Toms, Graham C; Gelding, Susan V; Sivaprakasam, Venkat
Leptospirosis is an uncommon infectious disease that has protean clinical manifestations ranging from an innocuous 'flu-like' illness to potentially life-threatening multi-organ failure. Here we describe a case of Weil's disease that presented on the acute medical take with fever, jaundice and acute renal failure. We highlight the importance of careful history taking at the time of admission and how understanding the epidemiology and pathophysiology of leptospirosis enables a definitive diagnosis to be reached. © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.
Keywords: Autonomic neuropathy, Cardiovascular reflex tests, Non-diabetic chronic renal failure. Résumé. Objectifts: Déterminer la fréquence de neuropathic cardio- vasculaire et autonomie (NCA), son modèle et ses pré di- seurs clinique chez les Nigérians avec un arrêt rénal chroni- que et non-diabétique (ARN).
Bronicki, Ronald A; Taylor, Mary; Baden, Harris
The objectives of this review are to discuss the clinical assessment, pathophysiology, and management of shock, with an emphasis on circulatory physiology, cardiopulmonary interactions, and pharmacologic strategies to optimize systemic oxygen delivery. These principles will then be applied to the clinical syndromes of heart failure and cardiogenic shock that are seen in children. MEDLINE, PubMed. An understanding of essential circulatory physiology and the pathophysiology of shock are necessary for managing patients at risk for or in a state of shock. A timely and accurate assessment of cardiac function, cardiac output, and tissue oxygenation and the means by which to enhance the relationship between oxygen delivery and consumption are essential in order to optimize outcomes.
Trullàs, Joan Carles; Morales-Rull, José Luís; Formiga, Francesc
Many of the primary clinical manifestations of heart failure (HF) are due to fluid retention, and treatments targeting congestion play a central role in HF management. Diuretic therapy remains the cornerstone of congestion treatment, and diuretics are prescribed to the majority of HF patients. Despite this ubiquitous use, there is limited evidence from prospective randomized studies to guide the use of diuretics. With the chronic use of diuretic and usually in advanced stages of HF, diuretics may fail to control salt and water retention. This review describes the mechanism of action of available diuretic classes, reviews their clinical use based on scientific evidence and discusses strategies to overcome diuretic resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
de Albuquerque Seixas, Emerson; Carmello, Beatriz Leone; Kojima, Christiane Akemi; Contti, Mariana Moraes; Modeli de Andrade, Luiz Gustavo; Maiello, José Roberto; Almeida, Fernando Antonio; Martin, Luis Cuadrado
Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of mortality in chronic renal failure patients before and after renal transplantation. Among them, coronary disease presents a particular risk; however, risk predictors have been used to diagnose coronary heart disease. This study evaluated the frequency and importance of clinical predictors of coronary artery disease in chronic renal failure patients undergoing dialysis who were renal transplant candidates, and assessed a previously developed scoring system. Coronary angiographies conducted between March 2008 and April 2013 from 99 candidates for renal transplantation from two transplant centers in São Paulo state were analyzed for associations between significant coronary artery diseases (≥70% stenosis in one or more epicardial coronary arteries or ≥50% in the left main coronary artery) and clinical parameters. Univariate logistic regression analysis identified diabetes, angina, and/or previous infarction, clinical peripheral arterial disease and dyslipidemia as predictors of coronary artery disease. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified only diabetes and angina and/or previous infarction as independent predictors. The results corroborate previous studies demonstrating the importance of these factors when selecting patients for coronary angiography in clinical pretransplant evaluation.
Allida, Sabine M; Inglis, Sally C; Davidson, Patricia M; Lal, Sara; Hayward, Christopher S; Newton, Phillip J
This review will (1) explore factors related to thirst in chronic heart failure and (2) describe interventions to alleviate thirst in chronic heart failure patients. Thirst is a common and troublesome symptom of chronic heart failure. Despite the burden and prevalence of this symptom, there are limited strategies to assist in its management. This is a review of literature on the burden of thirst, contributors to thirst and potential management strategies of thirst in patients with chronic heart failure. Medline, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health, PubMed and Scopus were searched using the key words thirst, chronic heart failure, angiotensin II, fluid restriction and intervention. Of the 165 citations yielded, nine studies (n = 9) were included. The eligibility criteria included participants with confirmed diagnosis of chronic heart failure, randomised controlled studies or any studies with thirst as primary or secondary outcome, in humans and in English. There was no limit to the years searched. Factors related to thirst in chronic heart failure were condition; prolonged neurohormonal activation, treatment; pharmacological interventions and fluid restriction and emotion. No intervention studies were found in chronic heart failure patients. Interventions such as artificial saliva and chewing gum have been investigated for their effectiveness as a thirst reliever in haemodialysis patients. Thirst is a frequent and troublesome symptom for individuals with chronic heart failure. It is highly likely that this contributes to poor adherence with fluid restrictions. Chewing gum can help alleviate thirst, but investigation in people with heart failure is needed. Increasing awareness of thirst and interventions to relieve it in clinical practice is likely to improve the quality of care for people with chronic heart failure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Transplant patients are the challenging subgroup of patients due to the increased morbidity associated with their immunosuppressive state. The number of transplant patients who undergo open heart surgery continues to increase as the knowledge gained in the treatment of these patients increases. We present a renal transplant patient who underwent open heart surgery where we share our experience in the management and the treatment of these patients.
Costanzo, Maria Rosa; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Marenzi, Giancarlo
More than one million hospitalizations occur annually in the US because of heart failure (HF) decompensation caused by fluid overload. Congestion contributes to HF progression and mortality. Apart from intrinsic renal insufficiency, venous congestion, rather than a reduced cardiac output, may be the primary hemodynamic factor driving worsening renal function in patients with acutely decompensated HF. According to data from large national registries, approximately 40% of hospitalized HF patients are discharged with unresolved congestion, which may contribute to unacceptably high rehospitalization rates. Although diuretics reduce the symptoms and signs of fluid overload, their effectiveness is reduced by excess salt intake, underlying chronic kidney disease, renal adaptation to their action and neurohormonal activation. In addition, the production of hypotonic urine limits the effectiveness of loop diuretics in reducing total body sodium. Ultrafiltration is the mechanical removal of fluid from the vasculature. Hydrostatic pressure is applied to blood across a semipermeable membrane to separate isotonic plasma water from blood. Because solutes in blood freely cross the semipermeable membrane, large amounts of fluid can be removed at the discretion of the treating physician without affecting any change in the serum concentration of electrolytes and other solutes. Ultrafiltration has been used to relieve congestion in patients with HF for almost four decades. In contrast to the adverse physiological consequences of loop diuretics, numerous studies have demonstrated favorable responses to ultrafiltration. Such studies have shown that removal of large amounts of isotonic fluid relieves symptoms of congestion, improves exercise capacity, improves cardiac filling pressures, restores diuretic responsiveness in patients with diuretic resistance, and has a favorable effect on pulmonary function, ventilatory efficiency, and neurohormonal activation. Ultrafiltration is the only
Vakrani, Girish Pamappa; Subramanyam, Nambakam Tanuja
Acute Renal Failure (RF) is a rare but well recognized complication of Dengue Infection (DI). There has been paucity of published data regarding renal involvement in DI. The aim of the present study was to elucidate different clinical presentations, disease outcomes of DI. To study the frequency, severity and predictors of RF in DI. Patients diagnosed either as Dengue Fever (DF) or Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome (DHF/DSS) respectively were enrolled for this study. The diagnostic criteria for DI were febrile illness associated with one of the following: 1) detection of dengue-specific IgM capture antibody or Non-Structural Protein1 (NS1) antigen; or 2) a four-fold or greater increase of dengue-specific IgG capture antibody by ELISA and haemoagglutination inhibition assay. Patients were diagnosed as having Acute RF, if serum creatinine was >1.2 mg/dl or who showed improvement by 50% in serum creatinine from the initial value. It is an observational study of medical charts, data of age, gender, and medical history of any underlying diseases in association with the severity of DI of each patient recorded. All of the laboratory results were collected. Parameters that influenced the clinical presentations and outcomes for development of classical DF or DHF/DSS in patients with or without RF were analysed and compared. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried. The Statistical software namely SAS 9.2, SPSS 15.0, Stata 10.1, Med Calc 9.0.1, Systat 12.0 and R environment ver.2.11.1 were used. Most common symptoms were fever followed by headache and pain in abdomen. Among the patients with RF, all patients had recovery. The patients with DHF/DSS were more susceptible to develop renal failure compared to DF group. There were statistically significant higher frequencies of renal failure, haemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, low serum cholesterol. Patients in the RF group also had significantly higher percentages of shock, haemoconcentration
Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a common complication of sepsis and carries a high mortality. Renal replacement therapy (RRT during the acute stage is the mainstay of therapy. Va-rious modalities of RRT are available. Continuous RRT using convective methods are preferred in sepsis-induced ARF, especially in hemodynamically unstable patients, although clear evidence of benefit over intermittent hemodialysis is still not available. Peritoneal dialysis is clearly inferior, and is not recommended. Early initiation of RRT is probably advantageous, although the optimal timing of dialysis is yet unknown. Higher doses of RRT are more likely to be beneficial. Use of bio-compatible membranes and bicarbonate buffer in the dialysate are preferred. Anticoagulation during dialysis must be carefully adjusted and monitored.
Increased intracardiac filling pressure or congestion causes symptoms and leads to hospital admissions in patients with heart failure, regardless of their systolic function. A history of hospital admission, in turn, predicts further hospitalizations and morbidity, and a higher number of hospitalizations determine higher mortality. Congestion is therefore the driving force of the natural history of heart failure. Congestion is the syndrome shared by heart failure with preserved and reduced systolic function. These two conditions have almost identical morbidity, mortality, and survival because the outcomes are driven by congestion. A small difference in favor of heart failure with preserved systolic function comes from decreased ejection fraction and left ventricular remodeling which is only present in heart failure with decreased systolic function. The magnitude of this difference reflects the contribution of decreased systolic function and ventricular remodeling to the progression of heart failure. The only treatment available for congestion is fluid removal via diuretics, ultrafiltration, or dialysis. It is the only treatment that works equally well for heart failure with reduced and preserved systolic function because it affects congestion, the main pathogenetic feature of the disease. Diuretics are pathogenetic therapy for heart failure. PMID:21403798
Christensen, Alex Hørby; Fatkin, Diane
Evaluation of: Huang M, Zhang X, Chen S et al. The effect of carvedilol treatment on chronic heart failure in pediatric patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: a prospective, randomized-controlled study. Pediatr. Cardiol. 34, 680-685 (2013). A role for β-blockers in children with heart failure has...
of systemic amyloidosis worldwide, AA amyloidosis occurs in the course of chronic inflammatory diseases, hereditary periodic fevers, and with certain neoplasms such as Hodgkin disease and renal cell carcinoma. Amyloidosis due to rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is not common but can be seen. We report here a patient ...
Stefanowicz, Joanna; Maciejka-Kapuścińska, Lucyna; Rückemann-Dziurdzińska, Katarzyna; Drozyńska-Duklas, Magdalena; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Balcerska, Anna
Acute renal failure (ARF) in children with malignancies is a rare clinical situation, but nonetheless it is a serious life threatening condition. It may arise from different clinical situations and may be caused by various factors. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency, aetiology and the course of ARF in children treated for malignancies in the Department of Pediatrics, Hematology, Oncology and Endocrinology, Medical University of Gdansk. A group of 586 pediatric oncology patients treated between 1992 and 2004 were enrolled in a retrospective study. ARF was diagnosed in 29 cases including: 12 patients with prerenal course of ARF (11 due to septic shock and 1 due to dehydration), 16 patients with intrinsic renal aetiology of ARF (as a complication after cisplatinum and carboplatinum therapy in 2 children, in 2 cases after methotrexate, as a consequence of bilateral nephrectomy due to nephroblastoma in 1 patient and in 11 children with tumour lysis syndrome, including 5 patients with neoplasmatic infiltration of kidneys) and postrenal ARF in 1 patient as a first symptom of a tumour located in the small pelvis (Rhabdomyosarcoma). Renal replacement therapy (dialysis) was necessary in 11 children. Among 29 analysed children, in 20 cases renal failure was reversible. Due to appropriate treatment, ARF in course of tumour lysis syndrome is nowadays reversible. ARF due to septic shock or cytostatics nephrotoxicity is a significant therapeutic problem. In most of the cases it is irreversible. 1. ARF in these studies occurred in 29 out of 586 children with malignancies (4.9%). 2. Prerenal and renal ARF were the most frequent forms. 3. Implementation of tumour lysis prophylaxis in the treatment of children with blood system proliferative diseases reduces the incidence of ARF. 4. In cases of ARF in children's malignancies close cooperation between paediatric oncologist and nephrologist is necessary.
Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva
Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8......-fourth of the population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... interval: 1.20, 3.10) and women (hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 3.65). Contrary to expectation, major life events, social network, and sleeping medication did not play an individual role for heart failure hospitalization. Because of the high prevalence of vital exhaustion...
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), a cyanotic congenital heart disease comprising of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), ventricular septal defect (VSD) and overriding of the aorta, constitutes about 10% of congenital heart diseases seen in. Nigeria.1 Congestive heart failure is not a ...
Schaefer, F; Seidel, C; Binding, A; Gasser, T; Largo, R H; Prader, A; Schärer, K
We evaluated the growth records of 15 boys and 14 girls who developed end-stage renal failure before or during puberty and who were regularly followed from the onset to the end of their pubertal growth spurt. Height data were smoothed by using the kernel estimation method. Mean values for age, height, and height velocity at defined points of the pubertal growth period were compared with those of normal children entering puberty both at an average and late age. The start of the pubertal growth spurt was delayed by 2.5 y in both sexes. Its duration and intensity were significantly reduced. Mean pubertal height gain was 17.3 cm in boys and 13.9 cm in girls, i.e. 58 and 48% of that observed in the late maturing control group. Mean height at the onset of the pubertal spurt in the patients was the same as that in the late maturing healthy girls and 1.0 SD below that of corresponding boys. During the pubertal growth spurt, mean height declined to -2.9 SD in boys and -2.3 SD in girls. Although skeletal maturation was increasingly retarded, we did not observe accelerated growth velocity during late puberty. Our data indicate that most patients reaching end-stage renal failure before or during puberty irreversibly lose growth potential during this period. Renal transplantation did not consistently improve pubertal growth.
Paquette, Ian M; Solan, Patrick; Rafferty, Janice F; Ferguson, Martha A; Davis, Bradley R
Ileostomy creation is a commonly performed operation in colorectal surgery; however, many patients develop complications such as dehydration postoperatively. Dehydration is often severe enough to warrant hospital readmission and may result in renal failure. The true incidence of this complication has not been well described. The aim of this study was to identify the rate of hospital readmission secondary to dehydration or renal failure within 30 days of ileostomy creation. Retrospective review of all patients undergoing ileostomy creation from 2007 to 2011 in a single colorectal practice of 4 surgeons was performed. Charts were reviewed to identify patients readmitted for dehydration or renal failure within 30 days of operation. Data were then analyzed to identify predictors of readmission, dehydration, and renal failure. Subset analysis compared patients readmitted with simple dehydration versus patients with renal failure. Two hundred one patients undergoing colorectal operations that included ileostomy creation within a 4-year period at a single institution for a variety of indications were included. The primary outcome measured was readmission for dehydration or renal failure. We observed a 17% 30-day readmission rate for dehydration or renal failure following ileostomy creation. Age greater than 50 was identified as an independent predictor of readmission with renal failure, whereas IPAA was predictive of readmission for simple dehydration, but not renal failure. Patients admitted with renal failure had significantly longer hospital stays and median hospital charges after readmission in comparison with patients admitted with simple dehydration. This study was limited by its retrospective nature and its limited sample size. Hospital readmission due to dehydration or renal failure following ileostomy creation is common, with age >50 being the strongest predictor for renal failure. Appropriate strategies to decrease dehydration and renal failure following
Full Text Available Cardio-Renal Syndrome (CRS is a renal dysfunction occurring in a large percentage of pts hospitalised for congestive heart failure (CHF. It is characterised by an excessive fluid retention inside the body, resistance to conventional medical therapy, worsening renal function (WRF and higher mortality. The prevalence of CRS is likely increased because of the improved survival of HF patients. WRF occurs frequently among hospitalised HFF and is associated with a significantly worse outcome. Clinical features at admission can be used to identify patients at high risk for developing WRF. The clinical case presented concerns a 70-year-old diabetic man with post-ischemic cardiomyopathy and chronic kidney failure, admitted to our division for acute heart failure. During hospitalisation he showed a progressive WRF and resistance to diuretic treatment. After Ultrafiltration treatment there was a progressive clinical improvement. Many treatments have been investigated in order to improve renal function, but none has been demonstrated to improve clinical outcome. Currently Ultrafiltration is reserved to patients with volume overload when traditional medical therapies fail and/or patients become resistant to diuretics.
