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Sample records for hearing threshold levels

  1. Reference hearing threshold levels for short duration signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Torben; Legarth, Søren Vase

    2008-10-01

    Hearing thresholds for clicks and tonebursts were measured on 26 otologically normal persons (age 18-25 years) using the earphones Sennheiser HDA 200 and Telephonics TDH 39. The test signals are specified in IEC 60645-3 and in ISO 389-9. The acoustic test signals were presented both as a single stimulus and as repeated stimuli with the repetition rate of 20 Hz. The frequencies used for the toneburst were: 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz. Test signals and measurement methods were all in accordance with the recommendations given in ISO 389-9: Preferred test conditions for the determination of reference hearing threshold levels. The results are given as peak-to-peak equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (peETSPL). The results are in good agreement with other sparse results from literature and are part of the basis for the ISO 389-6 standard from 2007.

  2. Reference hearing threshold levels for short duration signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Legarth, Søren Vase

    2008-01-01

    Hearing thresholds for clicks and tonebursts were measured on 26 otologically normal persons (age 18-25 years) using the earphones Sennheiser HDA 200 and Telephonics TDH 39. The test signals are specified in IEC 60645-3 and in ISO 389-9. The acoustic test signals were presented both as a single...... stimulus and as repeated stimuli with the repetition rate of 20 Hz. The frequencies used for the toneburst were: 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz. Test signals and measurement methods were all in accordance with the recommendations given in ISO 389-9: Preferred test conditions...

  3. Reference hearing threshold levels for chirp signals delivered by an ER-3A insert earphone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtsche-Rasmussen, Kristian; Poulsen, Torben; Elberling, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish reference hearing threshold levels for chirps and frequency-specific chirps. Design: Hearing thresholds were determined monaurally for broad-band chirps and octave-band chirps using the Etymotic Research, ER-3A insert earphone. The chirps were presented using two repetitio...... of the present investigation are relevant for the international standard on short duration signals, ISO 389-6 (2007)....

  4. Lower Hearing Threshold by Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙长才; 邵峰; 张燕萍; 秦佑国

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate that noise can be a benefit factor that enables us to hear weaker signals. We measured the hearing thresholds of subjects for pure tone in different noise levels. The results show that pure tone thresholds with noise of some levels are lower than that without noise. The largest down-shift of the threshold by noise among the examined subjects is 5. 7dB, and the smallest is 1.7dB.

  5. Hearing Thresholds, Minimum Response Levels, and Cross-Check Measures in Pediatric Audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrix, Linda W

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric audiologists must identify hearing loss in a timely manner so that early intervention can be provided. In this article, the methods important for differentiating between a hearing threshold and minimum response level (MRL), important for an accurate diagnosis, are described. Operant conditioning procedures, used during visual reinforcement audiometry and conditioned play audiometry, are reviewed. Case examples are provided that demonstrate the importance of using evidence-based procedures, evaluating the success of such procedures, and using cross-check measures for interpreting responses as thresholds or MRLs. Behavioral-hearing thresholds can be obtained when operant conditioning procedures are successful and cross-check measures corroborate the audiometric results. When MRLs are obtained, cross-check measures are critical in determining the likelihood of hearing loss and making follow-up recommendations. Early diagnosis of hearing loss is important so that intervention can be initiated within critical periods during infant and childhood learning. Accurate diagnosis depends on the audiologist, who must adhere to evidence-based procedures, use cross-check measures, and evaluate the validity of each procedure. Future research and guidelines are needed to examine decision-making processes in pediatric audiology that ensure diagnostic accuracy and timely intervention for infants and children identified with hearing loss.

  6. Hearing Threshold and Equal Loudness Level Contours of 1/3-octave Noise Bands in a Diffuse Sound Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maja Kirstine E.; Poulsen, Torben

    1994-01-01

    Hearing threshold levels and equal loudness level contours of 1/3-octave noise bands at 40 phons and 60 phon were measured for 27 normal hearing listeners in an approximately diffuse sound field. The threshold data in the frequency range 125 Hz to 1 kHz were 3-6 dB higher than the values given in...

  7. [To investigate the relation of sudden deafness with hearing loss level and auditory threshold].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yikun; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Ya; Chen, Xiaoling; Yu, Xiaosong

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the relation of sudden deafness with hearing loss level and auditory threshold. A retrospective analysis was performed in 92 cases(97 years) of sudden deafness patients. In this group,the best hearing loss prognosis was the ascend type and the back type the total effective rate was both 100.0%. The second was the slow descend type. The total effective rate of this type was 70.0% (7/10). the total effective rate of full deaf is 66.7% (14/21), the sudden descend type is poor, the effective rate was 50% (4/8). although the full deaf groups total effective rate was high than sudden descend type, without one ear completely recovering, and only one ear from sudden descend type was completely cured. After treatment, there were 6 ears of fall deaf in full deaf group. There was one case rised 65 dBHL and one case rised 50 dBHL from the 21 cases full deaf sufferer. In this deaf level group, the light level and the middle level was one ear respectively. Although the total effective rate of this group was the highest, all the cases were not completely recovered. After treatment, the hearing rise 17 dBHL and 19 dBHL respectively. After chi2 text (chi2 = 1.459, P > 0.05), the total effective rate of the more heavier, heavy, and the heaviest to full deaf was no significant difference but after chi2 text (chi2 = 10.09, P deaf group was the lowest: 6.0% (2/33). It was considered that the deafness level was no obvious relation to the total effective rate, but there was significant difference in fully recover rate. The different auditory threshold figure of the sudden deafness was closely related to the hearings prognosis.

  8. Do hearing threshold levels in workers of the furniture industry reflect their exposure to noise?

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    Małgorzata Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to analyze the hearing status of employees of a furniture factory with respect to their exposure to noise and the presence of additional risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. Material and Methods: Noise measurements, questionnaire survey and assessment of hearing, using pure tone audiometry, were carried out in 50 male workers, aged 20–57 years, directly employed in the manufacture of furniture. The actual workers’ hearing threshold levels (HTLs were compared with the predictions calculated according to PN-ISO 1999:2000 based on age, gender and noise exposure. Results: Workers under study were exposed to noise at daily noise exposure levels of 82.7–94.8 dB (mean: 90.9 dB for a period of 3–14 years. In all subjects, mean HTL at 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz did not exceed 25 dB. Nevertheless, high frequency notches were found in 11% of audiograms. The actual workers’ HTLs at 3000–6000 Hz were similar to those predicted using PN-ISO 1999:2000. There were statistical significant differences between HTLs in subgroups of people with higher (> 78 mm Hg and lower (≤ 78 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure, smokers and non-smokers, and those working with organic solvents. Hearing loss was more evident in subjects affected by the additional risk factors specified above. Conclusions: The results confirm the need to consider, in addition to noise, also some other NIHL risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, elevated blood pressure, and co-exposure to organic solvents when estimating the risk of NIHL and developing the hearing conservation programs for workers. Med Pr 2016;67(3:337–351

  9. Changes in the mean hearing threshold levels in military aircraft maintenance conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Ju; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-11-01

    Aircraft maintenance crews are constantly exposed to severe aircraft noise. The purpose of this study was to verify whether noise from aircraft adversely affects the hearing threshold levels (HTLs) of aircraft maintenance conscripts during their 2 years of mandatory military service. This study included 3,000 male aircraft maintenance conscripts who work in the military runway area. We measured and analyzed HTLs at 2-4 kHz. The duration of exposure to noise increased with an increase in rank; however, HTLs showed a tendency to decrease. We attributed such contradicting results to the learning effect and adaptation to military service. However, we suspected that sudden deafness in 6 conscripts (0.2%) was due to loud noise in the runway area during military service. The effectiveness of the hearing conservation program for short-term military service personnel could be increased by focusing on preventing sudden deafness and preenlistment baseline audiogram tests.

  10. Influence of age and sex on hearing threshold levels in workers exposed to different intensity levels of occupational noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szanto, C.; Ionescu, M.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of age, sex and duration of exposure on hearing threshold level (HTL) was assessed in male and female workers exposed to occupational noise. The noise intensities were of 84 and 98 dB(A) continuous equivalent level. Large differences were noted between males and females exposed to 98 dB(A) as well as between males exposed to 98 and 83 dB(A). We concluded that exposure to 98 dB(A) accelerates the evolution of hearing loss, this trend being more pronounced in males. The 83-dB(A) intensity apparently induces a hearing loss above the values due to socioacusis. To evaluate the noxious effect of noise, the HTLs obtained in the group exposed to 98 and 83-dB(A) were compared to those of the non-exposed group of Royster and Thomas. The highest difference was found in males exposed to 98 dB(A).

  11. Hearing threshold of sawmillers in Kaduna, Nigeria

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    Tijjani Sa'idu Abubakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hearing loss due to occupational noise exposure is a malady with millions of employees having occupational hearing loss (OHL worldwide though under-appreciated. The neglect of hearing loss, especially OHL has resulted in human and economic consequences worldwide. The WHO estimates a global burden of 1.06 million in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria is experiencing rapid industrial growth, and large number of workers are exposed to industrial noise. Prevention of noise-induced hearing loss is relatively simple and inexpensive. Aims and Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the pattern and prevalence of hearing loss among sawmillers at old Fanteka market, Kaduna. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of the hearing threshold of sawmillers at the old Fanteka market, Kaduna. Ethical clearance was obtained from both the Kaduna state Ministry of Health and the National Ear Care Centre, Kaduna. Questionnaires were duly completed and thereafter the participants had pure tone audiometry in a soundproof booth. Noise meter was used to measure the sound level at the workplace and machines. Pure tone average was calculated for both the left and right ear. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: One hundred and twenty sawmillers with age- and sex-matched controls were assessed. Subjects' age ranged between 20 and 62 years, mean age of 31.36 ± 11.33, whereas controls' age ranged between 20 and 70 years, mean age of 33.29 ± 7.40. All the subjects were males. Prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL was 26.7%. Conclusion: Noise level within the study site environment ranged from 85 to 105 dB. The prevalence of SNHL was 26.70%, moderate type 9–16.70% by pure tone average bilaterally.

  12. Atherogenic Risk Factors and Hearing Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from...... children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models...

  13. Americans hear as well or better today compared with 40 years ago: hearing threshold levels in the unscreened adult population of the United States, 1959-1962 and 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Howard J; Dobie, Robert A; Ko, Chia-Wen; Themann, Christa L; Murphy, William J

    2010-12-01

    (1) To present hearing threshold data from a recent nationally representative survey in the United States (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004) in a distributional format that might be appropriate to replace Annex B in international (ISO-1999) and national (ANSI S3.44) standards and (2) to compare these recent data with older survey data (National Health Examination Survey I, 1959-1962) on which the current Annex B is based. Better-ear threshold distributions (selected percentiles and their confidence intervals) were estimated using linear interpolation. The 95% confidence intervals for the medians for the two surveys were compared graphically for each of the four age groups and for both men and women. In addition, we calculated odds ratios comparing the prevalences of better-ear hearing impairment (thresholds > 25 dB HL) between the two surveys, for 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz, and for their four-frequency average. Across age and sex groups, median thresholds were lower (better) in the 1999-2004 survey at 500, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz (8000 Hz was not tested in the 1959-1962 survey). For both men and women, the prevalence of hearing impairment was significantly lower in 1999-2004 at 500, 2000, and 4000 Hz, but not at 1000 Hz. For men and women of a specific age, high-frequency hearing thresholds were lower (better) in 1999-2004 than in 1959-1962. The prevalences of hearing impairment were also lower in the recent survey. Differences seen at 500 Hz may be attributable at least in part to changes in standards for ambient noise in audiometry. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 distributions are offered as a possible replacement for Annex B in ISO-1999 and ANSI S3.44.

  14. Fine structures in hearing thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Torrente, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are weak sounds that can be recorded in the external ear. They are generated by the active amplification of the outer hair cells, and are by many believed to reflect the status of the most vulnerable part of the hearing better than ordinary behavioral thresholds...... of these two components. The result is characterized by a distinct fine structure pattern, and generally doesn't directly reflect the status of the hearing at one point on the basilar membrane. The behavioral threshold, on the other hand, is more directly related to given points along the basilar membrane......, but reflects the combined status of outer and inner hair cells. Thus the combination of DPOAE measurements and hearing thresholds has the potential to  provide better basis for hearing diagnosis. In the present study, both DPOAE measurements and hearing thresholds are determined with a fine frequency...

  15. Threshold improvement and acoustic gain with hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, B E; Kasten, R N

    1976-01-01

    Aided speech reception thresholds were obtained from 20 hearing-impaired listeners with three hearing aids adjusted to confort settings, and with the aids adjusted to deliver 40 dB of acoustic gain. The aided speech reception threshold under each condition was substracted from the unaided speech reception threshold to yield a measure of threshold improvement. Threshold improvement and acoustic gain comparisons revealed that, at comfort setting, these two measures were quite similar. However, at the 40-dB gain setting, acoustic gain exceeded threshold improvement by an average of 5.6 dB. For the high-gain condition, it appeared that the threshold improvement obtained by subjects with relatively good unaided sensitivity was limited by the ambient noise in the test chamber.

  16. The association of obesity with hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçler, Rıfkı; Turan, Mahfuz; Garça, Fatih; Acar, İsmail; Atmaca, Murat; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    An elevation in hearing thresholds and decrease in hearing sensitivity in adults, particularly due to aging, are quite common. Recent studies have shown that, apart from aging, various other factors also play a role in auditory changes. Studies on the association of hearing loss (HL) with obesity are limited in advanced age cases and present contradictions. In this study, the association between obesity and hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years has been assessed. Forty women diagnosed with obesity (mean age, 31.8 years) and 40 healthy non-obese female controls (mean age, 30.5 years) were included in this prospective study. Each subject was tested with low (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high (4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz) frequency audiometry. In the case and control groups, the average hearing thresholds at low frequencies were 16.03 ± 4.72 and 16.15 ± 2.72 (p = 0.885) for the right ear, respectively, and 16.15 ± 5.92 and 14.71 ± 3.18 (p = 0.180) for the left ear, respectively. The average hearing threshold levels at high frequencies were 20.70 ± 10.23 and 15.33 ± 3.87 (p = 0.003), respectively, for the right ear, and 22.91 ± 15.54 and 15.87 ± 4.35 (p = 0.007), respectively, for the left ear with statistical significance. This is the first report on the association of obesity with hearing threshold in women aged 18-40 years. We have demonstrated that obesity may affect hearing function, particularly that related to high frequencies. Hearing loss can be prevented by avoidance or control of obesity and its risk factors. Moreover, an auditory screening of obese cases at an early stage may provide early diagnosis of HL and may also contribute to their awareness in the fight against obesity.

  17. Audiological evaluation of hearing levels in patients diagnosed with migraine

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    Müjde Karadag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Based on the hypothesis that neurovascular events involving in the pathophysiology of migraine can cause hearing loss by influencing blood flow of inner ear, it was aimed to determine whether migraine with or without aura in our clinics patients are at risk for hearing loss by assessing hearing levels via a high-frequency audiometry, acoustic reflex and transient otoacoustic emission responses; to discriminate whether hearing loss is cochlear or retrocochlear originated, if present; and to evaluate whether or not migraine treatment affect hearing level in patients received treatment for migraine in this study. Materials and Methods: The study included patients who were diagnosed as migraine between December 2011 and December 2012 at Neurology Department of Cumhuriyet University, Medicine School according to ICD-II classification and accepted to receive medical therapy. In all patients, hearing levels were measured at baseline and after treatment by using high-frequency audiometry, transient otoacoustic emission and acoustic reflex tests. Results: In the present study, hearing thresholds measured in the right ear was normal in migraine patients with or without aura at baseline, while mild hearing loss was detected in right ear at the frequency of 500 Hz after treatment when hearing thresholds at different frequencies were compared. This difference was significant (P 0, 05. Conclusion: Differently from literature, hearing loss in our patients developed at lower frequencies and after treatment. The results we obtained from our study also presented that there might be a relationship between migraine disease and sensorineural hearing loss.

  18. Hearing thresholds during Gz acceleration with masking noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Patrick M B; Pellieux, Lionel; Godfroy, Martine; Ossard, Gérard; Dancer, Armand

    2004-11-01

    Future fighter aircraft will include three-dimensional sound signals as part of the human-machine interface. The reduction in cerebral vascular flow associated with maneuvering acceleration (+Gz) may affect a pilot's ability to perceive and interpret such aural cues. We hypothesized that vascular deprivation along the cochlea produced by +Gz would raise hearing thresholds either globally or specifically at 1000 Hz. We compared hearing thresholds for pure tones at 250, 1000, 6000 and 10,000 Hz during exposure to +1 Gz vs. +4 Gz. Experiments were conducted with steady noise input to the earphones to mask centrifuge noise. Paradoxically the hearing threshold was slightly yet significantly reduced for 1000 Hz (53 dB at 1 G vs. 47 dB at 4 G) while remaining unchanged at other frequencies. Audition did not change at +4 Gz, contradicting our hypothesis. We infer that the change at 1000 Hz is not a central effect, but instead represents a disturbance of middle ear transmission mechanisms. The absence of any general hearing loss at +4 Gz favors the possibility of using complex sounds such as three-dimensional sound in aeronautical human-machine interfaces during acceleration.

  19. Detection threshold for sound distortion resulting from noise reduction in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brons, Inge; Dreschler, Wouter A; Houben, Rolph

    2014-09-01

    Hearing-aid noise reduction should reduce background noise, but not disturb the target speech. This objective is difficult because noise reduction suffers from a trade-off between the amount of noise removed and signal distortion. It is unknown if this important trade-off differs between normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. This study separated the negative effect of noise reduction (distortion) from the positive effect (reduction of noise) to allow the measurement of the detection threshold for noise-reduction (NR) distortion. Twelve NH subjects and 12 subjects with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated in this study. The detection thresholds for distortion were determined using an adaptive procedure with a three-interval, two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Different levels of distortion were obtained by changing the maximum amount of noise reduction. Participants were also asked to indicate their preferred NR strength. The detection threshold for overall distortion was higher for HI subjects than for NH subjects, suggesting that stronger noise reduction can be applied for HI listeners without affecting the perceived sound quality. However, the preferred NR strength of HI listeners was closer to their individual detection threshold for distortion than in NH listeners. This implies that HI listeners tolerate fewer audible distortions than NH listeners.

  20. Effect of Exposure to a Mixture of Organic Solvents on Hearing Thresholds in Petrochemical Industry Workers

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    Ziba Loukzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise.  In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic solvents on hearing in the absence of exposure to hazardous noise.   Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 99 workers from the petrochemical industry with exposure to a mixture of organic solvents whose noise exposure was lower than 85 dBA were compared with 100 un-exposed controls. After measuring sound pressure level and mean concentration of each solvent in the workplace, pure-tone-audiometry was performed and the two groups were compared in terms of high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss. T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare the two groups.   Results: The mean hearing threshold at all frequencies among petrochemical workers was normal (below 25 dB. We did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and high-frequency or low-frequency hearing loss.   Conclusion:  This study showed that temporary exposure (less than 4 years to a mixture of organic solvents, without exposure to noise, does not affect workers’ hearing threshold in audiometry tests.

  1. Follow-up of hearing thresholds among forge hammering workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, A.A.; Mikael, R.A.; Faris, R. (Ain Shams Univ., Abbasia, Cairo (Egypt))

    1989-01-01

    Hearing threshold was reexamined in a group of forge hammering workers investigated 8 years ago with consideration of the age effect and of auditory symptoms. Workers were exposed to impact noise that ranged from 112 to 139 dB(A)--at an irregular rate of 20 to 50 drop/minute--and a continuous background noise that ranged from 90 to 94 dB(A). Similar to what was observed 8 years ago, the present permanent threshold shift (PTS) showed a maximum notch at the frequency of 6 kHz and considerable elevations at the frequencies of 0.25-1 kHz. The age-corrected PTS and the postexposure hearing threshold were significantly higher than the corresponding previous values at the frequencies 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 8 kHz only. The rise was more evident at the low than at the high frequencies. Temporary threshold shift (TTS) values were significantly less than those 8 years ago. Contrary to the previous TTS, the present TTS were higher at low than at high frequencies. Although progression of PTS at the frequencies 0.25 and 0.5 kHz was continuous throughout the observed durations of exposure, progression at higher frequencies occurred essentially in the first 10 to 15 years of exposure. Thereafter, it followed a much slower rate. Tinnitus was significantly associated with difficulty in hearing the human voice and with elevation of PTS at all the tested frequencies, while acoustic after-image was significantly associated with increment of PTS at the frequencies 0.25-2 kHz. No relation between PTS and smoking was found. PTS at low frequencies may provide an indication of progression of hearing damage when the sensitivity at 6 and 4 kHz diminishes after prolonged years of exposure. Tinnitus and acoustic after-image are related to the auditory effect of forge hammering noise.

