WorldWideScience

Sample records for heart attack trial

  1. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family history of heart attack race – African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and native Hawaiians are at ... Your doctor will prescribe the medicines that are right for you. If you have had a heart ...

  2. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... properly causes your body's blood sugar levels to rise, increasing your risk of heart attack. Metabolic syndrome. This occurs when you have obesity, high blood pressure and high blood sugar. Having metabolic ...

  3. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  4. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: A previous heart attack Open heart surgery Chest trauma A heart attack that has affected the thickness of your heart muscle Symptoms Symptoms include: Anxiety Chest pain from the swollen pericardium rubbing on the ...

  5. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  6. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  7. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  8. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  9. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  10. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter ... most common heart attack symptom in men and women is chest pain or discomfort. However, women also ...

  11. Panic Attack or Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When in doubt about symptoms, seek care without delay to rule out heart disease. Heart disease affects your heart's ... which cause you concern, see your doctor without delay and ask for testing to rule out heart disease. 1 Gadolinium side effects could ...

  12. Heart Attack Symptoms in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat, cholesterol and other substances (plaque). Watch an animation of a heart attack . Many women think the ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  13. Comparing Asian American Women's Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Risk of Heart Attack to Other Racial and Ethnic Groups: The mPED Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lisha, Nadra E; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare knowledge and awareness of heart attacks/heart disease and perceived risk for future heart attack in Asian/Pacific Islander women, compared to other racial and ethnic groups. In this cross-sectional study, 318 women enrolled in a mobile phone-based physical activity education trial were analyzed. Heart attack knowledge, self-efficacy for recognizing and responding to heart attack symptoms, and perceived risk for a future heart attack were measured. Analyses were conducted using logistic, proportional odds, and linear regression models, depending on the outcome and adjusting for age. Pairwise differences between Asian/Pacific Islanders and the other four groups were assessed using a Bonferroni correction (p Asian/Pacific Islander women had significantly lower total scores for knowledge of heart attack and self-efficacy for heart attack recognition and care seeking behavior compared to the Caucasian women (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). However, perceived risk did not differ among the groups. Forty-six percent of the Asian American women, compared to 25% of Caucasian women, falsely believed "breast cancer is the number one cause of death for women (p = 0.002)." In addition, Asian/Pacific Islander women were less likely to report "arm pain, numbness, tingling, or radiating" as one of the heart attack symptoms compared to the Caucasian and the multiracial group (34%, 63% [p Asian/Pacific Islander women and Caucasian women.

  14. What Is a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical center. Support from family and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones know how you feel and what they can do to help you. Risk of a Repeat Heart Attack Once ...

  15. An avatar based education application to improve patients' knowledge of and response to heart attack symptoms: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongpeth, Jintana; Du, Huiyun; Clark, Robyn

    2018-06-19

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an interactive, avatar based education application to improve knowledge of and response to heart attack symptoms in people who are at risk of a heart attack. Poor knowledge of heart attack symptoms is recognised as a significant barrier to timely medical treatment. Numerous studies have demonstrated that technology can assist in patient education to improve knowledge and self-care. A single-center, non-blinded, two parallel groups, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Seventy patients will be recruited from the coronary care unit of a public hospital. Eligible participants will be randomised to either the usual care or the intervention group (usual care plus avatar-based heart attack education app). The primary outcome of this study is knowledge. Secondary outcomes include response to heart attack symptoms, health service use and satisfaction. Study participants will be followed-up for six months. This study will evaluate the avatar based education app as a method to deliver vital information to patients. Participants' knowledge of and response to heart attack symptoms, as well as their health service use, will be assessed to evaluate the intervention effectiveness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes complications - heart; Coronary artery disease - diabetes; CAD - diabetes; Cerebrovascular disease - diabetes ... People with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure and high ...

  17. Coronary heart disease risk in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease: findings from the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Sillesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Noncoronary forms of atherosclerosis (including transient ischemic attacks or stroke of carotid origin or >50% stenosis of the carotid artery) are associated with a 10-year vascular risk of >20% and are considered as a coronary heart disease (CHD) -risk equivalent from the standpoint of lipid...... management. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial included patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known CHD regardless of the presence of carotid atherosclerosis. We evaluated the risk of developing clinically recognized CHD in SPARCL patients....

  18. Calcium Supplements: A Risk Factor for Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factor for heart attack? I've read that calcium supplements may increase the risk of heart attack. ... D. Some doctors think it's possible that taking calcium supplements may increase your risk of a heart ...

  19. Warning Signs of Heart Attack, Stroke and Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Heart.org CPR & ECC for Heart.org Shop for Heart.org Causes for Heart.org Advocate ... SIGNS may include breaking out in a cold sweat, nausea or lightheadedness. Learn more about heart attack ...

  20. Fuzzy Expert System for Heart Attack Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Norlida; Arbaiy, Nureize; Shah, Noor Aziyan Ahmad; Afizah Afif@Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    Heart attack is one of the serious illnesses and reported as the main killer disease. Early prevention is significant to reduce the risk of having the disease. The prevention efforts can be strengthen through awareness and education about risk factor and healthy lifestyle. Therefore the knowledge dissemination is needed to play role in order to distribute and educate public in health care management and disease prevention. Since the knowledge dissemination in medical is important, there is a need to develop a knowledge based system that can emulate human intelligence to assist decision making process. Thereby, this study utilized hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to develop a Fuzzy Expert System for Diagnosing Heart Attack Disease (HAD). This system integrates fuzzy logic with expert system, which helps the medical practitioner and people to predict the risk and as well as diagnosing heart attack based on given symptom. The development of HAD is expected not only providing expert knowledge but potentially become one of learning resources to help citizens to develop awareness about heart-healthy lifestyle.

  1. Baseline Quality of Life and Risk of Stroke in the ALLHAT Study (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tanzila; Auchus, Alexander P; Oparil, Suzanne; Wright, Clinton B; Wright, Jackson; Furlan, Anthony J; Sila, Cathy A; Davis, Barry R; Pressel, Sara; Yamal, Jose-Miguel; Einhorn, Paula T; Lerner, Alan J

    2017-11-01

    The visual analogue scale is a self-reported, validated tool to measure quality of life (QoL). Our purpose was to determine whether baseline QoL predicted strokes in the ALLHAT study (Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) and evaluate determinants of poststroke change in QoL. In the ALLHAT study, among the 33 357 patients randomized to treatment arms, 1525 experienced strokes; 1202 (79%) strokes were nonfatal. This study cohort includes 32 318 (97%) subjects who completed the baseline visual analogue scale QoL estimate. QoL was measured on a visual analogue scale and adjusted using a Torrance transformation (transformed QoL [TQoL]). Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted proportional hazards analyses were used to estimate the effect of TQoL on the risk of stroke, on a continuous scale (0-1) and by quartiles (≤0.81, >0.81≤0.89, >0.89≤0.95, >0.95). We analyzed the change from baseline to first poststroke TQoL using adjusted linear regression. After adjusting for multiple stroke risk factors, the hazard ratio for stroke events for baseline TQoL was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.98) per 0.1 U increase. The lowest baseline TQoL quartile had a 20% increased stroke risk (hazard ratio=1.20 [95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.44]) compared with the reference highest quartile TQoL. Poststroke TQoL change was significant within all treatment groups ( P ≤0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that baseline TQoL was the strongest predictor of poststroke TQoL with similar results for the untransformed QoL. The lowest baseline TQoL quartile had a 20% higher stroke risk than the highest quartile. Baseline TQoL was the only factor that predicted poststroke change in TQoL. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000542. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Efficacy of a Community-Based Physical Activity Program KM2H2 for Stroke and Heart Attack Prevention among Senior Hypertensive Patients: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Phase-II Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gong

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of the program Keep Moving toward Healthy Heart and Healthy Brain (KM2H2 in encouraging physical activities for the prevention of heart attack and stroke among hypertensive patients enrolled in the Community-Based Hypertension Control Program (CBHCP.Cluster randomized controlled trial with three waves of longitudinal assessments at baseline, 3 and 6 months post intervention.Community-based and patient-centered self-care for behavioral intervention in urban settings of China.A total of 450 participants diagnosed with hypertension from 12 community health centers in Wuhan, China were recruited, and were randomly assigned by center to receive either KM2H2 plus standard CBHCP care (6 centers and 232 patients or the standard care only (6 centers and 218 patients.KM2H2 is a behavioral intervention guided by the Transtheoretical Model, the Model of Personalized Medicine and Social Capital Theory. It consists of six intervention sessions and two booster sessions engineered in a progressive manner. The purpose is to motivate and maintain physical activities for the prevention of heart attack and stroke.Heart attack and stroke (clinically diagnosed, primary outcome, blood pressure (measured, secondary outcome, and physical activity (self-report, tertiary outcome were assessed at the individual level during the baseline, 3- and 6-month post-intervention.Relative to the standard care, receiving KM2H2 was associated with significant reductions in the incidence of heart attack (3.60% vs. 7.03%, p < .05 and stroke (5.11% vs. 9.90%, p<0.05, and moderate reduction in blood pressure (-3.72 mmHg in DBP and -2.92 mmHg in DBP at 6-month post-intervention; and significant increases in physical activity at 3- (d = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.85 and 6-month (d = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.85 post-intervention, respectively.The program KM2H2 is efficacious to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke among senior patients who are on anti

  3. Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not as great as men's. Heredity (Including Race) Children of parents with heart disease are more likely to develop it themselves. African Americans have more severe high blood pressure than Caucasians and a higher risk of heart ...

  4. Treatment-resistant hypertension and the incidence of cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease: results from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Davis, Barry R; Cushman, William C; Bangalore, Sripal; Calhoun, David A; Pressel, Sara L; Black, Henry R; Kostis, John B; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Whelton, Paul K; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-11-01

    Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as uncontrolled hypertension despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medication classes or controlled hypertension while treated with ≥4 antihypertensive medication classes. Although a high prevalence of aTRH has been reported, few data are available on its association with cardiovascular and renal outcomes. We analyzed data on 14 684 Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) participants to determine the association between aTRH (n=1870) with coronary heart disease, stroke, all-cause mortality, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and end-stage renal disease. We defined aTRH as blood pressure not at goal (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) while taking ≥3 classes of antihypertensive medication or taking ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication with blood pressure at goal during the year 2 ALLHAT study visit (1996-2000). Use of a diuretic was not required to meet the definition of aTRH. Follow-up occurred through 2002. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing participants with versus without aTRH were as follows: coronary heart disease (1.44 [1.18-1.76]), stroke (1.57 [1.18-2.08]), all-cause mortality (1.30 [1.11-1.52]), heart failure (1.88 [1.52-2.34]), peripheral artery disease (1.23 [0.85-1.79]), and end-stage renal disease (1.95 [1.11-3.41]). aTRH was also associated with the pooled outcomes of combined coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.71) and combined cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.64). These results demonstrate that aTRH increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease. Studies are needed to identify approaches to prevent aTRH and reduce risk for adverse outcomes among individuals with aTRH. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Valsartan in the treatment of heart attack survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodh I Jugdutt

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodh I JugduttDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Survivors of myocardial infarction (MI are at high risk of disability and death. This is due to infarct-related complications such as heart failure, cardiac remodeling with progressive ventricular dilation, dysfunction, and hypertrophy, and arrhythmias including ventricular and atrial fibrillation. Angiotensin (Ang II, the major effector molecule of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS is a major contributor to these complications. RAAS inhibition, with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors were first shown to reduce mortality and morbidity after MI. Subsequently, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, that produce more complete blockade of the effects of Ang II at the Ang II type 1 (AT1 receptor, were introduced and the ARB valsartan was shown to be as effective as an ACE inhibitor in reducing mortality and morbidity in high-risk post-MI suvivors with left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction and and/or heart failure and in heart failure patients, respectively, in two major trials (VALIANT and Val-HeFT. Both these trials used an ACE inhibitor as comparator on top of background therapy. Evidence favoring the use of valsartan for secondary prevention in post-MI survivors is reviewed.Keywords: valsartan, myocardial infarction, infarct survivors, remodeling, heart failure

  6. Can You Recognize a Heart Attack or Stroke? What To Do When Every Moment Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe August 2014 Print this issue Can You Recognize a Heart Attack or Stroke? What ... could prevent many of these deaths. Fast action can also limit permanent damage to the body. Heart ...

  7. Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Heart.org CPR & ECC for Heart.org Shop for Heart.org Causes for Heart.org Advocate ... chest pain or pressure, shortness of breath, profuse sweating and dizziness. “Around 80 percent of the time, ...

  8. Before Using Aspirin to Lower Your Risk of Heart Attack or Stroke, Here Is What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Before Using Aspirin to Lower Your Risk of Heart Attack or ... care provider can determine whether regular use of aspirin will help to prevent a heart attack or ...

  9. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Zullig, Keith J

    2009-11-01

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N=235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.14-1.30), angina or CHD (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  10. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  11. Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Absolute Vascular Risk Reduction by Moderate-Intensity Statin Therapy in Individual Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Anglo Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial, Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial, and Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasenbrood, Lotte; Poulter, Neil R; Sever, Peter S; Colhoun, Helen M; Livingstone, Shona J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Pressel, Sara L; Davis, Barry R; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to translate the average relative effect of statin therapy from trial data to the individual patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus by developing and validating a model to predict individualized absolute risk reductions (ARR) of cardiovascular events. Data of 2725 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Lipid Lowering Arm of the Anglo Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT-LLA) study (atorvastatin 10 mg versus placebo) were used for model derivation. The model was based on 8 clinical predictors including treatment allocation (statin/placebo). Ten-year individualized ARR on major cardiovascular events by statin therapy were calculated for each patient by subtracting the estimated on-treatment risk from the estimated off-treatment risk. Predicted 10-year ARR by statin therapy was 4% (median ARR, 3.2%; interquartile range, 2.5%-4.3%; 95% confidence interval for 3.2% ARR, -1.4% to 6.8%). Addition of treatment interactions did not improve model performance. Therefore, the wide distribution in ARR was a consequence of the underlying distribution in cardiovascular risk enrolled in these trials. External validation of the model was performed in data from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT; pravastatin 40 mg versus usual care) and Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS; atorvastatin 10 mg versus placebo) of 3878 and 2838 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Model calibration was adequate in both external data sets, discrimination was moderate (ALLHAT-LLT: c-statistics, 0.64 [95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.67] and CARDS: 0.68 [95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.72]). ARRs of major cardiovascular events by statin therapy can be accurately estimated for individual patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using a model based on routinely available patient characteristics. There is a wide distribution in ARR that may complement informed decision making. URL: http

  12. Mortality from heart attack in Belgrade population during the period 1990-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratkov Isidora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION In most countries, cardiovascular diseases are the leading disorders, with ischemic heart diseases being the leading cause of death. According to WHO data, every year about 17 million people die of cardiovascular diseases, which is 30% of all deaths. Ischemic heart diseases contribute from one-third to one-half of all deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. Three point eight million men and 3.4 million women in the world die every year from ischemic heart diseases, and in Europe about 2 million. The highest mortality rate from ischemic heart diseases occurs in India, China and Russia. OBJECTIVE The aim of this descriptive epidemiological study was to determine heart attack mortality in Belgrade population during the period 1990-2004. METHOD In the study, we conducted investigation of Belgrade population during the period 1990-2004. Mortality data were obtained from the city institution for statistics. The mortality rates were calculated based on the total Belgrade population obtained from the mean values for the last two register years (1991 and 2002. The mortality rates were standardized using the direct method of standardization according to the world (Segi standard population. RESULTS In the Belgrade population during the period 1990-2004, the participation of mortality rate due to heart attack among deaths from cardiovascular diseases was 17% in males and 10% in females. In Belgrade male population, mean standardized mortality rates (per 100,000 habitants were 50.5 for heart attack, 8.3 for chronic ischemic heart diseases and 4.6 for angina pectoris, while in females the rates were 30.8, 6.7 and 4.2, respectively. Mortality from ischemic heart diseases and from heart attack was higher in males than in females. During the studied 15-year period, on average 755 males and 483 females died due to heart attack every year. Mean standardized mortality rates per 100,000 habitants were 50.0 in male and 31.1 in female population. Males

  13. Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and Stroke: Know the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the-Counter Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and ... any pharmacy, grocery or convenience store and buy aspirin without a prescription. The Drug Facts label on ...

  14. Knowledge of Signs and Symptoms of Heart Attack and Stroke among Singapore Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Li Juan Quah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the level of knowledge of signs and symptoms of heart attack and stroke in Singapore resident population, in comparison to the global community. Methods. A population based, random sample of 7,840 household addresses was selected from a validated national sampling frame. Each participant was asked eight questions on signs and symptoms of heart attack and 10 questions on stroke. Results. The response rate was 65.2% with 4,192 respondents. The level of knowledge for preselected, common signs and symptoms of heart attack and stroke was 57.8% and 57.1%, respectively. The respondents scored a mean of 5.0 (SD 2.4 out of 8 for heart attack, while they scored a mean of 6.8 (SD 2.9 out of 10 for stroke. Respondents who were ≥50 years, with lower educational level, and unemployed/retired had the least knowledge about both conditions. The level of knowledge of signs and symptoms of heart attack and stroke in Singapore is comparable to USA and Canada. Conclusion. We found a comparable knowledge of stroke and heart attack signs and symptoms in the community to countries within the same economic, educational, and healthcare strata. However older persons, those with lower educational level and those who are unemployed/retired, require more public health education efforts.

  15. Depression and coronary artery disease -real heart attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, S.; Ahmed, B.

    2001-01-01

    Both depression and ischaemic heart disease are said to become the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries during the next two decades. The relationship between these two disorders has long been speculated but only recently addressed scientifically. A Medline search was conducted to obtain the articles that address the association between depressive disorders and coronary artery disease (CAD). Most studies following large cohorts over a period ranging from 4.5 to 27 years have shown that depression is associated with a significantly high risk of developing CAD. These studies also show that patients who have depression following myocardial infarction hat poorer prognosis on major cardiac end points like reoccurrence of myocardial infarction and death as compared to the non-depressed group. The psychosocial variables associated with depression like social isolation, acute and chronic stressful life events are also associated with increased risk of developing CAD. The mechanisms underlying this association between depression and CAD are unknown at present. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in reducing this increased risks have been demonstrated while the trials assessing the efficacy and safety of anti depressed drugs are underway. The implications of these finding are discussed in the context of developing countries. (author)

  16. Gender differences in the link between childhood socioeconomic conditions and heart attack risk in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamil-Luker, Jenifer; O'Rand, Angela M

    2007-02-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is predictive of disease risk in later life, with those from the most disadvantaged backgrounds more likely to experience poor adult-health outcomes. Most of these studies, however are based on middle-aged male populations and pay insufficient attention to the pathways between childhood risks and specific adult disorders. This article examines gender differences in the link between childhood SES and heart attack risk trajectories and the mechanisms by which early environments affect future disease risk. By using methods that model both latent and path-specific influences, we identify heterogeneity in early life conditions and human, social, and health capital in adulthood that contribute to diverse heart attack risk trajectories between and among men and women as they age into their 60s and 70s. We find that key risk factors for heart attack operate differently for men and women. For men, childhood SES does not differentiate those at low, increasing, and high risk for heart attack. In contrast, women who grew up without a father and/or under adverse economic conditions are the most likely to experience elevated risk for heart attack, even after we adjust for the unequal distribution of working and living conditions, social relationships, access to health care, and adult lifestyle behaviors that influence health outcomes.

  17. Dysfunction of Right Heart in Attack Period of Bronchial Asthma in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.А. Kondratiev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There were performed Doppler echocardiography investigations of functional state of the right heart in 42 children aged 5–17 years old in attack period of bronchial asthma of moderate to severe degree. Changes of intra-cardiac hemodynamics of the right heart in children in attack period of bronchial asthma were characterized by disturbance of systolic and diastolic function of the right ventricle and right atrium. Combined systolic-diastolic variant of the right ventricle dysfunction was typical for attack period of bronchial asthma in children and developed in 95.5 % of cases. Elevation of pressure in pulmonary artery was typical and significantly more often occurred in severe asthma attack, herewith pulmonary hypertension of the second degree predominated.

  18. Geographic differences in heart failure trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João Pedro; Girerd, Nicolas; Rossignol, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez

    2015-09-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are essential to develop advances in heart failure (HF). The need for increasing numbers of patients (without substantial cost increase) and generalization of results led to the disappearance of international boundaries in large RCTs. The significant geographic differences in patients' characteristics, outcomes, and, most importantly, treatment effect observed in HF trials have recently been highlighted. Whether the observed regional discrepancies in HF trials are due to trial-specific issues, patient heterogeneity, structural differences in countries, or a complex interaction between factors are the questions we propose to debate in this review. To do so, we will analyse and review data from HF trials conducted in different world regions, from heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF), heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), and acute heart failure (AHF). Finally, we will suggest objective and actionable measures in order to mitigate regional discrepancies in future trials, particularly in HF-PEF where prognostic modifying treatments are urgently needed and in which trials are more prone to selection bias, due to a larger patient heterogeneity. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  19. Recent clinical trials in valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Daniel; Anwaruddin, Saif

    2017-07-01

    With widespread adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, there has been a change in the approach to management of valvular heart disease. New interest has taken hold in transcatheter therapies for valvular heart disease, as well as research into pathophysiology and progression of disease. Additionally, several key trials have further refined our understanding of surgical management of valvular heart disease. This review will elucidate recent clinical trial data leading to changes in practice. There have been several landmark trials expanding the indications for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Additionally, although still early, trials are beginning to demonstrate the feasibility and safety of transcatheter mitral valves. Options for transcatheter management of right-sided valvular disease continue to evolve, and these are areas of active investigation. The emergence of novel therapies for valvular heart disease has expanded the management options available, allowing physicians to better individualize treatment of patients with valvular heart disease. This review will focus on the recent (within 2 years) trials in this field of interest.

  20. Does Uninsurance Affect the Health Outcomes of the Insured? Evidence from Heart Attack Patients in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltem Daysal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, I examine the impact of uninsured patients on the health of the insured, focusing on one health outcome - the in-hospital mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I employ panel data models using patient discharge and hospital financial data from California

  1. Does uninsurance affect the health outcomes of the insured? Evidence from heart attack patients in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltem Daysal, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the impact of uninsured patients on the in-hospital mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I employ panel data models using patient discharge and hospital financial data from California (1999–2006). My results indicate that uninsured patients have an economically

  2. Ventilatory control of heart rate during inhalation of 5% CO2 and types of panic attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, R

    1991-09-01

    Differences in the magnitude of increases in heart rate during prolonged inhalation of 5% CO2 range from a mean of 25 b/min for a group of eight panic-disorder patients who panicked (Woods, Charney, Goodman, & Heninger, 1988. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 43-52) to zero b/min for 16 patients, eight of whom panicked (Craske & Barlow, 1990. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 302-307). What accounts for this disparity? The present paper describes how heart rate can be increased by means of voluntary overbreathing during prolonged inhalation of 5% CO2 in air. This suggests that differences in the degree of overbreathing may explain differences in the magnitude of increases in heart rate during inhalation of 5% CO2. An explanation is also offered for the curious finding that some patients experience "panic attacks" with zero increase in heart rate. Evidence suggests that this is likely to happen in cognitively based panic attacks, in contrast to hyperventilatory attacks or anticipatory attacks.

  3. Applying Magneto-rheology to Reduce Blood Viscosity and Suppress Turbulence to Prevent Heart Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.

    Heart attacks are the leading causes of death in USA. Research indicates one common thread, high blood viscosity, linking all cardiovascular diseases. Turbulence in blood circulation makes different regions of the vasculature vulnerable to development of atherosclerotic plaque. Turbulence is also responsible for systolic ejection murmurs and places heavier workload on heart, a possible trigger of heart attacks. Presently, neither medicine nor method is available to suppress turbulence. The only method to reduce the blood viscosity is to take medicine, such as aspirin. However, using medicine to reduce the blood viscosity does not help suppressing turbulence. In fact, the turbulence gets worse as the Reynolds number goes up with the viscosity reduction by the medicine. Here we report our new discovery: application of a strong magnetic field to blood along its flow direction, red blood cells are polarized in the magnetic field and aggregated into short chains along the flow direction. The blood viscosity becomes anisotropic: Along the flow direction the viscosity is significantly reduced, but in the directions perpendicular to the flow the viscosity is considerably increased. In this way, the blood flow becomes laminar, turbulence is suppressed, the blood circulation is greatly improved, and the risk for heart attacks is reduced. While these effects are not permanent, they last for about 24 hours after one magnetic therapy treatment.

  4. US State-level income inequality and risks of heart attack and coronary risk behaviors: longitudinal findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E

    2015-07-01

    To examine prospectively the association between US state income inequality and incidence of heart attack. We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,445). Respondents completed interviews at baseline (2001-2002) and follow-up (2004-2005). Weighted multilevel modeling was used to determine if US state-level income inequality (measured by the Gini coefficient) at baseline was a predictor of heart attack during follow-up, controlling for individual-level and state-level covariates. In comparison to residents of US states in the lowest quartile of income inequality, those living in the second [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.16-2.53)], third (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.28-2.57), and fourth (AOR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.26-3.29) quartiles were more likely to have a heart attack. Similar findings were obtained when we excluded those who had a heart attack prior to baseline. This study is one of the first to empirically show the longitudinal relationship between income inequality and coronary heart disease. Living in a state with higher income inequality increases the risk for heart attack among US adults.

  5. Heart Lesion After the First Attack of the Rheumatic Fever 22 Years Experience in Single Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejiqi, Ramush A.; Retkoceri, Ragip; Zeka, Naim; Bejiqi, Hana; Retkoceri, Arber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute rheumatic fever and its sequels, rheumatic heart diseases, remain major unsolved preventable health problems in Kosovo population, particularly among the disadvantages indigenous Albanian and Egyptians people. In Kosovo, despite of performing secondary prophylaxis with benzathine penicillin, acute rheumatic fever hospitalization rates have remained essentially unchanged for the last 20 years. The role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic carditis was established over the last 20 years. Aims: In this study we aimed to determine the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in children from Kosovo population with first attack of acute rheumatic fever. Also, we presented that echocardiography examination detects a greater prevalence of rheumatic heart disease than other diagnostic procedures. We aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of cardiac auscultation, ECG record, lab analysis to echocardiography and to determine the feasibility of specific age in this setting. Methods: To optimize accurate diagnosis of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, we utilized two group models. In the first group of 388 children, hospitalized and treated before 1999, diagnosis of rheumatic fever was decided basing on the clinical and laboratory findings whereas in second group (221 children treated from1999 to 2010) clinical and lab diagnosis were amplified also on the detection by echocardiography. Conclusion: In second group, using echocardiography as a method of diagnosis and assessment children with rheumatic fever, we found high rates of undetected rheumatic heart disease in this high-risk group population. Echocardiographic examination of children with rheumatic fever for rheumatic heart disease may over diagnose rheumatic heart disease unless congenital mitral valve anomalies and physiological regurgitation are excluded. PMID:25870479

  6. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology: a cross-sectional comparison of rural and non-rural US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanoski Michael T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the signs and symptoms of heart attacks and strokes are important not only in saving lives, but also in preserving quality of life. Findings from recent research have yielded that the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors are higher in rural populations, suggesting that adults living in rural locales may be at higher risk for heart attack and/or stroke. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology as well as calling 911 for a suspected heart attack or stroke are essential first steps in seeking care. This study sought to examine the knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptoms among rural adults in comparison to non-rural adults living in the U.S. Methods Using multivariate techniques, a cross-sectional analysis of an amalgamated multi-year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS database was performed. The dependent variable for this analysis was low heart attack and stroke knowledge score. The covariates for the analysis were: age, sex, race/ethnicity, annual household income, attained education, health insurance status, having a health care provider (HCP, timing of last routine medical check-up, medical care deferment because of cost, self-defined health status and geographic locale. Results The weighted n for this study overall was 103,262,115 U.S. adults > =18 years of age. Approximately 22.0% of these respondents were U.S. adults living in rural locales. Logistic regression analysis revealed that those U.S. adults who had low composite heart attack and stroke knowledge scores were more likely to be rural (OR = 1.218 95%CI 1.216-1.219 rather than non-rural residents. Furthermore, those with low scores were more likely to be: male (OR = 1.353 95%CI 1.352-1.354, >65 years of age (OR = 1.369 95%CI 1.368-1.371, African American (OR = 1.892 95%CI 1.889-1.894, not educated beyond high school (OR = 1.400 955CI 1.399-1.402, uninsured (OR = 1.308 95%CI 1

  7. Tracks FAQs: How Do Heart Attack Hospitalization Rates In My Community Compare With Other Counties Or States?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss how to compare heart attack hospitalization rates in your community with other counties or states. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.

  8. Cardiac rehabilitation adapted to transient ischaemic attack and stroke (CRAFTS: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Catherine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary Heart Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease share many predisposing, modifiable risk factors (hypertension, abnormal blood lipids and lipoproteins, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy are recognised as the cornerstones of secondary prevention. Cochrane review has proven the benefits of programmes incorporating exercise and lifestyle counselling in the cardiac disease population. A Cochrane review highlighted as priority, the need to establish feasibility and efficacy of exercise based interventions for Cerebrovascular Disease. Methods A single blind randomised controlled trial is proposed to examine a primary care cardiac rehabilitation programme for adults post transient ischemic attack (TIA and stroke in effecting a positive change in the primary outcome measures of cardiac risk scores derived from Blood Pressure, lipid profile, smoking and diabetic status and lifestyle factors of habitual smoking, exercise and healthy eating participation. Secondary outcomes of interest include health related quality of life as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Stroke Specific Quality of Life scale and WONCA COOP Functional Health Status charts and cardiovascular fitness as measured by a sub-maximal fitness test. A total of 144 patients, over 18 years of age with confirmed diagnosis of ischaemic stroke or TIA, will be recruited from Dublin community stroke services and two tertiary T.I.A clinics. Exclusion criteria will include oxygen dependence, unstable cardiac conditions, uncontrolled diabetes, major medical conditions, claudication, febrile illness, pregnancy or cognitive impairment. Participants will be block-statified, randomly allocated to one of two groups using a pre-prepared computer generated randomisation schedule. Both groups will receive a two hour education class on risk reduction post stroke. The

  9. Cancer and heart attack survivors’ expectations of employment status: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia F. A. Duijts

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sociodemographic, health- and work-related factors have been found to influence return to work in cancer survivors. It is feasible though that behavioural factors, such as expectation of being at work, could also affect work-related outcomes. Therefore, the effect of earlier identified factors and expectation of being at work on future employment status in cancer survivors was explored. To assess the degree to which these factors specifically concern cancer survivors, a comparison with heart attack survivors was made. Methods Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used. Cancer and heart attack survivors of working age in the UK were included and followed up for 2 years. Baseline characteristics of both cancer and heart attack survivors were compared regarding employment status. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed in survivors at work, and the interaction between independent variables and diagnose group was assessed. Results In cancer survivors at work (N = 159, alcohol consumption, participating in moderate or vigorous sport activities, general health and participation were univariate associated with employment status at two-year follow-up. Only fair general health (compared to very good general health remained statistically significant in the multivariate model (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.13–0.76; p = 0.010. In heart attack survivors at work (N = 78, gender, general health and expectation of being at work were univariate associated with employment status at follow-up. Female gender (OR 0.03; 95% CI 0.00–0.57; p = 0.018 and high expectation of being at work (OR 10.68; 95% CI 1.23–93.92; p = 0.033 remained significant in the multivariate model. The influence of gender (p = 0.066 and general health (p = 0.020 regarding employment status was found to differ significantly between cancer and heart attack survivors. Conclusions When predicting future employment status in cancer

  10. Cancer and heart attack survivors' expectations of employment status: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijts, Saskia F A; van der Beek, Allard J; Bleiker, Eveline M A; Smith, Lee; Wardle, Jane

    2017-08-07

    Sociodemographic, health- and work-related factors have been found to influence return to work in cancer survivors. It is feasible though that behavioural factors, such as expectation of being at work, could also affect work-related outcomes. Therefore, the effect of earlier identified factors and expectation of being at work on future employment status in cancer survivors was explored. To assess the degree to which these factors specifically concern cancer survivors, a comparison with heart attack survivors was made. Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used. Cancer and heart attack survivors of working age in the UK were included and followed up for 2 years. Baseline characteristics of both cancer and heart attack survivors were compared regarding employment status. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed in survivors at work, and the interaction between independent variables and diagnose group was assessed. In cancer survivors at work (N = 159), alcohol consumption, participating in moderate or vigorous sport activities, general health and participation were univariate associated with employment status at two-year follow-up. Only fair general health (compared to very good general health) remained statistically significant in the multivariate model (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.13-0.76; p = 0.010). In heart attack survivors at work (N = 78), gender, general health and expectation of being at work were univariate associated with employment status at follow-up. Female gender (OR 0.03; 95% CI 0.00-0.57; p = 0.018) and high expectation of being at work (OR 10.68; 95% CI 1.23-93.92; p = 0.033) remained significant in the multivariate model. The influence of gender (p = 0.066) and general health (p = 0.020) regarding employment status was found to differ significantly between cancer and heart attack survivors. When predicting future employment status in cancer survivors in the UK, general health is the most relevant factor

  11. Tracks FAQs: How Do Heart Attack Hospitalization Rates In My Community Compare With Other Counties Or States?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-01

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss how to compare heart attack hospitalization rates in your community with other counties or states. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.  Created: 9/1/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Environmental Health Tracking Branch.   Date Released: 9/1/2011.

  12. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stroke symptoms. Popular Topics TIA Cardiac Catheter Cholesterol Heart Attack Stent © 2018, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. ...

  13. Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Absolute Vascular Risk Reduction by Moderate-Intensity Statin Therapy in Individual Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Anglo Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial, Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial, and Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaasenbrood, Lotte; Poulter, Neil R.; Sever, Peter S.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Livingstone, Shona J.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Pressel, Sara L.; Davis, Barry R.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to translate the average relative effect of statin therapy from trial data to the individual patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus by developing and validating a model to predict individualized absolute risk reductions (ARR) of cardiovascular events. Data of 2725 patients

  14. Investigating Effect of Olfactory Stimulation by Vanilla on the Rate of Apnea Attacks in Neonates with Apnea of Prematurity: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Yaghoubi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Apnea of prematurity (AOP is a developmental disorder that affects the premature newborns frequently. One of the new non-drug methods for controlling apnea attacks is olfactory stimulation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of olfactory stimulation by vanilla on the rate of apnea attacks in neonates with AOP. Materials and Methods: This study is a single-blind randomized clinical trial study. The study samples included a total of 40 premature neonates with AOP who were admitted to the neonatal Intensive care unit (NICU of Shahid Sadoughi hospital in Yazd, Iran, in 2016 and were assigned randomly in experimental (n=20, and control (n=20 groups. The experimental group was exposed to cotton impregnated with 2ml of vanillin extractfor 24 hours. The number of apnea attacks, heart rate, and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 level were measured before, during and after intervention for three consecutive days. Data analysis was performed using statistical analysis in SPSS version 22.0 software. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean number of apnea attacks (p>0.05. However, there was a significant difference between in the experimental group on the first day (2.84 ± 1.25, and second day (1.63 ± 1.01 in terms of the mean number of attacks. Also, there was a significant difference between the mean heart rate and SaO2 level in both the experimental and control groups (p

  15. A qualitative study of younger men's experience of heart attack (myocardial infarction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Christopher J; de Zoysa, Nicole; Hutton, Jane M

    2017-09-01

    The effects of heart attack, or myocardial infarction (MI), across psychosocial domains may be particularly acute in younger adults, for whom serious health events are non-normative. MI morbidity is declining in Western countries, but in England MI numbers have plateaued for the under-45 cohort, where approximately 90% of patients are male. Qualitative research on younger adults' experience of MI is limited, and no study has sampled exclusively under-45s. This study aimed to understand how a sample of men under 45 adjusted to and made sense of MI. Qualitative research design based on semi-structured in-depth interviews. Ten men aged under 45 who had experienced MI in the past 3-6 months were purposively recruited and interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Seven superordinate themes were identified. This article focuses in depth on the three most original themes: (1) 'I'm less of a man', which described experiences of losing 'maleness' (strength, independence, ability to provide) post-MI; (2) 'Shortened horizons', which covered participants' sense of foreshortened future and consequent reprioritization; and (3) 'Life loses its colour', describing the loss of pleasure from lifestyle-related changes. Themes broadly overlapped with the qualitative literature on younger adult MI. However, some themes (e.g., loss of 'maleness' post-MI, and ambivalence towards MI risk factors) appeared unique to this study. Themes were also discussed in relation to risk factors for anxiety and depression and how this might inform clinical care for a younger, male population. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Myocardial infarction (MI) morbidity is not declining in England for under-45s. Adjustment to MI is particularly challenging for younger adults, perhaps because it is non-normative. However, little is known about the experience of MI in younger adults. What does this study add? This

  16. Reassessing Phase II Heart Failure Clinical Trials: Consensus Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Javed; Hamo, Carine E.; Udelson, James E.; O’Connor, Christopher; Sabbah, Hani N.; Metra, Marco; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Teerlink, John; Bernstein, Harold S.; Brooks, Gabriel; Depre, Christophe; DeSouza, Mary M.; Dinh, Wilfried; Donovan, Mark; Frische-Danielson, Regina; Frost, Robert J.; Garza, Dahlia; Gohring, Udo-Michael; Hellawell, Jennifer; Hsia, Judith; Ishihara, Shiro; Kay-Mugford, Patricia; Koglin, Joerg; Kozinn, Marc; Larson, Christopher J.; Mayo, Martha; Gan, Li-Ming; Mugnier, Pierrre; Mushonga, Sekayi; Roessig, Lothar; Russo, Cesare; Salsali, Afshin; Satler, Carol; Shi, Victor; Ticho, Barry; van der Laan, Michael; Yancy, Clyde; Stockbridge, Norman; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2017-01-01

    The increasing burden and the continued suboptimal outcomes for patients with heart failure underlines the importance of continued research to develop novel therapeutics for this disorder. This can only be accomplished with successful translation of basic science discoveries into direct human application through effective clinical trial design and execution that results in a substantially improved clinical course and outcomes. In this respect, phase II clinical trials play a pivotal role in determining which of the multitude of potential basic science discoveries should move to the large and expansive registration trials in humans. A critical examination of the phase II trials in heart failure reveals multiple shortcomings in their concept, design, execution, and interpretation. To further a dialogue regarding the challenges and potential for improvement and the role of phase II trials in patients with heart failure, the Food and Drug Administration facilitated a meeting on October 17th 2016 represented by clinicians, researchers, industry members, and regulators. This document summarizes the discussion from this meeting and provides key recommendations for future directions. PMID:28356300

  17. Multi-constituent cardiovascular pills (MCCP)--challenges and promises of population-based prophylactic drug therapy for prevention of heart attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Michael J; Naghavi, Morteza

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) are highly co-prevalent but poorly identified and treated. The Screening for Heart Attack Prevention and Education (SHAPE) Task Force from the Association for Eradication of Heart Attack (AEHA) has recently proposed a new strategy that recommends screening for subclinical atherosclerosis and implementing aggressive treatment of "vulnerable patients". The Task Force has also envisioned future developments that may shift mass screening strategies to mass prophylactic therapy. The "Polypill" concept, introduced by Wald and Law suggests a combination of statin, low-dose antihypertensives, aspirin and folic acid, in a single pill, taken prophylactically by high risk population can cut CVD event rates by as much as 80%. In this communication, we review the challenges and promises of such a strategy. "Polypill" is but one of an astronomical number of possible multiconstituent pills (MCCP). Attractive as the MCCP concept is, it lacks evidence from randomized controlled trials, and begs numerous questions about the credibility of the concept, the design and synthesis of such complex pills, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, bioequivalence, "class" vs. unique properties, interactions, evidence of clinical efficacy and safety, regulatory approval, post-marketing surveillance, prescription vs. over-the-counter use, responsibility for initiating and monitoring therapy, patient education, counterfeiting and importation, reimbursement, advertisement, patent protection, commercial viability, etc. If these issues are favorably addressed, MCCP stand to dramatically change the manner in which CVD is prevented particularly in developing societies. Notwithstanding, assuming low commercial interests, realizing the promises of MCCP will demand serious attention from national public health policymakers. The clinical and regulatory implications of population-based secondary prevention (which rely on a different evidence base

  18. Determination of Relations between Systolic Blood Pressure and Heart Attack in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Payam Shariatpanahi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Today, the high prevalence of diabetes and its complications are one of the most important public health issues worldwide. For this reason, finding relations between diabetes risk factors is very effective in preventing and reducing complications. For discovering these relations, the data mining methods can be used. By extracting association rules, which is one of the data mining techniques, we can discover the relations between a large numbers of variables in a disease. Materials and Methods: The population of this study was 1046 patients with type 2 diabetes, whose data had recorded between 2011 and 2014 at the Special Clinic for Diabetes in Tehran's Imam Khomeini Hospital. After pre-processing step with SPSS19 software, 573 people entered the analysis phase. The FP-Growth algorithm was applied to the data set to discover the relations between heart attack and other risk factors using Rapid miner5 software. Relations, after extraction, were given to the doctor to confirm clinical validation. Results: The obtained results of studying these 573 people (Including 292 (51% women and 281 (49% men, with age range 27 to 82 years showed that the lack of blood pressure, creatinine and diastolic blood pressure at its normal level, despite higher systolic blood pressure level than normal, doesn't increase the probability of heart attack. Conclusion: Using association rules is a good way of identifying relations between the risk factors of a disease. Also, it can provide new hypotheses to do epidemiological studies for researchers.

  19. Family history and body mass index predict perceived risks of diabetes and heart attack among community-dwelling Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans--DiLH Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Choi, JiWon; S Bender, Melinda; Gonzalez, Prisila; Arai, Shoshana

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the perceived risk for diabetes and heart attack and associated health status of Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans without diabetes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 904 urban adults (mean age 44.3±16.1 years; 64.3% female) in English, Spanish or Korean between August and December 2013. Perceived risk for developing diabetes was indicated by 46.5% (n=421), and 14.3% (n=129) perceived themselves to be at risk for having a heart attack in their lifetime. Significant predictors of pessimistic diabetes risk perceptions: Filipino (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.7; 95% CI: 1.04-2.86) and Korean (AOR=2.4; 1.33-4.48) ethnicity, family history of diabetes (AOR=1.4; 1.00-1.84), female gender (AOR=1.4; 1.04-1.96), high cholesterol (AOR= 1.6; 1.09-2.37) and higher body mass index (BMI) (AOR=1.1; 1.08-1.15). Predictors of pessimistic heart attack risk perceptions were family history of an early heart attack (AOR=2.9; 1.69-5.02), high blood pressure (AOR=2.4; 1.45-3.84), and higher BMI (AOR=1.1; 1.04-1.12) after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Older age, physical inactivity, smoking, and low HDL levels were not associated with risk perceptions. Multiple risk factors were predictive of greater perceived diabetes risk, whereas, only family history of heart attack, high blood pressure and increases in BMI significantly contributed to perceived risk of heart attack among ethnically diverse at risk middle-aged adults. It is important that healthcare providers address the discordance between an individual's risk perceptions and the presence of actual risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CPR in the Schools: Training Students to Save Heart Attack Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Royce J.

    1978-01-01

    A community cardiac emergency medical plan should include training of family and co-workers of high risk patients, including teenage students. The American Heart Association lists ways to introduce cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) into school curricula and describes the plan implemented in Pennsylvania. (MF)

  1. Total Dietary Fiber, and Selected Vegetable, Fruit, Legume and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Heart Attack in Periodontitis Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wood

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have found an association between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001; Genco, Offenbacher et al. 2002, and have even implicated periodontal disease as a risk factor(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001, however have not proven causality(Hujoel, Drangholt et al. 2000. Although dietary amounts, sources, and types (soluble versus insoluble of fiber have been shown to reduce the risk of heart attack (Liu, Buring et al. 2002; Negri, Vecchia et al. 2003, this author is unaware of studies that have examined the association between food sources of dietary fiber and heart attack risk in subjects with periodontitis.This study was designed to determine whether total dietary fiber and fiber from different plant sources (vegetables, fruits, legumes, or cereals modified self-reported HA risk, as well as acute-phase inflammatory responses in subjects with periodontitis using NHANES III data.Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between total dietary fiber intake levels, and selected vegetables, fruits, legumes, and cereal fiber intake and the risk of self-reported history of heart attack (HA in periodontitis subjects using data available in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III.Materials and Methods: Adult participants in NHANES III were used in this study. Zero to thirty three (0-33 percent of sites with periodontal attachment loss > 3 mm was considered a healthy periodontium, while greater than thirty three percent (>33 of sites with periodontal attachment loss of > 3 mm as periodontitis. The outcome variable was the self-reported history of HA. Total dietary fiber, and monthly selected vegetable, fruit, legume and cereal consumption were divided into low and adequate levels. Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and multivariate analyses using SPSS ®. P<0.05 was used to

  2. Heart failure as an endpoint in heart failure and non-heart failure cardiovascular clinical trials: the need for a consensus definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zannad, F.; Stough, W.G.; Pitt, B.

    2008-01-01

    Specific criteria have been established to define the occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in cardiovascular clinical trials, but there is not a consistent definition for heart failure. Heart failure events appear to occur at a rate that is similar to stroke and MI in trials...... of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, and coronary heart disease, yet a consistent approach to defining heart failure events has not yet been realized. The wide range of definitions used in clinical trials makes it difficult to interpret new data in the context of existing literature. This inconsistency has...... led to challenges in determining the incidence of heart failure in cardiovascular studies and the effects of interventions on these endpoints. This paper examines issues related to defining heart failure events in cardiovascular clinical trials and presents a definition to formally address this issue...

  3. Heart Lesion After the First Attack of the Rheumatic Fever 22 Years Experience in Single Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Bejiqi, Ramush A.; Retkoceri, Ragip; Zeka, Naim; Bejiqi, Hana; Retkoceri, Arber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute rheumatic fever and its sequels, rheumatic heart diseases, remain major unsolved preventable health problems in Kosovo population, particularly among the disadvantages indigenous Albanian and Egyptians people. In Kosovo, despite of performing secondary prophylaxis with benzathine penicillin, acute rheumatic fever hospitalization rates have remained essentially unchanged for the last 20 years. The role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic carditis was estab...

  4. Congestive Heart Failure Cardiopoietic Regenerative Therapy (CHART-1) trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartunek, Jozef; Davison, Beth; Sherman, Warren; Povsic, Thomas; Henry, Timothy D; Gersh, Bernard; Metra, Marco; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Hajjar, Roger; Behfar, Atta; Homsy, Christian; Cotter, Gad; Wijns, William; Tendera, Michal; Terzic, Andre

    2016-02-01

    Cardiopoiesis is a conditioning programme that aims to upgrade the cardioregenerative aptitude of patient-derived stem cells through lineage specification. Cardiopoietic stem cells tested initially for feasibility and safety exhibited signs of clinical benefit in patients with ischaemic heart failure (HF) warranting definitive evaluation. Accordingly, CHART-1 is designed as a large randomized, sham-controlled multicentre study aimed to validate cardiopoietic stem cell therapy. Patients (n = 240) with chronic HF secondary to ischaemic heart disease, reduced LVEF (Heart Failure Questionnaire score, 6 min walk test, LV end-systolic volume, and LVEF at 9 months. The secondary efficacy endpoint is the time to cardiovascular death or worsening HF at 12 months. Safety endpoints include mortality, readmissions, aborted sudden deaths, and serious adverse events at 12 and 24 months. The CHART-1 clinical trial is powered to examine the therapeutic impact of lineage-directed stem cells as a strategy to achieve cardiac regeneration in HF populations. On completion, CHART-1 will offer a definitive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of cardiopoietic stem cells in the treatment of chronic ischaemic HF. NCT01768702. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  5. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  6. Relationship between blood lead, blood pressure, stroke, and heart attacks in middle-aged British men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, S.J.; Shaper, A.G.; Ashby, D.; Delves, H.T.; Clayton, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure is examined in a survey of 7371 men aged 40 to 59 from 24 British towns. After allowance for relevant confounding variables, including town of residence and alcohol consumption, there exists a very weak but statistically significant positive association between blood lead and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After 6 years of follow-up, 316 of these men had major ischemic heart disease, and 66 had a stroke. After allowance for the confounding effects of cigarette smoking and town of residence there is no evidence that blood lead is a risk factor for these cardiovascular events. However, as the blood lead-blood pressure association is so weak, it is unlikely that any consequent association between lead and cardiovascular disease could be demonstrated from prospective epidemiological studies. An overview of data from this and other large epidemiological surveys provides reasonable consistent evidence on lead and blood pressure. While NHANES II data on 2254 US men indicate a slightly stronger association between blood lead and systolic blood pressure, data from two Welsh studies on over 2000 men did not show a statistically significant association. Nevertheless, such statistical association cannot be taken as establishing a causal effect of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure

  7. The Aliskiren Trial to Minimize OutcomeS in Patients with HEart failure trial (ATMOSPHERE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krum, Henry; McMurray, John J V; Abraham, William T

    2015-01-01

    in ATMOSPHERE with those in the Prospective comparison of Angiotensin Receptor neprilysin inhibitors with Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF); and (iii) compare the characteristics of patients with and without...... dysfunction, and were treated with a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. In ATMOSPHERE, patients with diabetes differed in numerous ways from those without. Patients with diabetes were older and had worse heart failure status but a similar left ventricular ejection fraction (mean 28%); they had a higher...... body mass index and more co-morbidity, especially hypertension and coronary heart disease. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was slightly lower in those with diabetes compared with those without. CONCLUSION: ATMOSPHERE will determine whether patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction...

  8. Traditional and new composite endpoints in heart failure clinical trials : facilitating comprehensive efficacy assessments and improving trial efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, Stefan D. t; Schroeder, Stefan; Atar, Dan; Bax, Jeroen J.; Ceconi, Claudio; Cowie, Martin R.; AdamCrisp,; Dominjon, Fabienne; Ford, Ian; Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir; Gropper, Savion; Hindricks, Gerhard; Hlatky, Mark A.; Holcomb, Richard; Honarpour, Narimon; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kim, Albert M.; Kunz, Michael; Lefkowitz, Martin; Le Floch, Chantal; Landmesser, Ulf; McDonagh, Theresa A.; McMurray, John J.; Merkely, Bela; Packer, Milton; Prasad, Krishna; Revkin, James; Rosano, Giuseppe M. C.; Somaratne, Ransi; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Voors, Adriaan A.; Ruschitzka, Frank

    Composite endpoints are commonly used as the primary measure of efficacy in heart failure clinical trials to assess the overall treatment effect and to increase the efficiency of trials. Clinical trials still must enrol large numbers of patients to accrue a sufficient number of outcome events and

  9. Depression After Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can Be Done to Reduce the Impact of Depression on My Mental and Physical Health? There is some good news here. Depression is ... Can Be Done to Reduce the Impact of Depression on My Mental and Physical Health? What Can I Do About the Depression I’ ...

  10. Smoking Cessation Intervention After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner Frandsen, Nicole; Sørensen, Margit; Hyldahl, Tanja Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is widely recommended for secondary stroke prevention. However, little is known about the efficacy of smoking cessation intervention after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: Ninety-four smokers under age 76, admitted with ischemic stroke or TIA were ...

  11. Comment on: "Cell Therapy for Heart Disease: Trial Sequential Analyses of Two Cochrane Reviews"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellini, Greta; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Gluud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Trial Sequential Analysis is a frequentist method to help researchers control the risks of random errors in meta-analyses (1). Fisher and colleagues used Trial Sequential Analysis on cell therapy for heart diseases (2). The present article discusses the usefulness of Trial Sequential Analysis and...

  12. Transient Ischaemic Attack 999 Emergency Referral (TIER: a cluster randomised feasibility trial facilitated by data linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Seagrove

    2017-04-01

    Will inform full trial development using criteria: intervention acceptability to practitioners and patients; trial design feasibility; outcome data completeness. Conclusions • If indicated, full trial conducted • If not, but positive results - advise intervention development for immediate implementation • If not, but negative results – advise delivery of intervention should cease.

  13. DAILY CHANGES OF CENTRAL HEMODYNAMICS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE WITH NIGHT-TIME DYSPNOEA ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Dovgolis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study daily changes of central hemodynamics (CHD in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and the effects of therapy. Materials and methods. 22 patients with ischemic heart disease and CHF of III-IV functional class (FC by NYHA, age 60,5±10,5 were observed. Patients were suffering from night-time dyspnoea attacks and had pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP 15-20 mm Hg. CHD was monitored invasively before the treatment and after 4 weeks of CHF treatment. Results. According to the cardiac index (CI at admission patients were split into two groups. 9 patients of group-I had CI ≤2,15 l\\min\\m2, and 13 patients of group-II had CI >2,15 l\\min\\m2. In patients of group-I CI increased in 4 weeks of treatment. The treatment caused considerable clinical improvement in all patients. The CHD indexes also improved. Initially evening-night-time peaks of PAOP (р≤0,002, systolic (SBP (р≤0,003, diastolic (DBP (р=0,002 and average (BPa (р=0,0007 blood pressure (BP as well as double multiplication (DM (р≤0,008 were registered in patients of group-I. At the end of treatment only evening-night increase in DBP (р=0,002 and BPa (р≤0,006 were noted. In patients of group-II after 4 weeks of treatment CI decreased or didn’t change. Towards 28-th day of treatment 10 patients had clinical improvements. Only one patient’s FC NYHA increased. At the end of treatment the normalization of CHD was registered totally in group. Initially evening-night-time peaks of PAOP (р≤0,002, SBP (р≤0, 0001, CI (р=0,057 and DM (р=0,084 were registered in patients of group-II. At the end of treatment evening-night-time peaks of PAOP (р≤0,015, SBP (р≤0,044, CI (р≤0,005 and DM (р≤0,044 still remained. Besides, evening-night-time peaks of cardiac output (р≤0,01 and systolic index (р≤0, 06 have added. Conclusion. In patients with CHF with initial CI ≤2,15 l\\min\\m2 treatment results in the normalization of CHD and its daily

  14. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Home About Heart Disease Coronary Artery Disease Heart Attack Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  15. Empowered to gain a new foothold in life—A study of the meaning of participating in cardiac rehabilitation to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte P. Simonÿ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate what it means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack to participate in cardiac rehabilitation (CR. CR is well-established internationally to support patients towards moving forward in satisfying, healthy, and well-functioning lives. Studies indicate that patients achieve improvement in quality of life when participating in CR. However, knowledge of how patients are supported during CR is sparse. Moreover, knowledge of what participating in CR means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack is lacking. In-depth knowledge in this area is crucial in order to understand these patients’ particular gains and needs. In a phenomenological-hermeneutic frame field observations, focus group interviews, and individual interviews were conducted among 11 patients during and after their participation in CR. Field notes and transcribed interviews underwent three-phased interpretation. It was found that patients were supported to gain renewed balance in their lives during CR. Three themes were identified: (1 receiving a helpful but limited caring hand, (2 being supported to find new values in life, and (3 developing responsibility for the remaining time. The patients were carefully guided through a difficult time and supported to continue in healthy everyday lives. They were given hope which enabled them to find themselves a new foothold in life with respect to their own sense of well-being. This guidance and a sense of hopefulness were provided by heart specialists and more seasoned heart patients. In conclusion, patients were empowered to achieve a healthier lifestyle and improve their personal well-being during CR. However, structural barriers in the programme prevented adequate support regarding the patients’ total needs. Knowledge of the benefits of CR emphasizes the significance of the programme and highlights the importance of high inclusion. Efforts should be made to develop more flexible and longer lasting

  16. NHLBI's program for VAD therapy for moderately advanced heart failure: the REVIVE-IT pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J Timothy; Mann, Douglas L

    2010-11-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are used to bridge heart failure patients to transplantation, to allow their own hearts to recover, or as permanent ("destination") therapy. To date, the use of VADs has been limited to late-stage heart failure patients because of the associated device risks. In 2008, a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) working group met to evaluate the treatment of heart failure using VADs and to advise the institute on how therapy for heart failure may be best advanced by clinical trials involving the devices. Recognizing the improvements in VAD technology and in patient care and selection over the past decade, the working group recommended that a trial be performed to assess the use of chronic VAD therapy in patients who are less ill than those currently eligible for destination therapy. The hypothesis proposed for the trial is that VAD therapy may improve both survival and quality of life in moderately advanced heart failure patients who are neither inotrope-dependent nor exercise-intolerant and have not yet developed serious consequences such as malnourishment, end-organ damage, and immobility. Based on the group's recommendations, NHLBI issued an RFP in 2009 for the REVIVE-IT Pilot Trail, which will serve to test the hypothesis and inform the pivotal trial. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Turning Failure into Success: Trials of the Heart Failure Clinical Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Emer; Givertz, Michael M

    2016-12-01

    The Heart Failure Clinical Research Network (HFN) was established in 2008 on behalf of the NIH National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, with the primary goal of improving outcomes in heart failure (HF) by designing and conducting high-quality concurrent clinical trials testing interventions across the spectrum of HF. Completed HFN trials have answered several important and relevant clinical questions concerning the safety and efficacy of different decongestive and adjunctive vasodilator therapies in hospitalized acute HF, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition and nitrate therapies in HF with preserved ejection fraction, and the role of xanthine oxidase inhibition in hyperuricemic HF. These successes, independent of the "positive" or "negative" result of each individual trial, have helped to shape the current clinical care of HF patients and serve as a platform to inform future research directions and trial designs.

  18. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... major stroke. It's important to call 9-1-1 immediately for any stroke symptoms. Popular Topics TIA Cardiac Catheter Cholesterol Heart Attack Stent © 2018, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. The content in this ...

  19. Intravenous paracetamol versus dexketoprofen in acute migraine attack in the emergency department: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkcuer, Ibrahim; Serinken, Mustafa; Eken, Cenker; Yilmaz, Atakan; Akdag, Ömer; Uyan, Emrah; Kiray, Cihan; Elicabuk, Hayri

    2014-03-01

    Migraine is a common form of headache that is a major burden for patients who often seek emergency care. The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (dexketoprofen) with paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the treatment of an acute migraine attack. This prospective, randomised, double blind, controlled study was conducted in a tertiary care emergency unit. Study patients were randomised into two groups to receive either 50 mg of dexketoprofen trometamol or 1000 mg of paracetamol intravenously by rapid infusion in 150 mL of normal saline. Pain reduction was measured at baseline, and after 15 and 30 min, using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)) as the primary outcome. VAS is a measurement tool ranging from 0 (no pain) to 100 mm (worst pain). 200 patients were included in the final analysis. Mean (SD) age of the study subjects was 30.1 ± 11 years and 81% (n=162) were women. Median reduction in VAS score at 30 min was 56 (IQR 30-78.5) for the paracetamol group and 55 (IQR 34-75) for the dexketoprofen group, with a difference of 1 mm (95% CI -7 to 10) between the two groups. Intravenous paracetamol and dexketoprofen appear to produce equivalent pain relief for migraine in the emergency department. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV NO: NCT01730326.