Vader, Justin M; LaRue, Shane J; Stevens, Susanna R; Mentz, Robert J; DeVore, Adam D; Lala, Anuradha; Groarke, John D; AbouEzzeddine, Omar F; Dunlay, Shannon M; Grodin, Justin L; Dávila-Román, Victor G; de Las Fuentes, Lisa
Readmission or death after heart failure (HF) hospitalization is a consequential and closely scrutinized outcome, but risk factors may vary by population. We characterized the risk factors for post-discharge readmission/death in subjects treated for acute heart failure (AHF). A post hoc analysis was performed on data from 744 subjects enrolled in 3 AHF trials conducted within the Heart Failure Network (HFN): Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure (DOSE-AHF), Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (CARRESS-HF), and Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure (ROSE-AHF). All-cause readmission/death occurred in 26% and 38% of subjects within 30 and 60 days of discharge, respectively. Non-HF cardiovascular causes of readmission were more common in the ≤30-day timeframe than in the 31-60-day timeframe (23% vs 10%, P = .016). In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusting a priori for left ventricular ejection fraction <50% and trial, the risk factors for all-cause readmission/death included: elevated baseline blood urea nitrogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) non-use, lower baseline sodium, non-white race, elevated baseline bicarbonate, lower systolic blood pressure at discharge or day 7, depression, increased length of stay, and male sex. In an AHF population with prominent congestion and prevalent renal dysfunction, early readmissions were more likely to be due to non-HF cardiovascular causes compared with later readmissions. The association between use of ACEI/ARB and lower all-cause readmission/death in Cox proportional hazards model suggests a role for these drugs to improve post-discharge outcomes in AHF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Renal and Cardiovascular Effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition in combination with loop Diuretics in diabetic patients with Chronic Heart Failure (RECEDE-CHF): protocol for a randomised controlled double-blind cross-over trial.
Mordi, Natalie A; Mordi, Ify R; Singh, Jagdeep S; Baig, Fatima; Choy, Anna-Maria; McCrimmon, Rory J; Struthers, Allan D; Lang, Chim C
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and heart failure (HF) are a frequent combination, where treatment options remain limited. There has been increasing interest around the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and their use in patients with HF. Data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitor use with diuretics are limited. We hypothesise that SGLT2 inhibition may augment the effects of loop diuretics and the benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors may extend beyond those of their metabolic (glycaemic parameters and weight loss) and haemodynamic parameters. The effects of SGLT2 inhibitors as an osmotic diuretic and on natriuresis may underlie the cardiovascular and renal benefits demonstrated in the recent EMPA-REG study. To assess the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors when used in combination with a loop diuretic, the RECEDE-CHF (Renal and Cardiovascular Effects of SGLT2 inhibition in combination with loop Diuretics in diabetic patients with Chronic Heart Failure) trial is a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial conducted in a secondary care setting within NHS Tayside, Scotland. 34 eligible participants, aged between 18 and 80 years, with stable T2D and CHF will be recruited. Renal physiological testing will be performed at two points (week 1 and week 6) on each arm to assess the effect of 25 mg empagliflozin, on the primary and secondary outcomes. Participants will be enrolled in the trial for a total period between 14 and 16 weeks. The primary outcome will assess the effect of empagliflozin versus placebo on urine output. The secondary outcomes are to assess the effect of empagliflozin on glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C, urinary sodium excretion, urinary protein/creatinine ratio and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio when compared with placebo. Ethics approval was obtained by the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service. Results of the trial will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. NCT03226457; Pre-results. © Article author
Turney, J H; Ellis, C M; Parsons, F M
A total of 142 women with severe acute renal failure (ARF) resulting from obstetric causes was treated by dialysis at a single centre from 1956 to 1987. One-year survival was 78.6%, which compares favourably with other causes of ARF. Abortion, haemorrhage and preclampsia comprised 95% of cases, with survival being best (82.9%) with abortion. Survival was adversely affected by increasing age. Acute cortical necrosis (12.7% of patients) carried 100% mortality after 6 years. Follow-up of survivors showed normal renal function up to 31 years following ARF; 25-year patient survival was 71.6%. Improvements in obstetric care and the disappearance of illegal abortions have resulted in a dramatic decline in the incidence of obstetric ARF.
Nieto-Ríos, John Fredy
Full Text Available Acute renal failure is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in emergency, hospitalization and critical care services. In 15 % of cases it is due to rhabdomyolysis, in which there is breakdown of skeletal muscle with massive necrosis and leakage of muscle cell contents into the circulation. It has many different etiologies. The rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury results from the combination of several mechanisms, including tubular obstruction, vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. The most important therapeutic measures are: Aggressive repletion of fluids, forced diuresis and avoidance of exposure to nephrotoxic substances. In cases of severe uremia, metabolic acidosis, hiperkalemia or fluid overload it is necessary to start renal replacement therapy. As a rule, kidney function is completely recovered, but these patients have higher risk of future chronic kidney disease.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic Heart Failure (CHF represents worldwide a clinical condition with increasing prevalence, high social, economical and epidemiological impact. Even if new pharmacological and non-pharmacological approachs have been recently used, mortality remains high in general population and quality of life is poor in these patients. DISCUSSION The association between CHF and sleep disorders is frequent but still undervalued: sleep apnoeas in CHF produce negative effects on cardiovascular system and an aggravation of prognosis. CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure is commonly used to treat sleep apnoeas in patients without cardiac involvement and it is also used in first line treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema thanks to its hemodynamic and ventilatory effects. The addition of nightly CPAP to standard aggressive medical therapy in patients with CHF and sleep apnoeas reduces the number of apnoeas, reduces the blood pressure, and the respiratory and cardiac rate, reduces the activation of sympathetic nervous system, the left ventricular volume and the hospitalization rate; besides CPAP increases the left ventricular ejection fraction, amd the oxygenation, it improves quality of life, tolerance to exercise and seems to reduce mortality in patients with a higher apnoeas suppression. CONCLUSIONS These implications suggest to investigate sleep apnoeas in patients with CHF in order to consider a possible treatment with CPAP. Further studies need to be developed to confirm the use of CPAP in patients with CHF without sleep disorders.
Bando, Yasuko K; Murohara, Toyoaki
As the link between heart failure (HF) and diabetes mellitus (DM) becomes unignorable, so the need is further increasing for pathological comprehension: What is "diabetic cardiomyopathy (DMC)?" In response to current concern, the most updated guidelines stated by the ACCF/AHA and by the ESC/EASD take one step further, including the definition of DMC, although it is a matter yet to be completed. For more than 40 years, coronary artery disease and hypertension have been considered as the main causes of diabetes-related cardiac dysfunction. HF was originally considered as a result of reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HF-REF); however, it has been recognized that HF symptoms are often observed in patients with preserved EF (HF-PEF). DMC includes HF with both reduced and preserved entities independent of coronary stenosis and hypertension. Cardiologists are thus facing a sort of chaos without clear guidelines for the "deadly intersection" of DM and HF. Today, the increasing interest and concern have caused DMC to be revisited and the first step in controlling the chaos around DMC is to organize and analyze all of the available evidence from preclinical and clinical studies. This review aims to illustrate the current concepts of DMC by shedding light on the new molecular mechanisms. (Circ J 2014; 78: 576-583).
Psaltis, Peter J.; Schwarz, Nisha; Toledo-Flores, Deborah; Nicholls, Stephen J.
The pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy and heart failure (HF) is underpinned by complex changes at subcellular, cellular and extracellular levels in the ventricular myocardium. For all of the gains that conventional treatments for HF have brought to mortality and morbidity, they do not adequately address the loss of cardiomyocyte numbers in the remodeling ventricle. Originally conceived to address this problem, cellular transplantation for HF has already gone through several stages of evolution over the past two decades. Various cell types and delivery routes have been implemented to positive effect in preclinical models of ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy, with pleiotropic benefits observed in terms of myocardial remodeling, systolic and diastolic performance, perfusion, fibrosis, inflammation, metabolism and electrophysiology. To a large extent, these salubrious effects are now attributed to the indirect, paracrine capacity of transplanted stem cells to facilitate endogenous cardiac repair processes. Promising results have also followed in early phase human studies, although these have been relatively modest and somewhat inconsistent. This review details the preclinical and clinical evidence currently available regarding the use of pluripotent stem cells and adult-derived progenitor cells for cardiomyopathy and HF. It outlines the important lessons that have been learned to this point in time, and balances the promise of this exciting field against the key challenges and questions that still need to be addressed at all levels of research, to ensure that cell therapy realizes its full potential by adding to the armamentarium of HF management. PMID:27280304
Gillis, Kris; Roosens, Bram; Bala, Gezim; Remory, Isabel; Hernot, Sophie; Delvenne, Philippe; Mestrez, Fabienne; Droogmans, Steven; Cosyns, Bernard
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is currently the most common heart valve disease worldwide and is known to be an active process. Both renal failure and dyslipidaemia are considered to be promoting factors for the development of valvular calcifications. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate the respective contribution and interaction of renal failure and dyslipidaemia on CAVD in a rat model, using echocardiography and compared with histology. Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were prospectively divided in eight groups, each fed a different diet to induce renal failure alone and combined with hyperlipidaemia or hypercholesterolemia. CAVD was detected and quantified by calibrated integrated backscatter of ultrasound (cIB) and compared with the histological calcium score. The study follow-up was 20 weeks. At the end of the study, the cIB value and the calcium score of the aortic valve were significantly increased in the group with isolated renal failure but not with dyslipidaemia. The combination of renal failure with high cholesterol or high-fat diet did not significantly increase calcifications further. Renal failure alone does induce aortic valve calcifications in a rat model of CAVD, whereas dyslipidaemia alone does not. The combination of renal failure with dyslipidaemia does not increase calcification further. These findings suggest that a combination of atherosclerotic and calcifying factors is not required to induce aortic valve calcifications in this model.
Pirracchio, R.; Cholley, B.; de Hert, S.; Solal, A. Cohen; Mebazaa, A.
Diastolic heart failure is an underestimated pathology with a high risk of acute decompensation during the perioperative period. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, and treatment of diastolic heart failure. Although frequently underestimated, diastolic heart failure
F. I. Belyalov
Full Text Available The ischemic heart disease (IHD with comorbid kidney dysfunction has more severe course and worse prognosis, regardless of the chosen therapeutic strategy for the treatment of coronary disease. Traits of diagnosis and treatment of IHD in patients with renal dysfunction, including end-stage kidney disease, are discussed. The analysis of the studies showed increasing difficulties in the diagnosis of IHD, and decrease in the effectiveness of drug and invasive treatment.Results of large randomized and observational studies can help to treat patients with IHD and comorbid renal dysfunction more effectively and safe.
This review article addresses the question of whether biomarker-guided therapy is ready for clinical implementation in chronic heart failure. The most well-known biomarkers in heart failure are natriuretic peptides, namely B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-BNP. They are well-established in the diagnostic process of acute heart failure and prediction of disease prognosis. They may also be helpful in screening patients at risk of developing heart failure. Although studied by 11 small- to medium-scale trials resulting in several positive meta-analyses, it is less well-established whether natriuretic peptides are also helpful for guiding chronic heart failure therapy. This uncertainty is expressed by differences in European and American guideline recommendations. In addition to reviewing the evidence surrounding the use of natriuretic peptides to guide chronic heart failure therapy, this article gives an overview of the shortcomings of the trials, how the results may be interpreted and the future directions necessary to fill the current gaps in knowledge. Therapy guidance in chronic heart failure using other biomarkers has not been prospectively tested to date. Emerging biomarkers, such as galectin-3 and soluble ST2, might be useful in this regard, as suggested by several post-hoc analyses. PMID:28785440
Bloom, Michelle W; Greenberg, Barry; Jaarsma, Tiny; Januzzi, James L; Lam, Carolyn S P; Maggioni, Aldo P; Trochu, Jean-Noël; Butler, Javed
Heart failure is a global public health problem that affects more than 26 million people worldwide. The global burden of heart failure is growing and is expected to increase substantially with the ageing of the population. Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction accounts for approximately 50% of all cases of heart failure in the United States and is associated with substantial morbidity and reduced quality of life. Several diseases, such as myocardial infarction, certain infectious diseases and endocrine disorders, can initiate a primary pathophysiological process that can lead to reduced ventricular function and to heart failure. Initially, ventricular impairment is compensated for by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, but chronic activation of these pathways leads to worsening cardiac function. The symptoms of heart failure can be associated with other conditions and include dyspnoea, fatigue, limitations in exercise tolerance and fluid accumulation, which can make diagnosis difficult. Management strategies include the use of pharmacological therapies and implantable devices to regulate cardiac function. Despite these available treatments, heart failure remains incurable, and patients have a poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Consequently, the development of new therapies is imperative and requires further research.
Saeed, Aso; DiBona, Gerald F; Grimberg, Elisabeth
This study examined the effects of 2 wk of high-NaCl diet on kidney function and dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation (RBFA) in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (ACRF). Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow containing adenine or were pair-fed an identical diet without...... arterial pressure variability (SAPV), and heart rate variability were assessed by spectral analytical techniques. Rats with ACRF showed marked reductions in glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow (RBF), whereas mean arterial pressure and SAPV were significantly elevated. In addition, spontaneous...
Safety and efficacy of eplerenone in patients at high risk for hyperkalemia and/or worsening renal function: analyses of the EMPHASIS-HF study subgroups (Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization And SurvIval Study in Heart Failure).
Eschalier, Romain; McMurray, John J V; Swedberg, Karl; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Krum, Henry; Pocock, Stuart J; Shi, Harry; Vincent, John; Rossignol, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram
The study sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of eplerenone in patients at high risk for hyperkalemia or worsening renal function (WRF) in EMPHASIS-HF, a trial that enrolled patients at least 55 years old with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II and with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and serum potassium HF-REF may be due to fear of inducing hyperkalemia or WRF in high-risk patients. This was a pre-specified analysis of subgroups of patients at high risk of hyperkalemia or WRF (patients ≥ 75 years of age, with diabetes, with eGFR 5.5, >6.0, and HF or cardiovascular mortality). In all high-risk subgroups, patients treated with eplerenone had an increased risk of potassium >5.5 mmol/l but not of potassium >6.0 mmol/l, and of hospitalization for hyperkalemia or discontinuation of study medication due to adverse events. Eplerenone was effective in reducing the primary composite endpoint in all subgroups. In patients with chronic HF-REF, in NYHA functional class II, and meeting specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, including an eGFR >30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and potassium HF Study]; NCT00232180). Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Causes of hospital readmission with heart failure at Muhimbili National hospital: Tanzanian experience. ... Background: Readmission rates for patients discharged with heart failure approaches fifty percent within six months. ... cardiomyopathies, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease and pericardial disease.
Olsen, P S; Schroeder, T; Perko, M
Among 656 patients undergoing surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm, 81 patients (12%) developed postoperative renal failure. Before operation hypotension and shock occurred in 88% of the patients with ruptured aneurysm, whereas none of the patients operated electively were hypotensive. Dialysis...... cases the death was caused by renal failure only or in combination with failure of other organs. Analysis of the cumulative survival shows that, if the patients survive the postoperative period, their life expectancy is comparable to that of patients without renal complications....
Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome caused by skeletal muscle cells destruction which can occur for many reasons, including prolonged immobilization. The main complication of the syndrome is the development of acute renal failure. Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria are responsible for approximately 5% of all causes of acute renal failure in the USA. The cause of rhabdomyolysis is often multifactorial, and approximately 8–20% of such patients develop myoglobinuric acute renal failure.
Luca Di Lullo
Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of congestive heart failure are actually increasing worldwide, especially in Western countries. In Europe and the United States, congestive heart failure represents a disabling clinical disease, accountable for increased hospitalization and health care costs. European guidelines have underlined the importance of pharmacological treatment to improve both patients’ outcomes and quality of life. The latest clinical trials to evaluate ivabradine’s efficacy have underlined its usefulness as a stand-alone medication and in combination with conventional congestive heart failure therapy, including in chronic kidney disease patients.
Demissei, Biniyam Gemechu
Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs. Acute heart failure is defined as a rapid onset of signs and symptoms of heart failure resulting in the need for urgent medical treatment. Acute heart failure is associated with
Clinical characteristics and causes of heart failure, adherence to treatment guidelines, and mortality of patients with acute heart failure: Experience at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.