  2. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: cardiovascular risk factors do not influence hearing threshold recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, A; Hatzopoulos, S; Bianchini, C; Iannini, V; Rosignoli, M; Skarzynski, H; Aimoni, C

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that risk factors for ischaemic vascular disease, such as cigarette smoking, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, can also be considered risk factors for the development of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). In this study, we have evaluated the hypothesis that these factors can influence hearing threshold recovery in patients affected by ISSNHL. A total of 141 subjects who suffered an episode of ISSNHL were included. All subjects were assessed with tonal audiometry, auditory brainstem responses and MRI to exclude retrocochlear pathology. Hearing tests were conducted at ISSNHL onset (t = 0) and after 30 days. Patients were divided into three classes according to the presence/absence of one or more cardiovascular risk factors including: history of smoking, total serum cholesterol/triglycerides, history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Values of hearing threshold recovery were estimated and comparisons were conducted across the three risk factor classes. 75% of patients affected by ISSNHL showed a threshold recovery. However, the threshold recovery was found to be class-independent (average recovery value of 18 dB HL per classes) and also independent of age and gender. Even if cardiovascular risk factors have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of ISSNHL, the present study suggests that these factors do not have any significant influence on the threshold recovery in ISSNHL.

  3. Ear surgery techniques results on hearing threshold improvement

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    Farhad Mokhtarinejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone conduction (BC threshold depression is not always by means of sensory neural hearing loss and sometimes it is an artifact caused by middle ear pathologies and ossicular chain problems. In this research, the influences of ear surgeries on bone conduction were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial study. The ear surgery performed on 83 patients classified in four categories: Stapedectomy, tympanomastoid surgery and ossicular reconstruction partially or totally; Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (PORP and Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (TORP. Bone conduction thresholds assessed in frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz pre and post the surgery. Results: In stapedectomy group, the average of BC threshold in all frequencies improved approximately 6 dB in frequency of 2000 Hz. In tympanomastoid group, BC threshold in the frequency of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz changed 4 dB (P-value < 0.05. Moreover, In the PORP group, 5 dB enhancement was seen in 1000 and 2000 Hz. In TORP group, the results confirmed that BC threshold improved in all frequencies especially at 4000 Hz about 6.5 dB. Conclusion: In according to results of this study, BC threshold shift was seen after several ear surgeries such as stapedectomy, tympanoplasty, PORP and TORP. The average of BC improvement was approximately 5 dB. It must be considered that BC depression might happen because of ossicular chain problems. Therefore; by resolving middle ear pathologies, the better BC threshold was obtained, the less hearing problems would be faced.

  4. Quarter-Power Scaling of Primate Hearing Thresholds With Neocortex Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael J.

    2004-03-01

    Primate threshold hearing levels as a function of frequency are calculated from noise that arises through thermal excitation of damped sound waves in a cylindrical meatus terminated by a rigid eardrum. Fourier integral analysis of noise pressure within masking frequency bands that span threshold hearing is related to the time integral of noise pressure incident on the eardrum in a single period of threshold signal. The ratio of the latter to former quantity is expressed in terms of theoretical decibel thresholds scaled by coupling constants that relate physical noise excitation to perceived threshold hearing at each audiofrequency. The theory is normalized to a common clinical datum for humans and macaques at a single frequency, and then captures the main features of clinical threshold data [1] throughout the full range of frequencies reported in observations on humans and monkeys. It appears that such coupling constants for humans and macaque monkeys show a 1/4 power scaling law behavior in terms of neocortex volume, when due account is also taken of differences in meatus size in the generation of thermal noise pressure. 1. L.L. Jackson, R.S.Heffner, and H.E.Heffner, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 106(5),3017, (1999).

  5. The hearing threshold of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for impulsive sounds (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Gransier, R.; Hoek, L.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2012-01-01

    The distance at which harbor porpoises can hear underwater detonation sounds is unknown, but depends, among other factors, on the hearing threshold of the species for impulsive sounds. Therefore, the underwater hearing threshold of a young harbor porpoise for an impulsive sound, designed to mimic a

  6. Multi-variant analysis of otoacoustic emissions and estimation of hearing thresholds: transient evoked otoacoustic emissions.

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    Vinck, B M; Van Cauwenberge, P B; Corthals, P; De Vel, E

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of cochlear hearing loss by means of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions is already established in clinical practice. However, accurate prediction of pure-tone thresholds is still questioned and is still regarded as troublesome. Both click- and tone-burst-evoked otoacoustic emissions at several intensity levels were measured and analysed in 157 ears from normally hearing and 432 ears from patients with different degrees of pure sensory hearing loss using the ILO88/92 equipment. Results of otoacoustic emissions (OAE), elicited by clicks and tone-bursts at centre frequencies from 1 to 5 kHz, were analysed using two different statistical methods. Both multivariate discriminant analysis and forward multiple regression analysis were used to determine which OAE variables were most discriminating and best at predicting hearing thresholds. We found that a limited set of variables obtained from both tone-burst and click measurements can accurately predict and categorize hearing loss levels up to a limit of 60 dB HL. We found correct classification scores of pure-tone thresholds between 500 and 4000 Hz up to 100 per cent when using combined click and tone-burst otoacoustic measurements. Prediction of pure-tone thresholds was correct with a maximum estimation error of 10 dB for audiometric octave frequencies between 500 and 4000 Hz. Measurements of multiple tone-bursts OAEs have a significant clinical advantage over the use of clicks alone for clinical applications, and a good classification and prediction of pure-tone thresholds with otoacoustic emissions is possible.

  7. Blood lead, hearing thresholds, and neurobehavioral development in children and youth (journal version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J.; Otto, D.

    1987-01-01

    NHANES II audiometry data were used to confirm a previously observed link between blood lead (PbB) level and hearing threshold. Other indicators of neurological development, such as age at which a child first sat up, walked, and spoke, and the presence of speech difficulties and hyperactivity were also examined to determine if they were significantly related to lead exposure. The probability of elevated hearing thresholds at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz increased significantly (P<0.0001) with increasing PbB for both ears. PbB levels were also significantly related to delays in the age at which children first sat up, walked, and spoke and to the probability that a child was hyperactive. Lead was not related to the probability of a child having a previously diagnosed speech impairment.

  8. Pure-Tone-Spondee Threshold Relationships in Functional Hearing Loss: A Test of Loudness Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Han, Heekyung J.; Yu, Tzu-Ling J.; Carney, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine explanations for pure-tone average-spondee threshold differences in functional hearing loss. Method: Loudness magnitude estimation functions were obtained from 24 participants for pure tones (0.5 and 1.0 kHz), vowels, spondees, and speech-shaped noise as a function of level (20-90 dB SPL).…

  9. Pure-Tone-Spondee Threshold Relationships in Functional Hearing Loss: A Test of Loudness Contribution

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    Schlauch, Robert S.; Han, Heekyung J.; Yu, Tzu-Ling J.; Carney, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine explanations for pure-tone average-spondee threshold differences in functional hearing loss. Method: Loudness magnitude estimation functions were obtained from 24 participants for pure tones (0.5 and 1.0 kHz), vowels, spondees, and speech-shaped noise as a function of level (20-90 dB SPL).…

  10. Cortisol suppression and hearing thresholds in tinnitus after low-dose dexamethasone challenge

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    Simoens Veerle L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is a frequent, debilitating hearing disorder associated with severe emotional and psychological suffering. Although a link between stress and tinnitus has been widely recognized, the empirical evidence is scant. Our aims were to test for dysregulation of the stress-related hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal (HPA axis in tinnitus and to examine ear sensitivity variations with cortisol manipulation. Methods Twenty-one tinnitus participants and 21 controls comparable in age, education, and overall health status but without tinnitus underwent basal cortisol assessments on three non-consecutive days and took 0.5 mg of dexamethasone (DEX at 23:00 on the first day. Cortisol levels were measured hourly the next morning. Detection and discomfort hearing thresholds were measured before and after dexamethasone suppression test. Results Both groups displayed similar basal cortisol levels, but tinnitus participants showed stronger and longer-lasting cortisol suppression after DEX administration. Suppression was unrelated to hearing loss. Discomfort threshold was lower after cortisol suppression in tinnitus ears. Conclusions Our findings suggest heightened glucocorticoid sensitivity in tinnitus in terms of an abnormally strong glucocorticoid receptor (GR-mediated HPA-axis feedback (despite a normal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR-mediated tone and lower tolerance for sound loudness with suppressed cortisol levels. Long-term stress exposure and its deleterious effects therefore constitute an important predisposing factor for, or a significant pathological consequence of, this debilitating hearing disorder.

  11. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on the auditory threshold in sensorineural hearing loss: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Maria Eduarda Di Cavalcanti Alves de; Costa, Klinger Vagner Teixeira da; Vitorino, Paulo Augusto; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Menezes, Pedro de Lemos

    2017-08-26

    Hearing loss is conceptualized as any impairment of the ability to hear and/or detect speech or environment sounds, regardless of cause, type, or degree. It may occur at different stages of life; during pregnancy or childbirth, in childhood, adulthood or old age. It should be noted that aging is the most common cause of sensorineural hearing loss followed by noise-induced hearing loss, and both are closely related to the formation of reactive oxygen species. Dietary antioxidant supplementation has been employed as a therapeutic strategy to prevent and/or delay the risks of major human diseases. To assess randomized clinical trials to determine the effect of antioxidant supplementation on the auditory thresholds in patients of different age groups with sensorineural hearing loss. This systematic review consisted of a search in the following databases: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, SciELO and ClinicalTrials.gov. Additionally, the gray literature was also searched. The search strategy included terms related to the intervention (antioxidant supplementation), primary outcome (sensorineural hearing loss), as well as terms related to randomized clinical trials to improve search sensitivity. Based on 977 potentially relevant records identified through the search in the databases, ten full-text publications were retrieved for further evaluation. The increase in threshold at the 4kHz frequency was statistically higher in the control group (1.89 [1.01-2.78], p<0.0001) when compared to the NAC group and the ginseng group, whereas at 6kHz, the threshold increase was higher in the control group (1.42 [-1.14-3.97], p=0.28), but no statistically significant differences were found between groups. Ginseng was the antioxidant agent that showed the best effect in preventing auditory threshold worsening at the frequency of 4kHz, but not at 6kHz in patients with sensorineural hearing loss caused by exposure to high sound pressure levels. There was no

  12. Evaluation of treatment thresholds for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in preterm infants: effects on serum bilirubin and on hearing loss?

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    Christian V Hulzebos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia may cause deafness. In the Netherlands, 25% lower total serum bilirubin (TSB treatment thresholds were recently implemented for preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of hearing loss in jaundiced preterms treated at high or at low TSB thresholds. DESIGN/METHODS: In this retrospective study conducted at two neonatal intensive care units in the Netherlands, we included preterms (gestational age 35 dB. RESULTS: There were 479 patients in the high and 144 in the low threshold group. Both groups had similar gestational ages (29.5 weeks and birth weights (1300 g. Mean and mean peak TSB levels were significantly lower after the implementation of the novel thresholds: 152 ± 43 µmol/L and 212 ± 52 µmol/L versus 131 ± 37 µmol/L and 188 ± 46 µmol/L for the high versus low thresholds, respectively (P<0.001. The incidence of hearing loss was 2.7% (13/479 in the high and 0.7% (1/144 in the low TSB threshold group (NNT = 50, 95% CI, 25-3302. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of lower treatment thresholds resulted in reduced mean and peak TSB levels. The incidence of hearing impairment in preterms with a gestational age <32 weeks treated at low TSB thresholds was substantially lower compared to preterms treated at high TSB thresholds. Further research with larger sample sizes and power is needed to determine if this effect is statistically significant.

  13. Optimising threshold levels for information transmission in binary threshold networks: Independent multiplicative noise on each threshold

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    Zhou, Bingchang; McDonnell, Mark D.

    2015-02-01

    The problem of optimising the threshold levels in multilevel threshold system subject to multiplicative Gaussian and uniform noise is considered. Similar to previous results for additive noise, we find a bifurcation phenomenon in the optimal threshold values, as the noise intensity changes. This occurs when the number of threshold units is greater than one. We also study the optimal thresholds for combined additive and multiplicative Gaussian noise, and find that all threshold levels need to be identical to optimise the system when the additive noise intensity is a constant. However, this identical value is not equal to the signal mean, unlike the case of additive noise. When the multiplicative noise intensity is instead held constant, the optimal threshold levels are not all identical for small additive noise intensity but are all equal to zero for large additive noise intensity. The model and our results are potentially relevant for sensor network design and understanding neurobiological sensory neurons such as in the peripheral auditory system.

  14. Accuracy of Cortical Evoked Response Audiometry in estimating normal hearing thresholds

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    Mahdavi M E

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cortical Evoked Response Audiometry (CERA refers to prediction of behavioral pure-tone thresholds (500-4000 Hz obtained by recording the N1-P2 complex of auditory long latency responses. CERA is the preferred method for frequency–specific estimation of audiogram in conscious adults and older children. CERA has an increased accuracy of determination of the hearing thresholds of alert patients with elevated hearing thresholds with sensory hearing loss; however few publications report studies regarding the use of CERA for estimating normal hearing thresholds. The purpose of this research was to further study the accuracy of CERA in predicting hearing thresholds when there is no hearing loss. Methods: Behavioral hearing thresholds of 40 alert normal hearing young adult male (40 ears screened at 20 dB HL in 500-8000Hz, predicted by recording N1-P2 complex of auditory evoked long latency responses to 10-30-10 ms tone bursts. After CERA, pure tone audiometry performed by other audiologist. All judgments about presence of responses performed visually. Stimulus rate variation and temporary interruption of stimulus presentation was used for preventing amplitude reduction of the responses. 200-250 responses were averaged near threshold. Results: In 95% of the hearing threshold predictions, N1-P2 thresholds were within 0-15 dB SL of true hearing thresholds. In the other 5%, the difference between the CERA threshold and true hearing threshold was 20-25 dB. The mean threshold obtained for tone bursts of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz were 12.6 ± 4.5, 10.9 ± 5.8, 10.8 ± 6.5 and 11.2 ± 4.1 dB, respectively, above the mean behavioral hearing thresholds for air-conducted pure tone stimuli. Conclusion: On average, CERA has a relatively high accuracy for the prediction of normal hearing sensitivity, comparable to that of previous studies performed on CERA in hearing-impaired populations.

  15. Higher serum aldosterone correlates with lower hearing thresholds: a possible protective hormone against presbycusis.

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    Tadros, Sherif F; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2005-11-01

    Aldosterone hormone is a mineralocorticoid secreted by adrenal gland cortex and controls serum sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) levels. Aldosterone has a stimulatory effect on expression of sodium-potassium ATPase (Na, K-ATPase) and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter (NKCC) in cell membranes. In the present investigation, the relation between serum aldosterone levels and age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) and the correlation between these levels versus the degree of presbycusis in humans were examined. Serum aldosterone concentrations were compared between normal hearing and presbycusic groups. Pure-tone audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), hearing in noise test (HINT) and gap detection were tested for each subject and compared to the serum aldosterone levels. A highly significant difference between groups in serum aldosterone concentrations was found (p = 0.0003, t = 3.95, df = 45). Highly significant correlations between pure-tone thresholds in both right and left ears, and HINT scores versus serum aldosterone levels were also discovered. On the contrary, no significant correlations were seen in the case of TEOAEs and gap detection. We conclude that aldosterone hormone may have a protective effect on hearing in old age. This effect is more peripheral than central, appearing to affect inner hair cells more than outer hair cells.

  16. Dichotic multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses in evaluating the hearing thresholds of occupational noise-exposed workers

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    Ruey-Fen Hsu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An objective, fast, and reasonably accurate assessment test that allows for easy interpretation of the responses of the hearing thresholds at all frequencies of a conventional audiogram is needed to resolve the medicolegal aspects of an occupational hearing injury. This study evaluated the use of dichotic multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses (Mf-ASSR to predict the hearing thresholds in workers exposed to high levels of noise. The study sample included 34 workers with noise-induced hearing impairment. Thresholds of pure-tone audiometry (PTA and Mf-ASSRs at four frequencies were assessed. The differences and correlations between the thresholds of Mf-ASSRs and PTA were determined. The results showed that, on average, Mf-ASSR curves corresponded well with the thresholds of the PTA contours averaged across subjects. The Mf-ASSRs were 20±8 dB, 16±9 dB, 12±9 dB, and 11±12 dB above the thresholds of the PTA for 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 2,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz, respectively. The thresholds of the PTA and the Mf-ASSRs were significantly correlated (r=0.77–0.89. We found that the measurement of Mf-ASSRs is easy and potentially time saving, provides a response at all dichotic multiple frequencies of the conventional audiogram, reduces variability in the interpretation of the responses, and correlates well with the behavioral hearing thresholds in subjects with occupational noise-induced hearing impairment. Mf-ASSR can be a valuable aid in the adjustment of compensation cases.

  17. Temporary threshold shifts from exposures to equal equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    According to existing methods for the assessment of hearing damage, signals with the same A-weighted equivalent level should pose the same hazard to the auditory system. As a measure of hazard, it is assumed that Temporary Thresholds Shifts (TTS) reflect the onset of alterations to the hearing sy...

  18. Reference thresholds for the TEN(HL) test for people with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andreas S; Raen, Øyvind; Moore, Brian C J

    2017-09-01

    To estimate normative values and repeatability of thresholds for the TEN(HL) test for diagnosing dead regions in the cochlea, as a function of signal frequency, TEN(HL) level, age and gender. The TEN(HL) test was administered twice for each ear of each participant using signal frequencies from 0.5 to 4 kHz and TEN(HL) levels of 30, 50 and 70 dB HL/ERBN. In all, 29 young participants and 8 older participants were tested. All had normal audiograms with no history of hearing problems. There was good repeatability across sessions. There was no significant effect of ear, gender or age group. The average signal-to-TEN ratio (STR) at threshold was close to 0 dB. For low signal frequencies, the STR at threshold varied only slightly with TEN(HL) level, but for the signal frequencies of 3 and 4 kHz the STR at threshold increased to about +2.7 dB for the TEN(HL) level of 70 dB/ERBN. For a high TEN(HL) level, the "normal" STR at threshold at 3 and 4 kHz is closer to +2 dB than to 0 dB. Further research is needed to assess whether the TEN(HL)-test criteria need to be modified when testing at high frequencies and high levels.

  19. Characterization of hearing thresholds from 500 to 16,000 hz in dentists: a comparative study.

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    Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Santos, Luciana; Lobato, Diolen; Ribas, Angela; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira; Marques, Jair

    2015-04-01

    Introduction High-level noise exposure in dentists' workplaces may cause damages to the auditory systems. High-frequency audiometry is an important tool in the investigation in the early diagnosis of hearing loss. Objectives To analyze the auditory thresholds at frequencies from 500 to 16,000 Hz of dentists in the city of Curitiba. Methods This historic cohort study retrospectively tested hearing thresholds from 500 to 16,000 Hz with a group of dentists from Curitiba, in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Eighty subjects participated in the study, separated into a dentist group and a control group, with the same age range and gender across groups but with no history of occupational exposure to high levels of sound pressure in the control group. Subjects were tested with conventional audiometry and high-frequency audiometry and answered a questionnaire about exposure to noise. Results Results showed that 81% of dentists did not receive any information regarding noise at university; 6 (15%) dentists had sensorineural hearing impairment; significant differences were observed between the groups only at frequencies of 500 Hz and 1,000, 6,000 and 8,000 Hz in the right ear. There was no significant difference between the groups after analysis of mean hearing thresholds of high frequencies with the average hearing thresholds in conventional frequencies; subjects who had been working as dentists for longer than 10 years had worse tonal hearing thresholds at high frequencies. Conclusions In this study, we observed that dentists are at risk for the development of sensorineural hearing loss especially after 10 years of service.