  20. Effects of aspirin on risk and severity of early recurrent stroke after transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke : time-course analysis of randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothwell, Peter M; Algra, Ale; Chen, Zhengming; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Norrving, Bo; Mehta, Ziyah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aspirin is recommended for secondary prevention after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ischaemic stroke on the basis of trials showing a 13% reduction in long-term risk of recurrent stroke. However, the risk of major stroke is very high for only the first few days after TIA and minor

  1. The association of a heart attack or stroke with depressive symptoms stratified by the presence of a close social contact: findings from the National Health and Aging Trends Study Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simning, Adam; Seplaki, Christopher L; Conwell, Yeates

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine whether the risk of having clinically significant depressive symptoms following a heart attack or stroke varies by the presence of a close social contact. The National Health and Aging Trends Study is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older initiated in 2011. A total of 5643 older adults had information on social contacts at baseline and depressive symptoms at the 1-year follow-up interview. The two-item Patient Health Questionnaire identified clinically significant depressive symptoms. Interview questions examined social contacts and the presence of self-reported heart attack or stroke during the year of follow-up. A total of 297 older adults reported experiencing a heart attack and/or stroke between their baseline and follow-up interviews. In regression analyses accounting for sociodemographics, baseline depressive symptoms, medical comorbidity, and activities of daily living impairment, older adults with no close social contacts had increased odds of depressive symptoms at follow-up after experiencing a heart attack or stroke, while those with close social contacts had increased odds of depressive symptoms at follow-up after experiencing a stroke, but not a heart attack. Older adults have increased odds of having depressive symptoms following a self-reported stroke, but only those with no close social contacts had increased odds of depressive symptoms following a heart attack. Social networks may play a role in the mechanisms underlying depression among older adults experiencing certain acute health events. Future work exploring the potential causal relationships suggested here, if confirmed, could inform interventions to alleviate or prevent depression among at risk older adults. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A clinical trial protocol to treat massive Africanized honeybee (Apis mellifera) attack with a new apilic antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alexandre Naime; Boyer, Leslie; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Medolago, Natalia Bronzatto; Caramori, Carlos Antonio; Paixão, Ariane Gomes; Poli, João Paulo Vasconcelos; Mendes, Mônica Bannwart; Dos Santos, Lucilene Delazari; Ferreira, Rui Seabra; Barraviera, Benedito

    2017-01-01

    Envenomation caused by multiple stings from Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera constitutes a public health problem in the Americas. In 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported 13,597 accidents (incidence of seven cases per 100,000 inhabitants) with 39 deaths (lethality of 0.25%). The toxins present in the venom, which include melittin and phospholipase A 2 , cause lesions in diverse organs and systems that may be fatal. As there has been no specific treatment to date, management has been symptomatic and supportive only. In order to evaluate the safety and neutralizing capacity of a new apilic antivenom, as well as to confirm its lowest effective dose, a clinical protocol was developed to be applied in a multicenter, non-randomized and open phase I/II clinical trial. Twenty participants with more than five stings, aged more than 18 years, of both sexes, who have not previously received the heterologous serum against bee stings, will be included for 24 months. The proposed dose was based on the antivenom neutralizing capacity and the number of stings. Treatment will be administered only in a hospital environment and the participants will be evaluated for a period up to 30 days after discharge for clinical and laboratory follow-up. This protocol, approved by the Brazilian regulatory agencies for ethics (National Commission for Ethics on Research - CONEP) and sanitation (National Health Surveillance Agency - ANVISA), is a guideline constituted by specific, adjuvant, symptomatic and complementary treatments, in addition to basic orientations for conducting a clinical trial involving heterologous sera. This is the first clinical trial protocol designed specifically to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and safety of a new antivenom against stings from the Africanized honeybee Apis mellifera . The results will support future studies to confirm a new treatment for massive bee attack that has a large impact on public health in the Americas.

  3. SheppHeartCABG trial-comprehensive early rehabilitation after coronary artery bypass grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojskov, Ida Elisabeth; Moons, Philip; Hansen, Niels Viggo

    2017-01-01

    rehabilitation. The SheppHeartCABG trial will investigate the effect of early comprehensive rehabilitation in early phase rehabilitation versus usual care. The aim of this paper is to present the protocol for the SheppHeartCABG trial. METHODS/ANALYSIS: SheppHeartCABG is an investigator-initiated randomised...... clinical superiority trial with blinded outcome assessment, employing 1:1 central randomisation to rehabilitation plus usual care versus usual care alone. On the basis of a sample size calculation, 326 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting will be included from two clinical sites. All...... patients receive usual care and patients allocated to the experimental intervention follow 4 weeks rehabilitation consisting of an exercise programme, psycho-educative consultations and a compact mindfulness programme. The primary outcome is physical function measured by the 6-min walk test. The secondary...

  4. Statins in heart failure: do we need another trial?

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsu, Kwadwo Osei; Kadirvelu, Amudha; Reidpath, Daniel Diamond

    2013-01-01

    Kwadwo Osei Bonsu, Amudha Kadirvelu, Daniel Diamond ReidpathSchool of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Sunway Campus, Bandar Sunway, MalaysiaAbstract: Statins lower serum cholesterol and are employed for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Clinical evidence from observational studies, retrospective data, and post hoc analyses of data from large statin trials in various cardiovascular conditions, as well as small scale randomized trials, suggest survival a...

  5. Program of rehabilitative exercise and education to avert vascular events after non-disabling stroke or transient ischemic attack (PREVENT Trial: a multi-centred, randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Kara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite lack of outward signs, most individuals after non-disabling stroke (NDS and transient ischemic attack (TIA have significant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and are at high risk of a major stroke, hospitalization for other vascular events, or death. Most have multiple modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypertension, physical inactivity, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, tobacco consumption, psychological stress. In addition, accelerated rates of depression, cognitive decline, and poor quality of sleep have been reported following TIA, which correlate with poor functional outcomes and reduced quality of life. Thus, NSD and TIA are important warning signs that should not be overlooked. The challenge is not unlike that facing other 'silent' conditions - to identify a model of care that is effective in changing people's current behaviors in order to avert further morbidity. Methods/Design A single blind, randomized controlled trial will be conducted at two sites to compare the effectiveness of a program of rehabilitative exercise and education versus usual care in modifying vascular risk factors in adults after NDS/TIA. 250 adults within 90 days of being diagnosed with NDS/TIA will be randomly allocated to a 12-week program of exercise and education (PREVENT or to an outpatient clinic assessment and discussion of secondary prevention recommendations with return clinic visits as indicated (USUAL CARE. Primary outcome measures will include blood pressure, waist circumference, 12-hour fasting lipid profile, and 12-hour fasting glucose/hemoglobin A1c. Secondary measures will include exercise capacity, walking endurance, physical activity, cognitive function, depression, goal attainment and health-related quality of life. Outcome assessment will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Direct health care costs incurred over one year by PREVENT versus USUAL CARE participants will also be

  6. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  7. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, J.E.; de Vente, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; de Bruin, E.I.

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing

  8. Potassium supplementation and heart rate : A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Moelenberg, F. J. M.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Geleijnse, J. M.

    Background and aims: Increasing the intake of potassium has been shown to lower blood pressure, but whether it also affects heart rate (HR) is largely unknown. We therefore assessed the effect of potassium supplementation on HR in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods and results:

  9. Myocardial Energetics and Heart Failure: a Review of Recent Therapeutic Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Kunal N; Butler, Javed

    2018-06-01

    Several novel therapeutics being tested in patients with heart failure are based on myocardial energetics. This review will provide a summary of the recent trials in this area, including therapeutic options targeting various aspects of cellular and mitochondrial metabolism. Agents that improve the energetic balance in myocardial cells have the potential to improve clinical heart failure status. The most promising therapies currently under investigation in this arena include (1) elamipretide, a cardiolipin stabilizer; (2) repletion of iron deficiency with intravenous ferrous carboxymaltose; (3) coenzyme Q10; and (4) the partial adenosine receptor antagonists capadenoson and neladenosone. Myocardial energetics-based therapeutics are groundbreaking in that they utilize novel mechanisms of action to improve heart failure symptoms, without causing the adverse neurohormonal side effects associated with current guideline-based therapies. The drugs appear likely to be added to the heart failure therapy armamentarium as adjuncts to current regimens in the near future.

  10. Randomized controlled trials in children's heart surgery in the 21st century: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Nigel E; Patel, Akshay J; Oswald, Nicola K; Chong, Cher-Rin; Stickley, John; Barron, David J; Jones, Timothy J

    2018-04-01

    Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard for evaluating health care interventions, yet are uncommon in children's heart surgery. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials in paediatric cardiac surgery to evaluate the scope and quality of the current international literature. We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL and LILACS, and manually screened retrieved references and systematic reviews to identify all randomized controlled trials reporting the effect of any intervention on the conduct or outcomes of heart surgery in children published in any language since January 2000; secondary publications and those reporting inseparable adult data were excluded. Two reviewers independently screened studies for eligibility and extracted data; the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess for potential biases. We identified 333 trials from 34 countries randomizing 23 902 children. Most were early phase (313, 94.0%), recruiting few patients (median 45, interquartile range 28-82), and only 11 (3.3%) directly evaluated a surgical intervention. One hundred and nine (32.7%) trials calculated a sample size, 52 (15.6%) reported a CONSORT diagram, 51 (15.3%) were publicly registered and 25 (7.5%) had a Data Monitoring Committee. The overall risk of bias was low in 22 (6.6%), high in 69 (20.7%) and unclear in 242 (72.7%). The recent literature in children's heart surgery contains few late-phase clinical trials. Most trials did not conform to the accepted standards of reporting, and the overall risk of bias was low in few studies. There is a need for high-quality, multicentre clinical trials to provide a robust evidence base for contemporary paediatric cardiac surgical practice.

  11. A Prospective Trial of Ayurveda for Coronary Heart Disease: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBroff, Robert; Lad, Vasant; Murray-Krezan, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and its incidence is rapidly accelerating in developing nations. Patients often search for therapies that are alternatives to traditional treatments, such as heart medicines, coronary bypass surgery, or coronary stenting. Ayurveda is an ancient, East Indian, holistic approach to health care, and its use has never been formally evaluated for patients with coronary heart disease. The study intended to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of comprehensive ayurvedic therapy-incorporating diet, meditation, breathing exercises, yoga, and herbs-for patients with established coronary heart disease. The study was a prospective, single-group, pilot study. The study took place at the University of New Mexico Cardiology Clinic and at the Ayurvedic Institute in Albuquerque, NM, USA. The participants were adults with a history of a prior heart attack, coronary bypass surgery, or a coronary intervention (ie, a coronary angioplasty and/or stent). All enrolled patients were evaluated by a single ayurvedic physician with >40 y of experience, and each received therapy consisting of a calorically unrestricted ayurvedic diet; instruction in yoga, meditation, and breathing; and use of ayurvedic herbs. The primary endpoint was arterial pulse wave velocity, a marker of arterial function and vascular health. Secondary endpoints included the following measurements: (1) body mass index (BMI); (2) blood pressure (BP) and amount of reduction in BP medications; and (3) levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides. All parameters were measured at baseline and after 90 d of therapy. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study, and 19 patients completed it. The research team observed significant improvements in arterial pulse wave velocity (P = .015), and favorable reductions in BMI (P ayurveda on arterial function and multiple risk

  12. Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary ...

  13. HEART: heart exercise and remote technologies: A randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Geoffrey

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR is aimed at improving health behaviors to slow or reverse the progression of CVD disease. Exercise is a central element of CR. Technologies such as mobile phones and the Internet (mHealth offer potential to overcome many of the psychological, physical, and geographical barriers that have been associated with lack of participation in exercise-based CR. We aim to trial the effectiveness of a mobile phone delivered exercise-based CR program to increase exercise capacity and functional outcomes compared with usual CR care in adults with CVD. This paper outlines the rationale and methods of the trial. Methods A single-blinded parallel two-arm randomized controlled trial is being conducted. A total of 170 people will be randomized at 1:1 ratio either to receive a mHealth CR program or usual care. Participants are identified by CR nurses from two metropolitan hospitals in Auckland, New Zealand through outpatient clinics and existing databases. Consenting participants are contacted to attend a baseline assessment. The intervention consists of a theory-based, personalized, automated package of text and video message components via participants' mobile phones and the Internet to increase exercise behavior, delivered over six months. The control group will continue with usual CR. Data collection occurs at baseline and 24 weeks (post-intervention. The primary outcome is change in maximal oxygen uptake from baseline to 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include post-intervention measures on self-reported physical activity (IPAQ, cardiovascular risk factors (systolic blood pressure, weight, and waist to hip ratio, health related quality of life (SF-36, and cost-effectiveness. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a mHealth exercise-based CR program. Results of this trial will provide much needed

  14. Serum Potassium Levels and Outcome in Acute Heart Failure (Data from the PROTECT and COACH Trials)

    OpenAIRE

    Tromp, Jasper; ter Maaten, Jozine M.; Damman, Kevin; OConnor, Christopher M.; Metra, Marco; Dittrich, Howard C.; Ponikowski, Piot; Teerlink, John R.; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth; Cleland, John G. F.; Givertz, Michael M.; Bloomfield, Daniel M.; van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2017-01-01

    Serum potassium is routinely measured at admission for acute heart failure (AHF), but information on association with clinical variables and prognosis is limited. Potassium measurements at admission were available in 1,867 patients with AHF in the original cohort of 2,033 patients included in the Patients Hospitalized with acute heart failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal FuncTion trial. Patients were grouped according to low potassium (amp;lt;3.5 mEq/...

  15. Influenza Vaccination in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: The PARADIGM-HF Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeny, Orly; Claggett, Brian; Udell, Jacob A; Packer, Milton; Zile, Michael; Rouleau, Jean; Swedberg, Karl; Desai, Akshay S; Lefkowitz, Martin; Shi, Victor; McMurray, John J V; Solomon, Scott D

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to examine the prevalence and predictors of influenza vaccination among participants in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) study and investigate associations between receiving influenza vaccine and cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalizations, all-cause hospitalizations, and cardiopulmonary or influenza-related hospitalizations. Influenza is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events in patients with heart failure. We used data from the PARADIGM-HF trial in which patients with heart failure were randomized to the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696 (sacubitril/valsartan) or enalapril. We assessed predictors of receiving influenza vaccination, and examined the relationship between influenza vaccination and outcomes in a propensity-adjusted model. Of 8,099 study participants, 1,769 (21%) received influenza vaccination. We observed significant regional variation in vaccination rates, with highest rates in the Netherlands (77.5%), Great Britain (77.2%), and Belgium (67.5%), and lowest rates in Asia (2.6%), with intermediate rates in North America (52.8%). Top predictors of vaccination included enrolling country, white race, implanted defibrillator, older age, lower New York Heart Association functional class, lower heart rate, and a history of diabetes mellitus. Influenza vaccination was associated with a reduced risk for all-cause mortality in propensity-adjusted (hazard ratio: 0.81; 95% confidence interval: 0.67 to 0.97; p = 0.015) models. Influenza vaccination rates varied widely in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction enrolled in the PARADIGM-HF trial, and vaccination was associated with reduced risk for death, although whether this association was causal cannot be determined. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving coronary heart disease self-management using mobile technologies (Text4Heart): a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; Whittaker, Robyn; Jiang, Yannan; Stewart, Ralph; Rolleston, Anna; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-03-04

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a secondary prevention program that offers education and support to assist patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) make lifestyle changes. Despite the benefits of CR, attendance at centre-based sessions remains low. Mobile technology (mHealth) has potential to reach more patients by delivering CR directly to mobile phones, thus providing an alternative to centre-based CR. The aim of this trial is to evaluate if a mHealth comprehensive CR program can improve adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviours (for example, physically active, fruit and vegetable intake, not smoking, low alcohol consumption) over and above usual CR services in New Zealand adults diagnosed with CHD. A two-arm, parallel, randomised controlled trial will be conducted at two Auckland hospitals in New Zealand. One hundred twenty participants will be randomised to receive a 24-week evidence- and theory-based personalised text message program and access to a supporting website in addition to usual CR care or usual CR care alone (control). The primary outcome is the proportion of participants adhering to healthy behaviours at 6 months, measured using a composite health behaviour score. Secondary outcomes include overall cardiovascular disease risk, body composition, illness perceptions, self-efficacy, hospital anxiety/depression and medication adherence. This study is one of the first to examine an mHealth-delivered comprehensive CR program. Strengths of the trial include quality research design and in-depth description of the intervention to aid replication. If effective, the trial has potential to augment standard CR practices and to be used as a model for other disease prevention or self-management programs. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000901707.

  17. A randomized trial of heart failure disease management in skilled nursing facilities (SNF Connect): Lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddato, Andrea; Wald, Heidi L; Horney, Carolyn; Fairclough, Diane L; Leister, Erin C; Coors, Marilyn; Capell, Warren H; Boxer, Rebecca S

    2017-06-01

    Conducting clinical trials in skilled nursing facilities is particularly challenging. This manuscript describes facility and patient recruitment challenges and solutions for clinical research in skilled nursing facilities. Lessons learned from the SNF Connect Trial, a randomized trial of a heart failure disease management versus usual care for patients with heart failure receiving post-acute care in skilled nursing facilities, are discussed. Description of the trial design and barriers to facility and patient recruitment along with regulatory issues are presented. The recruitment of Denver-metro skilled nursing facilities was facilitated by key stakeholders of the skilled nursing facilities community. However, there were still a number of barriers to facility recruitment including leadership turnover, varying policies regarding research, fear of litigation and of an increased workload. Engagement of facilities was facilitated by their strong interest in reducing hospital readmissions, marketing potential to hospitals, and heart failure management education for their staff. Recruitment of patients proved difficult and there were few facilitators. Identified patient recruitment challenges included patients being unaware of their heart failure diagnosis, patients overwhelmed with their illness and care, and frequently there was no available proxy for cognitively impaired patients. Flexibility in changing the recruitment approach and targeting skilled nursing facilities with higher rates of admissions helped to overcome some barriers. Recruitment of skilled nursing facilities and patients in skilled nursing facilities for clinical trials is challenging. Strategies to attract both facilities and patients are warranted. These include aligning study goals with facility incentives and flexible recruitment protocols to work with patients in "transition crisis."

  18. Can we monitor heart attack in the troponin era: evidence from a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankin Jamie M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Troponins (highly sensitive biomarkers of myocardial damage increase counts of myocardial infarction (MI in clinical practice, but their impact on trends in admission rates for MI in National statistics is uncertain. Methods Cases coded as MI or other cardiac diagnoses in the Hospital Morbidity Data Collection (MI-HMDC in Western Australia in 1998 and 2003 were classified using revised criteria for MI developed by an International panel convened by the American Heart Association (AHA criteria using information on symptoms, ECGs and cardiac biomarkers abstracted from samples of medical notes. Age-sex standardized rates of MI-HMDC were compared with rates of MI based on AHA criteria including troponins (MI-AHA or traditional biomarkers only (MI-AHAck. Results Between 1998 and 2003, rates of MI-HMDC decreased by 3.5% whereas rates of MI-AHA increased by 17%, a difference largely due to increased false-negative cases in the HMDC associated with marked increased use of troponin tests in cardiac admissions generally, and progressively lower test thresholds. In contrast, rates of MI-AHAck declined by 18%. Conclusions Increasing misclassification of MI-AHA by the HMDC may be due to reluctance by clinicians to diagnose MI based on relatively small increases in troponin levels. These influences are likely to continue. Monitoring MI using AHA criteria will require calibration of commercially available troponin tests and agreement on lower diagnostic thresholds for epidemiological studies. Declining rates of MI-AHAck are consistent with long-standing trends in MI in Western Australia, suggesting that neither MI-HMDC nor MI-AHA reflect the true underlying population trends in MI.

  19. Pilates in heart failure patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; d'Avila, Veridiana Moraes

    2012-12-01

    Conventional cardiac rehabilitation program consist of 15 min of warm-up, 30 min of aerobic exercise and followed by 15 min calisthenics exercise. The Pilates method has been increasingly applied for its therapeutic benefits, however little scientific evidence supports or rebukes its use as a treatment in patients with heart failure (HF). Investigate the effects of Pilates on exercise capacity variables in HF. Sixteen pts with HF, left ventricular ejection fraction 27 ± 14%, NYHA class I-II were randomly assigned to conventional cardiac rehabilitation program (n = 8) or mat Pilates training (n = 8) for 16 weeks of 30 min of aerobic exercise followed by 20 min of the specific program. At 16 weeks, pts in the mat Pilates group and conventional group showed significantly increase on exercise time 11.9 ± 2.5 to 17.8 ± 4 and 11.7 ± 3.9 to 14.2 ± 4 min, respectively. However, only the Pilates group increased significantly the ventilation (from 56 ± 20 to 69 ± 17 L/min, P = 0.02), peak VO(2) (from 20.9 ± 6 to 24.8 ± 6 mL/kg/min, P = 0.01), and O(2) pulse (from 11.9 ± 2 to 13.8 ± 3 mL/bpm, P = 0.003). The Pilates group showed significantly increase in peak VO(2) when compared with conventional group (24.8 ± 6 vs. 18.3 ± 4, P = 0.02). The result suggests that the Pilates method may be a beneficial adjunctive treatment that enhances functional capacity in patients with HF who are already receiving standard medical therapy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Level of consciousness on admission to a Heart Attack Centre is a predictor of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Fothergill, Rachael; Moore, Fionna; Watson, Lynne; Whitbread, Mark

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between the neurological status at the time of handover from the ambulance crew to a Heart Attack Centre (HAC) in patients who have achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and subsequent outcome, in the context of current treatment standards, is unknown. A retrospective review of all patients treated by London Ambulance Service (LAS) from 1(st) April 2011 to 31(st) March 2013 admitted to a HAC in Greater London was undertaken. Neurological status (A - alert; V - responding to voice; P - responding to pain; U - unresponsive) recorded by the ambulance crew on handover was compared with length of hospital stay and survival to hospital discharge. A total of 475 sequential adult cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac origin, achieving ROSC on admission to a HAC were identified. Outcome data was available for 452 patients, of whom 253 (56.0%) survived to discharge. Level of consciousness on admission to the HAC was a predictor of duration of hospital stay (Pa shockable rhythm, 32.3% (120/371) were 'A' or 'V', compared with 9.1% (9/99) of those with non-shockable rhythms (PA or V) compared with those with non-shockable rhythms. Most patients who are conscious on admission to the HAC will survive, compared with approximately half of those who are unconscious (P or U), suggesting that critical care is generally appropriate at all levels of consciousness if ROSC has been achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aspirin Does Not Increase Heart Failure Events in Heart Failure Patients: From the WARCEF Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerlink, John R; Qian, Min; Bello, Natalie A; Freudenberger, Ronald S; Levin, Bruce; Di Tullio, Marco R; Graham, Susan; Mann, Douglas L; Sacco, Ralph L; Mohr, J P; Lip, Gregory Y H; Labovitz, Arthur J; Lee, Seitetz C; Ponikowski, Piotr; Lok, Dirk J; Anker, Stefan D; Thompson, John L P; Homma, Shunichi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether aspirin increases heart failure (HF) hospitalization or death in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Because of its cyclooxygenase inhibiting properties, aspirin has been postulated to increase HF events in patients treated with ACE inhibitors or ARBs. However, no large randomized trial has addressed the clinical relevance of this issue. We compared aspirin and warfarin for HF events (hospitalization, death, or both) in the 2,305 patients enrolled in the WARCEF (Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction) trial (98.6% on ACE inhibitor or ARB treatment), using conventional Cox models for time to first event (489 events). In addition, to examine multiple HF hospitalizations, we used 2 extended Cox models, a conditional model and a total time marginal model, in time to recurrent event analyses (1,078 events). After adjustment for baseline covariates, aspirin- and warfarin-treated patients did not differ in time to first HF event (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.87; 95% confidence interval: 0.72 to 1.04; p = 0.117) or first hospitalization alone (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 1.06; p = 0.168). The extended Cox models also found no significant differences in all HF events or in HF hospitalizations alone after adjustment for covariates. Among patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction in the WARCEF trial, there was no significant difference in risk of HF events between the aspirin and warfarin-treated patients. (Warfarin Versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction trial [WARCEF]; NCT00041938). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic manipulation in chronic heart failure: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Francisco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in society. Current medical therapy centres on neurohormonal modulation with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and β-blockers. There is growing evidence for the use of metabolic manipulating agents as adjunctive therapy in patients with heart failure. We aim to determine the effect of perhexiline on cardiac energetics and alterations in substrate utilisation in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Methods A multi-centre, prospective, randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 50 subjects with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy recruited from University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust and Cardiff and Vale NHS Trust. Baseline investigations include magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess cardiac energetic status, echocardiography to assess left ventricular function and assessment of symptomatic status. Subjects are then randomised to receive 200 mg perhexiline maleate or placebo daily for 4 weeks with serum drug level monitoring. All baseline investigations will be repeated at the end of the treatment period. A subgroup of patients will undergo invasive investigations with right and left heart catheterisation to calculate respiratory quotient, and mechanical efficiency. The primary endpoint is an improvement in the phosphocreatine to adenosine triphosphate ratio at 4 weeks. Secondary end points are: i respiratory quotient; ii mechanical efficiency; iii change in left ventricular (LV function. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00841139 ISRCTN: ISRCTN2887836

  3. Heart-Health Screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools For Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Subscribe to Heart Insight magazine and monthly ... in Spanish . Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  4. Heart disease and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  5. Toward phase 4 trials in heart failure: A social and corporate responsibility of the medical profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Beneby, Glen S

    2015-12-26

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a chronic condition, requiring polypharmacy, allied health supports and regular monitoring. All these factors are needed to ensure compliance and to deliver the positive outcomes demonstrated from randomized controlled trials. Unfortunately many centers around the world are unable to match trial level support. The outcomes for many communities are thus unclear. Research design factors in post-marketing surveillance to address this issue. Phase 4 studies is the name given to trials designed to obtain such community level data and thus address issues of external validity. CHF phase 4 studies are relatively underutilized. We feel the onus for this research lies with the health profession. In this commentary we provide arguments as to why phase 4 studies should be viewed as a social and corporate responsibility of health professional that care for clients with CHF.

  6. Toward phase 4 trials in heart failure: A social and corporate responsibility of the medical profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Beneby, Glen S

    2015-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a chronic condition, requiring polypharmacy, allied health supports and regular monitoring. All these factors are needed to ensure compliance and to deliver the positive outcomes demonstrated from randomized controlled trials. Unfortunately many centers around the world are unable to match trial level support. The outcomes for many communities are thus unclear. Research design factors in post-marketing surveillance to address this issue. Phase 4 studies is the name given to trials designed to obtain such community level data and thus address issues of external validity. CHF phase 4 studies are relatively underutilized. We feel the onus for this research lies with the health profession. In this commentary we provide arguments as to why phase 4 studies should be viewed as a social and corporate responsibility of health professional that care for clients with CHF. PMID:26713277

  7. The first multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of home telemonitoring for Japanese patients with heart failure: home telemonitoring study for patients with heart failure (HOMES-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotooka, Norihiko; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Nagashima, Kengo; Asaka, Machiko; Kinugasa, Yoshiharu; Nochioka, Kotaro; Mizuno, Atsushi; Nagatomo, Daisuke; Mine, Daigo; Yamada, Yoko; Kuratomi, Akiko; Okada, Norihiro; Fujimatsu, Daisuke; Kuwahata, So; Toyoda, Shigeru; Hirotani, Shin-Ichi; Komori, Takahiro; Eguchi, Kazuo; Kario, Kazuomi; Inomata, Takayuki; Sugi, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Masuyama, Tohru; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Momomura, Shin-Ichi; Seino, Yoshihiko; Sato, Yasunori; Inoue, Teruo; Node, Koichi

    2018-02-15

    Home telemonitoring is becoming more important to home medical care for patients with heart failure. Since there are no data on home telemonitoring for Japanese patients with heart failure, we investigated its effect on cardiovascular outcomes. The HOMES-HF study was the first multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled trial (RCT) to elucidate the effectiveness of home telemonitoring of physiological data, such as body weight, blood pressure, and pulse rate, for Japanese patients with heart failure (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000006839). The primary end-point was a composite of all-cause death or rehospitalization due to worsening heart failure. We analyzed 181 recently hospitalized patients with heart failure who were randomly assigned to a telemonitoring group (n = 90) or a usual care group (n = 91). The mean follow-up period was 15 (range 0-31) months. There was no statistically significant difference in the primary end-point between groups [hazard ratio (HR), 0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.548-1.648; p = 0.572]. Home telemonitoring for Japanese patients with heart failure was feasible; however, beneficial effects in addition to those of usual care were not demonstrated. Further investigation of more patients with severe heart failure, participation of home medical care providers, and use of a more integrated home telemonitoring system emphasizing communication as well as monitoring of symptoms and physiological data are required.

  8. Clinical trials in hospitalized heart failure patients: targeting interventions to optimal phenotypic subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Butler, Javed; Roessig, Lothar; Fonarow, Gregg C; Greene, Stephen J; Metra, Marco; Cotter, Gadi; Kupfer, Stuart; Zalewski, Andrew; Sato, Naoki; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-07-01

    With one possible exception, the last decade of clinical trials in hospitalized heart failure (HHF) patients has failed to demonstrate improvement in long-term clinical outcomes. This trend necessitates a need to evaluate optimal drug development strategies and standards of trial conduct. It has become increasingly important to recognize the heterogeneity among HHF patients and the differential characterization of novel drug candidates. Targeting these agents to specific subpopulations may afford optimal net response related to the particular mode of action of the drug. Analyses of previous trials demonstrate profound differences in the baseline characteristics of patients enrolled across global regions and participating sites. Such differences may influence risks for events and interpretation of results. Therefore, the actual execution of trials and the epidemiology of HHF populations at the investigative sites must be taken into consideration. Collaboration among participating sites including the provision of registry data tailored to the planned development program will optimize trial conduct. Observational data prior to study initiation may enable sites to feedback and engage in protocol development to allow for feasible and valid clinical trial conduct. This site-centered, epidemiology-based network environment may facilitate studies in specific patient populations and promote optimal data collection and clear interpretation of drug safety and efficacy. This review summarizes the roundtable discussion held by a multidisciplinary team of representatives from academia, National Institutes of Health, industry, regulatory agencies, payers, and contract and academic research organizations to answer the question: Who should be targeted for novel therapies in HHF?

  9. REVIVE Trial: Retrograde Delivery of Autologous Bone Marrow in Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amit N; Mittal, Sanjay; Turan, Goekmen; Winters, Amalia A; Henry, Timothy D; Ince, Hueseyin; Trehan, Naresh

    2015-09-01

    Cell therapy is an evolving option for patients with end-stage heart failure and ongoing symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. Our goal was to evaluate retrograde bone marrow cell delivery in patients with either ischemic heart failure (IHF) or nonischemic heart failure (NIHF). This was a prospective randomized, multicenter, open-label study of the safety and feasibility of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) infused retrograde into the coronary sinus. Sixty patients were stratified by IHF and NIHF and randomized to receive either BMAC infusion or control (standard heart failure care) in a 4:1 ratio. Accordingly, 24 subjects were randomized to the ischemic BMAC group and 6 to the ischemic control group. Similarly, 24 subjects were randomized to the nonischemic BMAC group and 6 to the nonischemic control group. All 60 patients were successfully enrolled in the study. The treatment groups received BMAC infusion without complications. The left ventricular ejection fraction in the patients receiving BMAC demonstrated significant improvement compared with baseline, from 25.1% at screening to 31.1% at 12 months (p=.007) in the NIHF group and from 26.3% to 31.1% in the IHF group (p=.035). The end-systolic diameter decreased significantly in the nonischemic BMAC group from 55.6 to 50.9 mm (p=.020). Retrograde BMAC delivery is safe. All patients receiving BMAC experienced improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction, but only those with NIHF showed improvements in left ventricular end-systolic diameter and B-type natriuretic peptide. These results provide the basis for a larger clinical trial in HF patients. This work is the first prospective randomized clinical trial using high-dose cell therapy delivered via a retrograde coronary sinus infusion in patients with heart failure. This was a multinational, multicenter study, and it is novel, translatable, and scalable. On the basis of this trial and the safety of retrograde coronary sinus infusion, there are

  10. Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke About 1.5 million heart attacks and ... can’t change some of your risks for heart disease and stroke, but you can manage many of ...

  11. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion...... of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants....

  12. Ex-vivo perfusion of donor hearts for human heart transplantation (PROCEED II): a prospective, open-label, multicentre, randomised non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardehali, Abbas; Esmailian, Fardad; Deng, Mario; Soltesz, Edward; Hsich, Eileen; Naka, Yoshifumi; Mancini, Donna; Camacho, Margarita; Zucker, Mark; Leprince, Pascal; Padera, Robert; Kobashigawa, Jon

    2015-06-27

    The Organ Care System is the only clinical platform for ex-vivo perfusion of human donor hearts. The system preserves the donor heart in a warm beating state during transport from the donor hospital to the recipient hospital. We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of the Organ Care System compared with standard cold storage of human donor hearts for transplantation. We did this prospective, open-label, multicentre, randomised non-inferiority trial at ten heart-transplant centres in the USA and Europe. Eligible heart-transplant candidates (aged >18 years) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive donor hearts preserved with either the Organ Care System or standard cold storage. Participants, investigators, and medical staff were not masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was 30 day patient and graft survival, with a 10% non-inferiority margin. We did analyses in the intention-to-treat, as-treated, and per-protocol populations. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00855712. Between June 29, 2010, and Sept 16, 2013, we randomly assigned 130 patients to the Organ Care System group (n=67) or the standard cold storage group (n=63). 30 day patient and graft survival rates were 94% (n=63) in the Organ Care System group and 97% (n=61) in the standard cold storage group (difference 2·8%, one-sided 95% upper confidence bound 8·8; p=0·45). Eight (13%) patients in the Organ Care System group and nine (14%) patients in the standard cold storage group had cardiac-related serious adverse events. Heart transplantation using donor hearts adequately preserved with the Organ Care System or with standard cold storage yield similar short-term clinical outcomes. The metabolic assessment capability of the Organ Care System needs further study. TransMedics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Statin therapy and clinical outcomes in myocardial infarction patients complicated by acute heart failure : insights from the EPHESUS trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobre, Daniela; Rossignol, Patrick; Murin, Jan; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Lamiral, Zohra; Krum, Henry; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Pitt, Bertram; Zannad, Faiez

    Several clinical trials have shown that in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), statin therapy improves cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, but in these trials patients with acute heart failure (HF) were excluded or only a few were included. In patients with chronic HF, statin therapy does not

  14. Rationale and Design of the Reduce Elevated Left Atrial Pressure in Patients With Heart Failure (Reduce LAP-HF) Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasenfuss, Gerd; Gustafsson, Finn; Kaye, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is characterized by elevated left atrial pressure during rest and/or exercise. The Reduce LAP-HF (Reduce Elevated Left Atrial Pressure in Patients With Heart Failure) trial will evaluate the safety and performance of the Interatrial...... Shunt Device (IASD) System II, designed to directly reduce elevated left atrial pressure, in patients with HFpEF. METHODS: The Reduce LAP-HF Trial is a prospective, nonrandomized, open-label trial to evaluate a novel device that creates a small permanent shunt at the level of the atria. A minimum of 60...... patients with ejection fraction ≥40% and New York Heart Association functional class III or IV heart failure with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) ≥15 mm Hg at rest or ≥25 mm Hg during supine bike exercise will be implanted with an IASD System II, and followed for 6 months to assess the primary...

  15. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ebstein's Anomaly l-Transposition of the Great Arteries Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Pulmonary Valve Stenosis and Regurgitation ... Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms in Women 4 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 5 ...

  16. Rationale and design of the Aquapheresis Versus Intravenous Diuretics and Hospitalization for Heart Failure (AVOID-HF) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Maria Rosa; Negoianu, Daniel; Fonarow, Gregg C; Jaski, Brian E; Bart, Bradley A; Heywood, J Thomas; Nabut, Jose L; Schollmeyer, Michael P

    2015-09-01

    In patients hospitalized with acutely decompensated heart failure, unresolved signs and symptoms of fluid overload have been consistently associated with poor outcomes. Regardless of dosing and type of administration, intravenous loop diuretics have not reduced heart failure events or mortality in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure. The results of trials comparing intravenous loop diuretics to mechanical fluid removal by isolated venovenous ultrafiltration have yielded conflicting results. Studies evaluating early decongestive strategies have shown that ultrafiltration removed more fluid and was associated with fewer heart failure-related rehospitalization than intravenous loop diuretics. In contrast, when used in the setting of worsening renal function, ultrafiltration was associated with poorer renal outcomes and no reduction in heart failure events. The AVOID-HF trial seeks to determine if an early strategy of ultrafiltration in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure is associated with fewer heart failure events at 90 days compared with a strategy based on intravenous loop diuretics. Study subjects from 40 highly experienced institutions are randomized to either early ultrafiltration or intravenous loop diuretics. In both treatment arms, fluid removal therapies are adjusted according to the patients' hemodynamic condition and renal function. The study was unilaterally terminated by the sponsor in the absence of futility and safety concerns after the enrollment of 221 subjects, or 27% of the originally planned sample size of 810 patients. The AVOID-HF trial's principal aim is to compare the safety and efficacy of ultrafiltration vs that of intravenous loop diuretics in patients hospitalized with acutely decompensated heart failure. Because stepped treatment approaches are applied in both ultrafiltration and intravenous loop diuretics groups and the primary end point is time to first heart failure event within 90 days, it is hoped that

  17. 75 FR 70273 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering to Prevent Heart Attack Trial... Research Demonstration and Dissemination Projects. Date: December 14, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda... Assistance Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular...

  18. A randomized clinical trial of hospital-based, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk of ischemic heart disease (the DANREHAB trial) - design, intervention, and population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, A.D.O.; Schou, O.; Soja, A.M.B.

    2005-01-01

    , or readmissions due to heart disease based on linkage to public registries. The CR was an individually tailored, multidisciplinary program (6 weeks of intensive CR and 12 months of follow-up) including patient education, exercise training, dietary counseling, smoking cessation, psychosocial support, risk factor...... that a large-scale, centrally randomized clinical trial on comprehensive CR can be conducted among a broadly defined patient group, but reaching the stipulated number of 1800 patients was difficult. Although the study included relatively many women and older people, elderly patients and patients with high...

  19. A randomized clinical trial of hospital-based, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk of ischemic heart disease (the DANREHAB trial)--design, intervention, and population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    , or readmissions due to heart disease based on linkage to public registries. The CR was an individually tailored, multidisciplinary program (6 weeks of intensive CR and 12 months of follow-up) including patient education, exercise training, dietary counseling, smoking cessation, psychosocial support, risk factor...... that a large-scale, centrally randomized clinical trial on comprehensive CR can be conducted among a broadly defined patient group, but reaching the stipulated number of 1800 patients was difficult. Although the study included relatively many women and older people, elderly patients and patients with high...

  20. NHLBI’s Program for VAD Therapy for Moderately Advanced Heart Failure: The REVIVE-IT Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J. Timothy; Mann, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Background VADs are used to bridge heart failure patients to transplantation, to allow their own hearts to recover, or as permanent (“destination”) therapy. To date, the use of VADs has been limited to late-stage heart failure patients because of the associated device risks. In 2008, an NHLBI working group met to evaluate the treatment of heart failure using VADs and to advise the institute on how therapy for heart failure may be best advanced by clinical trials involving the devices. Discussion and Recommendations Recognizing the improvements in VAD technology and in patient care and selection over the past decade, the working group recommended that a trial be performed to assess the use of chronic VAD therapy in patients who are less ill than those currently eligible for destination therapy. The hypothesis proposed for the trial is that VAD therapy may improve both survival and quality of life in moderately advanced heart failure patients who are neither inotrope-dependent nor exercise-intolerant and have not yet developed serious consequences such as malnourishment, end-organ damage, and immobility. Based on the group’s recommendations, NHLBI issued an RFP in 2009 for the REVIVE-IT Pilot Trail which will serve to test the hypothesis and inform the pivotal trial. PMID:21055648

  1. Prognostic value of the physical examination in patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation: insights from the AF-CHF trial (atrial fibrillation and chronic heart failure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldentey, Guillem; Khairy, Paul; Roy, Denis; Leduc, Hugues; Talajic, Mario; Racine, Normand; White, Michel; O'Meara, Eileen; Guertin, Marie-Claude; Rouleau, Jean L; Ducharme, Anique

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to assess the prognostic value of physical examination in a modern treated heart failure population. The physical examination is the cornerstone of the evaluation and monitoring of patients with heart failure. Yet, the prognostic value of congestive signs (i.e., peripheral edema, jugular venous distension, a third heart sound, and pulmonary rales) has not been assessed in the current era. A post-hoc analysis was conducted on all 1,376 patients, 81% male, mean age 67 ± 11 years, with symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction enrolled in the AF-CHF (Atrial Fibrillation and Congestive Heart Failure) trial. The prognostic value of baseline physical examination findings was assessed in univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Peripheral edema was observed in 425 (30.9%), jugular venous distension in 297 (21.6%), a third heart sound in 207 (15.0%), and pulmonary rales in 178 (12.9%) patients. Death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 357 (25.9%) patients over a mean follow-up of 37 ± 19 months. All 4 physical examination findings were associated with cardiovascular mortality in univariate analyses (all p values examination (i.e., peripheral edema, jugular venous distension, a third heart sound, and pulmonary rales) continue to provide important prognostic information in patients with congestive heart failure. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of Trigger Point Manual Treatment on the Frequency, Intensity, and Duration of Attacks in Primary Headaches: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Falsiroli Maistrello

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA variety of interventions has been proposed for symptomatology relief in primary headaches. Among these, manual trigger points (TrPs treatment gains popularity, but its effects have not been investigated yet.ObjectiveThe aim was to establish the effectiveness of manual TrP compared to minimal active or no active interventions in terms of frequency, intensity, and duration of attacks in adult people with primary headaches.MethodsWe searched MEDLINE, COCHRANE, Web Of Science, and PEDro databases up to November 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Two independent reviewers appraised the risk-of-bias (RoB and the grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE to evaluate the overall quality of evidence.ResultsSeven RCTs that compared manual treatment vs minimal active intervention were included: 5 focused on tension-type headache (TTH and 2 on Migraine (MH; 3 out of 7 RCTs had high RoB. Combined TTH and MH results show statistically significant reduction for all outcomes after treatment compared to controls, but the level of evidence was very low. Subgroup analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in attack frequency (no. of attacks per month after treatment in TTH (MD −3.50; 95% CI from −4.91 to −2.09; 4 RCTs and in MH (MD −1.92; 95% CI from −3.03 to −0.80; 2 RCTs. Pain intensity (0–100 scale was reduced in TTH (MD −12.83; 95% CI from −19.49 to −6.17; 4 RCTs and in MH (MD −13.60; 95% CI from −19.54 to −7.66; 2RCTs. Duration of attacks (hours was reduced in TTH (MD −0.51; 95% CI from −0.97 to −0.04; 2 RCTs and in MH (MD −10.68; 95% CI from −14.41 to −6.95; 1 RCT.ConclusionManual TrPs treatment of head and neck muscles may reduce frequency, intensity, and duration of attacks in TTH and MH, but the quality of evidence according to GRADE approach was very low for the presence of few studies, high RoB, and imprecision of results.

  3. Relevance of Changes in Serum Creatinine During a Heart Failure Trial of Decongestive Strategies: Insights From the DOSE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Meredith A; Zile, Michael R; Hanberg, Jennifer S; Wilson, F Perry; Parikh, Chirag R; Coca, Steven G; Tang, W H Wilson; Testani, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    Worsening renal function (WRF) is a common endpoint in decompensated heart failure clinical trials because of associations between WRF and adverse outcomes. However, WRF has not universally been identified as a poor prognostic sign, challenging the validity of WRF as a surrogate endpoint. Our aim was to describe the associations between changes in creatinine and adverse outcomes in a clinical trial of decongestive therapies. We investigated the association between changes in creatinine and the composite endpoint of death, rehospitalization or emergency room visit within 60 days in 301 patients in the Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation (DOSE) trial. WRF was defined as an increase in creatinine >0.3 mg/dL and improvement in renal function (IRF) as a decrease >0.3 mg/dL. When examining linear changes in creatinine from baseline to 72 hours (the coprimary endpoint of DOSE), increasing creatinine was associated with lower risk for the composite outcome (HR = 0.81 per 0.3 mg/dL increase, 95% CI 0.67-0.98, P = .026). Compared with patients with stable renal function (n = 219), WRF (n = 54) was not associated with the composite endpoint (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.77-1.78, P = .47). However, compared with stable renal function, there was a strong relationship between IRF (n = 28) and the composite endpoint (HR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.57-4.03, P creatinine, was paradoxically associated with improved outcomes. This was driven by absence of risk attributable to WRF and a strong risk associated with IRF. These results argue against using changes in serum creatinine as a surrogate endpoint in trials of decongestive strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mixed methods feasibility study for a trial of blood pressure telemonitoring for people who have had stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Janet; Fairbrother, Peter; Krishan, Ashma; McCloughan, Lucy; Padfield, Paul; Paterson, Mary; Pinnock, Hilary; Sheikh, Aziz; Sudlow, Cathie; Todd, Allison; McKinstry, Brian

    2015-03-25

    Good blood pressure (BP) control reduces the risk of recurrence of stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Although there is strong evidence that BP telemonitoring helps achieve good control, none of the major trials have considered the effectiveness in stroke/TIA survivors. We therefore conducted a feasibility study for a trial of BP telemonitoring for stroke/TIA survivors with uncontrolled BP in primary care. Phase 1 was a pilot trial involving 55 patients stratified by stroke/TIA randomised 3:1 to BP telemonitoring for 6 months or usual care. Phase 2 was a qualitative evaluation and comprised semi-structured interviews with 16 trial participants who received telemonitoring and 3 focus groups with 23 members of stroke support groups and 7 carers. Overall, 125 patients (60 stroke patients, 65 TIA patients) were approached and 55 (44%) patients were randomised including 27 stroke patients and 28 TIA patients. Fifty-two participants (95%) attended the 6-month follow-up appointment, but one declined the second daytime ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) measurement resulting in a 93% completion rate for ABPM - the proposed primary outcome measure for a full trial. Adherence to telemonitoring was good; of the 40 participants who were telemonitoring, 38 continued to provide readings throughout the 6 months. There was a mean reduction of 10.1 mmHg in systolic ABPM in the telemonitoring group compared with 3.8 mmHg in the control group, which suggested the potential for a substantial effect from telemonitoring. Our qualitative analysis found that many stroke patients were concerned about their BP and telemonitoring increased their engagement, was easy, convenient and reassuring. A full-scale trial is feasible, likely to recruit well and have good rates of compliance and follow-up. ISRCTN61528726 15/12/2011.

  5. Tai chi exercise in patients with chronic heart failure: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Gloria Y; McCarthy, Ellen P; Wayne, Peter M; Stevenson, Lynne W; Wood, Malissa J; Forman, Daniel; Davis, Roger B; Phillips, Russell S

    2011-04-25

    Preliminary evidence suggests that meditative exercise may have benefits for patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HF); this has not been rigorously tested in a large clinical sample. We sought to investigate whether tai chi, as an adjunct to standard care, improves functional capacity and quality of life in patients with HF. A single-blind, multisite, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial evaluated 100 outpatients with systolic HF (New York Heart Association class I-III, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%) who were recruited between May 1, 2005, and September 30, 2008. A group-based 12-week tai chi exercise program (n = 50) or time-matched education (n = 50, control group) was conducted. Outcome measures included exercise capacity (6- minute walk test and peak oxygen uptake) and disease-specific quality of life (Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire). Mean (SD) age of patients was 67 (11) years; baseline values were left ventricular ejection fraction, 29% (8%) and peak oxygen uptake, 13.5 mL/kg/min; the median New York Heart Association class of HF was class II. At completion of the study, there were no significant differences in change in 6-minute walk distance and peak oxygen uptake (median change [first quartile, third quartile], 35 [-2, 51] vs 2 [-7, 54] meters, P = .95; and 1.1 [-1.1, 1.5] vs -0.5 [-1.2, 1.8] mL/kg/min, P = .81) when comparing tai chi and control groups; however, patients in the tai chi group had greater improvements in quality of life (Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire, -19 [-23, -3] vs 1 [-16, 3], P = .02). Improvements with tai chi were also seen in exercise self-efficacy (Cardiac Exercise Self-efficacy Instrument, 0.1 [0.1, 0.6] vs -0.3 [-0.5, 0.2], P mood (Profile of Mood States total mood disturbance, -6 [-17, 1] vs -1 [-13, 10], P = .01). Tai chi exercise may improve quality of life, mood, and exercise self-efficacy in patients with HF. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier

  6. Electrocardiographic Measures of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering to Prevent Heart Attack Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Michael E.; Davis, Barry R.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Okin, Peter M.; Ghosh, Alokananda; Cushman, William C.; Einhorn, Paula T.; Oparil, Suzanne; Grimm, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. We analyzed baseline/follow-up ECGs in 26,376 ALLHAT participants randomized to amlodipine (A), lisinopril (L), or chlorthalidone (C). Prevalent/incident LVH were examined using continuous and categorical classifications of Cornell voltage. At 2- and 4-years, prevalence of LVH in the C-group (5.57%; 6.14%) was not statistically different from A-group (2-years: 5.47%; p=0.806, 4-years: 6.54%; p=0.857), or...

  7. Electrocardiographic Measures of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering to Prevent Heart Attack Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Michael E.; Davis, Barry R.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Okin, Peter M.; Ghosh, Alokananda; Cushman, William C.; Einhorn, Paula T.; Oparil, Suzanne; Grimm, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. We analyzed baseline/follow-up ECGs in 26,376 ALLHAT participants randomized to amlodipine (A), lisinopril (L), or chlorthalidone (C). Prevalent/incident LVH were examined using continuous and categorical classifications of Cornell voltage. At 2- and 4-years, prevalence of LVH in the C-group (5.57%; 6.14%) was not statistically different from A-group (2-years: 5.47%; p=0.806, 4-years: 6.54%; p=0.857), or L-group (2-years: 5.64%; p=0.857, 4-years: 6.50%; p=0.430). Incident LVH followed similarly, with no difference at 2-years for C (2.99%) compared to A (2.57%; p=0.173) or L (3.16%; p=0.605), and at 4-years (C=3.52%, A=3.29%, L=3.71%; p=0.521 C vs A, p=0.618 C vs L). Mean Cornell voltage decreased comparably across treatment groups (Δ baseline, 2-years = +3 to -27 μV, ANOVA p=0.8612; 4-years = +10 to -17 μV, ANOVA p=0.9692). We conclude that risk reductions associated with C treatment in secondary endpoints of ALLHAT cannot be attributed to differential improvements in ECG LVH. PMID:27938852

  8. CT coronary angiography in patients with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease (SCOT-HEART): an open-label, parallel-group, multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-13

    The benefit of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in patients presenting with stable chest pain has not been systematically studied. We aimed to assess the effect of CTCA on the diagnosis, management, and outcome of patients referred to the cardiology clinic with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease. In this prospective open-label, parallel-group, multicentre trial, we recruited patients aged 18-75 years referred for the assessment of suspected angina due to coronary heart disease from 12 cardiology chest pain clinics across Scotland. We randomly assigned (1:1) participants to standard care plus CTCA or standard care alone. Randomisation was done with a web-based service to ensure allocation concealment. The primary endpoint was certainty of the diagnosis of angina secondary to coronary heart disease at 6 weeks. All analyses were intention to treat, and patients were analysed in the group they were allocated to, irrespective of compliance with scanning. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01149590. Between Nov 18, 2010, and Sept 24, 2014, we randomly assigned 4146 (42%) of 9849 patients who had been referred for assessment of suspected angina due to coronary heart disease. 47% of participants had a baseline clinic diagnosis of coronary heart disease and 36% had angina due to coronary heart disease. At 6 weeks, CTCA reclassified the diagnosis of coronary heart disease in 558 (27%) patients and the diagnosis of angina due to coronary heart disease in 481 (23%) patients (standard care 22 [1%] and 23 [1%]; pheart disease increased (1·09, 1·02-1·17; p=0·0172), the certainty increased (1·79, 1·62-1·96; pheart disease. This changed planned investigations (15% vs 1%; pheart disease, CTCA clarifies the diagnosis, enables targeting of interventions, and might reduce the future risk of myocardial infarction. The Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health and Social Care Directorates funded the trial with supplementary awards

  9. Reduced dietary sodium intake increases heart rate. A meta-analysis of 63 randomized controlled trials including 72 study populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels eGraudal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs published in the period 1973–2014. 63 of the RCTs including 72 study populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p < 0.00001, corresponding to 2.4% of the baseline heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction increases heart rate by as much (2.4% as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%. This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines.

  10. Patient-centered disease management (PCDM) for heart failure: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelman, David B; Plomondon, Mary E; Sullivan, Mark D; Nelson, Karin; Hattler, Brack; McBryde, Connor; Lehmann, Kenneth G; Potfay, Jonathan; Heidenreich, Paul; Rumsfeld, John S

    2013-07-09

    Chronic heart failure (HF) disease management programs have reported inconsistent results and have not included comorbid depression management or specifically focused on improving patient-reported outcomes. The Patient Centered Disease Management (PCDM) trial was designed to test the effectiveness of collaborative care disease management in improving health status (symptoms, functioning, and quality of life) in patients with HF who reported poor HF-specific health status. Patients with a HF diagnosis at four VA Medical Centers were identified through population-based sampling. Patients with a Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ, a measure of HF-specific health status) score of patients were randomized to receive usual care or the PCDM intervention, which included: (1) collaborative care management by VA clinicians including a nurse, cardiologist, internist, and psychiatrist, who worked with patients and their primary care providers to provide guideline-concordant care management, (2) home telemonitoring and guided patient self-management support, and (3) screening and treatment for comorbid depression. The primary study outcome is change in overall KCCQ score. Secondary outcomes include depression, medication adherence, guideline-based care, hospitalizations, and mortality. The PCDM trial builds on previous studies of HF disease management by prioritizing patient health status, implementing a collaborative care model of health care delivery, and addressing depression, a key barrier to optimal disease management. The study has been designed as an 'effectiveness trial' to support broader implementation in the healthcare system if it is successful. Unique identifier: NCT00461513.

  11. Antiplatelet therapy and the effects of B vitamins in patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack: a post-hoc subanalysis of VITATOPS, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Graeme J; Eikelboom, John W; Yi, Qilong; Lees, Kennedy R; Chen, Christopher; Xavier, Denis; Navarro, Jose C; Ranawaka, Udaya K; Uddin, Wasim; Ricci, Stefano; Gommans, John; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that any benefits of folic acid-based therapy to lower serum homocysteine in prevention of cardiovascular events might be offset by concomitant use of antiplatelet therapy. We aimed to establish whether there is an interaction between antiplatelet therapy and the effects of folic acid-based homocysteine-lowering therapy on major vascular events in patients with stroke or transient ischaemic attack enrolled in the vitamins to prevent stroke (VITATOPS) trial. In the VITATOPS trial, 8164 patients with recent stroke or transient ischaemic attack were randomly allocated to double-blind treatment with one tablet daily of placebo or B vitamins (2 mg folic acid, 25 mg vitamin B(6), and 500 μg vitamin B(12)) and followed up for a median 3·4 years (IQR 2·0-5·5) for the primary composite outcome of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death from vascular causes. In our post-hoc analysis of the interaction between antiplatelet therapy and the effects of treatment with B vitamins on the primary outcome, we used Cox proportional hazards regression before and after adjusting for imbalances in baseline prognostic factors in participants who were and were not taking antiplatelet drugs at baseline and in participants assigned to receive B vitamins or placebo. We also assessed the interaction in different subgroups of patients and different secondary outcomes. The VITATOPS trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00097669, and Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN74743444. At baseline, 6609 patients were taking antiplatelet therapy and 1463 were not. Patients not receiving antiplatelet therapy were more likely to be younger, east Asian, and disabled, to have a haemorrhagic stroke or cardioembolic ischaemic stroke, and to have a history of hypertension or atrial fibrillation. They were less likely to be smokers and to have a history of peripheral artery disease, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, and a

  12. RApid Primary care Initiation of Drug treatment for Transient Ischaemic Attack (RAPID−TIA): study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background People who have a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke are at high risk of a recurrent stroke, particularly in the first week after the event. Early initiation of secondary prevention drugs is associated with an 80% reduction in risk of stroke recurrence. This raises the question as to whether these drugs should be given before being seen by a specialist – that is, in primary care or in the emergency department. The aims of the RAPID-TIA pilot trial are to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial, to analyse cost effectiveness and to ask: Should general practitioners and emergency doctors (primary care physicians) initiate secondary preventative measures in addition to aspirin in people they see with suspected TIA or minor stroke at the time of referral to a specialist? Methods/Design This is a pilot randomised controlled trial with a sub-study of accuracy of primary care physician diagnosis of TIA. In the pilot trial, we aim to recruit 100 patients from 30 general practices (including out-of-hours general practice centres) and 1 emergency department whom the primary care physician diagnoses with TIA or minor stroke and randomly assign them to usual care (that is, initiation of aspirin and referral to a TIA clinic) or usual care plus additional early initiation of secondary prevention drugs (a blood-pressure lowering protocol, simvastatin 40 mg and dipyridamole 200 mg m/r bd). The primary outcome of the main study will be the number of strokes at 90 days. The diagnostic accuracy sub-study will include these 100 patients and an additional 70 patients in whom the primary care physician thinks the diagnosis of TIA is possible, rather than probable. For the pilot trial, we will report recruitment rate, follow-up rate, a preliminary estimate of the primary event rate and occurrence of any adverse events. For the diagnostic study, we will calculate sensitivity and specificity of primary care physician diagnosis using the final

  13. [Ultrafiltration versus intravenous diuretics in decompensated heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-liang; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Ying-ying; Tang, Yi; Liu, Fang; Fu, Ping

    2013-08-13

    To explore whether ultrafiltration is superior to intravenous diuretics in ameliorating fluid overload and preserving renal functions in decompensated heart failure patients. By searching in Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Springer, WanFang, CQVIP, CNKI and CBM database as well as related Chinese journals, qualified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included for meta-analysis by Revman 5.0 and STATA 10.0. Six RCTs were included with 241 patients in ultrafiltration group and 240 patients in intravenous diuretics group. Pooled analyses demonstrated ultrafiltration was superior to intravenous diuretics in the aspects of weight loss (WMD = 1.44 kg, 95%CI:0.33-2.55 kg, P = 0.01) and fluid removal (WMD = 1.23 kg, 95%CI:0.63-1.82 kg, P diuretics in mitigating fluid overload. No intergroup difference was observed in renal function preservation, mortality or rehospitalization.

  14. Risk of stroke and cardiovascular events after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in patients with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome: secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Alfred; Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B

    2011-01-01

    To perform a secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial, which tested the effect of treatment with atorvastatin in reducing stroke in subjects with a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack, to explore the effects of treatment...

  15. Randomized controlled trials of interventions to change maladaptive illness beliefs in people with coronary heart disease: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Lucy; Furze, Gill; Birks, Yvonne

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a report of a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of interventions to change maladaptive illness beliefs in people with coronary heart disease, and was conducted to determine whether such interventions were effective in changing maladaptive beliefs, and to assess any consequent change in coping and outcome. An increasing body of evidence suggests that faulty beliefs can lead to maladaptive behaviours and, in turn, to poor outcomes. However, the effectiveness of interventions to change such faulty illness beliefs in people with coronary heart disease is unknown. Multiple data bases were searched using a systematic search strategy. In addition, reference lists of included papers were checked and key authors in the field contacted. The systematic review included randomized controlled trials with adults of any age with a diagnosis of coronary heart disease and an intervention aimed at changing cardiac beliefs. The primary outcome measured was change in beliefs about coronary heart disease. Thirteen trials met the inclusion criteria. Owing to the heterogeneity of these studies, quantitative synthesis was not practicable. Descriptive synthesis of the results suggested that cognitive behavioural and counselling/education interventions can be effective in changing beliefs. The effects of changing beliefs on behavioural, functional and psychological outcomes remain unclear. While some interventions may be effective in changing beliefs in people with coronary heart disease, the effect of these changes on outcome is not clear. Further high quality research is required before firmer guidance can be given to clinicians on the most effective method to dispel cardiac misconceptions.