Claudio ede Lucia
Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a chronic clinical syndrome characterized by the reduction in left ventricular (LV function and it represents one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite considerable advances in pharmacological treatment, HF represents a severe clinical and social burden. Sympathetic outflow, characterized by increased circulating catecholamines (CAs biosynthesis and secretion, is peculiar in HF and sympatholytic treatments (as β-blockers are presently being investigated for the treatment of this disease. Adrenal gland secretes Epinephrine (80% and Norepinephrine (20% in response to acetylcholine stimulation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors on the chromaffin cell membranes. This process is regulated by adrenergic receptors (ARs: α2ARs inhibit CA release through coupling to inhibitory Gi-proteins, and βARs (mainly β2ARs stimulate CA release through coupling to stimulatory Gs-proteins. All ARs are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and GPCR kinases (GRKs regulate their signaling and function. Adrenal GRK2-mediated α2AR desensitization and downregulation are increased in HF and seem to be a fundamental regulator of CA secretion from the adrenal gland. Consequently, restoration of adrenal a2AR signaling through the inhibition of GRK2 is a fascinating sympatholytic therapeutic strategy for chronic HF. This strategy could have several significant advantages over existing HF pharmacotherapies (antiadrenergic, such as bAR-blockers minimizing side-effects on extra-cardiac tissues and reducing the chronic activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone and endothelin systems.The role of adrenal ARs in regulation of sympathetic hyperactivity opens interesting perspectives in understanding pathophysiology of HF and identifying new potential therapeutic targets.
Erbslöh-Möller, B; Perras, B; Sack, K
A 43-year-old male was admitted to the hospital because of subfebrile temperatures since 3 months, weight loss of 9 kilogramms and lateral foot pains with bilateral leg edema. Over the last years, the patient had consulted a doctor several times for upper respiratory infections, orchitis and a spinal neck syndrome. At the physical examination, we found a temperature of 37.4 degrees C, no rales, no crackles at auscultation of the lung, bilateral ankle edema and livid, pressure-dolent skin changes at the lateral margins of both feet. The blood pressure was 170/100 mmHg. The following pathologically laboratory results were found: erythrocyte sedimentation rale (ESR) 35/55 mm n. W., C-reactive protein (CRP) up to 39 mg/l, leucocytes up to 13.5/nl, LH and FHS were elevated corresponding to hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, renal failure with at the beginning a selective glomerular proteinuria, as well as a monoclonal IgG-gammopathy. The bone marrow aspiration as well as the bone marrow biopsy revealed neither plasmocytoma nor a malignant systemic disease. The ultrasound examination showed enlarged liver, spleen, and kidneys. TREATMENT AND FOLLOW-UP: After excluding a connective tissue disease and an infection and with the missing proof of a malignant tumor treatment was started with parenteral methylprednisolon 500 mg on 3 consecutive days under the hypothesis of classic panarteriitis nodosa, even when multiple biopsies were negative. Under the treatment, the elevated inflammatory parameters and renal failure improved, but deteriorated quickly after discontinuation of the corticosteroid medication. The second kidney biopsy showed a chronic scaring glomerulopathy of the hemolytic uremic syndrome type. In the follow-up the renal insufficiency was improved by corticosteroids. With the manifestation of a bilateral sensory polyneuropathy in January 1994, the diagnosis of a POEMS syndrome was most likely. According to the literature, up to 50% of the cases with POEMS syndrome
Marcelo Eidi Ochiai
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of low cardiac output and mortality in decompensated heart failure. INTRODUCTION: Introduction: Patients with decompensated heart failure have a high mortality rate, especially those patients with low cardiac output. However, this clinical presentation is uncommon, and its management is controversial. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 452 patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure with an ejection fraction of 60 years, and 64.6% were men. Low cardiac output was present in 281 (63% patients on admission. Chagas disease was the cause of heart failure in 92 (20.4% patients who had higher B type natriuretic peptide levels (1,978.38 vs. 1,697.64 pg/mL; P = 0.015. Predictors of low cardiac output were Chagas disease (RR: 3.655, P<0.001, lower ejection fraction (RR: 2.414, P<0.001, hyponatremia (RR: 1.618, P = 0.036, and renal dysfunction (RR: 1.916, P = 0.007. Elderly patients were inversely associated with low cardiac output (RR: 0.436, P = 0.001. Predictors of mortality were Chagas disease (RR: 2.286, P<0.001, ischemic etiology (RR: 1.449, P = 0.035, and low cardiac output (RR: 1.419, P = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: In severe decompensated heart failure, predictors of low cardiac output are Chagas disease, lower ejection fraction, hyponatremia, and renal dysfunction. Additionally, Chagas disease patients have higher B type natriuretic peptide levels and a worse prognosis independent of lower ejection fraction.
Full Text Available Raquel López-Vilella, Herminio Morillas-Climent, Diego Plaza-López, Mónica Cebrián-Pinar, Ignacio Sánchez-Lázaro, Luis Almenar-Bonet Heart Failure and Heart Transplant Unit, Cardiology Department, Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain Abstract: In heart failure (HF, hyperkalemia is a frequent problem because of several factors, such as neurohormonal mechanisms involved in the disease, renal failure, comorbidities, and drugs with a prognostic benefit. These drugs can block the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, and therefore, serum potassium levels can increase, mostly when combined with other drugs as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, digitalis, heparin, etc. Hyperkalemia can have severe consequences if not corrected, mostly at the cardiac level (decrease in speed conduction, QRS enlargement, ventricular arrhythmias, and asystole. Therefore, it is important to adequately prescribe these potentially harmful drugs (starting at low doses with close monitoring of renal function and potassium levels, to carefully manage the factors that can interfere with potassium levels, and to early treat hyperkalemia if it develops. There are several investigation lines for the design of new molecules that show a similar efficacy to that of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, with a lower risk of hyperkalemia: nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists like finerenone, which is a more cardioselective drug than traditional mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and angiotensin and neprilysin inhibitors such as LCZ696, which have proven to reduce mortality and heart failure hospitalizations. Besides, new drugs are being studied, which are able to reduce levels of serum potassium in a sustained and faster way, like chelating polymers Patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate. Keywords: hyperkalemia, heart failure, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors
analysis of CD 34 was used to identify hematopoietic stem cells. During the last evaluation before stem cell transplantation, conventional echocardiogram (ECHO revealed left ventricular systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction of ALEF: 44%, MODEF: 45%, MUGA scan showed a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF: 43% (Figure 1. In view of these findings, the patient was found ineligible for SCT and he was offered to give his peripheral blood stem cells for the treatment of heart failure. After receiving the patient’s signed informed consent form, a total number of 3.49x106/kg CD 34+ cells were infused via antecubital vein. Echocardiographic studies performed 2 months after stem cell therapy revealed a similar ejection fraction rate while a significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (ALEF: 55%, MODEF: 57% was noticed in ECHO performed 7 months after stem cell therapy (Figure 2.EF values at various time periods are shown on Table 1. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was also performed and showed infarction containing viable tissue in inferior wall (Figure 3. Myocardial positron emission tomography revealed that glucose metabolism was conserved in inferior wall.HL was in complete remission in the 2 months follow up after SCT but SCT for HL was not contemplated because renal failure due to chemotherapy developed later. Discussion Here, we reported a patient with HL who was ineligible for SCT because of low LVEF due to AMI. LVEF was low despite CABG. Collected stem cells were used as a stem cell therapy for heart failure since he was ineligible for SCT directed to treat HL. Although intravenous infusion of stem/progenitor cells are not favoured any more and intracoronary infusion or intramyocardial injections are preferred in latest reports  our data supports this route can still be effective. The objective of stem cell therapy in CHF due to ischemic heart disease is to repopulate post-infarction scar tissue with contractile cells that can
Abdulla, M H; Duff, M; Swanton, H; Johns, E J
This study investigated the effect of renal bradykinin B1 and B2 receptor blockade on the high- and low-pressure baroreceptor reflex regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in rats with cisplatin-induced renal failure. Cisplatin (5 mg/kg) or saline was given intraperitoneally 4 days prior to study. Following chloralose/urethane anaesthesia, rats were prepared for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and RSNA and received intrarenal infusions of either Lys-[des-Arg9 , Leu8 ]-bradykinin (LBK), a bradykinin B1 receptor blocker, or bradyzide (BZ), a bradykinin B2 receptor blocker. RSNA baroreflex gain curves and renal sympatho-inhibitory responses to volume expansion (VE) were obtained. In the control and renal failure groups, basal MAP (89 ± 3 vs. 80 ± 8 mmHg) and RSNA (2.0 ± 0.3 vs. 1.7 ± 0.6 μV.s) were similar but HR was lower in the latter group (331 ± 8 vs. 396 ± 9 beats/min). The baroreflex gain for RSNA in the renal failure rats was 39% (P renal failure rats. Intrarenal LBK infusion in the renal failure rats normalized the VE induced renal sympatho-inhibition whereas BZ only partially restored the response. These findings suggest that pro-inflammatory bradykinin acting at different receptors within the kidney generates afferent neural signals which impact differentially within the central nervous system on high- and low-pressure regulation of RSNA. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How Can I Live With Heart Failure? Updated:Dec 8, ... recover. Medicine Notes: Diet Notes: Exercise Notes: How can I learn more? Call 1-800-AHA-USA1 ( ...
Khalid, Usman; Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar
AIMS: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory disease that is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction. Heart failure (HF) is independently associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
Albert, Nancy M.
Gaps and disparities in delivery of heart failure education by nurses and performance in accomplishing self-care behaviors by patients with advanced heart failure may be factors in clinical decompensation and unplanned consumption of health care. Is nurse-led education effectively delivered before...... hospital discharge? Nurse leaders must understand the strength of nurses’ knowledge base related to self-care principles and important barriers to best practice. Nurses may not be comfortable teaching patients about dry weight, meal planning, heart failure medications, or progressive steps of activity...... and exercise. Further, clinical nurses may not have time to provide in-depth education to patients before discharge. Equally important, research is needed to learn about factors that enhance patients’ adherence to heart failure self-care behaviors, because adherence to recommendations of national, evidence...
Nikoo Hamzeh; Fatemeh Ghadimi; Rojin Farzaneh; Seyed Kianoosh Hosseini
.... The concept of the “obesity paradox” has been proposed by some previously published studies, in which the prognosis of obese patients with established cardiovascular diseases, especially heart failure, is better than that of their leaner counterparts...
Hannink, J.D.C.; Helvoort, H.A.C. van; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Heijdra, Y.F.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF) are both common diseases with major impact and seem to coexist more frequently than expected from their separate population prevalences. However, estimates of combined prevalence must be interpreted carefully because of
Di Somma, Salvatore; Magrini, Laura
Acute heart failure is globally one of most frequent reasons for hospitalization and still represents a challenge for the choice of the best treatment to improve patient outcome. According to current international guidelines, as soon as patients with acute heart failure arrive at the emergency department, the common therapeutic approach aims to improve their signs and symptoms, correct volume overload, and ameliorate cardiac hemodynamics by increasing vital organ perfusion. Recommended treatment for the early management of acute heart failure is characterized by the use of intravenous diuretics, oxygen, and vasodilators. Although these measures ameliorate the patient's symptoms, they do not favorably impact on short- and long-term mortality. Consequently, there is a pressing need for novel agents in acute heart failure treatment with the result that research in this field is increasing worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Nuala E. Tully
Full Text Available Objectives. Patient experiences of structured heart failure rehabilitation and their views on the important components of heart failure services were examined. Methods. Focus groups were conducted with fifteen participants (men, =12 attending one of two heart failure rehabilitation programmes. Sessions were guided by a semistructured interview schedule covering participants' experiences of the programme, maintenance, and GP role. Focus group transcripts were analysed qualitatively. Results. Participants indicated that rehabilitation programmes substantially met their needs. Supervised exercise sessions increased confidence to resume physical activity, while peer-group interaction and supportive medical staff improved morale. However, once the programme ended, some participants' self-care motivation lapsed, especially maintenance of an exercise routine. Patients doubted their GPs' ability to help them manage their condition. Conclusion. Structured rehabilitation programmes are effective in enabling patients to develop lifestyle skills to live with heart failure. However, postrehabilitation maintenance interventions are necessary to sustain patients' confidence in disease self-management.
Løgstrup, Brian B; Vase, Henrik; Gjedsted, Jakob
Heart failure is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. When patients cease to respond adequately to optimal medical therapy mechanical circulatory support has been promising. The advent of mechanical circulatory support devices has allowed significant improvements...... in patient survival and quality of life for those with advanced or end-stage heart failure. We provide a general overview of current mechanical circulatory support devices encompassing options for both short- and long-term ventricular support....
Gaddam, Krishna K.; Yelamanchili, Pridhvi; Sedghi, Yabiz; Ventura, Hector O.
The global healthcare burden attributable to heart failure is ever increasing. Patients presenting with refractory heart failure should be evaluated for compliance with medical regimens and sodium and/or fluid restriction, and every attempt should be made to optimize conventional strategies. Reversible causes such as ischemia should be identified and revascularization considered in persistently symptomatic patients, particularly those with a viable myocardium. Carefully selected patients who ...
Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Tang, Daniel G; Katlaps, Gundars J; Shah, Keyur B
Treatment options for late-stage biventricular heart failure are limited but include medical therapy with intravenous inotropes, biventricular assist devices (Bi-VADs) and the total artificial heart (TAH). In this manuscript, we review the indications, surgical techniques and outcomes for the TAH. The TAH offers biventricular replacement, rather than 'assistance', as the device is placed orthotopically after excision of the entire ventricular myocardium and all four native valves. In contrast to patients with Bi-VADs, patients with the TAH have no postoperative inotrope requirements, arrhythmias or inflow/outflow cannulae-related complications. Additionally, patients participate in rehabilitation early after device placement and the development of a portable drive may facilitate hospital discharge in the USA. Furthermore, total heart replacement may be ideal for heart failure associated with unique anatomical and mechanical complications. The TAH is an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of patients dying of heart failure who may not be suitable candidates for left ventricular assist devices.
Kiowski, Wolfgang; Brunner, Hanspeter; Schalcher, Christoph
In the modern era of pharmacologic treatment of erectile dysfunction, men with heart disease increasingly approach their physicians regarding the possibility of restoring sexual activity. At the same time, patients are also frequently aware of public figures that have reportedly died during coitus, often in the arms of their mistresses or prostitutes. Added to this is the perception of patients, and oftentimes their physicians, that coitus and orgasm are associated with a near maximal or even "supermaximal" cardiac workload and therefore may be hazardous for a diseased heart. Accordingly, knowledge of the cardiovascular effects of sexual activity, the risks of triggering a cardiovascular event, and the potential risks inherent in the use of drug therapy of male impotence is important to properly advise patients and their spouses regarding this sensitive issue.
Chronic Renal Failure [CRF] is a progressive irreversible deterioration in renal function with a spectrum ranging from biochemical abnormalities [azotemia] to clinically evident abnormalities [uraemia] and end stage renal disease [ESRD]. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significance of rare causes of CRF in the ...
Heart failure and renal failure often coexist in the same patient. This condition is commonly referred to as cardiorenal syndrome. When this occurs, patient survival worsens significantly with increasing degree of renal dysfunction. Management of this complex patient poses treatment challenges because of unstable hemodynamics (the problem is to reduce congestion without affecting organ perfusion) and very high mid-term in-hospital mortality. Congestion is a typical feature of this syndrome, and use of diuretics is mandatory. Loop diuretics should be administered first. However, poor attention to pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of loop diuretics may contribute to the development of diuretic resistance leading to iatrogenic hyponatremia. Accordingly, emphasis is given to the importance of sequential nephron blockade to reduce the number of non-responder patients to diuretics and to recognize a possible role for acquaretics.
Patel, Priyesh A; Liang, Li; Khazanie, Prateeti; Hammill, Bradley G; Fonarow, Gregg C; Yancy, Clyde W; Bhatt, Deepak L; Curtis, Lesley H; Hernandez, Adrian F
Diabetes mellitus, heart failure (HF), and chronic kidney disease are common comorbidities, but overall use and safety of antihyperglycemic medications (AHMs) among patients with these comorbidities are poorly understood. Using Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure and linked Medicare Part D data, we assessed AHM use within 90 days of hospital discharge among HF patients with diabetes mellitus discharged from Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure hospitals between January 1, 2006, and October 1, 2011. We further summarized use by renal function and assessed renal contraindicated AHM use for patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate chronic kidney disease is complex, and these patients are commonly treated with renal contraindicated AHMs, including over 6% receiving a thiazolidinedione, despite known concerns regarding HF. More research regarding safety and efficacy of various AHMs among HF patients is needed. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Aslam, Farhan; Haque, Attiya; Haque, Javeria; Joseph, Jacob
Renal dysfunction is common in patients with heart failure (HF) and can complicate HF therapy. Treating patients with HF and kidney disease is difficult and requires careful assessment, monitoring and balancing of risk between potential benefits of treatment and adverse impact on renal function. In this review, we address the pathophysiological contexts and management options in this adversarial relation between the heart and the kidney, which exists in a substantial proportion of HF patients...