  20. Effects of signal level and spectral contrast on vowel formant discrimination for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Ashley; Liu, Chang

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing the overall speech level or the individual spectral contrasts of vowel sounds can improve vowel formant discrimination for listeners both with and without normal hearing. Thresholds of vowel formant discrimination were examined for the F2 frequencies of 3 American English vowels for listeners with and without normal hearing. Spectral contrasts of the F2 were enhanced by 3, 6, and 9 dB. Vowel stimuli were presented at 70 and 90 dB SPL. The thresholds of listeners with hearing impairment were reduced significantly after spectral enhancement was implemented, especially at 90 dB SPL, whereas normal-hearing listeners did not benefit from spectral enhancement. These results indicate that a combination of spectral enhancement of F2 and high speech level is most beneficial to improve vowel formant discrimination for listeners with hearing impairment.

  1. Auditory brainstem responses predict auditory nerve fiber thresholds and frequency selectivity in hearing impaired chinchillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kenneth S; Kale, Sushrut; Scheidt, Ryan E; Heinz, Michael G

    2011-10-01

    Noninvasive auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) are commonly used to assess cochlear pathology in both clinical and research environments. In the current study, we evaluated the relationship between ABR characteristics and more direct measures of cochlear function. We recorded ABRs and auditory nerve (AN) single-unit responses in seven chinchillas with noise-induced hearing loss. ABRs were recorded for 1-8 kHz tone burst stimuli both before and several weeks after 4 h of exposure to a 115 dB SPL, 50 Hz band of noise with a center frequency of 2 kHz. Shifts in ABR characteristics (threshold, wave I amplitude, and wave I latency) following hearing loss were compared to AN-fiber tuning curve properties (threshold and frequency selectivity) in the same animals. As expected, noise exposure generally resulted in an increase in ABR threshold and decrease in wave I amplitude at equal SPL. Wave I amplitude at equal sensation level (SL), however, was similar before and after noise exposure. In addition, noise exposure resulted in decreases in ABR wave I latency at equal SL and, to a lesser extent, at equal SPL. The shifts in ABR characteristics were significantly related to AN-fiber tuning curve properties in the same animal at the same frequency. Larger shifts in ABR thresholds and ABR wave I amplitude at equal SPL were associated with greater AN threshold elevation. Larger reductions in ABR wave I latency at equal SL, on the other hand, were associated with greater loss of AN frequency selectivity. This result is consistent with linear systems theory, which predicts shorter time delays for broader peripheral frequency tuning. Taken together with other studies, our results affirm that ABR thresholds and wave I amplitude provide useful estimates of cochlear sensitivity. Furthermore, comparisons of ABR wave I latency to normative data at the same SL may prove useful for detecting and characterizing loss of cochlear frequency selectivity.

  2. A study of the high-frequency hearing thresholds of dentistry professionals

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    Lopes, Andréa Cintra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the dentistry practice, dentists are exposed to harmful effects caused by several factors, such as the noise produced by their work instruments. In 1959, the American Dental Association recommended periodical hearing assessments and the use of ear protectors. Aquiring more information regarding dentists', dental nurses', and prosthodontists' hearing abilities is necessary to propose prevention measures and early treatment strategies. Objective: To investigate the auditory thresholds of dentists, dental nurses, and prosthodontists. Method: In this clinical and experimental study, 44 dentists (Group I; GI, 36 dental nurses (Group II; GII, and 28 prosthodontists (Group III; GIII were included, , with a total of 108 professionals. The procedures that were performed included a specific interview, ear canal inspection, conventional and high-frequency threshold audiometry, a speech reception threshold test, and an acoustic impedance test. Results: In the 3 groups that were tested, the comparison between the mean hearing thresholds provided evidence of worsened hearing ability relative to the increase in frequency. For the tritonal mean at 500 to 2,000 Hz and 3,000 to 6,000 Hz, GIII presented the worst thresholds. For the mean of the high frequencies (9,000 and 16,000 Hz, GII presented the worst thresholds. Conclusion: The conventional hearing threshold evaluation did not demonstrate alterations in the 3 groups that were tested; however, the complementary tests such as high-frequency audiometry provided greater efficacy in the early detection of hearing problems, since this population's hearing loss impaired hearing ability at frequencies that are not tested by the conventional tests. Therefore, we emphasize the need of utilizing high-frequency threshold audiometry in the hearing assessment routine in combination with other audiological tests.

  3. Prevalence of permanent hearing threshold shift among workers of Indian iron and steel small and medium enterprises: A study

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    Lakhwinder Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL have been recognized as a problem among workers in Indian industries. The major industries in India are based on manufacturing. There are appreciable numbers of casting and forging units spread across the country. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of permanent hearing threshold shift among the workers engaged in Indian iron and steel small and medium enterprises (SMEs and compared with control group subjects. As a part of hearing protection intervention, audiometric tests were conducted at low (250-1000 Hz, medium (1500-3000 Hz, and high (4000-8000 Hz frequencies. The occurrence of hearing loss was determined based on hearing threshold levels with a low fence of 25 dB. Comparisons were made for hearing threshold at different frequencies between the exposed and control groups using Student′s t test. ANOVA was used for the comparison of hearing threshold dB at different frequencies among occupation and year of experience. A P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. All data were presented as mean value (SD. Over 90% of workers engaged in various processes of casting and forging industry showed hearing loss in the noise-sensitive medium and higher frequencies. Occupation was significantly associated with NIHL, and hearing loss was particularly high among the workers of forging section. The analyses revealed a higher prevalence of significant hearing loss among the forging workers compared to the workers associated with other activities. The study shows alarming signals of NIHL, especially in forging workers. The occupational exposure to noise could be minimized by efficient control measures through engineering controls, administrative controls, and the use of personal protective devices. Applications of engineering and/or administrative controls are frequently not feasible in the developing countries for technical and financial reasons. A

  4. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, C. G.; Dell, S.; Hensley, B.; Hall, J. W.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Antonelli, P. J.; Green, G. E.; Miller, J. M.; Guire, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is availability of an established clinical paradigm with real world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects. Design Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93–95 (n=10), 98–100 (n=11), or 100–102 (n=12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of four hours. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured prior to and after music exposure. Post-music tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and one week later. Results Changes in thresholds after the lowest level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a “notch” configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean=6.3±3.9dB; range=0–13 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hours post-exposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1-week post-exposure. Conclusions These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function following digital music player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be

  5. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift in normal-hearing human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, Colleen G; Dell, Shawna; Hensley, Brittany; Hall, James W; Campbell, Kathleen C M; Antonelli, Patrick J; Green, Glenn E; Miller, James M; Guire, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is the availability of an established clinical paradigm with real-world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal-hearing human subjects. Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93 to 95 (n = 10), 98 to 100 (n = 11), or 100 to 102 (n = 12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of 4 hr. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured before and after music exposure. Postmusic tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and 1 week later. Changes in thresholds after the lowest-level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a "notch" configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean = 6.3 ± 3.9 dB; range = 0-14 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hr postexposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1 week postexposure. These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music-player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function after digital music-player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be taken to fully inform potential subjects in

  6. Age- and Gender-Related Mean Hearing Threshold in a Highly-Screened Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

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    Yun Hwi Park

    Full Text Available In evaluating hearing disability in medicolegal work, the apportionment of age- and gender-related sensorineural hearing loss should be considered as a prior factor, especially for the elderly. However, in the literature written in the English language no studies have reported on the age- and gender-related mean hearing threshold for the South Korean population.This study aimed to identify the mean hearing thresholds in the South Korean population to establish reference data and to identify the age- and gender-related characteristics.This study is based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010-2012, which was conducted by the Korean government, the data of which was disclosed to the public. A total of 15,606 participants (unweighted representing 33,011,778 Koreans (weighted with normal tympanic membrane and no history of regular or occupational noise exposure were selected and analyzed in this study. The relationship between the hearing threshold level and frequency, age, and gender was investigated and analyzed in a highly-screened population by considering the sample weights of a complex survey design.A gender ratio difference was found between the unweighted and the weighted designs: male:female, 41.0%: 59.0% (unweighted, participants vs. 47.2%:52.8% (weighted, representing population. As age increased, the hearing threshold increased for all frequencies. Hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz showed a statistical difference between both genders for people older than 30, with the 4 kHz frequency showing the largest difference. This paper presents details about the mean hearing threshold based on age and gender.The data from KNHANES 2010-2012 showed gender differences at hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz in a highly-screened population. The most significant gender difference in relation to hearing threshold was observed at 4 kHz. The hearing thresholds at all of the tested frequencies

  7. Age- and Gender-Related Mean Hearing Threshold in a Highly-Screened Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun Hwi; Shin, Seung-Ho; Byun, Sung Wan; Kim, Ju Yeon

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating hearing disability in medicolegal work, the apportionment of age- and gender-related sensorineural hearing loss should be considered as a prior factor, especially for the elderly. However, in the literature written in the English language no studies have reported on the age- and gender-related mean hearing threshold for the South Korean population. This study aimed to identify the mean hearing thresholds in the South Korean population to establish reference data and to identify the age- and gender-related characteristics. This study is based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012, which was conducted by the Korean government, the data of which was disclosed to the public. A total of 15,606 participants (unweighted) representing 33,011,778 Koreans (weighted) with normal tympanic membrane and no history of regular or occupational noise exposure were selected and analyzed in this study. The relationship between the hearing threshold level and frequency, age, and gender was investigated and analyzed in a highly-screened population by considering the sample weights of a complex survey design. A gender ratio difference was found between the unweighted and the weighted designs: male:female, 41.0%: 59.0% (unweighted, participants) vs. 47.2%:52.8% (weighted, representing population). As age increased, the hearing threshold increased for all frequencies. Hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz showed a statistical difference between both genders for people older than 30, with the 4 kHz frequency showing the largest difference. This paper presents details about the mean hearing threshold based on age and gender. The data from KNHANES 2010-2012 showed gender differences at hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz in a highly-screened population. The most significant gender difference in relation to hearing threshold was observed at 4 kHz. The hearing thresholds at all of the tested frequencies worsened with

  8. Auditory brainstem response latency in forward masking, a marker of sensory deficits in listeners with normal hearing thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehraei, Golbarg; Paredes Gallardo, Andreu; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2017-01-01

    In rodent models, acoustic exposure too modest to elevate hearing thresholds can nonetheless cause auditory nerve fiber deafferentation, interfering with the coding of supra-threshold sound. Low-spontaneous rate nerve fibers, important for encoding acoustic information at supra-threshold levels......-V latency changes with increasing masker-to-probe intervals. In the same listeners, behavioral forward masking detection thresholds were measured. We hypothesized that 1) auditory nerve fiber deafferentation increases forward masking thresholds and increases wave-V latency and 2) a preferential loss of low...... behaviorally. Further, the amount of wave-V latency change with masker-to-probe interval was positively correlated with the rate of change in forward masking detection thresholds. Although we cannot rule out central contributions, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that auditory nerve fiber...

  9. High-frequency hearing thresholds: effects of age, occupational ultrasound and noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccà, Isabella; Scapellato, Maria Luisa; Carrieri, Mariella; Maso, Stefano; Trevisan, Andrea; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2015-02-01

    It has been suggested that high-frequency audiometry (HFA) could represent a useful preventive measure in exposed workers. The aim was to investigate the effects of age, ultrasound and noise on high-frequency hearing thresholds. We tested 24 industrial ultrasound-exposed subjects, 113 industrial noise-exposed subjects and 148 non-exposed subjects. Each subject was tested with both conventional-frequency (0.125-8 kHz) and high-frequency (9-18 kHz) audiometry. The hearing threshold at high frequency deteriorated as a function of age, especially in subjects more than 30 years old. The ultrasound-exposed subjects had significantly higher hearing thresholds than the non-exposed ones at the high frequencies, being greatest from 10 to 14 kHz. This hearing loss was already significantly evident in subjects with exposure frequencies 4 and 6 kHz and at the high frequency of 14 kHz. After stratification for age, there was a significant difference between the two groups at 9-10 and 14-15 kHz only for those under 30 years of age. Multivariate analysis indicated that age was the primary predictor, and noise and ultrasound exposure the secondary predictors of hearing thresholds in the high-frequency range. The results suggest that HFA could be useful in the early diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss in younger groups of workers (under 30 years of age).

  10. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Interacoustics DD 45 supra-aural audiometric earphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes the determination and results of pure-tone equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for the Interacoustics DD 45 audiometric earphone equipped with standard Model 51 cushions. The size and shape of the DD 45 transducer resembles the classic Telephonics TDH 39 earphone. Pure-tone hearing threshold measurements were performed for both ears of 29 test subjects. All audiometric frequencies from 125 to 8000 Hz were used. The data are intended for inclusion in future standardized reference equivalent threshold sound pressure levels. The results show that the DD 45 may be a good substitute for the THD 39 without the traditional 5-dB problem at 6000 Hz.

  11. Hearing thresholds and ventilation tube treatment in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengroth, Birgitta; Hederstierna, Christina; Neovius, Erik; Flynn, Traci

    2017-06-01

    Children with cleft lip and palate have a high prevalence of otitis media with effusion (OME) which is often associated with a fluctuating, conductive hearing loss in the low and mid-frequencies and a risk for permanent hearing loss in the higher frequencies. Although common, there is no consensus on the treatment of OME with ventilation tubes. The aim of this study is to document if the risk for permanent hearing loss and acquired cholesteatoma increases due to treatment with ventilation tubes (VT treatments) during childhood in a group of children with cleft lip and palate. A retrospective medical chart review of 33 children (25 boys and 8 girls) born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) was completed. Audiological data (results of hearing sensitivity tests, the total number of hearing tests, and number of VT treatments) were extracted from medical records from when the children were 4-7 and >7-10 years of age. The hearing thresholds in the speech frequencies improved with age (p 7-10 years of age. There were no significant correlations between number of VT treatments and hearing thresholds at >7-10 years. Four of the 33 children presented with complications: two children exhibited perforations of the ear drum (6.1%) and two children developed unilateral cholesteatoma (6.1%). In the current study, the hearing sensitivity of children with cleft lip and palate improved with age. However, this improvement was not seen in the higher frequencies. Twelve percent of the children experienced complications following VT treatments. Due to these complications, it is recommended that all children with cleft palate should have routine follow-ups by an ENT doctor and audiologist. As part of the routine follow-up care, hearing assessments should be performed before and after VT treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fixed-Level Frequency Threshold Testing for Ototoxicity Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Catherine C; Clavier, Odile H; Allen, Lindsay V; Anderson, Allison P; Brooks, Chris A; Fellows, Abigail M; Brungart, Douglas S; Buckey, Jay C

    2017-03-30

    Hearing loss from ototoxicity is often most pronounced at high frequencies. To improve patient monitoring and compliance, high-frequency testing methods should be short and easy to administer. We evaluated the repeatability and accuracy of a Békésy-like, fixed-level frequency threshold (FLFT) technique. This test takes less than a minute and could provide a rapid and effective way to determine the highest audible frequency. We hypothesized the FLFT test would be repeatable in normal-hearing subjects, and accurate when compared with Békésy fixed-frequency audiometry in the sensitive region for ototoxicity (SRO). Twenty-nine normal-hearing subjects (20 females, 9 males) performed 2 different automated audiometry tests at least 4 times over a period of no less than 3 weeks. Ages ranged from 23 to 35 years (average = 28 years). Subjects completed testing under Sennheiser HDA-200 headsets. Initial fixed-frequency audiometry thresholds were obtained at frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 20 kHz to identify each subject's highest audible frequency, which was used to determine the SRO. The SRO was defined as the seven frequencies at and below the highest audible frequency in 1/6-octave steps. These frequencies were monitored with fixed-frequency audiometry. At each session, the FLFT test was administered at 80 dB SPL. Subjects used a Békésy-style tracking method to determine the frequency threshold. All testing was completed in a sound booth (single wall, Industrial Acoustics Company) using a computerized, laptop-based, system. FLFT repeatability was calculated as the root mean square difference from the first test session. FLFT accuracy was calculated as the difference from the highest audible frequency determined from fixed-frequency audiometry interpolated to 80 dB SPL level. The FLFT average RMSD for intersession variability was 0.05 ± 0.05 octaves. The test showed no learning effect [F(3,78) = 0.7; p = 0.6]. The overall intersession variability for SRO fixed

  13. Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Hoek, L.; Gransier, R.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2013-01-01

    Pile driving is presently the most common method used to attach wind turbines to the sea bed. To assess the impact of pile driving sounds on harbor porpoises, it is important to know at what distance these sounds can be detected. Using a psychophysical technique, a male porpoise’s hearing thresholds

  14. A longitudinal study on postoperative hearing thresholds with the Vibrant Soundbridge device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, C; Fraysse, B; Lavieille, J-P; Truy, E; Sterkers, O; Vaneecloo, F-M

    2004-10-01

    The Vibrant Soundbridge is a semi-implantable middle ear hearing device used in the rehabilitation of adults with sensorineural hearing loss. In order to evaluate the long-term effects of the implanted part of the device, audiological data from 39 patients implanted over several implant sites across France were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The mean follow-up time was 16 months; 25 patients had a follow-up period of over 1 year. Surgery was uneventful in all cases. The present study of the 39 implanted patients with a mid- to long-term follow-up found a statistically significant modification of hearing thresholds (pre- versus postoperative) for frequencies of 0.5 and 4 kHz. However, the shift of threshold was rather limited (2.79 and 3.34 dB, respectively), and this variation was not statistically different from the evolution of the opposite non-operated ear.

  15. Level reduction and the quantum threshold theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliferis, Panagiotis (Panos)

    Computers have led society to the information age revolutionizing central aspects of our lives from production and communication to education and entertainment. There exist, however, important problems which are intractable with the computers available today and, experience teaches us, will remain so even with the more advanced computers we can envision for tomorrow.Quantum computers promise speedups to some of these important but classically intractable problems. Simulating physical systems, a problem of interest in a diverse range of areas from testing physical theories to understanding chemical reactions, and solving number factoring, a problem at the basis of cryptographic protocols that are used widely today on the internet, are examples of applications for which quantum computers, when built, will offer a great advantage over what is possible with classical computer technology.The construction of a quantum computer of sufficient scale to solve interesting problems is, however, especially challenging. The reason for this is that, by its very nature, operating a quantum computer will require the coherent control of the quantum state of a very large number of particles. Fortunately, the theory of quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation gives us confidence that such quantum states can be created, can be stored in memory and can also be manipulated provided the quantum computer can be isolated to a sufficient degree from sources of noise.One of the central results in the theory of fault-tolerant quantum computation, the quantum threshold theorem shows that a noisy quantum computer can accurately and efficiently simulate any ideal quantum computation provided that noise is weakly correlated and its strength is below a critical value known as the quantum accuracy threshold. This thesis provides a simpler and more transparent non-inductive proof of this theorem based on the concept of level reduction. This concept is also used in proving the

  16. Hearing thresholds in adult Nigerians with diabetes mellitus: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwosu JN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Jones Ndubuisi Nwosu, Ethel Nkechi Chime Department of Otorhinolaryngology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria Objectives: To determine the prevalence, types and severity of hearing loss and associated factors in a hospital population of adult Nigerians with diabetes mellitus.Subjects and methods: This study was a prospective hospital-based study conducted at the Otorhinolaryngology and Diabetic Clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, for a period of 12 months. Consecutively presenting eligible adult diabetics and their age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Each case and control participant had clinical and otologic examination, followed by pure tone audiometry. Data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics.Results: There were 224 patients and 192 control participants. The patients comprised 112 males and 112 females (sex ratio=1:1, whose mean age was 47.6 years (range: 26–80 years. The prevalence of hearing loss was 46.9%. This comprised 43.8% sensorineural and 3.1% conductive hearing losses. The distribution of hearing loss by severity was mild 25.0%, moderate 15.6% and severe 6.3%. The controls comprised 96 males and 96 females whose mean age was 44.6 years (range: 25–79 years. The prevalence of hearing loss was significantly higher overall and by type (sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss in cases compared with controls.Conclusion: The prevalence of hearing loss among diabetic adults at UNTH, Enugu, is comparatively high. Hearing loss is predominantly sensorineural and often mild to moderate in severity. Routine audiometric evaluation of all adult diabetics at UNTH is recommended. Keywords: adults, diabetes mellitus, hearing threshold

  17. Summation bandwidths at threshold in normal and hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M B; Turner, C W

    1990-12-01

    The bandwidths for summation at threshold were measured for subjects with normal hearing and subjects with sensorineural hearing loss. Thresholds in quiet and in the presence of a masking noise were measured for complex stimuli consisting of 1 to 40 pure-tone components spaced 20 Hz apart. The single component condition consisted of a single pure tone at 1100 Hz; additional components were added below this frequency, in a replication of the Gässler [Acustica 4, 408-414 (1954)] procedure. For the normal subjects, thresholds increased approximately 3 dB per doubling of bandwidth for signal bandwidths exceeding the critical bandwidth. This slope was less for the hearing-impaired subjects. Summation bandwidths, as estimated from two-line fits, were wider for the hearing-impaired than for the normal subjects. These findings provide evidence that hearing-impaired subjects integrate sound energy over a wider-than-normal frequency range for the detection of complex signals. A second experiment used stimuli similar to those of Spiegel [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66, 1356-1363 (1979)], and added components both above and below the frequency of the initial component. Using these stimuli, the slope of the threshold increase beyond the critical bandwidth was approximately 1.5 dB per doubling of bandwidth, thus replicating the Spiegel (1979) experiment. It is concluded that the differences between the Gässler (1954) and Spiegel (1979) studies were due to the different frequency content of the stimuli used in each study. Based upon the present results, it would appear that the slope of threshold increase is dependent upon the direction of signal expansion, and the size of the critical bands into which the signal is expanded.