  16. Exercise videogames for physical activity and fitness: Design and rationale of the Wii Heart Fitness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth C; Thind, Herpreet; Dunsiger, Shira I; Serber, Eva R; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Cobb, Victoria; Palmer, Kathy; Abernathy, Sean; Marcus, Bess H

    2015-05-01

    Despite numerous health benefits, less than half of American adults engage in regular physical activity. Exercise videogames (EVG) may be a practical and attractive alternative to traditional forms of exercise. However there is insufficient research to determine whether EVG play alone is sufficient to produce prolonged engagement in physical activity or improvements in cardiovascular fitness and overall health risk. The goal of the present study is to test the efficacy of exercise videogames to increase time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and to improve cardiovascular risk indices among adults. Wii Heart Fitness is a rigorous 3-arm randomized controlled trial with adults comparing three 12-week programs: (1) supervised EVGs, (2) supervised standard exercise, and (3) a control condition. Heart rate is monitored continuously throughout all exercise sessions. Assessments are conducted at baseline, end of intervention (week 12), 6 and 9 months. The primary outcome is time spent in MVPA physical activity. Secondary outcomes include changes in cardiovascular fitness, body composition, blood lipid profiles and maintenance of physical activity through six months post-treatment. Changes in cognitive and affective constructs derived from Self Determination and Social Cognitive Theories will be examined to explain the differential outcomes between the two active treatment conditions. The Wii Heart Fitness study is designed to test whether regular participation in EVGs can be an adequate source of physical activity for adults. This study will produce new data on the effect of EVGs on cardiovascular fitness indices and prolonged engagement with physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. RApid Primary care Initiation of Drug treatment for Transient Ischaemic Attack (RAPID-TIA): study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Duncan; Fletcher, Kate; Deller, Rachel; McManus, Richard; Lasserson, Daniel; Giles, Matthew; Sims, Don; Norrie, John; McGuire, Graham; Cohn, Simon; Whittle, Fiona; Hobbs, Vikki; Weir, Christopher; Mant, Jonathan

    2013-07-02

    People who have a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke are at high risk of a recurrent stroke, particularly in the first week after the event. Early initiation of secondary prevention drugs is associated with an 80% reduction in risk of stroke recurrence. This raises the question as to whether these drugs should be given before being seen by a specialist--that is, in primary care or in the emergency department. The aims of the RAPID-TIA pilot trial are to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial, to analyse cost effectiveness and to ask: Should general practitioners and emergency doctors (primary care physicians) initiate secondary preventative measures in addition to aspirin in people they see with suspected TIA or minor stroke at the time of referral to a specialist? This is a pilot randomised controlled trial with a sub-study of accuracy of primary care physician diagnosis of TIA. In the pilot trial, we aim to recruit 100 patients from 30 general practices (including out-of-hours general practice centres) and 1 emergency department whom the primary care physician diagnoses with TIA or minor stroke and randomly assign them to usual care (that is, initiation of aspirin and referral to a TIA clinic) or usual care plus additional early initiation of secondary prevention drugs (a blood-pressure lowering protocol, simvastatin 40 mg and dipyridamole 200 mg m/r bd). The primary outcome of the main study will be the number of strokes at 90 days. The diagnostic accuracy sub-study will include these 100 patients and an additional 70 patients in whom the primary care physician thinks the diagnosis of TIA is possible, rather than probable. For the pilot trial, we will report recruitment rate, follow-up rate, a preliminary estimate of the primary event rate and occurrence of any adverse events. For the diagnostic study, we will calculate sensitivity and specificity of primary care physician diagnosis using the final TIA clinic diagnosis as the

  18. Physiological and Behavioral Parameters of Infants' Categorization: Changes in Heart Rate and Duration of Examining across Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Birgit; Pauen, Sabina; Jeschonek, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    This report investigates the relations between duration of examining and heart rate (HR) across several trials of an object-examination task. A total of N= 20 11-month-olds were familiarized with a sequence of 10 different exemplars from the same global category (animals or furniture) before they received an exemplar from the contrasting category…

  19. Site selection in global clinical trials in patients hospitalized for heart failure : perceived problems and potential solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheorghiade, Mihai; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Greene, Stephen J.; Mentz, Robert J.; Adams, Kirkwood F.; Anker, Stefan D.; Arnold, Malcolm; Baschiera, Fabio; Cleland, John G. F.; Cotter, Gadi; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Giordano, Christopher; Metra, Marco; Misselwitz, Frank; Muehlhofer, Eva; Nodari, Savina; Peacock, W. Frank; Pieske, Burkert M.; Sabbah, Hani N.; Sato, Naoki; Shah, Monica R.; Stockbridge, Norman L.; Teerlink, John R.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Zalewski, Andrew; Zannad, Faiez; Butler, Javed

    There are over 1 million hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) annually in the United States alone, and a similar number has been reported in Europe. Recent clinical trials investigating novel therapies in patients with hospitalized HF (HHF) have been negative, and the post-discharge event rate

  20. International Geographic Variation in Event Rates in Trials of Heart Failure With Preserved and Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren L; Køber, Lars; Jhund, Pardeep S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International geographic differences in outcomes may exist for clinical trials of heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), but there are few data for those with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed outcomes by international geographic reg...

  1. Options for Heart Valve Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide: Understanding Your Heart Valve Problem | Spanish Symptom Tracker | Spanish Pre-surgery Checklist | Spanish What Is Heart ... Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? 7 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 8 Low Blood Pressure - ...

  2. Protocol for Past BP: a randomised controlled trial of different blood pressure targets for people with a history of stroke of transient ischaemic attack (TIA in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenfield Sheila

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure (BP lowering in people who have had a stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA leads to reduced risk of further stroke. However, it is not clear what the target BP should be, since intensification of therapy may lead to additional adverse effects. PAST BP will determine whether more intensive BP targets can be achieved in a primary care setting, and whether more intensive therapy is associated with adverse effects on quality of life. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT in patients with a past history of stroke or TIA. Patients will be randomised to two groups and will either have their blood pressure (BP lowered intensively to a target of 130 mmHg systolic, (or by 10 mmHg if the baseline systolic pressure is between 125 and 140 mmHg compared to a standard group where the BP will be reduced to a target of 140 mmHg systolic. Patients will be managed by their practice at 1-3 month intervals depending on level of BP and followed-up by the research team at six monthly intervals for 12 months. 610 patients will be recruited from approximately 50 general practices. The following exclusion criteria will be applied: systolic BP The primary outcome will be change in systolic BP over twelve months. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, adverse events and cardiovascular events. In-depth interviews with 30 patients and 20 health care practitioners will be undertaken to investigate patient and healthcare professionals understanding and views of BP management. Discussion The results of this trial will inform whether intensive blood pressure targets can be achieved in people who have had a stroke or TIA in primary care, and help determine whether or not further research is required before recommending such targets for this population. Trial Registration ISRCTN29062286

  3. Different systolic blood pressure targets for people with history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack: PAST-BP (Prevention After Stroke—Blood Pressure) randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Richard J; Roalfe, Andrea; Fletcher, Kate; Taylor, Clare J; Martin, Una; Virdee, Satnam; Greenfield, Sheila; Hobbs, F D Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether using intensive blood pressure targets leads to lower blood pressure in a community population of people with prevalent cerebrovascular disease. Design Open label randomised controlled trial. Setting 99 general practices in England, with participants recruited in 2009-11. Participants People with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack whose systolic blood pressure was 125 mm Hg or above. Interventions Intensive systolic blood pressure target (different target, patients in both arms were actively managed in the same way with regular reviews by the primary care team. Main outcome measure Change in systolic blood pressure between baseline and 12 months. Results 529 patients (mean age 72) were enrolled, 266 to the intensive target arm and 263 to the standard target arm, of whom 379 were included in the primary analysis (182 (68%) intensive arm; 197 (75%) standard arm). 84 patients withdrew from the study during the follow-up period (52 intensive arm; 32 standard arm). Mean systolic blood pressure dropped by 16.1 mm Hg to 127.4 mm Hg in the intensive target arm and by 12.8 mm Hg to 129.4 mm Hg in the standard arm (difference between groups 2.9 (95% confidence interval 0.2 to 5.7) mm Hg; P=0.03). Conclusions Aiming for target below 130 mm Hg rather than 140 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure in people with cerebrovascular disease in primary care led to a small additional reduction in blood pressure. Active management of systolic blood pressure in this population using a blood pressure. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29062286. PMID:26919870

  4. The women's heart health programme: a pilot trial of sex-specific cardiovascular management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ting Ting; Chan, Siew Pang; Wai, Shin Hnin; Ang, Zhou; Kyu, Kyu; Lee, Kim Yee; Ching, Anne; Comer, Sarah; Tan, Naomi Qiu Pin; Thong, Elizabeth Grace Hui En; Nang, Tracy; Dutta, Mohan; Lam, Carolyn S P

    2018-04-16

    There is increasing knowledge of sex-specific differences in cardiovascular disease and recognition of sex disparities in management. In our study, we investigated whether a cardiovascular programme tailored to the specific needs of women could lead to improved outcomes. We randomised 100 female patients to receive cardiology follow-up with the conventional sex-neutral cardiac programme (control), or the sex-tailored Women's Heart Health Programme (intervention). The intervention group was managed by an all-women multidisciplinary team and received culture-centred health intervention workshops, designed through in-depth interviews with the participants. The primary outcome was cardiovascular risk factor improvement at 1 year. Secondary outcomes include cardiovascular event rates, quality of life scores, and self-reported improvement in knowledge, attitudes, intentions and practices. Generalised structural equation model analysis was used to determine if the intervention group had better outcomes at alpha level 0.1. The mean age was 67.3 ± 12.7 years, with an ethnic distribution of 70% Chinese, 18% Malays, and 12% Indians. The majority of these patients had no formal or primary level of education (63%), and were mostly unemployed (78%). Patients in intervention group had better control of diabetes mellitus (lower HbA1c of 0.63% [CI 0.21-1.04], p = 0.015) and lower body-mass-index (0.74 kg/m 2 [CI 0.02-1.46], p = 0.092) at 1 year, but there was no significant difference in blood pressure or lipid control. Overall, there was a trend towards better risk factor control, 31.6% of intervention group versus 26.5% of control group achieved improvement in at least 1 CV risk factor control to target range. There was no significant difference in incidence of cardiovascular events, quality of life, or domains in knowledge, attitudes, intention and practices. This pilot study is the first of its kind evaluating a new model of care for women with heart disease

  5. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  6. Primary ICD-therapy in patients with advanced heart failure: selection strategies and future trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Zugck, Christian; Nelles, Manfred; Schellberg, Dieter; Remppis, Andrew; Katus, Hugo

    2008-09-01

    For allocation of primary ICD-therapy, a possible lower limit of inclusion criteria--defining overly advanced heart failure--is less well investigated. Also, a multi-variable approach to stratification beyond ejection fraction (LVEF) appears warranted. We examined whether adding a selection limit of peak VO(2) trials based on real-life data for this high risk cohort. In our prospective clinical registry 1,926 patients with systolic CHF were recruited consecutively since 1994. Of these patients, 292 met the selection criteria described above. The mean age was 57.6 +/- 9.5 years, 83% were male, 37% had ischemic cardiomyopathy and 28% received primary ICD-therapy. All cause mortality was considered as end point. Median follow-up was 45 (18-86) months. ICD was not a significant predictor of outcome either for the entire population, or grouped according to aetiology of CHF. Still, 3-year mortality was 15% (ICD-patients) Vs. 28% (non-ICD-patients); P = 0.05; under combination medical therapy. Inversely, in ICD-patients medical combination therapy conveyed a significant survival benefit (P < 0.001). Consequently, the number-needed-to-treat was eight under combination therapy and the size estimate amounts to 300 patients for a prospective trial in this cohort. A cut-off of LVEF trial in this cohort. The according mortality data and a size estimate are provided.

  7. Randomized controlled trials in children’s heart surgery in the 21st century: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Nigel E; Patel, Akshay J; Oswald, Nicola K; Chong, Cher-Rin; Stickley, John; Barron, David J; Jones, Timothy J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVES Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard for evaluating health care interventions, yet are uncommon in children’s heart surgery. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials in paediatric cardiac surgery to evaluate the scope and quality of the current international literature. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL and LILACS, and manually screened retrieved references and systematic reviews to identify all randomized controlled trials reporting the effect of any intervention on the conduct or outcomes of heart surgery in children published in any language since January 2000; secondary publications and those reporting inseparable adult data were excluded. Two reviewers independently screened studies for eligibility and extracted data; the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess for potential biases. RESULTS We identified 333 trials from 34 countries randomizing 23 902 children. Most were early phase (313, 94.0%), recruiting few patients (median 45, interquartile range 28–82), and only 11 (3.3%) directly evaluated a surgical intervention. One hundred and nine (32.7%) trials calculated a sample size, 52 (15.6%) reported a CONSORT diagram, 51 (15.3%) were publicly registered and 25 (7.5%) had a Data Monitoring Committee. The overall risk of bias was low in 22 (6.6%), high in 69 (20.7%) and unclear in 242 (72.7%). CONCLUSIONS The recent literature in children’s heart surgery contains few late-phase clinical trials. Most trials did not conform to the accepted standards of reporting, and the overall risk of bias was low in few studies. There is a need for high-quality, multicentre clinical trials to provide a robust evidence base for contemporary paediatric cardiac surgical practice. PMID:29186478

  8. Osteopathic manual therapy in heart failure patients: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Sergio R; Teixeira, Felipe A; de Lima, Alexandra C G B; Cipriano Júnior, Gerson; Formiga, Magno F; Cahalin, Lawrence Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Heart Failure (HF) patients usually present with increased arterial resistance and reduced blood pressure (BP) leading to an impaired functional capacity. Osteopathic Manual Therapy (OMT) focused on myofascial release techniques (MRT) and in the balancing of diaphragmatic tensions, has been shown to improve blood flow in individuals using the resistive index (RI). However, its effects in HF patients have not been examined. To evaluate the acute response of selected osteopathic techniques on RI, heart rate (HR), and BP in patients with HF. Randomized-controlled clinical trial of HF patients assigned to MRT (six different techniques with three aimed at the pelvis, two at the thorax, and one at the neck for 15 min) or Control group (subjects in supine position for 15 min without intervention). The RI of the femoral, brachial and carotid arteries was measured via doppler ultrasound while HR and BP were measured via sphygmomanometry before and after a single MRT or control intervention. Twenty-two HF patients equally distributed (50% male, mean age 53 years; range 32-69 years) (ejection fraction = 35.6%, VO 2peak : 12.9 mL/kg -1 min -1 ) were evaluated. We found no intra or inter group differences in RI of the carotid (Δ MRT : 0.07% vs Δ Control :11.8%), brachial (Δ MRT :0.17% vs Δ Control : 2.9%), or femoral arteries (Δ MRT :1.65% vs Δ Control : 0.97%) (P > 0.05) and no difference in HR or BP (Δ MRT :0.6% vs Δ Control : 3%), (P > 0.05). A single MRT session did not significantly change the RI, HR, or BP of HF patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum Potassium Levels and Outcome in Acute Heart Failure (Data from the PROTECT and COACH Trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Jasper; Ter Maaten, Jozine M; Damman, Kevin; O'Connor, Christopher M; Metra, Marco; Dittrich, Howard C; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth; Cleland, John G F; Givertz, Michael M; Bloomfield, Daniel M; van der Wal, Martje H L; Jaarsma, Tiny; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans L; Voors, Adriaan A; van der Meer, Peter

    2017-01-15

    Serum potassium is routinely measured at admission for acute heart failure (AHF), but information on association with clinical variables and prognosis is limited. Potassium measurements at admission were available in 1,867 patients with AHF in the original cohort of 2,033 patients included in the Patients Hospitalized with acute heart failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal FuncTion trial. Patients were grouped according to low potassium (5.0 mEq/l) levels. Results were verified in a validation cohort of 1,023 patients. Mean age of patients was 71 ± 11 years, and 66% were men. Low potassium was present in 115 patients (6%), normal potassium in 1,576 (84%), and high potassium in 176 (9%). Potassium levels increased during hospitalization (0.18 ± 0.69 mEq/l). Patients with high potassium more often used angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists before admission, had impaired baseline renal function and a better diuretic response (p = 0.005), independent of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist usage. During 180-day follow-up, a total of 330 patients (18%) died. Potassium levels at admission showed a univariate linear association with mortality (hazard ratio [log] 2.36, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 5.23; p = 0.034) but not after multivariate adjustment. Changes of potassium levels during hospitalization or potassium levels at discharge were not associated with outcome after multivariate analysis. Results in the validation cohort were similar to the index cohort. In conclusion, high potassium levels at admission are associated with an impaired renal function but a better diuretic response. Changes in potassium levels are common, and overall levels increase during hospitalization. In conclusion, potassium levels at admission or its change during hospitalization are not associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  10. The costs of treating acute heart failure: an economic analysis of the SURVIVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lissovoy, Gregory; Fraeman, Kathy; Salon, Jeff; Chay Woodward, Tatia; Sterz, Raimund

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the incremental cost per life year gained with levosimendan relative to dobutamine in treatment of acute heart failure based on the Survival of Patients with Acute Heart Failure in Need of Intravenous Inotropic Support (SURVIVE) trial. SURVIVE enrolled 1,327 patients (levosimendan 664, dobutamine 663) from nine nations with 180-day survival from date of randomisation as the primary endpoint. Hospital resource utilisation was determined via clinical case reports. Unit costs were derived from hospital payment schedules for France, Germany and the UK, and represent a third-party payer perspective. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed for a subset of the SURVIVE patient population selected in accordance with current levosimendan labeling. Mortality in the levosimendan group was 26 versus 28% for dobutamine (hazard ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.74-1.13, p=0.40). Initial hospitalisation length of stay was identical (levosimendan 14.4, dobutamine 14.5, p=0.98). Slightly lower rates of readmission were observed for levosimendan relative to dobutamine at 31 (p=0.13) and 180 days (p=0.23). Mean costs excluding study drug were equivalent for the index admission (levosimendan euro5,060, dobutamine euro4,952; p=0.91) and complete episode (levosimendan euro5,396, dobutamine euro5,275; p=0.93). At an acquisition cost of euro600 per vial, there is at least 50% likelihood that levosimendan is cost effective relative to dobutamine if willingness to pay is equal to or greater than euro15,000 per life year gained.

  11. Impact of General Practitioner Transient Ischemic Attack Training on 90-Day Stroke Outcomes: Secondary Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Annemarei; Dovey, Susan; Gommans, John; Tilyard, Murray; Weatherall, Mark

    2018-07-01

    Many patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) receive initial assessments by general practitioners (GPs) who may lack TIA management experience. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), we showed that electronic decision support for GPs improves patient outcomes and guideline adherence. Some stroke services prefer to improve referrer expertise through TIA/stroke education sessions instead of promoting TIA decision aids or triaging tools. This is a secondary analysis of whether a GP education session influenced TIA management and outcomes. Post hoc analysis of a multicenter, single blind, parallel group, cluster RCT comparing TIA/stroke electronic decision support guided GP management with usual care to assess whether a pretrial TIA/stroke education session also affected RCT outcomes. Of 181 participating GPs, 79 (43.7%) attended an education session and 140 of 291 (48.1%) trial patients were managed by these GPs. There were fewer 90-day stroke events and 90-day vascular events or deaths in patients treated by GPs who attended education; 2 of 140 (1.4%) and 10 of 140 (7.1%) respectively, compared with those who did not; 5 of 151 (3.3%), and 14 of 151 (9.3%), respectively. Logistic regression for association between 90-day stroke and 90-day vascular events or death and education, however, was nonsignificant (odds ratio [OR] .42 (.08 to 2.22), P = .29 and .59 (95% confidence interval [CI] .27 to 1.29), P = .18 respectively. Guideline adherence was not improved by the education session: OR .84 (95% CI .49 to 1.45), P = .54. In the described setting, a GP TIA/stroke education session did not significantly enhance guideline adherence or reduce 90-day stroke or vascular events following TIA. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. It is not just a Minor Thing - A Phenomenological-Hermeneutic Study of Patients' Experiences when afflicted by a Minor Heart Attack and Participating in Cardiac Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte P; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2017-01-01

    , leading to vulnerability and helplessness; Understanding that life has become frail: patients feel shaken as they realise that the disease is chronic and life-threatening; and An altered life: patients must adjust to new limitations in their everyday lives. Conclusions: Patients experience an overall...... demanding transition when they are afflicted by a minor heat attack, whereby their lives are sweepingly changed. Supporting patients’ integrity, which becomes vulnerable during the various stages of transitions, is essential to ensure a healthy outcome. Being together with fellow patients during cardiac...

  13. Mode of death on Chagas heart disease: comparison with other etiologies. a subanalysis of the REMADHE prospective trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M Ayub-Ferreira

    Full Text Available Sudden death has been considered the main cause of death in patients with Chagas heart disease. Nevertheless, this information comes from a period before the introduction of drugs that changed the natural history of heart failure. We sought to study the mode of death of patients with heart failure caused by Chagas heart disease, comparing with non-Chagas cardiomyopathy.We examined the REMADHE trial and grouped patients according to etiology (Chagas vs non-Chagas and mode of death. The primary end-point was all-cause, heart failure and sudden death mortality; 342 patients were analyzed and 185 (54.1% died. Death occurred in 56.4% Chagas patients and 53.7% non-Chagas patients. The cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality and heart failure mortality was significantly higher in Chagas patients compared to non-Chagas. There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of sudden death mortality between the two groups. In the Cox regression model, Chagas etiology (HR 2.76; CI 1.34-5.69; p = 0.006, LVEDD (left ventricular end diastolic diameter (HR 1.07; CI 1.04-1.10; p<0.001, creatinine clearance (HR 0.98; CI 0.97-0.99; p = 0.006 and use of amiodarone (HR 3.05; CI 1.47-6.34; p = 0.003 were independently associated with heart failure mortality. LVEDD (HR 1.04; CI 1.01-1.07; p = 0.005 and use of beta-blocker (HR 0.52; CI 0.34-0.94; p = 0.014 were independently associated with sudden death mortality.In severe Chagas heart disease, progressive heart failure is the most important mode of death. These data challenge the current understanding of Chagas heart disease and may have implications in the selection of treatment choices, considering the mode of death.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00505050 (REMADHE.

  14. Use of Remote Monitoring to Improve Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure: A Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Kulshreshtha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring (RM of homebound heart failure (HF patients has previously been shown to reduce hospital admissions. We conducted a pilot trial of ambulatory, non-homebound patients recently hospitalized for HF to determine whether RM could be successfully implemented in the ambulatory setting. Eligible patients from Massachusetts General Hospital (=150 were randomized to a control group (=68 or to a group that was offered RM (=82. The participants transmitted vital signs data to a nurse who coordinated care with the physician over the course of the 6-month study. Participants in the RM program had a lower all-cause per person readmission rate (mean=0.64, SD±0.87 compared to the usual care group (mean=0.73, SD±1.51; -value=.75 although the difference was not statistically significant. HF-related readmission rate was similarly reduced in participants. This pilot study demonstrates that RM can be successfully implemented in non-homebound HF patients and may reduce readmission rates.

  15. Achy breaky makey wakey heart? A randomised crossover trial of musical prompts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollard, Malcolm; Poposki, Jason; McWhinnie, Brae; Rawlins, Lettie; Munro, Graham; O'Meara, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Compared with no music (NM), does listening to 'Achy breaky heart' (ABH) or 'Disco science' (DS) increase the proportion of prehospital professionals delivering chest compressions at 2010 guideline-compliant rates of 100-120 bpm and 50-60 mm depths? A randomised crossover trial recruiting at an Australian ambulance conference. Volunteers performed three 1-min sequences of continuous chest compressions on a manikin accompanied by NM, repeated choruses of ABH and DS, prerandomised for order. 37 of 74 participants were men; median age 37 years; 61% were paramedics, 20% students and 19% other health professionals. 54% had taken cardiopulmonary resuscitation training within 1 year. Differences in compression rate (mode, IQR) were significant for NM (105, 99-116) versus ABH (120, 107-120) and DS (104, 103-107) versus ABH (p0.5). Listening to DS significantly increased the proportion of prehospital professionals compressing at 2010 guideline-compliant rates. Regardless of intervention more than half gave compressions that were too shallow. Alternative audible feedback mechanisms may be more effective.

  16. Valvular Heart Disease Patients on Edoxaban or Warfarin in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caterina, Raffaele; Renda, Giulia; Carnicelli, Anthony P; Nordio, Francesco; Trevisan, Marco; Mercuri, Michele F; Ruff, Christian T; Antman, Elliott M; Braunwald, Eugene; Giugliano, Robert P

    2017-03-21

    The use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) instead of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and coexisting valvular heart disease (VHD) is of substantial interest. This study explored outcomes in patients with AF with and without VHD in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 (Effective Anticoagulation with factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 48) trial, comparing edoxaban with warfarin. Valvular heart disease was defined as history or baseline echocardiography evidence of at least moderate aortic/mitral regurgitation, aortic stenosis, or prior valve surgery (bioprosthesis replacement, valve repair, valvuloplasty). Patients with moderate to severe mitral stenosis or mechanical heart valves were excluded from the trial. Comparisons were made of rates of stroke/systemic embolic event (SSEE), major bleeding, additional efficacy and safety outcomes, as well as net clinical outcomes, in patients with or without VHD treated with edoxaban or warfarin, using adjusted Cox proportional hazards. After adjustment for multiple baseline characteristics, compared with no-VHD patients (n = 18,222), VHD patients (n = 2,824) had a similar rate of SSEE but higher rates of death (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.26 to 1.56; p <0.001), major adverse cardiovascular events (HR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.43; p <0.001), and major bleeding (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.42; p = 0.02). Higher-dose edoxaban regimen had efficacy similar to warfarin in the presence of VHD (for SSEE, HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.44 to 1.07, in patients with VHD, and HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.77 to 1.07, in patients without VHD; p interaction [p int ] = 0.26; and for less major bleeding, HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.53 to 1.02 in patients with VHD, and HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71 to 0.94, in patients with no VHD; p int  = 0.57). The presence of VHD increased the risk of death, major adverse cardiovascular events, and major

  17. Kicking the tyres of a heart failure trial: physician response to the approval of sacubitril/valsartan in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Milton

    2016-10-01

    Angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibition has been shown to be superior to target doses of an ACE inhibitor in reducing the risk of cardiovascular death and clinical disease progression in patients with chronic heart failure and a reduced EF. Nevertheless, although sacubitril/valsartan has been available in the USA for a year, uptake of the drug by practitioners has been slow, in part because of misconceptions about the pivotal trial that demonstrated its efficacy in heart failure (PARADIGM-HF). This review addresses questions that have been raised in the USA about the design of the trial as well as the patients who were studied, the replicability and applicability of the results, and the safety of neprilysin inhibition. The totality of evidence indicates that the PARADIGM-HF trial used an appropriate comparator; enrolled patients typical of those seen in the community with mild to moderate symptoms; yielded highly persuasive and replicable results; and demonstrated benefits that are applicable to patients taking subtarget doses of ACE inhibitors and ARBs. Regulatory review in the USA concluded that the established advantages of sacubitril/valsartan on cardiovascular death and disease progression outweighed hypothetical uncertainties about the long-term effects of neprilysin inhibition in patients who might not have survived without the drug. Accordingly, both the new US and European Society of Cardiology heart failure guidelines recommend sacubitril/valsartan as the preferred approach to inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system in patients with chronic heart failure who are currently receiving an ACE inhibitor or ARB. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  18. Clarithromycin for 2 Weeks for Stable Coronary Heart Disease: 6-Year Follow-Up of the CLARICOR Randomized Trial and Updated Meta-Analysis of Antibiotics for Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Damgaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: We have reported increased 2.6-year mortality in clarithromycin- versus placebo-exposed stable coronary heart disease patients, but meta-analysis of randomized trials in coronary heart disease patients showed no significant effect of antibiotics on mortality. Here we report the 6-year...... disease versus placebo/no intervention (17 trials, 25,271 patients, 1,877 deaths) showed a significantly increased relative risk of death from antibiotics of 1.10 (1.01-1.20) without heterogeneity. Conclusions: Our results stress the necessity to consider carefully the strength of the indication before...... administering antibiotics to patients with coronary heart disease....

  19. Normothermic versus hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in children undergoing open heart surgery (thermic-2): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baos, Sarah; Sheehan, Karen; Culliford, Lucy; Pike, Katie; Ellis, Lucy; Parry, Andrew J; Stoica, Serban; Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Caputo, Massimo; Rogers, Chris A

    2015-05-25

    During open heart surgery, patients are connected to a heart-lung bypass machine that pumps blood around the body ("perfusion") while the heart is stopped. Typically the blood is cooled during this procedure ("hypothermia") and warmed to normal body temperature once the operation has been completed. The main rationale for "whole body cooling" is to protect organs such as the brain, kidneys, lungs, and heart from injury during bypass by reducing the body's metabolic rate and decreasing oxygen consumption. However, hypothermic perfusion also has disadvantages that can contribute toward an extended postoperative hospital stay. Research in adults and small randomized controlled trials in children suggest some benefits to keeping the blood at normal body temperature throughout surgery ("normothermia"). However, the two techniques have not been extensively compared in children. The Thermic-2 study will test the hypothesis that the whole body inflammatory response to the nonphysiological bypass and its detrimental effects on different organ functions may be attenuated by maintaining the body at 35°C-37°C (normothermic) rather than 28°C (hypothermic) during pediatric complex open heart surgery. This is a single-center, randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness and acceptability of normothermic versus hypothermic bypass in 141 children with congenital heart disease undergoing open heart surgery. Children having scheduled surgery to repair a heart defect not requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest represent the target study population. The co-primary clinical outcomes are duration of inotropic support, intubation time, and postoperative hospital stay. Secondary outcomes are in-hospital mortality and morbidity, blood loss and transfusion requirements, pre- and post-operative echocardiographic findings, routine blood gas and blood test results, renal function, cerebral function, regional oxygen saturation of blood in the cerebral cortex, assessment of

  20. Determinants of Diuretic Responsiveness and Associated Outcomes During Acute Heart Failure Hospitalization: An Analysis From the NHLBI Heart Failure Network Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Michael S; Stevens, Susanna R; Tang, W H Wilson; Butler, Javed; Anstrom, Kevin J; Birati, Edo Y; Grodin, Justin L; Gupta, Divya; Margulies, Kenneth B; LaRue, Shane; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Hernandez, Adrian F; de Las Fuentes, Lisa

    2018-03-01

    Poor response to loop diuretic therapy is a marker of risk during heart failure hospitalization. We sought to describe baseline determinants of diuretic response and to further explore the relationship between this response and clinical outcomes. Patient data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Heart Failure Network ROSE-AHF and CARRESS-HF clinical trials were analyzed to determine baseline determinants of diuretic response. Diuretic efficiency (DE) was defined as total 72-hour fluid output per total equivalent loop diuretic dose. Data from DOSE-AHF was then used to determine if these predictors of DE correlated with response to a high- versus low-dose diuretic strategy. At 72 hours, the high-DE group had median fluid output of 9071 ml (interquartile range: 7240-11775) with median furosemide dose of 320 mg (220-480) compared with 8030 ml (6300-9915) and 840 mg (600-1215) respectively for the low DE group. Cystatin C was independently associated with DE (odds ratio 0.36 per 1mg/L increase; 95% confidence interval: 0.24-0.56; P failure hospitalization. Higher loop diuretic doses are required for therapeutic decongestion in patients with renal insufficiency. Poor response identifies a high-risk population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Digoxin Use and Subsequent Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation With or Without Heart Failure in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisen, Alon; Ruff, Christian T; Braunwald, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Digoxin is widely used in patients with atrial fibrillation despite the lack of randomized controlled trials. Observational studies report conflicting results regarding its association with mortality, perhaps because of residual confounding by the presence of heart failure (HF). METHO...

  2. Publication Speed, Reporting Metrics, and Citation Impact of Cardiovascular Trials Supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David; Cooper-Arnold, Katharine; Lauer, Michael

    2015-07-31

    We previously demonstrated that cardiovascular (CV) trials funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) were more likely to be published in a timely manner and receive high raw citation counts if they focused on clinical endpoints. We did not examine the metrics of trial reports, and our citation measures were limited by failure to account for topic-related citation behaviors. Of 244 CV trials completed between 2000 and 2011, we identified 184 whose main results were published by August 20, 2014. One investigator who was blinded to rapidity of publication and citation data read each publication and characterized it according to modified Delphi criteria. There were 46 trials (25%) that had Delphi scores of 8 or 9 (of a possible 9); these trials published faster (median time from trial completion to publication, 12.6 [interquartile range {IQR}, 6.7 to 23.3] vs. 21.8 [IQR, 12.1 to 34.9] months; Pcitation impact (median citation percentile for topic and date of publication, with 0 best and 100 worst, 1.92 [IQR, 0.64 to 7.83] vs. 8.41 [IQR, 1.80 to 24.75]; P=0.002). By random forest regression, we found that the 3 most important predictors of normalized citation percentile values were total costs, intention-to-treat analyses (as a modified Delphi quality measure), and focus on clinical (not surrogate) endpoints. NHLBI CV trials were more likely to publish results quickly and yield higher topic-normalized citation impact if they reported results according to well-defined metrics, along with focus on clinical endpoints. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  3. Effect of Educational Program on Quality of Life of Patients with Heart Failure: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khajegodary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heart failure is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases which decrease the quality of life. Most of the factors influencing the quality of life can be modified with educational interventions. Therefore, this study examined the impact of a continuous training program on quality of life of patients with heart failure. Methods: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted during May to August 2011. Forty four participants with heart failure referred to Shahid Madani's polyclinics of Tabriz were selected through convenient sampling method and were randomly allocated to two groups. The intervention group (n = 22 received ongoing training including one-to-one teaching, counseling sessions and phone calls over 3 months. The control group (n = 22 received routine care program. Data on quality of life was collected using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire at baseline as well as three months later. Results: The statistical tests showed significant differences in the physical, emotional dimensions and total quality of life in intervention group. But in control group, no significant differences were obtained. There was not any significant association in demographic characteristics and quality of life. Conclusion: Ongoing training programs can be effective in improving quality of life of patients with heart failure. Hence applying ongoing educational program as a non-pharmacological intervention can help to improve the quality of life of these patients.

  4. Effect of educational program on quality of life of patients with heart failure: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakdizaji, Sima; Hassankhni, Hadi; Mohajjel Agdam, Alireza; Khajegodary, Mohammad; Salehi, Rezvanieh

    2013-03-01

    Heart failure is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases which decrease the quality of life. Most of the factors influencing the quality of life can be modified with educational interventions. Therefore, this study examined the impact of a continuous training program on quality of life of patients with heart failure. This randomized clinical trial study was conducted during May to August 2011. Forty four participants with heart failure referred to Shahid Madani's polyclinics of Tabriz were selected through convenient sampling method and were randomly allocated to two groups. The intervention group (n = 22) received ongoing training including one-to-one teaching, counseling sessions and phone calls over 3 months. The control group (n = 22) received routine care program. Data on quality of life was collected using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire at baseline as well as three months later. The statistical tests showed significant differences in the physical, emotional dimensions and total quality of life in intervention group. But in control group, no significant differences were obtained. There was not any significant association in demographic characteristics and quality of life. Ongoing training programs can be effective in improving quality of life of patients with heart failure. Hence applying ongoing educational program as a non-pharmacological intervention can help to improve the quality of life of these patients.

  5. Infarto agudo del miocardio sin elevación del segmento T: Consideraciones fisiopatológicas y clínicas Heart attack without an elevation of the T segment: Clinical and pathophysiological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Rodulfo García

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron numerosos documentos (impresos y electrónicos sobre afecciones cardiovasculares, particularmente acerca del infarto agudo del miocardio sin elevación del segmento T, teniendo en cuenta que la mortalidad hospitalaria es menor cuando se produce un síndrome coronario con esa característica. Para actualizar el tema se valoraron diversos aspectos relacionados con concepto, clasificación, fisiopatología, diagnóstico, cuadro clínico, exámenes complementarios y factores de riesgo, puesto que las enfermedades del corazón son actualmente la principal causa de muerte en naciones industrializadas y se espera que también lo sean en los países en vías de desarrollo para el 2020, entre ellos Cuba.Several documents (printed and electronic about cardiovascular diseases were reviewed, particularly heart attack without an elevation of the T-segment, taking into account that the hospital mortality is lower when a coronary syndrome with that characteristic occurs. To update the topic several aspects related to concept, classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis, clinical pattern, laboratory tests and risk factors were valued since heart diseases are actually the main cause of death in industrialized nations and it is expected that they will also be the same cause of death in developing countries for 2020, among them, Cuba.

  6. The Optimal Timing of Stage 2 Palliation for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: An Analysis of the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial Public Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, James M; Hickey, Edward J; Blackstone, Eugene H; Jaquiss, Robert D B; Anderson, Brett R; Williams, William G; Cai, Sally; Van Arsdell, Glen S; Karamlou, Tara; McCrindle, Brian W

    2017-10-31

    In infants requiring 3-stage single-ventricle palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome, attrition after the Norwood procedure remains significant. The effect of the timing of stage 2 palliation (S2P), a physician-modifiable factor, on long-term survival is not well understood. We hypothesized that an optimal interval between the Norwood and S2P that both minimizes pre-S2P attrition and maximizes post-S2P survival exists and is associated with individual patient characteristics. The National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial public data set was used. Transplant-free survival (TFS) was modeled from (1) Norwood to S2P and (2) S2P to 3 years by using parametric hazard analysis. Factors associated with death or heart transplantation were determined for each interval. To account for staged procedures, risk-adjusted, 3-year, post-Norwood TFS (the probability of TFS at 3 years given survival to S2P) was calculated using parametric conditional survival analysis. TFS from the Norwood to S2P was first predicted. TFS after S2P to 3 years was then predicted and adjusted for attrition before S2P by multiplying by the estimate of TFS to S2P. The optimal timing of S2P was determined by generating nomograms of risk-adjusted, 3-year, post-Norwood, TFS versus the interval from the Norwood to S2P. Of 547 included patients, 399 survived to S2P (73%). Of the survivors to S2P, 349 (87%) survived to 3-year follow-up. The median interval from the Norwood to S2P was 5.1 (interquartile range, 4.1-6.0) months. The risk-adjusted, 3-year, TFS was 68±7%. A Norwood-S2P interval of 3 to 6 months was associated with greatest 3-year TFS overall and in patients with few risk factors. In patients with multiple risk factors, TFS was severely compromised, regardless of the timing of S2P and most severely when S2P was performed early. No difference in the optimal timing of S2P existed when stratified by

  7. Prolonged Cardiac Monitoring to Detect Atrial Fibrillation after Cryptogenic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Khagendra; Chapagain, Bikas; Maharjan, Raju; Farah, Hussam W; Nazeer, Ayesha; Lootens, Robert J; Rosenfeld, Alan

    2016-07-01

    The cause of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains unclear after initial cardiac monitoring in approximately one-third of patients. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed that the prolonged cardiac monitoring of patients with cryptogenic stroke or TIA increased detection of atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of all RCTs that evaluated the prolonged monitoring ≥7 days in patients with cryptogenic stroke or TIA. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and relevant references for RCTs without language restriction (inception through December 2014) and performed meta-analysis using random effects model. Detection of AF, use of anticoagulation at follow-up, recurrent stroke or TIA, and mortality were major outcomes. Four RCTs with 1149 total patients were included in the meta-analysis. Prolonged cardiac monitoring ≥7 days compared to shorter cardiac monitoring of ≤48 hours duration increased the detection of AF (≥30 seconds duration) in patients after cryptogenic stroke or TIA (13.8% vs. 2.5%; odds ratio [OR], 6.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.50-11.73; P vs. 5.2%; 5.68[3.3-9.77]; P stroke or TIA (0.78[0.40-1.55]; P = 0.48; I(2) , 0%) and mortality (1.33[0.29-6.00]; P = 0.71; I(2) , 0%] were observed between two strategies. Prolonged cardiac monitoring improves detection of atrial fibrillation and anti-coagulation use after cryptogenic stroke or TIA and therefore should be considered instead of shorter duration of cardiac monitoring. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Results of a non-specific immunomodulation therapy on chronic heart failure (ACCLAIM trial): a placebo-controlled randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torre-Amione, G.; Anker, S.D.; Bourge, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators contribute to development and progression of chronic heart failure. We therefore tested the hypothesis that immunomodulation might counteract this pathophysiological mechanism in patients. Methods We did a double-blind, placebo-controlled s......Background Evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators contribute to development and progression of chronic heart failure. We therefore tested the hypothesis that immunomodulation might counteract this pathophysiological mechanism in patients. Methods We did a double-blind, placebo......-controlled study of a device-based non-specific immunomodulation therapy (IMT) in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II-IV chronic heart failure, left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, and hospitalisation for heart failure or intravenous drug therapy in an outpatient setting......-0 . 95; p=0.02) and a 39% (0.61; 95% CI 0 . 46-0.80; p=0 . 0003) reduction in the risk of primary endpoint events, respectively. Interpretation Non-specific immunomodulation may have a role as a potential treatment for a large segment of the heart failure population, which includes patients without...

  9. The 50/50 cc Total Artificial Heart Trial: Extending the Benefits of the Total Artificial Heart to Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dennis; Villa, Chet R; Simón Morales, David Luís

    2017-01-01

    While use of the total artificial heart (TAH) is growing, the use of the device is not uniform across the gender and age spectrum because the vast majority of implants are in adult males. SynCardia has recently developed a smaller 50 cc TAH that was designed to accommodate patients with a body surface area as low as 1.2 m 2 (potentially even lower using virtual implantation). Herein, we describe the early use of the 50 cc TAH (10 implants in the US and 18 outside the US). Twenty-eight devices have been implanted worldwide. Nineteen (68%) patients were female, 4 (14%) were 21 years of age or younger, and 2 (7%) had a diagnosis of congenital heart disease (1 Fontan). The smallest patient, by body surface area, was 1.35 m 2 . Six patients (21%) have been placed on the Freedom Driver, all of whom have survived. Fourteen patients (50%) have had a positive outcome to date. The development of the 50 cc TAH has expanded the population of patients who may benefit from TAH support and thus may help improve outcomes for patients who have had limited biventricular support options to date. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nurse-led intervention to improve knowledge of medications in survivors of stroke or transient ischemic attack: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muideen Olaiya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited evidence exists on effective interventions to improve knowledge of preventive medications in patients with chronic diseases, such as stroke. We investigated the effectiveness of a nurse-led intervention, where a component was to improve knowledge of prevention medications, in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA.Methods: Prospective sub-study of the Shared Team Approach between Nurses and Doctors For Improved Risk Factor Management (STAND FIRM, a randomized controlled trial of risk factor management. We recruited patients aged ≥18 years and hospitalized for stroke/TIA. The intervention comprised an individualized management program, involving nurse-led education, and management plan with medical specialist oversight. The outcome, participants’ knowledge of secondary prevention medications at 12 months, was assessed using questionnaires. A score of ≥5 was considered as good knowledge. Effectiveness of the intervention on knowledge of medications was determined using logistic regression. Results: Between May 2014 and January 2015, 142 consecutive participants from the main trial were included in this sub-study, 64 to usual care and 78 to the intervention (median age 68.9 years, 68% male, and 79% ischemic stroke. In multivariable analyses, we found no significant difference between intervention groups in knowledge of medications. Factors independently associated with good knowledge (score ≥5 at 12 months included higher socio-economic position (OR 4.79, 95% CI 1.76, 13.07, greater functional ability (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.17, 2.45, being married/living with a partner (OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.10, 8.87, and using instructions on pill bottle/package as an administration aid (OR 4.82, 95% CI 1.76, 13.22. Being aged ≥65 years was associated with poorer knowledge of medications (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.08, 0.71, while knowledge was worse among those taking three medications (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.03, 0.66 or ≥4 medications

  11. Strong Hearts, Healthy Communities: A Community-Based Randomized Trial for Rural Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Paul, Lynn; Folta, Sara C; Nelson, Miriam E; Strogatz, David; Graham, Meredith L; Diffenderfer, Anna; Eldridge, Galen; Parry, Stephen A

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a multilevel cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention program for rural women. This 6-month, community-based, randomized trial enrolled 194 sedentary rural women aged 40 or older with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 . Intervention participants attended 6 months of twice-weekly exercise, nutrition, and heart health classes (48 total) that included individual-, social-, and environment-level components. An education-only control program included didactic healthy lifestyle classes once a month (six total). The primary outcome measures were change in BMI and weight. Within-group and between-group multivariate analyses revealed that only intervention participants decreased BMI (-0.85 units; 95% CI: -1.32 to -0.39; P = 0.001) and weight (-2.24 kg; 95% CI: -3.49 to -0.99; P = 0.002). Compared with controls, intervention participants decreased BMI (difference: -0.71 units; 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.08; P = 0.03) and weight (1.85 kg; 95% CI: -3.55 to -0.16; P = 0.03) and improved C-reactive protein (difference: -1.15 mg/L; 95% CI: -2.16 to -0.15; P = 0.03) and Simple 7, a composite CVD risk score (difference: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.14 to 1.21; P = 0.01). Cholesterol decreased among controls but increased in the intervention group (-7.85 vs. 3.92 mg/dL; difference: 11.77; 95% CI: 0.57 to 22.96; P = 0.04). The multilevel intervention demonstrated modest but superior and meaningful improvements in BMI and other CVD risk factors compared with the control program. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  12. Heart Age PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.

  13. Telemonitoring and Mobile Phone-Based Health Coaching Among Finnish Diabetic and Heart Disease Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Tuula; Vuorinen, Anna-Leena; Rääpysjärvi, Katja; Pakanen, Mira; Itkonen, Pentti; Tepponen, Merja; Junno, Ulla-Maija; Jokinen, Tapio; van Gils, Mark; Lähteenmäki, Jaakko; Kohtamäki, Kari; Saranummi, Niilo

    2015-06-17

    There is a strong will and need to find alternative models of health care delivery driven by the ever-increasing burden of chronic diseases. The purpose of this 1-year trial was to study whether a structured mobile phone-based health coaching program, which was supported by a remote monitoring system, could be used to improve the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and/or the clinical measures of type 2 diabetes and heart disease patients. A randomized controlled trial was conducted among type 2 diabetes patients and heart disease patients of the South Karelia Social and Health Care District. Patients were recruited by sending invitations to randomly selected patients using the electronic health records system. Health coaches called patients every 4 to 6 weeks and patients were encouraged to self-monitor their weight, blood pressure, blood glucose (diabetics), and steps (heart disease patients) once per week. The primary outcome was HRQL measured by the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among diabetic patients. The clinical measures assessed were blood pressure, weight, waist circumference, and lipid levels. A total of 267 heart patients and 250 diabetes patients started in the trial, of which 246 and 225 patients concluded the end-point assessments, respectively. Withdrawal from the study was associated with the patients' unfamiliarity with mobile phones—of the 41 dropouts, 85% (11/13) of the heart disease patients and 88% (14/16) of the diabetes patients were familiar with mobile phones, whereas the corresponding percentages were 97.1% (231/238) and 98.6% (208/211), respectively, among the rest of the patients (P=.02 and P=.004). Withdrawal was also associated with heart disease patients' comorbidities—40% (8/20) of the dropouts had at least one comorbidity, whereas the corresponding percentage was 18.9% (47/249) among the rest of the patients (P=.02). The intervention showed no statistically significant benefits over

  14. Neighborhood blight, stress, and health: a walking trial of urban greening and ambulatory heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenia C. South; Michelle C. Kondo; Rose A. Cheney; Charles C. Branas

    2015-01-01

    We measured dynamic stress responses using ambulatory heart rate monitoring as participants in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania walked past vacant lots before and after a greening remediation treatment of randomly selected lots. Being in view of a greened vacant lot decreased heart rate significantly more than did being in view of a nongreened vacant lot or not in view of...

  15. Torsemide Versus Furosemide in Patients With Acute Heart Failure (from the ASCEND-HF Trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentz, Robert J.; Hasselblad, Vic; DeVore, Adam D.; Metra, Marco; Voors, Adriaan A.; Armstrong, Paul W.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Schulte, Phillip J.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Velazquez, Eric J.; O'Connor, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Furosemide is the most commonly used loop diuretic in patients with heart failure (HF) despite data suggesting potential pharmacologic and antifibrotic benefits with torsemide. We investigated patients with HF in Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure who

  16. The Healthy Heart-Mind trial: melatonin for prevention of delirium following cardiac surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew H; Flicker, Leon; Passage, Jurgen; Wibrow, Bradley; Anstey, Matthew; Edwards, Mark; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2016-01-28

    Delirium is a common occurrence in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery and is associated with a number of adverse consequences for the individual, their family and the health system. Current approaches to the prevention of delirium include identifying those at risk together with various non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies, although the efficacy of these is often modest. Emerging evidence suggests that melatonin may be biologically implicated in the development of delirium and that melatonin supplementation may be beneficial in reducing the incidence of delirium in medical and surgical patients. We designed this trial to determine whether melatonin reduces the incidence of delirium following cardiac surgery compared with placebo. The Healthy Heart-Mind trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 3 mg melatonin or matching placebo administered on seven consecutive days for the prevention of delirium following cardiac surgery. We will recruit 210 adult participants, aged 50 and older, undergoing elective or semi-elective cardiac surgery with the primary outcome of interest for this study being the difference in the incidence of delirium between the groups within 7 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes of interest include the difference between groups in the severity and duration of delirious episodes, hospital length of stay and referrals to mental health services during admission. In addition, we will assess differences in depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as cognitive performance, at discharge and 3 months after surgery. The results of this trial will clarify whether melatonin reduces the incidence of delirium following cardiac surgery. The trial is registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry, trial number ACTRN12615000819527 (10 August 2015).

  17. Tolvaptan in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Heart Failure: Rationale and Design of the TACTICS and the SECRET of CHF Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, G Michael; Mentz, Robert J; Adams, Kirkwood F; Cole, Robert T; Egnaczyk, Gregory F; Patel, Chetan B; Fiuzat, Mona; Gregory, Douglas; Wedge, Patricia; O'Connor, Christopher M; Udelson, James E; Konstam, Marvin A

    2015-09-01

    Congestion is a primary reason for hospitalization in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Despite inpatient diuretics and vasodilators targeting decongestion, persistent congestion is present in many AHF patients at discharge and more severe congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Moreover, hospitalized AHF patients may have renal insufficiency, hyponatremia, or an inadequate response to traditional diuretic therapy despite dose escalation. Current alternative treatment strategies to relieve congestion, such as ultrafiltration, may also result in renal dysfunction to a greater extent than medical therapy in certain AHF populations. Truly novel approaches to volume management would be advantageous to improve dyspnea and clinical outcomes while minimizing the risks of worsening renal function and electrolyte abnormalities. One effective new strategy may be utilization of aquaretic vasopressin antagonists. A member of this class, the oral vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan, provides benefits related to decongestion and symptom relief in AHF patients. Tolvaptan may allow for less intensification of loop diuretic therapy and a lower incidence of worsening renal function during decongestion. In this article, we summarize evidence for decongestion benefits with tolvaptan in AHF and describe the design of the Targeting Acute Congestion With Tolvaptan in Congestive Heart Failure Study (TACTICS) and Study to Evaluate Challenging Responses to Therapy in Congestive Heart Failure (SECRET of CHF) trials. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Relationship between angina pectoris and outcomes in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction: an analysis of the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure (CORONA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badar, Athar A; Perez-Moreno, Ana Cristina; Jhund, Pardeep S; Wong, Chih M; Hawkins, Nathaniel M; Cleland, John G F; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Wikstrand, John; Kjekshus, John; Wedel, Hans; Watkins, Stuart; Gardner, Roy S; Petrie, Mark C; McMurray, John J V

    2014-12-21

    Angina pectoris is common in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) but its relationship with outcomes has not been well defined. This relationship was investigated further in a retrospective analysis of the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure (CORONA). Four thousand, eight hundred and seventy-eight patients were divided into three categories: no history of angina and no chest pain at baseline (Group A; n = 1240), past history of angina but no chest pain at baseline (Group B; n = 1353) and both a history of angina and chest pain at baseline (Group C; n = 2285). Outcomes were examined using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression survival analysis. Compared with Group A, Group C had a higher risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction or unstable angina (HR: 2.36, 1.54-3.61; P angina are at an increased risk of acute coronary syndrome and HF hospitalization. Whether these patients would benefit from more aggressive medical therapy or percutaneous revascularization is not known and merits further investigation. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the two terms are used interchangeably. View an animation of heart failure . If you have been diagnosed ... resources here Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  20. Effect of steroids on inflammatory markers and clinical parameters in congenital open heart surgery: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, Muhammad M; Hamid, Mohammad; Hanif, Hashim M; Muzaffar, Marium; Siddiqui, Maria T; Adhi, Fatima; Ahmad, Khabir; Khan, Shahjahan; Hasan, Zahra

    2016-03-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with systemic inflammatory response. Steroids suppress this response, although the therapeutic evidence remains controversial. We hypothesised that intravenous steroids in children undergoing open-heart surgery would decrease inflammation leading to better early post-operative outcomes. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the trends in the levels of immunomodulators and their effects on clinical parameters. To assess the effects of intravenous steroids on early post-operative inflammatory markers and clinical parameters in children undergoing open-heart surgery. A randomised controlled trial involving 152 patients, from one month up to 18 years of age, who underwent open-heart surgery for congenital heart disease from April 2010-2012 was carried out. Patients were randomised and administered either three scheduled intravenous pulse doses of dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) or placebo. Blood samples were drawn at four time intervals and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines - Interleukin-6, 8, 10, 18, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha - were measured. Clinical parameters were also assessed. Blood cytokine levels were compared between the dexamethasone (n=65) and placebo (n=64) groups. Interleukin-6 levels were lower at 6 and 24 hours post-operatively (p<0.001), and Interleukin-10 levels were higher 6 hours post-operatively (p<0.001) in the steroid group. Interleukin-8, 18, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels did not differ between the groups at any time intervals. The clinical parameters were similar in both the groups. Dexamethasone caused quantitative suppression of Interleukin-6 and increased Interleukin-10 activation, contributing to reduced immunopathology, but it did not translate into clinical benefit in the short term.

  1. Behavioural intervention to increase physical activity among patients with coronary heart disease: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Eman; Blake, Holly; Windle, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Although physical activity has significant health benefits in the treatment of patients with coronary heart disease, patients often do not follow prescribed physical activity recommendations. Behavioural strategies have been shown to be efficacious in increasing physical activity among those patients with coronary heart disease who are attending structured cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Research has also shown that tailoring consultation according to patients' needs and sending motivational reminders are successful ways of motivating patients to be physically active. However, there is a lack of evidence for the efficacy of behavioural interventions based on individualised consultation in promoting physical activity among those patients with coronary heart disease who are not attending structured physical activity programmes. This paper outlines the study protocol for a trial which is currently underway, to examine the effect of a behavioural change intervention delivered through individualised consultation calls and motivational reminder text messages on the level of physical activity among patients with coronary heart disease. Two large hospitals in Jordan. Eligible patients aged between 18 and 70 years, who are clinically stable, are able to perform physical activity and who have access to a mobile telephone have been randomly allocated to control or intervention group. Two-group randomised controlled trial. Behavioural intervention will be compared with usual care in increasing physical activity levels among patients with coronary heart disease. The control group (n=85) will receive advice from their doctors about physical activity as they would in usual practice. The intervention group (n=71) will receive the same advice, but will also receive behavioural change intervention (goal-setting, feed-back, self-monitoring) that will be delivered over a period of six months. Intervention will be delivered through individually tailored face-to-face and telephone

  2. Multicentre clinical trial experience with the HeartMate 3 left ventricular assist device: 30-day outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, Daniel; Netuka, Ivan; Schmitto, Jan D; Pya, Yuriy; Garbade, Jens; Morshuis, Michiel; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Marasco, Silvana; Rao, Vivek; Damme, Laura; Sood, Poornima; Krabatsch, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the operative experience and 30-day outcomes of patients implanted with the HeartMate 3 Left Ventricular Assist System (LVAS) during the Conformité Européenne (CE) Mark clinical trial. Adult patients met inclusion and exclusion criteria defining advanced-stage heart failure and included the indications of bridge to transplant and destination therapy. Operative parameters, outcomes, adverse events, physical status and quality-of-life parameters were assessed in the first 30 days after LVAS implant. Fifty patients were implanted with the HeartMate 3 at 10 centres in 6 countries. The 30-day survival rate was 98%. The median operative and cardiopulmonary bypass times were 200 (range: 95-585) min and 84 (range: 47-250) min, respectively. Patients required transfusion with packed red blood cells (3.6 ± 2.3 units), fresh frozen plasma (6.5 ± 5 units) and platelets (2 ± 1 units). Six patients (12%) required reoperation for postoperative bleeding and 10 patients (20%) did not require blood transfusion. The median intensive care time was 6 days (range: 1-112 days) and the total hospital stay was 28 days (range: 14-116 days). The most common adverse events were bleeding (15, 30%), arrhythmia (14, 28%) and infection (10, 20%). There were 2 (4%) strokes. The 30-day outcomes following implantation of the HeartMate 3 demonstrates excellent survival with low adverse event rates. The LVAD performed as intended with no haemolysis or device failure. NCT02170363. HeartMate 3™ CE Mark Clinical Investigation Plan (HM3 CE Mark). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Tailored educational supportive care programme on sleep quality and psychological distress in patients with heart failure: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yia-Ling; Chiou, Ai-Fu; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Lin, Kuan-Chia

    2016-09-01

    Up to 74% of patients with heart failure report poor sleep in Taiwan. Poor symptom management or sleep hygiene may affect patients' sleep quality. An effective educational programme was important to improve patients' sleep quality and psychological distress. However, research related to sleep disturbance in patients with heart failure is limited in Taiwan. To examine the effects of a tailored educational supportive care programme on sleep disturbance and psychological distress in patients with heart failure. randomised controlled trial. Eighty-four patients with heart failure were recruited from an outpatient department of a medical centre in Taipei, Taiwan. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=43) or the control group (n=41). Patients in the intervention group received a 12-week tailored educational supportive care programme including individualised education on sleep hygiene, self-care, emotional support through a monthly nursing visit at home, and telephone follow-up counselling every 2 weeks. The control group received routine nursing care. Data were collected at baseline, the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks after patients' enrollment. Outcome measures included sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and depression. The intervention group exhibited significant improvement in the level of sleep quality and daytime sleepiness after 12 weeks of the supportive nursing care programme, whereas the control group exhibited no significant differences. Anxiety and depression scores were increased significantly in the control group at the 12th week (p.05). Compared with the control group, the intervention group had significantly greater improvement in sleep quality (β=-2.22, pquality and psychological distress in patients with heart failure. We suggested that this supportive nursing care programme should be applied to clinical practice in cardiovascular nursing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conservative versus invasive stable ischemic heart disease management strategies: what do we plan to learn from the ISCHEMIA trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Torres, Kathleen A; Desai, Karan P; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Maron, David J; Boden, William E

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, landmark randomized clinical trials comparing initial management strategies in stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) have demonstrated no significant reduction in 'hard' end points (all-cause mortality, cardiac death or myocardial infarction) with one strategy versus another. The main advantage derived from early revascularization is improved short-term quality of life. Nonetheless, questions remain regarding how best to manage SIHD patients, such as whether a high-risk subgroup can be identified that may experience a survival or myocardial infarction benefit from early revascularization, and if not, when should diagnostic catheterization and revascularization be performed. The International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches trial is designed to address these questions by randomizing SIHD patients with at least moderate ischemia to an initial conservative strategy of optimal medical therapy or an initial invasive strategy of optimal medical therapy plus cardiac catheterization and revascularization.

  5. Efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture in acute decompensated heart failure: a study protocol for a randomized, patient- and assessor-blinded, sham controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jungtae; Lee, Seung Min Kathy; Park, Jun Hyeong; Lee, Suji; Chung, Hyemoon; Lee, Jung Myung; Kim, Weon; Lee, Sanghoon; Woo, Jong Shin

    2017-07-11

    The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure compared with sham electroacupuncture. This protocol is for a randomized, sham controlled, patient- and assessor-blinded, parallel group, single center clinical trial that can overcome the limitations of previous trials examining acupuncture and heart failure. Forty-four acute decompensated heart failure patients admitted to the cardiology ward will be randomly assigned into the electroacupuncture treatment group (n = 22) or the sham electroacupuncture control group (n = 22). Participants will receive electroacupuncture treatment for 5 days of their hospital stay. The primary outcome of this study is the difference in total diuretic dose between the two groups during hospitalization. On the day of discharge, follow-up heart rate variability, routine blood tests, cardiac biomarkers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level, and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) level will be assessed. Four weeks after discharge, hs-CRP, NT-pro BNP, heart failure symptoms, quality of life, and a pattern identification questionnaire will be used for follow-up analysis. Six months after discharge, major cardiac adverse events and cardiac function measured by echocardiography will be assessed. Adverse events will be recorded during every visit. The result of this clinical trial will offer evidence of the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture for acute decompensated heart failure. Clinical Research Information Service: KCT0002249 .