Rohina S Aggarwal
Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a serious medical complication during pregnancy, and, in the post-partum period, is associated with significant maternal morbidity and mortality as well as fetal loss. The objective of our study is to find the etiology and maternal outcome of ARF during preg-nancy. The study was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Institute of Kidney Disease and Research Center, Ahmedabad, India from January 2009 to January 2011. Fifty previously healthy patients who developed ARF, diagnosed on oliguria and serum creatinine >2 mg%, were included in the study. Patients with a known history of renal disease, diabetes and hypertension were excluded from the study. All patients were followed-up for a period of six months. Patient re-cords, demographic data, urine output on admission and preceding history of antepartum hemorrhage (APH, post-partum hemorrhage (PPH, septicemia, operative interventions and retained product of conception were noted and need for dialysis was considered. Patients were thoroughly examined and baseline biochemical investigations and renal and obstetrical ultrasound were performed on each patient and bacterial culture sensitivity on blood, urine or vaginal swabs were performed in selected patients. The age range was 19-38 years (mean 26 ± 3.8. The first trimester, second trimester and puerperal groups comprised of four (8%, 25 (50% and 21 patients (42%, respectively. Hemorrhage was the etiology for ARF in 15 (30%, APH in ten (20% and PPH in five (10% patients. Eleven (22% patients had lower segment cesarian section (LSCS while 36 (78% patients had normal vaginal delivery. In 20 (40% patients, puerperal sepsis was the etiological factor, while pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome accounted for 18 (36% patients. Two (4% patients had dissemi-nated intravascular coagulation on presentation while one (2% patient was diagnosed with hemolytic uremic syndrome. Maternal mortality was 12% (n
Full Text Available A forty two year old male was admitted with history of anuria and breathlessness following consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder. He had azotemia and required hemodialysis. His renal failure improved over a period of about four weeks. Incidences have been reported from South East Asian countries associating consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder with acute renal failure.
The sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis affecting most frequently the lungs and the mediastinum. An acute renal failure reveals exceptionally this disease. It's a retrospective study implicating 12 cases of sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to determine epidemiological, clinical, ...
Frenkel, J.; Kool, G.; de Kraker, J.
Carboplatin has been reported to cause acute renal failure when administered in high doses to adult patients. We report a 4 1/2-year-old girl who was treated with high-dose carboplatin for metastatic parameningeal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Acute renal failure developed followed by a slow partial
Full Text Available Pregnancy in chronic kidney disease is rare and is associated with high incidence of maternal and fetal morbidity. More women with chronic renal failure, due to better management and treatment modalities are able to conceive and carry on their pregnancy and delivery. The case report describes anesthesia for caesarean section in a parturient with chronic renal failure and reviews the literature.
Nawrocki, Pawel; Szwedo, Ireneusz; Tyc, Joanna; Hawrysz, Anna; Janiak, Kamila; Cichoń, Romuald
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a rare (2-15%), but severe complication of cardiac surgery with overall mortality reaching 40-80%. In order to save patients' lives they are treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT). The aim of our study was to assess the impact of different perioperative factors on mortality among patients treated with RRT because of acute renal failure, which occurred as a complication of a heart surgery. Retrospective analysis included 45 patients, operated in the years 2009-2013, who underwent renal replacement therapy in order to treat postoperative ARF. The perioperative factors were analysed in two groups: group 1 - patients who died before discharge; and group 2 - those who survived until hospital discharge. Forty-five of 3509 cardiac surgical patients (1.25%) required RRT after the surgery. A total of 23 (51.11%) died before discharge (group 1). Patients in group 1 were characterised by older age (70.21 vs. 67 years), higher mean EuroSCORE value (9.28 vs. 7.15) (p < 0.05), higher percentage of concomitant surgery (63.63% vs. 28.57%) (p < 0.05) and of admission of catecholamines in the postoperative period (100% vs. 68.42%) (p < 0.005), and higher mean urea blood level prior to RRT initiation (156.65 vs. 102.54 mg/dl) (p < 0.05). The statistically relevant death predictors proved to be: high EuroSCORE, concomitant surgery, and high urea level at RRT initiation and admission of catecholamines in the postoperative period. After conformation in further studies, those factors may prove useful in stratification of death risk among surgical patients requiring RRT.
Full Text Available Ferenc FollathUniversity Hospital Zürich, Steering Group Drug Therapy, Zürich, SwitzerlandAbstract: Acute heart failure (AHF is a major cause of hospitalizations. Severe dyspnea, pulmonary congestion and low cardiac output with peripheral vasoconstriction and renal hypoperfusion is a main form of clinical presentation. Most patients with acute worsening have a pre-existing decompensated chronic heart failure (ADCHF, but AHF may also occur as a first manifestation of a previously unknown heart disease. Myocardial ischemia, cardiac arrhythmias, non-compliance with medication and infections are frequent precipitating factors. Management of AHF depends on the underlying heart disease and cause of decompensation. In patients with ADCHF vasodilators and iv diuretics are first-line drugs for rapid reduction of dyspnea and congestion. In patients with signs of low cardiac output and oliguria, inotropic agents are also often administered to prevent further deterioration. Beta-adrenergic agents and phosphodiesterase inhibitors correct the hemodynamic disturbance, but may also induce arrhythmias and worsen myocardial ischemia. Inotropic therapy therefore remains controversial. A novel class of drugs, the calcium sensitizers, represent a new therapeutic option. Levosimendan was shown to improve myocardial contractility without increasing oxygen requirements and to produce peripheral and coronary vasodilation. Its therapeutic effects and tolerance have been tested in several trials. The present review focuses on the clinical pharmacology and therapeutic utility of levosimendan in patients with ADCHF.Keywords: acute heart failure, inotropic agents, calcium sensitizers, levosimendan
Full Text Available "nAcute renal failure (ARF following cardiac surgery occurs in 1 to 10% of patients. Patients who develop ARF have higher rates of mortality. This study was undertaken to estimate the role of perioperative variables in predicting of post cardiac surgery ARF. We studied a cohort of 398 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery at our institution from February 2004 to February 2006. Adult patients who were scheduled for cardiac valvular surgery, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG or both, with or without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB were included. Exclusion criteria were death within two days of operation (n= 8, incomplete patient data, and preexisting renal dysfunction and dialysis requirement or a baseline serum creatinine > 4 mg/dl. Age, sex, left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, preoperative, presence of proteinuria (on dipstick, type of surgery, use of CPB and duration of surgery were recorded. A logistic regression analysis was performed to assess independent contribution of variables in the risk of ARF. A binary logistic regression revealed age was an independent predictor of ARF (P < 0.05. When both all variables were included in a multinominal logistic regression model, preoperative proteinuria independently predicted ARF (Odds ratio= 3.91, 95% CI: 1.55-9.91, P = 0.004. Our results revealed that special considerations should be given to elderly and patients with proteinuria when managing post cardiac surgery ARF.
Lara Belmar Vega
Conclusion: Congestive heart failure is very frequently associated with anaemia, iron deficiency and renal failure. Despite the fact that correcting iron deficiency is known to improve symptoms, testing of iron parameters in patients admitted with CHF is not performed as often as it should be.
Bear, R. A.; Cole, E H; Lang, A; Johnson, M.
Severe renal insufficiency is considered to indicate a poor prognosis in patients with multiple myeloma, their reported median survival being approximately 2 months. In five consecutive patients with severe renal failure secondary to acute myeloma kidney early aggressive therapy, including chemotherapy and peritoneal dialysis, led to a significant improvement in the renal function of four; the fifth patient received a cadaveric renal transplant after 1 year of peritoneal dialysis. After a med...
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hemodynamic stress is the leading cause of acute renal failure (ARF in premature neonates. Incidence of ARF in this population is between 8 and 24%. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of presence of ARF in premature neonates, as well as its impact on their survival. Methods. A retrospective study of 114 premature neonates [(gestational age, GA less than 37 gestation weeks (gw] admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU at the Pediatric Clinic, Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina in 2007 was conducted. Serum creatinine, urea and bilirubine were determined on the 3rd day of life in 65 newborns who met inclusion criteria. ARF was diagnosed in 16 newborns (n=16/65; 25%. Results. The premature neonates with ARF had significantly lower GA [<28 gw - 8/16 (50% vs. 5/49 (10%; p < 0.05], birth weight (BW (1 265 g vs. 1615 g; p < 0.05 and systolic blood pressure (43.37 mm Hg vs. 52.7 mmHg; p < 0.05 than ones without ARF. Non-olyguric ARF was diagnosed in 62% of newborns with ARF (n=10/16, while the rest had the olyguric type (n = 6/16; 38%. Twenty-five percent of premature neonates with ARF (n = 4/16 died in contrast to 10% of premature neonates without ARF (n = 5/49. ARF was treated conservatively in all but 3 cases when peritoneal dialysis was performed. Renal function has recovered completely in all of the survivors. In order to determine their predictivity in relation to ARF, following parameters were analyzed: GA, BW < 1 500 g, presence of concomitant sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV. BW < 1 500 g demonstrated the highest sensitivity (se 0.75, while GA < 28 gw, sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV showed high specificity (sp = 0.90, 0.89 0.88, respectively. Conclusion. Acute renal failure frequently occurs in population of premature neonates and requires meticulous fluid and electrolyte balance, especially in the case of low birth weight and extreme immaturity.
Full Text Available Malaria has protean clinical manifestations and renal complications, particularly acute renal failure that could be life threatening. To evaluate the incidence, clinical profile, out-come and predictors of mortality in patients with malarial acute renal failure, we retrospectively studied the last two years records of malaria induced acute renal failure in patients with peripheral smear positive for malarial parasites. One hundred (10.4% (63 males, 37 females malaria induced acute renal failure amongst 958 cases of acute renal failure were evaluated. Plasmodium (P. falciparum was reported in 85%, P. vivax in 2%, and both in 13% patients. The mean serum creatinine was 9.2 ± 4.2 mg%, and oligo/anuria was present in 82%; 78% of the patients required hemodialysis. Sixty four percent of the patients recovered completely, 10% incompletely, and 5% developed chronic kidney failure; mortality occurred in 21% of the patients. Low hemoglobin, oligo/anuria on admission, hyperbilirubinemia, cerebral malaria, disseminated intravascular coa-gulation, and high serum creatinine were the main predictors of mortality. We conclude that ma-laria is associated with acute renal failure, which occurs most commonly in plasmodium falci-parum infected patients. Early diagnosis and prompt dialysis with supportive management can reduce morality and enhance recovery of renal function.
... Cardiology Patient Page Self-Care Guide for the Heart Failure Patient Maria Fe White , Joan Kirschner , Michele A. ... Vaccinations for pneumonia and influenza are recommended. Additional Heart Failure Treatments Your heart condition may remain stable long ...
Abstract. A case report on the management of Congestive Heart Failure is presented with emphasis on the use of DIGOXIN. Keywords: Congestive heart failure, Failing heart syndrome, Digoxin, Digoxin Toxicity ...
... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Recognizing Advanced Heart Failure and Knowing Your Options Updated:May 9,2017 ... need in the future. Treatment Options for Advanced Heart Failure Major Interventions Open-heart surgery: For patients with ...
Rutkowski, Bolesław; Łososowska, Renata; Król, Ewa; Kisielnicka, Ewa; Zdrojewski, Zbigniew; Szołkiewicz, Marek; Niewegłowski, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Michał; Sucajtys, Elzbieta; Swierczyński, Julian; Korczyńska, Justyna; Stelmańska, Ewa; Goyke, Elzbieta; Bogusławski, Wojciech
Lipid disorders are one of the known metabolic changes associated with chronic renal failure (CRF) [1, 2]. They are present as: hypertriglyceridemia--existed in 60% of CRF patients and hypercholesterolemia observed in 20-30% of people with this syndrome. These disorders, what was shown also in our own studies, are existing in different intensity in patients treated with maintenance haemodialysis , peritoneal dialysis  and after renal transplantation as well . Mechanism of hypertriglyceridemia, despite over thirty years of studies, is still not finally elucidated. The opinion that it is a result of impaired triglyceride removal (due to decreased activities of both lipoprotein and hepatic lipases) is well documented, however the role of lipogenesis in its development is obscure [6, 7]. The reports concerning this problem contain contradictory data. In our studies performed several years ago we have shown that lipogenesis rate in white adipose tissue of uremic rats is significantly augmented [8, 9, 10] due to activation of free fatty acid synthase. Therefore, recently we paid once again our attention on the activity of this lipogenesis rate limiting enzyme responsible for the long term regulation. We measured its activity, protein abundance and mRNA level in liver and epididymal white adipose tissue of rats with surgically induced renal failure (two-stage subtotal nephrectomy). The results support the thesis that lipogenesis takes a part in a hypertriglyceridemia found in renal failure. There have been observed a significant increase in plasma triglyceride and VLDL concentrations in uremic animals and it was associated with the increase of FAS activity, FAS protein abundance and FAS mRNA. The results were similar in both studied tissues. Moreover, there have been also observed the increased activities of malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. All these enzymes participate in NADPH production, which is a necessary
Cleland, JGF; Cohen-Solal, A; Aguilar, JC; Dietz, R; Eastaugh, J; Follath, F; Freemantle, N; Gavazzi, A; van Gilst, WH; Hobbs, FDR; Korewicki, J; Madeira, HC; Preda, [No Value; Swedberg, K; Widimsky, J
Background Heart failure is a prevalent condition that is generally treated in primary care. The aim of this study was to assess how primary-care physicians think that heart failure should be managed, how they implement their knowledge, and whether differences exist in practice between countries.
Estimated glomerular filtration rate and prognosis in heart failure: value of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study-4, chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration, and cockroft-gault formulas.
Zamora, Elisabet; Lupón, Josep; Vila, Joan; Urrutia, Agustín; de Antonio, Marta; Sanz, Hèctor; Grau, Maria; Ara, Jordi; Bayés-Genís, Antoni
The purpose of this study was to assess the value of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated by different formulas for predicting the risk of death in heart failure (HF) outpatients. Patients with both HF and renal insufficiency have a poor prognosis. Three formulas are mostly used to assess renal function: Cockroft-Gault formula, MDRD-4 (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study) formula, and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. The prognostic values of these formulas have not been adequately compared in HF patients. A total of 925 patients (72% men; age 69 years; interquartile range: 59 to 75.5 years) with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 31% (interquartile range: 23.5% to 39%) were studied. Follow-up was 1,202 days (interquartile range: 627.5 to 2,156.5 days). Measures of performance were evaluated using continuous data and by dividing patients into 4 subgroups according to the eGFR: ≥90, 89 to 60, <60 to 30, and <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2). The 3 formulas correlated significantly, with the best correlation found between the MDRD-4 and CKD-EPI formulas. The 3 formulas afforded independent prognostic information over long-term follow-up. However, risk prediction was most accurate using the Cockroft-Gault formula as evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models (hazard ratio: 0.75 vs. 0.81 with the MDRD-4 formula and 0.80 with the CKD-EPI equation), area under the curve (0.67 vs. 0.62 and 0.64, respectively), and Bayesian information criterion (both analyzing eGFR as a continuous or categorical variable). Indeed, net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement using the Cockroft-Gault formula were 21% and 5.04, respectively, versus the MDRD-4 formula (the most used) and 13.1% and 3.77 respectively versus CKD-EPI equation (the more recent) (all p values <0.001). In this ambulatory, real-life cohort of HF patients, the Cockroft-Gault formula was the most accurate of the 3 used e
Martin R Cowie
Full Text Available Heart failure is appropriately described as an epidemic, with 1–2% of health care expenditure being directed at its management. In England, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE has issued guidance on the best practice for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. Echocardiography is key to the diagnosis of the underlying cardiac abnormalities, and access to this (with our without biochemical testing using natriuretic peptides is key to high-quality and speedy diagnosis. New models of care aim to speed up access to echocardiography, but a shortage of technically trained staff remains a limiting factor in improving standards of care. The NHS audits the quality of care and outcome for patients admitted to hospital with heart failure, and this continues to show wide variation in practice, particularly, where patients are not reviewed by the local heart failure multidisciplinary team. Recently, the All Party Parliamentary Group on Cardiac Disease issued 10 suggestions for improvement in care for patients with heart failure – access to echocardiography being one of the key suggestions. Time will tell as to whether this support from law makers will assist in the implementation of NICE-recommended standards of care consistently across the country.
Costa, Sandra de Araújo; Rassi, Salvador; Freitas, Elis Marra da Madeira; Gutierrez, Natália da Silva; Boaventura, Fabiana Miranda; Sampaio, Larissa Pereira da Costa; Silva, João Bastista Masson
Prognostic factors are extensively studied in heart failure; however, their role in severe Chagasic heart failure have not been established. To identify the association of clinical and laboratory factors with the prognosis of severe Chagasic heart failure, as well as the association of these factors with mortality and survival in a 7.5-year follow-up. 60 patients with severe Chagasic heart failure were evaluated regarding the following variables: age, blood pressure, ejection fraction, serum sodium, creatinine, 6-minute walk test, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, QRS width, indexed left atrial volume, and functional class. 53 (88.3%) patients died during follow-up, and 7 (11.7%) remained alive. Cumulative overall survival probability was approximately 11%. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (HR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.04 - 4.31; p 72 mL/m2 are independent predictors of mortality in severe Chagasic heart failure, with cumulative survival probability of only 11% in 7.5 years.