  18. A Comparison of Thresholds in Auditory Steady - State Response with Pure Tone Audiometry in Subjects with Normal Hearing and Those with Mild and Moderate Sensorineural Hearing los

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Jafarzadeh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Among all auditory assessment tools, auditory steady state response (ASSR is a modern test. Modulation frequency for this test is usually 80 Hz. The purpose of this study, was to examined adult subjects with 40 Hz and 80 Hz ASSR and compare the results.Materials and Methods: Thirty adult (60 ears were evaluated by ASSR and PTA test, Results were divided into three groups: normal hearing, mild and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Results: In all groups, forty hertz ASSR thresholds were relatively closer to behavioral threshold than those of 80 Hz ASSR(p<0.05. Besides, the more severe hearing loss, the lower the difference between those two thresholds. Correlation coefficients were also higher in 40 Hz ASSR(p<0.05. Conclusion: Frequency modulation thresholds with 40 Hz are more likely to be closer to the behavioral thresholds. Moreover, it has better results than the thresholds with 80 Hz.

  19. Levels of Evidence: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) and Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Systems (EHDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Levels of evidence differ according to the audience addressed. Implementation of universal newborn hearing screening requires responses to a complex myriad of diverse groups: the general public, families with children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the deaf and hard of hearing communities, hospital administrators, physicians (pediatricians,…

  20. THE MEASUREMENT OF SENSORY THRESHOLDS IN EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN, AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH TO SOME PROBLEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS AND EDUCATION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HEARING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEYERSON, LEE; MICHAEL, JOHN L.

    THE PROBLEM OF THIS RESEARCH WAS TO DEVISE A NEW, NONVERBAL AND NONLANGUAGE PROCEDURE FOR TESTING THE HEARING OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IN WHICH IMPAIRMENT IN DISCRIMINATING PURE TONES AT THRESHOLD LEVELS WOULD NOT BE CONFUSED WITH IMPAIRMENT OF AUDITORY SENSITIVITY. OPERANT CONDITIONING TECHNIQUES WERE APPLIED TO TRAINABLE MENTALLY RETARDED,…

  1. [The influence of high frequency hearing loss on the distortion product otoacoustic emissions in tinnitus subjects with normal hearing threshold (0,25-8 kHz)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabijańska, Anna; Smurzyński, Jacek; Kochanek, Krzysztof; Bartnik, Grażyna; Raj-Koziak, Danuta; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of high frequency hearing loss (> 8000 Hz) on distortion product otoacoustic emissions registered in the frequency range from 0,5 to 8 kHz. 280 ears with tinnitus and normal hearing (0.25-8 kHz) divided into 3 groups depending on the degree of high frequency hearing loss: group A--hearing threshold up to 20 dB for 10, 12.5, 14 and 16 kHz (68 ears); group B--hearing threshold 25-40 dB HL for at least one of four EHfs (93 ears); group C--hearing threshold above 40 dB HL for at least one of four EHFs (119 ears). For each group mean audiogram and DP-gram were obtained and statistical analysis was used for comparison across these groups. Mean DPOAE values in group C were significantly lower in comparison with group A for the frequency range 2-8 kHz, and in comparison with group B were significantly lower for the frequency range 4-8 kHz. High frequency hearing loss (above 8 kHz) has a relevant influence on distortion product otoacoustic emissions registered at frequencies below 8 kHz in tinnitus patients. The greater is hearing loss above 8 kHz, the lower is DPOAE value below 8 kHz. 2012 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society.

  2. High frequency hearing thresholds and product distortion otoacoustic emissions in cystic fibrosis patients,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Bencke Geyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis involves the use of ototoxic drugs, mainly aminoglycoside antibiotics. Due to the use of these drugs, fibrocystic patients are at risk of developing hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hearing of patients with cystic fibrosis by High Frequency Audiometry and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. The study group consisted of 39 patients (7-20 years of age with cystic fibrosis and a control group of 36 individuals in the same age group without otologic complaints, with normal audiometric thresholds and type A tympanometric curves. High Frequency Audiometry and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions tests were conducted. RESULTS: The study group had significantly higher thresholds at 250, 1000, 8000, 9000, 10,000, 12,500, and 16,000 Hz (p = 0.004 as well as higher prevalence of otoacoustic emission alterations at 1000 and 6000 Hz (p = 0.001, with significantly lower amplitudes at 1000, 1400, and 6000 Hz. There was a significant association between alterations in hearing thresholds in High Frequency Audiometry with the number of courses of aminoglycosides administered (p = 0.005. Eighty-three percent of patients who completed more than ten courses of aminoglycosides had hearing loss in High Frequency Audiometry. CONCLUSION: A significant number of patients with cystic fibrosis who received repeated courses of aminoglycosides showed alterations in High Frequency Audiometry and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions. The implementation of ten or more aminoglycoside cycles was associated with alterations in High Frequency Audiometry.

  3. Vibrotactile Presentation of Musical Notes to the Glabrous Skin for Adults with Normal Hearing or a Hearing Impairment: Thresholds, Dynamic Range and High-Frequency Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté-Cid, Saúl; Fulford, Robert; Seiffert, Gary; Ginsborg, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Presentation of music as vibration to the skin has the potential to facilitate interaction between musicians with hearing impairments and other musicians during group performance. Vibrotactile thresholds have been determined to assess the potential for vibrotactile presentation of music to the glabrous skin of the fingertip, forefoot and heel. No significant differences were found between the thresholds for sinusoids representing notes between C1 and C6 when presented to the fingertip of participants with normal hearing and with a severe or profound hearing loss. For participants with normal hearing, thresholds for notes between C1 and C6 showed the characteristic U-shape curve for the fingertip, but not for the forefoot and heel. Compared to the fingertip, the forefoot had lower thresholds between C1 and C3, and the heel had lower thresholds between C1 and G2; this is attributed to spatial summation from the Pacinian receptors over the larger contactor area used for the forefoot and heel. Participants with normal hearing assessed the perception of high-frequency vibration using 1s sinusoids presented to the fingertip and were found to be more aware of transient vibration at the beginning and/or end of notes between G4 and C6 when stimuli were presented 10dB above threshold, rather than at threshold. An average of 94% of these participants reported feeling continuous vibration between G4 and G5 with stimuli presented 10dB above threshold. Based on the experimental findings and consideration of health effects relating to vibration exposure, a suitable range of notes for vibrotactile presentation of music is identified as being from C1 to G5. This is more limited than for human hearing but the fundamental frequencies of the human voice, and the notes played by many instruments, lie within it. However, the dynamic range might require compression to avoid the negative effects of amplitude on pitch perception. PMID:27191400

  4. Vibrotactile Presentation of Musical Notes to the Glabrous Skin for Adults with Normal Hearing or a Hearing Impairment: Thresholds, Dynamic Range and High-Frequency Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Hopkins

    Full Text Available Presentation of music as vibration to the skin has the potential to facilitate interaction between musicians with hearing impairments and other musicians during group performance. Vibrotactile thresholds have been determined to assess the potential for vibrotactile presentation of music to the glabrous skin of the fingertip, forefoot and heel. No significant differences were found between the thresholds for sinusoids representing notes between C1 and C6 when presented to the fingertip of participants with normal hearing and with a severe or profound hearing loss. For participants with normal hearing, thresholds for notes between C1 and C6 showed the characteristic U-shape curve for the fingertip, but not for the forefoot and heel. Compared to the fingertip, the forefoot had lower thresholds between C1 and C3, and the heel had lower thresholds between C1 and G2; this is attributed to spatial summation from the Pacinian receptors over the larger contactor area used for the forefoot and heel. Participants with normal hearing assessed the perception of high-frequency vibration using 1s sinusoids presented to the fingertip and were found to be more aware of transient vibration at the beginning and/or end of notes between G4 and C6 when stimuli were presented 10dB above threshold, rather than at threshold. An average of 94% of these participants reported feeling continuous vibration between G4 and G5 with stimuli presented 10dB above threshold. Based on the experimental findings and consideration of health effects relating to vibration exposure, a suitable range of notes for vibrotactile presentation of music is identified as being from C1 to G5. This is more limited than for human hearing but the fundamental frequencies of the human voice, and the notes played by many instruments, lie within it. However, the dynamic range might require compression to avoid the negative effects of amplitude on pitch perception.

  5. Symphony orchestra musicians′ use of hearing protection and attenuation of custom-made hearing protectors as measured with two different real-ear attenuation at threshold methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K H Huttunen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a high level of sound exposure and a fairly large selection of earplugs available, musicians have often been reported to use personal hearing protectors only seldom. For better hearing conservation, it is important to identify and eliminate the causes for the low motivation to use hearing protection. We explored the usage rate of custom-molded musician′s earplugs (ER-15 among 15 symphony orchestra musicians with a questionnaire, and measured the attenuation properties of their earplugs with a Real-Ear Attenuation at Threshold (REAT procedure in a sound field. Earplug use was found to be low, and the musicians reported that earplugs hampered listening to their own and their colleagues′ playing; earplugs affected either timbre or dynamics, or both. Additionally, several reasons related to discomfort of use were itemized, but the musicians who consistently used their earplugs did so in spite of problems with use. The REAT values obtained in sound field were relatively close to the manufacturer′s nominal specifications, being 13.7 dB, on average. In the frequency range studied (0.125-8 kHz, individual variation in REAT was, however, up to 15 dB across the measured frequencies. Fluctuation in attenuation might be related to low use of hearing protectors, and REAT measured at fixed center frequencies may be too robust a method to uncover it. We therefore tested 10 additional subjects to find out whether a sweeping signal used in Bιkιsy audiometry would bring more detailed information on earplug attenuation. Mean attenuation was found to be somewhat closer to the nominal attenuation of the ER-9 and ER-15 earplugs up to about 1 kHz, whereas REAT measurements in sound field revealed more even attenuation at frequencies between 1 and 6 kHz. No significant association was found between earplug attenuation properties and earplug use. It was concluded that support and determination to get accustomed to hearing protector use are important

  6. Level of User Satisfaction with Hearing Aids and Environment: The International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlowski, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The main function of hearing is to enable oral communication. Hearing loss impairs communication skills. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods This is a cross-sectional group study comprising 108 subjects (56% men and 44% women. The average age of the subjects was 77 years. These subjects had been recently fitted with their hearing aids and showed sensorineural (90% and mixed (10% hearing loss as determined via the Questionnaire International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids Outcome Inventory (IOI-HA, which determined the benefit and satisfaction obtained by sound amplification. Results The hearing aids improved the quality of life of 52.78% of the patients, which was revealed by their high scores (mean = 27.3. The relationship of the user with the environment was significantly better (p < 0.001 than that of the user with the hearing aid. Conclusion IOI-HA is a simple and easy-to-use tool. Based on the results of this study, we can show a high degree of satisfaction with their hearing aids in the majority of the participants, which improved the quality of life.

  7. Music Listening Behavior, Health, Hearing and Otoacoustic Emission Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hutchinson Marron

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between hearing levels, otoacoustic emission levels and listening habits related to the use of personal listening devices (PLDs in adults with varying health-related fitness. Duration of PLD use was estimated and volume level was directly measured. Biomarkers of health-related fitness were co-factored into the analyses. 115 subjects ages 18–84 participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two sub-groups; PLD users and non-PLD users. Both groups completed audiological and health-related fitness tests. Due to the mismatch in the mean age of the PLD user versus the non-PLD user groups, age-adjusted statistics were performed to determine factors that contributed to hearing levels. Age was the most significant predictor of hearing levels across listening and health-related fitness variables. PLD user status did not impact hearing measures, yet PLD users who listened less than 8 hours per week with intensities of less than 80 dBA were found to have better hearing. Other variables found to be associated with hearing levels included: years listening to PLD, number of noise environments and use of ear protection. Finally, a healthy waist-to-hip ratio was a significant predictor of better hearing, while body mass index approached, but did not reach statistical significance.

  8. Simultaneous reflection masking: dependency on direct sound level and hearing-impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Mihai, Paul Glad

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous reflection masked thresholds (RMTs) were measured for 3 normal-hearing (NH) and 3 hearing-impaired (HI) subjects as a function of reflection delay. All stimuli were presented diotically and dichotically, using a 200 ms long broadband noise (100-50000 Hz) as input signal. For 55 d......B-SL direct sound level, NH-listeners showed a binaural suppression effect for delays smaller than 7-10 ms and a binaural enhancement effect for larger delays. When decreasing the direct sound level to 15 dB-SL, the only significant change observed was that the dichotic RMT increased for delays larger than...... delays. Hence, in contrast to binaural reflection enhancement, binaural reflection suppression seems to involve mechanisms that are robust to auditory-internal noise-floor and hearing-impairment. Moreover, differences between the RMTs for HI- and NH-listeners were in prin-ciple agreement with differences...

  9. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs for treatment. Based on our previous studies of human subjects, where we discovered relations between serum aldosterone levels and the severity of ARHL, we treated middle age mice with aldosterone, which normally declines with age in all mammals. We found that hearing thresholds and suprathreshold responses significantly improved in the aldosterone-treated mice compared to the non-treatment group. In terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect, additional experiments revealed that spiral ganglion cell survival was significantly improved, mineralocorticoid receptors were upregulated via post-translational protein modifications, and age-related intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were blocked by the aldosterone therapy. Taken together, these novel findings pave the way for translational drug development towards the first medication to prevent the progression of ARHL. PMID:27667674

  10. Evaluation of Treatment Thresholds for Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia in Preterm Infants: Effects on Serum Bilirubin and on Hearing Loss?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, C.V.; Dommelen, P. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Dijk, P.H.; Straaten, H.L.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Background:Severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia may cause deafness. In the Netherlands, 25% lower total serum bilirubin (TSB) treatment thresholds were recently implemented for preterm infants.Objective:To determine the rate of hearing loss in jaundiced preterms treated at high or at low TSB thres

  11. Do you hear the noise? The German matrix sentence test with a fixed noise level in subjects with normal hearing and hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenga, Nina; Batsoulis, Cornelia; Wagener, Kirsten C; Brand, Thomas; Lenarz, Thomas; Maier, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between hearing loss and speech reception threshold (SRT) in a fixed noise condition using the German Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA). After training with two easily-audible lists of the OLSA, SRTs were determined monaurally with headphones at a fixed noise level of 65 dB SPL using a standard adaptive procedure, converging to 50% speech intelligibility. Data was obtained from 315 ears of 177 subjects with hearing losses ranging from -5 to 90 dB HL pure-tone average (PTA, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 kHz). Two domains were identified with a linear dependence of SRT on PTA. The SRT increased with a slope of 0.094 ± 0.006 dB SNR/dB HL (standard deviation (SD) of residuals = 1.17 dB) for PTAs hearing losses. With 65 dB SPL fixed noise presentation level the SRT is determined by listening in noise for PTAs < ∼47 dB HL, and above it is determined by listening in quiet.

  12. Hearing outcomes of vestibular schwannoma patients managed with 'wait and scan': predictive value of hearing level at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, S-E; Tos, M; Thomsen, J;

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of both hearing level (at various frequencies) and speech discrimination for forecasting hearing outcome after a period of observation, in patients with vestibular schwannoma....

  13. Changes over time in audiometric thresholds in a group of automobile stamping and assembly workers with a hearing conservation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, LuAnn L; Talbott, Evelyn O; Burks, J Alton; Palmer, Catherine V

    2002-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is among the 10 leading occupational diseases, afflicting between 7.4 and 10.2 million people who work in noise above 85 dBA. Although mandatory hearing conservation programs (HCPs) have been in effect since 1972, this problem persists, as hearing protectors are not consistently used by workers, or may not attenuate to manufacturer's estimates in real world conditions. In this study, information from noise and hearing protection use measurements taken at an automobile assembly plant were used to construct average lifetime noise exposure and hearing protection compliance estimates for use in modeling to predict both total hearing loss and onset of two accepted definitions of hearing loss. There were 301 males and females in this cohort; their mean age was 42.6 (7.2) years, and mean tenure was 14.3 (3.5) years. Average length of follow-up was 14.0 years. There were 16 members of this cohort who had hearing loss at the speech frequencies (defined as an average hearing level > or = 25 dB at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz). In cross-sectional multivariate analyses, years of employment, male gender, and proportion of time wearing hearing protection were the factors most associated with hearing loss at the average of 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz (p noise exposure), race, and lifetime average noise exposure. The most consistent predictor of hearing loss in both univariate and multivariate analyses was percentage of time having used hearing protection during the workers' tenure.

  14. Hearing outcomes of vestibular schwannoma patients managed with 'wait and scan': predictive value of hearing level at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, S-E; Tos, M; Thomsen, J

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of both hearing level (at various frequencies) and speech discrimination for forecasting hearing outcome after a period of observation, in patients with vestibular schwannoma.......This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of both hearing level (at various frequencies) and speech discrimination for forecasting hearing outcome after a period of observation, in patients with vestibular schwannoma....

  15. An Auditory-Masking-Threshold-Based Noise Suppression Algorithm GMMSE-AMT[ERB] for Listeners with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen John HL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a new noise suppression scheme for hearing aid applications based on the auditory masking threshold (AMT in conjunction with a modified generalized minimum mean square error estimator (GMMSE for individual subjects with hearing loss. The representation of cochlear frequency resolution is achieved in terms of auditory filter equivalent rectangular bandwidths (ERBs. Estimation of AMT and spreading functions for masking are implemented in two ways: with normal auditory thresholds and normal auditory filter bandwidths (GMMSE-AMT[ERB]-NH and with elevated thresholds and broader auditory filters characteristic of cochlear hearing loss (GMMSE-AMT[ERB]-HI. Evaluation is performed using speech corpora with objective quality measures (segmental SNR, Itakura-Saito, along with formal listener evaluations of speech quality rating and intelligibility. While no measurable changes in intelligibility occurred, evaluations showed quality improvement with both algorithm implementations. However, the customized formulation based on individual hearing losses was similar in performance to the formulation based on the normal auditory system.

  16. Monitoring the Hearing Handicap and the Recognition Threshold of Sentences of a Patient with Unilateral Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder with Use of a Hearing Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Aline Patrícia; Mantello, Erika Barioni; Anastasio, Adriana Ribeiro Tavares

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Treatment for auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is not yet well established, including the use of hearing aids (HAs). Not all patients diagnosed with ASND have access to HAs, and in some cases HAs are even contraindicated. Objective To monitor the hearing handicap and the recognition threshold of sentences in silence and in noise in a patient with ASND using an HA. Resumed Report A 47-year-old woman reported moderate sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear and high-frequency loss of 4 kHz in the left ear, with bilateral otoacoustic emissions. Auditory brainstem response suggested changes in the functioning of the auditory pathway (up to the inferior colliculus) on the right. An HA was indicated on the right. The patient was tested within a 3-month period before the HA fitting with respect to recognition threshold of sentences in quiet and in noise and for handicap determination. After HA use, she showed a 2.1-dB improvement in the recognition threshold of sentences in silence, a 6.0-dB improvement for recognition threshold of sentences in noise, and a rapid improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio from +3.66 to -2.4 dB when compared with the same tests before the fitting of the HA. Conclusion There was a reduction of the auditory handicap, although speech perception continued to be severely limited. There was a significant improvement of the recognition threshold of sentences in silence and in noise and of the signal-to-noise ratio after 3 months of HA use.