  6. A cluster randomized controlled trial of a clinical pathway for hospital treatment of heart failure: study design and population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardini Andrea

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hospital treatment of heart failure frequently does not follow published guidelines, potentially contributing to the high morbidity, mortality and economic cost of this disorder. Consequently the development of clinical pathways has the potential to reduce the current variability in care, enhance guideline adherence, and improve outcomes for patients. Despite enthusiasm and diffusion, the widespread acceptance of clinical pathways remain questionable because very little prospective controlled data demonstrated their effectiveness. The Experimental Prospective Study on the Effectiveness and Efficiency of the Implementation of Clinical Pathways was designed in order to conduct a rigorous evaluation of clinical pathways in hospital treatment of acute heart failure. The primary objective of the trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of clinical pathways for hospital treatment of heart failure in Italian hospitals. Methods/design Two-arm, cluster-randomized trial. 14 community hospitals were randomized either to arm 1 (clinical pathway: appropriate use of practice guidelines and supplies of drugs and ancillary services, new organization and procedures, patient education, etc. or to arm 2 (no intervention, usual care. 424 patients sample (212 in each group, 80% of power at the 5% significance level (two-sided. The primary outcome measure is in-hospital mortality. We will also analyze the impact of the clinical pathways comparing the length and the appropriateness of the stay, the rate of unscheduled readmissions, the customers' satisfaction and the costs treating the patients with the pathways and with the current practice along all the observation period. The quality of the care will be assessed by monitoring the use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures during hospital stay and by measuring key quality indicators at discharge. Discussion This paper examines the design of the evaluation of a complex

  7. Site selection in global clinical trials in patients hospitalized for heart failure: perceived problems and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiade, Mihai; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Greene, Stephen J; Mentz, Robert J; Adams, Kirkwood F; Anker, Stefan D; Arnold, Malcolm; Baschiera, Fabio; Cleland, John G F; Cotter, Gadi; Fonarow, Gregg C; Giordano, Christopher; Metra, Marco; Misselwitz, Frank; Mühlhofer, Eva; Nodari, Savina; Frank Peacock, W; Pieske, Burkert M; Sabbah, Hani N; Sato, Naoki; Shah, Monica R; Stockbridge, Norman L; Teerlink, John R; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Zalewski, Andrew; Zannad, Faiez; Butler, Javed

    2014-03-01

    There are over 1 million hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) annually in the United States alone, and a similar number has been reported in Europe. Recent clinical trials investigating novel therapies in patients with hospitalized HF (HHF) have been negative, and the post-discharge event rate remains unacceptably high. The lack of success with HHF trials stem from problems with understanding the study drug, matching the drug to the appropriate HF subgroup, and study execution. Related to the concept of study execution is the importance of including appropriate study sites in HHF trials. Often overlooked issues include consideration of the geographic region and the number of patients enrolled at each study center. Marked differences in baseline patient co-morbidities, serum biomarkers, treatment utilization and outcomes have been demonstrated across geographic regions. Furthermore, patients from sites with low recruitment may have worse outcomes compared to sites with higher enrollment patterns. Consequently, sites with poor trial enrollment may influence key patient end points and likely do not justify the costs of site training and maintenance. Accordingly, there is an unmet need to develop strategies to identify the right study sites that have acceptable patient quantity and quality. Potential approaches include, but are not limited to, establishing a pre-trial registry, developing site performance metrics, identifying a local regionally involved leader and bolstering recruitment incentives. This manuscript summarizes the roundtable discussion hosted by the Food and Drug Administration between members of academia, the National Institutes of Health, industry partners, contract research organizations and academic research organizations on the importance of selecting optimal sites for successful trials in HHF.

  8. Improving cardiometabolic and mental health in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and their offspring: study protocol for MySweetHeart Trial, a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Antje; Gilbert, Leah; Lanzi, Stefano; Gross, Justine; Kayser, Bengt; Vial, Yvan; Simeoni, Umberto; Hans, Didier; Berney, Alexandre; Scholz, Urte; Barakat, Ruben; Puder, Jardena J

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) carries prenatal and perinatal risk for the mother and her offspring as well as longer-term risks for both the mother (obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease) and her child (obesity, type 2 diabetes). Compared with women without GDM, women with GDM are twice as likely to develop perinatal or postpartum depression. Lifestyle interventions for GDM are generally limited to physical activity and/or nutrition, often focus separately on the mother or the child and take place either during or after pregnancy, while their results are inconsistent. To increase efficacy of intervention, the multifactorial origins of GDM and the tight link between mental and metabolic as well as maternal and child health need to be heeded. This calls for an interdisciplinary transgenerational approach starting in, but continuing beyond pregnancy. Methods and analysis This randomised controlled trial will assess the effect of a multidimensional interdisciplinary lifestyle and psychosocial intervention aimed at improving the metabolic and mental health of 200 women with GDM and their offspring. Women with GDM at 24–32 weeks gestational age who understand French or English, and their offspring and partners can participate. The intervention components will be delivered on top of usual care during pregnancy and the first year postpartum. Metabolic and mental health outcomes will be measured at 24–32 weeks of pregnancy, shortly after birth and at 6–8 weeks and 1 year after childbirth. Data will be analysed using intention-to-treat analyses. The MySweetHeart Trial is linked to the MySweetHeart Cohort (clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02872974). Ethics and dissemination We will disseminate the findings through regional, national and international conferences and through peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT02890693; Pre-results. PMID:29487077

  9. Clinical trials update from the American Heart Association: REPAIR-AMI, ASTAMI, JELIS, MEGA, REVIVE-II, SURVIVE, and PROACTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, John G F; Freemantle, Nick; Coletta, Alison P; Clark, Andrew L

    2006-01-01

    This article provides information and a commentary on trials presented at the American Heart Association meeting held in November 2005, relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of heart failure. All reports should be considered as preliminary data, as analyses may change in the final publication. In REPAIR-AMI an improvement in ejection fraction was observed in post-MI patients following infusion of bone marrow stem cells. However, the ASTAMI study showed no benefit of stem cell implantation in a similar patient cohort. The JELIS study reported a reduction in major coronary events in patients receiving statins plus fish oil compared to statins alone. MEGA showed that low dose statins in a low risk population reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular events. Two studies of levosimendan in acute heart failure gave conflicting results, in the REVIVE-II study levosimendan was reported to have a superior effect on the composite primary outcome compared to placebo, however, in SURVIVE despite a trend to early benefit with levosimendan, there was no difference in effect on long-term outcome versus dobutamine. The PROACTIVE study showed encouraging results for the use of pioglitazone in post-myocardial infarction patients with concomitant type 2 diabetes.

  10. Randomized controlled trial of relaxation music to reduce heart rate in patients undergoing cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Ming Yen [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hong Kong (China); Karimzad, Yasser; Menezes, Ravi J.; Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Li, Qin; Forero, Julian; Paul, Narinder S.; Nguyen, Elsie T. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate the heart rate lowering effect of relaxation music in patients undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA), pulmonary vein CT (PVCT) and coronary calcium score CT (CCS). Patients were randomised to a control group (i.e. standard of care protocol) or to a relaxation music group (ie. standard of care protocol with music). The groups were compared for heart rate, radiation dose, image quality and dose of IV metoprolol. Both groups completed State-Trait Anxiety Inventory anxiety questionnaires to assess patient experience. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were recruited (61.9 % males); mean age 56y (19-86 y); 127 CCTA, 17 PVCT, 53 CCS. No significant difference in heart rate, radiation dose, image quality, metoprolol dose and anxiety scores. 86 % of patients enjoyed the music. 90 % of patients in the music group expressed a strong preference to have music for future examinations. The patient cohort demonstrated low anxiety levels prior to CT. Relaxation music in CCTA, PVCT and CCS does not reduce heart rate or IV metoprolol use. Patients showed low levels of anxiety indicating that anxiolytics may not have a significant role in lowering heart rate. Music can be used in cardiac CT to improve patient experience. (orig.)

  11. Randomized controlled trial of relaxation music to reduce heart rate in patients undergoing cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Ming Yen; Karimzad, Yasser; Menezes, Ravi J.; Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Li, Qin; Forero, Julian; Paul, Narinder S.; Nguyen, Elsie T.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the heart rate lowering effect of relaxation music in patients undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA), pulmonary vein CT (PVCT) and coronary calcium score CT (CCS). Patients were randomised to a control group (i.e. standard of care protocol) or to a relaxation music group (ie. standard of care protocol with music). The groups were compared for heart rate, radiation dose, image quality and dose of IV metoprolol. Both groups completed State-Trait Anxiety Inventory anxiety questionnaires to assess patient experience. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were recruited (61.9 % males); mean age 56y (19-86 y); 127 CCTA, 17 PVCT, 53 CCS. No significant difference in heart rate, radiation dose, image quality, metoprolol dose and anxiety scores. 86 % of patients enjoyed the music. 90 % of patients in the music group expressed a strong preference to have music for future examinations. The patient cohort demonstrated low anxiety levels prior to CT. Relaxation music in CCTA, PVCT and CCS does not reduce heart rate or IV metoprolol use. Patients showed low levels of anxiety indicating that anxiolytics may not have a significant role in lowering heart rate. Music can be used in cardiac CT to improve patient experience. (orig.)

  12. Problem: Heart Valve Regurgitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should be completely closed For example: Watch an animation of mitral valve regurgitation A leaking mitral valve ... Not Alone Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  13. Pro-HEART - a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of a high protein diet targeting obese individuals with heart failure: rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motie, Marjan; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Horwich, Tamara; Hamilton, Michele; Lombardo, Dawn; Cooper, Dan M; Galassetti, Pietro R; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2013-11-01

    There is ample research to support the potential benefits of a high protein diet on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese, diabetic subjects. However, nutritional management of overweight/obese individuals with heart failure (HF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MS) is poorly understood and few clinical guidelines related to nutritional approaches exist for this subgroup. This article describes the design, methods, and baseline characteristics of study participants enrolled in Pro-HEART, a randomized clinical trial to determine the short term and long term effects of a high protein diet (30% protein [~110 g/day], 40% carbohydrates [150 g/day], 30% fat [~50 g/day]) versus a standard protein diet (15% protein [~55 g/day], 55% carbohydrates [~200 g/day], 30% fat [~50 g/day]) on body weight and adiposity, cardiac structure and function, functional status, lipid profile, glycemic control, and quality of life. Between August, 2009 and May, 2013, 61 individuals agreed to participate in the study; 52 (85%) - mean age 58.2 ± 9.8 years; 15.4% Blacks; 57.7% Whites; 19.2% Hispanics; 7.7% Asians; 73.1% male; weight 112.0 ± 22.6 kg - were randomized to a 3-month intensive weight management program of either a high protein or standard protein diet; data were collected at baseline, 3 months, and 15 months. This study has the potential to reveal significant details about the role of macronutrients in weight management of overweight/obese individuals with HF and DM or MS. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of relaxation music to reduce heart rate in patients undergoing cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ming Yen; Karimzad, Yasser; Menezes, Ravi J; Wintersperger, Bernd J; Li, Qin; Forero, Julian; Paul, Narinder S; Nguyen, Elsie T

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the heart rate lowering effect of relaxation music in patients undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA), pulmonary vein CT (PVCT) and coronary calcium score CT (CCS). Patients were randomised to a control group (i.e. standard of care protocol) or to a relaxation music group (ie. standard of care protocol with music). The groups were compared for heart rate, radiation dose, image quality and dose of IV metoprolol. Both groups completed State-Trait Anxiety Inventory anxiety questionnaires to assess patient experience. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were recruited (61.9 % males); mean age 56y (19-86 y); 127 CCTA, 17 PVCT, 53 CCS. No significant difference in heart rate, radiation dose, image quality, metoprolol dose and anxiety scores. 86 % of patients enjoyed the music. 90 % of patients in the music group expressed a strong preference to have music for future examinations. The patient cohort demonstrated low anxiety levels prior to CT. Relaxation music in CCTA, PVCT and CCS does not reduce heart rate or IV metoprolol use. Patients showed low levels of anxiety indicating that anxiolytics may not have a significant role in lowering heart rate. Music can be used in cardiac CT to improve patient experience. • Relaxation music does not reduce heart rate in cardiac CT • Relaxation music does not reduce beta-blocker use in cardiac CT • Relaxation music has no effect on cardiac CT image quality • Low levels of anxiety are present in patients prior to cardiac CT • Patients enjoyed the relaxation music and this results in improved patient experience.

  15. Heart failure outcomes with empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk: results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, David; Zinman, Bernard; Wanner, Christoph; Lachin, John M.; Hantel, Stefan; Salsali, Afshin; Johansen, Odd Erik; Woerle, Hans J.; Broedl, Uli C.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims We previously reported that in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, empagliflozin added to standard of care reduced the risk of 3-point major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause death, and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. We have now further investigated heart failure outcomes in all patients and in subgroups, including patients with or without baseline heart failure. Methods and results Patients were randomized to receive empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or placebo. Seven thousand and twenty patients were treated; 706 (10.1%) had heart failure at baseline. Heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death occurred in a significantly lower percentage of patients treated with empagliflozin [265/4687 patients (5.7%)] than with placebo [198/2333 patients (8.5%)] [hazard ratio, HR: 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.55–0.79); P heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death of 35 over 3 years. Consistent effects of empagliflozin were observed across subgroups defined by baseline characteristics, including patients with vs. without heart failure, and across categories of medications to treat diabetes and/or heart failure. Empagliflozin improved other heart failure outcomes, including hospitalization for or death from heart failure [2.8 vs. 4.5%; HR: 0.61 (0.47–0.79); P heart failure at baseline in both treatment groups, but were no more common with empagliflozin than with placebo. Conclusion In patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk, empagliflozin reduced heart failure hospitalization and cardiovascular death, with a consistent benefit in patients with and without baseline heart failure. PMID:26819227

  16. Implementation of case management to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in the Stanford and San Mateo Heart to Heart randomized controlled trial: study protocol and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Randall S

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case management has emerged as a promising alternative approach to supplement traditional one-on-one sessions between patients and doctors for improving the quality of care in chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD. However, data are lacking in terms of its efficacy and cost-effectiveness when implemented in ethnic and low-income populations. Methods The Stanford and San Mateo Heart to Heart (HTH project is a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to rigorously evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a multi-risk cardiovascular case management program in low-income, primarily ethnic minority patients served by a local county health care system in California. Randomization occurred at the patient level. The primary outcome measure is the absolute CHD risk over 10 years. Secondary outcome measures include adherence to guidelines on CHD prevention practice. We documented the study design, methodology, and baseline sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics of 419 participants. Results We achieved equal distributions of the sociodemographic, biophysical and lifestyle characteristics between the two randomization groups. HTH participants had a mean age of 56 years, 63% were Latinos/Hispanics, 65% female, 61% less educated, and 62% were not employed. Twenty percent of participants reported having a prior cardiovascular event. 10-year CHD risk averaged 18% in men and 13% in women despite a modest low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and a high on-treatment percentage at baseline. Sixty-three percent of participants were diagnosed with diabetes and an additional 22% had metabolic syndrome. In addition, many participants had depressed high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels and elevated values of total cholesterol-to-HDL ratio, triglycerides, triglyceride-to-HDL ratio, and blood pressure. Furthermore, nearly 70% of participants were obese, 45% had a family history of CHD or

  17. PROspective MEmory Training to improve HEart failUre Self-care (PROMETHEUS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jan; Rendell, Peter G; Ski, Chantal F; Kure, Christina E; McLennan, Skye N; Rose, Nathan S; Prior, David L; Thompson, David R

    2015-04-29

    Cognitive impairment is seen in up to three quarters of heart failure (HF) patients and has a significant negative impact on patients' health outcomes. Prospective memory, which is defined as memory to carry out future intentions, is important for functional independence in older adults and involves application of multiple cognitive processes that are often impaired in HF patients. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of prospective memory training on patients' engagement in HF self-care and health outcomes, carer strain and quality of life. The proposed study is a randomised, controlled trial in which 200 patients diagnosed with HF, and their carers will be recruited from 3 major hospitals across Melbourne. Eligible patients with HF will be randomised to receive either: 1) The Virtual Week Training Program - a computerised prospective memory (PM) training program (intervention) or 2) non-adaptive computer-based word puzzles (active control). HF patients' baseline cognitive function will be compared to a healthy control group (n = 60) living independently in the community. Patients will undergo a comprehensive assessment of PM, neuropsychological functioning, self-care, physical, and emotional functioning. Assessments will take place at baseline, 4 weeks and 12 months following intervention. Carers will complete measures assessing quality of life, strain, perceived control in the management of the patients' HF symptoms, and ratings of the patients' level of engagement in HF self-care behaviours. If the Virtual Week Training Program is effective in improving: 1) prospective memory; 2) self-care behaviours, and 3) wellbeing in HF patients, this study will enhance our understanding of impaired cognitive processes in HF and potentially is a mechanism to reduce healthcare costs. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #366376; 27 May 2014. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366376&isClinicalTrial=False .

  18. Systematic review on randomized controlled trials of coronary heart disease complicated with depression treated with Chinese herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Lu; Chen, Zhuo; Luo, Jing; Shang, Qing-Hua; Xu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This systemic review evaluated the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated with depression. All databases were retrieved till September 30, 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CHMs with placebo or conventional Western medicine were retrieved. Data extraction, analyses and quality assessment were performed according to the Cochrane standards. RevMan 5.3 was used to synthesize the results. Thirteen RCTs enrolling 1,095 patients were included. Subgroup analysis was used to assess data. In reducing the degree of depression, CHMs showed no statistic difference in the 4th week [mean difference (MD)=-1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI)-2.38 to 0.26; n=501; I(2)=73%], but it was associated with a statistically significant difference in the 8th week (MD=-1.00; 95% CI-1.64 to-0.36; n=436; I(2)=48%). Meanwhile, the combination therapy (CHMs together with antidepressants) showed significant statistic differences both in the 4th week (MD=-1.99; 95% CI-3.80 to-0.18; n=90) and in the 8th week (MD=-5.61; 95% CI-6.26 to-4.97; n=242; I(2)=87%). In CHD-related clinical evaluation, 3 trials reported the intervention group was superior to the control group. Four trials showed adverse events in the intervention group was less than that in the control group. CHMs showed potentially benefits on patients with CHD complicated with depression. Moreover, the effect of CHMs may be similar to or better than antidepressant in certain fields but with less side effects. However, because of small sample size and potential bias of most trials, this result should be interpreted with caution. More rigorous trials with larger sample size and higher quality are warranted to give high quality of evidence to support the use of CHMs for CHD complicated with depression.

  19. Serum Potassium Levels and Outcome in Acute Heart Failure (Data from the PROTECT and COACH Trials)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, Jasper; ter Maaten, Jozine M.; Damman, Kevin; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Metra, Marco; Dittrich, Howard C.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R.; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth; Cleland, John G. F.; Givertz, Michael M.; Bloomfield, Daniel M.; van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Jaarsma, Tiny; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Hillege, Hans L.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van der Meer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Serum potassium is routinely measured at admission for acute heart failure (AHF), but information on association with clinical variables and prognosis is limited. Potassium measurements at admission were available in 1,867 patients with AHF in the original cohort of 2,033 patients included in the

  20. SheppHeartCABG trial-comprehensive early rehabilitation after coronary artery bypass grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojskov, Ida Elisabeth; Moons, Philip; Hansen, Niels Viggo

    2017-01-01

    Quality Index, pain measured by the Örebro Musculoskeletal Screening Questionnaire and muscle endurance measured by the sit-to-stand test. A number of explorative analyses will also be conducted. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: SheppHeartCABG is approved by the regional ethics committee (no. H-4...

  1. Rationale and methods of the multicenter randomised trial of a heart failure management programme among geriatric patients (HF-Geriatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casado Jose

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease management programmes (DMPs have been shown to reduce hospital readmissions and mortality in adults with heart failure (HF, but their effectiveness in elderly patients or in those with major comorbidity is unknown. The Multicenter Randomised Trial of a Heart Failure Management Programme among Geriatric Patients (HF-Geriatrics assesses the effectiveness of a DMP in elderly patients with HF and major comorbidity. Methods/Design Clinical trial in 700 patients aged ≥ 75 years admitted with a primary diagnosis of HF in the acute care unit of eight geriatric services in Spain. Each patient should meet at least one of the following comorbidty criteria: Charlson index ≥ 3, dependence in ≥ 2 activities of daily living, treatment with ≥ 5 drugs, active treatment for ≥ 3 diseases, recent emergency hospitalization, severe visual or hearing loss, cognitive impairment, Parkinson's disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, anaemia, or constitutional syndrome. Half of the patients will be randomly assigned to a 1-year DMP led by a case manager and the other half to usual care. The DMP consists of an educational programme for patients and caregivers on the management of HF, COPD (knowledge of the disease, smoking cessation, immunizations, use of inhaled medication, recognition of exacerbations, diabetes (knowledge of the disease, symptoms of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia, self-adjustment of insulin, foot care and depression (knowledge of the disease, diagnosis and treatment. It also includes close monitoring of the symptoms of decompensation and optimisation of treatment compliance. The main outcome variables are quality of life, hospital readmissions, and overall mortality during a 12-month follow-up. Discussion The physiological changes, lower life expectancy, comorbidity and low health literacy associated with aging may influence the effectiveness of DMPs in HF. The HF-Geriatrics study

  2. Effects of dexmedetomidine on heart arrhythmia prevention in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Ghasem; Jahanbakhsh, Saeed; Tashnizi, Mohammad Abbasi; Fathi, Mehdi; Amini, Shahram; Zirak, Nahid; Sheybani, Shima

    2017-10-01

    Arrhythmia occurring during and after surgery is one of the major complications in open-heart surgery. Dexmedetomidine is an intravenous alpha-2 agonist and very specific short-acting drug to protect the various organs against ischemic injuries and blood reflow. However, the effect of dexmedetomidine for preventing intraoperative heart arrhythmias has not been recognized. This study aimed to determine the effect of dexmedetomidine on the incidence rate of heart arrhythmias and anesthetic required in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on patients who were candidates for off-pump coronary artery bypass referring to Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran, from July 2016 through January 2017. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups of intervention (infusion of 0.5 mcg/kg/h dexmedetomidine together with induction followed by infusion of 0.5 mcg/kg/h by the end of the surgery) or control (saline infusion). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before induction, during surgery operation and ICU admission. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 18 using Chi Square and independent-samples t-test. A total of 76 patients with a mean age of 59.8 ± 8.2 years (in two groups of 38) were studied. The two groups had no statistically significant difference in terms of background variables. The MAP and HR values before induction, during surgery and ICU admission were significantly higher in the control group than in the intervention group (p=0.001). Out of the studied arrhythmias, the values of PAC (55.2% vs. 15.7%), PVC (81.5% vs. 21.0%), AF (26.3% vs. 7.8%), VTAC (21.0% vs. 2.6%) were significantly lower in dexmedetomidine group (p=0.001). It seems that dexmedetomidine administration during induction and surgery can cause significant reduction in most of the common arrhythmias in off-pump coronary bypass surgery. The use of dexmedetomidine maintains MAP and HR at significantly lower values, and changes

  3. Nurse-Led Intervention to Improve Knowledge of Medications in Survivors of Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Olaiya, Muideen T.; Cadilhac, Dominique A.; Kim, Joosup; Ung, David; Nelson, Mark R.; Srikanth, Velandai K.; Bladin, Christopher F.; Gerraty, Richard P.; Fitzgerald, Sharyn M.; Phan, Thanh G.; Frayne, Judith; Thrift, Amanda G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Limited evidence exists on effective interventions to improve knowledge of preventive medications in patients with chronic diseases, such as stroke. We investigated the effectiveness of a nurse-led intervention, where a component was to improve knowledge of prevention medications, in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Methods Prospective sub-study of the Shared Team Approach between Nurses and Doctors for Improved Risk Factor Management, a randomi...

  4. Nurse-led intervention to improve knowledge of medications in survivors of stroke or transient ischemic attack: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Muideen Olaiya; Dominique Cadilhac; Dominique Cadilhac; Joosup Kim; Joosup Kim; David Ung; Mark Raymond Nelson; Mark Raymond Nelson; Velandai Srikanth; Velandai Srikanth; Christopher Bladin; Richard Gerraty; Sharyn Fitzgerald; THANH G PHAN; Judith Frayne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Limited evidence exists on effective interventions to improve knowledge of preventive medications in patients with chronic diseases, such as stroke. We investigated the effectiveness of a nurse-led intervention, where a component was to improve knowledge of prevention medications, in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).Methods: Prospective sub-study of the Shared Team Approach between Nurses and Doctors For Improved Risk Factor Management (STAND FIRM), a rand...

  5. Terrorists and Suicide Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Audrey K

    2003-01-01

    Suicide attacks by terrorist organizations have become more prevalent globally, and assessing the threat of suicide attacks against the United States and its interests at home and abroad has therefore...

  6. Solidarity under Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi; Goffredo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    https://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/susi-meret-sergio-goffredo/solidarity-under-attack......https://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/susi-meret-sergio-goffredo/solidarity-under-attack...

  7. Dementia-related adverse events in PARADIGM-HF and other trials in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Jane A.; Shen, Li; Jhund, Pardeep S.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Inhibition of neprilysin, an enzyme degrading natriuretic and other vasoactive peptides, is beneficial in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), as shown in PARADIGM-HF which compared the angiotensin receptor–neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) sacubitril/valsartan with enalapril....... As neprilysin is also one of many enzymes clearing amyloid-β peptides from the brain, there is a theoretical concern about the long-term effects of sacubitril/valsartan on cognition. Therefore, we have examined dementia-related adverse effects (AEs) in PARADIGM-HF and placed these findings in the context...... of other recently conducted HFrEF trials. Methods and results: In PARADIGM-HF, patients with symptomatic HFrEF were randomized to sacubitril/valsartan 97/103 mg b.i.d. or enalapril 10 mg b.i.d. in a 1:1 ratio. We systematically searched AE reports, coded using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory...

  8. Risk assessment and comparative effectiveness of left ventricular assist device and medical management in ambulatory heart failure patients: design and rationale of the ROADMAP clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Joseph G; Boyle, Andrew J; O'Connell, John B; Horstmanshof, Douglas A; Haas, Donald C; Slaughter, Mark S; Park, Soon J; Farrar, David J; Starling, Randall C

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical circulatory support is now a proven therapy for the treatment of patients with advanced heart failure and cardiogenic shock. The role for this therapy in patients with less severe heart failure is unknown. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of mechanically assisted circulation using the HeartMate II left ventricular assist device in patients who meet current US Food and Drug Administration-defined criteria for treatment but are not yet receiving intravenous inotropic therapy. This is a prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial of 200 patients treated with either optimal medical management or a mechanical circulatory support device. This trial will be the first prospective clinical evaluation comparing outcomes of patients with advanced ambulatory heart failure treated with either ongoing medical therapy or a left ventricular assist device. It is anticipated to provide novel insights regarding relative outcomes with each treatment and an understanding of patient and provider acceptance of the ventricular assist device therapy. This trial will also provide information regarding the risk of events in "stable" patients with advanced heart failure and guidance for the optimal timing of left ventricular assist device therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship of right- to left-sided ventricular filling pressures in advanced heart failure: insights from the ESCAPE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazner, Mark H; Velez-Martinez, Mariella; Ayers, Colby R; Reimold, Sharon C; Thibodeau, Jennifer T; Mishkin, Joseph D; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Markham, David W; Patel, Chetan B

    2013-03-01

    Although right atrial pressure (RAP) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) are correlated in heart failure, in a sizeable minority of patients, the RAP and PCWP are not tightly coupled. The basis of this variability in the RAP/PCWP ratio, and whether it conveys prognostic value, is not known. We analyzed the Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness (ESCAPE) trial database. Baseline characteristics, including echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular (RV) structure and function, and invasively measured hemodynamic parameters, were compared among tertiles of the RAP/PCWP ratio. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models assessed the association of RAP/PCWP ratio with the primary ESCAPE outcome (6-month death or hospitalization [days]) adjusting for systolic blood pressure, blood urea nitrogen, 6-minute walk distance, and PCWP. The RAP/PCWP tertiles were 0.27 to 0.4 (tertile 1); 0.41 to 0.615 (tertile 2), and 0.62 to 1.21 (tertile 3). Increasing RAP/PCWP was associated with increasing median right atrial area (23, 26, 29 cm2, respectively; P<0.005), RV area in diastole (21, 27, 27 cm2, respectively; P<0.005), and pulmonary vascular resistance (2.4, 2.9, 3.6 woods units, respectively; P=0.003), and lower RV stroke work index (8.6, 8.4, 5.5 g·m/m2 per beat, respectively; P<0.001). RAP/PCWP ratio was associated with death or hospitalization within 6 months (hazard ratio, 1.16 [1, 1.4]; P<0.05). Increased RAP/PCWP ratio was associated with higher pulmonary vascular resistance, reduced RV function (manifest as a larger right atrium and ventricle and lower RV stroke work index), and an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with advanced heart failure.

  10. Cardiac Stress and Inflammatory Markers as Predictors of Heart Failure in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: The ADVANCE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Jun, Min; Woodward, Mark; Zoungas, Sophia; Cooper, Mark E; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hamet, Pavel; Mancia, Giuseppe; Williams, Bryan; Welsh, Paul; Sattar, Naveed; Shaw, Jonathan E; Rahimi, Kazem; Chalmers, John

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the individual and combined effect of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and hs-CRP on the prediction of heart failure incidence or progression in patients with type 2 diabetes. A nested case-cohort study was conducted in 3,098 participants with type 2 diabetes in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial. A higher value of each biomarker was significantly associated with a higher risk of heart failure incidence or progression, after adjustment for major risk factors. The hazard ratios per 1-SD increase were 3.06 (95% CI 2.37, 3.96) for NT-proBNP, 1.50 (1.27, 1.77) for hs-cTnT, 1.48 (1.27, 1.72) for IL-6, and 1.32 (1.12, 1.55) for hs-CRP. The addition of NT-proBNP to the model including conventional risk factors meaningfully improved 5-year risk-predictive performance (C statistic 0.8162 to 0.8800; continuous net reclassification improvement [NRI] 73.1%; categorical NRI [10% 5-year risk] 24.2%). In contrast, the addition of hs-cTnT, IL-6, or hs-CRP did not improve the prediction metrics consistently in combination or when added to NT-proBNP. Only NT-proBNP strongly and consistently improved the prediction of heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes beyond a wide range of clinical risk factors and biomarkers. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol consumption contributes to obesity, alcoholism, suicide and accidents. However, there is a cardioprotective effect of moderate ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Work with your doctor to lower your HBP and ...

  12. Can Vitamins Help Prevent a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 26, 2016. Loffredo L, et al. Supplementation with vitamin E alone is associated with reduced myocardial infarction: ... Cardiovascular Diseases. 2015;25:354. Pilz S, et al. Vitamin D and cardiovascular ... L, et al. Prospective association between the dietary inflammatory ...

  13. Being active after your heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Canadian Cardiovascular Society endorsed by the American Academy of Family Physicians: 2007 Writing Group to Review New Evidence and Update the ACC/AHA 2004 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction, Writing ...

  14. Effect of B vitamins and lowering homocysteine on cognitive impairment in patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack: a prespecified secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Graeme J; Ford, Andrew H; Yi, Qilong; Eikelboom, John W; Lees, Kennedy R; Chen, Christopher; Xavier, Denis; Navarro, Jose C; Ranawaka, Udaya K; Uddin, Wasim; Ricci, Stefano; Gommans, John; Schmidt, Reinhold; Almeida, Osvaldo P; van Bockxmeer, Frank M

    2013-08-01

    High plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) has been associated with cognitive impairment but lowering tHcy with B-vitamins has produced equivocal results. We aimed to determine whether B-vitamin supplementation would reduce tHcy and the incidence of new cognitive impairment among individuals with stroke or transient ischemic attack≥6 months previously. A total of 8164 patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack were randomly allocated to double-blind treatment with one tablet daily of B-vitamins (folic acid, 2 mg; vitamin B6, 25 mg; vitamin B12, 500 μg) or placebo and followed up for 3.4 years (median) in the VITAmins TO Prevent Stroke (VITATOPS) trial. For this prespecified secondary analysis of VITATOPS, the primary outcome was a new diagnosis of cognitive impairment, defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score6 months after the qualifying stroke; 2608 participants were cognitively unimpaired (MMSE≥24), of whom 2214 participants (1110 B-vitamins versus 1104 placebo) had follow-up MMSEs during 2.8 years (median). At final follow-up, allocation to B-vitamins, compared with placebo, was associated with a reduction in mean tHcy (10.2 μmol/L versus 14.2 μmol/L; Pvitamin B6, and vitamin B12 to a self-selected clinical trial cohort of cognitively unimpaired patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack lowered mean tHcy but had no effect on the incidence of cognitive impairment or cognitive decline, as measured by the MMSE, during a median of 2.8 years. URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN74743444; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00097669.

  15. Heart rate acceleration with GLP-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes patients : an acute and 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Mark M; Tonneijck, Lennart; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, T.; Kramer, Mark H H; Diamant, Michaela; van Raalte, Daniël H

    OBJECTIVE: To examine mechanisms underlying resting heart rate (RHR) increments of GLP-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes patients. DESIGN: Acute and 12-week randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, single-centre, parallel-group trial. METHODS: In total, 57 type 2 diabetes patients

  16. Prevalent digoxin use and subsequent risk of death or hospitalization in ambulatory heart failure patients with a reduced ejection fraction-Findings from the Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training (HF-ACTION) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosy, Andrew P; Bhatt, Ankeet S; Stebbins, Amanda L; Wruck, Lisa M; Fudim, Marat; Greene, Stephen J; Kraus, William E; O'Connor, Christopher M; Piña, Ileana L; Whellan, David J; Mentz, Robert J

    2018-05-01

    Despite more than 200 years of clinical experience and a pivotal trial, recently published research has called into question the safety and efficacy of digoxin therapy in heart failure (HF). HF-ACTION (ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT00047437) enrolled 2331 outpatients with HF and an EF ≤35% between April 2003 and February 2007 and randomized them to aerobic exercise training versus usual care. Patients were grouped according to prevalent digoxin status at baseline. The association between digoxin therapy and outcomes was assessed using Cox proportional hazard and inverse-probability weighted (IPW) regression models adjusted for demographics, medical history, medications, laboratory values, quality of life, and exercise parameters. The prevalence of digoxin therapy decreased from 52% during the first 6 months of enrollment to 35% at the end of the HF-ACTION trial (P <0.0001). Study participants were 59± 13 years of age, 72% were male, and approximately half had an ischemic etiology of HF. Patients receiving digoxin at baseline tended to be younger and were more likely to report New York Heart Association functional class III/IV symptoms (rather than class II) compared to those not receiving digoxin. Patients taking digoxin had worse baseline exercise capacity as measured by peak VO 2 and 6-min walk test and greater impairments in health status as reflected by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. The association between digoxin and the risk of death or hospitalization differed depending on whether Cox proportional hazard (Hazard Ratio 1.03, 95% Confidence Interval 0.92-1.16; P = .62) or IPW regression models (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.17; P = .057) were used to adjust for potential confounders. Although digoxin use was associated with high-risk clinical features, the association between digoxin therapy and outcomes was dependent on the statistical methods used for multivariable adjustment. Clinical equipoise exists and additional prospective research is

  17. Randomised trial of low-dose amiodarone in severe congestive heart failure. Grupo de Estudio de la Sobrevida en la Insuficiencia Cardiaca en Argentina (GESICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doval, H C; Nul, D R; Grancelli, H O; Perrone, S V; Bortman, G R; Curiel, R

    1994-08-20

    In severe heart failure many deaths are sudden and are presumed to be due to ventricular arrhythmias. The GESICA trial evaluated the effect of low-dose amiodarone on two-year mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Our prospective multicentre trial included 516 patients on optimal standard treatment for heart failure. Patients were randomised to 300 mg/day amiodarone (260) or to standard treatment (256). Intention-to-treat analysis showed 87 deaths in the amiodarone group (33.5%) compared with 106 in the control group (41.4%) (risk reduction 28%; 95% CI 4%-45%; log rank test p = 0.024). There were reductions in both sudden death (risk reduction 27%; p = 0.16) and death due to progressive heart failure (risk reduction 23%; p = 0.16). Fewer patients in the amiodarone group died or were admitted to hospital due to worsening heart failure (119 versus 149 in the control group; risk reduction 31%; 95% CI 13-46%; p = 0.0024). The decrease in mortality and hospital admission was present in all subgroups examined and independent of the presence of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Side-effects were reported in 17 patients (6.1%); amiodarone was withdrawn in 12. Low-dose amiodarone proved to be an effective and reliable treatment, reducing mortality and hospital admission in patients with severe heart failure independently of the presence of complex ventricular arrhythmias.

  18. Update to the study protocol, including statistical analysis plan for a randomized clinical trial comparing comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation after heart valve surgery with control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibilitz, Kirstine Laerum; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Hansen, Tina Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    , either valve replacement or repair, remains the treatment of choice. However, post-surgery, the transition to daily living may become a physical, mental and social challenge. We hypothesize that a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program can improve physical capacity and self-assessed mental health...... and reduce hospitalization and healthcare costs after heart valve surgery. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial, CopenHeartVR, aims to investigate whether cardiac rehabilitation in addition to usual care is superior to treatment as usual after heart valve surgery. The trial will randomly allocate 210...... patients 1:1 to an intervention or a control group, using central randomization, and blinded outcome assessment and statistical analyses. The intervention consists of 12 weeks of physical exercise and a psycho-educational intervention comprising five consultations. The primary outcome is peak oxygen uptake...

  19. Composite Dos Attack Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ramanauskaitė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for potential threats is one of the most important phases ensuring system security. It allows evaluating possible losses, changes in the attack process, the effectiveness of used countermeasures, optimal system settings, etc. In cyber-attack cases, executing real experiments can be difficult for many reasons. However, mathematical or programming models can be used instead of conducting experiments in a real environment. This work proposes a composite denial of service attack model that combines bandwidth exhaustion, filtering and memory depletion models for a more real representation of similar cyber-attacks. On the basis of the introduced model, different experiments were done. They showed the main dependencies of the influence of attacker and victim’s properties on the success probability of denial of service attack. In the future, this model can be used for the denial of service attack or countermeasure optimization.

  20. Translating a heart disease lifestyle intervention into the community: the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study; a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Namratha R; Dave, Swapna; De Chavez, Peter John; Bharucha, Himali; Patel, Yasin; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned

    2015-10-16

    South Asians (Asian Indians and Pakistanis) are the second fastest growing ethnic group in the United States (U.S.) and have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This pilot study evaluated a culturally-salient, community-based healthy lifestyle intervention to reduce ASCVD risk among South Asians. Through an academic-community partnership, medically underserved South Asian immigrants at risk for ASCVD were randomized into the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study. The intervention group attended 6 interactive group classes focused on increasing physical activity, healthful diet, weight, and stress management. They also received follow-up telephone support calls. The control group received translated print education materials about ASCVD and healthy behaviors. Primary outcomes were feasibility and initial efficacy, measured as change in moderate/vigorous physical activity and dietary saturated fat intake at 3- and 6-months. Secondary clinical and psychosocial outcomes were also measured. Participants' (n = 63) average age was 50 (SD = 8) years, 63 % were female, 27 % had less than or equal to a high school education, one-third were limited English proficient, and mean BMI was 30 kg/m2 (SD ± 5). There were no significant differences in change in physical activity or saturated fat intake between the intervention and control group. Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed significant weight loss (-1.5 kg, p-value = 0.04) and had a greater sex-adjusted decrease in hemoglobin A1C (-0.43 %, p-value culturally-salient, community-based lifestyle intervention was feasible for engaging medically underserved South Asian immigrants and more effective at addressing ASCVD risk factors than print health education materials. NCT01647438, Date of Trial Registration: July 19, 2012.

  1. Long-Term Effects and Prognosis in Acute Heart Failure Treated with Tolvaptan: The AVCMA Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diuresis is a major therapy for the reduction of congestive symptoms in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF patients. We previously reported the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan compared to carperitide in hospitalized patients with ADHF. There were some reports of cardio- and renal-protective effects in carperitide; therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of tolvaptan and carperitide on cardiorenal function and prognosis. Methods and Results. One hundred and five ADHF patients treated with either tolvaptan or carperitide were followed after hospital discharge. Levels of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide, serum sodium, potassium, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were measured before administration of tolvaptan or carperitide at baseline, the time of discharge, and one year after discharge. These data between tolvaptan and carperitide groups were not different one year after discharge. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated that the event-free rate regarding all events, cardiac events, all cause deaths, and rehospitalization due to worsening heart failure was not significantly different between tolvaptan and carperitide groups. Conclusions. We demonstrated that tolvaptan had similar effects on cardiac and renal function and led to a similar prognosis in the long term, compared to carperitide.

  2. Efficacy of Suxiao Jiuxin Pill on Coronary Heart Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Suxiao jiuxin pill is considered an effective ancillary drug in patients with coronary heart disease. Although numerous small, single-center clinical trials have been conducted, the benefits and harms of suxiao jiuxin pill remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the efficacy of suxiao jiuxin pill on patients with coronary heart disease. Randomized controlled trials were identified by using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Wanfang, Weipu, and China Knowledge Resource Integrated databases (until June 2016. Pooled relative risks (RR, weighted mean differences (WMD, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were estimated using random-effects models. Forty-one trials involving 6276 patients were included in our analysis. Administration of suxiao jiuxin pill significantly improved electrocardiogram (ECG results when compared with other therapies (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.26 to 1.38, and P<0.001. Subgroup analyses revealed that suxiao jiuxin pills improve ECG results more than salvia tablets (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.41 to 1.67, and P<0.001, isosorbide dinitrate (RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.44, and P=0.001, nitroglycerin (RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.56, and P<0.001, and other drugs (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.44, and P<0.001. Available evidence additionally suggests that suxiao jiuxin pills could significantly reduce total cholesterol (WMD −0.62 mmol/L, 95% CI −1.06 to –0.18 mmol/L, and P=0.005 and low-density lipoprotein (LDL levels (WMD −1.12 mmol/L, 95% CI −1.42 to −0.82 mmol/L, and P<0.001 and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels (WMD 0.32 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.58 mmol/L, and P=0.014. However, no significant differences were observed in total triglyceride levels, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, and fibrinogen. No incidences of adverse reactions were observed after administration of suxiao jiuxin pill. Improvements in ECG results and lipid profiles were also observed after suxiao jiuxin

  3. Chronic heart failure modifies respiratory mechanics in rats: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise M. Pacheco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To analyze respiratory mechanics and hemodynamic alterations in an experimental model of chronic heart failure (CHF following myocardial infarction. Method Twenty-seven male adult Wistar rats were randomized to CHF group (n=12 or Sham group (n=15. Ten weeks after coronary ligation or sham surgery, the animals were anesthetized and submitted to respiratory mechanics and hemodynamic measurements. Pulmonary edema as well as cardiac remodeling were measured. Results The CHF rats showed pulmonary edema 26% higher than the Sham group. The respiratory system compliance (Crs and the total lung capacity (TLC were lower (40% and 27%, respectively in the CHF rats when compared to the Sham group (P<0.01. There was also an increase in tissue resistance (Gti and elastance (Hti (28% and 45%, respectively in the CHF group. Moreover, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was higher (32 mmHg vs 4 mmHg, P<0.01, while the left ventricular systolic pressure was lower (118 mmHg vs 130 mmHg, P=0.02 in the CHF group when compared to the control. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a negative association between pulmonary edema and Crs (r=–0.70, P=0.0001 and between pulmonary edema and TLC (r=–0.67,P=0.0034. Pulmonary edema correlated positively with Gti (r=0.68, P=0.001 and Hti (r=0.68, P=0.001. Finally, there was a strong positive relationship between pulmonary edema and heart weight (r=0.80, P=0.001. Conclusion Rats with CHF present important changes in hemodynamic and respiratory mechanics, which may be associated with alterations in cardiopulmonary interactions.

  4. Heart Age PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  5. Heart Failure in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lungs where oxygen is added. Watch an animation of blood flow in the heart All the ... resources here Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  6. Web server attack analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Mižišin, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Web server attack analyzer - Abstract The goal of this work was to create prototype of analyzer of injection flaws attacks on web server. Proposed solution combines capabilities of web application firewall and web server log analyzer. Analysis is based on configurable signatures defined by regular expressions. This paper begins with summary of web attacks, followed by detection techniques analysis on web servers, description and justification of selected implementation. In the end are charact...

  7. Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Rob; Borkin, Mike; Alpern, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Microsoft products? Then you need Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Microsoft applications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Windows Operating System-Password AttacksActive Directory-Escalat

  8. Seven deadliest USB attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting USB technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest USB Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to USB, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: USB Hacksaw USB Switchblade USB Based Virus/Malicous Code Launch USB Device Overflow RAMdum

  9. Nonvitamin-K-antagonist oral anticoagulants versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Papavasileiou, Vasileios; Diener, Hans-Chris; Makaritsis, Konstantinos; Michel, Patrik

    2017-08-01

    Background In a previous systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed the efficacy and safety of nonvitamin-K antagonist oral anticoagulants versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and stroke or transient ischemic attack. Since then, new information became available. Aim The aim of the present work was to update the results of the previous systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched PubMed until 24 August 2016 for randomized controlled trials using the following search items: "atrial fibrillation" and "anticoagulation" and "warfarin" and "previous stroke or transient ischemic attack." Eligible studies had to be phase III trials in patients with atrial fibrillation comparing warfarin with nonvitamin-K antagonist oral anticoagulants currently on the market or with the intention to be brought to the market in North America or Europe. The outcomes assessed in the efficacy analysis included stroke or systemic embolism, stroke, ischemic or unknown stroke, disabling or fatal stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, cardiovascular death, death from any cause, and myocardial infarction. The outcomes assessed in the safety analysis included major bleeding, intracranial bleeding, and major gastrointestinal bleeding. We performed fixed effects analyses on intention-to-treat basis. Results Among 183 potentially eligible articles, four were included in the meta-analysis. In 20,500 patients, compared to warfarin, nonvitamin-K antagonist oral anticoagulants were associated with a significant reduction of stroke/systemic embolism (relative risk reduction: 13.7%, absolute risk reduction: 0.78%, number needed to treat to prevent one event: 127), hemorrhagic stroke (relative risk reduction: 50.0%, absolute risk reduction: 0.63%, number needed to treat: 157), any stroke (relative risk reduction: 13.1%, absolute risk reduction: 0.7%, number needed to treat: 142), and intracranial hemorrhage (relative risk reduction: 46.1%, absolute risk reduction: 0.88%, number needed

  10. Effects of self-management intervention on health outcomes of patients with heart failure: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holroyd-Leduc Jayna M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart failure is the most common cause of hospitalization among adults over 65. Over 60% of patients die within 10 years of first onset of symptoms. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of self-management interventions on hospital readmission rates, mortality, and health-related quality of life in patients diagnosed with heart failure. Methods The study is a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. The following data sources were used: MEDLINE (1966-11/2005, EMBASE (1980-11/2005, CINAHL (1982-11/2005, the ACP Journal Club database (to 11/2005, the Cochrane Central Trial Registry and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (to 11/2005; article reference lists; and experts in the field. We included randomized controlled trials of self-management interventions that enrolled patients 18 years of age or older who were diagnosed with heart failure. The primary outcomes of interest were all-cause hospital readmissions, hospital readmissions due to heart failure, and mortality. Secondary outcomes were compliance with treatment and quality of life scores. Three reviewers independently assessed the quality of each study and abstracted the results. For each included study, we computed the pooled odds ratios (OR for all-cause hospital readmission, hospital readmission due to heart failure, and death. We used a fixed effects model to quantitatively synthesize results. We were not able to pool effects on health-related quality of life and measures of compliance with treatment, but we summarized the findings from the relevant studies. We also summarized the reported cost savings. Results From 671 citations that were identified, 6 randomized trials with 857 patients were included in the review. Self-management decreased all-cause hospital readmissions (OR 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.44 to 0.80, P = 0.001 and heart failure readmissions (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.71, P = 0.001. The effect on

  11. Coaching patients On Achieving Cardiovascular Health (COACH): a multicenter randomized trial in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Margarite J; Jelinek, Michael V; Best, James D; Dart, Anthony M; Grigg, Leeanne E; Hare, David L; Ho, Betty P; Newman, Robert W; McNeil, John J

    Disease management programs in which drugs are prescribed by dietitians or nurses have been shown to improve the coronary risk factor profile in patients with coronary heart disease. However, those disease management programs in which drugs are not prescribed by allied health professionals have not improved coronary risk factor status. The objective of the Coaching patients On Achieving Cardiovascular Health (COACH) study was to determine whether dietitians or nurses who did not prescribe medications could coach patients with coronary heart disease to work with their physicians to achieve the target levels for their total cholesterol (TC) and other risk factors. Multicenter randomized controlled trial in which 792 patients from 6 university teaching hospitals underwent a stratified randomization by cardiac diagnosis within each hospital: 398 were assigned to usual care plus The COACH Program and 394 to usual care alone. Patients in The COACH Program group received regular personal coaching via telephone and mailings to achieve the target levels for their particular coronary risk factors. There was one coach per hospital. The primary outcome was the change in TC (DeltaTC) from baseline (in hospital) to 6 months after randomization. Secondary outcomes included measurement of a wide range of physical, nutritional, and psychological factors. The analysis was performed by intention to treat. The COACH Program achieved a significantly greater DeltaTC than usual care alone: the mean DeltaTC was 21 mg/dL (0.54 mmol/L) (95% confidence interval [CI], 16-25 mg/dL [0.42-0.65 mmol/L]) in The COACH Program vs 7 mg/dL (0.18 mmol/L) (95% CI, 3-11 mg/dL [0.07-0.29 mmol/L]) in the usual care group (PCOACH Program group than in the usual care group. Coaching produced substantial improvements in most of the other coronary risk factors and in patient quality of life. Coaching, delivered as The COACH Program, is a highly effective strategy in reducing TC and many other coronary risk

  12. Adult Congenital Heart Disease-Coping And REsilience (ACHD-CARE): Rationale and methodology of a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Adrienne H; Bandyopadhyay, Mimi; Grace, Sherry L; Kentner, Amanda C; Nolan, Robert P; Silversides, Candice K; Irvine, M Jane

    2015-11-01

    One-third of North American adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have diagnosable mood or anxiety disorders and most do not receive mental health treatment. There are no published interventions targeting the psychosocial needs of patients with CHD of any age. We describe the development of a group psychosocial intervention aimed at improving the psychosocial functioning, quality of life, and resilience of adults with CHD and the design of a study protocol to determine the feasibility of a potential full-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT). Drawing upon our quantitative and qualitative research, we developed the Adult CHD-Coping And REsilience (ACHD-CARE) intervention and designed a feasibility study that included a 2-parallel arm non-blinded pilot RCT. Eligible participants (CHD, age ≥ 18 years, no planned surgery, symptoms suggestive of a mood and/or anxiety disorder) were randomized to the ACHD-CARE intervention or Usual Care (1:1 allocation ratio). The group intervention was delivered during eight 90-minute weekly sessions. Feasibility will be assessed in the following domains: (i) process (e.g. recruitment and retention), (ii) resources, (iii) management, (iv) scientific outcomes, and (v) intervention acceptability. This study underscores the importance of carefully developing and testing the feasibility of psychosocial interventions in medical populations before moving to full-scale clinical trials. At study conclusion, we will be poised to make one of three determinations for a full-scale RCT: (1) feasible, (2) feasible with modifications, or (3) not feasible. This study will guide the future evaluation and provision of psychosocial treatment for adults with CHD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Effect of prophylactic non-invasive mechanical ventilation on functional capacity after heart valve replacement: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaro Afrânio de Araújo-Filho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: During cardiac surgery, several factors contribute to the development of postoperative pulmonary complications. Non-invasive ventilation is a promising therapeutic tool for improving the functionality of this type of patient. The aim of this study is to evaluate the functional capacity and length of stay of patients in a nosocomial intensive care unit who underwent prophylactic non-invasive ventilation after heart valve replacement. METHOD: The study was a controlled clinical trial, comprising 50 individuals of both sexes who were allocated by randomization into two groups with 25 patients in each group: the control group and experimental group. After surgery, the patients were transferred to the intensive care unit and then participated in standard physical therapy, which was provided to the experimental group after 3 applications of non-invasive ventilation within the first 26 hours after extubation. For non-invasive ventilation, the positive pressure was 10 cm H2O, with a duration of 1 hour. The evaluation was performed on the 7th postoperative day/discharge and included a 6-minute walk test. The intensive care unit and hospitalization times were monitored in both groups. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (REBeC: RBR number 8bxdd3. RESULTS: Analysis of the 6-minute walk test showed that the control group walked an average distance of 264.34±76 meters and the experimental group walked an average distance of 334.07±71 meters (p=0.002. The intensive care unit and hospitalization times did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: Non-invasive ventilation as a therapeutic resource was effective toward improving functionality; however, non-invasive ventilation did not influence the intensive care unit or hospitalization times of the studied cardiac patients.

  14. The HEART mobile phone trial: The partial mediating effects of self-efficacy on physical activity among cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph eMaddison

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ubiquitous use of mobile phones provides an ideal opportunity to deliver interventions to increase physical activity levels. Understanding potential mediators of such interventions is needed to increase their effectiveness. A recent randomized controlled trial of a mobile phone and Internet (mHealth intervention was conducted in New Zealand to determine the effectiveness on exercise capacity and physical activity levels in addition to current cardiac rehabilitation (CR services for people (n=171 with ischaemic heart disease (IHD. Significant intervention effect was observed for self-reported leisure time physical activity and walking, but not peak oxygen uptake (PVO2 at 24 weeks. There was also significant improvement in self-efficacy.Objective: To evaluate the mediating effect of self-efficacy on physical activity levels in an mHealth delivered exercise CR programme. Methods: Treatment evaluations were performed on the principle of intention to treat (ITT. Adjusted regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the main treatment effect on leisure time physical activity and walking at 24 weeks, with and without change in self-efficacy as the mediator of interest. Results: Change in self-efficacy at 24 weeks significantly mediated the treatment effect on leisure time physical activity by 13%, but only partially mediated the effect on walking by 4% at 24 weeks. Conclusion: An mHealth intervention involving text messaging and Internet support had a positive treatment effect on leisure time physical activity and walking at 24 weeks, and this effect was likely mediated through changes in self-efficacy. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention.

  15. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses

  16. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. (When the trial began, HT ...

  17. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. (When the trial began, HT ... also was increasingly being used for prevention of heart disease.) The study found that HT increased the risk ...

  18. Treatment of anxiety in patients with coronary heart disease: Rationale and design of the UNderstanding the benefits of exercise and escitalopram in anxious patients WIth coroNary heart Disease (UNWIND) randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, James A; Feger, Bryan J; Smith, Patrick J; Watkins, Lana L; Jiang, Wei; Davidson, Jonathan; Hoffman, Benson M; Ashworth, Megan; Mabe, Stephanie K; Babyak, Michael A; Kraus, William E; Hinderliter, Alan; Sherwood, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety is highly prevalent among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), and there is growing evidence that high levels of anxiety are associated with worse prognosis. However, few studies have evaluated the efficacy of treating anxiety in CHD patients for reducing symptoms and improving clinical outcomes. Exercise and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to be effective in treating patients with depression, but have not been studied in cardiac patients with high anxiety. The UNWIND trial is a randomized clinical trial of patients with CHD who are at increased risk for adverse events because of comorbid anxiety. One hundred fifty participants with CHD and elevated anxiety symptoms and/or with a diagnosed anxiety disorder will be randomly assigned to 12 weeks of aerobic exercise (3×/wk, 35 min, 70%-85% VO2peak), escitalopram (5-20 mg qd), or placebo. Before and after 12 weeks of treatment, participants will undergo assessments of anxiety symptoms and CHD biomarkers of risk, including measures of inflammation, lipids, hemoglobin A1c, heart rate variability, and vascular endothelial function. Primary outcomes include post-intervention effects on symptoms of anxiety and CHD biomarkers. Secondary outcomes include clinical outcomes (cardiovascular hospitalizations and all-cause death) and measures of quality of life. The UNWIND trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02516332) will evaluate the efficacy of aerobic exercise and escitalopram for improving anxiety symptoms and reducing risk for adverse clinical events in anxious CHD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The WRITTEN-HEART study (expressive writing for heart healing): rationale and design of a randomized controlled clinical trial of expressive writing in coronary patients referred to residential cardiac rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is typically associated with many cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., elevated blood pressure), low health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety and psychological stress. Expressive writing (EW) has shown beneficial effects on such variables in both people from the community and in patients with a variety of chronic illnesses. However, no study to date has evaluated the physical and psychological effects of the expressive writing procedure on coronary patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Methods The clinical effectiveness of a 2-week disease-related expressive writing procedure (writing about one's deepest thoughts and feelings regarding the experience with heart disease) compared with the standard writing task (writing about one's deepest thoughts and feelings about the most traumatic or negative event experienced in the life), a neutral writing condition (writing about the facts regarding heart disease and its treatment) and an empty control condition will be evaluated in a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) with repeated follow-up measurements at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from CR. The primary outcome is health-related quality of life (SF-12). Secondary outcome measures are depression (BDI-II), anxiety (BAI) and post-traumatic growth (PTGI). Furthermore, the study will explore the moderating effects of coping styles, type D personality, perceived emotional support and participants' evaluative ratings of the writing interventions on the main experimental effects in order to identify sub-groups of patients showing different results. Discussion The WRITTEN-HEART study aims to explore and expand the frontiers of the expressive writing research enterprise by investigating the feasibility, safety and clinical efficacy of brief and cost-effective expressive writing interventions in patients with CHD referred to CR. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01253486 PMID:21740564

  20. Clarithromycin for stable coronary heart disease increases all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and cerebrovascular morbidity over 10years in the CLARICOR randomised, blinded clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Per; Hilden, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen Fischer

    2015-01-01

    -cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR): 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.21) and cerebrovascular disease during 10years (HR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.38). The increased mortality and morbidity were restricted to patients not on statin at entry (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.04-1.31, and HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1...... death outside hospital and cerebrovascular morbidity in patients with stable coronary heart disease who were not on statin. The increased cardiovascular mortality was years later compensated, likely through frailty attrition.......BACKGROUND: The CLARICOR trial reported that clarithromycin compared with placebo increased all-cause mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease. This study investigates the effects of clarithromycin versus placebo during 10years follow up. METHODS: The CLARICOR trial is a randomised...

  1. Cardioprotection of Electroacupuncture for Enhanced Recovery after Surgery on Patients Undergoing Heart Valve Replacement with Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Randomized Control Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangxiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempted to investigate cardioprotection of electroacupuncture (EA for enhanced recovery after surgery on patients undergoing heart valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass. Forty-four patients with acquired heart valve replacement were randomly allocated to the EA group or the control group. Patients in the EA group received EA stimulus at bilateral Neiguan (PC6, Ximen (PC4, Shenting (GV24, and Baihui (GV20 acupoints twenty minutes before anesthesia induction to the end of surgery. The primary end point was cardioprotection effect of electroacupuncture postoperatively and the secondary endpoints were quality of recovery and cognitive functioning postoperatively. The present study demonstrated that electroacupuncture reduced the occurrence of complications and played a role of cardioprotective effect on patients after heart valve replacement surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, and it benefits patients more comfortable and contributes to recovery after surgery. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOC-16009123.

  2. Baseline characteristics and treatment of patients in prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to determine impact on global mortality and morbidity in heart failure trial (PARADIGM-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, John J V; Packer, Milton; Desai, Akshay S; Gong, Jianjian; Lefkowitz, Martin; Rizkala, Adel R; Rouleau, Jean L; Shi, Victor C; Solomon, Scott D; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    To describe the baseline characteristics and treatment of the patients randomized in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective comparison of ARNi with ACEi to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure) trial, testing the hypothesis that the strategy of simultaneously blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and augmenting natriuretic peptides with LCZ696 200 mg b.i.d. is superior to enalapril 10 mg b.i.d. in reducing mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Key demographic, clinical and laboratory findings, along with baseline treatment, are reported and compared with those of patients in the treatment arm of the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD-T) and more contemporary drug and device trials in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. The mean age of the 8442 patients in PARADIGM-HF is 64 (SD 11) years and 78% are male, which is similar to SOLVD-T and more recent trials. Despite extensive background therapy with beta-blockers (93% patients) and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (60%), patients in PARADIGM-HF have persisting symptoms and signs, reduced health related quality of life, a low LVEF (mean 29 ± SD 6%) and elevated N-terminal-proB type-natriuretic peptide levels (median 1608 inter-quartile range 886-3221 pg/mL). PARADIGM-HF will determine whether LCZ696 is more beneficial than enalapril when added to other disease-modifying therapies and if further augmentation of endogenous natriuretic peptides will reduce morbidity and mortality in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society of Cardiology.