Dumouchel, Julie; Lvovschi, Virginie; Joly, Luc-Marie
Binge eating occurs in patients with eating disorders and can result in metabolic complications, leading to gastric rupture or necrosis. However, organ failure as acute renal failure is rarely observed. We report the case of an overeating episode resulting in massive gastric dilatation and acute renal failure with abdominal pressure and bilateral ureteral obstruction. The outcome was favorable with gastric aspiration and fasting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Escudero, J; Necoechea, J C; Navarro, J
The usefulness of vasodilating agents in congestive heart failure depends on their ability to diminish left ventricular afterload; this effect does not necessarily persist with long-term treatment. The present study reports the clinical response of 16 patients in heart failure; the trial was double blind with enalapril and/or placebo during 24 weeks. Diagnoses were dilated cardiomyopathy in six, rheumatic heart disease in five, ischemic heart disease in four und hypertensive heart disease in one. Two patients on enalapril died of non cardiac causes and one was withdrawn from the study due to pregnancy. In those patients treated with enalapril the NYHA functional class improved from 2.9/0.8 to 1.1/0.4 (p less than 0.001), and the effort capacity increased from 545/171 to 888/160 seconds (p less than 0.01). Left ventricular systolic function evaluated by echocardiogram and Tc 99 m ventriculogram, radiologic size of the heart and echocardiographic left ventricular diameters showed no significant changes. There were no adverse clinical effects nor laboratory abnormalities. It is concluded that in this study, enalapril produced sustained clinical improvement in patients with heart failure and it was well tolerated during long-term treatment.
Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Mamlouk, Habiba; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel
The sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis affecting most frequently the lungs and the mediastinum. An acute renal failure reveals exceptionally this disease. It's a retrospective study implicating 12 cases of sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to determine epidemiological, clinical, biological and histological profile in these cases and then to indicate the interest to consider the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in cases of unexplained renal failure. Extra-renal complications, therapeutic modalities and the outcome were determined in all patients. Our series involved 12 women with an average age of 40 years. Biological investigations showed an abnormal normocalcemia in 7 cases, a hypercalcemia in 5 cases, a hypercalciuria in 10 cases and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 7 cases. An acute renal failure was found in all patients with a median creatinin of 520 umol/L. For all patients, the renal echography was normaln however, the kidney biopsy showed tubulo-interstitial nephritis. The extra-renal signs highlighting pulmonary interstitial syndrome in 5 cases, a sicca syndrome in 4 cases, mediastinal lymph nodes in 2 cases, a lymphocytic alveolitis in 3 cases, an anterior granulomatous uveitis in 2 cases and a polyarthritis in 5 cases. Five patients benefited of hemodialysis. The treatment consisted of corticosteroid in all cases. The follow up was marked by complete resolution of clinical and biological signs. The diagnosis of renal sarcoidosis must be done quickly to prevent renal failure. PMID:26834928
Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Mamlouk, Habiba; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel
The sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis affecting most frequently the lungs and the mediastinum. An acute renal failure reveals exceptionally this disease. It's a retrospective study implicating 12 cases of sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to determine epidemiological, clinical, biological and histological profile in these cases and then to indicate the interest to consider the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in cases of unexplained renal failure. Extra-renal complications, therapeutic modalities and the outcome were determined in all patients. Our series involved 12 women with an average age of 40 years. Biological investigations showed an abnormal normocalcemia in 7 cases, a hypercalcemia in 5 cases, a hypercalciuria in 10 cases and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 7 cases. An acute renal failure was found in all patients with a median creatinin of 520 umol/L. For all patients, the renal echography was normal however, the kidney biopsy showed tubulo-interstitial nephritis. The extra-renal signs highlighting pulmonary interstitial syndrome in 5 cases, a sicca syndrome in 4 cases, mediastinal lymph nodes in 2 cases, a lymphocytic alveolitis in 3 cases, an anterior granulomatous uveitis in 2 cases and a polyarthritis in 5 cases. Five patients benefited of hemodialysis. The treatment consisted of corticosteroid in all cases. The follow up was marked by complete resolution of clinical and biological signs. The diagnosis of renal sarcoidosis must be done quickly to prevent renal failure.
Dorgalaleh, Akbar; Mahmudi, Mohammad; Tabibian, Shadi; Khatib, Zahra Kashani; Tamaddon, Gholam Hossein; Moghaddam, Esmaeil Sanei; Bamedi, Taregh; Alizadeh, Shaban; Moradi, Eshagh
Acute renal failure describes as a syndrome by rapid decline in the ability of the kidney to eliminate waste products, regulate acid-base balance, and manage water homeostasis. When this impairment is prolonged and entered chronic phase, erythropoietin secretion by this organ is decreasing and toxic metabolic accumulates and causes hematological changes include decrease of HCT, MCV and RBC and platelet counts. This study evaluates present of anemia and thrombocytopenia in patients with acute and chronic renal failure. This study conducted on 132 patients with renal impairment and also 179 healthy individuals as two separated control groups. Initially patients with renal problem were tested and after confirmation of impairment, patients were divided in two groups, acute with less than 3 months and chronic with more than 3 months renal failure, based on duration of the disease. Then complete blood count performed for each patient and finally obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software. Comparison between 96 patients with acute and 36 patients with chronic renal failure revealed that severity of anemia (HCT, Hb and MCV) between these two groups were statistically high in comparison with control groups (P > 0.05) but thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic renal failure was statistically different from control and the acute ones (P renal failure, to prevent the risk of bleeding, platelet count should be checked periodically.
Saeed I. Khilji
Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a multiorgan disease with varied clinical presentations and is reemerging due to increasing immigration and globalization. We present the case of an immigrant female patient who developed acute renal failure with clinical and biochemical features suggestive of lupus nephritis but with a timely renal biopsy showing caseating granulomata in the renal parenchyma consistent with renal tuberculosis. Despite treatment with antituberculosis treatment and resolution of TB on repeat renal biopsy, she remained haemodialysis dependent. We discuss the diagnostic challenges faced in this presentation and also explore possible differential diagnoses. This rare presentation highlights the importance of renal biopsy in the diagnosis and treatment of acute renal failure and the atypical presentation of tuberculosis.
Full Text Available Abstract Congestive heart failure as a cause of acute liver failure is rarely documented with only a few cases. Although the pathophysiology is poorly understood, there is rising evidence, that low cardiac output with consecutive reduction in hepatic blood flow is a main causing factor, rather than hypotension. In the setting of acute liver failure due to congestive heart failure, clinical signs of the latter can be absent, which requires an appropriate diagnostic approach. As a reference center for acute liver failure and liver transplantation we recorded from May 2003 to December 2007 202 admissions with the primary diagnoses acute liver failure. 13/202 was due to congestive heart failure, which was associated with a mortality rate of 54%. Leading cause of death was the underlying heart failure. Asparagine transaminase (AST, bilirubin, and international normalized ratio (INR did not differ significantly in surviving and deceased patients at admission. Despite both groups had signs of cardiogenic shock, the cardiac index (CI was significantly higher in the survival group on admission as compared with non-survivors (2.1 L/min/m2 vs. 1.6 L/min/m2, p = 0.04. Central venous - and pulmonary wedge pressure did not differ significantly. Remarkable improvement of liver function was recorded in the group, who recovered from cardiogenic shock. In conclusion, patients with acute liver failure require an appropriate diagnostic approach. Congestive heart failure should always be considered as a possible cause of acute liver failure.
Hummel, Astrid; Empe, Klausn; Dörr, Marcus; Felix, Stephan B
Heart failure is one of the most common diseases of adults in Europe, with an overall prevalence of 1-2%. Among persons aged 60 and above, its prevalence is above 10% in men and 8% in women. Acute heart failure has a poor prognosis; it is associated with a high rate of rehospitalization and a 1-year mortality of 20-30%. This review is based on pertinent literature, including guidelines, retrieved by a selective search in PubMed. There are different types of acute heart failure; the basic diagnostic assessment is performed at once and consists of ECG, echocardiography, and the measurement of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) and troponin levels. The most common causes of decompensation are arrhythmia, valvular dysfunction, and acute cardiac ischemia, each of which accounts for 30% of cases. The potential indication for immediate revascularization should be carefully considered in cases where acute heart failure is due to coronary heart disease. The basic treatment of acute heart failure is symptomatic, with the administration of oxygen, diuretics, and vasodilators. Ino-tropic agents, vasopressors, and temporary mechanical support for the circulatory system are only used to treat cardiogenic shock. The treatment of acute heart failure is markedly less evidence-based than that of chronic heart failure. Newer treatment approaches that are intended to improve outcomes still need to be tested in multicenter trials.
Dharmarajan, Kumar; Dunlay, Shannon M
Multimorbidity is common among older adults with heart failure and creates diagnostic and management challenges. Diagnosis of heart failure may be difficult, as many conditions commonly found in older persons produce dyspnea, exercise intolerance, fatigue, and weakness; no singular pathognomonic finding or diagnostic test differentiates them from one another. Treatment may also be complicated, as multimorbidity creates high potential for drug-disease and drug-drug interactions in settings of polypharmacy. The authors suggest that management of multimorbid older persons with heart failure be patient, rather than disease-focused, to best meet patients' unique health goals and minimize risk from excessive or poorly-coordinated treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schjødt, Inge; Sommer, Irene; Bjerrum, Merete
Background Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms reported by patients with heart failure (HF). Fatigue negatively impacts on patients’ everyday life, prognosis and quality of life. No specific cure or effective interventions to alleviate fatigue are available. Over the past decade, qualitative...... studies have been performed to develop more coherent and effective interventions to support self-care among heart failure patients experiencing fatigue. The findings of qualitative research should be synthesised to optimise nurses' understanding of fatigue and develop recommendations for practice. Aim...... To synthesise the best available evidence related to the lived experiences and management of fatigue in everyday life in adult patients with stable heart failure to develop effective interventions to support self-care. Specific questions on the patients’ lived experiences included: • How do patients with HF...
Gaddam, Krishna K; Yelamanchili, Pridhvi; Sedghi, Yabiz; Ventura, Hector O
The global healthcare burden attributable to heart failure is ever increasing. Patients presenting with refractory heart failure should be evaluated for compliance with medical regimens and sodium and/or fluid restriction, and every attempt should be made to optimize conventional strategies. Reversible causes such as ischemia should be identified and revascularization considered in persistently symptomatic patients, particularly those with a viable myocardium. Carefully selected patients who continue to deteriorate clinically in spite of optimization of medical therapy may be considered for advanced treatment strategies, such as continuous inotropic infusions, mechanical circulatory support devices, cardiac transplantation, or referral to hospice care. We discuss the clinical presentation and management of patients with advanced/refractory (Stage D) heart failure.
Casado Cerrada, Jesús; Pérez Calvo, Juan Ignacio
Heart failure is a complex syndrome that affects almost all organs and systems of the body. Signs and symptoms of organ dysfunction, in particular kidney dysfunction, may be accentuated or become evident for the first time during acute decompensation of heart failure. Cardiorenal syndrome has been defined as the simultaneous dysfunction of both the heart and the kidney, regardless of which of the two organs may have suffered the initial damage and regardless also of their previous functional status. Research into the mechanisms regulating the complex relationship between the two organs is prompting the search for new biomarkers to help physicians detect renal damage in subclinical stages. Hence, a preventive approach to renal dysfunction may be adopted in the clinical setting in the near future. This article provides a general overview of cardiorenal syndrome and an update of the physiopathological mechanisms involved. Special emphasis is placed on the role of visceral congestion as an emergent mechanism in this syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Shiba, Nobuyuki; Matsuki, Mika; Takahashi, Jun; Tada, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Jun; Shimokawa, Hiroaki
Background Renal insufficiency is common in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), so to improve the prognosis of patients with cardiovascular risks clinical guidelines recommend estimating the glomerular filtration rate...
Full Text Available A 32-year-old woman was admitted in congestive heart failure (CHF 3 days after delivery. She had no history of cardiovascular disease and impaired left ventricular Ejection Fraction (EF 35%. She underwent complete heart catheterisation, selective coronary angiography and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy (EMB.Coronary arteries were normal and EMB revealed active virus negative myocarditis. Serum was positive for anti-heart autoantibodies (AHA. Thus myocarditis was classified as autoimmune and the patient was treated with immunosuppressive therapy, with clinical and hemodynamic improvement. At 27 months follow-up EMB showed healed myocarditis. Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM is a rare disorder in which left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure occur in the peripartum period in previously healthy women. The etiology is still unknown but a sizable proportion of patients may have an underlying organ-specific autoimmune myocarditis.
Canbay, Alper; Celebi, Ozlem Ozcan; Celebi, Savas; Aydogdu, Sinan; Diker, Erdem
Serum procalcitonin levels are associated with congestive heart failure, but are not established biomarkers of the disease. We evaluated the predictive value of serum procalcitonin levels for diagnosing heart failure and assessing its severity. This retrospective, case-control study involved 59 subjects (mean age 59.7-10.1 years; 38 males), including 21 outpa- tients and 19 inpatients with heart failure and left ventricular ejection fractions procalcitonin levels were measured and compared among the 3 groups. Procalcitonin levels were significantly higher among inpatients (median [interquartile range], 1.45 [0.25-5.801 ng/mL) than among the outpatients (0.35 [0.001.-1.70] ng/mL; Pprocalcitonin cut-off level of 0.09 ng/mL, 35 (87.5%) of the 40 inpatients and outpatients were procalcitonin-positive; all control individuals were procalcitonin-negative. Serum procalcitonin levels differentiated between heart failure patients and healthy controls (sensitivity, 88.9% [95% confidence interval, 75.9-96.2%]; specificity, 100% [82.2-100.0%]; positive predictive value, 100% [91.1-100.0%]; negative predictive value, 79.2% [57.8-92.8%]). Pro calcitonin levels were >0.53 ng/mL in 4/21 (19%) outpatients and in 16/19 (84.2%) inpatients. The sensitivity and specificity of serum procalcitonin levels for differentiating between inpatients and outpatients were 84.2% and 81.0%, respectively (positive predictive value 80% [95% confidence interval, 67.6-92.4%] and 85.0% [73.9-96.1%], respectively). Serum procalcitonin levels, showing high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing and assessing the severity of heart failure in this small study, might be considered ootential heart failure biomarkers.
Husam M. Abdel-Qadir
Full Text Available The coexistence of heart failure and renal dysfunction constitutes the “cardiorenal syndrome” which is increasingly recognized as a marker of poor prognosis. Patients with cardiorenal dysfunction constitute a large and heterogeneous group where individuals can have markedly different outcomes and disease courses. Thus, the determination of prognosis in this high risk group of patients may pose challenges for clinicians and for researchers alike. In this paper, we discuss the cardiorenal syndrome as it pertains to the patient with heart failure and considerations for further refining prognosis and outcomes in patients with heart failure and renal dysfunction. Conventional assessments of left ventricular function, renal clearance, and functional status can be complemented with identification of coexistent comorbidities, medication needs, microalbuminuria, anemia, biomarker levels, and pulmonary pressures to derive additional prognostic data that can aid management and provide future research directions for this challenging patient group.
Abdel-Qadir, Husam M.; Chugh, Shaan; Lee, Douglas S.
The coexistence of heart failure and renal dysfunction constitutes the “cardiorenal syndrome” which is increasingly recognized as a marker of poor prognosis. Patients with cardiorenal dysfunction constitute a large and heterogeneous group where individuals can have markedly different outcomes and disease courses. Thus, the determination of prognosis in this high risk group of patients may pose challenges for clinicians and for researchers alike. In this paper, we discuss the cardiorenal syndrome as it pertains to the patient with heart failure and considerations for further refining prognosis and outcomes in patients with heart failure and renal dysfunction. Conventional assessments of left ventricular function, renal clearance, and functional status can be complemented with identification of coexistent comorbidities, medication needs, microalbuminuria, anemia, biomarker levels, and pulmonary pressures to derive additional prognostic data that can aid management and provide future research directions for this challenging patient group. PMID:21660113
Stevenson, W G; Sweeney, M O
Survival of patients with heart failure has improved over the past decade due to advances in medical therapy. Sudden death continues to cause 20 to 50% of deaths. Ventricular arrhythmias are common in patients with heart failure. Ventricular hypertrophy, scars from prior myocardial infarction, sympathetic activation, and electrolyte abnormalities contribute. Some sudden deaths are due to bradyarrhythmias and electromechanical dissociation rather than ventricular arrhythmias. The risks and benefits of antiarrhythmic therapies continue to be defined. Class I antiarrhythmic drugs should be avoided due to proarrhythmic and negative inotropic effects that may increase mortality. For patients resuscitated from sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) should be considered. ICDs markedly reduce sudden death in VT/VF survivors, but in advanced heart failure, this may not markedly extend survival. Catheter or surgical ablation can be considered for selected patients with bundle branch reentry VT or difficult to control monomorphic VT. For patients who have not had sustained VT/VF antiarrhythmic therapy should generally be avoided, but may benefit some high risk patients. Amiodarone may be beneficial in patients with advanced heart failure and rapid resting heart rates. ICDs may improve survival in selected survivors of myocardial infarction who have inducible VT.