  17. Monitoring the Hearing Handicap and the Recognition Threshold of Sentences of a Patient with Unilateral Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder with Use of a Hearing Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima, Aline Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Treatment for auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD is not yet well established, including the use of hearing aids (HAs. Not all patients diagnosed with ASND have access to HAs, and in some cases HAs are even contraindicated. Objective To monitor the hearing handicap and the recognition threshold of sentences in silence and in noise in a patient with ASND using an HA. Resumed Report A 47-year-old woman reported moderate sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear and high-frequency loss of 4 kHz in the left ear, with bilateral otoacoustic emissions. Auditory brainstem response suggested changes in the functioning of the auditory pathway (up to the inferior colliculus on the right. An HA was indicated on the right. The patient was tested within a 3-month period before the HA fitting with respect to recognition threshold of sentences in quiet and in noise and for handicap determination. After HA use, she showed a 2.1-dB improvement in the recognition threshold of sentences in silence, a 6.0-dB improvement for recognition threshold of sentences in noise, and a rapid improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio from +3.66 to −2.4 dB when compared with the same tests before the fitting of the HA. Conclusion There was a reduction of the auditory handicap, although speech perception continued to be severely limited. There was a significant improvement of the recognition threshold of sentences in silence and in noise and of the signal-to-noise ratio after 3 months of HA use.

  18. High levels of sound pressure: acoustic reflex thresholds and auditory complaints of workers with noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Scalli Mathias Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The clinical evaluation of subjects with occupational noise exposure has been difficult due to the discrepancy between auditory complaints and auditory test results. This study aimed to evaluate the contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds of workers exposed to high levels of noise, and to compare these results to the subjects' auditory complaints.METHODS: This clinical retrospective study evaluated 364 workers between 1998 and 2005; their contralateral acoustic reflexes were compared to auditory complaints, age, and noise exposure time by chi-squared, Fisher's, and Spearman's tests.RESULTS: The workers' age ranged from 18 to 50 years (mean = 39.6, and noise exposure time from one to 38 years (mean = 17.3. We found that 15.1% (55 of the workers had bilateral hearing loss, 38.5% (140 had bilateral tinnitus, 52.8% (192 had abnormal sensitivity to loud sounds, and 47.2% (172 had speech recognition impairment. The variables hearing loss, speech recognition impairment, tinnitus, age group, and noise exposure time did not show relationship with acoustic reflex thresholds; however, all complaints demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with Metz recruitment at 3000 and 4000 Hz bilaterally.CONCLUSION: There was no significance relationship between auditory complaints and acoustic reflexes.

  19. Hearing threshold estimation by auditory steady-state responses with narrow-band chirps and adaptive stimulus patterns: implementation in clinical routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, David Ulrich; Flemming, Tobias Angelo; Park, Jonas Jae-Hyun; Remmert, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective hearing threshold estimation by auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) can be accelerated by the use of narrow-band chirps and adaptive stimulus patterns. This modification has been examined in only a few clinical studies. In this study, clinical data is validated and extended, and the applicability of the method in audiological diagnostics routine is examined. In 60 patients (normal hearing and hearing impaired), ASSR and pure tone audiometry (PTA) thresholds were compared. ASSR were evoked by binaural multi-frequent narrow-band chirps with adaptive stimulus patterns. The precision and required testing time for hearing threshold estimation were determined. The average differences between ASSR and PTA thresholds were 18, 12, 17 and 19 dB for normal hearing (PTA ≤ 20 dB) and 5, 9, 9 and 11 dB for hearing impaired (PTA > 20 dB) at the frequencies of 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, respectively, and the differences were significant in all frequencies with the exception of 1 kHz. Correlation coefficients between ASSR and PTA thresholds were 0.36, 0.47, 0.54 and 0.51 for normal hearing and 0.73, 0.74, 0.72 and 0.71 for hearing impaired at 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, respectively. Mean ASSR testing time was 33 ± 8 min. In conclusion, auditory steady-state responses with narrow-band-chirps and adaptive stimulus patterns is an efficient method for objective frequency-specific hearing threshold estimation. Precision of threshold estimation is most limited for slighter hearing loss at 500 Hz. The required testing time is acceptable for the application in everyday clinical routine.

  20. The binaural free field hearing threshold for pure tones from 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Han, Loc A

    2000-01-01

    The binaural free field hearing threshold for pure tones has been measured for thirty-one otologically normal test subjects in the age range 18 to 25 years. The frequencies were 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11.2, 12.5, 14 and 16 kHz. The signal duration was 1 s measured b...

  1. Using state level employment thresholds to explain Okun's Law

    OpenAIRE

    Herzog, Ryan W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we implement a non-dynamic panel threshold model for fifty U.S. states to better understand the factors determining changes in Okun's Law. We test for asymmetries in Okun's Law controlling for changes in industry employment. We find changes in output on unemployment are least sensitive for states with relatively large employment within government, construction, and natural resources sectors and lower employment levels in financial, professional and business services and manufact...

  2. Familial aggregation of pure tone hearing thresholds in an aging European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendrickx, Jan-Jaap; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Topsakal, Vedat

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the familial correlations and intraclass correlation of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) in specific frequencies. In addition, heritability estimates were calculated.......To investigate the familial correlations and intraclass correlation of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) in specific frequencies. In addition, heritability estimates were calculated....

  3. Determination of hearing levels in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Cengiz; Silfeler, Ibrahim; Arica, Vefik; Yengil, Erhan; Akbay, Ercan; Sarac, Tuba; Basarslan, Fatmagul; Akoglu, Ertap

    2013-12-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever is the most common congenital, periodic fever condition that affects over 100,000 people worldwide. In the literature, there is limited number of studies about hearing levels in children with Familial Mediterranean Fever. In the present study, we aimed to investigate hearing levels and cochlear functions by using Distortion product Otoacoustic Emission and High Frequency Audiometry (250-20,000 Hz) in pediatric patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever. The study included 62 children with Familial Mediterranean Fever and 27 healthy children with similar age and gender. After otoscopic examination, both groups underwent audiological evaluation including High Frequency Audiometry (250-20,000 Hz) and Distortion product Otoacoustic Emissions. The results obtained were assessed among groups. In addition, these results were compared regarding colchicine use, age at the onset of disease and duration of the diseases in the Familial Mediterranean Fever group. Of the Familial Mediterranean Fever patients, 93.5% were on colchicine therapy and mean duration of colchicine use was 19.9 ± 13.9 months. The mean age at diagnosis was 6.57 ± 2.86 years (min-max: 2-14) and mean duration of disease was 23 ± 17 months (min-max: 6-84). Pure tone audiometry values, and hearing levels between 9000 and 20,000 Hz were similar and within normal range in both groups. The Distortion product Otoacoustic Emissions responses at the frequencies of 1020, 2040, 3000, 4080 and 5040 Hz were similar for both groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating hearing levels at the frequencies of 18k Hz and 20k Hz in children with Familial Mediterranean Fever in the literature. In children with Familial Mediterranean Fever, Pure tone audiometry values, hearing values obtained at all frequencies from 250 to 20,000 Hz, and Distortion product Otoacoustic Emissions levels were within normal range. Furthermore, hearing levels were found to be similar to

  4. Gaps-in-Noise test: gap detection thresholds in 9-year-old normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculino, Carolina Finetti; Rabelo, Camila Maia; Schochat, Eliane

    2011-12-01

    To establish the standard criteria for the Gaps-in-Noise (GIN) test in 9-year-old normal-hearing children; to obtain the mean gap detection thresholds; and to verify the influence of the variables gender and ear on the gap detection thresholds. Forty normal-hearing individuals, 20 male and 20 female, with ages ranging from 9 years to 9 years and 11 months, were evaluated. The procedures performed were: anamnesis, audiological evaluation, acoustic immittance measures (tympanometry and acoustic reflex), Dichotic Digits Test, and GIN test. The results obtained were statistically analyzed. The results revealed similar performance of right and left ears in the population studied. There was also no difference regarding the variable gender. In the subjects evaluated, the mean gap detection thresholds were 4.4 ms for the right ear, and 4.2 ms for the left ear. The values obtained for right and left ear, as well as their standard deviations, can be used as standard criteria for 9-year-old children, regardless of ear or gender.

  5. Effect of low-level laser treatment on cochlea hair-cell recovery after ototoxic hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chung-Ku; He, Peijie; Jung, Jae Yun; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Lee, Min Young; Suh, Myung-Whan

    2013-12-01

    The primary cause of hearing loss includes damage to cochlear hair cells. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has become a popular treatment for damaged nervous systems. Based on the idea that cochlea hair cells and neural cells are from same developmental origin, the effect of LLLT on hearing loss in animal models is evaluated. Hearing loss animal models were established, and the animals were irradiated by 830-nm diode laser once a day for 10 days. Power density of the laser treatment was 900 mW/cm2, and the fluence was 162 to 194 J. The tympanic membrane was evaluated after LLLT. Thresholds of auditory brainstem responses were evaluated before treatment, after gentamicin, and after 10 days of LLLT. Quantitative scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations were done by counting remaining hair cells. Tympanic membranes were intact at the end of the experiment. No adverse tissue reaction was found. On SEM images, LLLT significantly increased the number of hair cells in middle and basal turns. Hearing was significantly improved by laser irradiation. After LLLT treatment, both the hearing threshold and hair-cell count significantly improved.

  6. Noise-induced hearing loss and hearing aids requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, C; Garzaro, M; Nadalin, J; Pecorari, G; Boggero, R; Argentero, P.; Albera, R.

    2008-01-01

    Subjective disturbances, due to hearing loss, are auditory disability and handicap which can be evaluated with a questionnaire. The present study refers to a population of industrial workers affected by noise-induced hearing loss. Aim of the study is to identify the minimal level of hearing loss over which the patient felt changes in his quality of life, and the average auditory threshold at which the patient considered the application of a hearing aid useful or necessary. The sample comprise...

  7. Comparison of Different Levels of Reading Comprehension between Hearing-Impaired Loss and Normal-Hearing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Sharifi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading skill is one of the most important necessities of students' learning in everyday life. This skill is referred to the ability of comprehension, comment and conclusion from texts and receiving the meaning of the massage which is composed. Educational development in any student has a direct relation with the ability of the comprehension. This study is designed to investigate the effects of hearing loss on reading comprehension in hearing-impaired students compared to normal-hearing ones.Methods: Seventeen hearing-impaired students in 4th year of primary exceptional schools in Karaj, Robatkarim and Shahriyar, Iran, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Seventeen normal-hearing students were randomly selected from ordinary schools next to exceptional ones as control group. They were compared for different levels of reading comprehension using the international standard booklet (PIRLS 2001. Results: There was a significant difference in performance between hearing-impaired and normal- hearing students in different levels of reading comprehension (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hearing loss has negative effects on different levels of reading comprehension, so in exceptional centers, reconsideration in educational planning in order to direct education from memorizing to comprehension and deeper layers of learning seems necessary.

  8. Effect of hearing aid release time and presentation level on speech perception in noise in elderly individuals with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottackal Mathai, Jijo; Mohammed, Hasheem

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of compression time settings and presentation levels on speech perception in noise for elderly individuals with hearing loss. To compare aided speech perception performance in these individuals with age-matched normal hearing subjects. Twenty (normal hearing) participants within the age range of 60-68 years and 20 (mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss) in the age range of 60-70 years were randomly recruited for the study. In the former group, SNR-50 was determined using phonetically balanced sentences that were mixed with speech-shaped noise presented at the most comfortable level. In the SNHL group, aided SNR-50 was determined at three different presentation levels (40, 60, and 80 dB HL) after fitting binaural hearing aids that had different compression time settings (fast and slow). In the SNHL group, slow compression time settings showed significantly better SNR-50 compared to fast release time. In addition, the mean of SNR-50 in the SNHL group was comparable to normal hearing participants while using a slow release time. A hearing aid with slow compression time settings led to significantly better speech perception in noise, compared to that of a hearing aid that had fast compression time settings.

  9. The effect of low-level laser therapy on hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Shawn S; Bentler, Ruth A; Dittberner, Andrew; Mertes, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    One purported use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is to promote healing in damaged cells. The effects of LLLT on hearing loss and tinnitus have received some study, but results have been equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine if LLLT improved hearing, speech understanding, and/or cochlear function in adults with hearing loss. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, subjects were assigned to a treatment, placebo, or control group. The treatment group was given LLLT, which consisted of shining low-level lasers onto the outer ear, head, and neck. Each laser treatment lasted approximately five minutes. Three treatments were applied within the course of one week. A battery of auditory tests was administered immediately before the first treatment and immediately after the third treatment. The battery consisted of pure-tone audiometry, the Connected Speech Test, and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions. Data were analyzed by comparing pre- and posttest results. No statistically significant differences were found between groups for any of the auditory tests. Additionally, no clinically significant differences were found in any individual subjects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01820416).

  10. Familial Aggregation of Pure Tone Hearing Thresholds in an Aging European Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, J.J.; Huyghe, J.R.; Topsakal, V.; Demeester, K.; Wienker, T.F.; Laer, L.V.; Eyken, E.V.; Fransen, E.; Maki-Torkko, E.; Hannula, S.; Parving, A.; Jensen, M.; Tropitzsch, A.; Bonaconsa, A.; Mazzoli, M.; Espeso, A.; Verbruggen, K.; Huyghe, J.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Kremer, H.; Kunst, S.J.W.; Diaz-Lacava, A.N.; Steffens, M.; Pyykko, I.; Dhooge, I.; Stephens, D.; Orzan, E.; Pfister, M.H.; Bille, M.; Sorri, M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Camp, G.V.; Heyning, P.V. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the familial correlations and intraclass correlation of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) in specific frequencies. In addition, heritability estimates were calculated. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter survey in 8 European centers. SUBJECTS: One hundred ninety-eight families co

  11. Relationship between Acceptable Noise Level and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyaldenhoven, Melinda C.; Nabelek, Anna K.; Tampas, Joanna W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between acceptable noise levels (ANLs) and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB; R. M. Cox & G. C. Alexander, 1995). This study further examined the APHAB's ability to predict hearing aid use. Method: ANL and APHAB data were collected for 191 listeners with impaired hearing,…

  12. The association between low levels of lead in blood and occupational noise-induced hearing loss in steel workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiang, Han-Yueh [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yen-Jean, Mei-Chu [Division of Family Medicine, E-Da Hospital, Taiwan, ROC 1, E-Da Rd., Jiau-Shu Tsuen, Yan-Chau Shiang, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC (China); I-Shou University, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC 1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Rd., Da-Shu Shiang, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Jung-Der, E-mail: jdwang@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC No. 1, Chang-Teh St., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2009-12-15

    As the use of leaded gasoline has ceased in the last decade, background lead exposure has generally been reduced. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of low-level lead exposure on human hearing loss. This study was conducted in a steel plant and 412 workers were recruited from all over the plant. Personal information such as demographics and work history was obtained through a questionnaire. All subjects took part in an audiometric examination of hearing thresholds, for both ears, with air-conducted pure tones at frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz. Subjects' blood samples were collected and analyzed for levels of manganese, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead with inductive couple plasma-mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, noise levels in different working zones were determined using a sound level meter with A-weighting network. Only subjects with hearing loss difference of no more than 15 dB between both ears and had no congenital abnormalities were included in further data analysis. Lead was the only metal in blood found significantly correlated with hearing loss for most tested sound frequencies (p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age and noise level, the logistic regression model analysis indicated that elevated blood lead over 7 {mu}g/dL was significantly associated with hearing loss at the sound frequencies of 3000 through 8000 Hz with odds ratios raging from 3.06 to 6.26 (p < 0.05 {approx} p < 0.005). We concluded that elevated blood lead at level below 10 {mu}g/dL might enhance the noise-induced hearing loss. Future research needs to further explore the detailed mechanism.

  13. Parent’s hearing health literacy level who referred to hearing screening center in Isfahan & Kurdistan provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GolalehKarbasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: inadequate health literacy has relationship with inappropriate understanding of health information, medical training and following them, less joining in precautionary behavior, late diagnosis of illness, and inability in achieving life skills, hearing health has significant role in evolution growth, communication and balance of a person. The purpose of this study is make a comparison between parents’s hearing health literacy who referred to hearing screening center in Isfahan Kurdistan provinces in 1394. Methodology: this study was a descriptive-analytical, A comparative model which was performed on 700 parent who referred to screening health center in Isfahan and Kurdistan in order to get screening test for their children in 1394. Experts tested validity and cronbach's alpha for its stability. Questioner used as a method of data collection. This questionnaire concludes of 3 parts which were demographic data, reading comprehension and performance and calculation part. In order to analyze data, and excel were used in descriptive statistics and person correlation coefficient, 2 sample t-test and variance analysis were used as a method of inferential statistics. Results: 55.6 of this who referred were women, 40.1 were house wife, 32.7 have intermediate level of health literacy, and 71% have inadequate level of health literacy. There is no difference in health literacy level of these provinces. The results also show that hearing health literacy has no meaningful relation with sex, age, and job. However there is meaningful relationship between educations, salary, and insurance type. Personal hearing illness referred and family hearing illness record and level of health literacy. Conclusion: generally, this study shows inadequate level of hearing health literacy in case studies. In reading comprehension health literacy, Kurdistan province get a bit higher level than Isfahan. However in performance and calculation health literacy

  14. The effects of repeated low-level blast exposure on hearing in marines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina R Kubli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study evaluates a group of Military Service Members specialized in blast explosive training called “Breachers” who are routinely exposed to multiple low-level blasts while teaching breaching at the U.S. Marine Corps in Quantico Virginia. The objective of this study was to determine if there are any acute or long-term auditory changes due to repeated low-level blast exposures used in training. The performance of the instructor group “Breachers” was compared to a control group, “Engineers”. Methods: A total of 11 Breachers and four engineers were evaluated in the study. The participants received comprehensive auditory tests, including pure-tone testing, speech-in-noise (SIN measures, and central auditory behavioral and objective tests using early and late (P300 auditory evoked potentials over a period of 17 months. They also received shorter assessments immediately following the blast-exposure onsite at Quantico. Results: No acute or longitudinal effects were identified. However, there were some interesting baseline effects found in both groups. Contrary to the expected, the onsite hearing thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were slightly better at a few frequencies immediately after blast-exposure than measurements obtained with the same equipment weeks to months after each blast-exposure. Conclusions: To date, the current study is the most comprehensive study that evaluates the long-term effects of blast-exposure on hearing. Despite extensive testing to assess changes, the findings of this study suggest that the levels of current exposures used in this military training environment do not seem to have an obvious deleterious effect on hearing.

  15. Appeals to AC as a Percentage of Appealable Hearing Level Dispositions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Longitudinal report detailing the numbers and percentages of Requests for Review (RR) of hearing level decisions or dismissals filed with the Appeals Council (AC)...