  3. Genetic risk, coronary heart disease events, and the clinical benefit of statin therapy: an analysis of primary and secondary prevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, J L; Stitziel, N O; Smith, J G; Chasman, D I; Caulfield, M; Devlin, J J; Nordio, F; Hyde, C; Cannon, C P; Sacks, F; Poulter, N; Sever, P; Ridker, P M; Braunwald, E; Melander, O; Kathiresan, S; Sabatine, M S

    2015-06-06

    Genetic variants have been associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, we tested whether or not a composite of these variants could ascertain the risk of both incident and recurrent coronary heart disease events and identify those individuals who derive greater clinical benefit from statin therapy. A community-based cohort study (the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study) and four randomised controlled trials of both primary prevention (JUPITER and ASCOT) and secondary prevention (CARE and PROVE IT-TIMI 22) with statin therapy, comprising a total of 48,421 individuals and 3477 events, were included in these analyses. We studied the association of a genetic risk score based on 27 genetic variants with incident or recurrent coronary heart disease, adjusting for traditional clinical risk factors. We then investigated the relative and absolute risk reductions in coronary heart disease events with statin therapy stratified by genetic risk. We combined data from the different studies using a meta-analysis. When individuals were divided into low (quintile 1), intermediate (quintiles 2-4), and high (quintile 5) genetic risk categories, a significant gradient in risk for incident or recurrent coronary heart disease was shown. Compared with the low genetic risk category, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for coronary heart disease for the intermediate genetic risk category was 1·34 (95% CI 1·22-1·47, pgenetic risk category was 1·72 (1·55-1·92, pgenetic risk categories. Similarly, we noted greater absolute risk reductions in those individuals in higher genetic risk categories (p=0·0101), resulting in a roughly threefold decrease in the number needed to treat to prevent one coronary heart disease event in the primary prevention trials. Specifically, in the primary prevention trials, the number needed to treat to prevent one such event in 10 years was 66 in people at low genetic risk, 42 in those at intermediate genetic risk, and 25 in those at high

  4. The history of hormone therapy use and recent controversy related to heart disease and breast cancer arising from prevention trial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ivy M

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for hormone therapy use have changed dramatically over time from being very popular for the purpose of preserving youth in women to menopause-related symptom management, disease prevention, and now back to menopause-related symptom management. Over time, several important risks associated with the use of hormone therapy have become evident, causing dramatic reductions in the use of hormone therapy for periods of time following identification of these risks. Most recently, randomized controlled prevention trials that evaluated hormone therapy for the purpose of reducing or preventing coronary heart disease among women have found that hormone therapy is associated with increased rather than decreased risks for coronary heart disease. The most recent of these trials again identified increased risks for breast cancer associated with estrogen plus progestogen therapy. The evolving evidence base from these randomized controlled prevention trials is complicated and in some cases contradictory. Specifically, the data suggest that the timing of when hormone therapy is initiated once a woman is postmenopausal may influence her risk for developing heart disease and breast cancer. In this article, contradictory evidence is carefully sifted so risks and benefits can be weighed by clinicians when partnering with women to individualize decisions about using hormone therapy. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  5. Reduced in-hospital mortality for heart failure with clinical pathways: the results of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panella, M; Marchisio, S; Demarchi, M L; Manzoli, L; Di Stanislao, F

    2009-10-01

    Hospital treatment of heart failure (HF) frequently does not follow published guidelines, potentially contributing to HF high morbidity, mortality and economic cost. The Experimental Prospective Study on the Effectiveness and Efficiency of the Implementation of Clinical Pathways was undertaken to determine how clinical pathways (CP) for hospital treatment of HF affected care variability, guidelines adherence, in-hospital mortality and outcomes at discharge. Methods/ Two-arm, cluster-randomised trial. Fourteen community hospitals were randomised either to the experimental arm (CP: appropriate therapeutic guidelines use, new organisation and procedures, patient education) or to the control arm (usual care). The main outcome was in-hospital mortality; secondary outcomes were length and appropriateness of the stay, rate of unscheduled readmissions, customer satisfaction, usage of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures during hospital stay and quality indicators at discharge. All outcomes were measured using validated instruments available in literature. In-hospital mortality was 5.6% in the experimental arm (n = 12); 15.4% in controls (n = 33, p = 0.001). In CP and usual care groups, the mean rates of unscheduled readmissions were 7.9% and 13.9%, respectively. Adjusting for age, smoking, New York Heart Association score, hypertension and source of referral, patients in the CP group, as compared to controls, had a significantly lower risk of in-hospital death (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.46) and unscheduled readmissions (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.87). No differences were found between CP and control with respect to the appropriateness of the stay, costs and patient's satisfaction. Except for electrocardiography, all recommended diagnostic procedures were used more in the CP group. Similarly, pharmaceuticals use was significantly greater in CP, with the exception of diuretics and anti-platelets agents. The introduction of a specifically tailored CP for the hospital

  6. Blind Data Attack on BGP Routers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Second Reader Dr. Cynthia Irvine Chair, Cyber Academic Group iii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iv ABSTRACT Transport Communication Protocol (TCP...Postgraduate School. The experience of higher learning at this institution was incredible, and I would whole-heartedly recommend it to any of my peers and...data attack packets to the victim device. Scapy is a Python library that is used to craft and send packets [28]. BGP is supported in Python through

  7. Assessment of the clinical efficacy of the heart spectrum blood pressure monitor for diagnosis of atrial fibrillation: An unblinded clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wei-Fong; Hou, Sen-Kuang; Huang, Chun-Yao; Chao, Chun-Chieh; Cheng, Chung-Chih; Chen, Yi-Jung

    2018-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia. The most common diagnostic method, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), can record episodes of arrhythmia from which the type and severity can be determined. The Heart Spectrum Blood Pressure Monitor (P2; OSTAR Meditech Corp., New Taipei City, Taiwan) is used to measure cardiovascular pressure change with fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis to obtain heart rate frequency variability and accurate blood pressure data. We compared the diagnostic efficacy of the Heart Spectrum Blood Pressure Monitor to a 12-lead ECG (gold standard) for patients with AF. Three measurement methods were used in this study to analyze the heart index and compare the results with simultaneous 12-lead ECG: blood pressure; mean arterial pressure, which was calculated from individual blood pressure as a constant pressure; and a constant pressure of 60 mmHg. The physician used a 12-lead ECG and the Heart Spectrum Blood Pressure Monitor simultaneously. The Heart Spectrum Blood Pressure Monitor used FFT analysis to diagnose AF, and the findings were compared to the 12-lead ECG readings. This unblinded clinical trial was conducted in the emergency department of Taipei Medical University Hospital. Twenty-nine subjects with AF and 33 without AF aged 25 to 97 y (mean, 63.5 y) were included. Subjects who were exposed to high-frequency surgical equipment during testing, those with cardiac pacemakers or implantable defibrillators, and pregnant women were excluded. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 97%, 97%, 97%, and 97%, respectively, for method 1; 90%, 100%, 100%, and 91%, respectively, for method 2; and 100%, 94%, 94%, and 100%, respectively, for method 3. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for both methods ranged between 90% and 100%, indicating that the Heart Spectrum Blood Pressure Monitor can be effectively applied for AF detection.

  8. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  9. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... trials show what doesn't work or may cause harm. For example, the NHLBI Women's Health Initiative tested whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. (When the trial began, HT ...

  10. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or strategies work best for certain illnesses or groups of people. Some clinical trials show a positive result. For example, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) sponsored a trial of two different ...

  11. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... trials produce the best data available for health care decisionmaking. The purpose of clinical trials is research, ... they advance medical knowledge and help improve patient care. Sponsorship and Funding The National Heart, Lung, and ...

  12. Effects of Yoga on Stress, Stress Adaption, and Heart Rate Variability Among Mental Health Professionals--A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Huang, Ching-Ya; Shiu, Shau-Ping; Yeh, Shu-Hui

    2015-08-01

    Mental health professionals experiencing work-related stress may experience burn out, leading to a negative impact on their organization and patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of yoga classes on work-related stress, stress adaptation, and autonomic nerve activity among mental health professionals. A randomized controlled trial was used, which compared the outcomes between the experimental (e.g., yoga program) and the control groups (e.g., no yoga exercise) for 12 weeks. Work-related stress and stress adaptation were assessed before and after the program. Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured at baseline, midpoint through the weekly yoga classes (6 weeks), and postintervention (after 12 weeks of yoga classes). The results showed that the mental health professionals in the yoga group experienced a significant reduction in work-related stress (t = -6.225, p control group revealed no significant changes. Comparing the mean differences in pre- and posttest scores between yoga and control groups, we found the yoga group significantly decreased work-related stress (t = -3.216, p = .002), but there was no significant change in stress adaptation (p = .084). While controlling for the pretest scores of work-related stress, participants in yoga, but not the control group, revealed a significant increase in autonomic nerve activity at midpoint (6 weeks) test (t = -2.799, p = .007), and at posttest (12 weeks; t = -2.099, p = .040). Because mental health professionals experienced a reduction in work-related stress and an increase in autonomic nerve activity in a weekly yoga program for 12 weeks, clinicians, administrators, and educators should offer yoga classes as a strategy to help health professionals reduce their work-related stress and balance autonomic nerve activities. © 2015 The Authors. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing.

  13. Diuretic Strategies in Acute Heart Failure and Renal Dysfunction: Conventional vs Carbohydrate Antigen 125-guided Strategy. Clinical Trial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blas, Sergio; Bonanad, Clara; Llàcer, Pau; Ventura, Silvia; Núñez, José María; Sánchez, Ruth; Chamorro, Carlos; Fácila, Lorenzo; de la Espriella, Rafael; Vaquer, Juana María; Cordero, Alberto; Roqué, Mercè; Ortiz, Víctor; Racugno, Paolo; Bodí, Vicent; Valero, Ernesto; Santas, Enrique; Moreno, María Del Carmen; Miñana, Gema; Carratalá, Arturo; Bondanza, Lourdes; Payá, Ana; Cardells, Ingrid; Heredia, Raquel; Pellicer, Mauricio; Valls, Guillermo; Palau, Patricia; Bosch, María José; Raso, Rafael; Sánchez, Andrés; Bertomeu-González, Vicente; Bertomeu-Martínez, Vicente; Montagud-Balaguer, Vicente; Albiach-Montañana, Cristina; Pendás-Meneau, Jezabel; Marcaida, Goitzane; Cervantes-García, Sonia; San Antonio, Rodolfo; de Mingo, Elisabet; Chorro, Francisco J; Sanchis, Juan; Núñez, Julio

    2017-12-01

    The optimal treatment of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and cardiorenal syndrome type 1 (CRS-1) is far from being well-defined. Arterial hypoperfusion in concert with venous congestion plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of CRS-I. Plasma carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) has emerged as a surrogate of fluid overload in AHF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of CA125 for tailoring the intensity of diuretic therapy in patients with CRS-1. Multicenter, open-label, parallel clinical trial, in which patients with AHF and serum creatinine ≥ 1.4mg/dL on admission will be randomized to: a) standard diuretic strategy: titration-based on conventional clinical and biochemical evaluation, or b) diuretic strategy based on CA125: high dose if CA125 > 35 U/mL, and low doses otherwise. The main endpoint will be renal function changes at 24 and 72hours after therapy initiation. Secondary endpoints will include: a) clinical and biochemical changes at 24 and 72hours, and b) renal function changes and major clinical events at 30 days. The results of this study will add important knowledge on the usefulness of CA125 for guiding diuretic treatment in CRS-1. In addition, it will pave the way toward a better knowledge of the pathophysiology of this challenging situation. We hypothesize that higher levels of CA125 will identify a patient population with CRS-1 who could benefit from the use of a more intense diuretic strategy. Conversely, low levels of this glycoprotein could select those patients who would be harmed by high diuretic doses. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Early physical training and psycho-educational intervention for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The SheppHeart randomized 2 × 2 factorial clinical pilot trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højskov, Ida E; Moons, Philip; Hansen, Niels V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery often experience a range of problems and symptoms such as immobility, pain and insufficient sleep. Results from trials investigating testing in-hospital physical exercise or psychological intervention have been promising. However......, no randomized clinical trials have tested a comprehensive rehabilitation programme consisting of both physical exercise and psycho-education in the early rehabilitation phase. AIMS: The aims of the present SheppHeart pilot randomized clinical trial were to evaluate the feasibility of patient recruitment......, patient acceptance of the intervention, safety and tolerability of the intervention. METHODS AND DESIGN: Sixty patients admitted for coronary artery bypass graft were randomized 1:1:1:1 to: 1) physical exercise plus usual care, or 2) psycho-educational intervention plus usual care, or 3) physical exercise...

  15. Designing clinical trials to address the needs of childhood and adult asthma: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's AsthmaNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, E Rand; Busse, William W

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute announced its intent to support a new asthma network known as AsthmaNet. This clinical trials consortium, now in its fifth year, has been charged with developing and executing clinical trials to address the most important asthma management questions and identify new treatment approaches in pediatric and adult patients. This review will discuss the organization of AsthmaNet and the scientific context in which the network was developed and began its work, report the results of an internal priority-setting exercise designed to guide the network's scientific strategy, and highlight the portfolio of clinical trials, proof-of-concept studies, and mechanistic studies planned for the 7-year period of the network to update the global asthma community regarding the progress and processes of the network. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prognostic Impact of Diabetes and Prediabetes on Survival Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: A Post-Hoc Analysis of the GISSI-HF (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nella Insufficienza Cardiaca-Heart Failure) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauriz, Marco; Targher, Giovanni; Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Lucci, Donata; Gonzini, Lucio; Nicolosi, Gian Luigi; Marchioli, Roberto; Tognoni, Gianni; Latini, Roberto; Cosmi, Franco; Tavazzi, Luigi; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro

    2017-07-05

    The independent prognostic impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prediabetes mellitus (pre-DM) on survival outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure has been investigated in observational registries and randomized, clinical trials, but the results have been often inconclusive or conflicting. We examined the independent prognostic impact of DM and pre-DM on survival outcomes in the GISSI-HF (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nella Insufficienza Cardiaca-Heart Failure) trial. We assessed the risk of all-cause death and the composite of all-cause death or cardiovascular hospitalization over a median follow-up period of 3.9 years among the 6935 chronic heart failure participants of the GISSI-HF trial, who were stratified by presence of DM (n=2852), pre-DM (n=2013), and non-DM (n=2070) at baseline. Compared with non-DM patients, those with DM had remarkably higher incidence rates of all-cause death (34.5% versus 24.6%) and the composite end point (63.6% versus 54.7%). Conversely, both event rates were similar between non-DM patients and those with pre-DM. Cox regression analysis showed that DM, but not pre-DM, was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.28-1.60) and of the composite end point (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13-1.32), independently of established risk factors. In the DM subgroup, higher hemoglobin A1c was also independently associated with increased risk of both study outcomes (all-cause death: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.43; and composite end point: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01-1.29, respectively). Presence of DM was independently associated with poor long-term survival outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00336336. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  17. Epsilon aminocaproic acid reduces blood transfusion and improves the coagulation test after pediatric open-heart surgery: a meta-analysis of 5 clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Meng, Haoyu; Meng, Zhaoyi; Sun, Ying; Pribis, John P; Zhu, Chunyan; Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Excessive postoperative blood loss after cardiopulmonary bypass is a common problem, especially in patients suffering from congenital heart diseases. The efficacy of epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) as a prophylactic treatment for postoperative bleeding after pediatric open-heart surgery has not been determined. This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of EACA in the minimization of bleeding and blood transfusion and the maintenance of coagulation tests after pediatric open-heart surgery. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify all randomized clinical trials on the subject. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the Chinese Medical Journal Network were screened. The primary outcome used for the analysis was postoperative blood loss. Secondary outcomes included postoperative blood transfusion, re-exploration rate and postoperative coagulation tests. The mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used as summary statistics. Five trials were included in this meta-analysis of 515 patients. Prophylactic EACA was associated with a reduction in postoperative blood loss, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (MD: -7.08; 95% CI: -16.11 to 1.95; P = 0.12). Patients treated with EACA received fewer postoperative blood transfusions, including packed red blood cells (MD: -8.36; 95% CI: -12.63 to -4.09; P = 0.0001), fresh frozen plasma (MD: -3.85; 95% CI: -5.63 to -2.08; P open-heart surgery. Prophylactic EACA minimizes postoperative blood transfusion and helps maintain coagulation in pediatric patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that adjunctive EACA is a good choice for the prevention of postoperative blood transfusion following pediatric cardiac surgery.

  18. Variability of clinical features in attacks of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Goadsby, Peter J; Charles, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: These findings are consistent with variable involvement of different brain regions during a migraine attack. The variable occurrence of nausea, and phonophobia in conjunction with photophobia, both defining features of migraine, may be an important consideration in designing clinical studies......BACKGROUND: There is significant variability in the clinical presentation of migraine, both among patients, and between attacks in an individual patient. We examined clinical features of migraine with aura in a large group of patients enrolled in a clinical trial, and compared retrospective...... a detailed retrospective description of the clinical features of their attacks of migraine. During the trial, clinical symptoms in migraine attacks starting with aura were recorded prospectively in 861 attacks. RESULTS: Retrospectively reported visual aura symptoms were variable and often overlapping...

  19. The MANDELA study: A multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel group trial to refine the use of everolimus after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuse, Tobias; Bara, Christoph; Barten, Markus J; Hirt, Stephan W; Doesch, Andreas O; Knosalla, Christoph; Grinninger, Carola; Stypmann, Jörg; Garbade, Jens; Wimmer, Peter; May, Christoph; Porstner, Martina; Schulz, Uwe

    2015-11-01

    In recent years a series of trials has sought to define the optimal protocol for everolimus-based immunosuppression in heart transplantation, with the goal of minimizing exposure to calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and harnessing the non-immunosuppressive benefits of everolimus. Randomized studies have demonstrated that immunosuppressive potency can be maintained in heart transplant patients receiving everolimus despite marked CNI reduction, although very early CNI withdrawal may be inadvisable. A potential renal advantage has been shown for everolimus, but the optimal time for conversion and the adequate reduction in CNI exposure remain to be defined. Other reasons for use of everolimus include a substantial reduction in the risk of cytomegalovirus infection, and evidence for inhibition of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, a major cause of graft loss. The ongoing MANDELA study is a 12-month multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study in which efficacy, renal function and safety are compared in approximately 200 heart transplant patients. Patients receive CNI therapy, steroids and everolimus or mycophenolic acid during months 3 to 6 post-transplant, and are then randomized at month 6 post-transplant (i) to convert to CNI-free immunosuppression with everolimus and mycophenolic acid or (ii) to continue reduced-exposure CNI, with concomitant everolimus. Patients are then followed to month 18 post-transplant The rationale and expectations for the trial and its methodology are described herein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cyber Attacks, Information Attacks, and Postmodern Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valuch Jozef

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate and differentiate between the phenomena of cyberwarfare and information warfare, as manifestations of what we perceive as postmodern warfare. We describe and analyse the current examples of the use the postmodern warfare and the reactions of states and international bodies to these phenomena. The subject matter of this paper is the relationship between new types of postmodern conflicts and the law of armed conflicts (law of war. Based on ICJ case law, it is clear that under current legal rules of international law of war, cyber attacks as well as information attacks (often performed in the cyberspace as well can only be perceived as “war” if executed in addition to classical kinetic warfare, which is often not the case. In most cases perceived “only” as a non-linear warfare (postmodern conflict, this practice nevertheless must be condemned as conduct contrary to the principles of international law and (possibly a crime under national laws, unless this type of conduct will be recognized by the international community as a “war” proper, in its new, postmodern sense.

  1. Disease management in the treatment of patients with chronic heart failure who have universal access to health care: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Freimark, Dov; Freedman, Laurence S; Kaufman, Galit; Ziv, Arnona; Murad, Havi; Benderly, Michal; Silverman, Barbara G; Friedman, Nurit; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Asher, Elad; Grupper, Avishay; Goldman, Dorit; Amitai, Miriam; Matetzky, Shlomi; Shani, Mordechai; Silber, Haim

    2017-05-01

    The efficacy of disease management programs in improving the outcome of heart failure patients remains uncertain and may vary across health systems. This study explores whether a countrywide disease management program is superior to usual care in reducing adverse health outcomes and improving well-being among community-dwelling adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic heart failure who have universal access to advanced health-care services and technologies. In this multicenter open-label trial, 1,360 patients recruited after hospitalization for heart failure exacerbation (38%) or from the community (62%) were randomly assigned to either disease management or usual care. Disease management, delivered by multi-disciplinary teams, included coordination of care, patient education, monitoring disease symptoms and patient adherence to medication regimen, titration of drug therapy, and home tele-monitoring of body weight, blood pressure and heart rate. Patients assigned to usual care were treated by primary care practitioners and consultant cardiologists. The primary composite endpoint was the time elapsed till first hospital admission for heart failure exacerbation or death from any cause. Secondary endpoints included the number of all hospital admissions, health-related quality of life and depression during follow-up. Intention-to-treat comparisons between treatments were adjusted for baseline patient data and study center. During the follow-up, 388 (56.9%) patients assigned to disease management and 387 (57.1%) assigned to usual care had a primary endpoint event. The median (range) time elapsed until the primary endpoint event or end of study was 2.0 (0-5.0) years among patients assigned to disease management, and 1.8 (0-5.0) years among patients assigned to usual care (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.908; 95% confidence interval, 0.788 to 1.047). Hospital admissions were mostly (70%) unrelated to heart failure. Patients assigned to disease management had a better

  2. Primary care-based multifaceted, interdisciplinary medical educational intervention for patients with systolic heart failure: lessons learned from a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellberg Dieter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic (systolic heart failure (CHF is a common and disabling condition. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines in primary care has been shown to improve health outcomes. The aim was to explore the impact of a multidisciplinary educational intervention for general practitioners (GPs (Train the trainer = TTT on patient and performance outcomes. Methods This paper presents the key findings from the trial and discusses the lessons learned during the implementation of the TTT trial. Primary care practices were randomly assigned to the TTT intervention or to the control group. 37 GPs (18 TTT, 19 control were randomised and 168 patients diagnosed with ascertained CHF (91 TTT, 77 control were enrolled. GPs in the intervention group attended four meetings addressing clinical practice guidelines and pharmacotherapy feedback. The primary outcome was patient self-reported quality of life at seven months, using the SF-36 Physical Functioning scale. Secondary outcomes included other SF-36 scales, the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ, total mortality, heart failure hospital admissions, prescribing, depressive disorders (PHQ-9, behavioural change (European Heart Failure Self-Care Behaviour Scale, patient-perceived quality of care (EUROPEP and improvement of heart failure using NT-proBNP-levels. Because recruitment targets were not achieved an exploratory analysis was conducted. Results There was high baseline achievement in both groups for many outcomes. At seven months, there were no significant mean difference between groups for the primary outcome measure (-3.3, 95%CI -9.7 to 3.1, p = 0.30. The only difference in secondary outcomes related to the prescribing of aldosterone antagonists by GPs in the intervention group, with significant between group differences at follow-up (42 vs. 24%, adjusted OR = 4.0, 95%CI 1.2–13; p = 0.02. Conclusion The intervention did not change the primary outcome or most secondary outcomes

  3. Seven Deadliest Wireless Technologies Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Brad

    2010-01-01

    How can an information security professional keep up with all of the hacks, attacks, and exploits? One way to find out what the worst of the worst are is to read the seven books in our Seven Deadliest Attacks Series. Not only do we let you in on the anatomy of these attacks but we also tell you how to get rid of them and how to defend against them in the future. Countermeasures are detailed so that you can fight against similar attacks as they evolve. Attacks featured in this book include:Bluetooth AttacksCredit Card, Access Card, and Passport AttacksBad Encryption

  4. Correlates of Exercise Self-efficacy in a Randomized Trial of Mind-Body Exercise in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Gloria Y; Mu, Lin; Davis, Roger B; Wayne, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Exercise self-efficacy is one of the strongest predictors of physical activity behavior. Prior literature suggests that tai chi, a mind-body exercise, may increase self-efficacy; however, this is not extensively studied. Little is known about the factors associated with development of exercise self-efficacy in a population with heart failure. We utilized data from a randomized controlled trial of 12 weeks of group tai chi classes versus education in patients with chronic heart failure (n = 100). Multivariable linear regression was used to explore possible correlates of change in exercise self-efficacy in the entire sample and in the subgroup who received tai chi (n = 50). Covariates included baseline quality of life, social support, functional parameters, physical activity, serum biomarkers, sociodemographics, and clinical heart failure parameters. Baseline 6-minute walk (β=-0.0003, SE = 0.0001, P = .02) and fatigue score (β= 0.03, SE = 0.01, P = .004) were significantly associated with change in self-efficacy, with those in the lowest tertile for 6-minute walk and higher tertiles for fatigue score experiencing the greatest change. Intervention group assignment was highly significant, with self-efficacy significantly improved in the tai chi group compared to the education control over 12 weeks (β= 0.39, SE = 0.11, P heart failure who are deconditioned, with lower functional status and mood.

  5. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  6. A fatal elephant attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejna, Petr; Zátopková, Lenka; Safr, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of an elephant attack is presented. A 44-year-old man working as an elephant keeper was attacked by a cow elephant when he tripped over a foot chain while the animal was being medically treated. The man fell down and was consequently repeatedly attacked with elephant tusks. The man sustained multiple stab injuries to both groin regions, a penetrating injury to the abdominal wall with traumatic prolapse of the loops of the small bowel, multiple defects of the mesentery, and incomplete laceration of the abdominal aorta with massive bleeding into the abdominal cavity. In addition to the penetrating injuries, the man sustained multiple rib fractures with contusion of both lungs and laceration of the right lobe of the liver, and comminuted fractures of the pelvic arch and left femoral body. The man died shortly after he had been received at the hospital. The cause of death was attributed to traumatic shock. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Study design of the CLOSURE I Trial: a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the STARFlex septal closure system versus best medical therapy in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack due to presumed paradoxical embolism through a patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Anthony J; Reisman, Mark; Massaro, Joseph; Mauri, Laura; Adams, Harold; Albers, Gregory W; Felberg, Robert; Herrmann, Howard; Kar, Saibal; Landzberg, Michael; Raizner, Albert; Wechsler, Lawrence

    2010-12-01

    Some strokes of unknown etiology may be the result of a paradoxical embolism traversing through a nonfused foramen ovale (patent foramen ovale [PFO]). The utility of percutaneously placed devices for treatment of patients with cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and PFO is unknown. In addition, there are no clear data about the utility of medical interventions or other surgical procedures in this situation. Despite limited data, many patients are being treated with PFO closure devices. Thus, there is a strong need for clinical trials that test the potential efficacy of PFO occlusive devices in this situation. To address this gap in medical knowledge, we designed the CLOSURE I trial, a randomized, clinical trial comparing the use of a percutaneously placed PFO occlusive device and best medical therapy versus best medical therapy alone for prevention of recurrent ischemic neurologic symptoms among persons with TIA or ischemic stroke. This prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial has finished enrollment. Two-year follow-up for all 910 patients is required. The primary end point is the 2-year incidence of stroke or TIA, all-cause mortality for the first 30 days, and neurologic mortality from ≥ 31 days of follow-up, as adjudicated by a panel of physicians who are unaware of treatment allocation. This article describes the rationale and study design of CLOSURE I. This trial should provide information as to whether the STARFlex septal closure system is safe and more effective than best medical therapy alone in preventing recurrent stroke/TIA and mortality in patients with PFO and whether the STARFlex septal closure device can demonstrate superiority compared with best medical therapy alone. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00201461.

  8. Impact of the New American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Definition of Stroke on the Results of the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kasab, Sami; Lynn, Michael J; Turan, Tanya N; Derdeyn, Colin P; Fiorella, David; Lane, Bethany F; Janis, L Scott; Chimowitz, Marc I

    2017-01-01

    An American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) writing committee has recently recommended that tissue evidence of cerebral infarction associated with temporary symptoms (CITS) lasting Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial. We compared outcomes in the medical (n = 227) and stenting (n = 224) groups in SAMMPRIS using the following primary end point (new components in bold): any stroke, CITS, or death within 30 days after enrollment or within 30 days after a revascularization procedure for the qualifying lesion during follow-up; or ischemic stroke or CITS in the territory of the qualifying artery beyond 30 days. We also compared the use of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) in both treatment groups. By considering CITS as equivalent to stroke, the number of primary end points increased from 34 to 43 in the medical group and from 52 to 66 in the stenting group of SAMMPRIS. The Kaplan-Meier curves for the primary end points in the 2 groups were significantly different (P = .009). The percentage of patients with reported TIAs who underwent brain MRI was 69% in the medical group and 61% in the stenting group (P = .40). Using the AHA/ASA definition of stroke resulted in a substantially higher primary end point rate in both treatment groups and an even higher benefit from medical therapy over stenting than originally shown in SAMMPRIS. The higher rate of CITS in the stenting group was not due to ascertainment bias. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effects of acarbose on cardiovascular and diabetes outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance (ACE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Rury R; Coleman, Ruth L; Chan, Juliana C N; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Feng, Huimei; Ge, Junbo; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Gray, Richard; Huo, Yong; Lang, Zhihui; McMurray, John J; Rydén, Lars; Schröder, Stefan; Sun, Yihong; Theodorakis, Michael J; Tendera, Michal; Tucker, Lynne; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Wei, Yidong; Yang, Wenying; Wang, Duolao; Hu, Dayi; Pan, Changyu

    2017-11-01

    The effect of the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance is unknown. We aimed to assess whether acarbose could reduce the frequency of cardiovascular events in Chinese patients with established coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance, and whether the incidence of type 2 diabetes could be reduced. The Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) trial was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 4 trial, with patients recruited from 176 hospital outpatient clinics in China. Chinese patients with coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned (1:1), in blocks by site, by a centralised computer system to receive oral acarbose (50 mg three times a day) or matched placebo, which was added to standardised cardiovascular secondary prevention therapy. All study staff and patients were masked to treatment group allocation. The primary outcome was a five-point composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, hospital admission for unstable angina, and hospital admission for heart failure, analysed in the intention-to-treat population (all participants randomly assigned to treatment who provided written informed consent). The secondary outcomes were a three-point composite outcome (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke), death from any cause, cardiovascular death, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal or non-fatal stroke, hospital admission for unstable angina, hospital admission for heart failure, development of diabetes, and development of impaired renal function. The safety population comprised all patients who received at least one dose of study medication. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00829660, and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry, number ISRCTN91899513. Between March 20, 2009

  10. Risks for Heart Valve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, treatments and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  11. A trial-based economic evaluation of 2 nurse-led disease management programs in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmus, Douwe; Pari, Anees A Abdul; Jaarsma, Tiny; Luttik, Marie Louise; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans L; Buskens, Erik

    2011-12-01

    Although previously conducted meta-analyses suggest that nurse-led disease management programs in heart failure (HF) can improve patient outcomes, uncertainty regarding the cost-effectiveness of such programs remains. To compare the relative merits of 2 variants of a nurse-led disease management program (basic or intensive support by a nurse specialized in the management of patients with HF) against care as usual (routine follow-up by a cardiologist), a trial-based economic evaluation was conducted alongside the COACH study. In terms of costs per life-year, basic support was found to dominate care as usual, whereas the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio between intensive support and basic support was found to be equal to €532,762 per life-year; in terms of costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), basic support was found to dominate both care as usual and intensive support. An assessment of the uncertainty surrounding these findings showed that, at a threshold value of €20,000 per life-year/€20,000 per QALY, basic support was found to have a probability of 69/62% of being optimal against 17/30% and 14/8% for care as usual and intensive support, respectively. The results of our subgroup analysis suggest that a stratified approach based on offering basic support to patients with mild to moderate HF and intensive support to patients with severe HF would be optimal if the willingness-to-pay threshold exceeds €45,345 per life-year/€59,289 per QALY. Although the differences in costs and effects among the 3 study groups were not statistically significant, from a decision-making perspective, basic support still had a relatively large probability of generating the highest health outcomes at the lowest costs. Our results also substantiated that a stratified approach based on offering basic support to patients with mild to moderate HF and intensive support to patients with severe HF could further improve health outcomes at slightly higher costs. Copyright

  12. Effect of an office worksite-based yoga program on heart rate variability: outcomes of a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic work-related stress is an independent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases and associated mortality, particularly when compounded by a sedentary work environment. The purpose of this study was to determine if an office worksite-based hatha yoga program could improve physiological stress, evaluated via heart rate variability (HRV), and associated health-related outcomes in a cohort of office workers. Methods Thirty-seven adults employed in university-based office positions were randomized upon the completion of baseline testing to an experimental or control group. The experimental group completed a 10-week yoga program prescribed three sessions per week during lunch hour (50 min per session). An experienced instructor led the sessions, which emphasized asanas (postures) and vinyasa (exercises). The primary outcome was the high frequency (HF) power component of HRV. Secondary outcomes included additional HRV parameters, musculoskeletal fitness (i.e. push-up, side-bridge, and sit & reach tests) and psychological indices (i.e. state and trait anxiety, quality of life and job satisfaction). Results All measures of HRV failed to change in the experimental group versus the control group, except that the experimental group significantly increased LF:HF (p = 0.04) and reduced pNN50 (p = 0.04) versus control, contrary to our hypotheses. Flexibility, evaluated via sit & reach test increased in the experimental group versus the control group (p yoga sessions (n = 11) to control (n = 19) yielded the same findings, except that the high adherers also reduced state anxiety (p = 0.02) and RMSSD (p = 0.05), and tended to improve the push-up test (p = 0.07) versus control. Conclusions A 10-week hatha yoga intervention delivered at the office worksite during lunch hour did not improve HF power or other HRV parameters. However, improvements in flexibility, state anxiety and musculoskeletal fitness were noted with high adherence

  13. Effect of an office worksite-based yoga program on heart rate variability: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Dennis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic work-related stress is a significant and independent risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and associated mortality, particularly when compounded by a sedentary work environment. Heart rate variability (HRV provides an estimate of parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic control, and can serve as a marker of physiological stress. Hatha yoga is a physically demanding practice that can help to reduce stress; however, time constraints incurred by work and family life may limit participation. The purpose of the present study is to determine if a 10-week, worksite-based yoga program delivered during lunch hour can improve resting HRV and related physical and psychological parameters in sedentary office workers. Methods and design This is a parallel-arm RCT that will compare the outcomes of participants assigned to the experimental treatment group (yoga to those assigned to a no-treatment control group. Participants randomized to the experimental condition will engage in a 10-week yoga program delivered at their place of work. The yoga sessions will be group-based, prescribed three times per week during lunch hour, and will be led by an experienced yoga instructor. The program will involve teaching beginner students safely and progressively over 10 weeks a yoga sequence that incorporates asanas (poses and postures, vinyasa (exercises, pranayama (breathing control and meditation. The primary outcome of this study is the high frequency (HF spectral power component of HRV (measured in absolute units; i.e. ms2, a measure of parasympathetic autonomic control. Secondary outcomes include additional frequency and time domains of HRV, and measures of physical functioning and psychological health status. Measures will be collected prior to and following the intervention period, and at 6 months follow-up to determine the effect of intervention withdrawal. Discussion This study will determine the effect of worksite

  14. Effects of eHealth physical activity encouragement in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease: The PReVaiL randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Andersen, Lars L; Søndergaard, Lars; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Dideriksen, Kasper; Kruse, Anne; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-10-15

    To assess benefit and harms of adding an eHealth intervention to health education and individual counseling in adolescents with congenital heart disease. Randomized clinical trial. Denmark. A total of 158 adolescents aged 13-16years with no physical activity restrictions after repaired complex congenital heart disease. PReVaiL consisted of individually tailored eHealth encouragement physical activity for 52weeks. All patients received 45min of group-based health education and 15min of individual counseling involving patients' parents. The primary outcome was maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at 52weeks after randomization. The secondary outcome was physical activity. Exploratory outcomes were generic and disease-specific questionnaires. In the intervention group, 58 patients (72%) completed the final test, but of those, only 46 (57%) fulfilled the compliance criteria of using the eHealth application for at least 2 consecutive weeks. In the control group, 61 patients (79%) completed both exercise tests. Adjusted for baseline values, the difference between the intervention group and the control group in mean VO2 peak at 1year was -0.65ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (95% CI -2.66 to 1.36). Between-group differences at 1year in physical activity, generic health-related quality of life, and disease-specific quality of life were not statistically significant. Adding a tailored eHealth intervention to health education and individual counseling did not affect outcomes among adolescents with congenital heart disease. Our results do not support the use of this eHealth intervention in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease. Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT01189981. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Design of a multicentre randomized controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of dose titration by specialized nurses in patients with heart failure. ETIFIC study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanguren, Juana; García-Garrido, LLuisa; Nebot Margalef, Magdalena; Lekuona, Iñaki; Comin-Colet, Josep; Manito, Nicolás; Roure, Julia; Ruiz Rodriguez, Pilar; Enjuanes, Cristina; Latorre, Pedro; Torcal Laguna, Jesús; García-Gutiérrez, Susana

    2017-11-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with many hospital admissions and relatively high mortality, rates decreasing with administration of beta-blockers (BBs), angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. The effect is dose dependent, suboptimal doses being common in clinical practice. The 2012 European guidelines recommend close monitoring and dose titration by HF nurses. Our main aim is to compare BB doses achieved by patients after 4 months in intervention (HF nurse-managed) and control (cardiologist-managed) groups. Secondary aims include comparing doses of the other aforementioned drugs achieved after 4 months, adverse events, and outcomes at 6 months in the two groups. We have designed a multicentre (20 hospitals) non-inferiority randomized controlled trial, including patients with new-onset HF, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%, and New York Heart Association class II-III, with no contraindications to BBs. We will also conduct qualitative analysis to explore potential barriers to and facilitators of dose titration by HF nurses. In the intervention group, HF nurses will implement titration as prescribed by cardiologists, following a protocol. In controls, cardiologists will both prescribe and titrate doses. The study variables are doses of each of the drugs after 4 months relative to the target dose (%), New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels, 6 min walk distance, comorbidities, renal function, readmissions, mortality, quality of life, and psychosocial characteristics. The trial seeks to assess whether titration by HF nurses of drugs recommended in practice guidelines is safe and not inferior to direct management by cardiologists. The results could have an impact on clinical practice. © 2017 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of

  16. CDC Vital Signs-Heart Age

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.

  17. Dolichoectasia and Small Vessel Disease in Young Patients With Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Vincent; Grittner, Ulrike; Fazekas, Franz; McCabe, Dominick J H; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Kessler, Christof; Martus, Peter; Norrving, Bo; Ringelstein, Erich Bernd; Schmidt, Reinhold; Tanislav, Christian; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Rolfs, Arndt; Enzinger, Christian

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated whether basilar dolichoectasia is associated with markers of cerebral small vessel disease in younger transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients. We used data from the SIFAP1 study (Stroke in Young Fabry Patients), a large prospective, hospital-based, screening study for Fabry disease in young (ischemic attack/stroke patients in whom detailed clinical data and brain MRI were obtained, and stroke subtyping with TOAST classification (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) was performed. Dolichoectasia was found in 508 of 3850 (13.2%) of patients. Dolichoectasia was associated with older age (odds ratio per decade, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.44), male sex (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.42), and hypertension (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.70). Dolichoectasia was more common in patients with small infarctions (33.9% versus 29.8% for acute lesions, P =0.065; 29.1% versus 16.5% for old lesions, P ischemic attack and ischemic stroke. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Preliminary data from γ-cardiography during the abatement of an asthmatic attack (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, R.; Vernejoul, P. de; Raynaud, C.; Blanchon, P.; Kellershohn, C.; Turiaf, J.

    1961-01-01

    The authors used gamma cardiology during the abatement of 16 cases of asthma with a view to detecting heart attacks not otherwise visible with routine methods of examination: clinical, radiological and electro-cardio-graphical. In gamma cardiology, a radioactive indicator is used and its path followed in the cavities of the heart. The method makes it possible to study the circulation in the right heart, the pulmonary crossing, and the left heart, as well as evaluation of the heart-flow. As a result of their investigations the authors, after having discussed the significance of the data obtained with the method, suggest that it is possible by the use of gamma cardiography during the abatement of an asthma attack: 1- To confirm attacks of the right heart which have already been detected by ordinary methods. 2- To confirm the presence of modifications in the recorded curves which suggest, in the case of the left heart, possible attack; such on attack is also indicated, in a small number of cases, by electrocardiography curves. Some considerations are put forward by the authors concerning the physiopathology of attacks on the left heart. (authors) [fr

  19. Multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end point trial of the efficacy of allopurinol therapy in improving cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ischaemic heart disease: protocol of the ALL-HEART study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Walker, Andrew; Hawkey, Chris; Begg, Alan; Avery, Anthony; Taggar, Jaspal; Wei, Li; Struthers, Allan D; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-09-08

    Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the most common causes of death in the UK and treatment of patients with IHD costs the National Health System (NHS) billions of pounds each year. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor used to prevent gout that also has several positive effects on the cardiovascular system. The ALL-HEART study aims to determine whether allopurinol improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients with IHD. The ALL-HEART study is a multicentre, controlled, prospective, randomised, open-label blinded end point (PROBE) trial of allopurinol (up to 600 mg daily) versus no treatment in a 1:1 ratio, added to usual care, in 5215 patients aged 60 years and over with IHD. Patients are followed up by electronic record linkage and annual questionnaires for an average of 4 years. The primary outcome is the composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular death. Secondary outcomes include all-cause mortality, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of allopurinol. The study will end when 631 adjudicated primary outcomes have occurred. The study is powered at 80% to detect a 20% reduction in the primary end point for the intervention. Patient recruitment to the ALL-HEART study started in February 2014. The study received ethical approval from the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service (EoSRES) REC 2 (13/ES/0104). The study is event-driven and results are expected after 2019. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific meetings. Results will also be disseminated to guideline committees, NHS organisations and patient groups. 32017426, pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Risk Related to Pre-Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Mellitus in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Insights From Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Søren L; Preiss, David; Jhund, Pardeep S; Squire, Iain; Cardoso, José Silva; Merkely, Bela; Martinez, Felipe; Starling, Randall C; Desai, Akshay S; Lefkowitz, Martin P; Rizkala, Adel R; Rouleau, Jean L; Shi, Victor C; Solomon, Scott D; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R; McMurray, John J V; Packer, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of pre-diabetes mellitus and its consequences in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction are not known. We investigated these in the Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial. We examined clinical outcomes in 8399 patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction according to history of diabetes mellitus and glycemic status (baseline hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]: diabetes mellitus], and ≥ 6.5% [≥ 48 mmol/mol; diabetes mellitus]), in Cox regression models adjusted for known predictors of poor outcome. Patients with a history of diabetes mellitus (n = 2907 [35%]) had a higher risk of the primary composite outcome of heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality compared with those without a history of diabetes mellitus: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 1.52; P diabetes mellitus and 2103 (25%) had pre-diabetes mellitus. The hazard ratio for patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (HbA1c, > 6.5%) and known diabetes mellitus compared with those with HbA1c diabetes mellitus were also at higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.27 [1.10-1.47]; P diabetes mellitus is associated with a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes (compared with patients with no diabetes mellitus and HbA1c < 6.0%). LCZ696 was beneficial compared with enalapril, irrespective of glycemic status. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01035255. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Effectiveness of an interactive platform, and the ESC/HFA heartfailurematters.org website in patients with heart failure: design of the multicentre randomized e-Vita heart failure trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Kim P; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Dickstein, Kenneth; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hoes, Arno W; Rutten, Frans H

    2015-12-01

    Electronic health support (e-health) may improve self-care of patients with heart failure (HF). We aim to assess whether an adjusted care pathway with replacement of routine consultations by e-health improves self-care as compared with usual care. In addition, we will determine whether the ESC/HFA (European Society of Cardiology/Heart Failure Association) website heartfailurematters.org (HFM website) improves self-care when added to usual care. Finally, we aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. A three-arm parallel randomized trial will be conducted. Arm 1 consists of usual care; arm 2 consists of usual care plus the HFM website; and arm 3 is the adjusted care pathway with an interactive platform for disease management (e-Vita platform), with a link to the HFM website, which replaces routine consultations with HF nurses at the outpatient clinic. In total, 414 patients managed in 10 Dutch HF outpatient clinics or in general practice will be included and followed for 12 months. Participants are included if they have had an established diagnosis of HF for at least 3 months. The primary outcome is self-care as measured by the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour scale (EHFScB scale). Secondary outcomes are quality of life, cardiovascular- and HF-related mortality, hospitalization, and its duration as captured by hospital and general practitioner registries, use of and user satisfaction with the HFM website, and cost-effectiveness. This study will provide important prospective data on the impact and cost-effectiveness of an interactive platform for disease management and the HFM website. unique identifier: NCT01755988. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  2. Primary care-based multifaceted, interdisciplinary medical educational intervention for patients with systolic heart failure: lessons learned from a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Klimm, Frank; Campbell, Stephen; Müller-Tasch, Thomas; Schellberg, Dieter; Gelbrich, Goetz; Herzog, Wolfgang; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2009-08-13

    Chronic (systolic) heart failure (CHF) is a common and disabling condition. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines in primary care has been shown to improve health outcomes. The aim was to explore the impact of a multidisciplinary educational intervention for general practitioners (GPs) (Train the trainer = TTT) on patient and performance outcomes. This paper presents the key findings from the trial and discusses the lessons learned during the implementation of the TTT trial. Primary care practices were randomly assigned to the TTT intervention or to the control group. 37 GPs (18 TTT, 19 control) were randomised and 168 patients diagnosed with ascertained CHF (91 TTT, 77 control) were enrolled. GPs in the intervention group attended four meetings addressing clinical practice guidelines and pharmacotherapy feedback. The primary outcome was patient self-reported quality of life at seven months, using the SF-36 Physical Functioning scale. Secondary outcomes included other SF-36 scales, the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), total mortality, heart failure hospital admissions, prescribing, depressive disorders (PHQ-9), behavioural change (European Heart Failure Self-Care Behaviour Scale), patient-perceived quality of care (EUROPEP) and improvement of heart failure using NT-proBNP-levels. Because recruitment targets were not achieved an exploratory analysis was conducted. There was high baseline achievement in both groups for many outcomes. At seven months, there were no significant mean difference between groups for the primary outcome measure (-3.3, 95%CI -9.7 to 3.1, p = 0.30). The only difference in secondary outcomes related to the prescribing of aldosterone antagonists by GPs in the intervention group, with significant between group differences at follow-up (42 vs. 24%, adjusted OR = 4.0, 95%CI 1.2-13; p = 0.02). The intervention did not change the primary outcome or most secondary outcomes. Recruitment targets were not achieved and the under

  3. Addition of non-invasive ventilatory support to combined aerobic and resistance training improves dyspnea and quality of life in heart failure patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Hugo Souza; Cruz, Cristiano Gonçalves; David, Bruno Costa; Rodrigues, Erenaldo; Abade, Camille Magalhães; Junior, Roque Aras; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Dos Reis, Francisco Borges Faria; Gomes Neto, Mansueto

    2017-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that combined aerobic and resistance training and non-invasive ventilatory support result in additional benefits compared with combined aerobic and resistance training alone in heart failure patients. A randomized, single-blind, controlled study. Cardiac rehabilitation center. A total of 46 patients with New York Heart Association class II/III heart failure were randomly assigned to a 10-week program of combined aerobic and resistance training, plus non-invasive ventilatory support ( n = 23) or combined aerobic and resistance training alone ( n = 23). Before and after intervention, results for the following were obtained: 6-minute walk test, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at one second, maximal inspiratory muscle pressure, and maximal expiratory muscle pressure, with evaluation of dyspnea by the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale, and quality of life with the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure questionnaire. Of the 46 included patients, 40 completed the protocol. The combined aerobic and resistance training plus non-invasive ventilatory support, as compared with combined aerobic and resistance training alone, resulted in significantly greater benefit for dyspnea (mean change: 4.8 vs. 1.3, p = 0.004), and quality of life (mean change: 19.3 vs. 6.8, p = 0.017 ). In both groups, the 6-minute walk test improved significantly (mean change: 45.7 vs. 44.1, p = 0.924), but without a statistically significant difference. Non-invasive ventilatory support combined with combined aerobic and resistance training provides additional benefits for dyspnea and quality of life in moderate heart failure patients. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02384798. Registered 03 April 2015.

  4. Similar clinical benefits from below-target and target dose enalapril in patients with heart failure in the SOLVD Treatment trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Phillip H; Dooley, Daniel J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Butler, Javed; Bhatt, Deepak L; Filippatos, Gerasimos S; Deedwania, Prakash; Forman, Daniel E; White, Michel; Fletcher, Ross D; Arundel, Cherinne; Blackman, Marc R; Adamopoulos, Chris; Kanonidis, Ioannis E; Aban, Inmaculada B; Patel, Kanan; Aronow, Wilbert S; Allman, Richard M; Anker, Stefan D; Pitt, Bertram; Ahmed, Ali

    2018-02-01

    To examine associations of below-target and target dose of enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, with outcomes in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) Treatment trial. Two thousand five hundred and sixty-nine patients with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤35%) were randomized to below-target (5-10 mg/day) dose placebo (n = 1284) or enalapril (n = 1285). One month post-randomization, blind up-titration to target (20 mg/day) dose was attempted for both study drugs in 2458 patients. Among the 1444 patients who achieved dose up-titration (placebo, n = 748; enalapril, n = 696; mean dose for both groups, 20.0 mg/day), target dose enalapril (vs. target dose placebo) was associated with a 9% absolute lower risk of the combined endpoint of heart failure hospitalization or all-cause mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-0.81; P target dose (placebo, n = 486; enalapril, n = 528; mean dose for both groups, 8.8 mg/day), below-target dose enalapril (vs. below-target dose placebo) was associated with a 12% absolute lower risk of the combined endpoint of heart failure hospitalization or all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.57-0.81; P target (vs. below-target) dose had no association with the combined endpoint of heart failure hospitalization or all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.87-1.23; P = 0.695). In patients with HFrEF, the clinical benefits of ACE inhibitors appear to be similar at both below-target and target doses. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  5. Lifestyle modification programmes for patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, V.; Gucht, V. de; Dusseldorp, E.; Maes, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programmes for coronary heart disease patients have been shown to effectively improve risk factors and related health behaviours, quality of life, reincidence, and mortality. However, improvements in routine cardiac care over the recent years may offset the

  6. Attacker Model Lab

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz present Tutorial Quiz Presentation Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial the two sub-classes of computer attackers: amateurs and professionals. It provides valuable insight into the nature of necessary protection measure for information assets. CS3600 Information Assurance: Introduction to Computer Security Course

  7. Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.

  8. Northern Territory perspectives on heart failure with comorbidities – understanding trial validity and exploring collaborative opportunities to broaden the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyngkaran, P; Majoni, W; Cass, A; Sanders, Prashanthan; Ronco, C; Brady, S; Kangaharan, N; Ilton, M; Hare, D L; Thomas, M C

    2015-06-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is an ambulatory care sensitive condition, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, rarely with cure. Outpatient based pharmacological management represents the main and most important aspect of care, and is usually lifelong. This narrative styled opinion review looks at the pharmacological agents recommended in the guidelines in context of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. We explore the concept of validity, a term used to describe the basis of standardising a particular trial or study and the population to which it is applicable. We aim to highlight the problems of the current guidelines based approach. We also present alternatives that could utilise the core principles from major trials, while incorporating regional considerations, which could benefit clients living in the NT and remote Australia. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Amiodarone therapy in chronic heart failure and myocardial infarction: a review of the mortality trials with special attention to STAT-CHF and the GESICA trials. Grupo de Estudio de la Sobrevida en la Insuficiencia Cardiaca en Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, J V; Ramani, K; Neelagaru, S; Kown, M; Gheorghiade, M

    1997-01-01

    Amiodarone appears to reduce sudden death in patients with left ventricular dysfunction resulting from an acute MI or a primary dilated cardiomyopathy, particularly if complex ventricular arrhythmias are present. Amiodarone's beneficial effect on mortality in these patients could be unrelated to its antiarrhythmic effects. Multiple factors could account for the improvement in mortality such as the drug's antiischemic effects, neuromodulating effects, its effect on left ventricular function and on heart rate. Moreover, patients with LV dysfunction who have survived an episode of sudden death would potentially benefit from amiodarone therapy. Future trials are needed to determine the precise subsets(s) of patients who would benefit from the drug and the most efficacious dosing regimen for the drug. Based on available data, amiodarone is the only antiarrhythmic agent which has not been shown to increase mortality in patients with chronic heart failure.

  10. Healthy Heart Collaboration and Developed Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impact: EPA is raising awareness of heart disease and its link to air pollution and other environmental factors as a partner in Million Hearts, a national initiative to prevent heart attacks and strokes. The talk will provide an up to date review of the evidence linking air poll...

  11. Blocking of Brute Force Attack

    OpenAIRE

    M.Venkata Krishna Reddy

    2012-01-01

    A common threat Web developers face is a password-guessing attack known as a brute-force attack. A brute-force attack is an attempt to discover a password by systematically trying every possible combination of letters, numbers, and symbols until you discover the one correct combination that works. If your Web site requires user authentication, you are a good target for a brute-force attack. An attacker can always discover a password through a brute-force attack, but the downside is that it co...

  12. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  13. Heart Rate and Initial Presentation of Cardiovascular Diseases (Caliber)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Coronary Heart Disease NOS; Unheralded Coronary Death; Intracerebral Haemorrhage; Heart Failure; Ischemic Stroke; Myocardial Infarction; Stroke; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Stable Angina Pectoris; Subarachnoid Haemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Unstable Angina; Cardiac Arrest, Sudden Cardiac Death

  14. Early physical training and psycho-educational intervention for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The SheppHeart randomized 2 × 2 factorial clinical pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højskov, Ida E; Moons, Philip; Hansen, Niels V; Greve, Helle; Olsen, Dorte Bæk; Cour, Søren La; Glud, Christian; Winkel, Per; Lindschou, Jane; Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg

    2016-10-01

    Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery often experience a range of problems and symptoms such as immobility, pain and insufficient sleep. Results from trials investigating testing in-hospital physical exercise or psychological intervention have been promising. However, no randomized clinical trials have tested a comprehensive rehabilitation programme consisting of both physical exercise and psycho-education in the early rehabilitation phase. The aims of the present SheppHeart pilot randomized clinical trial were to evaluate the feasibility of patient recruitment, patient acceptance of the intervention, safety and tolerability of the intervention. Sixty patients admitted for coronary artery bypass graft were randomized 1:1:1:1 to: 1) physical exercise plus usual care, or 2) psycho-educational intervention plus usual care, or 3) physical exercise and psycho-educational plus usual care, or 4) usual care alone during a four week period after surgery. The acceptability of trial participation was 67% during the three month recruitment period. In the physical exercise groups, patients complied with 59% of the total expected training sessions during hospitalization. Nine patients (30%) complied with >75% and nine patients (30%) complied with 50% of the planned exercise sessions. Eleven patients (42%) participated in ⩾75% of the four consultations and six patients (23%) participated in 50% of the psycho-educational programme. Comprehensive phase one rehabilitation combining physical exercise and psycho-education in coronary artery bypass graft patients shows reasonably high inclusion, feasibility and safety. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  15. [No role for oral anticoagulants (target INR: 2.0-3.0) after transient ischaemic attack or cerebral infarction of arterial origin; the 'European/Australasian stroke prevention in reversible ischaemia trial' (ESPRIT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schryver, E L L M; Halkes, P H A

    2008-02-23

    The 'European/Australasian stroke prevention in reversible ischaemia trial' (ESPRIT) aimed to determine whether oral anticoagulation of moderate intensity (target international normalised ratio (INR): 2.0-3.0) is more effective than acetylsalicylic acid in preventing future vascular events in patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke of arterial origin. International, multicentre randomised clinical trial. Patients were randomised within 6 months of TIA or minor stroke of arterial origin to oral anticoagulants (target INR: 2.0-3.0; n = 536) or acetylsalicylic acid (30-325 mg daily; n = 532). The primary endpoint was a composite of vascular death, non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction or major bleeding complications. In a post hoc analysis, the efficacy of anticoagulants was compared with that of the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole (200 mg twice daily), a third arm of ESPRIT. Treatment was unblinded, but auditing of endpoints was blinded. Data were analysed on an intent-to-treat basis. The comparison of anticoagulants and acetylsalicylic acid was stopped prematurely because the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole was found to be more effective than acetylsalicylic acid alone. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.6 years (SD: 2.2). The mean INR was 2.57 (SD: 0.86; nearly 70% of the time within target range). The primary endpoint occurred in 99 patients (19%) in the anticoagulation group and 98 patients (18%) in the acetylsalicylic acid group (hazard ratio: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.77-1.35). The hazard ratio was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.52-1.01) for ischaemic events and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.48-4.43) for major bleeding complications. The hazard ratio for the primary outcome event comparing anticoagulants with the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole was 1.31 (95% CI: 0.98-1.75). Oral anticoagulants (target INR: 2.0-3.0) were not more effective than acetylsalicylic acid in the secondary prevention of

  16. Randomized controlled trial of a coordinated care intervention to improve risk factor control after stroke or transient ischemic attack in the safety net: Secondary stroke prevention by Uniting Community and Chronic care model teams Early to End Disparities (SUCCEED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towfighi, Amytis; Cheng, Eric M; Ayala-Rivera, Monica; McCreath, Heather; Sanossian, Nerses; Dutta, Tara; Mehta, Bijal; Bryg, Robert; Rao, Neal; Song, Shlee; Razmara, Ali; Ramirez, Magaly; Sivers-Teixeira, Theresa; Tran, Jamie; Mojarro-Huang, Elizabeth; Montoya, Ana; Corrales, Marilyn; Martinez, Beatrice; Willis, Phyllis; Macias, Mireya; Ibrahim, Nancy; Wu, Shinyi; Wacksman, Jeremy; Haber, Hilary; Richards, Adam; Barry, Frances; Hill, Valerie; Mittman, Brian; Cunningham, William; Liu, Honghu; Ganz, David A; Factor, Diane; Vickrey, Barbara G

    2017-02-06

    Recurrent strokes are preventable through awareness and control of risk factors such as hypertension, and through lifestyle changes such as healthier diets, greater physical activity, and smoking cessation. However, vascular risk factor control is frequently poor among stroke survivors, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged blacks, Latinos and other people of color. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an effective framework for multi-component interventions aimed at improving care processes and outcomes for individuals with chronic disease. In addition, community health workers (CHWs) have played an integral role in reducing health disparities; however, their effectiveness in reducing vascular risk among stroke survivors remains unknown. Our objectives are to develop, test, and assess the economic value of a CCM-based intervention using an Advanced Practice Clinician (APC)-CHW team to improve risk factor control after stroke in an under-resourced, racially/ethnically diverse population. In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 516 adults (≥40 years) with an ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack or intracerebral hemorrhage within the prior 90 days are being enrolled at five sites within the Los Angeles County safety-net setting and randomized 1:1 to intervention vs usual care. Participants are excluded if they do not speak English, Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean or if they are unable to consent. The intervention includes a minimum of three clinic visits in the healthcare setting, three home visits, and Chronic Disease Self-Management Program group workshops in community venues. The primary outcome is blood pressure (BP) control (systolic BP risk factors including lipids and hemoglobin A1c, (3) inflammation (C reactive protein [CRP]), (4) medication adherence, (5) lifestyle factors (smoking, diet, and physical activity), (6) estimated relative reduction in risk for recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction (MI), and (7) cost

  17. Heart MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  18. Heart rate at discharge and long-term prognosis following percutaneous coronary intervention in stable and acute coronary syndromes--results from the BASKET PROVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Kaiser, Christoph; Sandsten, Karl Erik; Alber, Hannes; Wanitschek, Maria; Iversen, Allan; Jensen, Jan Skov; Pedersen, Sune; Soerensen, Rikke; Rickli, Hans; Zurek, Marzena; Fahrni, Gregor; Bertel, Osmund; De Servi, Stefano; Erne, Paul; Pfisterer, Matthias; Galatius, Søren

    2013-10-09

    Elevated heart rate (HR) is associated with mortality in a number of heart diseases. We examined the long-term prognostic significance of HR at discharge in a contemporary population of patients with stable angina (SAP), non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) revascularized with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients from the BASKET-PROVE trial, an 11-center randomized all-comers trial comparing bare-metal and drug-eluting stenting in large coronary vessels, were included. Discharge HR was determined from a resting ECG. Long-term outcomes (7 days to 2 years) were evaluated for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. A total of 2029 patients with sinus rhythm were included, 722 (35.6%) SAP, 647 (31.9%) NSTE-ACS, and 660 (32.5%) STEMI. Elevated discharge HR was associated significantly with all-cause mortality: when compared to a reference of 90 bpm. For cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction, a discharge HR >90 bpm was associated with a hazard ratio of 6.2 (2.5-15.5, pacute coronary syndromes an elevated discharge HR was independently associated with poor prognosis. Conversely, a HR <60 bpm at discharge was associated with a good long-term prognosis irrespective of indication for PCI. © 2013.