Basraon, Jagroop; Deedwani, Prakash C
This review discusses the role of diuretics in heart failure by focusing on different classifications and mechanisms of action. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of diuretics are elucidated. The predominant discussion highlights the use of loop diuretics, which are the most commonly used drugs in heart failure. Different methods of using this therapy in different settings along with a comprehensive review of the side-effect profile are highlighted. Special situations necessitating adjustment and the phenomenon of diuretic resistance are explained. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Castro-Gutiérrez, Victoria; Rada, Gabriel
Fluid restriction is usually recommended in chronic heart failure. However, the evidence base to support this is not that clear. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases, we identified five systematic reviews evaluating 11 studies addressing the question of this article, including seven randomized trials. We extracted data, combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded fluid restriction probably decreases hospital readmission in chronic heart failure and might decrease mortality, but the certainty of the evidence for the latter is low.
McDonagh, Theresa A; Gardner, Roy S; Lainscak, Mitja
It is well established that organized care of heart failure patients, including specialist management by cardiologists, improves patient outcomes. In response to this, other national training bodies (the UK and the USA) have developed heart failure subspecialty curricula within their Cardiology...... Training Curricula. In addition, European Society of Cardiology (ESC) subspecialty curricula exist for Interventional Cardiology and Heart Rhythm Management. The purpose of this heart failure curriculum is to provide a framework which can be used as a blueprint for training across Europe. This blueprint...... mirrors other ESC curricula. Each section has three components: the knowledge required, the skills which are necessary, and the professionalism (attitudes and behaviours) which should be attained. The programme is designed to last 2 years. The first year is devoted to the specialist heart failure module...
Pop, Dana; Sitar-Tăut, Adela-Viviana; Procopciuc, Lucia; Cebanu, Mirela; Zdrenghea, M; Zdrenghea, D
Genetic polymorphism of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system affects the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF). The purpose of our study is to analyze A/G renin genetic polymorphism in heart failure patients. We investigated renin polymorphism in 83 subjects hospitalized in the Cardiology Department of the Rehabilitation Hospital Cluj-Napoca, using the PCR amplification method. 43 patients were diagnosed with heart failure [NYHA III-IV class], and 40 subjects without cardiovascular disease (control group). The NT-proBNP and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors were assessed. Heart failure etiology was IHD in 60.46% of patients. The average value of NT-pro BNP was 2991.24 ± 2034.6 pg/ml. As it was expected, HF patients presented low lipid levels: total cholesterol = 162.36 ± 38.28 mg/dl, LDL-Cholesterol = 104.88 ± 27.60 mg/dl, triglycerides= 109.12 ± 55.84 mg/dl, HDL-Co = 35.68 ± 9.55 mg/dl. A/G renin genetic polymorphism [with pathogenic potential] in heart failure patients was of 60.46% (homozygote 4.65% and heterozygote 55.81%). Conversely, pathogenic mutations were found only in 38.46% of hypertensive patients, but also in 55.88% and 22.22% patients with obesity/overweight and diabetes. The heterozygote form was found in only 37.5% of control subjects. This study showed no involvement of A/G renin polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of HF.
Tangø, M; Lyngborg, K; Mehlsen, J
Twelve patients in severe congestive heart failure were given placebo, 100 mg xamoterol (Corwin) twice daily and 200 mg xamoterol twice daily, respectively, in 3 two-week periods in a double-blind randomised study. At the end of each treatment period the patients were evaluated. No differences were...... found between placebo and xamoterol in the following parameters: New York Heart Association function group index, heart volume, body weight, exercise duration on bicycle and treadmill, heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest. However, during exercise we found significantly lower...... heart rate and rate-pressure product during xamoterol treatment. This reduction is probably indicating occupation of beta-adrenoreceptors with concomitant reduced oxygen consumption during exercise....
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic drug-disease model to predict carvedilol exposure in adult and paediatric heart failure patients by incorporating pathophysiological changes in hepatic and renal blood flows.
Rasool, Muhammad Fawad; Khalil, Feras; Läer, Stephanie
Chronic diseases are associated with pathophysiological changes that could have profound impacts on drug pharmacokinetic behaviour, with a potential need to modify the administered drug therapy. It is important to acknowledge that most patients with chronic illnesses do not have a single, predominant condition but suffer from multiple comorbidities. The rapid advancement in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling, as well as the increasing quantitative knowledge of disease-related pathophysiological changes, facilitate building of drug-disease models. However, there are only a few published examples of PBPK models incorporating the pathophysiological changes that occur with chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to develop PBPK models that incorporate the haemodynamic changes in hepatic and renal blood flows occurring in chronic heart failure (CHF) and to evaluate these changes in adults and children, using carvedilol as a model drug. After a comprehensive literature search to select the model input parameters, two PBPK models were developed. Model 1 was based on human liver and intestinal microsome clearances, and model 2 was based on clearance by specific cytochrome P450 enzymes. After evaluation of both models in healthy adults, the reduced hepatic and renal blood flows were incorporated into the developed models to predict carvedilol exposure in the adult CHF population. The adult carvedilol models were scaled down to children by using Simcyp(®) (Simcyp Ltd, Sheffield, UK). In order to show the impact of reduced organ blood flows on carvedilol disposition, the predictions in the CHF population were made with and without reductions in organ blood flows. The predictions made by both models in healthy adults were comparable and within the 2-fold error range. In adults with CHF, the mean observed/predicted ratio [ratio(Obs/Pred)] for oral clearance (CL/F) without reductions in organ blood flows was outside the 2-fold error range, i
Full Text Available Multiple Myeloma (MM frequently presents with renal dysfunction apart from other manifestations. Development of renal failure in patients with MM carries a poor prognosis. Bortezo-mib is a new addition to drugs used in MM and has shown good efficacy and safety profiles. Previous trials have shown its efficacy in relapsed and refractory MM as well. Studies have also shown that bortezomib is also effective in patients with MM who present with renal failure. We report here six cases of renal failure secondary to MM treated with bortezomib. All patients had poor performance status of 3-4 on ECOG scale. Five out of six patients showed satisfactory anti-myeloma response to bortezomib. Reversal of renal failure was observed in all six patients. Adverse effects to bortezomib were mild and manageable. Reversal of renal failure persisted despite incomplete response to MM in two cases, and progression of disease in one patient. It appears that bortezomib may have an effect on the kidneys in reversal of renal failure, other than its anti-myeloma effect. In conclusion, borte-zomib appears to be an effective treatment for patients with advanced MM and renal failure irres-pective of performance status and age.
Hinton, Robert B; Ware, Stephanie M
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome resulting from diverse primary and secondary causes and shared pathways of disease progression, correlating with substantial mortality, morbidity, and cost. HF in children is most commonly attributable to coexistent congenital heart disease, with different risks depending on the specific type of malformation. Current management and therapy for HF in children are extrapolated from treatment approaches in adults. This review discusses the causes, epidemiology, and manifestations of HF in children with congenital heart disease and presents the clinical, genetic, and molecular characteristics that are similar or distinct from adult HF. The objective of this review is to provide a framework for understanding rapidly increasing genetic and molecular information in the challenging context of detailed phenotyping. We review clinical and translational research studies of HF in congenital heart disease including at the genome, transcriptome, and epigenetic levels. Unresolved issues and directions for future study are presented. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Full Text Available Poonam Jain, Sapna Shah, Razek Coussa, Satya PrakashBiomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physiology, Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, CanadaAbstract: Renal insufficiency leads to uremia, a complicated syndrome. It thus becomes vital to reduce waste metabolites and regulate water and electrolytes in kidney failure. The most common treatment of this disease is either dialysis or transplantation. Although these treatments are very effective, they are extremely costly. Recently artificial cells, microencapsulated live bacterial cells, and other cells have been studied to manage renal failure metabolic wastes. The procedure for microencapsulation of biologically active material is well documented and offers many biomedical applications. Microencapsulated bacteria have been documented to efficiently remove urea and several uremic markers such as ammonia, creatinine, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride. These bacteria also have further potential as biotherapeutic agents because they can be engineered to remove selected unwanted waste. This application has enormous potential for removal of waste metabolites and electrolytes in renal failure as well as other diseases such as liver failure, phenylketonuria, and Crohn’s disease, to name a few. This paper discusses the various options available to date to manage renal failure metabolites and focuses on the potential of using encapsulated live cells as biotherapeutic agents to control renal failure waste metabolites and electrolytes. Keywords: renal failure, microencapsulation, artificial cells, oral administration, bacterial cells, metabolites, electrolytes, polymeric membrane
Libório, Alexandre Braga; Uchia, Russian Soares; Aragao, Alessa Peixoto; Neto, João David de Sousa; Valdivia, Juan Miguel Cosquillo; de Alencar, Filipe; Mont'Alverne, Ricardo Everton Dias; de Sá Filho, Francisco Ivan Benício; Mejia, Juan Alberto Cosquillo
Cardiorenal syndrome has been recently divided into 5 categories, according to acute or chronic evolution and primary organ dysfunction. Anemia can also accompany this disorder, leading to a more complex situation. This study aims to analyze the renal outcomes of patients, specifically patients with chronic Cardiorenal syndrome, with or without anemia, long-term after heart transplantation. This was a retrospective cohort study on chronic Cardiorenal syndrome patients submitted to heart transplantation. Patients were divided according to presence of anemia and renal dysfunction before heart transplantation. A total of 108 patients (92 males) with the mean age of 45±12 years were included. The etiologies of the heart failure were hypertensive dilated myocardiopathy (66%), ischemic (14%) and Chagasic (12%). Before the heart transplantation, 51 patients had an eGFR less than 60 mL/min. From these, 24 had concomitant anemia. One year after the transplantation, patients with previous isolated renal dysfunction ameliorates eGFR (45±11 vs. 65±26 mL/min, pCardiorenal syndrome presented partial renal function recovery after heart transplantation, while the presence of cardiorenal anemia was a marker of renal function non-recovery 1 year after heart transplantation.
Schlegel, J.U.; Lang, E.K.
The computed radionuclide urogram is advocated as a noninvasive diagnostic method for differentiation of the most common prerenal, renal, and postrenal causes of acute renal failure. On the basis of characteristic changes in the effective renal plasma flow rate, the calculated filtration fraction, and the calculated glomerular filtration rate, prerenal conditions such as renal artery stenosis or thrombosis, renal conditions such as acute rejection or acute tubular necrosis, and postrenal conditions such as obstruction or leakage, which are the most common causes of acute renal failure, can be differentiated. In conjunction with morphologic criteria derived from sonograms, a diagnosis with acceptable confidence can be rendered in most instances. Both the computed radionuclide urogram and sonogram are noninvasive and can be used without adverse effects in the presence of azotemia and even anuria. This also makes feasible reexamination at intervals to assess effect of therapy and offer prognostic information.
Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Zhang, Yuhui; Ky, Bonnie
Biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases are indispensable tools for diagnosis and prognosis, and the use of several biomarkers is now considered the standard of care. New markers continue to be developed, but few prove to be substantially better than established markers. Suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) is a marker of cardiomyocyte stress and fibrosis that provides incremental value to natriuretic peptides for risk stratification of patients with a wide spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. On the basis of all available data, the 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association guidelines now recommend measurement of ST2 for additive risk stratification in patients with acute or chronic ambulatory heart failure (HF). This report provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical studies that led to the endorsement of ST2 as a cardiovascular prognostic marker in chronic HF. The presented data suggest that the addition of ST2 to a model that includes established mortality risk factors, including natriuretic peptides, substantially improves the risk stratification for death and HF hospitalization in patients with HF. ST2's prognostic value remains strong even in the subset of patients with renal insufficiency and is superior to other remodeling-fibrosis biomarkers currently being evaluated. In conclusion, these results have been repeatedly validated; thus, ST2 could be rapidly incorporated into clinical practice for risk prediction. Indeed, the body of evidence supporting the use of ST2 in chronic HF stratification continues to grow, with consistent data from cohorts around the world in single-center (Barcelona, Brussels, and San Diego cohorts) and multicenter (Penn Heart Failure Study [PHFS] and Muerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiac [MUSIC]) studies and in post hoc studies from clinical trials (Prospective Randomized Amlodipine Survival Evaluation 2 [PRAISE-2], Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training [HF
de Peuter, Olav R; Kok, Wouter E M; Torp-Pedersen, Christian
Systolic heart failure is a common syndrome whose incidence is expected to increase. Several treatment modalities, such as beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, improve survival. Whether antithrombotic treatment is effective remains to be elucidated, although observations su...
Callan, Paul D; Clark, Andrew L
Physicians responsible for the care of patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction have access to a broad range of evidence-based treatments that prolong life and reduce symptoms. In spite of the significant progress made over the last four decades, there is an ongoing need for novel therapies to treat a condition that is associated with stubbornly high morbidity and mortality. In this article, we discuss the findings of SERVE-HF, a randomised controlled trial of adaptive servo-ventilation in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, as well as EMPA-REG, a study of the effects of a novel diabetic agent that may be of greater interest to heart failure specialists than diabetologists. We also examine further analyses of the groundbreaking PARADIGM-HF trial, which attempt to answer some of the unresolved questions from the original study of the first combined angiotensin-receptor blocker and neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril valsartan. The recently published National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines for the management of acute heart failure and plans to introduce best practice tariffs bring into focus the need for well-organised, multidisciplinary care. We discuss the challenges involved in developing and delivering a specialist service that meets the needs of a growing population of patients living with heart failure. © Royal College of Physicians 2016. All rights reserved.
Feb 1, 1999 ... Heart failure - an inflammatory paradigm. E. Q. KLUG. TABLE I. CYTOKINES MEDIATING MYOCARDIAL. DEPRESSION certain characteristics. In general they mediate cell growth, inflammation, immunity, differentiation and repair. They are small to medium-sized peptides produced by a variety of different ...
Christensen, Heidi M.; Schou, Morten; Goetze, Jens P
Low body mass index (BMI) is associated with a poor outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF). An inverse association between BMI and adiponectin and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether novel markers...
Balling, Louise; Gustafsson, Finn
Increased neurohormonal activation is a key feature of heart failure (HF). Copeptin is a surrogate marker for proarginine vasopressin and the prognostic value of copeptin has been reported for multiple disease states of both nonvascular and cardiovascular etiology. Elevated plasma copeptin in HF...
Luttik, Marie Louise; Blaauwbroek, Arnarins; Dijker, Anton; Jaarsma, Tiny
To preserve the supportive capabilities of partners of heart failure (HF) patients, it is necessary to gain insight in the experiences and potential needs of these partners. Thirteen partners of HF patients participated in semistructured interviews specifically focused on their experiences as a
Heart failure (HF) is an increasing health care problem worldwide, and a multidisciplinary approach with a general practitioner (GP) in the health care team is considered optimal. HF management has improved substantially over the last two decades, mainly for patients with HF with a reduced ejection
Hauptman, Paul J
Hyponatremia is a significant and independent predictor of outcomes including rehospitalization and mortality in patients with both acute decompensated heart failure (HF) and chronic HF. Even modest degrees of hyponatremia are associated with a poorer prognosis. Treatment options include fluid restriction and the vaptan class ("aquaretics") in select patients. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Hanna, Elias B; Hanna Deschamps, Eliana
Congestion and acute renal dysfunction are at the center of acute heart failure (HF) syndromes. Acute cardiorenal syndrome, which refers to worsening of renal function in a patient with acute HF syndrome, is partly related to venous congestion and high renal afterload. Aggressive decongestion improves renal and myocardial flow and ventricular loading conditions, potentially resulting in reduced HF progression, rehospitalization, and mortality. High-dose diuretic therapy remains the mainstay therapy. Ultrafiltration and inotropic therapy are useful in the subgroup of patients with a low-output state and diuretic resistance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hyre Anderson, Amanda; Yang, Wei; Christenson, Robert H.; deFilippi, Christopher R.; Deo, Rajat; Dries, Daniel L.; Go, Alan S.; He, Jiang; Kusek, John W.; Lash, James P.; Raj, Dominic; Rosas, Sylvia; Wolf, Myles; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shlipak, Michael G.; Feldman, Harold I.