  16. Threshold Concepts: Impacts on Teaching and Learning at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Mira; Harlow, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This project explored teaching and learning of hard-to-learn threshold concepts in first-year English, an electrical engineering course, leadership courses, and in doctoral writing. The project was envisioned to produce disciplinary case studies that lecturers could use to reflect on and refine their curriculum and pedagogy, thereby contributing…

  17. Acoustic Reflexes in Normal-Hearing Adults, Typically Developing Children, and Children with Suspected Auditory Processing Disorder: Thresholds, Real-Ear Corrections, and the Role of Static Compliance on Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Udit; Allan, Chris; Allen, Prudence

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested elevated reflex thresholds in children with auditory processing disorders (APDs). However, some aspects of the child's ear such as ear canal volume and static compliance of the middle ear could possibly affect the measurements of reflex thresholds and thus impact its interpretation. Sound levels used to elicit reflexes in a child's ear may be higher than predicted by calibration in a standard 2-cc coupler, and lower static compliance could make visualization of very small changes in impedance at threshold difficult. For this purpose, it is important to evaluate threshold data with consideration of differences between children and adults. A set of studies were conducted. The first compared reflex thresholds obtained using standard clinical procedures in children with suspected APD to that of typically developing children and adults to test the replicability of previous studies. The second study examined the impact of ear canal volume on estimates of reflex thresholds by applying real-ear corrections. Lastly, the relationship between static compliance and reflex threshold estimates was explored. The research is a set of case-control studies with a repeated measures design. The first study included data from 20 normal-hearing adults, 28 typically developing children, and 66 children suspected of having an APD. The second study included 28 normal-hearing adults and 30 typically developing children. In the first study, crossed and uncrossed reflex thresholds were measured in 5-dB step size. Reflex thresholds were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA). In the second study, uncrossed reflex thresholds, real-ear correction, ear canal volume, and static compliance were measured. Reflex thresholds were measured using a 1-dB step size. The effect of real-ear correction and static compliance on reflex threshold was examined using RM-ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient, respectively. Study 1 replicated previous

  18. Mean platelet volume, red cell distribution width, platelet-to-lymphocyte and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and their relationships with high-frequency hearing thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozan, Nazim; Alpaycı, Mahmut; Aslan, Mehmet; Cankaya, Hakan; Kıroglu, Ahmet Faruk; Turan, Mahfuz; Ayral, Abdurrahman; Senkoy, Emre; Ilter, Server

    2016-11-01

    The mean platelet volume (MPV), red cell distribution width (RDW) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) comprise laboratory markers in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). There is a controversy in the literature regarding which type of ear involvement is characteristic of AS. The aim of this study was to simultaneously investigate the MPV, RDW, platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) and NLR in patients with AS and their relationships with high-frequency hearing thresholds. Thirty patients with AS and 35 age-matched healthy subjects were included. Each subject was tested with low- (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high- (4000, 8000, 10,000, 12,000, 14,000 and 16,000 Hz) frequency audiometry. Additionally, the case and control groups were evaluated regarding the average hearing thresholds in bone conduction. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured. The RDW, MPV, neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelet counts were evaluated with the complete blood count. Furthermore, the NLR and PLR were calculated. The complete blood count, platelet numbers, ESR, CRP and NLR levels were significantly increased in the AS patients compared with the healthy controls (p  0.05) in the AS patients compared with the healthy controls. The BASDAI score and disease duration were not correlated with the ESR, CRP levels, MPV, PLR, RDW or NLR in patients with AS (all; p > 0.05). The AS patients had increased average measurement values for the hearing threshold in both ears at frequencies of 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz; however, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The average values of the hearing threshold in both ears at the high frequencies of 4000, 6000, 8000, 10,000, 12,000 and 14,000 Hz were significantly increased in the case group; however, it was not significantly increased at 16,000 Hz. The current study is the first to investigate the PLR, NLR, MPV and RDW levels in acute AS. We identified a significantly increased

  19. Effects of hearing and aging on sentence-level time-gated word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molis, Michelle R; Kampel, Sean D; McMillan, Garnett P; Gallun, Frederick J; Dann, Serena M; Konrad-Martin, Dawn

    2015-04-01

    Aging is known to influence temporal processing, but its relationship to speech perception has not been clearly defined. To examine listeners' use of contextual and phonetic information, the Revised Speech Perception in Noise test (R-SPIN) was used to develop a time-gated word (TGW) task. In Experiment 1, R-SPIN sentence lists were matched on context, target-word length, and median word segment length necessary for target recognition. In Experiment 2, TGW recognition was assessed in quiet and in noise among adults of various ages with normal hearing to moderate hearing loss. Linear regression models of the minimum word duration necessary for correct identification and identification failure rates were developed. Age and hearing thresholds were modeled as continuous predictors with corrections for correlations among multiple measurements of the same participants. While aging and hearing loss both had significant impacts on task performance in the most adverse listening condition (low context, in noise), for most conditions, performance was limited primarily by hearing loss. Whereas hearing loss was strongly related to target-word recognition, the effect of aging was only weakly related to task performance. These results have implications for the design and evaluation of studies of hearing and aging.

  20. The effect of educational level elevation on the mathematical skill in hearing-impaired students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Sharifi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: There is a relation between language skills and science learning in educational approach. Hearing-impairment and delay in learning of language skills influence the progress of learning. The aim of this research was to study the effect of educational level elevation on growth of mathematical skill. Therefore, third grade hearing-impaired students of secondary school, and forth grade hearing-impaired and normal-hearing students of elementary school were compared in terms of mathematical skill.Methods: The research was cross-sectional and the internationally standardized mathematics questions (2007 were selected as the tools of the test. The sample included 31 students of 4th grade elementary and third grade of secondary school with sever hearing loss from exceptional schools, and 17 normal-hearing students were randomly selected from ordinary schools next to the exceptional schools in Robatkarim, Karaj, and Shahriyar cities, Iran.Results: According to data analysis there was a meaningful difference between hearing-impaired students of forth and third grades and normal-hearing students in the three fields of knowledge, application and argument (p0.05.Conclusion: No significant improvement was seen in the mathematical skill of hearing-impaired students by educational level elevation. Writing mathematical books for the pre-elementary courses, revision of teaching methods, and increasing teaching hours are necessary in mathematics.

  1. Environmental awareness and level-dependent hearing protection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, G A; Palmer, C V; Goldstein, H; Pratt, S

    1997-02-01

    The effect of level-dependent hearing protection devices (HPDs) on subjects' ability to identify real-life environmental sounds was investigated. Eighteen subjects with no hunting experience attempted to identify sounds (crow, duck, turkey, deer, owl, goose, and person) recorded at various distances in the presence of the SoundScope and Sonic II level-dependent HPDs as well as in an open ear condition. Knowles Electronic's Manikin for Auditory Research was employed in making the experimental recordings. The Sonic II accomplishes level-dependent attenuation via a passive mechanism, whereas the SoundScope employs active circuitry that attenuates loud sounds while providing a small amount of high frequency amplification for soft sounds. Both devices are commercially available and are advertised for hunters/shooters. Sound identification scores (SISs) were determined for each condition. Mean SISs differed significantly among the three earplug conditions, collapsed over type of sound and distance, with the best SIS obtained under the open ear condition (96.43%) and the worst under the Sonic II condition (84.13%). Further analysis revealed that the listening conditions differed significantly only at the 100 yard distance. Auditory awareness was not maintained by either device investigated during the 100 yard condition. However, auditory awareness was maintained by both devices at a distance of 75 yards or closer. These devices may be appropriate for use in certain hunting/shooting situations depending on several factors including type of game being hunted, environment, and shooting range of the weapon. Further support also is provided for the usage of level-dependent HPDs during recreational shooting activities (i.e., at a shooting range).

  2. Comparing Loudness Tolerance and Acceptable Noise Level in Listeners With Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Clifford A; White, Letitia J; Franklin, Thomas C; Livengood, Lindsay G

    2016-08-01

    The present study was a follow-up investigation to a previous study exploring the relationship between listeners' loudness tolerance and listeners' acceptable noise level among normally hearing adults. The present study compared the same two measures, but data were obtained from listeners with hearing loss; 12 adults with sensorineural hearing loss participated in a loudness tolerance measure using a scaling technique initially established for setting hearing aid output limits, in addition to an acceptable noise level measure. The acceptable noise level procedure used in this study quantified the listeners' acceptance of background noise while listening to speech. As with the research involving listeners with normal hearing, the Pearson correlation procedure indicated a lack of any statistically significant correlation between the two measures.

  3. Education qualification levels and school careers of unilateral versus bilateral hearing aid users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijen, J.W.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Snik, A.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Analyse the difference in school careers and secondary school qualification levels between unilateral hearing aid users and bilateral hearing aid users. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective questionnaire study. SETTING: Postal-based questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: Names of adults known to have been f

  4. Short-term music-induced hearing loss after sound exposure to discotheque music: the effectiveness of a break in reducing temporary threshold shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleman, Hiske W; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of a break in music exposure on temporary threshold shifts. A cross-over design where subjects are exposed to dance music for either two hours consecutively, or exposed to two hours of dance music with a one-hour break in between. Outcome measure was the change in hearing threshold, measured in 1-dB steps at different time points after ending the music. Eighteen normal-hearing subjects participated in this study. Changes in pure-tone threshold were observed in both conditions and were similar, regardless of the break. Threshold shifts could be averaged for 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The shift immediately after the ending of the music was 1.7 dB for right ears, and 3.4 dB for left ears. The difference between left and right ears was significant. One hour after the exposure, right ears were recovered to baseline conditions whereas left ears showed a small but clinically irrelevant remaining shift of approximately 1 dB. The advice to use chill-out zones is still valid, because this helps to reduce the duration to the exposure. This study does not provide evidence that a rest period gives an additional reduction of temporary threshold shifts.

  5. Measurements on Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    Background material for measurements of hearing for grammar school pupils. The note gives the necessary background for the exercise 'Measurement on Hearing'. The topics comprise sound and decibel, the ear, basic psychoacoustics, hearing threshold, audiometric measurement methods, speech and speech...

  6. Characteristics of Omega-Optimized Portfolios at Different Levels of Threshold Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaldas Vilkancas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is little literature considering effects that the loss-gain threshold used for dividing good and bad outcomes by all downside (upside risk measures has on portfolio optimization and performance. The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of portfolios optimized with respect to the Omega function developed by Keating and Shadwick at different levels of the threshold returns. The most common choices of the threshold values used in various Omega studies cover the risk-free rate and the average market return or simply a zero return, even though the inventors of this measure for risk warn that “using the values of the Omega function at particular points can be critically misleading” and that “only the entire Omega function contains information on distribution”. The obtained results demonstrate the importance of the selected values of the threshold return on portfolio performance – higher levels of the threshold lead to an increase in portfolio returns, albeit at the expense of a higher risk. In fact, within a certain threshold interval, Omega-optimized portfolios achieved the highest net return, compared with all other strategies for portfolio optimization using three different test datasets. However, beyond a certain limit, high threshold values will actually start hurting portfolio performance while meta-heuristic optimizers typically are able to produce a solution at any level of the threshold, and the obtained results would most likely be financially meaningless.

  7. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-07-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  8. The influence of music and stress on musicians' hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähäri, Kim; Zachau, Gunilla; Eklöf, Mats; Möller, Claes

    2004-10-01

    Hearing and hearing disorders among classical and rock/jazz musicians was investigated. Pure tone audiometry was done in 140 classical and 139 rock/jazz musicians. The rock/jazz musicians answered a questionnaire concerning hearing disorders and psychosocial exposure. All results were compared to age appropriate reference materials. Hearing thresholds showed a notch configuration in both classical and rock/jazz musicians indicating the inclusion of high sound levels but an overall well-preserved hearing thresholds. Female musicians had significantly better hearing thresholds in the high-frequency area than males. Rock/jazz musicians showed slight worse hearing thresholds as compared to classical musicians. When assessing hearing disorders, a large number of rock/jazz musicians suffered from different hearing disorders (74%). Hearing loss, tinnitus and hyperacusis were the most common disorders and were significantly more frequent in comparison with different reference populations. Among classical musicians, no extended negative progress of the pure tone hearing threshold values was found in spite of the continued 16 years of musical noise exposure. In rock/jazz musicians, there was no relationships between psychosocial factors at work and hearing disorders. The rock/jazz musicians reported low stress and high degree of energy. On the average, the rock/jazz musicians reported higher control, lower stress and higher energy than a reference material of white-collar workers.

  9. Ranking Hearing Aid Input-Output Functions for Understanding Low-, Conversational-, and High-Level Speech in Multitalker Babble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, King; Killion, Mead C.; Christensen, Laurel A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rankings of 6 input-output functions for understanding low-level, conversational, and high-level speech in multitalker babble without manipulating volume control for listeners with normal hearing, flat sensorineural hearing loss, and mildly sloping sensorineural hearing loss. Method: Peak clipping, compression limiting,…

  10. Sulfate threshold target to control methylmercury levels in wetland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, J.; Naja, G.M.; Dziuba, C.; Rivero, R.G.; Orem, W.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate contamination has a significant environmental implication through the stimulation of toxic hydrogen sulfide and methylmercury (MeHg) production. High levels of MeHg are a serious problem in many wetland ecosystems worldwide. In the Florida Everglades, it has been demonstrated that increasing MeHg occurrence is due to a sulfate contamination problem. A promising strategy of lowering the MeHg occurrence is to reduce the amount of sulfate entering the ecosystem. High surface water sulfate concentrations in the Everglades are mainly due to discharges from the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) canals. Water and total sulfur mass balances indicated that total sulfur released by soil oxidation, Lake Okeechobee and agricultural application were the major sources contributing 49,169, 35,217 and 11,775mtonsyear-1, respectively. Total sulfur loads from groundwater, levees, and atmospheric deposition contributed to a lesser extent: 4055; 5858 and 4229mtonsyear-1, respectively. Total sulfur leaving the EAA into Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) through canal discharge was estimated at 116,360mtonsyear-1, and total sulfur removed by sugarcane harvest accounted for 23,182mtonsyear-1. Furthermore, a rise in the mineral content and pH of the EAA soil over time, suggested that the current rates of sulfur application would increase as the buffer capacity of the soil increases. Therefore, a site specific numeric criterion for sulfate of 1mgL-1 was recommended for the protection of the Everglades; above this level, mercury methylation is enhanced. In parallel, sulfide concentrations in the EAA exceeded the 2??gL-1 criterion for surface water already established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Sulfate threshold target to control methylmercury levels in wetland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, Ghinwa M; Dziuba, Catherine; Rivero, Rosanna G; Orem, William

    2011-05-01

    Sulfate contamination has a significant environmental implication through the stimulation of toxic hydrogen sulfide and methylmercury (MeHg) production. High levels of MeHg are a serious problem in many wetland ecosystems worldwide. In the Florida Everglades, it has been demonstrated that increasing MeHg occurrence is due to a sulfate contamination problem. A promising strategy of lowering the MeHg occurrence is to reduce the amount of sulfate entering the ecosystem. High surface water sulfate concentrations in the Everglades are mainly due to discharges from the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) canals. Water and total sulfur mass balances indicated that total sulfur released by soil oxidation, Lake Okeechobee and agricultural application were the major sources contributing 49,169, 35,217 and 11,775mtonsyear(-1), respectively. Total sulfur loads from groundwater, levees, and atmospheric deposition contributed to a lesser extent: 4055; 5858 and 4229mtonsyear(-1), respectively. Total sulfur leaving the EAA into Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) through canal discharge was estimated at 116,360mtonsyear(-1), and total sulfur removed by sugarcane harvest accounted for 23,182mtonsyear(-1). Furthermore, a rise in the mineral content and pH of the EAA soil over time, suggested that the current rates of sulfur application would increase as the buffer capacity of the soil increases. Therefore, a site specific numeric criterion for sulfate of 1mgL(-1) was recommended for the protection of the Everglades; above this level, mercury methylation is enhanced. In parallel, sulfide concentrations in the EAA exceeded the 2μgL(-1) criterion for surface water already established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  12. Sensitivity analysis of the threshold level approach on streamflow drought evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Athanasios; Vasiliades, Lampros; Sarailidis, George

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, streamflow drought characteristics have been widely studied for the design of hydrotechnical projects and water resources planning and management. Furthermore, information on the magnitude and frequency of low flows is very important for streamflow drought analysis at operational level in public water supply systems. The objective of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of the threshold level approach in the derivation of low flow severity-duration-frequency (SDF) curves. Low flow severity is defined as the total water deficit volume to the target threshold for a given drought duration. Four (4) threshold level methods (fixed, seasonal, monthly and daily) were employed and compared to assess the sensitivity of the threshold level method (fixed or variable) in the estimation of derived streamflow deficits and durations at Yermasoyia watershed, Cyprus using a thirty year daily discharge dataset. The 50th and 70th percentile values of the flow duration curve are selected as the threshold choices for all study methods which are suitable for semiarid catchments where zero runoff occurs during summer months. Then, the four threshold approaches are applied and three pooling procedures are applied to derive independent sequences of low-flow events. Application of the three pooling algorithms showed that the inter-event time and volume criterion is the most unbiased pooling method and this method was selected to estimate the duration and the deficit volume or severity of the identified drought events. Finally, the SDF curves are developed based on annual maximum severities for fixed durations at 30, 60, 90, 180 and 360 days. Based on individual probabilistic analysis, the best theoretical probability distribution is selected for each threshold method and then the SDF curves for the four thresholds were developed to quantify the relationship among the severities, durations, and frequencies or return periods. These curves also integrate the return period

  13. Alarm threshold levels of meningitis outbreak in Hamadan province (2010- 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fariadras

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The surveillance systems need to define the levels of alarm threshold for early detection of outbreak. The purpose of this study was to determine the threshold levels of meningitis outbreak in Hamadan province, Iran. Methods: The suspected cases of meningitis that were reported through meningitis surveillance form 2010 to 2012 were investigated in this study. Explainable patterns of the syndromic data of fever and neurological symptoms were removed by Generalized Linear Model. The upper limits of cumulative sum (CUSUM algorithm were used to estimate the alarm threshold levels of meningitis outbreak. The seasonal pattern of dynamic alarm thresholds was defined using the data obtained from different seasons. Results: The fixed alarm threshold levels according to standardized CUSUM, i.e. 1.5 to 2 standard deviations from the mean, were equal to the occurrence of more than 3 and 4 suspected cases of meningitis, respectively. The corresponding values for dynamic levels based on the upper control limit of CUSUM were 2.6 to 3.2 cases for different seasons. In other words, 3 cases were considered to be a discrete scale for suspected cases of meningitis. Conclusion: Due to the seasonality pattern of meningitis, dynamic levels of alarm threshold should be determined according to the seasons and months of year.

  14. High Level Impulse Sounds and Human Hearing: Standards, Physiology, Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    stress within the auditory system. For example, an extreme unwarned response, the startle response, is characterized by vasoconstriction and sudden ...WRIGHT 3097 RANGE RD QUANTICO VA 22134 1 R SALVI CENTER FOR HEARING & DEAFNESS 3435 MAIN STREET 37 CARY HALL UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO

  15. Automatic Multi-Level Thresholding Segmentation Based on Multi-Objective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. DJEROU,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new multi-level image thresholding technique, called Automatic Threshold based on Multi-objective Optimization "ATMO" that combines the flexibility of multi-objective fitness functions with the power of a Binary Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm "BPSO", for searching the "optimum" number of the thresholds and simultaneously the optimal thresholds of three criteria: the between-class variances criterion, the minimum error criterion and the entropy criterion. Some examples of test images are presented to compare our segmentation method, based on the multi-objective optimization approach with Otsu’s, Kapur’s and Kittler’s methods. Our experimental results show that the thresholding method based on multi-objective optimization is more efficient than the classical Otsu’s, Kapur’s and Kittler’s methods.

  16. [Examination of relationship between level of hearing and written language skills in 10-14-year-old hearing impaired children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turğut, Nedim; Karlıdağ, Turgut; Başar, Figen; Yalçın, Şinasi; Kaygusuz, İrfan; Keleş, Erol; Birkent, Ömer Faruk

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to review the relationship between written language skills and factors which are thought to affect this skill such as mean hearing loss, duration of auditory deprivation, speech discrimination score, and pre-school education attendance and socioeconomic status of hearing impaired children who attend 4th-7th grades in primary school in inclusive environment. The study included 25 hearing impaired children (14 males, 11 females; mean age 11.4±1.4 years; range 10 to 14 years) (study group) and 20 children (9 males, 11 females; mean age 11.5±1.3 years; range 10 to 14 years) (control group) with normal hearing in the same age group and studying in the same class. Study group was separated into two subgroups as group 1a and group 1b since some of the children with hearing disability used hearing aid while some used cochlear implant. Intragroup comparisons and relational screening were performed for those who use hearing aids and cochlear implants. Intergroup comparisons were performed to evaluate the effect of the parameters on written language skills. Written expression skill level of children with hearing disability was significantly lower than their normal hearing peers (p=0.001). A significant relationship was detected between written language skills and mean hearing loss (p=0.048), duration of auditory deprivation (p=0.021), speech discrimination score (p=0.014), and preschool attendance (p=0.005), when it comes to socioeconomic status we were not able to find any significant relationship (p=0.636). It can be said that hearing loss affects written language skills negatively and hearing impaired individuals develop low-level written language skills compared to their normal hearing peers.

  17. Effects of stimulus level and rate on psychophysical thresholds for interleaved pulse trains in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michelle L; Goehring, Jenny L; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L; Schmid, Kendra K

    2016-10-01

    This study examined channel interactions using interleaved pulse trains to assess masking and potential facilitative effects in cochlear-implant recipients using clinically relevant stimuli. Psychophysical thresholds were measured for two adjacent mid-array electrodes; one served as the masker and the other as the probe. Two rates representative of those found in present-day strategies were tested: 1700 and 3400 pulses per second per channel. Four masker levels ranging from sub-threshold to loud-but-comfortable were tested. It was hypothesized that low-level maskers would produce facilitative effects, shifting to masking effects at high levels, and that faster rates would yield smaller masking effects due to greater stochastic neural firing patterns. Twenty-nine ears with Cochlear or Advanced Bionics devices were tested. High-level maskers produced more masking than low-level maskers, as expected. Facilitation was not observed for sub-threshold or threshold-level maskers in most cases. High masker levels yielded reduced probe thresholds for two Advanced Bionics subjects. This was partly eliminated with a longer temporal offset between each masker-probe pulse pair, as was used with Cochlear subjects. These findings support the use of temporal gaps between stimulation of subsequent electrodes to reduce channel interactions.