  19. [The PROPRESE trial: results of a new health care organizational model in primary care for patients with chronic coronary heart disease based on a multifactorial intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruescas-Escolano, Esther; Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Gaubert-Tortosa, María; Navarro-Palazón, Ana; Cordero-Fort, Alberto; Navarro-Pérez, Jorge; Carratalá-Munuera, Concepción; Pertusa-Martínez, Salvador; Soler-Bahilo, Enrique; Brotons-Muntó, Francisco; Bort-Cubero, Jose; Núñez-Martínez, Miguel A; Bertomeu-Martínez, Vicente; López-Pineda, Adriana; Gil-Guillén, Vicente F

    2014-06-01

    Comparison of the results from the EUROASPIRE I to the EUROASPIRE III, in patients with coronary heart disease, shows that the prevalence of uncontrolled risk factors remains high. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new multifactorial intervention in order to improve health care for chronic coronary heart disease patients in primary care. In this randomized clinical trial with a 1-year follow-up period, we recruited patients with a diagnosis of coronary heart disease (145 for the intervention group and 1461 for the control group). An organizational intervention on the patient-professional relationship (centered on the Chronic Care Model, the Stanford Expert Patient Programme and the Kaiser Permanente model) and formative strategy for professionals were carried out. The main outcomes were smoking control, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). A multivariate analysis was performed. The characteristics of patients were: age (68.4±11.8 years), male (71.6%), having diabetes mellitus (51.3%), dyslipidemia (68.5%), arterial hypertension (76.7%), non-smokers (76.1%); LDL-C cardiovascular risk factors control (smoking, LDL-C and SBP). Chronic care strategies may be an efficacy tool to help clinicians to involve the patients with a diagnosis of CHD to reach better outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. eEduHeart I: A Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial Investigating the Effectiveness of a Cardiac Web-Based eLearning Platform - Rationale and Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederix, Ines; Vandenberk, Thijs; Janssen, Leen; Geurden, Anne; Vandervoort, Pieter; Dendale, Paul

    Cardiac telerehabilitation includes, in its most comprehensive format, telemonitoring, telecoaching, social interaction, and eLearning. The specific role of eLearning, however, was seldom assessed. The aim of eEduHeart I is to investigate the medium-term effectiveness of the addition of a cardiac web-based eLearing platform to conventional cardiac care. In this prospective, multicenter randomized, controlled trial, 1,000 patients with coronary artery disease will be randomized 1:1 to an intervention group (receiving 1-month unrestricted access to the cardiac eLearning platform in addition to conventional cardiac care) or to conventional cardiac care alone. The primary endpoint is health-related quality of life, assessed by the HeartQoL questionnaire at the 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Secondary endpoints include pathology-specific knowledge and self-reported eLearning platform user experience. Data on the eLearning platform usage will be gathered through web logging during the study period. eEduHeart I will be one of the first studies to report on the added value of eLearning. If the intervention is proven effective, current cardiac telerehabilitation programs can be augmented by including eLearning, too. The platform can then be used as a model for other chronic diseases in which patient education plays a key role. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan on Physical and Social Activity Limitations in Patients With Heart Failure: A Secondary Analysis of the PARADIGM-HF Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Alvin; Lewis, Eldrin F; Claggett, Brian L; Desai, Akshay S; Packer, Milton; Zile, Michael R; Swedberg, Karl; Rouleau, Jean L; Shi, Victor C; Lefkowitz, Martin P; Katova, Tzvetana; McMurray, John J V; Solomon, Scott D

    2018-04-04

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with heart failure is markedly reduced compared with that in patients with other chronic diseases, demonstrating substantial limitations in physical and social activities. In the Prospective Comparison of ARNI With an ACE-Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial, sacubitril/valsartan improved overall HRQL compared with enalapril, as determined by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). To examine the effects of sacubitril/valsartan on physical and social activities. The PARADIGM-HF trial was a randomized, double-blind, active treatment-controlled clinical trial performed from December 8, 2009, to March 31, 2014, in 8399 patients with New York Heart Association class II to IV disease and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less at 1043 centers in 38 countries. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2017, to December 25, 2017. Sacubitril/valsartan, 200 mg twice daily, or enalapril, 10 mg twice daily. Patients completed HRQL assessments using the KCCQ at randomization, 4-month, 8-month, and annual visits. The effect of sacubitril/valsartan on components of the physical and social limitation sections of the KCCQ at 8 months and longitudinally and related biomarkers and clinical outcomes were studied. At baseline, 7618 of 8399 patients (90.7%) (mean [SD] age, 64 [11] years; 5987 [78.6%] male and 1631 [21.4%] female) completed the initial KCCQ assessment. Patients reported the greatest limitations at baseline in jogging and sexual relationships. Patients receiving sacubitril/valsartan had significantly better adjusted change scores in most physical and social activities at 8 months and during 36 months compared with those receiving enalapril. The largest improvement over enalapril was in household chores (adjusted change score difference, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.19-3.50; P sacubitril/valsartan significantly improved nearly all KCCQ physical

  2. Short-term Effects of High-Dose Caffeine on Cardiac Arrhythmias in Patients With Heart Failure: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchinali, Priccila; Souza, Gabriela C; Pimentel, Maurício; Chemello, Diego; Zimerman, André; Giaretta, Vanessa; Salamoni, Joyce; Fracasso, Bianca; Zimerman, Leandro I; Rohde, Luis E

    2016-12-01

    The presumed proarrhythmic action of caffeine is controversial. Few studies have assessed the effect of high doses of caffeine in patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction at high risk for ventricular arrhythmias. To compare the effect of high-dose caffeine or placebo on the frequency of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, both at rest and during a symptom-limited exercise test. Double-blinded randomized clinical trial with a crossover design conducted at the heart failure and cardiac transplant clinic of a tertiary-care university hospital. The trial included patients with chronic heart failure with moderate-to-severe systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction capsules, in addition to 5 doses of 100 mL decaffeinated coffee at 1-hour intervals, for a total of 500 mg of caffeine or placebo during a 5-hour protocol. After a 1-week washout period, the protocol was repeated. Number and percentage of ventricular and supraventricular premature beats assessed by continuous electrocardiographic monitoring. We enrolled 51 patients (37 [74%] male; mean [SD] age, 60.6 [10.9] years) with predominantly moderate-to-severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (mean [SD] left ventricular ejection fraction, 29% [7%]); 31 [61%] had an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator device. No significant differences between the caffeine and placebo groups were observed in the number of ventricular (185 vs 239 beats, respectively; P = .47) and supraventricular premature beats (6 vs 6 beats, respectively; P = .44), as well as in couplets, bigeminal cycles, or nonsustained tachycardia during continuous electrocardiographic monitoring. Exercise test-derived variables, such as ventricular and supraventricular premature beats, duration of exercise, estimated peak oxygen consumption, and heart rate, were not influenced by caffeine ingestion. We observed no increases in ventricular premature beats (91 vs 223 vs 207 beats, respectively

  3. Automated Discovery of Mimicry Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giffin, Jonathon T; Jha, Somesh; Miller, Barton P

    2006-01-01

    .... These systems are useful only if they detect actual attacks. Previous research developed manually-constructed mimicry and evasion attacks that avoided detection by hiding a malicious series of system calls within a valid sequence allowed by the model...

  4. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  5. Effects of a supportive educational nursing care programme on fatigue and quality of life in patients with heart failure: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Chieh; Huang, Jin-Long; Ho, Wen-Chao; Chiou, Ai-Fu

    2016-04-01

    Fatigue is a common symptom in patients with heart failure that is easy to ignore. In addition, fatigue may affect patients' physical function and psychosocial conditions that can impair their quality of life. An effective nursing care programme is required to alleviate patients' fatigue and improve their quality of life. To investigate the effects of a supportive educational nursing care programme on fatigue and quality of life in patients with heart failure. A randomised controlled trial design was used. Ninety-two patients with heart failure were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=47) or a control group (n=45). The patients in the intervention group participated in 12 weeks of a supportive educational nursing care programme including fatigue assessment, education, coaching self-care and evaluation. The intervention was conducted by a cardiac nurse during four face-to-face interviews and three follow-up telephone interviews. Fatigue and quality of life were assessed at the baseline and 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after enrollment in both groups. The participants in the intervention group exhibited a significant decrease in the level of fatigue after 12 weeks, whereas those in the control group exhibited no significant changes. Compared with the control group, the intervention group exhibited a significantly greater decrease in the level of fatigue and significantly greater improvement in quality of life after 12 weeks of intervention. The supportive educational nursing care programme was recommended to alleviate fatigue and improve quality of life in patients with heart failure. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  6. Congestive heart failure is associated with lipoprotein components in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease Insights from the Incremental Decrease in End points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Trial (IDEAL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Ingar; Strandberg, Timo E; Faergeman, Ole

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very few, if any, studies have assessed the ability of apolipoproteins to predict new-onset of congestive heart failure (HF) in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). AIMS: To employ the Incremental Decrease in End points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Trial...... with the occurrence of new-onset HF. Variables related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) carried less predictive information than those related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and apoA-1 was the single variable most strongly associated with HF. LDL-C was less predictive than both non......-HDL-C (total cholesterol minus HDL-C) and apoB. The ratio of apoB to apoA-1 was most strongly related to HF after adjustment for potential confounders, among which diabetes had a stronger correlation with HF than did hypertension. ApoB/apoA-1 carried approximately 2.2 times more of the statistical information...

  7. A trial-based economic evaluation of 2 nurse-led disease management programs in heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmus, Douwe; Pari, Anees A. Abdul; Jaarsma, Tiny; Luttik, Marie Louise; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Hillege, Hans L.; Buskens, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background Although previously conducted meta-analyses suggest that nurse-led disease management programs in heart failure (HF) can improve patient outcomes, uncertainty regarding the cost-effectiveness of such programs remains. Methods To compare the relative merits of 2 variants of a nurse-led

  8. The first-in-man randomized trial of a beta3 adrenoceptor agonist in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Henning; Axelsson, Anna; Hartvig Thomsen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The third isotype of beta adrenergic receptors (β3 ARs) has distinctly different effects on cardiomyocytes compared with β1 and β2 ARs. Stimulation of β3 ARs may reduce cardiomyocyte Na+overload and reduce oxidative stress in heart failure (HF). We examined if treatment with the β3 AR agoni...

  9. Cardiac Stress and Inflammatory Markers as Predictors of Heart Failure in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes : The ADVANCE Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Jun, Min; Woodward, Mark; Zoungas, Sophia; Cooper, Mark E; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hamet, Pavel; Mancia, Giuseppe; Williams, Bryan; Welsh, Paul; Sattar, Naveed; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Rahimi, Kazem; Chalmers, John

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the individual and combined effect of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and hs-CRP on the prediction of heart failure incidence or progression in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Seven Deadliest Unified Communications Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Unified Communications technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest Unified Communication Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Unified Communications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks featured in this book include: UC Ecosystem Attacks Insecure Endpo

  11. Evaluation of a self-management patient education program for patients with chronic heart failure undergoing inpatient cardiac rehabilitation: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Karin; Musekamp, Gunda; Seekatz, Bettina; Glatz, Johannes; Karger, Gabriele; Kiwus, Ulrich; Knoglinger, Ernst; Schubmann, Rainer; Westphal, Ronja; Faller, Hermann

    2013-08-23

    Chronic heart failure requires a complex treatment regimen on a life-long basis. Therefore, self-care/self-management is an essential part of successful treatment and comprehensive patient education is warranted. However, specific information on program features and educational strategies enhancing treatment success is lacking. This trial aims to evaluate a patient-oriented and theory-based self-management educational group program as compared to usual care education during inpatient cardiac rehabilitation in Germany. The study is a multicenter cluster randomized controlled trial in four cardiac rehabilitation clinics. Clusters are patient education groups that comprise HF patients recruited within 2 weeks after commencement of inpatient cardiac rehabilitation. Cluster randomization was chosen for pragmatic reasons, i.e. to ensure a sufficient number of eligible patients to build large-enough educational groups and to prevent contamination by interaction of patients from different treatment allocations during rehabilitation. Rehabilitants with chronic systolic heart failure (n = 540) will be consecutively recruited for the study at the beginning of inpatient rehabilitation. Data will be assessed at admission, at discharge and after 6 and 12 months using patient questionnaires. In the intervention condition, patients receive the new patient-oriented self-management educational program, whereas in the control condition, patients receive a short lecture-based educational program (usual care). The primary outcome is patients' self-reported self-management competence. Secondary outcomes include behavioral determinants and self-management health behavior (symptom monitoring, physical activity, medication adherence), health-related quality of life, and treatment satisfaction. Treatment effects will be evaluated separately for each follow-up time point using multilevel regression analysis, and adjusting for baseline values. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a

  12. Is Time of the Essence? The Impact of Time of Hospital Presentation in Acute Heart Failure: Insights From ASCEND-HF Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbin, Lukasz P; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Greene, Stephen J; Armstrong, Paul W; Butler, Javed; Coles, Adrian; DeVore, Adam D; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Hernandez, Adrian F; Metra, Marco; Starling, Randall C; Tang, Wilson; Teerlink, John R; Voors, Adriaan A; Wu, Angie; O'Connor, Christopher M; Mentz, Robert J

    2018-04-01

    As the largest acute heart failure (AHF) trial conducted to date, the global ASCEND-HF (Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure) trial database presented an opportunity to systematically describe the relationship among time of hospital presentation, clinical profile, inpatient management, and outcomes among patients admitted with AHF. Time of hospital presentation has been shown to impact outcomes among patients hospitalized with many conditions. However, the association among time of presentation and patient characteristics, management, and clinical outcomes among patients hospitalized with AHF has not been well characterized. A post hoc analysis of the ASCEND-HF trial was performed, which enrolled 7,141 patients hospitalized for AHF. Patients were divided based on when they presented to the hospital; regular hours were defined as 9 am to 5 pm, Monday through Friday, and off hours were defined as 5 pm to 9 am, Monday through Friday and weekends. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared by time of presentation. Overall, 3,298 patients (46%) presented during off hours. Off-hour patients were more likely to have orthopnea (80% vs. 74%, respectively) and rales (56% vs. 49%, respectively) than regular-hour patients. Off-hour patients were more likely to receive intravenous (IV) nitroglycerin (18% vs. 11%, respectively) and IV loop diuretics (92% vs. 86%, respectively) as initial therapy and reported greater relief from dyspnea at 24 h (odds ratio [OR]: 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04 to 1.24; p = 0.01) than regular-hour patients. After adjustment, off-hour presentation was associated with significantly lower 30-day mortality (OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.96; p = 0.03) and 180-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.94; p = 0.01) but similar 30-day rehospitalization rates (p = 0.40). In this AHF trial, patients admitted during off hours exhibited a distinct clinical profile

  13. Pulse pressure as a haemodynamic variable in systolic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrie, Colin James

    2016-01-01

    In patients with heart failure, the heart is unable to pump enough blood to satisfy the requirements of the body. Explanations for this include heart muscle damage after a heart attack. This could be very recently, or in the past, sometimes dating back many years. In other cases the explanation for

  14. Effect of a Collaborative Care Intervention vs Usual Care on Health Status of Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: The CASA Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelman, David B; Allen, Larry A; McBryde, Connor F; Hattler, Brack; Fairclough, Diane L; Havranek, Edward P; Turvey, Carolyn; Meek, Paula M

    2018-04-01

    Many patients with chronic heart failure experience reduced health status despite receiving conventional therapy. To determine whether a symptom and psychosocial collaborative care intervention improves heart failure-specific health status, depression, and symptom burden in patients with heart failure. A single-blind, 2-arm, multisite randomized clinical trial was conducted at Veterans Affairs, academic, and safety-net health systems in Colorado among outpatients with symptomatic heart failure and reduced health status recruited between August 2012 and April 2015. Data from all participants were included regardless of level of participation, using an intent-to-treat approach. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive the Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness (CASA) intervention or usual care. The CASA intervention included collaborative symptom care provided by a nurse and psychosocial care provided by a social worker, both of whom worked with the patients' primary care clinicians and were supervised by a study primary care clinician, cardiologist, and palliative care physician. The primary outcome was patient-reported heart failure-specific health status, measured by difference in change scores on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (range, 0-100) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included depression (measured by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire), anxiety (measured by the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire), overall symptom distress (measured by the General Symptom Distress Scale), specific symptoms (pain, fatigue, and shortness of breath), number of hospitalizations, and mortality. Of 314 patients randomized (157 to intervention arm and 157 to control arm), there were 67 women and 247 men, mean (SD) age was 65.5 (11.4) years, and 178 (56.7%) had reduced ejection fraction. At 6 months, the mean Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score improved 5.5 points in the intervention arm and 2.9 points in the control

  15. The Effects of Wenxin Keli on Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Patients with Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of Wenxin Keli (WXKL, either alone or in combination with Western medicine, on the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in the treatment of heart failure (HF. Methods. Seven major electronic databases were searched to retrieve potential randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of WXKL, either alone or in combination with Western medicine, for HF, with the LVEF or BNP after eight weeks of treatment as main outcome measures. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using criteria from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions, Version 5.1.0, and analyzed using RevMan 5.1.0 software. Results. Eleven RCTs of WXKL were included. The methodological quality of the trials was generally evaluated as low. The risk of bias was high. The results of the meta-analysis showed that WXKL, either alone or in combination with Western medicine, was more effective in LVEF and BNP, compared with no medicine or Western medicine alone, in patients with HF or HF complicated by other diseases. Five of the trials reported adverse events, while the others did not mention them, indicating that the safety of WXKL remains uncertain. Conclusions. WXKL, either alone or in combination with Western medicine, appears to be more effective in improving the LVEF and BNP in patients with HF and HF complications.

  16. Heart murmurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has 4 chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  17. Heart Health Tests for Diabetes Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or fluids in the body. They include: Electrocardiogram ("EKG" or "ECG") This test measures the electrical activity ... Tools & Resources Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  18. Rehab for the Heart (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Each year, nearly 790,000 adults in the U.S. suffer a heart attack. This podcast discusses the importance of getting cardiac rehab after a heart attack.  Created: 8/24/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  19. Rehab for the Heart (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Each year, nearly 790,000 adults in the U.S. suffer a heart attack. For a third of these, it's not their first. Cardiac rehabilitation could have prevented many of these. In this podcast, Dr. Fleetwood Loustalot discusses the importance of getting cardiac rehab after a heart attack.

  20. The attack navigator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Willemson, Jan; Pieters, Wolter

    2016-01-01

    The need to assess security and take protection decisions is at least as old as our civilisation. However, the complexity and development speed of our interconnected technical systems have surpassed our capacity to imagine and evaluate risk scenarios. This holds in particular for risks...... that are caused by the strategic behaviour of adversaries. Therefore, technology-supported methods are needed to help us identify and manage these risks. In this paper, we describe the attack navigator: a graph-based approach to security risk assessment inspired by navigation systems. Based on maps of a socio...

  1. Attacks on computer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan V. Vuletić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems are a critical component of the human society in the 21st century. Economic sector, defense, security, energy, telecommunications, industrial production, finance and other vital infrastructure depend on computer systems that operate at local, national or global scales. A particular problem is that, due to the rapid development of ICT and the unstoppable growth of its application in all spheres of the human society, their vulnerability and exposure to very serious potential dangers increase. This paper analyzes some typical attacks on computer systems.

  2. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is over, there's no permanent injury to the brain. There's no way to tell if symptoms of a stroke will lead to a TIA or a ... American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. The content in this ...

  3. Effect of verapamil on heart rate variability after an acute myocardial infarction. Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner

    1998-01-01

    with verapamil significantly reduced sudden death, the aim of the present substudy was to evaluate the effect of verapamil on heart-rate variability in the time and frequency domain, measured in two 5-minute segments during the day and night. Thirty-eight patients were examined by Holter monitoring, at 1 week......-16 months of treatment. In accord with the known reduction of overall heart rate by verapamil, a significant increase of mean NN interval from before to after 1 (P = 0.0004) and 12-16 months (P = 0.004) of treatment was seen in the verapamil, but not in the placebo, group at night. Parameters generally......, the present study indicates that verapamil shifts the autonomic balance to a vagal preponderance or sympathetic attenuation in the postinfarction period....

  4. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade with carvedilol on cachexia in severe chronic heart failure: results from the COPERNICUS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew L; Coats, Andrew J S; Krum, Henry; Katus, Hugo A; Mohacsi, Paul; Salekin, Damien; Schultz, Melissa K; Packer, Milton; Anker, Stefan D

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac cachexia frequently accompanies the progression of heart failure despite the use of effective therapies for left ventricular dysfunction. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of weight loss, but the effects of sympathetic antagonism on cachexia are not well defined. We prospectively evaluated changes in body weight in 2289 patients with heart failure who had dyspnoea at rest or on minimal exertion and a left ventricular ejection fraction 6%) (95% confidence interval: 14-48%, P = 0.002) and were 37% more likely to experience a significant gain in weight (≥5%) (95% confidence interval: 12-66%, P = 0.002). Carvedilol's ability to prevent weight loss was most marked in patients with increased body mass index at baseline, whereas its ability to promote weight gain was most marked in patients with decreased body mass index at baseline. Increases in weight were not accompanied by evidence of fluid retention. Baseline values for body mass index and change in body weight were significant predictors of survival regardless of treatment. Carvedilol attenuated the development and promoted a partial reversal of cachexia in patients with severe chronic heart failure, supporting a role for prolonged sympathetic activation in the genesis of weight loss. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  5. Recent "phishing" attacks

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few weeks there has been a marked increase in the number of attacks on CERN made by cybercriminals. Typical attacks arrive in the form of e-mail messages purporting to come from the CERN Help Desk, Mail Service, or some similarly official-sounding entity and suggest that there is a problem with your account, such as it being over-quota. They then ask you to click on a link or to reply and give your password. Please don’t! Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. NEVER provide your password or other details if these are requested. These messages try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer, and anti-virus software cannot be relied on to detect all cases. In case of questions on this topic, you may contact mailto:helpdesk@cern.ch. CERN Comput...

  6. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Research NINDS is the leading supporter of research on stroke and TIA in the U.S. and sponsors studies ranging from clinical trials to investigations of basic biological ... Organizations Publications Definition A ...

  7. Implementation of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Blood Cholesterol Guideline Including Data From the Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeian, Boback; Dinkler, John; Watson, Karol

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The management of blood cholesterol through use of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) in at-risk patients is a pillar of medical therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The recent 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline on managing blood cholesterol provides an important framework for the effective implementation of risk-reduction strategies. The guideline identifies four cohorts of patients with proven benefits from statin therapy and streamlines the dosing and monitoring recommendations based on evidence from published, randomized controlled trials. Primary care physicians and cardiologists play key roles in identifying populations at elevated ASCVD risk. In providing a practical management overview of the current blood cholesterol guideline, we facilitate more informed discussions on treatment options between healthcare providers and their patients. PMID:26198559

  8. The effect of foot reflexology on physiologic parameters and mechanical ventilation weaning time in patients undergoing open-heart surgery: A clinical trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Abbas; Kavei, Parastoo; Moradian, Seyyed Tayyeb; Saeid, Yaser

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of foot reflexology on physiological parameters and mechanical ventilation weaning time in patients undergoing open-heart surgery. This was a double blind three-group randomized controlled trial. Totally, 96 patients were recruited and randomly allocated to the experimental, placebo, and the control groups. Study groups respectively received foot reflexology, simple surface touching, and the routine care of the study setting. Physiological parameters (pulse rate, respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, mean arterial pressure, percutaneous oxygen saturation) and weaning time were measured. The study groups did not differ significantly in terms of physiological parameters (P value > 0.05). However, the length of weaning time in the experimental group was significantly shorter than the placebo and the control groups (P value foot reflexology in shortening the length of weaning time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inspiratory Muscle Training and Functional Electrical Stimulation for Treatment of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: The TRAINING-HF Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau, Patricia; Domínguez, Eloy; López, Laura; Ramón, José María; Heredia, Raquel; González, Jessika; Santas, Enrique; Bodí, Vicent; Miñana, Gema; Valero, Ernesto; Mollar, Anna; Bertomeu González, Vicente; Chorro, Francisco J; Sanchis, Juan; Lupón, Josep; Bayés-Genís, Antoni; Núñez, Julio

    2018-03-16

    Despite the prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), there is currently no evidence-based effective therapy for this disease. This study sought to evaluate whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT), functional electrical stimulation (FES), or a combination of both (IMT + FES) improves 12- and 24-week exercise capacity as well as left ventricular diastolic function, biomarker profile, and quality of life in HFpEF. A total of 61 stable symptomatic patients (New York Heart Association II-III) with HFpEF were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive a 12-week program of IMT, FES, or IMT + FES vs usual care. The primary endpoint of the study was to evaluate change in peak exercise oxygen uptake at 12 and 24 weeks. Secondary endpoints were changes in quality of life, echocardiogram parameters, and prognostic biomarkers. We used a mixed-effects model for repeated-measures to compare endpoints changes. Mean age and peak exercise oxygen uptake were 74 ± 9 years and 9.9 ± 2.5mL/min/kg, respectively. The proportion of women was 58%. At 12 weeks, the mean increase in peak exercise oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min) compared with usual care was 2.98, 2.93, and 2.47 for IMT, FES, and IMT + FES, respectively (P < .001) and this beneficial effect persisted after 6 months (1.95, 2.08, and 1.56; P < .001). Significant increases in quality of life scores were found at 12 weeks (P < .001). No other changes were found. In HFpEF patients with low aerobic capacity, IMT and FES were associated with a significant improvement in exercise capacity and quality of life. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02638961).. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of auto-servo ventilation on patients with sleep-disordered breathing, stable systolic heart failure and concomitant diastolic dysfunction: subanalysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birner, Christoph; Series, Frederic; Lewis, Keir; Benjamin, Amit; Wunderlich, Silke; Escourrou, Pierre; Zeman, Florian; Luigart, Ruth; Pfeifer, Michael; Arzt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Systolic heart failure (HF) is frequently accompanied by diastolic dysfunction and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). The objective of this subset analysis was to determine effect sizes of auto-servo ventilation (ASV and biphasic positive airway pressure ASV) on echocardiographic measures of diastolic function in patients with systolic HF and SDB. Thirty-two patients with stable systolic HF, concomitant diastolic dysfunction [age 66 ± 9 years old, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction: 30 ± 7% and New York Heart Association class II: 72%] and SDB (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI: 48 ± 19/h; 53% had predominantly obstructive sleep apnea) receiving either ASV (n = 19) or optimal medical treatment (control, n = 13) were analyzed in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Polysomnographic and echocardiographic measurements were obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks. AHI significantly improved in the ASV group compared to the control group (-39 ± 18 vs. -0.2 ± 13.2/h, p control visit, diastolic function assessed by the isovolumetric relaxation time (-10.3 ± 26.1 vs. 9.3 ± 49.1, p = 0.48) and deceleration time (-43.9 ± 88.8 vs. 12.4 ± 68.8, p = 0.40) tended to improve after ASV treatment, but did not reach statistical significance. Likewise, the proportion of patients whose diastolic dysfunction improved was nonsignificantly higher in the ASV than in the control group, respectively (37 vs. 15%, p = 0.25). ASV treatment efficiently abolishes SDB in patients with stable systolic HF and concomitant diastolic dysfunction, and was associated with a statistically nonsignificant improvement in measures of diastolic dysfunction. Thus, these data provide estimates of effect size and justify the evaluation of the effects of ASV on diastolic function in larger randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria eRuffini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT on ANS activity through changes of High Frequency, a heart rate variability index indicating the parasympathetic activity, in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group.Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults, both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in 3 groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920.Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 minutes.Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency rate (p<0.001, and decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency rate (p<0.01; results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p<0.001 and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p<0.05. Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group.

  12. Comparison of structured and unstructured physical activity training on predicted VO2max and heart rate variability in adolescents - a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Radhakrishnan, Krishnakumar; Rajendran, Rajathi; Ravindran, Balasubramanian Sulur; Arunachalam, Vinayathan

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity contributes to many health issues. The WHO-recommended physical activity for adolescents encompasses aerobic, resistance, and bone strengthening exercises aimed at achieving health-related physical fitness. Heart rate variability (HRV) and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) are considered as noninvasive measures of cardiovascular health. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of structured and unstructured physical training on maximal aerobic capacity and HRV among adolescents. We designed a single blinded, parallel, randomized active-controlled trial (Registration No. CTRI/2013/08/003897) to compare the physiological effects of 6 months of globally recommended structured physical activity (SPA), with that of unstructured physical activity (USPA) in healthy school-going adolescents. We recruited 439 healthy student volunteers (boys: 250, girls: 189) in the age group of 12-17 years. Randomization across the groups was done using age and gender stratified randomization method, and the participants were divided into two groups: SPA (n=219, boys: 117, girls: 102) and USPA (n=220, boys: 119, girls: 101). Depending on their training status and gender the participants in both SPA and USPA groups were further subdivided into the following four sub-groups: SPA athlete boys (n=22) and girls (n=17), SPA nonathlete boys (n=95) and girls (n=85), USPA athlete boys (n=23) and girls (n=17), and USPA nonathlete boys (n=96) and girls (n=84). We recorded HRV, body fat%, and VO2 max using Rockport Walk Fitness test before and after the intervention. Maximum aerobic capacity and heart rate variability increased significantly while heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and body fat percentage decreased significantly after both SPA and USPA intervention. However, the improvement was more in SPA as compared to USPA. SPA is more beneficial for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, HRV, and reducing body fat percentage in terms of

  13. [Effect of benazepril on cardiac function in Chinese patients with chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaowei; Xu, Dingli; Huang, Jun

    2014-10-14

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of benazepril in Chinese patients with chronic systolic heart failure. We searched the databases of Cochrane, PubMed, EMbase, CBM and CNKI from January 1989 to November 2010 for the relevant studies. Two investigators identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) independently according to the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical data analysis was performed with the Stata 11 software. A total of 15 studies with 1 355 Chinese patients of chronic systolic heart failure fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among them, 546 received benazepril monotherapy. The dose range of benazepril was 5 to 40 mg daily. And it was similar to angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in improving left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)(P = 0.674), reducing LVEDD (P = 0.511) and improving cardiac output (P = 0.363). The combination therapy of benazepril and ARB was superior to ARB monotherapy in reducing left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) (P = 0.001). However, LVEF was comparable between patients with ACEI/ARB combination therapy and those with ARB monotherapy (P = 0.105). Compared with blank control, benazepril treatment was associated with a significant improvement in LVEF from baseline to follow-up (WMD = 6.5%; 95% CI: 0.9%, 12.0%; P = 0.022). Compared with baseline, benazepril treatment significantly increased LVEF (WMD = 10.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]:7.1%, 13.8%; P benazepril group. As the most common side effect after benazepril treatment, cough had a prevalence of 11.6%. Other side effects were rare. Benazepril is both efficacious and safe in the management of Chinese patients with chronic heart failure.

  14. Response to Exercise Training and Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure and Diabetes Mellitus: Insights From the HF-ACTION Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Adam Z; Mentz, Robert J; Stebbins, Amanda; Mikus, Catherine R; Schulte, Phillip J; Fleg, Jerome L; Cooper, Lawton S; Leifer, Eric S; Badenhop, Dalynn T; Keteyian, Steven J; Piña, Ileana L; Kitzman, Dalane W; Fiuzat, Mona; Whellan, David J; Kraus, William E; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    In HF-ACTION (Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training), exercise training improved functional capacity in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Previous studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM) may be associated with an attenuated response to exercise. We explored whether DM attenuated the improvement in functional capacity with exercise. HF-ACTION randomized 2331 patients with HFrEF to medical therapy with or without exercise training over a median follow-up of 2.5 years. We examined the interaction between DM and exercise response measured by change in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and peak VO2. We also examined outcomes by DM status. In HF-ACTION, 748 (32%) patients had DM. DM patients had lower functional capacity at baseline and had lower exercise volumes at 3 months. There was a significant interaction between DM status and exercise training for change in peak VO2 (interaction P = .02), but not 6MWD. In the exercise arm, DM patients had a smaller mean increase in peak VO2 than non-DM patients (P = .03). There was no interaction between DM and exercise on clinical outcomes. After risk adjustment, DM was associated with increased all-cause mortality/hospitalization (P = .03). In HF-ACTION, DM was associated with lower baseline functional capacity, an attenuated improvement in peak VO2, and increased hospitalizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Home-based cardiac rehabilitation is as effective as centre-based cardiac rehabilitation among elderly with coronary heart disease: results from a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oerkild, Bodil; Frederiksen, Marianne; Hansen, Jorgen Fischer

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: participation in centre-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is known to reduce morbidity and mortality but participation rates among the elderly are low. Establishing alternative programmes is important, and home-based CR is the predominant alternative. However, no studies have...... investigated the effect of home-based CR among a group of elderly patients with coronary heart disease with a long-term follow-up. METHODS: randomised clinical trial comparing home-based CR with comprehensive centre-based CR among patients = 65 years with coronary heart disease. RESULTS: seventy-five patients...... in the secondary outcomes of systolic blood pressure (-0.6 mmHg, 95% CI -11.3, 10.0), LDL cholesterol (0.3 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.04, 0.7), HDL cholesterol (0.2 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.01, 0.3), body composition, proportion of smokers and health-related quality of life. A group of patients who did not have an effect...

  16. Peri-operative oral caffeine does not prevent postoperative atrial fibrillation after heart valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: A randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, David; Nee, Laetitia; Guieu, Régis; Kerbaul, François; Fenouillet, Emmanuel; Roux, Nicolas; Giorgi, Roch; Theron, Alexis; Grisoli, Dominique; Gariboldi, Vlad; Collart, Frederic; Bruder, Nicolas; Velly, Lionel; Guidon, Catherine

    2018-04-26

    Raised plasma levels of endogenous adenosine after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have been related to the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). We wished to assess if caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist could have a beneficial effect on the incidence of POAF. A randomised controlled study. Single University Hospital. One hundred and ten patients scheduled for heart valve surgery with CPB. We randomly assigned patients to receive peri-operative oral caffeine (400 mg every 8 h for 2 days) or placebo. Adenosine plasma concentrations and caffeine pharmacokinetic profile were evaluated in a subgroup of 50 patients. The primary endpoint was the rate of atrial fibrillation during postoperative hospital stay. The current study was stopped for futility by the data monitoring board after an interim analysis. The incidence of atrial fibrillation was similar in the caffeine and in the placebo group during hospital stay (33 vs. 29%, P = 0.67) and the first 3 postoperative days (18 vs. 15%; P = 0.60). Basal and postoperative adenosine plasma levels were significantly associated with the primary outcome. Adenosine plasma levels were similar in the two treatment groups. Caffeine administration was associated with a higher incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (27 vs. 7%, P = 0.005). Oral caffeine does not prevent POAF after heart valve surgery with CPB but increased the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. ClinicalTrials.gov, no.: NCT01999829.

  17. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk of heart disease in the first few years, and HT also increased the risk of stroke ... a safety measure. They ensure a trial excludes any people for whom the protocol has known risks ...

  18. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Initiative tested whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. (When the trial began, HT was already in common use for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. It also ...

  19. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk of heart disease in the first few years, and HT also increased the risk of stroke ... master plan called a protocol (PRO-to-kol). This plan explains how the trial will work. The ...

  20. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision ... women and that are ethnically diverse. Children also need clinical trials that focus on them, as medical ...

  1. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment of menopausal symptoms. It also was increasingly being used for prevention of heart disease.) The study ... a trial are due to the different strategies being used, not to preexisting differences between the patients. ...

  2. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from other clinical trials show what doesn't work or may cause harm. For example, the NHLBI Women's Health Initiative tested whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. ( ...

  3. Chinese herbal medicine for chronic heart failure: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangtao Luo

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: CHM treatment according to syndrome differentiation effectively improved the LVEF, TCM-SS, and NYHA-FC in patients with CHF and also appeared to be safe. Thus, CHM treatment could be used as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of CHF (Clinical trial registration: NCT01939236.

  4. Lifestyle intervention and one-year prognosis of patients following open heart surgery: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadda, Olga; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Manginas, Athanasios; Stavridis, George; Nanas, Serafim; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the one-year prognosis of a lifestyle counselling intervention (diet, smoking cessation and exercise) among patients who had open heart surgery. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity worldwide in both developing and developed countries. Lifestyle modification plays an important role for patients who are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and for those with an established cardiovascular disease. Randomised, nonblind and lifestyle counselling intervention study with a one-year follow-up. A randomised, nonblind intervention study was performed on 500 patients who had open heart surgery. After hospital discharge, 250 patients (intervention group) were randomly allocated lifestyle counselling according to the recent guidelines provided by the European Society of Cardiology (European Journal Preventive Cardiology, 19, 2012, 585). The remaining 250 patients (control group) received the regular instructions. Primary end-point was the development of a cardiovascular disease (nonfatal event) during the first year; secondary end-points included fatal events, smoking abstinence, dietary habits and a physical activity evaluation. According to the primary end-point, the odds of having a nonfatal cardiovascular disease event are 0·56-times (95%CI 0·28, 0·96, p = 0·03) lower for the intervention group compared to the control group. One-year after surgery, it was found that participants in the intervention group were 1·96-times (95%CI 1·31, 2·93, p open heart surgery can improve health outcomes and reduce the risk of a new cardiac event. Health care services must recommend and organise well-structured cardiac rehabilitation programmes adjusted to the patient's needs. A well-structured cardiac rehabilitation programme adjusted to the patient's profile is a safe and cost-effective way to improve patients' outcome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cyber Attacks and Combat Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carataș Maria Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber terrorism is an intangible danger, a real over the corner threat in the life of individuals,organizations, and governments and is getting harder to deal with its damages. The motivations forthe cyber-attacks are different, depending on the terrorist group, from cybercrime to hacktivism,attacks over the authorities’ servers. Organizations constantly need to find new ways ofstrengthening protection against cyber-attacks, assess their cyber readiness, expand the resiliencecapacity and adopts international security regulations.

  6. Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Timm, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting social networks? Then you need Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Social Networking Infrastruct

  7. Randomised controlled trial of a secondary prevention program for myocardial infarction patients ('ProActive Heart': study protocol. Secondary prevention program for myocardial infarction patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C Barr

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is a significant cause of health and economic burden. Secondary prevention programs play a pivotal role in the treatment and management of those affected by CHD although participation rates are poor due to patient, provider, health system and societal-level barriers. As such, there is a need to develop innovative secondary prevention programs to address the treatment gap. Telephone-delivered care is convenient, flexible and has been shown to improve behavioural and clinical outcomes following myocardial infarction (MI. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a six-month telephone-delivered secondary prevention program for MI patients (ProActive Heart. Methods 550 adult MI patients have been recruited over a 14 month period (December 2007 to January 2009 through two Brisbane metropolitan hospitals, and randomised to an intervention or control group (n = 225 per group. The intervention commences within two weeks of hospital discharge delivered by study-trained health professionals ('health coaches' during up to 10 × 30 minute scripted telephone health coaching sessions. Participants also receive a ProActive Heart handbook and an educational resource to use during the health coaching sessions. The intervention focuses on appropriate modification of CHD risk factors, compliance with pharmacological management, and management of psychosocial issues. Data collection occurs at baseline or prior to commencement of the intervention (Time 1, six months follow-up or the completion of the intervention (Time 2, and at 12 months follow-up for longer term outcomes (Time 3. Primary outcome measures include quality of life (Short Form-36 and physical activity (Active Australia Survey. A cost-effective analysis of the costs and outcomes for patients in the intervention and control groups is being conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the

  8. First outline and baseline data of a randomized, controlled multicenter trial to evaluate the health economic impact of home telemonitoring in chronic heart failure - CardioBBEAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Reiner; Völler, Heinz; Nagels, Klaus; Bindl, Dominik; Vettorazzi, Eik; Dittmar, Ronny; Wohlgemuth, Walter; Neumann, Till; Störk, Stefan; Bruder, Oliver; Wegscheider, Karl; Nagel, Eckhard; Fleck, Eckart

    2015-08-11

    Evidence that home telemonitoring for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) offers clinical benefit over usual care is controversial as is evidence of a health economic advantage. Between January 2010 and June 2013, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CHF were enrolled and randomly assigned to 2 study groups comprising usual care with and without an interactive bi-directional remote monitoring system (Motiva®). The primary endpoint in CardioBBEAT is the Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) established by the groups' difference in total cost and in the combined clinical endpoint "days alive and not in hospital nor inpatient care per potential days in study" within the follow-up of 12 months. A total of 621 predominantly male patients were enrolled, whereof 302 patients were assigned to the intervention group and 319 to the control group. Ischemic cardiomyopathy was the leading cause of heart failure. Despite randomization, subjects of the control group were more often in NYHA functional class III-IV, and exhibited peripheral edema and renal dysfunction more often. Additionally, the control and intervention groups differed in heart rhythm disorders. No differences existed regarding risk factor profile, comorbidities, echocardiographic parameters, especially left ventricular and diastolic diameter and ejection fraction, as well as functional test results, medication and quality of life. While the observed baseline differences may well be a play of chance, they are of clinical relevance. Therefore, the statistical analysis plan was extended to include adjusted analyses with respect to the baseline imbalances. CardioBBEAT provides prospective outcome data on both, clinical and health economic impact of home telemonitoring in CHF. The study differs by the use of a high evidence level randomized controlled trial (RCT) design along with actual cost data obtained from health insurance companies. Its results are conducive to informed political and economic

  9. Impact of age, sex, therapeutic intent, race and severity of advanced heart failure on short-term principal outcomes in the MOMENTUM 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel J; Mehra, Mandeep R; Naka, Yoshifumi; Salerno, Christopher; Uriel, Nir; Dean, David; Itoh, Akinobu; Pagani, Francis D; Skipper, Eric R; Bhat, Geetha; Raval, Nirav; Bruckner, Brian A; Estep, Jerry D; Cogswell, Rebecca; Milano, Carmelo; Fendelander, Lahn; O'Connell, John B; Cleveland, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Primary outcomes analysis of the Multicenter Study of MagLev Technology in Patients Undergoing MCS Therapy With HeartMate 3 (MOMENTUM 3) trial short-term cohort demonstrated a higher survival rate free of debilitating stroke and reoperation to replace/remove the device (primary end-point) in patients receiving the HeartMate 3 (HM3) compared with the HeartMate (HMII). In this study we sought to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of pre-specified patient subgroups (age, sex, race, therapeutic intent [bridge to transplant/bridge to candidacy/destination therapy] and severity of illness) on primary end-point outcomes in MOMENTUM 3 patients implanted with HM3 and HMII devices. Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze patients enrolled in the "as-treated cohort" (n = 289) of the MOMENTUM 3 trial to: (1) determine interaction of various subgroups on primary end-point outcomes; and (2) identify independent variables associated with primary end-point success. Baseline characteristics were well balanced among HM3 (n = 151) and HMII (n = 138) cohorts. No significant interaction between the sub-groups on primary end-point outcomes was observed. Cox multivariable modeling identified age (≤65 years vs >65 years, hazard ratio 0.42 [95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.78], p = 0.006]) and pump type (HM3 vs HMII, hazard ratio 0.53 [95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.96], p = 0.034) to be independent predictors of primary outcomes success. After adjusting for age, no significant impact of sex, race, therapeutic intent and INTERMACS profiles on primary outcomes were observed. This analysis of MOMENTUM 3 suggests that younger age (≤65 years) at implant and pump choice are associated with a greater likelihood of primary end-point success. These findings further suggest that characterization of therapeutic intent into discrete bridge-to-transplant and destination therapy categories offers no clear clinical advantage, and should ideally be abandoned. Copyright

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial resilience training for heart health, and the added value of promoting physical activity: a cluster randomized trial of the READY program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakenham Kenneth I

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and poor social support are significant risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD, and stress and anxiety can trigger coronary events. People experiencing such psychosocial difficulties are more likely to be physically inactive, which is also an independent risk factor for CHD. Resilience training can target these risk factors, but there is little research evaluating the effectiveness of such programs. This paper describes the design and measures of a study to evaluate a resilience training program (READY to promote psychosocial well-being for heart health, and the added value of integrating physical activity promotion. Methods/Design In a cluster randomized trial, 95 participants will be allocated to either a waitlist or one of two intervention conditions. Both intervention conditions will receive a 10 × 2.5 hour group resilience training program (READY over 13 weeks. The program targets five protective factors identified from empirical evidence and analyzed as mediating variables: positive emotions, cognitive flexibility, social support, life meaning, and active coping. Resilience enhancement strategies reflect the six core Acceptance and Commitment Therapy processes (values, mindfulness, defusion, acceptance, self-as-context, committed action and Cognitive Behavior Therapy strategies such as relaxation training and social support building skills. Sessions include psychoeducation, discussions, experiential exercises, and home assignments. One intervention condition will include an additional session and ongoing content promoting physical activity. Measurement will occur at baseline, two weeks post intervention, and at eight weeks follow-up, and will include questionnaires, pedometer step logs, and physical and hematological measures. Primary outcome measures will include self-reported indicators of psychosocial well-being and depression. Secondary outcome measures will include self-reported indicators of

  11. Enlarged Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rheumatic fever, a heart defect, infections (infectious endocarditis), connective tissue disorders, certain medications or radiation treatments for cancer, your heart may enlarge. Disease of the heart ...

  12. Crony Attack: Strategic Attack’s Silver Bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    physical assets or financial assets. The form of crony attack that most closely resembles classic strategic attack is to deny, degrade, or destroy a money...February 1951. Reprinted in Airpower Studies Coursebook , Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, AL, 2002, 152–58. Hirsch, Michael. “NATO’s Game of

  13. Apixaban in Comparison With Warfarin in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Valvular Heart Disease: Findings From the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avezum, Alvaro; Lopes, Renato D; Schulte, Phillip J; Lanas, Fernando; Gersh, Bernard J; Hanna, Michael; Pais, Prem; Erol, Cetin; Diaz, Rafael; Bahit, M Cecilia; Bartunek, Jozef; De Caterina, Raffaele; Goto, Shinya; Ruzyllo, Witold; Zhu, Jun; Granger, Christopher B; Alexander, John H

    2015-08-25

    Apixaban is approved for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. However, the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial included a substantial number of patients with valvular heart disease and only excluded patients with clinically significant mitral stenosis or mechanical prosthetic heart valves. We compared the effect of apixaban and warfarin on rates of stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, and death in patients with and without moderate or severe valvular heart disease using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Of the 18 201 patients enrolled in ARISTOTLE, 4808 (26.4%) had a history of moderate or severe valvular heart disease or previous valve surgery. Patients with valvular heart disease had higher rates of stroke or systemic embolism and bleeding than patients without valvular heart disease. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban over warfarin in patients with and without valvular heart disease in reducing stroke and systemic embolism (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.97 and HR, 0.84; 95%, CI 0.67-1.04; interaction P=0.38), causing less major bleeding (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.04 and HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.55-0.77; interaction P=0.23), and reducing mortality (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.84-1.22 and HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96; interaction P=0.10). More than a quarter of the patients in ARISTOTLE with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation had moderate or severe valvular heart disease. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban over warfarin in reducing stroke or systemic embolism, causing less bleeding, and reducing death in patients with and without valvular heart disease. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00412984. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Inflammation and neuropathic attacks in hereditary brachial plexus neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, C; Dyck, P; Friedenberg, S; Burns, T; Windebank, A; Dyck, P

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of mechanical, infectious, and inflammatory factors inducing neuropathic attacks in hereditary brachial plexus neuropathy (HBPN), an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by attacks of pain and weakness, atrophy, and sensory alterations of the shoulder girdle and upper limb muscles. Methods: Four patients from separate kindreds with HBPN were evaluated. Upper extremity nerve biopsies were obtained during attacks from a person of each kindred. In situ hybridisation for common viruses in nerve tissue and genetic testing for a hereditary tendency to pressure palsies (HNPP; tomaculous neuropathy) were undertaken. Two patients treated with intravenous methyl prednisolone had serial clinical and electrophysiological examinations. One patient was followed prospectively through pregnancy and during the development of a stereotypic attack after elective caesarean delivery. Results: Upper extremity nerve biopsies in two patients showed prominent perivascular inflammatory infiltrates with vessel wall disruption. Nerve in situ hybridisation for viruses was negative. There were no tomaculous nerve changes. In two patients intravenous methyl prednisolone ameliorated symptoms (largely pain), but with tapering of steroid dose, signs and symptoms worsened. Elective caesarean delivery did not prevent a typical postpartum attack. Conclusions: Inflammation, probably immune, appears pathogenic for some if not all attacks of HBPN. Immune modulation may be useful in preventing or reducing the neuropathic attacks, although controlled trials are needed to establish efficacy, as correction of the mutant gene is still not possible. The genes involved in immune regulation may be candidates for causing HBPN disorders. PMID:12082044

  15. Effects of Statin Treatment on Inflammation and Cardiac Function in Heart Failure: An Adjusted Indirect Comparison Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsu, Kwadwo Osei; Reidpath, Daniel Diamond; Kadirvelu, Amudha

    2015-12-01

    Statins are known to prevent heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear whether statins as class or type (lipophilic or hydrophilic) improve outcomes of established HF. The current meta-analysis was performed to compare the treatment effects of lipophilic and hydrophilic statins on inflammation and cardiac function in HF. Outcomes were indicators of cardiac function [changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)] and inflammation [changes in highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interluekin-6 (IL-6)]. We conducted a search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane databases until December 31, 2014 for randomized control trials (RCTs) of statin versus placebo in patients with HF. RCTs with their respective extracted information were dichotomized into statin type evaluated and analyzed separately. Outcomes were pooled with random effect approach, producing standardized mean differences (SMD) for each statin type. Using these pooled estimates, we performed adjusted indirect comparisons for each outcome. Data from 6214 patients from 19 trials were analyzed. Lipophilic statin was superior to hydrophilic statin treatment regarding follow-up LVEF (SMD, 4.54; 95% CI, 4.16-4.91; P statin produces greater treatment effects on cardiac function and inflammation compared with hydrophilic statin in patients with HF. Until data from adequately powered head-to-head trial of the statin types are available, our meta-analysis brings clinicians and researchers a step closer to the quest on which statin--lipophilic or hydrophilic--is associated with better outcomes in HF. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. D-dimer to guide the intensity of anticoagulation in Chinese patients after mechanical heart valve replacement: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Zheng, X; Long, Y; Wu, M; Chen, Y; Yang, J; Liu, Z; Zhang, Z

    2017-10-01

    low-intensity group (5/240 vs. 14/237; HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.85). Overall, the total events were less in the D-dimer-guided group (9/240) when compared with the other two control groups (24/241, 20/237; HR, 0.37, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.19-0.72, 0.21-0.90 Conclusions The D-dimer-guided adjustment of anticoagulation intensity could reduce adverse events in Chinese patients after mechanical heart valve replacement. NCT01996657; ClinicalTrials.gov. © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  17. Pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure: signaling pathways and novel therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Yow Keat; Bernardo, Bianca C; Ooi, Jenny Y Y; Weeks, Kate L; McMullen, Julie R

    2015-09-01

    The onset of heart failure is typically preceded by cardiac hypertrophy, a response of the heart to increased workload, a cardiac insult such as a heart attack or genetic mutation. Cardiac hypertrophy is usually characterized by an increase in cardiomyocyte size and thickening of ventricular walls. Initially, such growth is an adaptive response to maintain cardiac function; however, in settings of sustained stress and as time progresses, these changes become maladaptive and the heart ultimately fails. In this review, we discuss the key features of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and the numerous mediators that have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy affecting gene transcription, calcium handling, protein synthesis, metabolism, autophagy, oxidative stress and inflammation. We also discuss new mediators including signaling proteins, microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs and new findings related to the role of calcineurin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. We also highlight mediators and processes which contribute to the transition from adaptive cardiac remodeling to maladaptive remodeling and heart failure. Treatment strategies for heart failure commonly include diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and β-blockers; however, mortality rates remain high. Here, we discuss new therapeutic approaches (e.g., RNA-based therapies, dietary supplementation, small molecules) either entering clinical trials or in preclinical development. Finally, we address the challenges that remain in translating these discoveries to new and approved therapies for heart failure.

  18. Invisible Trojan-horse attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance...

  19. When Sinuses Attack! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Search English Español When Sinuses Attack! KidsHealth / For Kids / When Sinuses Attack! What's in this article? What ...

  20. Combination therapy with milrinone and esmolol for heart protection in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zenggeng; Wu, Qinghua; Nie, Xiangbi; Guo, Jinghua; Yang, Chunli

    2015-11-01

    As a β-adrenoceptor antagonist (β-blocker), esmolol can reduce cardiac output and the phosphodiesterase III inhibitor milrinone has been shown to improve heart contractility in patients with septic shock. This study was performed to assess the effects of esmolol combined with milrinone in patients with severe sepsis. This prospective randomized study was conducted in patients with severe sepsis in the intensive care unit of the Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital (Nanchang, Jiangsu, China) between June 2013 and June 2014. Patients were randomly divided into control (C), milrinone (M), and milrinone-esmolol (ME) groups. The primary outcome was the rate of controlling the heart rate (HR) to achieve target levels. Secondary outcomes included the 28-day survival rate and changes in hemodynamic variables, organ function variables, myocardial injury markers, and the serum levels of proinflammatory factors. A total of 90 patients with severe sepsis were included in this study (30 per group). The HR in the ME group was lower than in the M and C groups after 12 h. The rate of successful HR control during the first 96 h was significantly higher in the ME group (60.0 vs. 33.3 % in the M group, vs. 26.7 % in the C group). Also, patients in the ME group had higher 28-day overall survival compared with the M (Log rank statistic = 5.452; P = 0.020) and C groups (Log rank statistic = 10.206; P = 0.001). Additionally, several variables showed significant improvement in the ME group 96 h after treatment compared with the M and C groups (P milrinone and esmolol could improve cardiac function and the 28-day survival rate in patients with severe sepsis.

  1. An inpatient lifestyle-change programme improves heart rate recovery in overweight and obese children and adolescents (LOGIC Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Désirée C; Rank, Melanie; Christle, Jeff; Langhof, Helmut; Siegrist, Monika; Halle, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Impaired heart rate recovery (HRR) is a strong predictor of overall mortality and cardio-metabolic risk. This study aimed at investigating (1) the effect of participation in a lifestyle-change programme for weight loss on HRR in overweight and obese children and (2) potential associations between the changes in one minute HRR (HRR1) and fitness, weight loss and cardio-metabolic risk. The analysis included 429 individuals (169 boys) aged 13.9 ± 2.3 years who participated in an inpatient weight loss programme for four to six weeks. At baseline and the end of the programme clinical investigations were performed, including blood analyses, blood pressure, anthropometry and maximal cycle ergometer exercise testing with continuous heart rate (HR) monitoring. HRR was calculated as the difference between the highest exercising HR and HR at one, three and five minutes post-exercise. Average body weight decreased from 90.7 ± 22.5 kg to 81.9 ± 20.0 kg and peak exercise capacity increased from 1.66 ± 0.38 W/kg to 2.05 ± 0.45 W/kg (p exercise capacity (p inpatient weight loss programme in overweight and obese children. This was not associated with improvements in body weight and cardio-metabolic risk; hence HRR would be a valuable addition to cardiovascular risk assessment in this group. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012.

  2. A Randomized Trial of Pocket-Echocardiography Integrated Mobile Health Device Assessments in Modern Structural Heart Disease Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavnani, Sanjeev P; Sola, Srikanth; Adams, David; Venkateshvaran, Ashwin; Dash, P K; Sengupta, Partho P

    2018-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether mobile health (mHealth) device assessments used as clinical decision support tools at the point-of-care can reduce the time to treatment and improve long-term outcomes among patients with rheumatic and structural heart diseases (SHD). Newly developed smartphone-connected mHealth devices represent promising methods to diagnose common diseases in resource-limited areas; however, the impact of technology-based care on long-term outcomes has not been rigorously evaluated. A total of 253 patients with SHD were randomized to an initial diagnostic assessment with wireless devices in mHealth clinics (n = 139) or to standard-care (n = 114) in India. mHealth clinics were equipped with point-of-care devices including pocket-echocardiography, smartphone-connected-electrocardiogram blood pressure and oxygen measurements, activity monitoring, and portable brain natriuretic peptide laboratory testing. All individuals underwent comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography to assess the severity of SHD. The primary endpoint was the time to referral for therapy with percutaneous valvuloplasty or surgical valve replacement. Secondary endpoints included the probability of a cardiovascular hospitalization and/or death over 1 year. An initial mHealth assessment was associated with a shorter time to referral for valvuloplasty and/or valve replacement (83 ± 79 days vs. 180 ± 101 days; p Mobile Health Device Assessments in Modern Structural Heart Disease Clinics; NCT02881398). Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Heart Failure in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Biykem; Khalaf, Shaden

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in women, and they tend to develop it at an older age compared to men. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is more common in women than in men and accounts for at least half the cases of heart failure in women. When comparing men and women who have heart failure and a low left ventricular ejection fraction, the women are more symptomatic and have a similarly poor outcome. Overall recommendations for guideline-directed medical therapies show no differences in treatment approaches between men and women. Overall, women are generally underrepresented in clinical trials for heart failure. Further studies are needed to shed light into different mechanisms, causes, and targeted therapies of heart failure in women. PMID:29744014

  4. Invisible Trojan-horse attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.

  5. Implications of recent hypertension trials for the generalist physician: whom do we treat, and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Lee

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The publication of the results of the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension-2 (STOP-2 and the termination of the doxazocin arm of the Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack (ALLHAT study again raise the question of whether all antihypertensives deliver equal cardiovascular outcome benefits. Data from research on congestive heart failure and from the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE trial illuminate the roles and possible mechanisms of humoral mediators of vascular damage, suggesting, first, that some antihypertensives (thiazides, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can deliver more improvement in outcomes than other agents and, second, that decisions on whom to treat are best made based on risk appraisal, not merely pressures.

  6. Medications Used to Treat Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, treatments and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  7. Clinical trials update from the Heart Failure Society of America Meeting 2009: FAST, IMPROVE-HF, COACH galectin-3 substudy, HF-ACTION nuclear substudy, DAD-HF, and MARVEL-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainscak, Mitja; Coletta, Alison P; Sherwi, Nasser; Cleland, John G F

    2010-02-01

    This article presents findings and a commentary on late-breaking trials presented during the meeting of the Heart Failure Society of America in September 2009. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary, since analyses may change in the final publication. The FAST trial showed somewhat better performance of intrathoracic impedance for prediction of deterioration in patients with heart failure (HF) when compared with daily weighing. The IMPROVE-HF study reported the benefits of education on the management of patients with systolic HF. Galectin-3 appeared a useful method for improving risk stratification of patients with chronic HF in a substudy of the COACH trial. A nuclear substudy of the HF-ACTION trial failed to demonstrate that resting myocardial perfusion imaging, a measure of myocardial scar and viability, was clinically useful. A small randomized controlled trial (DAD-HF) suggested that the use of low-dose dopamine in patients with acutely decompensated HF was associated with less deterioration in renal function and less hypokalaemia. The MARVEL-1 trial raises further concerns about the safety of myoblast transplantation in ischaemic HF.

  8. Psychological mediators related to clinical outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for coronary heart disease: A sub-analysis from the SUPRIM trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlund, Fredrika; Olsson, Erik Mg; Pingel, Ronnie; Held, Claes; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Gulliksson, Mats; Burell, Gunilla

    2017-06-01

    Background The Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary Healthcare Project (SUPRIM) was a randomized controlled trial of a group-based cognitive behavioural therapy stress management programme for patients with coronary heart disease. The project was successful in reducing the risk of fatal or non-fatal first recurrent cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy on self-rated stress, somatic anxiety, vital exhaustion and depression and to study the associations of these factors with the reduction in cardiovascular events. Methods A total of 362 patients were randomly assigned to intervention or usual care groups. The psychological outcomes were assessed five times during 24 months and analysed using linear mixed models. The mediating roles of the outcomes were analysed using joint modelling of the longitudinal and time to event data. Results The intervention had a positive effect on somatic anxiety ( p < 0.05), reflecting a beneficial development over time compared with the controls. Stress, vital exhaustion and depression did not differ between the groups over time. Mediator analysis suggested that somatic anxiety may have mediated the effect of treatment on cardiovascular events. Conclusions The intervention had a small positive effect on somatic anxiety, but did not affect stress, vital exhaustion or depression in patients with coronary heart disease. Somatic anxiety was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and might act as a partial mediator in the treatment effect on cardiovascular events. However, the mechanisms between the intervention and the protective cardiovascular outcome remain to be identified.