High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) strongly predict heart failure (HF) in the general population. However, the interpretation of levels of these biomarkers as predictors of HF is uncertain among patients with CKD. Here, we investigated whether hsTnT and NT-proBNP are associated with incident HF among patients with CKD. In a prospective cohort analysis, we studied 3483 people with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study recruited from June of 2003 to August of 2008 who were free of HF at baseline. We used Cox regression to examine the association of baseline levels of hsTnT and NT-proBNP with incident HF after adjustment for demographic factors, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, markers of kidney disease, pertinent medication use, and mineral metabolism markers. At baseline, hsTnT levels ranged from ≤5.0 to 378.7 pg/ml, and NT-proBNP levels ranged from ≤5 to 35,000 pg/ml. Compared with those who had undetectable hsTnT, participants in the highest quartile (>26.5 ng/ml) had a significantly higher rate of HF (hazard ratio, 4.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.49 to 9.14). Similarly, compared with those in the lowest NT-proBNP quintile (433.0 ng/ml) experienced a substantially higher rate of HF (hazard ratio, 9.57; 95% confidence interval, 4.40 to 20.83). In conclusion, hsTnT and NT-proBNP were strongly associated with incident HF among a diverse cohort of individuals with mild to severe CKD. Elevations in these biomarkers may indicate subclinical changes in volume and myocardial stress that subsequently contribute to clinical HF. PMID:25278510
Patient and disease characteristics associated with activation for self-management in patients with diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure and chronic renal disease: a cross-sectional survey study.
Full Text Available A substantial proportion of chronic disease patients do not respond to self-management interventions, which suggests that one size interventions do not fit all, demanding more tailored interventions. To compose more individualized strategies, we aim to increase our understanding of characteristics associated with patient activation for self-management and to evaluate whether these are disease-transcending. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in primary and secondary care in patients with type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM-II, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, Chronic Heart Failure (CHF and Chronic Renal Disease (CRD. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we analyzed associations between self-management activation (13-item Patient Activation Measure; PAM-13 and a wide range of socio-demographic, clinical, and psychosocial determinants. Furthermore, we assessed whether the associations between the determinants and the PAM were disease-transcending by testing whether disease was an effect modifier. In addition, we identified determinants associated with low activation for self-management using logistic regression analysis. We included 1154 patients (53% response rate; 422 DM-II patients, 290 COPD patients, 223 HF patients and 219 CRD patients. Mean age was 69.6±10.9. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed 9 explanatory determinants of activation for self-management: age, BMI, educational level, financial distress, physical health status, depression, illness perception, social support and underlying disease, explaining a variance of 16.3%. All associations, except for social support, were disease transcending. This study explored factors associated with varying levels of activation for self-management. These results are a first step in supporting clinicians and researchers to identify subpopulations of chronic disease patients less likely to be engaged in self-management. Increased scientific efforts are needed to explain
Garrouste, C; Hémery, M; Boudat, A M; Kamar, N
Fungi poisoning is quite frequent: in particular, Amanita phalloides has life-threatening toxicity. It is responsible for fulminant hepatitis, and also has renal toxicity. Herein, we report on a patient who developed acute renal failure after ingesting A. phalloides, which required definitive renal replacement therapy, despite rapid liver injury recovery. A kidney biopsy showed massive acute tubular necrosis, mainly in the proximal convoluted tubule, and mild interstitial infiltration by mononuclear cells.
Deetman, Petronella E.; Zelle, Dorien M.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Navis, Gerjan J.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.
Exogenous bilirubin has been shown to protect against oxidative stress in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic transplant dysfunction leading to late graft failure after renal transplantation. We prospectively investigated whether high
Argamany, Jacqueline R; Reveles, Kelly R; Duhon, Bryson
Synthetic cannabinoid usage has increased in the past decade. Concurrently, emergency management of associated adverse effects due to synthetic cannabinoid usage has also risen. Reported toxicities include psychosis, seizures, cardiotoxicity, acute kidney injury, and death. While cannabis was first described as a cause of acute hyperemesis in 2004, a more recent case series also describes the association between cannabinoid hyperemesis and risk of acute renal failure. Synthetic cannabinoids have also been reported to cause acute hyperemesis and acute renal failure; however, the risk of rhabdomyolysis-induced renal failure has yet to be elucidated. In this article, we report the first known case of synthetic cannabinoid hyperemesis leading to rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.
Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, Jose; Reiss, Peter; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Zilmer, Kai; Beniowski, Marek; Viard, Jean-Paul; Staszewski, Schlomo; Lundgren, Jens D.
BACKGROUND: The role of exposure to antiretrovirals in chronic renal failure (CRF) is not well understood. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) are estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) or Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations. METHODS: Baseline was arbitrarily defined as the first
Lilien, M.; Duran, M.; van Hoeck, K.; Poll-The, B. T.; Schröder, C.
BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia has been identified as a significant risk factor for the occurrence of atherosclerosis in adults with chronic renal failure. Because of its presumed direct toxic effect on the vascular wall, long-standing hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia in children with chronic renal
Background: Vascular disease is common in patients with chronic renal failure as well as in patients with renal transplantation. It is a common cause of death in these patients. One possible factor for this increased incidence of vascular disease is hyperlipidaemia that frequently occurs in these patients. Purpose: To ...
Background. Post-traumatic acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy in an intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with high mortality. Objective. To assess indicators of improved survival. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study of 64 consecutive trauma patients (penetrating and blunt trauma and burns) ...
Creyghton, W. M.; Lobatto, S.; Weening, J. J.
We report a 34-year-old male patient without prior medical history who presented with acute renal failure due to acute bacterial pyelonephritis. Both blood and urine cultures grew Klebsiella pneumoniae. Although a kidney biopsy revealed extensive necrosis and no viable glomeruli, renal function
Rosca, Mariana G.; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L.
Heart failure (HF) frequently is the unfavorable outcome of pathological heart hypertrophy. In contrast to physiological cardiac hypertrophy, which occurs in response to exercise and leads to full adaptation of contractility to the increased wall stress, pathological hypertrophy occurs in response to volume or pressure overload, ultimately leading to contractile dysfunction and HF. Because cardiac hypertrophy impairs the relationship between ATP demand and production, mitochondrial bioenergetics must keep up with the cardiac hypertrophic phenotype. We review data regarding the mitochondrial proteomic and energetic remodeling in cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the temporal and causal relationship between mitochondrial failure to match the increased energy demand and progression to cardiac decompensation. We suggest that the maladaptive effect of sustained neuroendocrine signals on mitochondria leads to bioenergetic fading which contributes to the progression from cardiac hypertrophy to failure. PMID:22982369
Jonathan D. Santoro
Full Text Available Omphalocele-exstrophy of the bladder-imperforate anus-spinal defect (OEIS complex is a rare constellation of clinical abnormalities with wide phenotypic presentation. We describe a case of a preterm neonate with OEIS complex with acute renal failure, and the challenges in diagnosis and management of this patient as renal failure can be a multifactorial process when encountered with this rare complex.
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders are the most frequent cause of death (46-60% among patients with advanced chronic renal failure (CRF, and on dialysis treatment. Uremic cardiomyopathy is the basic pathophysiologic substrate, whereas ischemic heart disease (IHD and anemia are the most important contributing factors. Associated with well-know risk factors and specific disorders for terminal kidney failure and dialysis, the aforementioned factors instigate congestive heart failure (CHF. Suspected CHF is based on the anamnesis, clinical examination and ECG, while it is confirmed and defined more precisely on the basis of echocardiography and radiology examination. Biohumoral data (BNP, NT-proBNP are not sufficiently reliable because of specific volemic fluctuation and reduced natural clearance. Therapy approach is similar to the one for the general population: ACEI, ARBs, β-blockers, inotropic drugs and diuretics. Hypervolemia and most of the related symptoms can be kept under control effectively by the isolated or ultrafiltation, in conjunction with dialysis, during the standard bicarbonate hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration. In the same respect peritoneal dialysis is efficient for the control of hypervolemia symptoms, mainly during the first years of its application and in case of the lower NYHA class (II°/III°. In general, heart support therapy, surgical interventions of the myocardium and valve replacement are rarely used in patients on dialysis, whereas revascularization procedures are beneficial for associated IHD. In selected cases the application of cardiac resynchronization and/or implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator are advisable.
de Gasperi, A; Mazza, E; Noè, L; Corti, A; Cristalli, A; Prosperi, M; Sabbadini, D; Savi, M C; Vai, S
To define the pharmacokinetic profile of the induction dose of propofol in chronic renal failure patients. Determination of propofol blood concentrations after the bolus dose of 2 mg.kg-1 bw injected in 30 seconds in a peripheral vein in a group of chronic renal failure (CRF) patients and in a group of normal patients (controls). 10 CRF patients (7 males, 3 females, mean age 47 +/- 8 years old, mean body weight 66 +/- 8 kg) candidates to cadaveric renal transplantation and free from major hepatic diseases (study group); 8 ASA I patients (5 males, 3 females), without major cardiorespiratory, hepatic, renal, hematologic or metabolic diseases undergoing minor elective surgical procedures lasting from 50 to 90 minutes (control group). a) propofol blood concentrations by means of HPLC; b) derived pharmacokinetic parameters (calculated by means of Siphar, version 4.0, Societé de informatique médicale, Simed, Paris, 1991); c) cardiovascular parameters (heart rate, central venous pressure, invasive arterial pressure). The decay of propofol whole blood concentrations, distribution, redistribution and elimination half lives were similar in CRF and in control patients. On the contrary, significantly different in CRF patients were propofol blood concentrations from two to ten minutes following the induction dose (lower), the area under concentration- time curve (AUC) (smaller), the mean resident time (longer), the total body clearance (greater), the volumes of distribution at steady state and during the elimination phase (larger). The larger volumes of distribution are closely correlated with the significantly lower albumin concentrations in the uremic patients. An accelerated hepatic biotransformation is one of the possible explanations for the greater total body clearance of propofol in the uraemic patients: in fact an increased glucuronyltrasferase activity and glucuronoconjugation induced by phenols has been demonstrated in uraemia. On the other hand, large volumes of
Renal function estimation and Cockroft-Gault formulas for predicting cardiovascular mortality in population-based, cardiovascular risk, heart failure and post-myocardial infarction cohorts: The Heart 'OMics' in AGEing (HOMAGE) and the high-risk myocardial infarction database initiatives.
Ferreira, João Pedro; Girerd, Nicolas; Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Duarte, Kevin; Girerd, Sophie; Pfeffer, Marc A; McMurray, John J V; Pitt, Bertram; Dickstein, Kenneth; Jacobs, Lotte; Staessen, Jan A; Butler, Javed; Latini, Roberto; Masson, Serge; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Rocca, Hans Peter Brunner-La; Delles, Christian; Heymans, Stephane; Sattar, Naveed; Jukema, J Wouter; Cleland, John G; Zannad, Faiez; Rossignol, Patrick
Renal impairment is a major risk factor for mortality in various populations. Three formulas are frequently used to assess both glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or creatinine clearance (CrCl) and mortality prediction: body surface area adjusted-Cockcroft-Gault (CG-BSA), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD4), and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. The CKD-EPI is the most accurate eGFR estimator as compared to a "gold-standard"; however, which of the latter is the best formula to assess prognosis remains to be clarified. This study aimed to compare the prognostic value of these formulas in predicting the risk of cardiovascular mortality (CVM) in population-based, cardiovascular risk, heart failure (HF) and post-myocardial infarction (MI) cohorts. Two previously published cohorts of pooled patient data derived from the partners involved in the HOMAGE-consortium and from four clinical trials - CAPRICORN, EPHESUS, OPTIMAAL and VALIANT - the high risk MI initiative, were used. A total of 54,111 patients were included in the present analysis: 2644 from population-based cohorts; 20,895 from cardiovascular risk cohorts; 1801 from heart failure cohorts; and 28,771 from post-myocardial infarction cohorts. Participants were patients enrolled in the respective cohorts and trials. The primary outcome was CVM. All formulas were strongly and independently associated with CVM. Lower eGFR/CrCl was associated with increasing CVM rates for values below 60 mL/min/m2. Categorical renal function stages diverged in a more pronounced manner with the CG-BSA formula in all populations (higher χ2 values), with lower stages showing stronger associations. The discriminative improvement driven by the CG-BSA formula was superior to that of MDRD4 and CKD-EPI, but remained low overall (increase in C-index ranging from 0.5 to 2 %) while not statistically significant in population-based cohorts. The integrated discrimination improvement and net
Aronow, Wilbert S
Class I recommendations for treating patients with current or prior symptoms of heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) include using diuretics and salt restriction in individuals with fluid retention. Use angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta blockers, and angiotensin II receptor blockers if intolerant to ACE inhibitors because of cough or angioneurotic edema. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, most antiarrhythmic drugs, and calcium channel blockers should be avoided or withdrawn. Exercise training is recommended. Implant cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is recommended in individuals with a history of cardiac arrest, ventricular fibrillation, or hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia. ICD is indicated in patients with ischemic heart disease for at least 40 d post-myocardial infarction or nonischemic cardiomyopathy, an LVEF of 30% or less, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II or III symptoms on optimal medical therapy, and an expectation of survival of at least 1 yr. Cardiac resynchronization therapy should be used in individuals with an LVEF of 35% or below, NYHA class III or IV symptoms despite optimal therapy, and a QRS duration greater than 120 ms. An aldosterone antagonist can be added in selected patients with moderately severe to severe symptoms of heart failure who can be carefully monitored for renal function and potassium concentration (serum creatinine should be
Melenovsky, Vojtech; Hwang, Seok-Jae; Lin, Grace; Redfield, Margaret M.; Borlaug, Barry A.
Aim Right heart function is not well characterized in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The goal of this study was to examine the haemodynamic, clinical, and prognostic correlates of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in HFpEF. Methods and results Heart failure and preserved ejection fraction patients (n = 96) and controls (n = 46) underwent right heart catheterization, echocardiographic assessment, and follow-up. Right and left heart filling pressures, pulmonary artery (PA) pressures, and right-sided chamber dimensions were higher in HFpEF compared with controls, while left ventricular size and EF were similar. Right ventricular dysfunction (defined by RV fractional area change, FAC Right ventricular function was impaired in HFpEF compared with controls using both load-dependent (FAC: 40 ± 10 vs. 53 ± 7%, P Right heart dysfunction is common in HFpEF and is caused by both RV contractile impairment and afterload mismatch from pulmonary hypertension. Right ventricular dysfunction in HFpEF develops with increasing PA pressures, atrial fibrillation, male sex, and left ventricular dysfunction, and may represent a novel therapeutic target. PMID:24875795
Z. D. Kobalava
Full Text Available Serelaxin (recombinant molecule of the human relaxin-2 is an innovative drug for the treatment of acute heart failure. Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrated the ability of serelaxin to relieve the symptoms of heart failure, provide a significant reduction in congestion and have a protective effect on the heart, kidneys, liver. 48-hour serelaxin infusion in patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy and severe decompensated heart failure with cardio-hepatic syndrome led to significant regression of systemic congestion (evaluated by physical signs and by bioimpedance vector analysis, the improvement of structural and functional state of the myocardium (evaluated by standard echocardiography and global systolic longitudinal deformation of the left ventricle with speckle tracking echocardiography, regression of cardio-hepatic syndrome, improvement of renal function. Serelaxin therapy was well tolerated and was safe. Presented case report demonstrates beneficial effects of serelaxin on the heart failure symptoms and the organoprotective effects.
Ejerblad, Elisabeth; Fored, C Michael; Lindblad, Per; Fryzek, Jon; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Nyrén, Olof
Few large-scale epidemiologic studies have quantified the possible link between obesity and chronic renal failure (CRF). This study analyzed anthropometric data from a nationwide, population-based, case-control study of incident, moderately severe CRF. Eligible as cases were all native Swedes who were aged 18 to 74 yr and had CRF and whose serum creatinine for the first time and permanently exceeded 3.4 mg/dl (men) or 2.8 mg/dl (women) during the study period. A total of 926 case patients and 998 control subjects, randomly drawn from the study base, were enrolled. Face-to-face interviews, supplemented with self-administered questionnaires, provided information about anthropometric measures and other lifestyle factors. Logistic regression models with adjustments for several co-factors estimated the relative risk for CRF in relation to body mass index (BMI). Overweight (BMI>or=25 kg/m2) at age 20 was associated with a significant three-fold excess risk for CRF, relative to BMIor=30) among men and morbid obesity (BMI>or=35) among women anytime during lifetime was linked to three- to four-fold increases in risk. The strongest association was with diabetic nephropathy, but two- to three-fold risk elevations were observed for all major subtypes of CRF. Analyses that were confined to strata without hypertension or diabetes revealed a three-fold increased risk among patients who were overweight at age 20, whereas the two-fold observed risk elevation among those who had a highest lifetime BMI of >35 was statistically nonsignificant. Obesity seems to be an important-and potentially preventable-risk factor for CRF. Although hypertension and type 2 diabetes are important mediators, additional pathways also may exist.