  18. Optimal Multi-Level Thresholding Based on Maximum Tsallis Entropy via an Artificial Bee Colony Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a global multi-level thresholding method for image segmentation. As a criterion for this, the traditional method uses the Shannon entropy, originated from information theory, considering the gray level image histogram as a probability distribution, while we applied the Tsallis entropy as a general information theory entropy formalism. For the algorithm, we used the artificial bee colony approach since execution of an exhaustive algorithm would be too time-consuming. The experiments demonstrate that: 1 the Tsallis entropy is superior to traditional maximum entropy thresholding, maximum between class variance thresholding, and minimum cross entropy thresholding; 2 the artificial bee colony is more rapid than either genetic algorithm or particle swarm optimization. Therefore, our approach is effective and rapid.

  19. Comparison of threshold estimation in infants with hearing loss or normal hearing using auditory steady-state response evoked by narrow band CE-chirps and auditory brainstem response evoked by tone pips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Franck; Jørgensen, Kristoffer Foldager

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to compare air-conduction thresholds obtained with ASSR evoked by narrow band (NB) CE-chirps and ABR evoked by tone pips (tpABR) in infants with various degrees of hearing loss. DESIGN: Thresholds were measured at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz. Data on each...... participant were collected at the same day. STUDY SAMPLE: Sixty-seven infants aged 4 d to 22 months (median age = 96 days), resulting in 57, 52, 87 and 56 ears for 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz, respectively. RESULTS: Statistical analysis was performed for ears with hearing loss (HL) and showed a very strong.......7). Linear regression analysis indicated that the relationship was not influenced by the degree of hearing loss. CONCLUSION: We propose that dB nHL to dB eHL correction values for ASSR evoked by NB CE-chirps should be 5 dB lower than values used for tpABR....

  20. Impact of CDMA wireless phone power output and puncture rate on hearing aid interference levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, T L; Schlegel, R E; Grant, H

    2000-01-01

    Interference between digital wireless phones and hearing aids occurs when the radiofrequency bursts from the phone transmission are demodulated by the hearing aid amplifier. The amplified interference signal is heard as a "buzz" or "static" by the hearing aid wearer. Most research and standards development activity has focused on worst-case scenarios with the phone operating at its maximum power. Since this power level is often not typical in urban and suburban settings, it is of value to determine the impact of lower power levels on the overall level of audible interference. Using a frequency analyzer, and several hearings aids and code division multiple access (CDMA) phones, the audio frequency spectrum of interference was recorded for each phone-aid combination and for a range of power levels producing from no interference to maximum interference. As phone power is increased, the interference signal becomes distinguishable from the ambient noise level and a linear response region is observed in which a specified increase in power output results in a proportional increase in the overall input referenced interference level (OIRIL). As power is increased beyond the linear region, the hearing aid enters a saturation region where an additional power increase results in a reduction or no increase in the OIRIL. The numeric differences in interference documented in this study were used in conjunction with the results of a previous study by the authors to determine the impact of reduced power on speech intelligibility and annoyance. The amount of improvement for a given power reduction depends on the radiofrequency immunity of the hearing aid and is substantial for hearing aids with poor immunity. For high-immunity aids, the level of audible interference remains low even at high phone power levels.

  1. Multi-level Threshold Image Segmentation Based on PSNR using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yun-Fei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is still a crucial problem in image processing. It hasn yet been solved very well. In this study, we propose a novel multi-level thresholding image segmentation method based on PSNR using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABCA. PSNR is considered as an objective function of ABCA. The multi-level thresholds (t*1, t*2 ,...., t*n-1, t*n are those maximizing the PSNR. We compare entropy and PSNR in segmenting gray-level images. The experiments results demonstrate proposed method is effective and efficient.

  2. On the (unimportance of working memory in speech-in-noise processing for listeners with normal hearing thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Füllgrabe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of cognitive hearing science, increased attention has been given to individual differences in cognitive functioning and their explanatory power in accounting for inter-listener variability in the processing of speech in noise (SiN. The psychological construct that has received much interest in recent years is working memory (WM. Empirical evidence indeed confirms the association between WM capacity (WMC and SiN identification in older hearing-impaired listeners. However, some theoretical models propose that variations in WMC are an important predictor for variations in speech processing abilities in adverse perceptual conditions for all listeners, and this notion has become widely accepted within the field. To assess whether WMC also plays a role when listeners without hearing loss process speech in adverse listening conditions, we surveyed published and unpublished studies in which the Reading-Span test (a widely used measure of WMC was administered in conjunction with a measure of SiN identification, using sentence material routinely used in audiological and hearing research. A meta-analysis revealed that, for young listeners with audiometrically normal hearing, individual variations in WMC are estimated to account for, on average, less than 2% of the variance in SiN identification scores. This result cautions against the (intuitively appealing assumption that individual variations in WMC are predictive of SiN identification independently of the age and hearing status of the listener.

  3. Imbalance of Excitation and Inhibition at Threshold Level In the Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eZhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interplay of cortical excitation and inhibition is a fundamental feature of cortical information processing. Excitation and inhibition in single cortical neurons are balanced in their response to optimal sensory stimulation due to thalamocortical feedforward microcircuitry. It is unclear whether the balance between cortical excitation and inhibition is maintained at the threshold stimulus level. Using in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recording of thalamocortical recipient neurons in the primary auditory cortex of mice, we examined the tone-evoked excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents at threshold levels. Similar to previous reports, tone induced excitatory postsynaptic currents when the membrane potentials were held at – 70 mV and inhibitory postsynaptic currents when the membrane potentials were held at 0 mV on single cortical neurons. This coupled excitation and inhibition is not demonstrated when threshold-level tone stimuli are presented. In most cases, tone induced only excitatory postsynaptic potential. The best frequencies of excitatory and inhibitory responses were often different and thresholds of inhibitory responses were mostly higher than those of excitatory responses. Our data suggest that the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to single cortical neurons are imbalanced at the threshold level. This imbalance may result from the inherent dynamics of thalamocortical feedforward microcircuitry.

  4. Imbalance of excitation and inhibition at threshold level in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zizhen; Liu, Xiuping; Xiong, Colin; Xiao, Zhongju; Yan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of cortical excitation and inhibition is a fundamental feature of cortical information processing. Excitation and inhibition in single cortical neurons are balanced in their response to optimal sensory stimulation due to thalamocortical feedforward microcircuitry. It is unclear whether the balance between cortical excitation and inhibition is maintained at the threshold stimulus level. Using in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recording of thalamocortical recipient neurons in the primary auditory cortex of mice, we examined the tone-evoked excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents at threshold levels. Similar to previous reports, tone induced excitatory postsynaptic currents when the membrane potentials were held at 70 mV and inhibitory postsynaptic currents when the membrane potentials were held at 0 mV on single cortical neurons. This coupled excitation and inhibition is not demonstrated when threshold-level tone stimuli are presented. In most cases, tone induced only excitatory postsynaptic current. The best frequencies of excitatory and inhibitory responses were often different and thresholds of inhibitory responses were mostly higher than those of excitatory responses. Our data suggest that the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to single cortical neurons are imbalanced at the threshold level. This imbalance may result from the inherent dynamics of thalamocortical feedforward microcircuitry.

  5. Results of a study on low-level flight noise in the Federal Republic of Germany. Acute and chronic effects on human hearing. Ergebnisse einer Tieffluglaerm-Studie in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Akute und chronische Auswirkungen auf das menschliche Gehoer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, H.; Rebentisch, E. (BGA, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene)

    1992-03-01

    In persons aged 18 to 50, hearing thresholds after exposure to low-level flight noise with different noise levels and speeds of noise levels and speeds of noise level increase were determined within a broad frequency range by means of fixed-frequency Bekesy audiometry. Temporary rises in the hearing threshold were shown to occurr significantly more often for rapid increases in noise level than for slow ones. A pilot study conducted in 1985 aimed at the following; Comparison of school children from an extremely afflicted area of the zone of flight altitude 75 metres with school children from a zone of flight altitude 150 metres as to hearing symptoms and auditory capability. These results were to be verified and extended by the principal study. Representative field studies were carried through for this purpose in Lower Saxonia. The results obtained corroborate the hypothesis that military low-level flight noise with noise peaks around 125 dB (A) and high speed of noise level increase causes slight, irreversible threshold of hearing shifts in sensitive individuals of the population concerned. (orig./MM).

  6. The Effects of Promoting Educational Level on the Development of Reading Comprehension Levels in Hearing-Impaired Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sarmadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing-impaired students have some delays in learning language skills such as reading because of hearing loss. To study the effect of promoting educational level on the development of reading comprehension, the students of the 4th grade of elementary and last year guidance school were compared based on international test of reading literacy.Methods: The project was cross-sectional and the tool used was the international standard booklet of PIRLS 2001. Thirty-six students selected with moderately severe and severe hearing loss from the 4th grade of elementary and last year guidance school from Shahriar, Robatkarim, Karaj and Hashtgerd, Iran, exceptional schools. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using t-test.Results: The first level (focus on and retrieve explicity information showed a meaningful difference between the last year guidance school and the 4th grade of elementary students (p<0.05, but there were no significant differences in other levels, make straightforward information-interpret and integrate ideas-examine and evaluate content, (p> 0.05.Conclusion: Hearing-impaired students have difficulties in understanding in deep levels of reading despite promoting educational level. Thus, in making policies for special trainings, continuing the rehabilitation in guidance and high school levels to promote the complex levels of comprehension should be taken more into consideration.

  7. Threshold-optimized decision-level fusion and its application to biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Fusion is a popular practice to increase the reliability of biometric verification. In this paper, we propose an optimal fusion scheme at decision level by the AND or OR rule, based on optimizing matching score thresholds. The proposed fusion scheme will always give an improvement in the Neyman–Pear

  8. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Interacoustics DD 45 supra-aural audiometric earphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the determination and results of pure tone Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels for the Interacoustics DD45 audiometric earphone equipped with standard Model 51 cushions. The size and shape of the DD45 transducer resembles the classical Telephonics TDH 39 earphone. Pure...

  9. System-Level Optimization of a DAC for Hearing-Aid Audio Class D Output Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with system-level optimization of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage. We discuss the ΣΔ modulator system-level design parameters – the order, the oversampling ratio (OSR) and the number of bits in the quantizer. We show that combining...... by comparing two ΣΔ modulator designs. The proposed optimization has impact on the whole hearing-aid audio back-end system including less hardware in the interpolation filter and half the switching rate in the digital-pulse-width-modulation (DPWM) block and Class D output stage...

  10. System-Level Optimization of a DAC for Hearing-Aid Audio Class D Output Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with system-level optimization of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage. We discuss the ΣΔ modulator system-level design parameters – the order, the oversampling ratio (OSR) and the number of bits in the quantizer. We show that combining a...... by comparing two ΣΔ modulator designs. The proposed optimization has impact on the whole hearing-aid audio back-end system including less hardware in the interpolation filter and half the switching rate in the digital-pulse-width-modulation (DPWM) block and Class D output stage...

  11. Pediatric Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilay, Ahmet; Koca, Çiğdem Firat

    2016-06-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is defined as sudden unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with at least 30 dB decrease in threshold in 3 contiguous test frequencies occurring over 72 hours or less. It is rare among children. The mechanism of the process and prognosis of the disorder remains unclear. The current incidence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss among pediatric population is unknown. The authors carried out a retrospective chart analysis of patients under 15 years of age from 2004 to 2015, who consulted to the Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department of Inonu University Medical Faculty. Age, sex, number of affected ear and side, audiometric evaluations, medical follow-up, treatment method, duration of treatment recovery, associated complaints; tinnitus and/or vertigo, presence of mumps disease were recorded for each patient. A 4-frequency pure-tone average (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) was calculated for each ear. Complete recovery, defined as some hearing level compared with the nonaffected ear, was observed in 3 patients (21.4 %) and there was no partial hearing recovery. The hearing loss of 11 patient remained unchanged after prednisolone treatment. Two of the 11 patients had bilaterally total sensorineural hearing loss and evaluated as appropriate for cochlear implantation. Sex of patient and laterality of hearing loss were not correlated with hearing recovery. Sensorineural hearing loss among pediatrics has been the issue of otolaryngologists. The incidence, etiology, and treatment methods should be more studied.

  12. The limits of applicability of the sound exposure level (SEL) metric to temporal threshold shifts (TTS) in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Sysueva, Evgenia V

    2014-05-15

    The influence of fatiguing sound level and duration on post-exposure temporary threshold shift (TTS) was investigated in two beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). The fatiguing sound was half-octave noise with a center frequency of 22.5 kHz. TTS was measured at a test frequency of 32 kHz. Thresholds were measured by recording rhythmic evoked potentials (the envelope following response) to a test series of short (eight cycles) tone pips with a pip rate of 1000 s(-1). TTS increased approximately proportionally to the dB measure of both sound pressure (sound pressure level, SPL) and duration of the fatiguing noise, as a product of these two variables. In particular, when the noise parameters varied in a manner that maintained the product of squared sound pressure and time (sound exposure level, SEL, which is equivalent to the overall noise energy) at a constant level, TTS was not constant. Keeping SEL constant, the highest TTS appeared at an intermediate ratio of SPL to sound duration and decreased at both higher and lower ratios. Multiplication (SPL multiplied by log duration) better described the experimental data than an equal-energy (equal SEL) model. The use of SEL as a sole universal metric may result in an implausible assessment of the impact of a fatiguing sound on hearing thresholds in odontocetes, including under-evaluation of potential risks.

  13. The effect of participating into sport on the fitness level of youths with hearing impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiz Arabacı

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the physical fitness levels of physically active and sedentary individuals with hearing impairment. The study included physical active (G1 n=30 and sedentary (G2 n=15 students with upper level hearing impairment, ranging in age from 16 to 20 years and communicating through lip- reading and sign language. In order to determine the physical fitness level of the subjects, their anthropometric characteristics, and other characteristics such as aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, vertical jump, right and left hand grip and velocity were measured. Analysis of the data obtained from the subjects was made using the “Independent - Samples T” test. A significant difference was observed between G1 and G2 in terms of aerobic power (MaxVO2 respectively 54,3 and 45 ml/kg/dk, vertical jump 53,6 and 45 cm, anaerobic power 110.2 kg/m/sec, 100.4 kg/m/sec, and velocity- 30 m run 4.31 and 4.59 sec (p<0.05. In conclusion, it can be said that there was a favorable result in favor of the physical fitness level of the students with hearing impairment who had participated in a soccer training workout at least twice a week and, by means of that, their physical fitness level resembled that of the ones with no hearing impairment.

  14. [Value of in situ measurement for evaluating effective hearing aid amplification at high sound pressure levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügel, F J; Schorn, K

    1993-06-01

    A careful hearing aid fitting requires consideration of various characteristics of inner ear pathology. The recruitment phenomenon restricts the dynamic range of the impaired hearing and this increase the demands on the hearing aids for a satisfactory correction of the frequency characteristics as well as for an intensity reduction at higher sound pressure level SPL. For years data from coupler or KEMAR (Knowles Electronics Manikin of Acoustical Research) have served to estimate the real ear gain of a hearing aid at higher input levels. In previous papers we reported on some of the differences between coupler measurement and probe tube measurement. The object of this study was to investigate the differences between these two methods at higher input SPL. Therefore, we measured the real ear insertion gain as well as the output characteristics with a 2 cm3 coupler in 80 patients at input levels of 60 dB, 80 dB and 100 dB. The results show differences between the two methods up to 30 dB in both directions in the single patient. Furthermore, the highest compression rate was found in the middle and high frequency range which are crucial for speech discrimination. Consequently, probe tube measurement should be used not only to adjust the frequency characteristics of the hearing aid but also to characterise the real effect of Automatic Gain Control AGC and Peak Clipping PC on insertion gain at higher input SPL. Multichannel hearing aids should be used whenever possible to reduce the disturbances to speech discrimination at low frequencies.

  15. Acceptable noise level as a deciding factor for prescribing hearing aids for older adults with cochlear hearing loss e A scoping review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hemanth Narayan Shetty; Swathi Subbanna

    2015-01-01

    Older adults often find it difficult to perceive speech, especially in noisy conditions. Though hearing aid is one of the rehabilitative devices available to older adults to alleviate hearing loss, some of them may experience annoyance through hearing aid and hence reject it, may be due to circuitry noise and/or background noise. Acceptable noise level is a direct behavioural measure to estimate the extent of how much a person is able to put up with noise while simultaneously listening to speech. Acceptable noise level is a central auditory measure and it is not influenced by age, gender, presentation level or speaker. Using this measure, we can quantify the annoyance level experienced by an individual. This in-formation is of utmost importance and caution should be paid before setting the parameters in hearing aid, especially for those who are unable to accept noise. In this review article, an attempt has been made to document how to optimize the hearing aid program by setting parameters such as noise reduction circuit, microphone sensitivity and gain. These adjustments of parameters might help to reduce rejection rate of hearing aids, especially in those individuals who are annoyed by background noise. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production & hosting by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd On behalf of PLA General Hospital Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  16. Multichannel loudness compensation method based on segmented sound pressure level for digital hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ruiyu; Xi, Ji; Bao, Yongqiang

    2017-07-01

    To improve the performance of gain compensation based on three-segment sound pressure level (SPL) in hearing aids, an improved multichannel loudness compensation method based on eight-segment SPL was proposed. Firstly, the uniform cosine modulated filter bank was designed. Then, the adjacent channels which have low or gradual slopes were adaptively merged to obtain the corresponding non-uniform cosine modulated filter according to the audiogram of hearing impaired persons. Secondly, the input speech was decomposed into sub-band signals and the SPL of every sub-band signal was computed. Meanwhile, the audible SPL range from 0 dB SPL to 120 dB SPL was equally divided into eight segments. Based on these segments, a different prescription formula was designed to compute more detailed gain to compensate according to the audiogram and the computed SPL. Finally, the enhanced signal was synthesized. Objective experiments showed the decomposed signals after cosine modulated filter bank have little distortion. Objective experiments showed that the hearing aids speech perception index (HASPI) and hearing aids speech quality index (HASQI) increased 0.083 and 0.082 on average, respectively. Subjective experiments showed the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the speech recognition of six hearing impaired persons.

  17. [Sound levels of the Piezosurgery. Risk of permanent damage to hearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakenburg, J.J.; Both, C.J.; Borstlap, W.A.; Damme, P.A. van

    2007-01-01

    In the past, research has regularly been carried out concerning the sound levels of various drilling devices and the impact these have on those who regularly use these devices. The present research is concerned with the possible permanent damage to hearing which can occur during the use of a newly d

  18. [Sound levels of the Piezosurgery. Risk of permanent damage to hearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakenburg, J.J.; Both, C.J.; Borstlap, W.A.; Damme, P.A. van

    2007-01-01

    In the past, research has regularly been carried out concerning the sound levels of various drilling devices and the impact these have on those who regularly use these devices. The present research is concerned with the possible permanent damage to hearing which can occur during the use of a newly

  19. Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill B Firszt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monaural hearing induces auditory system reorganization. Imbalanced input also degrades time-intensity cues for sound localization and signal segregation for listening in noise. While there have been studies of bilateral auditory deprivation and later hearing restoration (e.g. cochlear implants, less is known about unilateral auditory deprivation and subsequent hearing improvement. We investigated effects of long-term congenital unilateral hearing loss on localization, speech understanding, and cortical organization following hearing recovery. Hearing in the congenitally affected ear of a 41 year old female improved significantly after stapedotomy and reconstruction. Pre-operative hearing threshold levels showed unilateral, mixed, moderately-severe to profound hearing loss. The contralateral ear had hearing threshold levels within normal limits. Testing was completed prior to, and three and nine months after surgery. Measurements were of sound localization with intensity-roved stimuli and speech recognition in various noise conditions. We also evoked magnetic resonance signals with monaural stimulation to the unaffected ear. Activation magnitudes were determined in core, belt, and parabelt auditory cortex regions via an interrupted single event design. Hearing improvement following 40 years of congenital unilateral hearing loss resulted in substantially improved sound localization and speech recognition in noise. Auditory cortex also reorganized. Contralateral auditory cortex responses were increased after hearing recovery and the extent of activated cortex was bilateral, including a greater portion of the posterior superior temporal plane. Thus, prolonged predominant monaural stimulation did not prevent auditory system changes consequent to restored binaural hearing. Results support future research of unilateral auditory deprivation effects and plasticity, with consideration for length of deprivation, age at hearing correction, degree and type

  20. Revisiting the Economic Injury Level and Economic Threshold Model for Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasen, Elissa M; Undersander, Dan J; Cullen, Eileen M

    2015-08-01

    The economic injury level for potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was developed over 30 yr ago. In response to increasing market value of alfalfa, farmers and consultants are interested in reducing the economic threshold for potato leafhopper in alfalfa. To address this question, caged field trials were established on two consecutive potato leafhopper susceptible crops in 2013. Field cages were infested with a range of potato leafhopper densities to create a linear regression of alfalfa yield response. The slopes, or yield loss per insect, for the linear regressions of both trials were used to calculate an economic injury level for a range of current alfalfa market values and control costs. This yield-loss relationship is the first quantification that could be used to help assess whether the economic threshold should be lowered, given the increased market value of alfalfa.