  9. Could ginseng-based medicines be better than nitrates in treating ischemic heart disease? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yongliang; Zhang, Shikai; Huang, Fangyi; Leung, Siu-wai

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng-based medicines and nitrates are commonly used in treating ischemic heart disease (IHD) angina pectoris in China. Hundreds of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in Chinese language claimed that ginseng-based medicines can relieve the symptoms of IHD. This study provides the first PRISMA-compliant systematic review with sensitivity and subgroup analyses to evaluate the RCTs comparing the efficacies of ginseng-based medicines and nitrates in treating ischemic heart disease, particularly angina pectoris. Past RCTs published up to 2010 on ginseng versus nitrates in treating IHD for 14 or more days were retrieved from major English and Chinese databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, WangFang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. The qualities of included RCTs were assessed with Jadad scale, a refined Jadad scale called M scale, CONSORT 2010 checklist, and Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed on the primary outcomes including the improvement of symptoms and electrocardiography (ECG). Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression were performed to evaluate the effects of study characteristics of RCTs, including quality, follow-up periods, and efficacy definitions on the overall effect size of ginseng. Eighteen RCTs with 1549 participants were included. Overall odds ratios for comparing ginseng-based medicines with nitrates were 3.00 (95% CI: 2.27-3.96) in symptom improvement (n=18) and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.20-2.15) in ECG improvement (n=10). Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression found no significant difference in overall effects among all study characteristics, indicating that the overall effects were stable. The meta-analysis of 18 eligible RCTs demonstrates moderate evidence that ginseng is more effective than nitrates for treating angina pectoris. However, further RCTs for higher quality, longer follow-up periods, lager sample size, multi-center/country, and are

  10. The effect of progressive resistance training on aerobic fitness and strength in adults with coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollings, Matthew; Mavros, Yorgi; Freeston, Jonathan; Fiatarone Singh, Maria

    2017-08-01

    Design We aimed to evaluate the effect of progressive resistance training on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength in coronary heart disease, when compared to control or aerobic training, and when combined with aerobic training. Secondary aims were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of progressive resistance training on other physiological and clinical outcomes. Methods and results Electronic databases were searched from inception until July 2016. Designs included progressive resistance training vs control, progressive resistance training vs aerobic training, and combined training vs aerobic training. From 268,778 titles, 34 studies were included (1940 participants; 71.9% male; age 60 ± 7 years). Progressive resistance training was more effective than control for lower (standardized mean difference 0.57, 95% confidence interval (0.17-0.96)) and upper (1.43 (0.73-2.13)) body strength. Aerobic fitness improved similarly after progressive resistance training (16.9%) or aerobic training (21.0%); (standardized mean difference -0.13, 95% confidence interval (-0.35-0.08)). Combined training was more effective than aerobic training for aerobic fitness (0.21 (0.09-0.34), lower (0.62 (0.32-0.92)) and upper (0.51 (0.27-0.74)) body strength. Twenty studies reported adverse event information, with five reporting 64 cardiovascular complications, 63 during aerobic training. Conclusion Isolated progressive resistance training resulted in an increase in lower and upper body strength, and improved aerobic fitness to a similar degree as aerobic training in coronary heart disease cohorts. Importantly, when progressive resistance training was added to aerobic training, effects on both fitness and strength were enhanced compared to aerobic training alone. Reporting of adverse events was poor, and clinical gaps were identified for women, older adults, high intensity progressive resistance training and long-term outcomes, warranting future trials to confirm safety and

  11. Changes in natriuretic peptides after acute hospital presentation for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: A feasible surrogate trial endpoint? A report from the prospective Karen study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarese, Gianluigi; Donal, Erwan; Hage, Camilla; Oger, Emmanuel; Persson, Hans; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Linde, Cecilia; Lund, Lars H

    2017-01-01

    In acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) there are no surrogate endpoints for early phase trials. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether a reduction in natriuretic peptides (NP) between acute hospital presentation to stable follow-up is associated with improved mortality and morbidity. Patients presenting acutely to the hospital for ADHF with HFpEF enrolled in the Karolinska Rennes (KaRen) study and reporting N-terminal pro-B-type NP or B-type NP assessment at baseline hospital presentation and at 4-8weeks follow-up were prospectively studied. Logistic regression analyses were performed to detect the predictors of baseline and changes in NPs. Cox regression models were performed to assess the impact of NP reductions on mortality and the composite of mortality and HF hospitalization. Of 361 patients (median follow-up 585days), 267 (74%) reported an improvement in NPs, while 94 (26%) reported worsening. At baseline, the independent predictors of lower NPs were higher glomerular filtration rate (Odds Ratio [OR] per unit: 1.013; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.005-1.021) and younger age (OR per year: 0.972; CI: 0.947-0.998). Improvement in NPs at follow-up was predicted by higher heart rate at baseline (OR per bpm: 1.014; CI: 1.003-1.025). After adjustments, the hazard ratio for all-cause death was 0.730 (CI: 0.456-1.169) and for the composite outcome 0.814 (CI: 0.582-1.139) for patients who improved vs. worsened in NP levels. In patients presenting acutely to the hospital with HFPEF, an improvement in NP levels did not independently and significantly predict improved mortality and/or morbidity. NPs as surrogate endpoints in acute HFpEF require further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of moderate- versus high-intensity exercise on vascular function, biomarkers and quality of life in heart transplant recipients: A randomized, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Christian H; Gustafsson, Finn; Christensen, Stefan B; Dela, Flemming; Langberg, Henning; Prescott, Eva

    2015-08-01

    Growing evidence in long-term treatment of heart transplant (HTx) recipients indicates effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on several parameters, including oxygen uptake, vascular function and psychological distress. In this study we compare the effect of HIIT vs continued moderate training (CON) on vascular function, biomarkers and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in HTx recipients. A randomized, controlled crossover trial of stable HTx recipients >12 months after transplantation was done on patients with 12 weeks of HIIT or 12 weeks of CON, followed by a 5-month washout and crossover. Outcomes included endothelial function, arterial stiffness, biomarkers, HRQoL and markers of anxiety and depression. Sixteen HTx recipients (mean age 52 years, 75% male) completed the study. HIIT increased VO(2peak) more than CON (between-group difference, p HIIT patients (p = 0.02) and borderline increased in CON patients (p = 0.07), whereas there was no significant effect of exercise on the mental component. Depression score decreased significantly in HIIT patients (p = 0.04) with no change in CON patients (p = 0.75), whereas anxiety score decreased significantly in both HIIT (p 0.05). Arterial stiffness and biomarkers were not changed, nor did endothelial function change after HIIT (p = 0.08) or CON (p = 0.68). HIIT and CON are both well tolerated and induce similar improvements in physical components of HRQoL and in markers of anxiety. Effects of either training modality on vascular function and biomarkers could not be confirmed. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduction in 2-year recurrent risk score and improved behavioral outcomes after participation in the "Beating Heart Problems" self-management program: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Barbara M; Worcester, Marian U C; Higgins, Rosemary O; Elliott, Peter C; Le Grande, Michael R; Mitchell, Fiona; Navaratnam, Hema; Turner, Alyna; Grigg, Leeanne; Tatoulis, James; Goble, Alan J

    2013-01-01

    While behavior change can improve risk factor profiles and prognosis after an acute cardiac event, patients need assistance to achieve sustained lifestyle changes. We developed the "Beating Heart Problems" cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing program to support patients to develop behavioral and cognitive self-management skills. We report the results of a randomized controlled trial of the program. Patients (n = 275) consecutively admitted to 2 Melbourne hospitals after acute myocardial infarction (32%), coronary artery bypass graft surgery (40%), or percutaneous coronary intervention (28%) were randomized to treatment (T; n = 139) or control (C; n = 136). T group patients were invited to participate in the 8-week group-based program. Patients underwent risk factor screening 6 weeks after hospital discharge (before randomization) and again 4 and 12 months later. At both the followups, T and C groups were compared on 2-year risk of a recurrent cardiac event and key behavioral outcomes, using both intention-to-treat and "completers only" analyses. Patients ranged in age from 32 to 75 years (mean = 59.0 years; SD - 9.1 years). Most patients (86%) were men. Compared with the C group patients, T group patients tended toward greater reduction in 2-year risk, at both the 4- and 12-month followups. Significant benefits in dietary fat intake and functional capacity were also evident. The "Beating Heart Problems" program showed modest but important benefit over usual care at 4 and, to a lesser extent, 12 months. Modifications to the program such as the inclusion of booster sessions and translation to online delivery are likely to improve outcomes.

  14. Dietary sodium influences the effect of mental stress on heart rate variability: a randomized trial in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alexander R; Gullixson, Leah R; Wolhart, Sarah C; Kost, Susan L; Schroeder, Darrell R; Eisenach, John H

    2014-02-01

    Dietary sodium influences intermediate physiological traits in healthy adults independent of changes in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary sodium affects cardiac autonomic modulation during mental stress. In a prospective, randomized cross-over design separated by 1 month between diets, 70 normotensive healthy young adults (F/M: 44/26, aged 18-38 years) consumed a 5-day low (10 mmol/day), normal (150 mmol), and high (400 mmol) sodium diet followed by heart rate variability (HRV) recordings at rest and during 5-min computerized mental arithmetic. Women were studied in the low hormone phase of the menstrual cycle following each diet. Diet did not affect resting blood pressure, but heart rate (HR) (mean ± SE) was 66 ± 1, 64 ± 1, and 63 ± 1 bpm in low, normal, and high sodium conditions, respectively (analysis of variance P = 0.02). For HRV, there was a main effect of sodium on resting SD of normalized RR intervals (SDNN), square root of the mean squared difference of successive normalized RR intervals (RMSSD), high frequency, low-frequency normalized units (LFnu), and high-frequency normalized units (HFnu) (P sodium was most marked and consistent with sympathetic activation and reduced vagal activity, with increased LFnu and decreased SDNN, RMSSD, and HFnu compared to both normal and high sodium conditions (P ≤0.05 for all). Dietary sodium-by-mental stress interactions were significant for mean NN, RMSSD, high-frequency power, LFnu, and low frequency/high frequency ratio (P sodium restriction evoked an increase in resting sympathetic activity and reduced vagal activity to the extent that mental stress caused modest additional disruptions in autonomic balance. Conversely, normal and high sodium evoked a reduction in resting sympathetic activity and incremental increase in resting vagal activity, which were disrupted to a greater extent during mental stress compared to low sodium. We conclude that autonomic control of

  15. Training auscultatory skills: computer simulated heart sounds or additional bedside training? A randomized trial on third-year medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study compares the value of additional use of computer simulated heart sounds, to conventional bedside auscultation training, on the cardiac auscultation skills of 3rd year medical students at Oslo University Medical School. Methods In addition to their usual curriculum courses, groups of seven students each were randomized to receive four hours of additional auscultation training either employing a computer simulator system or adding on more conventional bedside training. Cardiac auscultation skills were afterwards tested using live patients. Each student gave a written description of the auscultation findings in four selected patients, and was rewarded from 0-10 points for each patient. Differences between the two study groups were evaluated using student's t-test. Results At the auscultation test no significant difference in mean score was found between the students who had used additional computer based sound simulation compared to additional bedside training. Conclusions Students at an early stage of their cardiology training demonstrated equal performance of cardiac auscultation whether they had received an additional short auscultation course based on computer simulated training, or had had additional bedside training. PMID:20082701

  16. Intensive perioperative glucose control does not improve outcomes of patients submitted to open-heart surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pei Chen Chan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between different target levels of glucose and the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: We designed a prospective study in a university hospital where 109 consecutive patients were enrolled during a six-month period. All patients were scheduled for open-heart surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups. One group consisted of 55 patients and had a target glucose level of 80-130 mg/dl, while the other contained 54 patients and had a target glucose level of 160-200 mg/dl. These parameters were controlled during surgery and for 36 hours after surgery in the intensive care unit. Primary outcomes were clinical outcomes, including time of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in the intensive care unit, infection, hypoglycemia, renal or neurological dysfunction, blood transfusion and length of stay in the hospital. The secondary outcome was a combined end-point (mortality at 30 days, infection or length of stay in the intensive care unit of more than 3 days. A p-value of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In 109 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, both protocols of glycemic control in an intraoperative setting and in the intensive care unit were found to be safe, easily achieved and not to differentially affect clinical outcomes.

  17. Excluding infection through procalcitonin testing improves outcomes of congestive heart failure patients presenting with acute respiratory symptoms: results from the randomized ProHOSP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Kutz, Alexander; Grolimund, Eva; Haubitz, Sebastian; Demann, Désirée; Vögeli, Alaadin; Hitz, Fabienne; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Thomann, Robert; Falconnier, Claudine; Hoess, Claus; Henzen, Christoph; Marlowe, Robert J; Zimmerli, Werner; Mueller, Beat

    2014-08-20

    We sought to determine whether exclusion of infection and antibiotic stewardship with the infection biomarker procalcitonin improves outcomes in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients presenting to emergency departments with respiratory symptoms and suspicion of respiratory infection. We performed a secondary analysis of patients with a past medical history of CHF formerly included in a Swiss multicenter randomized-controlled trial. The trial compared antibiotic stewardship according to a procalcitonin algorithm or state-of-the-art guidelines (controls). The primary endpoint was a 30-day adverse outcome (death, intensive care unit admission); the secondary endpoints included a 30-day antibiotic exposure. In the 110/233 analyzed patients (47.2%) with low initial procalcitonin (<0.25 μg/L), suggesting the absence of systemic bacterial infection, those randomized to procalcitonin guidance (n=50) had a significantly lower adverse outcome rate compared to controls (n=60): 4% vs. 20% (absolute difference -16.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -28.4% to -3.6%, P=0.01), and significantly reduced antibiotic exposure [days] (mean 3.7 ± 4.0 vs. 6.5 ± 4.4, difference -2.8 [95% CI, -4.4 to -1.2], P<0.01). When initial procalcitonin was ≥0.25 μg/L, procalcitonin-guided patients had significantly reduced antibiotic exposure due to early stop of therapy without any difference in adverse outcomes (25.8% vs. 24.6%, difference [95% CI] 1.2% [-14.5% to 16.9%, P=0.88]). CHF patients presenting to the emergency department with respiratory symptoms and suspicion for respiratory infection had decreased antibiotic exposure and improved outcomes when procalcitonin measurement was used to exclude bacterial infection and guide antibiotic treatment. These data provide further evidence for the potential harmful effects of antibiotic / fluid treatment when used instead of diuretics and heart failure medication in clinically symptomatic CHF patients without underlying infection. Copyright

  18. Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells for Treatment of Patients with Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease (MyStromalCell Trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Mygind, Naja Dam

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of intramyocardial injections of autologous VEGF-A165-stimulated adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) in patients with refractory angina. MyStromalCell trial is a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study including sixty patients with CCS/NYHA class II...... to 54) (P= 0.41), and in METs 0.1 (95%CI -1.7 to 1.9) (P= 0.757). The difference between the groups was not significant (P= 0.680,P= 0.608, andP= 0.720 for time duration, watt, and METs, resp.). Intramyocardial delivered VEGF-A165-stimulated ASC treatment was safe but did not improve exercise capacity...

  19. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  20. Shark Attack Project - Marine Attack at Towed Hydrophone Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalmijn, Adrianus J

    2005-01-01

    The original objective of the SIO Marine Attack project was to identify the electric and magnetic fields causing sharks to inflict serious damage upon the towed hydrophone arrays of US Navy submarines...

  1. The Cyber-Physical Attacker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The world of Cyber-Physical Systems ranges from industrial to national interest applications. Even though these systems are pervading our everyday life, we are still far from fully understanding their security properties. Devising a suitable attacker model is a crucial element when studying...... the security properties of CPSs, as a system cannot be secured without defining the threats it is subject to. In this work an attacker scenario is presented which addresses the peculiarities of a cyber-physical adversary, and we discuss how this scenario relates to other attacker models popular in the security...

  2. Efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan vs. enalapril at lower than target doses in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: the PARADIGM-HF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeny, Orly; Claggett, Brian; Packer, Milton; Zile, Michael R; Rouleau, Jean; Swedberg, Karl; Teerlink, John R; Desai, Akshay S; Lefkowitz, Martin; Shi, Victor; McMurray, John J V; Solomon, Scott D

    2016-10-01

    In this analysis, we utilized data from PARADIGM-HF to test the hypothesis that participants who exhibited any dose reduction during the trial would have similar benefits from lower doses of sacubitril/valsartan relative to lower doses of enalapril. In a post-hoc analysis from PARADIGM-HF, we characterized patients by whether they received the maximal dose (200 mg sacubitril/valsartan or 10 mg enalapril twice daily) throughout the trial or had any dose reduction to lower doses (100/50/0 mg sacubitril/valsartan or 5/2.5/0 mg enalapril twice daily). The treatment effect for the primary outcome was estimated, stratified by dose level using time-updated Cox regression models. In the two treatment arms, participants with a dose reduction (43% of those randomized to enalapril and 42% of those randomized to sacubitril/valsartan) had similar baseline characteristics and similar baseline predictors of the need for dose reduction. In a time-updated analysis, any dose reduction was associated with a higher subsequent risk of the primary event [hazard ratio (HR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-2.7]. However, the treatment benefit of sacubitril/valsartan over enalapril following a dose reduction was similar (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.93, P sacubitril/valsartan relative to those on lower doses of enalapril was similar to that of patients who remained on target doses of both drugs. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society of Cardiology.

  3. Neuroradiological study of transient ischemic attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takusagawa, Yoshihiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Ichiki, Ken; Suga, Takeshi; Nishigaki, Shinichi

    1986-08-01

    Fifty-two patients with carotid TIAs and thirteen patients with vertebrobasilar TIAs were investigated by angiography and computed tomography. TIA was diagnosed by clinical symptoms in accordance with the criteria for TIA of the Joint Committee for Stroke Facilities in the U.S.A. (1974). The 65 patients with TIAs included 49 males and 16 females with average age of 63.5 years old at the initial episode of TIA. As for the diseases associated with TIA, hypertension (51 %), diabetes mellitus (15 %) and ischemic heart diseases (11 %) were the major disorders. Atrial fibrillation was observed in 2 cases. Intervals from last TIA attack to angiography were less than 7 days in 22 cases, 8 -- 30 days in 19 cases, 1 -- 4 monthes in 14 cases and more than 4 monthes in 10 cases, respectively. The cases in which angiography was done earlier after attacks displayed more abnormal findings. In 52 patients with caroted TIAs the artherosclerotic change of extracranial portion of the internal carotid artery was found in 14 cases (27 %), that of intracranial portion of the artery in 11 cases (21 %) and both lesions in 2 cases (4 %). On the other hand, in 13 patients with vertebrobasilar TIAs, this change was observed in 4 cases at the extracranival potion and in 1 case at the intracranial potion (siphon) of the internal carotid artery. Abnormal CT findings were found in 29 of 65 patients, namely 9 had ventricular dilatation and brain atrophy, 6 had cerebral infarction which was not associated with associated with symptoms of TIA. In carotid TIAs, Cerebral infarction was associated with symptoms of TIAs in 15 cases, namely 10 had a small low density area in the basal ganglia near the internal capsule and 5 had a low density area in the cortical or subcortical region. All of these 5 cases had cerebral embolism, which recanalized after attacks. (J.P.N.).

  4. Neuroradiological study of transient ischemic attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takusagawa, Yoshihiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Ichiki, Ken; Suga, Takeshi; Nishigaki, Shinichi

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-two patients with carotid TIAs and thirteen patients with vertebrobasilar TIAs were investigated by angiography and computed tomography. TIA was diagnosed by clinical symptoms in accordance with the criteria for TIA of the Joint Committee for Stroke Facilities in the U.S.A. (1974). The 65 patients with TIAs included 49 males and 16 females with average age of 63.5 years old at the initial episode of TIA. As for the diseases associated with TIA, hypertension (51 %), diabetes mellitus (15 %) and ischemic heart diseases (11 %) were the major disorders. Atrial fibrillation was observed in 2 cases. Intervals from last TIA attack to angiography were less than 7 days in 22 cases, 8 ∼ 30 days in 19 cases, 1 ∼ 4 monthes in 14 cases and more than 4 monthes in 10 cases, respectively. The cases in which angiography was done earlier after attacks displayed more abnormal findings. In 52 patients with caroted TIAs the artherosclerotic change of extracranial portion of the internal carotid artery was found in 14 cases (27 %), that of intracranial portion of the artery in 11 cases (21 %) and both lesions in 2 cases (4 %). On the other hand, in 13 patients with vertebrobasilar TIAs, this change was observed in 4 cases at the extracranival potion and in 1 case at the intracranial potion (siphon) of the internal carotid artery. Abnormal CT findings were found in 29 of 65 patients, namely 9 had ventricular dilatation and brain atrophy, 6 had cerebral infarction which was not associated with associated with symptoms of TIA. In carotid TIAs, Cerebral infarction was associated with symptoms of TIAs in 15 cases, namely 10 had a small low density area in the basal ganglia near the internal capsule and 5 had a low density area in the cortical or subcortical region. All of these 5 cases had cerebral embolism, which recanalized after attacks. (J.P.N.)

  5. Mechanical efficiency of high versus moderate intensity aerobic exercise in coronary heart disease patients: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villelabeitia-Jaureguizar, Koldobika; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Berenguel Senen, Alejandro; Verónica Hernández Jiménez, Verónica; Lorena Ruiz Bautista, Lorena; Barrios Garrido-Lestache, María Elvira; López Chicharro, Jose

    2018-05-10

    Mechanical efficiency (ME) refers to the ability of an individual to transfer energy consumed by external work. A decreased ME, could represent an increased energy cost during exercise and may, therefore, be limited in terms of physical activity. This study aimed to compare the influence of two different exercise protocols: moderate continuous training (MCT) versus high intensity interval training (HIIT), as part of a cardiac rehabilitation program on ME values among coronary patients. 110 coronary patients were assigned to either HIIT or MCT groups for 8 weeks. Incremental exercise tests in a cycle ergometer were performed to obtain VO₂peak. Net energy expenditure (EE) and ME were obtained at intensities corresponding to the first (VT₁) and second (VT₂) ventilatory thresholds, and at VO₂peak. Both exercise programs significantly increase VO₂peak with a higher increase in the HIIT group (2.96 ± 2.33 mL/kg/min vs. 3.88 ± 2.40 mL/kg/min, for patients of the MCT and HIIT groups respectively, p HIIT group. At VT₁, ME significantly increased in both groups, with a greater increase in the HIIT group (2.20 ± 6.25% vs. 5.52 ± 5.53%, for patients of the MCT and HIIT groups respectively, p HIIT to patients with chronic ischemic heart disease of low risk resulted in a greater improvement in VO₂peak and in ME at VT₁, than when MCT was applied. Moreover, only the application of HIIT brought about a significant increase in ME at VT₂ and at VO₂peak.

  6. Forensics Investigation of Web Application Security Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Amor Lazzez; Thabet Slimani

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, web applications are popular targets for security attackers. Using specific security mechanisms, we can prevent or detect a security attack on a web application, but we cannot find out the criminal who has carried out the security attack. Being unable to trace back an attack, encourages hackers to launch new attacks on the same system. Web application forensics aims to trace back and attribute a web application security attack to its originator. This may significantly reduce the sec...

  7. CDC Vital Signs-Heart Age

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    This podcast is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  8. HEART FAILURE – KEEPING STEP WITH THE PROGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Diaconu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic heart failure continues to represent a major problem for the healthcare systems worldwide, because of high prevalence and impact on patients’ quality of life. Between May 25-28, 2018, in Vienna, Austria, took place the European Congress of Heart Failure and the World Congress on Acute Heart Failure, organized by the European Society of Cardiology. The congress was a forum of exchanging expertise in diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, and also an opportunity to present the latest progresses regarding the management of this pathology. It seems that an integrated, multidisciplinary team approach is the future for heart failure management. This team should include internists, cardiologists, general practitioners, and nurses. The new President of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology is from a Balkan country, Prof. Petar M. Seferovic, from the Belgrade University Medical Center, Serbia. In one of his presentations, Prof. Seferovic highlighted that the treatment of chronic heart failure should explore new frontiers. Recently, there is much interest in established antidiabetic drugs to treat cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Introduction of sodium-glucose transport protein 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors in the late 1990s was a major breakthrough in the treatment of diabetes complications. These drugs are the only antidiabetic drugs with good results in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, demonstrated by several large randomized controlled trials, such as EMPA-REG (the first study to demonstrate a significant reduction in both cardiovascular mortality and heart failure-related hospitalization in patients treated with empaglifozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor. SGLT2 inhibitors are now recommended by some guidelines for the prevention of heart failure and associated mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The international registry REPORT HF, presented in Vienna, enrolled more than 18,000 patients from 44

  9. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security......Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece...... of several primitives in this model. We show that a secret-sharing scheme that is secure with threshold $t$ in the standard model is secure against superposition attacks if and only if the threshold is lowered to $t/2$. We use this result to give zero-knowledge proofs for all of NP in the common reference...

  10. Genetic attack on neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  11. Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Major changes in your life, such as a divorce or the addition of a baby Smoking or ... quality of life. Complications that panic attacks may cause or be linked to include: Development of specific ...

  12. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-01-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size

  13. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  14. Heart rate variability during acute psychosocial stress: A randomized cross-over trial of verbal and non-verbal laboratory stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnera, Agostino; Zarbo, Cristina; Tarvainen, Mika P; Marchettini, Paolo; Adorni, Roberta; Compare, Angelo

    2018-05-01

    Acute psychosocial stress is typically investigated in laboratory settings using protocols with distinctive characteristics. For example, some tasks involve the action of speaking, which seems to alter Heart Rate Variability (HRV) through acute changes in respiration patterns. However, it is still unknown which task induces the strongest subjective and autonomic stress response. The present cross-over randomized trial sought to investigate the differences in perceived stress and in linear and non-linear analyses of HRV between three different verbal (Speech and Stroop) and non-verbal (Montreal Imaging Stress Task; MIST) stress tasks, in a sample of 60 healthy adults (51.7% females; mean age = 25.6 ± 3.83 years). Analyses were run controlling for respiration rates. Participants reported similar levels of perceived stress across the three tasks. However, MIST induced a stronger cardiovascular response than Speech and Stroop tasks, even after controlling for respiration rates. Finally, women reported higher levels of perceived stress and lower HRV both at rest and in response to acute psychosocial stressors, compared to men. Taken together, our results suggest the presence of gender-related differences during psychophysiological experiments on stress. They also suggest that verbal activity masked the vagal withdrawal through altered respiration patterns imposed by speaking. Therefore, our findings support the use of highly-standardized math task, such as MIST, as a valid and reliable alternative to verbal protocols during laboratory studies on stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of a fixed-dose combination of benazepril and pimobendan in dogs with congestive heart failure: a randomized non-inferiority clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan N; Hirakawa, Atsushi; Sonobe, Junko; Otaki, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Nobuhiro; Seewald, Wolfgang; Forster, Sophie

    2018-01-31

    A fixed-dose combination tablet of benazepril and pimobendan (Fortekor Plus; Elanco Animal Health) was tested in dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in a three-arm, masked, randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial in Japan. The test group (n = 34) received Fortekor Plus twice daily. Two control groups received registered formulations of benazepril (Fortekor; Elanco Animal Health) and pimobendan (Vetmedin; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica) with administration of Vetmedin twice daily and Fortekor twice (Control I, n = 14) or once (Control II, n = 19) daily. Diuretics were used in 22 dogs (32.8%). Global clinical scores decreased significantly from baseline in all groups; there were no significant differences between groups, and non-inferiority of Fortekor Plus compared to Control I, Control II, and combined Control I + II groups was demonstrated. There were no significant differences between groups for relevant clinical chemistry and hematology variables or frequency of all adverse events. Frequency of emesis was significantly ( p = 0.0042) lower in the Fortekor Plus (8.8%) group than in the Control I + II (39.4%) group. In conclusion, Fortekor Plus had non-inferior efficacy and was associated with significantly less emesis compared to Fortekor and Vetmedin in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD.

  16. Prophylactic perioperative sodium bicarbonate to prevent acute kidney injury following open heart surgery: a multicenter double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haase

    Full Text Available Preliminary evidence suggests a nephroprotective effect of urinary alkalinization in patients at risk of acute kidney injury. In this study, we tested whether prophylactic bicarbonate-based infusion reduces the incidence of acute kidney injury and tubular damage in patients undergoing open heart surgery.In a multicenter, double-blinded (patients, clinical and research personnel, randomized controlled trial we enrolled 350 adult patients undergoing open heart surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. At induction of anesthesia, patients received either 24 hours of intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (5.1 mmol/kg or sodium chloride (5.1 mmol/kg. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients developing acute kidney injury. Secondary endpoints included the magnitude of acute tubular damage as measured by urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, initiation of acute renal replacement therapy, and mortality. The study was stopped early under recommendation of the Data Safety and Monitoring Committee because interim analysis suggested likely lack of efficacy and possible harm. Groups were non-significantly different at baseline except that a greater proportion of patients in the sodium bicarbonate group (66/174 [38%] presented with preoperative chronic kidney disease compared to control (44/176 [25%]; p = 0.009. Sodium bicarbonate increased urinary pH (from 6.0 to 7.5, p<0.001. More patients receiving bicarbonate (83/174 [47.7%] developed acute kidney injury compared with control patients (64/176 [36.4%], odds ratio [OR] 1.60 [95% CI 1.04-2.45]; unadjusted p = 0.032. After multivariable adjustment, a non-significant unfavorable group difference affecting patients receiving sodium bicarbonate was found for the primary endpoint (OR 1.45 [0.90-2.33], p = 0.120]. A greater postoperative increase in urinary NGAL in patients receiving bicarbonate infusion was observed compared to control patients (p = 0

  17. Software-based Microarchitectural Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Gruss, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Modern processors are highly optimized systems where every single cycle of computation time matters. Many optimizations depend on the data that is being processed. Software-based microarchitectural attacks exploit effects of these optimizations. Microarchitectural side-channel attacks leak secrets from cryptographic computations, from general purpose computations, or from the kernel. This leakage even persists across all common isolation boundaries, such as processes, containers, and virtual ...

  18. OPERATION COBRA. Deliberate Attack, Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-25

    to attack Sens, then continue to Troyes , on the Seine River. CCA was in the north, crossing the Loing River at Souppes against light resistance and...advanced from Troyes and prepared positions close to Sens. Under strong artillery support, a task force from CCA (TF Oden) attacked the enemy frontally...movement towards the Seine River on 24 August with an advance toward Troyes . Facing the combat command were what remained of the 51st SS Brigade, light

  19. Prescribing Data in General Practice Demonstration (PDGPD project - a cluster randomised controlled trial of a quality improvement intervention to achieve better prescribing for chronic heart failure and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Margaret

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research literature consistently documents that scientifically based therapeutic recommendations are not always followed in the hospital or in the primary care setting. Currently, there is evidence that some general practitioners in Australia are not prescribing appropriately for patients diagnosed with 1 hypertension (HT and 2 chronic heart failure (CHF. The objectives of this study were to improve general practitioner’s drug treatment management of these patients through feedback on their own prescribing and small group discussions with peers and a trained group facilitator. The impact evaluation includes quantitative assessment of prescribing changes at 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after the intervention. Methods A pragmatic multi site cluster RCT began recruiting practices in October 2009 to evaluate the effects of a multi-faceted quality improvement (QI intervention on prescribing practice among Australian general practitioners (GP in relation to patients with CHF and HT. General practices were recruited nationally through General Practice Networks across Australia. Participating practices were randomly allocated to one of three groups: two groups received the QI intervention (the prescribing indicator feedback reports and small group discussion with each group undertaking the clinical topics (CHF and HT in reverse order to the other. The third group was waitlisted to receive the intervention 6 months later and acted as a “control” for the other two groups. De-identified data on practice, doctor and patient characteristics and their treatment for CHF and HT are extracted at six-monthly intervals before and after the intervention. Post-test comparisons will be conducted between the intervention and control arms using intention to treat analysis and models that account for clustering of practices in a Network and clustering of patients within practices and GPs. Discussion This paper describes the study protocol for a

  20. Clinical trial design and rationale of the Multicenter Study of MagLev Technology in Patients Undergoing Mechanical Circulatory Support Therapy With HeartMate 3 (MOMENTUM 3) investigational device exemption clinical study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatley, Gerald; Sood, Poornima; Goldstein, Daniel; Uriel, Nir; Cleveland, Joseph; Middlebrook, Don; Mehra, Mandeep R

    2016-04-01

    The HeartMate 3 left ventricular assist system (LVAS; St. Jude Medical, Inc., formerly Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA) was recently introduced into clinical trials for durable circulatory support in patients with medically refractory advanced-stage heart failure. This centrifugal, fully magnetically levitated, continuous-flow pump is engineered with the intent to enhance hemocompatibility and reduce shear stress on blood elements, while also possessing intrinsic pulsatility. Although bridge-to-transplant (BTT) and destination therapy (DT) are established dichotomous indications for durable left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support, clinical practice has challenged the appropriateness of these designations. The introduction of novel LVAD technology allows for the development of clinical trial designs to keep pace with current practices. The prospective, randomized Multicenter Study of MagLev Technology in Patients Undergoing Mechanical Circulatory Support Therapy With HeartMate 3 (MOMENTUM 3) clinical trial aims to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the HeartMate 3 LVAS by demonstrating non-inferiority to the HeartMate II LVAS (also St. Jude Medical, Inc.). The innovative trial design includes patients enrolled under a single inclusion and exclusion criteria , regardless of the intended use of the device, with outcomes ascertained in the short term (ST, at 6 months) and long term (LT, at 2 years). This adaptive trial design includes a pre-specified safety phase (n = 30) analysis. The ST cohort includes the first 294 patients and the LT cohort includes the first 366 patients for evaluation of the composite primary end-point of survival to transplant, recovery or LVAD support free of debilitating stroke (modified Rankin score >3), or re-operation to replace the pump. As part of the adaptive design, an analysis by an independent statistician will determine whether sample size adjustment is required at pre-specified times during the study. A further 662

  1. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  2. Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental Retardation (MR is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for “agitated” TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.

  3. Information and Risk Modification Trial (INFORM): design of a randomised controlled trial of communicating different types of information about coronary heart disease risk, alongside lifestyle advice, to achieve change in health-related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silarova, Barbora; Lucas, Joanne; Butterworth, Adam S; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Girling, Christine; Lawrence, Kathryn; Mackintosh, Stuart; Moore, Carmel; Payne, Rupert A; Sharp, Stephen J; Shefer, Guy; Tolkien, Zoe; Usher-Smith, Juliet; Walker, Matthew; Danesh, John; Griffin, Simon

    2015-09-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death globally. Primary prevention of CVD requires cost-effective strategies to identify individuals at high risk in order to help target preventive interventions. An integral part of this approach is the use of CVD risk scores. Limitations in previous studies have prevented reliable inference about the potential advantages and the potential harms of using CVD risk scores as part of preventive strategies. We aim to evaluate short-term effects of providing different types of information about coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, alongside lifestyle advice, on health-related behaviours. In a parallel-group, open randomised trial, we are allocating 932 male and female blood donors with no previous history of CVD aged 40-84 years in England to either no intervention (control group) or to one of three active intervention groups: i) lifestyle advice only; ii) lifestyle advice plus information on estimated 10-year CHD risk based on phenotypic characteristics; and iii) lifestyle advice plus information on estimated 10-year CHD risk based on phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured physical activity. Secondary outcomes include: objectively measured dietary behaviours; cardiovascular risk factors; current medication and healthcare usage; perceived risk; cognitive evaluation of provision of CHD risk scores; and psychological outcomes. The follow-up assessment takes place 12 weeks after randomisation. The experiences, attitudes and concerns of a subset of participants will be also studied using individual interviews and focus groups. The INFORM study has been designed to provide robust findings about the short-term effects of providing different types of information on estimated 10-year CHD risk and lifestyle advice on health-related behaviours. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN17721237 . Registered 12 January 2015.

  4. Rationale and study design of a patient-centered intervention to improve health status in chronic heart failure: The Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness (CASA) randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelman, David B; Allen, Larry A; Peterson, Jamie; Hattler, Brack; Havranek, Edward P; Fairclough, Diane L; McBryde, Connor F; Meek, Paula M

    2016-11-01

    While contemporary heart failure management has led to some improvements in morbidity and mortality, patients continue to report poor health status (i.e., burdensome symptoms, impaired function, and poor quality of life). The Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness (CASA) trial is a NIH-funded, three-site, randomized clinical trial that examines the effect of the CASA intervention compared to usual care on the primary outcome of patient-reported health status at 6months in patients with heart failure and poor health status. The CASA intervention involves a nurse who works with patients to treat symptoms (e.g., shortness of breath, fatigue, pain) using disease-specific and palliative approaches, and a social worker who provides psychosocial care targeting depression and adjustment to illness. The intervention uses a collaborative care team model of health care delivery and is structured and primarily phone-based to enhance reproducibility and scalability. This article describes the rationale and design of the CASA trial, including several decision points: (1) how to design a patient-centered intervention to improve health status; (2) how to structure the intervention so that it is reproducible and scalable; and (3) how to systematically identify outpatients with heart failure most likely to need and benefit from the intervention. The results should provide valuable information to providers and health systems about the use of team care to manage symptoms and provide psychosocial care in chronic illness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Effect of repeated intracoronary injection of bone marrow cells in patients with ischaemic heart failure the Danish stem cell study--congestive heart failure trial (DanCell-CHF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Møller, Jacob E; Thayssen, Per

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that myocardial regeneration may be achieved by a single intracoronary bone marrow derived stem cell infusion in selected patients with ischaemic heart disease. The effect is uncertain in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure and it is not known whether r...

  6. Effect of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril on glycaemic control in patients with heart failure and diabetes: a post-hoc analysis from the PARADIGM-HF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferovic, Jelena P; Claggett, Brian; Seidelmann, Sara B; Seely, Ellen W; Packer, Milton; Zile, Michael R; Rouleau, Jean L; Swedberg, Karl; Lefkowitz, Martin; Shi, Victor C; Desai, Akshay S; McMurray, John J V; Solomon, Scott D

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes is an independent risk factor for heart failure progression. Sacubitril/valsartan, a combination angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, improves morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), compared with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril, and improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in obese hypertensive patients. We aimed to investigate the effect of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril on HbA 1c and time to first-time initiation of insulin or oral antihyperglycaemic drugs in patients with diabetes and HFrEF. In a post-hoc analysis of the PARADIGM-HF trial, we included 3778 patients with known diabetes or an HbA 1c ≥6·5% at screening out of 8399 patients with HFrEF who were randomly assigned to treatment with sacubitril/valsartan or enalapril. Of these patients, most (98%) had type 2 diabetes. We assessed changes in HbA 1c , triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and BMI in a mixed effects longitudinal analysis model. Time to initiation of oral antihyperglycaemic drugs or insulin in subjects previously not treated with these agents were compared between treatment groups. There were no significant differences in HbA 1c concentrations between randomised groups at screening. During the first year of follow-up, HbA 1c concentrations decreased by 0·16% (SD 1·40) in the enalapril group and 0·26% (SD 1·25) in the sacubitril/valsartan group (between-group reduction 0·13%, 95% CI 0·05-0·22, p=0·0023). HbA 1c concentrations were persistently lower in the sacubitril/valsartan group than in the enalapril group over the 3-year follow-up (between-group reduction 0·14%, 95% CI 0·06-0·23, p=0·0055). New use of insulin was 29% lower in patients receiving sacubitril/valsartan (114 [7%] patients) compared with patients receiving enalapril (153 [10%]; hazard ratio 0·71, 95% CI 0·56-0·90, p=0·0052). Similarly, fewer patients were started on oral antihyperglycaemic therapy (0·77, 0·58-1·02

  7. Analytical Characterization of Internet Security Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellke, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Internet security attacks have drawn significant attention due to their enormously adverse impact. These attacks includes Malware (Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horse), Denial of Service, Packet Sniffer, and Password Attacks. There is an increasing need to provide adequate defense mechanisms against these attacks. My thesis proposal deals with analytical…

  8. Vitamin D and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall Brinkley, D; Ali, Omair M; Zalawadiya, Sandip K; Wang, Thomas J

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D is principally known for its role in calcium homeostasis, but preclinical studies implicate multiple pathways through which vitamin D may affect cardiovascular function and influence risk for heart failure. Many adults with cardiovascular disease have low vitamin D status, making it a potential therapeutic target. We review the rationale and potential role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and treatment of chronic heart failure. Substantial observational evidence has associated low vitamin D status with the risk of heart failure, ventricular remodeling, and clinical outcomes in heart failure, including mortality. However, trials assessing the influence of vitamin D supplementation on surrogate markers and clinical outcomes in heart failure have generally been small and inconclusive. There are insufficient data to recommend routine assessment or supplementation of vitamin D for the prevention or treatment of chronic heart failure. Prospective trials powered for clinical outcomes are warranted.

  9. Automated Generation of Attack Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error-prone and impractica......Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error......-prone and impracticable for large systems. Nonetheless, the automated generation of attack trees has only been explored in connection to computer networks and levering rich models, whose analysis typically leads to an exponential blow-up of the state space. We propose a static analysis approach where attack trees...... are automatically inferred from a process algebraic specification in a syntax-directed fashion, encompassing a great many application domains and avoiding incurring systematically an exponential explosion. Moreover, we show how the standard propositional denotation of an attack tree can be used to phrase...

  10. Heart failure: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of heart failure in diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jorsal, Anders; Wiggers, Henrik; McMurray, John J.V.

    2018-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the epidemiology of heart failure and diabetes and summarizes the key findings from the recent cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, with a focus on heart failure as an endpoint.

  11. Heartburn or Chest Pain: When Is It Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cardiovascular imaging in emergency department patients with chest pain: A joint document of the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria Committee and the American College of ...

  12. [A heart attack: was the patient lucky or unlucky?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Hartman, T.C.; van Ravesteijn, H.; Lucassen, P.L.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    CIRCUMSTANCES WERE FAVOURABLE BUT OUTCOME ILL-FATED: The assessment of signs and symptoms in primary care is an important but difficult task for general practitioners (GPs) who have to decide whether symptoms require immediate action or rather a watchful waiting approach. However, the GP may

  13. When You Visit Your Doctor After a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or how a bite of bread tastes with dinner. Leverage your strengths for a more positive life Strengths are built-in capacities for certain thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. 5 ways to keep your memory sharp The way you live, what you eat and drink, and how you treat your body ...

  14. Improvement of primary care for patients with chronic heart failure: A study protocol for a cluster randomised trial comparing two strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensing Michel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with chronic heart failure (CHF, a common condition with high morbidity and mortality rates, receive treatment in primary care. To improve the management of CHF in primary care, we developed an implementation programme comprised of educational and organisational components, with support by a practice visitor and focus both on drug treatment and lifestyle advice, and on organisation of care within the practice and collaboration with other healthcare providers. Tailoring has been shown to improve the success of implementation programmes, but little is known about what would be best methods for tailoring, specifically with respect to CHF in primary care. Methods/design We describe the study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of tailoring a CHF implementation programme to general practices compared to a standardised way of delivering a programme. The study population will consist of 60 general practitioners (GPs and the CHF patients they include. GPs are randomised in blocks of four, stratified according to practice size. With a tailored implementation programme GPs prioritise the issues that will form the bases of the support for the practice visits. These may comprise several issues, both educational and organizational. The primary outcome measures are patient's experience of receiving structured primary care for CHF (PACIC, a questionnaire related to the Chronic Care Model, patients' health-related utilities (EQ-5D, and drugs prescriptions using the guideline adherence index. Patients being clustered in practices, multilevel regression analyses will be used to explore the effect of practice size and type of intervention programme. In addition we will examine both changes within groups and differences at follow-up between groups with respect to drug dosages and advice on lifestyle issues. Furthermore, in interviews the feasibility of the programme and goal attainment

  15. Effect of aliskiren on post-discharge outcomes among diabetic and non-diabetic patients hospitalized for heart failure: insights from the ASTRONAUT trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Aldo P.; Greene, Stephen J.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Böhm, Michael; Zannad, Faiez; Solomon, Scott D.; Lewis, Eldrin F.; Baschiera, Fabio; Hua, Tsushung A.; Gimpelewicz, Claudio R.; Lesogor, Anastasia; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Ramos, Silvina; Luna, Alejandra; Miriuka, Santiago; Diez, Mirta; Perna, Eduardo; Luquez, Hugo; Pinna, Jorge Garcia; Castagnino, Jorge; Alvarenga, Pablo; Ibañez, Julio; Blumberg, Eduardo Salmon; Dizeo, Claudio; Guerrero, Rodolfo Ahuad; Schygiel, Pablo; Milesi, Rodolfo; Sosa, Carlos; Hominal, Miguel; Marquez, Lilia Lobo; Poy, Carlos; Hasbani, Eduardo; Vico, Marisa; Fernandez, Alberto; Vita, Nestor; Vanhaecke, Johan; De Keulenaer, Gilles; Striekwold, Harry; Vervoort, Geert; Vrolix, Mathias; Henry, Philippe; Dendale, Paul; Smolders, Walter; Marechal, Patrick; Vandekerckhove, Hans; Oliveira, Mucio; Neuenschwande, Fernando; Reis, Gilmar; Saraiva, Jose; Bodanese, Luiz; Canesin, Manoel; Greco, Oswaldo; Bassan, Roberto; Marino, Roberto Luis; Giannetti, Nadia; Moe, Gordon; Sussex, Bruce; Sheppard, Richard; Huynh, Thao; Stewart, Robert; Haddad, Haissam; Echeverria, Luis; Quintero, Adalberto; Torres, Adriana; Jaramillo, Mónica; Lopez, Mónica; Mendoza, Fernan; Florez, Noel; Cotes, Carlos; Garcia, Magali; Belohlavek, Jan; Hradec, Jaromir; Peterka, Martin; Gregor, Pavel; Monhart, Zdenek; Jansky, Petr; Kettner, Jiri; Reichert, Petr; Spinar, Jindrich; Brabec, Tomas; Hutyra, Martin; Solar, Miroslav; Pietilä, Mikko; Nyman, Kai; Pajari, Risto; Cohen, Ariel; Galinier, Michel; Gosse, Philippe; Livarek, Bernard; Neuder, Yannick; Jourdain, Patrick; Picard, François; Isnard, Richard; Hoppe, Uta; Kaeaeb, Stefan; Rosocha, Stefan; Prondzinsky, Roland; Felix, Stephan; Duengen, Hans-Dirk; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Fischer, Sven; Behrens, Steffen; Stawowy, Philipp; Kruells-Muench, Juergen; Knebel, Fabian; Nienaber, Christoph; Werner, Dierk; Aron, Wilma; Remppis, Bjoern; Hambrecht, Rainer; Kisters, Klaus; Werner, Nikos; Hoffmann, Stefan; Rossol, Siegbert; Geiss, Ernst; Graf, Kristof; Hamann, Frank; von Scheidt, Wolfgang; Schwinger, Robert; Tebbe, Ulrich; Costard-Jaeckle, Angelika; Lueders, Stephan; Heitzer, Thomas; Leutermann-Oei, Marie-Louise; Braun-Dullaeus, Ruediger; Roehnisch, Jens-Uwe; Muth, Gerhard; Goette, Andreas; Rotter, Achim; Ebelt, Henning; Olbrich, Hans-Georg; Mitrovic, Veselin; Hengstenberg, Christian; Schellong, Sebastian; Zamolyi, Karoly; Vertes, Andras; Matoltsy, Andras; Palinkas, Attila; Herczeg, Bela; Apro, Dezso; Lupkovics, Geza; Tomcsanyi, Janos; Toth, Kalman; Mathur, Atul; Banker, Darshan; Bharani, Anil; Arneja, Jaspal; Khan, Aziz; Gadkari, Milind; Hiremath, Jagdish; Patki, Nitin; Kumbla, Makund; Santosh, M.J.; Ravikishore, A.G.; Abhaichand, Rajpal; Maniyal, Vijayakukmar; Nanjappa, Manjunath; Reddy, P. Naveen; Chockalingam, Kulasekaran; Premchand, Rajendra; Mahajan, Vijay; Lewis, Basil; Wexler, Dov; Shochat, Michael; Keren, Andre; Omary, Muhamad; Katz, Amos; Marmor, Alon; Lembo, Giuseppe; Di Somma, Salvatore; Boccanelli, Alessandro; Barbiero, Mario; Pajes, Giuseppe; De Servi, Stefano; Greco, Dott Cosimo; De Santis, Fernando; Floresta, Agata; Visconti, Luigi Oltrona; Piovaccari, Giancarlo; Cavallini, Claudio; Di Biase, Matteo; Masini, Dott Franco; Vassanelli, Corrado; Viecca, Maurizio; Cangemi, Dott Francesco; Pirelli, Salvatore; Borghi, Claudio; Volpe, Massimo; Branzi, Angelo; Percoco, Dott Giovanni; Severi, Silvia; Santini, Alberto; De Lorenzi, Ettore; Metra, Marco; Zacà, Valerio; Mortara, Andrea; Tranquilino, Francisco P.; Babilonia, Noe A.; Ferrolino, Arthur M.; Manlutac, Benjamin; Dluzniewski, Miroslaw; Dzielinska, Zofia; Nowalany-Kozie, Ewa; Mazurek, Walentyna; Wierzchowiecki, Jerzy; Wysokinski, Andrzej; Szachniewicz, Joanna; Romanowski, Witold; Krauze-Wielicka, Magdalena; Jankowski, Piotr; Berkowski, Piotr; Szelemej, Roman; Kleinrok, Andrzej; Kornacewicz-Jac, Zdzislawa; Vintila, Marius; Vladoianu, Mircea; Militaru, Constantin; Dan, Gheorghe; Dorobantu, Maria; Dragulescu, Stefan; Kostenko, Victor; Vishnevsky, Alexandr; Goloschekin, Boris; Tyrenko, Vadim; Gordienko, Alexander; Kislyak, Oxana; Martsevich, Sergey; Kuchmin, Alexey; Karpov, Yurii; Fomin, Igor; Shvarts, Yury; Orlikova, Olga; Ershova, Olga; Berkovich, Olga; Sitnikova, Maria; Pakhomova, Inna; Boldueva, Svetlana; Tyurina, Tatiana; Simanenkov, Vladimir; Boyarkin, Mikhail; Novikova, Nina; Tereschenko, Sergey; Zadionchenko, Vladimir; Shogenov, Zaur; Gordeev, Ivan; Moiseev, Valentin; Wong, Raymond; Ong, Hean Yee; Le Tan, Ju; Goncalvesova, Eva; Kovar, Frantisek; Skalina, Ivan; Kasperova, Viera; Hojerova, Silvia; Szentivanyi, Miroslav; Stancak, Branislav; Babcak, Marian; Kycina, Peter; Poliacik, Pavol; Toth, Peter; Sirotiakova, Jana; de Sa, Esteban Lopez; Bueno, Manuel Gomez; Selles, Manuel Martinez; Cabrera, Jose Angel; Freire, Ramon Bover; Gonzalez Juanatey, Jose Ramon; Comin, Josep; Soriano, FranciscoRidocci; Lopez, Alejandro; Vicho, Raul; Lama, Manuel Geraldia; Schaufelberger, Maria; Brunotte, Richard; Ullman, Bengt; Hagerman, Inger; Cizinsky, Stella; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Yu, Wen-Chung; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Lai, Wen-Ter; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Ural, Dilek; Badak, Ozer; Akin, Mustafa; Yigit, Zerrin; Yokusoglu, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Abaci, Adnan; Ebinc, Haksun; Perlman, Richard; Parish, David; Bergin, James; Burnham, Kenneth; Brown, Christopher; Lundbye, Justin; Williams, Celeste; Eisen, Howard; Juneman, Elizabeth; Joseph, Susan; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Peura, Jennifer; Gupta, Vishal; Habet, Kalim; French, William; Mody, Freny; Graham, Susan; Hazelrigg, Monica; Chung, Eugene; Dunlap, Stephanie; Nikolaidis, Lazaros; Najjar, Samer; Katz, Richard; Murali, Srinivas; Izzo, Joseph L.; Callister, Tracy; Phillips, Roland; Lippolis, Nicholas; Winterton, John; Meymandi, Sheba; Heilman, Karl; Oren, Ron; Zolty, Ronald; Brottman, Michael; Gunawardena, D.R.; Adams, Kirkwood; Barnard, Denise; Klapholz, Marc; Fulmer, James

    2013-01-01

    Aims The objective of the Aliskiren Trial on Acute Heart Failure Outcomes (ASTRONAUT) was to determine whether aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, would improve post-discharge outcomes in patients with hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) with reduced ejection fraction. Pre-specified subgroup analyses suggested potential heterogeneity in post-discharge outcomes with aliskiren in patients with and without baseline diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods and results ASTRONAUT included 953 patients without DM (aliskiren 489; placebo 464) and 662 patients with DM (aliskiren 319; placebo 343) (as reported by study investigators). Study endpoints included the first occurrence of cardiovascular death or HHF within 6 and 12 months, all-cause death within 6 and 12 months, and change from baseline in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at 1, 6, and 12 months. Data regarding risk of hyperkalaemia, renal impairment, and hypotension, and changes in additional serum biomarkers were collected. The effect of aliskiren on cardiovascular death or HHF within 6 months (primary endpoint) did not significantly differ by baseline DM status (P = 0.08 for interaction), but reached statistical significance at 12 months (non-DM: HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64–0.99; DM: HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.91–1.47; P = 0.03 for interaction). Risk of 12-month all-cause death with aliskiren significantly differed by the presence of baseline DM (non-DM: HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50–0.94; DM: HR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.15–2.33; P < 0.01 for interaction). Among non-diabetics, aliskiren significantly reduced NT-proBNP through 6 months and plasma troponin I and aldosterone through 12 months, as compared to placebo. Among diabetic patients, aliskiren reduced plasma troponin I and aldosterone relative to placebo through 1 month only. There was a trend towards differing risk of post-baseline potassium ≥6 mmol/L with aliskiren by underlying DM status (non-DM: HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.71–1.93; DM: HR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.30

  16. Safety and Efficacy of the Intravenous Infusion of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Patients With Heart Failure: A Phase 1/2 Randomized Controlled Trial (RIMECARD Trial [Randomized Clinical Trial of Intravenous Infusion Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cardiopathy]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Jorge; Verdugo, Fernando J; González, Paz L; Larrea, Ricardo E; Abarzua, Ema; Goset, Carlos; Rojo, Pamela; Palma, Ivan; Lamich, Ruben; Pedreros, Pablo A; Valdivia, Gloria; Lopez, Valentina M; Nazzal, Carolina; Alcayaga-Miranda, Francisca; Cuenca, Jimena; Brobeck, Matthew J; Patel, Amit N; Figueroa, Fernando E; Khoury, Maroun

    2017-10-27

    Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSC) are easily accessible and expanded in vitro, possess distinct properties, and improve myocardial remodeling and function in experimental models of cardiovascular disease. Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been previously assessed for their therapeutic potential in individuals with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, no clinical trial has evaluated intravenous infusion of UC-MSCs in these patients. Evaluate the safety and efficacy of the intravenous infusion of UC-MSC in patients with chronic stable heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction under optimal medical treatment were randomized to intravenous infusion of allogenic UC-MSCs (Cellistem, Cells for Cells S.A., Santiago, Chile; 1×10 6 cells/kg) or placebo (n=15 per group). UC-MSCs in vitro, compared with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, displayed a 55-fold increase in the expression of hepatocyte growth factor, known to be involved in myogenesis, cell migration, and immunoregulation. UC-MSC-treated patients presented no adverse events related to the cell infusion, and none of the patients tested at 0, 15, and 90 days presented alloantibodies to the UC-MSCs (n=7). Only the UC-MSC-treated group exhibited significant improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction at 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up assessed both through transthoracic echocardiography ( P =0.0167 versus baseline) and cardiac MRI ( P =0.025 versus baseline). Echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction change from baseline to month 12 differed significantly between groups (+7.07±6.22% versus +1.85±5.60%; P =0.028). In addition, at all follow-up time points, UC-MSC-treated patients displayed improvements of New York Heart Association functional class ( P =0.0167 versus baseline) and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire ( P <0.05 versus baseline). At study completion

  17. Lead exposure potentiates predatory attack behavior in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjie; Han Shenggao; Gregg, T.R.; Kemp, F.W.Francis W.; Davidow, A.L.; Louria, D.B.; Siegel, Allan; Bogden, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that environmental lead exposure is associated with aggressive behavior in children; however, numerous confounding variables limit the ability of these studies to establish a causal relationship. The study of aggressive behavior using a validated animal model was used to test the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggression in the absence of confounding variables. We studied the effects of lead exposure on a feline model of aggression: predatory (quiet biting) attack of an anesthetized rat. Five cats were stimulated with a precisely controlled electrical current via electrodes inserted into the lateral hypothalamus. The response measure was the predatory attack threshold current (i.e., the current required to elicit an attack response on 50% of the trials). Blocks of trials were administered in which predatory attack threshold currents were measured three times a week for a total of 6-10 weeks, including before, during, and after lead exposure. Lead was incorporated into cat food 'treats' at doses of 50-150 mg/kg/day. Two of the five cats received a second period of lead exposure. Blood lead concentrations were measured twice a week and were <1, 21-77, and <20 μg/dL prior to, during, and after lead exposure, respectively. The predatory attack threshold decreased significantly during initial lead exposure in three of five cats and increased after the cessation of lead exposure in four of the five cats (P<0.01). The predatory attack thresholds and blood lead concentrations for each cat were inversely correlated (r=-0.35 to -0.74). A random-effects mixed model demonstrated a significant (P=0.0019) negative association between threshold current and blood lead concentration. The data of this study demonstrate that lead exposure enhances predatory aggression in the cat and provide experimental support for a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggressive behavior in humans

  18. Efficacy of amiodarone and lidocaine for preventing ventricular fibrillation after aortic cross-clamp release in open heart surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Gu, Qiang; Chen, Hong-Wu; Peng, Huai-Ming; Jia, Dong-Yu; Zhou, Yu; Xiang, Mei-Xiang

    The relative preventative efficacy of amiodarone and lidocaine for ventricular fibrillation (VF) after release of an aortic cross-clamp (ACC) during open heart surgery has not been determined. This meta-analysis was designed to systematically evaluate the influence of amiodarone, lidocaine, or placebo on the incidence of VF after ACC. Prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the VF-preventative effects of amiodarone with lidocaine, or amiodarone or lidocaine with placebo were included. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant RCTs. Fixed or randomized effect models were applied according to the heterogeneity of the data from the selected studies. We included eight RCTs in the analysis. Pooled results suggested that the preventative effects of amiodarone and lidocaine were comparable (relative risk (RR)=1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70 to 1.80, P=0.63), but both were superior to the placebo (amiodarone, RR=0.71, 95% CI: 0.51 to 1.00, P=0.05; lidocaine, RR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.88, P=0.006). The percentage of patients requiring electric defibrillation counter shocks (DCSs) did not differ significantly among patients administered amiodarone (RR=0.21, 95% CI: 0.04 to 1.19, P=0.08), lidocaine (RR=2.44, 95% CI: 0.13 to 44.02, P=0.55), or the placebo (RR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.25 to 1.25, P=0.16). Amiodarone and lidocaine are comparably effective in preventing VF after ACC, but the percentage of patients who subsequently require DCSs does not differ among those administered amiodarone, lidocaine, or placebo.

  19. Low perceived social support and post-myocardial infarction prognosis in the enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease clinical trial: the effects of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Matthew M; Barefoot, John; Berkman, Lisa; Catellier, Diane J; Czajkowski, Susan; Saab, Patrice; Huber, Marc; DeLillo, Vicki; Mitchell, Pamela; Skala, Judy; Taylor, C Barr

    2005-01-01

    In post hoc analyses, to examine in low perceived social support (LPSS) patients enrolled in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) clinical trial (n = 1503), the pattern of social support following myocardial infarction (MI), the impact of psychosocial intervention on perceived support, the relationship of perceived support at the time of MI to subsequent death and recurrent MI, and the relationship of change in perceived support 6 months after MI to subsequent mortality. Partner status (partner, no partner) and score (12 = moderate support) on the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) were used post hoc to define four levels of risk. The resulting 4 LPSS risk groups were compared on baseline characteristics, changes in social support, and medical outcomes to a group of concurrently enrolled acute myocardial infarction patients without depression or LPSS (MI comparison group, n = 408). Effects of treatment assignment on LPSS and death/recurrent MI were also examined. All 4 LPSS risk groups demonstrated improvement in perceived support, regardless of treatment assignment, with a significant treatment effect only seen in the LPSS risk group with no partner and moderate support at baseline. During an average 29-month follow-up, the combined end point of death/nonfatal MI was 10% in the MI comparison group and 23% in the ENRICHD LPSS patients; LPSS conferred a greater risk in unadjusted and adjusted models (HR = 1.74-2.39). Change in ESSI score and/or improvement in perceived social support were not found to predict subsequent mortality. Baseline LPSS predicted death/recurrent MI in the ENRICHD cohort, independent of treatment assignment. Intervention effects indicated a partner surrogacy role for the interventionist and the need for a moderate level of support at baseline for the intervention to be effective.