Gilstrap, Lauren G; Snipelisky, David; AbouEzzeddine, Omar; Vader, Justin; Cooper, Lauren; Kelley, Jacob; Perez, Antonio; Varian, Kenneth; Lala, Anuradha; Shah, Monica; Stevenson, Lynne W
The epidemiology of heart failure (HF) is changing. This study aimed to describe questions that arise during the routine care of HF patients that are unanswered by the current literature and describe how the type and focus of these questions has changed over time. Investigators from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Heart Failure Apprentice Network collected and categorized questions from 5 academic hospitals over 12 months. A total of 174 unanswered questions were collected and analyzed. Compared with 2004, there were more unanswered questions about "whether" to use therapies and fewer about "how" to use therapies. There were fewer questions about what therapeutic targets, therapy adjustment, and combination therapies. There were more questions about whether or how to stop therapies and how to add therapies back. Newly prominent topics, not observed in 2004, including novel therapeutics, refractory ventricular tachycardia, right heart failure, and nutrition/frailty, accounted for 24% of questions. Compared with 2004, there are fewer unanswered questions about how to use, adjust, and combine therapies. There were more unanswered questions about whether and how to stop therapies. Almost 25% of unanswered questions dealt with topics indicative of more advanced disease which were not observed in 2004. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Haddad, Haissam; Mielniczuk, Lisa; Davies, Ross A
This review will provide an overview of the recent advances in the management of chronic heart failure, with special focus on major publications in the past 2 years, 2010-2011. In the past 1-2 years, there have been a number of publications that promise to make a major difference in patient management and outcome in heart failure. These include two clinical trials in patients with less symptomatic heart failure, namely the use of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and eplerinone, an aldosterone receptor antagonist, and another study using ivabradine, which belongs to a new class of If channel blocking drugs used for heart rate reduction in patients with moderate heart failure. The evolving role of telemedicine in remote management of patients with heart failure is reviewed. New data demonstrate the benefit of CRT and aldosterone antagonists in milder heart failure, the benefit of ivabradine in moderate heart failure with heart rate of 70 or more, and the potential role of telemedicine.
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167058.html Fewer Heart Failure Patients Dying of Cardiac Arrest Researchers chock it ... 6, 2017 THURSDAY, July 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Heart failure patients are much less likely now to die ...
... Iron Pills No Help for Certain Type of Heart Failure High-dose supplements failed to improve exercise capacity, ... iron-deficient patients with a certain type of heart failure, a new study finds. Iron deficiency affects about ...
... fullstory_165588.html Timing of Menopause May Affect Heart Failure Risk Women whose periods end early and those ... gave birth might have an increased risk of heart failure, a new study suggests. Researchers analyzed data from ...
... A Patient’s Guide to Living Confidently With Chronic Heart Failure Samuel F. Sears , Lawrence Woodrow , Katherine Cutitta , Jessica ... References Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Chronic heart failure (CHF) refers to the ongoing condition of your ...
Sturm, HB; van Gilst, WH; Swedberg, K; Hobbs, FDR; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM
Background: Major international differences in heart failure treatment have been repeatedly described, but the reasons for these differences remain unclear. National guideline recommendations might be a relevant factor. This study, therefore, explored variation of heart failure guideline
Jonassen, Thomas E N; Graebe, Martin; Promeneur, Dominique
In conscious, chronically instrumented rats we examined 1) renal tubular functional changes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute renal failure; 2) the effects of LPS on the expression of selected renal tubular water and sodium transporters; and 3) effects of milrinone......-alpha and lactate, inhibited the LPS-induced tachycardia, and exacerbated the acute LPS-induced fall in GFR. Furthermore, Ro-20-1724-treated rats were unable to maintain MAP. We conclude 1) PDE3 or PDE4 inhibition exacerbates LPS-induced renal failure in conscious rats; and 2) LPS treated rats develop an escape......, a phosphodiesterase type 3 (PDE3) inhibitor, and Ro-20-1724, a PDE4 inhibitor, on LPS-induced changes in renal function. Intravenous infusion of LPS (4 mg/kg b.wt. over 1 h) caused an immediate decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proximal tubular outflow without changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP...
Swedberg, Karl; Young, James B; Anand, Inder S
Patients with systolic heart failure and anemia have worse symptoms, functional capacity, and outcomes than those without anemia. We evaluated the effects of darbepoetin alfa on clinical outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure and anemia.......Patients with systolic heart failure and anemia have worse symptoms, functional capacity, and outcomes than those without anemia. We evaluated the effects of darbepoetin alfa on clinical outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure and anemia....
Abrahamsson, Putte; Swedberg, Karl; Borer, Jeffrey S
We explored the impact of being hospitalized due to worsening heart failure (WHF) or a myocardial infarction (MI) on subsequent mortality in a large contemporary data set of patients with stable chronic systolic heart failure (HF).......We explored the impact of being hospitalized due to worsening heart failure (WHF) or a myocardial infarction (MI) on subsequent mortality in a large contemporary data set of patients with stable chronic systolic heart failure (HF)....
Hypertensive heart disease (HHD) has been considered the adaptive hypertrophy of the left ventricle wall to increased blood pressure. Recent findings in hypertensive animals and patients now challenge this paradigm by showing that HHD also results from pathologic structural remodeling of the myocardium in response to hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic factors that are altered in arterial hypertension. The possibility that hypertensive patients predisposed to develop heart failure may be detected before the appearance of clinical manifestations provides a new way to prevent this major arterial complication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
V. T. Dolgikh
Full Text Available An experiment on 106 non-inbred male albino rats undergone 4-minute clinical death from acute blood loss has revealed that the first three days after resuscitation are marked by a concomitance of vascular disorders and cardiomyocytic dystrophic changes, the leading role being played by sludge, stasis, thrombosis, increased vascular permeability, perivascular edema, and hemorrhages. Cardiomyocytic destruction (various contractures, block-like myofibrillolysis, myocytoly-sis is a structural basis of postresuscitative heart failure. Three days later the heart displayed concomitant processes of recovery and damage. Three types of cardiac morphological changes have been identified in relation to the ratio of these processes.
Dobre, Daniela; Nimade, Sandeep; de Zeeuw, Dick
Purpose of the review To describe the role of albuminuria as a risk marker for heart failure and a predictor for treatment effect on heart failure prognosis. Recent findings The level of albumin in the urine is a predictor of heart failure in the general population and in patients with
Heart failure is a global problem. It is estimated that approximately 38 million people worldwide experience heart failure, and this number is growing because of the ageing of nations' populations, but also because patients are rescued from death during an acute myocardial infarction, and later develop heart failure.
Objectives: To evaluate the short term prognosis of childhood heart failure and highlight the factors that affect outcome among cases of heart failure admitted into the paediatric wards, University College Hospital, Ibadan. Background: Childhood heart failure remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing ...
Miller, Robin K; Thornton, Nathaniel
Chronic heart failure is a chronic condition that is associated with increased health care expenditures and high rates of morbidity and mortality. Mainstay in heart failure management has been the prescription of a fluid restriction. The purpose of this article is to review the available evidence for fluid restriction in chronic heart failure patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
heart failure, but published trials are too small to provide conclusive evidence. There is a need for large, placebo- controlled trials of pentoxifylline in heart failure, involving a diverse group of patients with regard to cause and severity of heart failure. S Afr Med l 2005; 95: 171-175. Recent research findings have suggested ...
Man-Fai Sim, Victor; Nam, Michael Chi Yuen Yuen; Riley, Steve; Yousef, Zaheer; Hurley, Joanna; Cheung, Wai-Yee; O'Mahony, Sinead
Studies suggest benefits from correcting anaemia in heart failure using a combination of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and intravenous iron. We set out to investigate the number of older patients who would require treatment of anaemia in a large teaching hospital in the United Kingdom and the cost implications. The prevalence of anaemia and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients 65 years and older with systolic dysfunction attending the local heart failure clinic was determined. The projected numbers of patients in our health district who would meet published kidney disease guidelines for treatment of anaemia was then estimated. The costs of treatment with combination ESAs and IV iron were calculated for these patients based on the treatment costs for renal anaemia in our local renal unit. Sensitivity analysis for different thresholds of haemoglobin and eGFR was performed. In our study of 86 heart failure patients, mean age 81 years, 34% have anaemia and 73% have stage III CKD with estimated glomerular filtration rate heart failure patients with stage III CKD, 1031 elderly heart failure patients in our health district (total population 424,654) would require treatment with IV iron and erythropoietin, at a cost of pound2.7 million per annum. The estimated cost of treating anaemia in elderly patients with heart failure using ESAs and IV iron is substantial and its cost effectiveness is unknown.
Jin Shyan Wong
Full Text Available Djenkol beans or jering (Pithecellobium jeringa is a traditional delicacy consumed by the local population in Malaysia. Jering poisoning or djenkolism is characterized by spasmodic pain, urinary obstruction and acute renal failure. The underlying pathology is an obstructive nephropathy, which is usually responsive to aggressive hydration and diuretic therapy. We present a case of djenkolism following ingestion of jering. The patient required urgent bilateral ureteric stenting following the failure of conservative therapy. Healthcare providers need to recognize djenkolism as a cause of acute renal failure and the public educated on this potential health hazard.
Aronow, Wilbert S
This article addresses issues related to acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by heart failure, particularly in elderly patients. Findings have shown that acute MI complicated by congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with a high mortality, and that women with acute MI are more likely to be older and to develop CHF than men with acute MI. In general, management of CHF complicating acute MI is similar in older and younger patients. Actions discussed include hemodynamic monitoring; the administration of oxygen; and the use of morphine, diuretics, nitroglycerin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, spironolactone, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, magnesium, digoxin, and positive inotropic drugs. The article also discusses measures for treating arrhythmias and for diagnosing mechanical complications.
Aronow, Wilbert S
This article addresses issues related to acute myocardial infarction(MI) complicated by heart failure, particularly in elderly patients. Findings have shown that acute MI complicated by congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with a high mortality, and that women with acute MI are more likely to be older and to develop CHF than men with acute MI. In general, management of CHF-complicating acute MI is similar in older and younger patients. Actions discussed include hemodynamic monitoring; the administration of oxygen; and the use of morphine, diuretics, nitroglycerin,angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, spironolactone, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, magnesium, digoxin, and positive inotropic drugs. The article also discusses measures for treating arrhythmias and for diagnosing mechanical complications.
Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Lahm, Tim; Hinkelbein, Jochen; Happel, Christoph M; Padosch, Stephan A
Acute right heart failure (RHF) is a frequent and severe complication during perioperative and intensive care treatment in intensive care units (ICUs). The most common causes are pulmonary hypertension, left heart failure, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, acute lung injury (ALI) and thoracosurgical procedures. Acute RHF is not only a major contributor to morbidity and mortality; it also influences efficacy and outcome of routinely performed procedures, such as vasopressors, in critically ill patients. In contrast to the left ventricle, the right ventricle's physiology and pathophysiology are understudied, and the diagnosis of acute RHF is frequently challenging. Although many drugs are available for the treatment of RHF, randomized trials for this setting are still missing. This article gives an overview of aetiology and pathogenesis of RHF and reviews the diagnostic and therapeutic interventions currently available for providers in anaesthesiology and critical care. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a complex clinical syndrome that results from any structural or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood. HF is one of the most important and severe end stages of many cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies of HF have focused mainly on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, fatality, and distribution and temporal trends of these indicators among different populations. This review highlights important epidemiological studies of HF in China.
Nikoo Hamzeh; Fatemeh Ghadimi; Rojin Farzaneh; Seyed Kianoosh Hosseini
The incidence and prevalence of obesity are fast increasing worldwide. Various indices have been used to measure and assess obesity. The body mass index (BMI) is the most common and practical of these indices. Overweight and obesity exert considerable adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. These effects are mediated through various neurohormonal and cytokine pathways, most of which are inflammatory mediators. Systolic and / or diastolic heart failure is more prevalent among obese and o...
Agard, Odile; Cristobal, Laurent; Caffray, Maxime
The benefits of cardiac rehabilitation for patients with heart failure are well documented: greater capacity during physical effort and improved quality of life, a reduction in comorbidities and in the number and duration of hospitalisations, etc. Physiotherapy is one of the tools of this specific and multidisciplinary care which is governed by protocols and which can be offered on an outpatient basis or during hospitalisation.
Bertoli, M; Luisetto, G; Ruffatti, A; Urso, M; Romagnoli, G
Some authors have reported that vitamin D treatment worsens renal function. We studied 10 patients with stable renal function, who were given calcitriol (0.5 micrograms/day) for a 4-month period. Creatinine and inulin clearance were performed at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Although serum creatinine increased and creatinine clearance decreased, inulin clearance did not show significant variations. Furthermore, serum creatinine fell to the baseline value within 60 days after discontinuation of vitamin D therapy. The increased serum creatinine may be explained by an augmented release from muscular tissue, probably due to the improvement of uremic myopathy induced by calcitriol.
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia (ED is a group of disorders involving developmental defects of the ectodermal structures, with abnormalities in the skin, hair, nails and sweat glands. Ankyloblepharon - ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC syndrome, also known as Hay-Wells syndrome, is characterized by eyelid fusion, ED and cleft lip/palate. We report a 15-year-old Omani boy with AEC syndrome who presented with end-stage renal disease (ESRD requiring renal replacement therapy. Genitourinary anomalies including hypospadiasis, posterior urethral stricture and bilateral vesicoureteric reflux were noted. These led to secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and ESRD. Screening for genitourinary anomalies and renal function tests must be performed in all patients with ED to facilitate early detection of renal disease and appropriate management.
Lubas, Arkadiusz; Ryczek, Robert; Kade, Grzegorz; Smoszna, Jerzy; Niemczyk, Stanis?aw
Introduction. Properly preserved renal perfusion is the basic determinant of oxygenation, vitality, nutrition, and organ function and its structure. Perfusion disorders are functional changes and are ahead of the appearance of biochemical markers of organ damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate a relationship between the renal cortex perfusion and markers of cardiovascular organ damage in patients with stable chronic renal failure (CKD). Methods. Seventeen patients (2?F; 15?M; age 47 ? ...
Atherosclerosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in renal patients and a major health concern in western countries per se. Recent studies point to the important role of inflammation as an underlying cause of atherosclerosis. Importantly medicines that suppress inflammation lower the incidence of atherosclerosis as well. This indicates the importance of molecules that are able to control inflammation. Inflammation in renal patients is characterized by increased plasma levels of in...
Dimitriou, Alexandros Merkourios; Dapunt, Otto; Knez, Igor; Wasler, Andrae; Oberwalder, Peter; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero; Spiliopoulos, Sotirios
Congestive hepatopathy (CH) and acute liver failure (ALF) are common among biventricular heart failure patients. We sought to evaluate the impact of total artificial heart (TAH) therapy on hepatic function and associated clinical outcomes. A total of 31 patients received a Syncardia Total Artificial Heart. Preoperatively 17 patients exhibited normal liver function or mild hepatic derangements that were clinically insignificant and did not qualify as acute or chronic liver failure, 5 patients exhibited ALF and 9 various hepatic derangements owing to CH. Liver associated mortality and postoperative course of liver values were prospectively documented and retrospectively analyzed. Liver associated mortality in normal liver function, ALF and CH cases was 0%, 20% (P=0.03) and 44.4% (P=0.0008) respectively. 1/17 (5.8%) patients with a normal liver function developed an ALF, 4/5 (80%) patients with an ALF experienced a markedly improvement of hepatic function and 6/9 (66.6%) patients with CH a significant deterioration. TAH therapy results in recovery of hepatic function in ALF cases. Patients with CH prior to surgery form a high risk group with increased liver associated mortality.
de Leeuw, K.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; van der Berg, A. P.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.
Hypoxic hepatitis secondary to heart failure is a known and treatable cause of liver failure. The diagnosis may be difficult, especially when symptoms of heart failure are absent. We present two patients who were transferred to our hospital with the diagnosis of acute liver failure to be screened
Parrinello, Gaspare; Torres, Daniele; Paterna, Salvatore
In chronic heart failure (CHF), neurohumoral systems, which help to maintain circulatory homeostasis, are maladaptive and responsible for disease progression and congestion in the long term. The activation of sympathetic hormones and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), in addition to non-osmotic vasopressin release, up-regulation of aquoporine 2 and renal sodium transporters, and renal resistance to natriuretic peptide lead to a salt- and water-avid state. A primary decrease in cardiac output and arterial vasodilatation brings about arterial underfilling, which activates neuro-humoral reflexes and systems. The heart disease is the primum movens, but the kidney is the end organ responsible for increased tubular reabsorption of sodium and water. The most important hemodynamic alteration in the kidneys is constriction of glomerular efferent arterioles, which increases intraglomerular pressure and hence glomerular filtration rate. The resulting changes in intrarenal oncotic and hydrostatic pressures promote tubular reabsorption. Over time, a gradually falling glomerular filtration rate, due to CHF progression, medications or chronic kidney injury due to comorbidities, becomes more critical in sodium/water imbalance. Moreover, long-term use of diuretics can lead to a diuretic-resistant state, which necessitates the use of higher doses further activating RAAS, often at the expense of worsening renal function. However, every patient is a case in itself and the general pathophysiology of hydro-saline balance may be different in each subject. A mechanism can prevail over others and the kidney may have different responses to the same diuretic. So, it is necessary to customize each individual's long-term therapy, tailoring medical treatment according to clinical profiles, comorbidities and renal function, introducing active control of body weight by the patient himself, fluid restriction, a less restricted sodium intake, flexibility of diuretic doses, early and