  20. Long-term effects of high-intensity interval training in heart transplant recipients: A 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Marianne; Gullestad, Lars; Bendz, Bjørn; Bjørkelund, Elisabeth; Rolid, Katrine; Arora, Satish; Nytrøen, Kari

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that high-intensity interval training (HIT) is superior to moderate-continuous exercise in general and in cardiovascular diseases. Recently, we also found HIT safe and efficient after heart transplantation (HTx). This study reports the 5-year long-term effects. Forty-one HTx patients who had completed the previous 12-month randomized controlled trial, comparing HIT intervention with usual care, were eligible. In particular, we measured VO 2peak , muscular capacity, intravascular ultrasound, and questionnaires measuring physical and mental health. The baseline mean±SD values were as follows: age; 49.1±16.5 years, men; 68%, time since HTx: 4.1±2.2 years. Within the HIT group, initial VO 2peak increased significantly from 27.7±5.7 to 31.2±5.3 mL/kg/min. However, during the next 4 years, VO 2peak decreased to 26.0±6.2 mL/kg/min. The control group showed slightly decreasing VO 2peak values during the entire 5-year period. The HIT group reported significantly less anxiety symptoms, but there were no long-term differences in VO 2peak , muscular capacity, or cardiac allograft vasculopathy between the groups. The similar VO 2peak values correspond to our findings of similar everyday activity. Our findings suggest that intermittent periods of HIT may be necessary to maintain the initial benefits gained from the intervention. However, HIT probably reduces the burden of anxiety, which is a frequent health issue following HTx. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Treatment of sleep apnea in chronic heart failure patients with auto-servo ventilation improves sleep fragmentation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzenecker, Andrea; Escourrou, Pierre; Kuna, Samuel T; Series, Frederic; Lewis, Keir; Birner, Christoph; Pfeifer, Michael; Arzt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Impaired sleep efficiency is independently associated with worse prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Therefore, a test was conducted on whether auto-servo ventilation (ASV, biphasic positive airway pressure [BiPAP]-ASV, Philips Respironics) reduces sleep fragmentation and improves sleep efficiency in CHF patients with central sleep apnea (CSA) or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In this multicenter, randomized, parallel group trial, a study was conducted on 63 CHF patients (age 64 ± 10 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 29 ± 7%) with CSA or OSA (apnea-hypopnea Index, AHI 47 ± 18/h; 46% CSA) referred to sleep laboratories of the four participating centers. Participants were randomized to either ASV (n = 32) or optimal medical treatment alone (control, n = 31). Polysomnography (PSG) and actigraphy at home (home) with centralized blinded scoring were obtained at baseline and 12 weeks. ASV significantly reduced sleep fragmentation (total arousal indexPSG: -16.4 ± 20.6 vs. -0.6 ± 13.2/h, p = 0.001; sleep fragmentation indexhome: -7.6 ± 15.6 versus 4.3 ± 13.9/h, p = 0.003, respectively) and significantly increased sleep efficiency assessed by actigraphy (SEhome) compared to controls (2.3 ± 10.1 vs. -2.1 ± 6.9%, p = 0.002). Effects of ASV on sleep fragmentation and efficiency were similar in patients suffering from OSA and CSA. At home, ASV treatment modestly improves sleep fragmentation as well as sleep efficiency in CHF patients having either CSA or OSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An Analysis of Attacks on Blockchain Consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Bissias, George; Levine, Brian Neil; Ozisik, A. Pinar; Andresen, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    We present and validate a novel mathematical model of the blockchain mining process and use it to conduct an economic evaluation of the double-spend attack, which is fundamental to all blockchain systems. Our analysis focuses on the value of transactions that can be secured under a conventional double-spend attack, both with and without a concurrent eclipse attack. Our model quantifies the importance of several factors that determine the attack's success, including confirmation depth, attacke...

  3. Bisoprolol for congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J.; Gustafsson, F.

    2008-01-01

    was obtained from the FDA website. Conclusion: Bisoprolol is an effective and well-tolerated first-line beta-blocker for patients with systolic heart failure. The knowledge is primarily based on study patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure from the three CIBIS trials Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  4. URSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE. A DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED, CROSSOVER TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. von Haehling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Цель. Оценить влияние урсодеоксихолевой кислоты (УДХК на функцию эндотелия и маркеры воспаления у больных хронической сердечной недостаточностью (ХСН. Введение. Эндотелиальная дисфункция, которая обычно наблюдается у больных ХСН, вносит вклад в возникающее при этом состоянии ограничение способности выполнять физические нагрузки. Бактериальные липополисахариды могут способствовать высвобождению провоспалительных цитокинов и усугублять эндотелиальную дисфункцию. УДХК — желчная кислота, используемая при лечении заболеваний печени с холестазом, обладает противовоспалительным и цитопротекторными свойствами и может способствовать образованию смешанных мицелл вокруг липополисахарида. Эти свойства могут быть полезными для улучшения периферического кровотока у пациентов с ХСН. Материал и методы. Проведено проспективное одноцентровое двойное слепое рандомизированное плацебо-контролируемое перекрестное исследование УДХК у 17 пациентов мужского пола с клинически стабильной ХСН [II/III функционального класса по New York Heart Association (NYHA с фракцией выброса левого

  5. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  6. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  7. Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  8. Rationale and Design of the "Safety and Efficacy of the Combination of Loop with Thiazide-type Diuretics in Patients with Decompensated Heart Failure (CLOROTIC) Trial:" A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study to Determine the Effect of Combined Diuretic Therapy (Loop Diuretics With Thiazide-Type Diuretics) Among Patients With Decompensated Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trullàs, Joan Carles; Morales-Rull, José Luís; Casado, Jesús; Freitas Ramírez, Adriana; Manzano, Luís; Formiga, Francesc

    2016-07-01

    Fluid overload refractory to loop diuretic therapy can complicate acute or chronic heart failure (HF) management. The Safety and Efficacy of the Combination of Loop with Thiazide-type Diuretics in Patients with Decompensated Heart Failure (CLOROTIC) trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01647932) will test the hypothesis that blocking distal tubule sodium reabsorption with hydrochlorothiazide can antagonize the renal adaptation to chronic loop diuretic therapy and improve diuretic resistance. CLOROTIC is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter study. Three hundred and four patients with decompensated HF will be randomly assigned to receive hydrochlorothiazide or placebo in addition to a furosemide regimen. The main inclusion criteria are: age ≥18 years, history of chronic HF (irrespective of etiology and/or ejection fraction), admission for acute decompensation, and previous treatment with an oral loop diuretic for at least 1 month before randomization. The 2 coprimary endpoints are changes in body weight and changes in patient-reported dyspnea during hospital admission. Morbidity, mortality, and safety aspects will also be addressed. CLOROTIC is the first large-scale trial to evaluate whether the addition of a thiazide diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide) to a loop diuretic (furosemide) is a safe and effective strategy for improving congestive symptoms resulting from HF. This trial will provide important information and will therefore have a major impact on treatment strategies and future trials in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rationale, Design, and Methodology of the APOLLON trial: A comPrehensive, ObservationaL registry of heart faiLure with midrange and preserved ejectiON fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özlek, Bülent; Özlek, Eda; Çelik, Oğuzhan; Çil, Cem; Doğan, Volkan; Tekinalp, Mehmet; Zencirkıran Ağuş, Hicaz; Kahraman, Serkan; Ösken, Altuğ; Rencüzoğulları, İbrahim; Tanık, Veysel Ozan; Bekar, Lütfü; Çakır, Mustafa Ozan; Kaya, Bedri Caner; Tibilli, Hakan; Çelik, Yunus; Başaran, Özcan; Mert, Kadir Uğur; Sevinç, Samet; Demirci, Erkan; Dondurmacı, Engin; Biteker, Murat

    2018-05-01

    Although almost half of chronic heart failure (HF) patients have mid-range (HFmrEF) and preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF), no studies have been carried out with these patients in our country. This study aims to determine the demographic characteristics and current status of the clinical background of HFmrEF and HFpEF patients in a multicenter trial. A comPrehensive, ObservationaL registry of heart faiLure with mid range and preserved ejectiON fraction (APOLLON) trial will be an observational, multicenter, and noninterventional study conducted in Turkey. The study population will include 1065 patients from 12 sites in Turkey. All data will be collected at one point in time and the current clinical practice will be evaluated (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT03026114). We will enroll all consecutive patients admitted to the cardiology clinics who were at least 18 years of age and had New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV HF, elevated brain natriuretic peptide levels within the last 30 days, and an left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of at least 40%. Patients fulfilling the exclusion criteria will not be included in the study. Patients will be stratified into two categories according to LVEF: mid-range EF (HFmrEF, LVEF 40%-49%) and preserved EF (HFpEF, LVEF ≥50%). Regional quota sampling will be performed to ensure that the sample was representative of the Turkish population. Demographic, lifestyle, medical, and therapeutic data will be collected by this specific survey. The APOLLON trial will be the largest and most comprehensive study in Turkey evaluating HF patients with a LVEF ≥40% and will also be the first study to specifically analyze the recently designated HFmrEF category.

  10. Diuretics for heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Rajaa F; Flather, Marcus; Purcell, Henry; Poole-Wilson, Philip A; Coats, Andrew J S

    2012-02-15

    Chronic heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diuretics are regarded as the first-line treatment for patients with congestive heart failure since they provide symptomatic relief. The effects of diuretics on disease progression and survival remain unclear. To assess the harms and benefits of diuretics for chronic heart failure Updated searches were run in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL Issue 1 of 4, 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to 22 February 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 07) and HERDIN database (1990 to February 2011). We hand searched pertinent journals and reference lists of papers were inspected. We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field. No language restrictions were applied. Double-blinded randomised controlled trials of diuretic therapy comparing one diuretic with placebo, or one diuretic with another active agent (e.g. ACE inhibitors, digoxin) in patients with chronic heart failure. Two authors independently abstracted the data and assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of each trial. Extracted data were analysed by determining the odds ratio for dichotomous data, and difference in means for continuous data, of the treated group compared with controls. The likelihood of heterogeneity of the study population was assessed by the Chi-square test. If there was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity and pooling of results was clinically appropriate, a combined estimate was obtained using the fixed-effects model. This update has not identified any new studies for inclusion. The review includes 14 trials (525 participants), 7 were placebo-controlled, and 7 compared diuretics against other agents such as ACE inhibitors or digoxin. We analysed the data for mortality and for worsening heart failure. Mortality data were available in 3 of the placebo-controlled trials (202 participants). Mortality was lower for participants treated with diuretics than for

  11. Rehab for the Heart (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Each year, nearly 790,000 adults in the U.S. suffer a heart attack. For a third of these, it’s not their first. Cardiac rehabilitation could have prevented many of these. In this podcast, Dr. Fleetwood Loustalot discusses the importance of getting cardiac rehab after a heart attack.  Created: 8/24/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  12. Natriuretic peptide-guided therapy in chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis of 2,686 patients in 12 randomized trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Savarese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of cardiac natriuretic peptides in the management of patients with chronic heart failure (HF remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether natriuretic peptide-guided therapy, compared to clinically-guided therapy, improves mortality and hospitalization rate in patients with chronic HF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MEDLINE, Cochrane, ISI Web of Science and SCOPUS databases were searched for articles reporting natriuretic peptide-guided therapy in HF until August 2012. All randomized trials reporting clinical end-points (all-cause mortality and/or HF-related hospitalization and/or all-cause hospitalization were included. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the influence of treatment on outcomes. Sensitivity analysis was performed to test the influence of potential effect modifiers and of each trial included in meta-analysis on results. Twelve trials enrolling 2,686 participants were included. Natriuretic peptide-guided therapy (either B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP]- or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]-guided therapy significantly reduced all-cause mortality (Odds Ratio [OR]:0.738; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]:0.596 to 0.913; p = 0.005 and HF-related hospitalization (OR:0.554; CI:0.399 to 0.769; p = 0.000, but not all-cause hospitalization (OR:0.803; CI:0.629 to 1.024; p = 0.077. When separately assessed, NT-proBNP-guided therapy significantly reduced all-cause mortality (OR:0.717; CI:0.563 to 0.914; p = 0.007 and HF-related hospitalization (OR:0.531; CI:0.347 to 0.811; p = 0.003, but not all-cause hospitalization (OR:0.779; CI:0.414 to 1.465; p = 0.438, whereas BNP-guided therapy did not significantly reduce all-cause mortality (OR:0.814; CI:0.518 to 1.279; p = 0.371, HF-related hospitalization (OR:0.599; CI:0.303 to 1.187; p = 0.142 or all-cause hospitalization (OR:0.726; CI:0.509 to 1.035; p = 0.077. [corrected]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Use of cardiac peptides to guide

  13. Baseline blood pressure, low- and high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides and the risk of vascular events in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Callahan, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    AND RESULTS: The SPARCL trial randomized 4731 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and no known coronary heart disease and LDL-C between 100 and 190 mg/dL to either atorvastatin 80 mg/d or placebo. Baseline assessment included SBP, DBP and measurements of low-density lipoprotein...... associated with MCVE. Atorvastatin treatment was similarly effective regardless of baseline lipoprotein levels....

  14. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation for secondary prevention after transient ischemic attack or mild stroke: I: feasibility and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Peter L; Hachinski, Vladimir; Unsworth, Karen; Chan, Richard; Mytka, Sharon; O'Callaghan, Christina; Suskin, Neville

    2011-11-01

    Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CCR), which integrates structured lifestyle interventions and medications, reduces morbidity and mortality among cardiac patients. CCR has not typically been used with cerebrovascular populations, despite important commonalities with heart patients. We tested feasibility and effectiveness of 6-month outpatient CCR for secondary prevention after transient ischemic attack or mild, nondisabling stroke. This article presents risk factors. A future article will discuss psychological outcomes. Consecutive consenting subjects having sustained a transient ischemic attack or mild, nondisabling stroke within the previous 12 months (mean, 11.5 weeks; event-to-CCR entry) with ≥1 vascular risk factor, were recruited from a stroke prevention clinic providing usual care. We measured 6-month CCR outcomes following a prospective cohort design. Of 110 subjects recruited from January 2005 to April 2006, 100 subjects (mean age, 64.9 years; 46 women) entered and 80 subjects completed CCR. We obtained favorable, significant intake-to-exit changes in: aerobic capacity (+31.4%; Pstroke, offering a promising model for vascular protection across chronic disease entities. We know of no similar previous investigation, and are now conducting a randomized trial.

  15. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  16. Detection of complex cyber attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio-de Souza, Ian; Berk, Vincent H.; Giani, Annarita; Bakos, George; Bates, Marion; Cybenko, George; Madory, Doug

    2006-05-01

    One significant drawback to currently available security products is their inabilty to correlate diverse sensor input. For instance, by only using network intrusion detection data, a root kit installed through a weak username-password combination may go unnoticed. Similarly, an administrator may never make the link between deteriorating response times from the database server and an attacker exfiltrating trusted data, if these facts aren't presented together. Current Security Information Management Systems (SIMS) can collect and represent diverse data but lack sufficient correlation algorithms. By using a Process Query System, we were able to quickly bring together data flowing from many sources, including NIDS, HIDS, server logs, CPU load and memory usage, etc. We constructed PQS models that describe dynamic behavior of complicated attacks and failures, allowing us to detect and differentiate simultaneous sophisticated attacks on a target network. In this paper, we discuss the benefits of implementing such a multistage cyber attack detection system using PQS. We focus on how data from multiple sources can be combined and used to detect and track comprehensive network security events that go unnoticed using conventional tools.

  17. Day vs night : Does time of presentation matter in acute heart failure? A secondary analysis from the RELAX-AHF trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Peter S.; Teerlink, John R.; Boer-Martins, Leandro; Gimpelewicz, Claudio; Davison, Beth A.; Wang, Yi; Voors, Adriaan A.; Severin, Thomas; Ponikowski, Piotr; Hua, Tsushung A.; Greenberg, Barry H.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Felker, G. Michael; Cotter, Gad; Metra, Marco

    Background Signs and symptoms of heart failure can occur at any time. Differences between acute heart failure (AHF) patients who present at nighttime vs daytime and their outcomes have not been well studied. Our objective was to determine if there are differences in baseline characteristics and

  18. Rationale, design and baseline results of the Treatment Optimisation in Primary care of Heart failure in the Utrecht region (TOPHU) study : a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Mark J.; Hoes, Arno W.; Mosterd, Arend; Landman, Marcel A.; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Rutten, Frans H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is mainly detected and managed in primary care, but the care is considered suboptimal. We present the rationale, design and baseline results of the Treatment Optimisation in Primary care of Heart failure in the Utrecht region (TOPHU) study. In this study we assess the

  19. Specialist clinics for reducing emergency admissions in patients with heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, R.; Huntley, A.; Mann, M.; Huws, D.; Paranjothy, S.; Elwyn, G.; Purdy, S.

    2013-01-01

    Unplanned admissions for heart failure are common and some are considered preventable. OBJECTIVE: Undertake a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of specialist clinics in reducing unplanned hospital admissions in people with heart failure. DATA SOURCES: 18

  20. Transient complete atrioventricular block with Morgagni—Adams—Stokes attacks in a child after aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Sabirova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias after surgical correction of congenital heart diseases is one the urgent problems in pediatrlc cardiology. The paper describes the clinical picture, diagnosis, and therapy in a patent with transient complete atrioventricular block after open heart surgery. A protracted Morgagni—Adams—Stokes attack is one of the causes of sudden cardiac death. The occurrence of even single syncopes in patients after surgery for congenital heart disease requires that the arrhythmogenic nature of the attack should be ruled out for the timely and adequate therapy including the implantation of antiarrhythmic devices.

  1. Palliative Care in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Mert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is an important health problem since its incidence and prevalence is increasing year by year. Since symptom burden and mortality are high in heart failure, supportive and palliative care should be provided. However, very few patients are referred to palliative care services. In comparison with cancer patients, it is difficult to identify end of life care for patients with heart failure, because these patients are hospitalized when the signs of acute decompensation appear, and their symptoms decrease and functional status improve before they are discharged. Therefore, palliative care, which is a holistic approach aiming to improve patients’ quality of life, to detect and treat the attacks of the disease before they become severe, and to deal with patients’ physical, psychological, social, and mental health altogether during their care, should be integrated into heart failure patients’ care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 217-222

  2. Effect of Natriuretic Peptide-Guided Therapy on Hospitalization or Cardiovascular Mortality in High-Risk Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, G Michael; Anstrom, Kevin J; Adams, Kirkwood F; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Fiuzat, Mona; Houston-Miller, Nancy; Januzzi, James L; Mark, Daniel B; Piña, Ileana L; Passmore, Gayle; Whellan, David J; Yang, Hongqiu; Cooper, Lawton S; Leifer, Eric S; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2017-08-22

    The natriuretic peptides are biochemical markers of heart failure (HF) severity and predictors of adverse outcomes. Smaller studies have evaluated adjusting HF therapy based on natriuretic peptide levels ("guided therapy") with inconsistent results. To determine whether an amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)-guided treatment strategy improves clinical outcomes vs usual care in high-risk patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The Guiding Evidence Based Therapy Using Biomarker Intensified Treatment in Heart Failure (GUIDE-IT) study was a randomized multicenter clinical trial conducted between January 16, 2013, and September 20, 2016, at 45 clinical sites in the United States and Canada. This study planned to randomize 1100 patients with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤40%), elevated natriuretic peptide levels within the prior 30 days, and a history of a prior HF event (HF hospitalization or equivalent) to either an NT-proBNP-guided strategy or usual care. Patients were randomized to either an NT-proBNP-guided strategy or usual care. Patients randomized to the guided strategy (n = 446) had HF therapy titrated with the goal of achieving a target NT-proBNP of less than 1000 pg/mL. Patients randomized to usual care (n = 448) had HF care in accordance with published guidelines, with emphasis on titration of proven neurohormonal therapies for HF. Serial measurement of NT-proBNP testing was discouraged in the usual care group. The primary end point was the composite of time-to-first HF hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality. Prespecified secondary end points included all-cause mortality, total hospitalizations for HF, days alive and not hospitalized for cardiovascular reasons, the individual components on the primary end point, and adverse events. The data and safety monitoring board recommended stopping the study for futility when 894 (median age, 63 years; 286 [32%] women) of the planned 1100 patients had been enrolled with

  3. Performance of diamond and point attack coal cutter picks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. [CSIRO, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Division of Exploration and Mining

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents results of laboratory experiments and field trials of PDC (Polycrystalline Diamond Compact) and PA (Point Attack) coal cutter picks. Laboratory cutting tests included linear rock and coal cutting and turning rock cutting. The following parameters were measured to assess performance of PDC and PA cutter picks: cutting force, normal force, specific energy consumption, yield, dust generation and ignitional characteristics (temperature rise). Field trials were conducted on a longwall shearer. Performance of both types of pick interims of pick life and dust generation were assessed. 3 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Risk for Major Bleeding in Patients Receiving Ticagrelor Compared With Aspirin After Transient Ischemic Attack or Acute Ischemic Stroke in the SOCRATES Study (Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, J Donald; Aunes, Maria; Albers, Gregory W; Amarenco, Pierre; Bokelund-Singh, Sara; Denison, Hans; Evans, Scott R; Held, Peter; Jahreskog, Marianne; Jonasson, Jenny; Minematsu, Kazuo; Molina, Carlos A; Wang, Yongjun; Wong, K S Lawrence; Johnston, S Claiborne

    2017-09-05

    Patients with minor acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack are at high risk for subsequent stroke, and more potent antiplatelet therapy in the acute setting is needed. However, the potential benefit of more intense antiplatelet therapy must be assessed in relation to the risk for major bleeding. The SOCRATES trial (Acute Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack Treated With Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes) was the first trial with ticagrelor in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in which the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor were compared with those of aspirin. The main safety objective was assessment of PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes)-defined major bleeds on treatment, with special focus on intracranial hemorrhage (ICrH). An independent adjudication committee blinded to study treatment classified bleeds according to the PLATO, TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction), and GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) definitions. The definitions of ICrH and major bleeding excluded cerebral microbleeds and asymptomatic hemorrhagic transformations of cerebral infarctions so that the definitions better discriminated important events in the acute stroke population. A total of 13 130 of 13 199 randomized patients received at least 1 dose of study drug and were included in the safety analysis set. PLATO major bleeds occurred in 31 patients (0.5%) on ticagrelor and 38 patients (0.6%) on aspirin (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.34). The most common locations of major bleeds were intracranial and gastrointestinal. ICrH was reported in 12 patients (0.2%) on ticagrelor and 18 patients (0.3%) on aspirin. Thirteen of all 30 ICrHs (4 on ticagrelor and 9 on aspirin) were hemorrhagic strokes, and 4 (2 in each group) were symptomatic hemorrhagic transformations of brain infarctions. The ICrHs were spontaneous in 6 and 13, traumatic in 3 and 3, and procedural in 3 and 2

  5. Reassessing guidelines for heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Drexler

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in the last few years in the management of heart failure. In particular several trials have given significant results. It has become apparent that heart failure may be prevented in some patients by treatment of risk factors such as coronary artery disease. Experience with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors has shown that the survival and symptomatic benefits do last in the long term, and confirm that they are the first-line treatment in heart failure. The results of a number of trials using the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs candesartan, valsartan and losartan are presented and discussed. There is also some experience now in the use of candesartan for patients with heart failure and preserved left ventricular systolic function. The COMET trial compared the β-blockers carvedilol and metoprolol tartrate, and suggests that there may be differences in clinical effect between β-blockers. The selective aldosterone receptor blocker eplerenone was evaluated in the EPHESUS trial in post-MI patients with signs of heart failure. Based on these clinical trials, heart failure guidelines are now being updated.

  6. Bisoprolol for congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J.; Gustafsson, F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: beta-Blockers are a cornerstone in the treatment of systolic heart failure treatment, but not all beta-blockers are effective or in this setting. Objective: To define the role of bisoprolol, a highly selective beta(1)-antagonist in congestive heart failure due to systolic dysfunction....... Methods: Using the keywords 'bisoprolol' and 'heart failure' PubMed and BIOSIS databases were searched for information regarding pharmacology and relevant randomised clinical trials. Supplementary publications were acquired by scrutinising reference lists of relevant papers. Additional information...... was obtained from the FDA website. Conclusion: Bisoprolol is an effective and well-tolerated first-line beta-blocker for patients with systolic heart failure. The knowledge is primarily based on study patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure from the three CIBIS trials Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  7. Improvement of primary care for patients with chronic heart failure: a study protocol for a cluster randomised trial comparing two strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Jan; Steenkamer, Betty; Knippenberg, Marjan; Wensing, Michel

    2011-03-25

    Many patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), a common condition with high morbidity and mortality rates, receive treatment in primary care. To improve the management of CHF in primary care, we developed an implementation programme comprised of educational and organisational components, with support by a practice visitor and focus both on drug treatment and lifestyle advice, and on organisation of care within the practice and collaboration with other healthcare providers. Tailoring has been shown to improve the success of implementation programmes, but little is known about what would be best methods for tailoring, specifically with respect to CHF in primary care. We describe the study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of tailoring a CHF implementation programme to general practices compared to a standardised way of delivering a programme. The study population will consist of 60 general practitioners (GPs) and the CHF patients they include. GPs are randomised in blocks of four, stratified according to practice size. With a tailored implementation programme GPs prioritise the issues that will form the bases of the support for the practice visits. These may comprise several issues, both educational and organizational.The primary outcome measures are patient's experience of receiving structured primary care for CHF (PACIC, a questionnaire related to the Chronic Care Model), patients' health-related utilities (EQ-5D), and drugs prescriptions using the guideline adherence index. Patients being clustered in practices, multilevel regression analyses will be used to explore the effect of practice size and type of intervention programme. In addition we will examine both changes within groups and differences at follow-up between groups with respect to drug dosages and advice on lifestyle issues. Furthermore, in interviews the feasibility of the programme and goal attainment, organisational changes in CHF care, and formalised

  8. The BROAD study: A randomised controlled trial using a whole food plant-based diet in the community for obesity, ischaemic heart disease or diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, N; Wilson, L; Smith, M; Duncan, B; McHugh, P

    2017-03-20

    There is little randomised evidence using a whole food plant-based (WFPB) diet as intervention for elevated body mass index (BMI) or dyslipidaemia. We investigated the effectiveness of a community-based dietary programme. Primary end points: BMI and cholesterol at 6 months (subsequently extended). Ages 35-70, from one general practice in Gisborne, New Zealand. Diagnosed with obesity or overweight and at least one of type 2 diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, hypertension or hypercholesterolaemia. Of 65 subjects randomised (control n=32, intervention n=33), 49 (75.4%) completed the study to 6 months. Twenty-three (70%) intervention participants were followed up at 12 months. All participants received normal care. Intervention participants attended facilitated meetings twice-weekly for 12 weeks, and followed a non-energy-restricted WFPB diet with vitamin B 12 supplementation. At 6 months, mean BMI reduction was greater with the WFPB diet compared with normal care (4.4 vs 0.4, difference: 3.9 kg m -2 (95% confidence interval (CI)±1), P<0.0001). Mean cholesterol reduction was greater with the WFPB diet, but the difference was not significant compared with normal care (0.71 vs 0.26, difference: 0.45 mmol l -1 (95% CI±0.54), P=0.1), unless dropouts were excluded (difference: 0.56 mmol l -1 (95% CI±0.54), P=0.05). Twelve-month mean reductions for the WFPB diet group were 4.2 (±0.8) kg m - 2 BMI points and 0.55 (±0.54, P=0.05) mmol l -1 total cholesterol. No serious harms were reported. This programme led to significant improvements in BMI, cholesterol and other risk factors. To the best of our knowledge, this research has achieved greater weight loss at 6 and 12 months than any other trial that does not limit energy intake or mandate regular exercise.

  9. MEDication reminder APPs to improve medication adherence in Coronary Heart Disease (MedApp-CHD) Study: a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Karla; Chow, Clara K; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Rogers, Kris; Chalmers, John; Redfern, Julie

    2017-10-08

    The growing number of smartphone health applications available in the app stores makes these apps a promising tool to help reduce the global problem of non-adherence to long-term medications. However, to date, there is limited evidence that available medication reminder apps are effective. This study aims to determine the impact of medication reminder apps on adherence to cardiovascular medication when compared with usual care for people with coronary heart disease (CHD) and to determine whether an advanced app compared with a basic app is associated with higher adherence. Randomised controlled trial with follow-up at 3 months to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of medication reminder apps on medication adherence compared with usual care. An estimated sample size of 156 patients with CHD will be randomised to one of three groups (usual care group, basic medication reminder app group and advanced medication reminder app group). The usual care group will receive standard care for CHD with no access to a medication reminder app. The basic medication reminder app group will have access to a medication reminder app with a basic feature of providing simple daily reminders with no interactivity. The advanced medication reminder app group will have access to a medication reminder app with additional interactive and customisable features. The primary outcome is medication adherence measured by the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale at 3 months. Secondary outcomes include clinical measurements of blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and medication knowledge. A process evaluation will also be performed to assess the feasibility of the intervention by evaluating the acceptability, utility and engagement with the apps. Ethical approval has been obtained from the Western Sydney Local Health Network Human Research Ethics Committee (AU/RED/HREC/1/WMEAD/3). Study findings will be disseminated via usual scientific forums. ACTRN12616000661471; Pre-results.

  10. Feasibility and acceptability of a nursing intervention with family caregiver on self-care among heart failure patients: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossette, Sylvie; Belaid, Hayet; Heppell, Sonia; Mailhot, Tanya; Guertin, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Self-care practices in heart failure (HF) contribute to quality of life, symptom stabilization, and extended life expectancy. However, adherence to practices such as liquid and salt restriction or symptom monitoring require high motivation on a daily basis. The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of a nursing intervention with family caregivers, aimed at improving self-care practice of HF patients. This pilot study involved 32 HF patient-caregiver dyads (16/group) randomized to an experimental (EG) or control group (CG). The intervention, based on the Self-Determination Theory, was designed to enhance patients' autonomy and motivation in self-care practices, by involving their caregivers' support. Five encounters were planned with the EG dyads-two face-to-face during hospitalization and three by telephone after discharge. The feasibility of delivering the protocol was evaluated as well as the acceptability of the intervention. The potential effectiveness of the intervention was assessed based on patient outcomes, including general self-care management and self-care specific to HF, perceived competence to manage HF, autonomous motivation (A-motivation, external extrinsic motivation, internal extrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation), and perceived support from the caregiver. Caregiver outcomes included level of support provided to the patient. Despite recruitment challenges, the intervention was feasible, with 12 of the 16 dyads receiving all 5 encounters delivered per protocol. The 4 other dyads received the two hospital encounters, but at least 1 of the 3 post-discharge planned telephone encounters was not feasible because the patients had been re-hospitalized or was deceased. Participant's satisfaction with the intervention was high. Outcomes favoring the EG include self-care specific to HF, internal extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, and caregiver's feeling that they provide a higher level of support

  11. A comparison of live counseling with a web-based lifestyle and medication intervention to reduce coronary heart disease risk: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyserling, Thomas C; Sheridan, Stacey L; Draeger, Lindy B; Finkelstein, Eric A; Gizlice, Ziya; Kruger, Eliza; Johnston, Larry F; Sloane, Philip D; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen; Evenson, Kelly R; Gross, Myron D; Donahue, Katrina E; Pignone, Michael P; Vu, Maihan B; Steinbacher, Erika A; Weiner, Bryan J; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-07-01

    Most primary care clinicians lack the skills and resources to offer effective lifestyle and medication (L&M) counseling to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Thus, effective and feasible CHD prevention programs are needed for typical practice settings. To assess the effectiveness, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness of a combined L&M intervention to reduce CHD risk offered in counselor-delivered and web-based formats. A comparative effectiveness trial in 5 diverse family medicine practices in North Carolina. Participants were established patients, aged 35 to 79 years, with no known cardiovascular disease, and at moderate to high risk for CHD (10-year Framingham Risk Score [FRS], ≥10%). Participants were randomized to counselor-delivered or web-based format, each including 4 intensive and 3 maintenance sessions. After randomization, both formats used a web-based decision aid showing potential CHD risk reduction associated with L&M risk-reducing strategies. Participants chose the risk-reducing strategies they wished to follow. The primary outcome was within-group change in FRS at 4-month follow-up. Other measures included standardized assessments of blood pressure, blood lipid levels, lifestyle behaviors, and medication adherence. Acceptability and cost-effectiveness were also assessed. Outcomes were assessed at 4 and 12 months. Of 2274 screened patients, 385 were randomized (192 counselor; 193 web): mean age, 62 years; 24% African American; and mean FRS, 16.9%. Follow-up at 4 and 12 months included 91% and 87% of the randomized participants, respectively. There was a sustained reduction in FRS at both 4 months (primary outcome) and 12 months for both counselor-based (-2.3% [95% CI, -3.0% to -1.6%] and -1.9% [95% CI, -2.8% to -1.1%], respectively) and web-based groups (-1.5% [95% CI, -2.2% to -0.9%] and -1.7% [95% CI, -2.6% to -0.8%] respectively). At 4 months, the adjusted difference in FRS between groups was -1.0% (95% CI, -1.8% to -0.1%) (P = .03

  12. Efficacy of nebulized fluticasone propionate in adult patients admitted to the emergency department due to bronchial asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starobin, Daniel; Bolotinsky, Ludmila; Or, Jack; Fink, Gershon; Shtoeger, Zev

    2008-01-01

    Locally delivered steroids by inhalers or nebulizers have been shown in small trials to be effective in acute asthma attack, but evidence-based data are insufficient to establish their place as routine management of adult asthma attacks. To determine the efficacy of nebulized compared to systemic steroids in adult asthmatics admitted to the emergency department following an acute attack. Adult asthmatics admitted to the ED were assigned in random consecutive case fashion to one of three protocol groups: group 1--nebulized steroid fluticasone (Flixotide Nebules), group 2--intravenous methylprednisolone, group 3--combined treatment by both routes. Objective and subjective parameters, such as peak expiratory flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate and dyspnea score, were registered before and 2 hours after ED treatment was initiated. Steroids were continued for 1 week following the ED visit according to the protocol arm. Data on hospital admission/discharge rate, ED readmissions in the week after enrollment and other major events related to asthma were registered. Altogether, 73 adult asthmatics were assigned to receive treatment: 24 patients in group 1, 23 in group 2 and 26 in group 3. Mean age was 44.4 +/- 16.8 years (range 17-75 years). Peak expiratory flow and dyspnea score significantly improved in group 1 patients compared with patients in the other groups after 2 hours of ED treatment (P = 0.021 and 0.009, respectively). The discharge rate after ED treatment was significantly higher in groups 1 and 3 than in group 2 (P = 0.05). All 73 patients were alive a week after enrollment. Five patients (20.8%) in the Flixotide treatment arm were hospitalized and required additional systemic steroids. Multivariate analysis of factors affecting hospitalization rate demonstrated that severity of asthma (odds ratio 8.11) and group 2 (OD 4.17) had a negative effect, whereas adherence to chronic anti-asthma therapy (OD 0.49) reduced the hospitalization rate. Our study cohort

  13. Peacetime Use of Computer Network Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Busby, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    .... PDD-63 alerts the nation to prepare for impending cyber attacks. This paper examines the nature, scale, and likelihood of cyber attacks posited in PDD-63 and finds that the country does not face an imminent "electronic Pearl Harbor...

  14. Stochastic Model of TCP SYN Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ramanauskaitė

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A great proportion of essential services are moving into internet space making the threat of DoS attacks even more actual. To estimate the real risk of some kind of denial of service (DoS attack in real world is difficult, but mathematical and software models make this task easier. In this paper we overview the ways of implementing DoS attack models and offer a stochastic model of SYN flooding attack. It allows evaluating the potential threat of SYN flooding attacks, taking into account both the legitimate system flow as well as the possible attack power. At the same time we can assess the effect of such parameters as buffer capacity, open connection storage in the buffer or filte­ring efficiency on the success of different SYN flooding attacks. This model can be used for other type of memory depletion denial of service attacks.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Robust Detection of Stepping-Stone Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Ting; Tong, Lang

    2006-01-01

    The detection of encrypted stepping-stone attack is considered. Besides encryption and padding, the attacker is capable of inserting chaff packets and perturbing packet timing and transmission order...

  16. Using an ontology for network attack planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern complexity of network attacks and their counter-measures (cyber operations) requires detailed planning. This paper presents a Network Attack Planning ontology which is aimed at providing support for planning such network operations within...

  17. Heart Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health! Get a free badge or banner to post to your website or blog. Are you at risk for heart disease? Here's how to find out . Planning to use The Heart Truth logo? Check out our logo guidelines and downloads. ...

  18. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it may be caused by diseases, such as connective tissue disorders, excessive iron buildup in your body (hemochromatosis), the buildup of abnormal proteins (amyloidosis) or by some cancer treatments. Causes of heart infection A heart infection, ...

  19. The Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jen

    2004-01-01

    Growing up in Flemington, New Jersey, put Jen Bryant in the heart of the lore behind the Lindbergh baby kidnapping. Family stories of the events of the day and extensive research led to "The Trial," a novel in verse. The first several parts of this novel are included here.

  20. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... As a result, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration now recommends never using HT to prevent heart disease. When HT is used for menopausal symptoms, it should be taken only at the smallest dose and for the shortest time possible. Clinical trials, like the two described above, ...

  1. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... include factors such as a patient's age and gender, the type and stage of disease, ... helps ensure that any differences observed during a trial are due to the ...

  2. Attack Graph Construction for Security Events Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Alexeevich Chechulin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigation of the attack graphs construction and analysis task for a network security evaluation and real-time security event processing. Main object of this research is the attack modeling process. The paper contains the description of attack graphs building, modifying and analysis technique as well as overview of implemented prototype for network security analysis based on attack graph approach.

  3. Heart pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation; Artificial pacemaker; Permanent pacemaker; Internal pacemaker; Cardiac resynchronization therapy; CRT; Biventricular pacemaker; Arrhythmia - pacemaker; Abnormal heart ...

  4. Participation in Heart-Healthy Behaviors: A Secondary Analysis of the American Heart Association Go Red Heart Match Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; De Jong, Marla J; Berra, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The American Heart Association created Go Red Heart Match, a free and secure online program that enables women to connect with each other to fight heart disease either personally or as a caregiver for someone with heart disease. Through these connections, participants have an opportunity to develop a personal, private, and supportive relationship with other women; share common experiences; and motivate and encourage each other to follow a heart-healthy lifestyle. The aims of this study were to describe the demographic characteristics of the Go Red Heart Match responders and to determine whether participation in the program prompted participants to engage in heart-healthy behaviors. A secondary analysis of data collected as part of a needs assessment survey from the American Heart Association Go Red Heart Match was conducted. A total of 117 (35%) of the 334 invited women completed the survey. Most responders were female, married, and college educated. A total of 105 (90%) responders were diagnosed with a type of heart disease or stroke and 77 (73%) responders had undergone treatment. As a result of participating in the program, 75% of the responders reported the following improvements in heart-healthy behaviors: eating a more heart-healthy diet (54%), exercising more frequently (53%), losing weight (47%), and quitting smoking (10%). Responders who had a diagnosis of heart attack (n = 48) were more likely (P = .003) to quit smoking than were those with other diagnoses (n = 69). Notably, 48% of responders reported encouraging someone else in their life to speak to their doctor about their risk for heart disease. Most women who participated in Heart Match reported engaging in new heart-healthy behaviors. The findings support expanding the existing program in a more diverse population as a potentially important way to reach women and encourage cardiovascular disease risk reduction for those with heart disease and stroke.

  5. Attacks and countermeasures on AES and ECC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Henrik; Andersen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is widely used in LTE and Wi-Fi communication systems. AES has recently been exposed to new attacks which have questioned the overall security of AES. The newest attack is a so called biclique attack, which is using the fact that the content of the state array...

  6. Automated classification of computer network attacks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, R

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available according to the relevant types of attack scenarios depicted in the ontology. The two network attack instances are the Distributed Denial of Service attack on SpamHaus in 2013 and the theft of 42 million Rand ($6.7 million) from South African Postbank...

  7. Cyberprints: Identifying Cyber Attackers by Feature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…

  8. Patent foramen ovale and migraine attacks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Philomena Z Y; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2014-05-01

    Migraine headache and the presence of a patent foramen ovale have been associated with each other, although the precise pathophysiological mechanism(s) are uncertain. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the extent of patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and to determine whether closure of a patent foramen ovale would improve migraine headache. An electronic literature search was performed to select studies between January 1980 and February 2013 that were relevant to the prevalence of patent foramen ovale and migraine, and the effects of intervention(s) on migraine attacks. Of the initial 368 articles presented by the initial search, 20 satisfied the inclusion criteria assessing patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and 21 presented data on patent foramen ovale closure. In case series and cohort studies, patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs ranged from 14.6% to 66.5%. Case-control studies reported a prevalence ranging from 16.0% to 25.7% in controls, compared with 26.8% to 96.0% for migraine with aura. The extent of improvement or resolution of migraine headache attack symptoms was variable. In case series, intervention ameliorated migraine headache attack in 13.6% to 92.3% of cases. One single randomized trial did not show any benefit from patent foramen ovale closure. The data overall do not exclude the possibility of a placebo effect for resolving migraine following patent foramen ovale closure. This systematic review demonstrates firstly that migraine headache attack is associated with a higher prevalence of patent foramen ovale than among the general population. Observational data suggest that some improvement of migraine would be observed if the patent foramen ovale were to be closed. A proper assessment of any interventions for patent foramen ovale closure would require further large randomized trials to be conducted given uncertainties from existing trial data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Asthma-like attacks terminated by slow pathway ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Ozturk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic airway disease in which the pathological mechanisms are reversible airway obstruction, bronchial hyper reactivity, and constriction of the lower airways. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT is a common arrhythmia which originates above the bundle of His and causing heart rates exceeding 150 beats/min. SVT patients present with palpitation, chest pain, chest discomfort, dyspnea, hyperventilation, and lightheadedness, occasionally. Besides, extraordinary presentations of SVT are available in literature. In this report, we describe a case of a patient presenting with treatment-resistant asthma-like attacks lasting for 20 years whom was suspected SVT as an underlying etiology and treated by slow pathway radiofrequency ablation.

  10. Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as lupus. People who have these diseases make proteins called antibodies that attack and damage the body's tissues or cells. In pregnant women, antibodies can cross the placenta. (The placenta ...

  11. The feasibility of a randomised controlled trial to compare the cost-effectiveness of palliative cardiology or usual care in people with advanced heart failure: Two exploratory prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Miriam J; McSkimming, Paula; McConnachie, Alex; Geue, Claudia; Millerick, Yvonne; Briggs, Andrew; Hogg, Karen

    2018-06-01

    The effectiveness of cardiology-led palliative care is unknown; we have insufficient information to conduct a full trial. To assess the feasibility (recruitment/retention, data quality, variability/sample size estimation, safety) of a clinical trial of palliative cardiology effectiveness. Non-randomised feasibility. Unmatched symptomatic heart failure patients on optimal cardiac treatment from (1) cardiology-led palliative service (caring together group) and (2) heart failure liaison service (usual care group). Outcomes/safety: Symptoms (Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale), Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, performance, understanding of disease, anticipatory care planning, cost-effectiveness, survival and carer burden. A total of 77 participants (caring together group = 43; usual care group = 34) were enrolled (53% men; mean age 77 years (33-100)). The caring together group scored worse in Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (43.5 vs 35.2) and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (35.4 vs 39.9). The caring together group had a lower consent/screen ratio (1:1.7 vs 1: 2.8) and few died before approach (0.08% vs 16%) or declined invitation (17% vs 37%). Data quality: At 4 months, 74% in the caring together group and 71% in the usual care group provided data. Most attrition was due to death or deterioration. Data quality in self-report measures was otherwise good. There was no difference in survival. Symptoms and quality of life improved in both groups. A future trial requires 141 (202 allowing 30% attrition) to detect a minimal clinical difference (1 point) in Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale score for breathlessness (80% power). More participants (176; 252 allowing 30% attrition) are needed to detect a 10.5 change in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score (80% power; minimum clinical difference = 5). A trial to test the clinical effectiveness (improvement in breathlessness) of cardiology-led palliative care is feasible.

  12. Calculating Adversarial Risk from Attack Trees: Control Strength and Probabilistic Attackers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Davarynejad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Attack trees are a well-known formalism for quantitative analysis of cyber attacks consisting of multiple steps and alternative paths. It is possible to derive properties of the overall attacks from properties of individual steps, such as cost for the attacker and probability of success. However, in

  13. Non-invasive ventilation in severe asthma attack, its possibilities and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, K; Tomii, K; Chin, K; Niimi, A; Ishihara, K; Mishima, M

    2011-06-01

    Asthma attack is characterized by episodic attacks of cough, dyspnea and wheeze occurring due to bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness and mucous hypersecretion. Although nationwide clinical guidelines have been published to establish the standard care of asthma, choices in the treatment of fatal asthma attacks remain of clinical significance. Especially, in a severe asthma attack, despite the application of conventional medical treatment, respiratory management is critical. Even though non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to be effective in a wide variety of clinical settings, reports of NIV in asthmatic patients are scarce. According to a few prospective clinical trials reporting promising results in favour of the use of NIV in a severe asthma attack, a trial of NIV prior to invasive mechanical ventilation seems acceptable and may benefit patients by decreasing the need for intubation and by supporting pharmaceutical treatments. Although selecting the appropriate patients for NIV use is a key factor in successful NIV application, how to distinguish such patients is quite controversial. Larger high quality clinical trails are urgently required to confirm the benefits of NIV to patients with severe asthma attack. In this article, we focus on the body of evidence supporting the use of NIV in asthma attacks and discuss its advantages as well its problems.

  14. Plasma Exchange in Severe Attacks of Neuromyelitis Optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael Bonnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO attacks are poorly controlled by steroids and evolve in stepwise neurological impairments. Assuming the strong humoral response underlying NMO attacks, plasma exchange (PLEX is an appropriate technique in severe NMO attacks. Objective. Presenting an up-to-date review of the literature of PLEX in NMO. Methods. We summarize the rationale of PLEX in relation with the physiology of NMO, the main technical aspects, and the available studies. Results. PLEX in severe attacks from myelitis or optic neuritis are associated with a better outcome, depending on PLEX delay (“time is cord and eyes”. NMO-IgG status has no influence. Finally, we build up an original concept linking the inner dynamic of the lesion, the timing of PLEX onset and the expected clinical results. Conclusion. PLEX is a safe and efficient add-on therapy in NMO, in synergy with steroids. Large therapeutic trials are required to definitely assess the procedure and define the time opportunity window.

  15. Targeting Pioglitazone Hydrochloride Therapy After Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack According to Pretreatment Risk for Stroke or Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Walter N; Viscoli, Catherine M; Dearborn, Jennifer L; Kent, David M; Conwit, Robin; Fayad, Pierre; Furie, Karen L; Gorman, Mark; Guarino, Peter D; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Stuart, Amber; Young, Lawrence H

    2017-11-01

    There is growing recognition that patients may respond differently to therapy and that the average treatment effect from a clinical trial may not apply equally to all candidates for a therapy. To determine whether, among patients with an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and insulin resistance, those at higher risk for future stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) derive more benefit from the insulin-sensitizing drug pioglitazone hydrochloride compared with patients at lower risk. A secondary analysis was conducted of the Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke trial, a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone for secondary prevention. Patients were enrolled from 179 research sites in 7 countries from February 7, 2005, to January 15, 2013, and were followed up for a mean of 4.1 years through the study's end on July 28, 2015. Eligible participants had a qualifying ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack within 180 days of entry and insulin resistance without type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Pioglitazone or matching placebo. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was created using baseline features to stratify patients above or below the median risk for stroke or MI within 5 years. Within each stratum, the efficacy of pioglitazone for preventing stroke or MI was calculated. Safety outcomes were death, heart failure, weight gain, and bone fracture. Among 3876 participants (1338 women and 2538 men; mean [SD] age, 63 [11] years), the 5-year risk for stroke or MI was 6.0% in the pioglitazone group among patients at lower baseline risk compared with 7.9% in the placebo group (absolute risk difference, -1.9% [95% CI, -4.4% to 0.6%]). Among patients at higher risk, the risk was 14.7% in the pioglitazone group vs 19.6% for placebo (absolute risk difference, -4.9% [95% CI, -8.6% to 1.2%]). Hazard ratios were similar for patients below or above the median risk (0.77 vs 0.75; P = .92). Pioglitazone increased weight less among patients at

  16. Recognizing Advanced Heart Failure and Knowing Your Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, treatments and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  17. Heart scanner - who's between a rock and a hard place?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evidence of coronary heart disease succumbs to a fatal heart attack. Cardiac symptoms, positive stress test results and angiographically visible narrowings are all dependent on significant lumenal stenosis. Considerable atherosclerosis can be present in an asymptomatic patient in whom physical examination, stress testing ...

  18. Is diet an essential risk factor for coronary heart disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, hypertension and diet each play a major role in the development of coronary heart attacks in most industrialized nations. In some countries where cigarette smoking and hypertension are prevalent there is a low risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Hyperlipidaemia resulting from national food habits appears to be the essential factor in the high rates of CHD in developed countries.

  19. Whispering through DDoS attack

    OpenAIRE

    Miralem Mehic; Jiri Slachta; Miroslav Voznak

    2016-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attack is an attempt of the attacker to disable victim's machine by depleting network or computing resources. If this attack is performed with more than one machine, it is called distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack. Covert channels are those channels which are used for information transmission even though they are neither designed nor intended to transfer information at all. In this article, we investigated the possibility of using of DDoS attack for purposes o...

  20. Script-viruses Attacks on UNIX OS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Mikhaylov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article attacks on UNIX OS are considered. Currently antivirus developers are concentrated on protecting systems from viruses that are most common and attack popular operating systems. If the system or its components are not often attacked then the antivirus products are not protecting these components as it is not profitable. The same situation is with script-viruses for UNIX OS as most experts consider that it is impossible for such viruses to get enough rights to attack. Nevertheless the main conclusion of this article is the fact that such viruses can be very powerful and can attack systems and get enough rights.

  1. One year of high-intensity interval training improves exercise capacity, but not left ventricular function in stable heart transplant recipients: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, Lene A; Nytrøen, Kari; Amundsen, Brage H; Gullestad, Lars; Aakhus, Svend

    2014-02-01

    Heart transplant recipients have lower exercise capacity and impaired cardiac function compared with the normal population. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves exercise capacity and cardiac function in patients with heart failure and hypertension, but the effect on cardiac function in stable heart transplant recipients is not known. Thus, we investigated whether HIIT improved cardiac function and exercise capacity in stable heart transplant recipients by use of comprehensive rest- and exercise-echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Fifty-two clinically stable heart transplant recipients were randomised either to HIIT (4 × 4 minutes at 85-95% of peak heart rate three times per week for eight weeks) or to control. Three such eight-week periods were distributed throughout one year. Echocardiography (rest and submaximal exercise) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed at baseline and follow-up. One year of HIIT increased VO 2peak from 27.7 ± 5.5 at baseline to 30.9 ± 5.0 ml/kg/min at follow-up, while the control group remained unchanged (28.5 ± 7.0 vs. 28.0 ± 6.7 ml/kg per min, p HIIT. Whereas HIIT is feasible in heart transplant recipients and effectively improves exercise capacity, it does not alter cardiac systolic and diastolic function significantly. Thus, the observed augmentation in exercise capacity is best explained by extra-cardiac adaptive mechanisms.

  2. Treatment of chronic heart failure with aldosterone-blocking agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Swedberg, Karl

    Three large randomized trials in advanced heart failure (RALES), in heart failure after myocardial infarction (EPHESUS), and most recently mild heart failure (EMPHASIS-HF) have firmly established the place of aldosterone-blocking agents in patients with heart failure. In this paper we will shortly

  3. Protecting Cryptographic Memory against Tampering Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Pratyay

    In this dissertation we investigate the question of protecting cryptographic devices from tampering attacks. Traditional theoretical analysis of cryptographic devices is based on black-box models which do not take into account the attacks on the implementations, known as physical attacks. In prac......In this dissertation we investigate the question of protecting cryptographic devices from tampering attacks. Traditional theoretical analysis of cryptographic devices is based on black-box models which do not take into account the attacks on the implementations, known as physical attacks....... In practice such attacks can be executed easily, e.g. by heating the device, as substantiated by numerous works in the past decade. Tampering attacks are a class of such physical attacks where the attacker can change the memory/computation, gains additional (non-black-box) knowledge by interacting...... with the faulty device and then tries to break the security. Prior works show that generically approaching such problem is notoriously difficult. So, in this dissertation we attempt to solve an easier question, known as memory-tampering, where the attacker is allowed tamper only with the memory of the device...

  4. Attack Tree Generation by Policy Invalidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2015-01-01

    through brainstorming of experts. In this work we formalize attack tree generation including human factors; based on recent advances in system models we develop a technique to identify possible attacks analytically, including technical and human factors. Our systematic attack generation is based......Attacks on systems and organisations increasingly exploit human actors, for example through social engineering, complicating their formal treatment and automatic identification. Formalisation of human behaviour is difficult at best, and attacks on socio-technical systems are still mostly identified...... on invalidating policies in the system model by identifying possible sequences of actions that lead to an attack. The generated attacks are precise enough to illustrate the threat, and they are general enough to hide the details of individual steps....

  5. Whispering through DDoS attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miralem Mehic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Denial of service (DoS attack is an attempt of the attacker to disable victim's machine by depleting network or computing resources. If this attack is performed with more than one machine, it is called distributed denial of service (DDoS attack. Covert channels are those channels which are used for information transmission even though they are neither designed nor intended to transfer information at all. In this article, we investigated the possibility of using of DDoS attack for purposes of hiding data or concealing the existing covert channel. In addition, in this paper we analyzed the possibility of detection of such covert communication with the well-known statistical method. Also, we proposed the coordination mechanisms of the attack which may be used. A lot of research has been done in order to describe and prevent DDoS attacks, yet research on steganography on this field is still scarce.

  6. Network Protection Against DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dzurenda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with possibilities of the network protection against Distributed Denial of Service attacks (DDoS. The basic types of DDoS attacks and their impact on the protected network are presented here. Furthermore, we present basic detection and defense techniques thanks to which it is possible to increase resistance of the protected network or device against DDoS attacks. Moreover, we tested the ability of current commercial Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS, especially Radware DefensePro 6.10.00 product against the most common types of DDoS attacks. We create five scenarios that are varied in type and strength of the DDoS attacks. The attacks intensity was much greater than the normal intensity of the current DDoS attacks.

  7. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  8. Cache timing attacks on recent microarchitectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Alexandres; Bogdanov, Andrey; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Cache timing attacks have been known for a long time, however since the rise of cloud computing and shared hardware resources, such attacks found new potentially devastating applications. One prominent example is S$A (presented by Irazoqui et al at S&P 2015) which is a cache timing attack against...... AES or similar algorithms in virtualized environments. This paper applies variants of this cache timing attack to Intel's latest generation of microprocessors. It enables a spy-process to recover cryptographic keys, interacting with the victim processes only over TCP. The threat model is a logically...... separated but CPU co-located attacker with root privileges. We report successful and practically verified applications of this attack against a wide range of microarchitectures, from a two-core Nehalem processor (i5-650) to two-core Haswell (i7-4600M) and four-core Skylake processors (i7-6700). The attack...

  9. Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan in the PARADIGM-HF Trial (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) According to Background Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Naoki; Jhund, Pardeep S; Gong, Jianjian; Lefkowitz, Martin P; Rizkala, Adel R; Rouleau, Jean L; Shi, Victor C; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R; Solomon, Scott D; Packer, Milton; McMurray, John J V

    2016-09-01

    In the PARADIGM-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure), the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan was more effective than the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitorenalapril in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. We examined whether this benefit was consistent irrespective of background therapy. We examined the effect of study treatment in the following subgroups: diuretics (yes/no), digitalis glycoside (yes/no), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (yes/no),and defibrillating device (implanted defibrillating device, yes/no). We also examined the effect of study drug according to β-blocker dose (≥50% and sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril hazard ratio for the primary composite end point was 0.80 (95% confidence interval,0.73-0.87;Psacubitril/valsartan was consistent across all subgroups examined. The hazard ratio for primary end point ranged from 0.74 to 0.85 and for cardiovascular death rangedfrom 0.75 to 0.89, with no treatment-by-subgroup interaction. The benefit of sacubitril/valsartan, over an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, was consistent regardless of background therapy and irrespective of previouscoronary revascularization or β-blocker dose. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01035255. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. 77 FR 5373 - American Heart Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...; its victims are fathers and daughters, grandparents and siblings, cherished friends and community... Federal agencies and forging new public-private partnerships to prevent one million heart attacks and... research to unlock new treatments for cardiovascular disease. And the Centers for Disease Control and...

  11. Mending broken hearts : Cardiac regeneration in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    kruse, fabian

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading global cause of death, accounting for more than 30% of all deaths. It claims more lives than all forms of cancer combined. Bearing these facts in mind, research in this field is direly needed. A heart attack, also known as myocardial infarction (MI), happens

  12. A single-center randomized, controlled trial investigating the efficacy of a mHealth ECG technology intervention to improve the detection of atrial fibrillation: the iHEART study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Kathleen T; Hauser, Nicole R; Valente, Laura E; Riga, Teresa C; Frulla, Ashton P; Masterson Creber, Ruth; Whang, William; Garan, Hasan; Jia, Haomiao; Sciacca, Robert R; Wang, Daniel Y

    2016-07-16

    Atrial fibrillation is a major public health problem and is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affecting an estimated 2.7 million Americans. The true prevalence of atrial fibrillation is likely underestimated because episodes are often sporadic; therefore, it is challenging to detect and record an occurrence in a "real world" setting. To date, mobile health tools that promote earlier detection and treatment of atrial fibrillation and improvement in self-management behaviors and knowledge have not been evaluated. This study will be the first to address the epidemic problem of atrial fibrillation with a novel approach utilizing advancements in mobile health electrocardiogram technology to empower patients to actively engage in their healthcare and to evaluate impact on quality of life and quality-adjusted life years. Furthermore, sending a daily electrocardiogram transmission, coupled with receiving educational and motivational text messages aimed at promoting self-management and a healthy lifestyle may improve the management of chronic cardiovascular conditions (e.g., hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, etc.). Therefore, we are currently conducting a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a mobile health intervention, iPhone® Helping Evaluate Atrial fibrillation Rhythm through Technology (iHEART) versus usual cardiac care. The iHEART study is a single center, prospective, randomized controlled trial. A total of 300 participants with a recent history of atrial fibrillation will be enrolled. Participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive the iHEART intervention, receiving an iPhone® equipped with an AliveCor® Mobile ECG and accompanying Kardia application and behavioral altering motivational text messages or usual cardiac care for 6 months. This will be the first study to investigate the utility of a mobile health intervention in a "real world" setting. We will evaluate the ability of the iHEART intervention to improve the detection and

  13. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  14. Attack-Resistant Trust Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levien, Raph

    The Internet is an amazingly powerful tool for connecting people together, unmatched in human history. Yet, with that power comes great potential for spam and abuse. Trust metrics are an attempt to compute the set of which people are trustworthy and which are likely attackers. This chapter presents two specific trust metrics developed and deployed on the Advogato Website, which is a community blog for free software developers. This real-world experience demonstrates that the trust metrics fulfilled their goals, but that for good results, it is important to match the assumptions of the abstract trust metric computation to the real-world implementation.

  15. Rapid-rate nonsustained ventricular tachycardia found on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator interrogation: relationship to outcomes in the SCD-HeFT (Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jay; Johnson, George; Hellkamp, Anne S; Anderson, Jill; Mark, Daniel B; Lee, Kerry L; Bardy, Gust H; Poole, Jeanne E

    2013-05-28

    The aim of this study was to examine rapid-rate nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (RR-NSVT) during routine implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) evaluation in patients with heart failure and its relationship to outcomes. The clinical implications of RR-NSVT identified during routine ICD interrogation are unclear. In this study, the occurrence of RR-NSVT and its association with ICD shocks and mortality in SCD-HeFT (Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial) were examined. The 811 patients who received ICDs in SCD-HeFT constituted the study population. The occurrence of RR-NSVT and its association with ICD shocks and mortality in SCD-HeFT were examined. RR-NSVT was documented on ICD interrogation in 186 of 811 patients (22.9%). The mean duration of RR-NSVT was 26.4 ± 9.1 beats (7.5 ± 2.6 s), with a mean cycle length of 259 ± 32 ms. Polymorphic RR-NSVT accounted for 56% of episodes. Compared with patients without RR-NSVT, those with RR-NSVT were less likely to be taking beta-blockers, statins, or aspirin at enrollment. After adjusting for other known predictors of mortality in SCD-HeFT, RR-NSVT was independently associated with appropriate ICD shocks (hazard ratio: 4.25; 95% confidence interval: 2.94 to 6.14; p interrogation should be considered an important clinical event. RR-NSVT during ICD interrogation is associated with appropriate ICD shocks and all-cause mortality. The clinical evaluation of patients with RR-NSVT should include intensification of medical therapy, particularly beta-blockers, or other appropriate clinical interventions. (Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial [SCD-HeFT]; NCT00000609). Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patients’ preferences for selection of endpoints in cardiovascular clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Chow

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To reduce the duratio