  1. Reversible Audiometric Threshold Changes in Children with Uncomplicated Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George O. Adjei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Plasmodium falciparum malaria, as well as certain antimalarial drugs, is associated with hearing impairment in adults. There is little information, however, on the extent, if any, of this effect in children, and the evidence linking artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs with hearing is inconclusive. Methods. Audiometry was conducted in children with uncomplicated malaria treated with artesunate-amodiaquine (n=37, artemether-lumefantrine (n=35, or amodiaquine (n=8 in Accra, Ghana. Audiometry was repeated 3, 7, and 28 days later and after 9 months. Audiometric thresholds were compared with those of a control group of children (n=57 from the same area. Findings. During the acute stage, hearing threshold levels of treated children were significantly elevated compared with controls (P<0.001. The threshold elevations persisted up to 28 days, but no differences in hearing thresholds were evident between treated children and controls after 9 months. The hearing thresholds of children treated with the two ACT regimens were comparable but lower than those of amodiaquine-treated children during acute illness. Interpretation. Malaria is the likely cause of the elevated hearing threshold levels during the acute illness, a finding that has implications for learning and development in areas of intense transmission, as well as for evaluating potential ototoxicity of new antimalarial drugs.

  2. Combination therapy using antioxidants and low level laser therapy (LLLT) on noise induced hearing loss (NIHL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, So-Young; Lim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Min young; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae-Yun; Rhee, Chung-Ku

    2016-02-01

    One of the most common factors that cause hearing disorders is noise trauma. Noise is an increasing hazard and it is pervasive, which makes it difficult to take precautions and prevent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The prevalence of hearing loss among factory workers to be 42 %[1]. Ocupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) continues to be a significant occupational hazard. ONIHL is permanent and may cause significant disability, for which there currently exists no cure, but is largely preventable. More than 30 million Americans are potentially exposed to hazardous noise levels in occupations such as transportation, construction, and coal mining, as well as recreationally. In the mainstream setting, exposure avoidance strategies aimed to reduce the incidence of ONIHL remain the focus of public health and occupational medicine approaches[2]. In military conditions this is most often caused by such things as explosions, blasts, or loud noises from vehicles ranging from 100 to 140 dB[3] and military weapons generating approximately 140-185 dB peak sound pressure levels[4].

  3. Neues "Francais fondamental?" Das Europa-Projekt "Un niveau seuil." (A New "Francais fondamental?" The European Project "A Threshold Level").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, Albert

    1978-01-01

    The project "Threshold Level," initiated by the Council of Europe in 1976, is compared with "Francais fondamental," comparing their aims and their differences. Offered as an interim statement, the article leaves open the question of whether Francais fondamental should be replaced by the the Threshold Level. (IFS/WGA)

  4. The effect of signal duration on the underwater hearing thresholds of two harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) for single tonal signals between 0.2 and 40 kHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Hoek, L.; Wensveen, P.J.; Terhune, J.M.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2010-01-01

    The underwater hearing sensitivities of two 2-year-old female harbor seals were quantified in a pool built for acoustic research by using a behavioral psycho-acoustic technique. The animals were trained only to respond when they detected an acoustic signal (“go/no-go” response). Detection thresholds

  5. Temporal modulation transfer functions obtained using sinusoidal carriers with normally hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B C; Glasberg, B R

    2001-08-01

    Temporal modulation transfer functions were obtained using sinusoidal carriers for four normally hearing subjects and three subjects with mild to moderate cochlear hearing loss. Carrier frequencies were 1000, 2000 and 5000 Hz, and modulation frequencies ranged from 10 to 640 Hz in one-octave steps. The normally hearing subjects were tested using levels of 30 and 80 dB SPL. For the higher level, modulation detection thresholds varied only slightly with modulation frequency for frequencies up to 80 Hz, but decreased for high modulation frequencies. The decrease can be attributed to the detection of spectral sidebands. For the lower level, thresholds varied little with modulation frequency for all three carrier frequencies. The absence of a decrease in the threshold for large modulation frequencies can be explained by the low sensation level of the spectral sidebands. The hearing-impaired subjects were tested at 80 dB SPL, except for two cases where the absolute threshold at the carrier frequency was greater than 70 dB SPL; in these cases a level of 90 dB was used. The results were consistent with the idea that spectral sidebands were less detectable for the hearing-impaired than for the normally hearing subjects. For the two lower carrier frequencies, there were no large decreases in threshold with increasing modulation frequency, and where decreases did occur, this happened only between 320 and 640 Hz. For the 5000-Hz carrier, thresholds were roughly constant for modulation frequencies from 10 to 80 or 160 Hz, and then increased monotonically, becoming unmeasurable at 640 Hz. The results for this carrier may reflect "pure" effects of temporal resolution, without any influence from the detection of spectral sidebands. The results suggest that temporal resolution for deterministic stimuli is similar for normally hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

  6. Análise da correlação entre limiares auditivos, questionários validados e medidas psicoacústicas em pacientes com zumbido Correlation analysis of hearing thresholds, validated questionnaires and psychoacoustic measurements in tinnitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rodrigues Figueiredo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais dificuldades nos estudos clínicos sobre zumbido reside na falta de consenso sobre os métodos de mensuração. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a correlação entre os limiares audiométricos, pitch matching (PM, minimum masking level (MML, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck (BDI em pacientes com zumbido. MODELO DE ESTUDO: Prospectivo, coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 48 pacientes com zumbido como queixa principal foram submetidos aos testes audiométricos e questionários acima descritos. Os dados foram comparados estatisticamente para as correlações entre os métodos. RESULTADOS: Não houve correlação estatisticamente significativa entre o THI e MML, tanto em pacientes com BDI acima e abaixo de 14 pontos, bem como entre a frequência de pior limiar auditivo e o Pitch matching e entre a frequência de "cut-off" e o PM nos pacientes com curvas descendentes em rampa. CONCLUSÕES: Não existe correlação estatisticamente significativa entre as medidas psicoacústicas do zumbido, os limiares audiométricos e os questionários de avaliação. O zumbido é um sintoma muito complexo e avaliações isoladas pelos métodos acima não são satisfatórias.One of the most criticized points in tinnitus clinical studies arise from the lack of consensus about measurement methods. AIM: To evaluate the correlation between audiometric thresholds, pitch matching (PM, minimum masking level (MML, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI in tinnitus patients. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were submitted to tonal audiometry, PM and MML for tinnitus. They also filled out the THI and BDI. Data was statistically compared for correlation purposes between audiometric thresholds, psycho-acoustic measures and questionnaires. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant correlation between THI and MML, both in patients with BDI scores under and

  7. The effect of symmetrical and asymmetrical hearing impairment on music quality perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuexin; Zhao, Fei; Chen, Yuebo; Liang, Maojin; Chen, Ling; Yang, Haidi; Xiong, Hao; Zhang, Xueyuan; Zheng, Yiqing

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of symmetrical, asymmetrical and unilateral hearing impairment on music quality perception. Six validated music pieces in the categories of classical music, folk music and pop music were used to assess music quality in terms of its 'pleasantness', 'naturalness', 'fullness', 'roughness' and 'sharpness'. 58 participants with sensorineural hearing loss [20 with unilateral hearing loss (UHL), 20 with bilateral symmetrical hearing loss (BSHL) and 18 with bilateral asymmetrical hearing loss (BAHL)] and 29 normal hearing (NH) subjects participated in the present study. Hearing impaired (HI) participants had greater difficulty in overall music quality perception than NH participants. Participants with BSHL rated music pleasantness and naturalness to be higher than participants with BAHL. Moreover, the hearing thresholds of the better ears from BSHL and BAHL participants as well as the hearing thresholds of the worse ears from BSHL participants were negatively correlated to the pleasantness and naturalness perception. HI participants rated the familiar music pieces higher than unfamiliar music pieces in the three music categories. Music quality perception in participants with hearing impairment appeared to be affected by symmetry of hearing loss, degree of hearing loss and music familiarity when they were assessed using the music quality rating test (MQRT). This indicates that binaural symmetrical hearing is important to achieve a high level of music quality perception in HI listeners. This emphasizes the importance of provision of bilateral hearing assistive devices for people with asymmetrical hearing impairment.

  8. Correlation among external auditory canal anomaly, temporal bone malformation, and hearing levels in patients with microtia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Liu, Liu; Shi, Runjie; Wang, Peihua; Chen, Dong; Xiao, Hua

    2017-06-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the relationship between external auditory canal (EAC) anomaly, temporal bone abnormality, and hearing levels using objective scoring systems in Chinese patients with microtia. The study population consisted of 106 ears of 94 Chinese patients (67 male and 27 female) aged 5 to 45 years (mean: 12.6) with microtia. The EAC abnormalities were classified into 4 types according to Schuknecht's criteria: type A, type B, type C, and type D. Developmental anomalies of the temporal bone were evaluated by Jahrsdoerfer computed tomography (CT) scoring system using high-resolution CT scans of the temporal bone. Temporal bone malformation parameters were divided into 4 subgroups: ossicular chain development, windows connected to the cochlea, aeration development of the middle ear, and facial nerve aberration. Hearing levels (air conduction and bone conduction) were examined. Outcomes parameters included correlation coefficients (r) and a number of other variables. The total points (10 points) and subtotal points related to ossicles (4 points), windows (2 points), aeration (2 points), and facial nerve (1 point) correlated inversely with the EAC abnormalities. The hearing levels (air conduction, r = 0.396, p serve as an indicator to determine whether a patient will be suitable for reconstructive surgery.

  9. Temporal and spectral resolution of hearing in patients with precipitous hearing loss: Gap release of masking (GRM) and the role of cognitive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David

    2005-01-01

    . For the temporal-gap condition, they performed as normally hearing at both low and high frequencies. These results suggest that patients with precipitous hearing loss do not maintain normal spectral resolution through the low-frequency region, in which the hearing threshold levels are otherwise normal......The purpose of this experiment was to measure temporal acuity and spectral resolution of hearing in new hearing-aid users over a period of time post-fitting, and to demonstrate the extent to which performance might change over time. For one-octave wide maskers with and without spectral and temporal...... the masking by one-octave wide noise maskers without any gaps was constant over time, GRM increased over time for maskers involving a temporal gap. Moreover, at low frequencies where the subjects had normal hearing-threshold levels, they performed as hearing-impaired for the spectral-gap condition...

  10. Prognostic threshold levels of NT-proBNP testing in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J.; Schou, M.; Gustafsson, F.;

    2008-01-01

    level of the cardiac peptide, NT-proBNP, could be identified. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 2003-2005, 5875 primary care patients with suspected HF (median age 73 years) had NT-proBNP analysed in the Copenhagen area. Eighteen percent died and 20% had a cardiovascular (CV) hospitalization (median follow......-up time: 1127 and 1038 days, respectively). In Cox proportional hazards regression models regarding NT-proBNP levels, the fourth decile (range: 83-118 pg/mL) was associated with a 90% (95% CI: 30-190, P .../mL) was associated with an 80% (95% CI: 20-190, P = 0.01) increased mortality risk after adjustment for age, sex, previous hospitalization, CV diseases, and chronic diseases. CONCLUSION: We identified prognostic threshold levels for mortality and CV hospitalization for NT-proBNP in primary care patients suspected...

  11. Is there a threshold level of maternal education sufficient to reduce child undernutrition? Evidence from Malawi, Tanzania and Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Makoka, Donald; Masibo, Peninah Kinya

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal education is strongly associated with young child nutrition outcomes. However, the threshold of the level of maternal education that reduces the level of undernutrition in children is not well established. This paper investigates the level of threshold of maternal education that influences child nutrition outcomes using Demographic and Health Survey data from Malawi (2010), Tanzania (2009–10) and Zimbabwe (2005–06). Methods The total number of children (weighted sample) wa...

  12. [The effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to different degree of hearing loss and types of threshold curve in sudden deafness patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyun; Sun, Dajiang; Shao, Shan; Jiang, Wen; Sun, Zhengliang; Li, Zhengxian

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to different degrees of hearing loss and different types of threshold curve in sudden deafness patients, and establish a personalized therapy, so as to promote clinical effect to sudden deafness. One hundred and twenty cases were divided into two groups respectively (each group 60 cases). Drug treatment had been used in group A for two weeks. The patients in group B received drug treatment combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for two weeks. According to the different degrees of hearing loss and the types of audiogram in two groups, the statistical analysis to the difference of hyperbaric oxygen therapeutic effect was done. The effective rates was statistically different (chi2 = 8.044, P deafness patients. The statistical difference could been found between moderate and the severe deafness, the value of chi2 and p were 4.969, 5.560 and 0.040, 0.035, respectively. In group A, the statistical difference could only been found between mild and the profound deafness patients (chi2 = 6.739, P deafness, the moderate and the profound deafness, the severe and the profound deafness patients. The value of chi2 were 11.500, 15.058,10.221 and P deafness. The statistical difference could been found between the downsloping and the flat audiogram, with the value of chi2 and p were 5.144 and 5.969, P deafness. The value of chi2 were 6.188, 7.247, 8.082 and P deafness and severe deafness, the descending and flat type of audiogram.

  13. [The treatment effects analysis of 164 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Wen; Xu, Hong; Liu, Yuehui

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effective treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss and factors affecting its prognosis. The clinical data and follow-up results of 164 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss were analyzed retrospectively. All the 164 patients were given intravenous vasodilator, neurotrophic drugs treatment, oral prednisone treatment, and intratympanic dexamethasone injection. All patients were divided into low frequency hearing loss type,intermediate frequency hearing loss, high frequency hearing loss, all frequency hearing loss and total deafness group. Pure tone hearing threshold test were performed before and 3 months after treatment. All patients and different groups were compared before and after treatment damage frequency of average air conduction and various frequency air conduction hearing. Analysis of gender, age, process and hearing curve type, frequency hearing of impaired before treatment, the symptoms with or without vertigo. All the patients' hearing improved after treatment. The treatment efficiency was 46.3%, and low frequency hearing improvements were better than the high frequency hearing. Including age, process, frequency hearing of impaired before treatment, with or without vertigo isindependent factors influencing its prognosis. Based on the regular treatment,oral and intratympanic injection glucocorticoid therapy are safe and effective for sudden hearing loss,The prognosis and age, course, impaired hearing before curve type, treatment frequency hearing level is closely related, with or without vertigo.

  14. Correlation between Serum Aldosterone Level and Hearing Condition of Elderly Patients Referred to Otolaryngology Services of Hamadan, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Farhad Farahani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recently, more attention was paid to the direct protective effect of aldosterone against hearing impairment in elderly patients. The aim of this study was determination of possible correlation between serum aldosterone level and hearing condition of elderly patients that referred to the Otolaryngology services of Hamadan in 2005-2006.Methods: In this case control study 54 (27 males,27 females persons above 60 years old were evaluated. They contained twenty eight cases with normal hearing and 26 cases with presbycusis. Persons with any abnormal biochemical finding or history of conditions that predispose them to the sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL were excluded. In both groups serum level of sodium, potassium and aldosterone were measured and hearing condition evaluated by puretone, speech and immitance audiometry.Results: Statistical relationship between serum aldostrone level and hearing condition, sex, configuration of audiogram and speech discrimination score (SDS were not significant. In addition, no significant relationship between sodium and potassium levels with hearing condition was found (p>0.05.Conclusion: This study could not confirm protective effect of aldostrone against presbycusis. This discrepancy may originate from epidemiologic differences, laboratory errors or small sample size.

  15. Hearing sensation levels of emitted biosonar clicks in an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhai Li

    Full Text Available Emitted biosonar clicks and auditory evoked potential (AEP responses triggered by the clicks were synchronously recorded during echolocation in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus trained to wear suction-cup EEG electrodes and to detect targets by echolocation. Three targets with target strengths of -34, -28, and -22 dB were used at distances of 2 to 6.5 m for each target. The AEP responses were sorted according to the corresponding emitted click source levels in 5-dB bins and averaged within each bin to extract biosonar click-related AEPs from noise. The AEP amplitudes were measured peak-to-peak and plotted as a function of click source levels for each target type, distance, and target-present or target-absent condition. Hearing sensation levels of the biosonar clicks were evaluated by comparing the functions of the biosonar click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click source level to a function of external (in free field click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click sound pressure level. The results indicated that the dolphin's hearing sensation levels to her own biosonar clicks were equal to that of external clicks with sound pressure levels 16 to 36 dB lower than the biosonar click source levels, varying with target type, distance, and condition. These data may be assumed to indicate that the bottlenose dolphin possesses effective protection mechanisms to isolate the self-produced intense biosonar beam from the animal's ears during echolocation.

  16. Cardiovascular changes and hearing threshold shifts in men under complex exposures to noise, whole body vibrations, temperatures and competition-type psychic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, O

    1985-01-01

    This study deals with changes in the temporary hearing threshold (TTS2), heart rate (HR), R-wave amplitude (RWA), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP) and reaction time (RT) in subjects (n = 108) who, while working on a choice reaction apparatus, were exposed in an exposure chamber to combinations of noise and vibration at dry bulb temperatures of 20 degrees and 30 degrees C. The study was carried out as a type 2-3-3 factorial experiment, the number of the exposure combinations thus being 18. To find out the effects of competition-type psychic stress, some of the subjects were placed in a competitive group and some in a non-competitive group. The members of the competitive group were given financial encouragement and information on their progress during the test, whereas those in the non-competitive group worked at the rate they considered best without any monetary rewards or interim information. The noise classes were: no noise, a stable broadband (bandwidth 0.2-16.0 kHz) A-weighted noise of 90 dB not related to competition, and a stable broadband A-weighted noise of 90 dB related to competition about the fastest reaction time. The vibration classes were: no vibration, sinusoidal whole body vibration (Z-axis) at a frequency of 5 Hz, and stochastic broadband (bandwidth 2.8-11.2 Hz) whole body vibration (Z-axis). The acceleration (rms) of both vibrations was 2.12 m/s2. One experiment consisted of a control period of 30 min, three consecutive exposure periods of 16 min with an interval of 4 min, and a 15-min recovery period. The variance analysis model best explained the variation in TTS2 values at 4 kHz and second best the variation in TTS2 values at 6 kHz; it explained the variation in HR values third best, the variation in SBP values fourth best and the variation in PP values fifth best. On the other hand, the model explained least well the variation in DBP and RWA values. In general, the explanatory power of the model

  17. System-Level Optimization of a DAC for Hearing-Aid Audio Class D Output Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan,; Bruun, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Part 21: Electronics: Applications; International audience; This paper deals with system-level optimization of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage. We discuss the ΣΔ modulator system-level design parameters – the order, the oversampling ratio (OSR) and the number of bits in the quantizer. We show that combining a reduction of the OSR with an increase of the order results in considerable power savings while the audio quality is kept. For further savin...

  18. Feasibility of Using Supra-aural Headphones for Assessing the Aided Hearing Thresholds of Completely-in-the-canal Hearing Aids%头戴式气导耳机评估完全耳道式助听器助听听阈的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏俊; 李文靖; 管锐瑞; 张梅丽

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo verify the feasibility of using supra-aural headphones for assessing the aided hearing thresholds of completely-in-the-canal(CIC) hearing aids.MethodsTwenty-six CIC hearing aid wearers (35 ears) received pure-tone audiometry before wearing hearing aid and aided hearing thresholds test in the sound field when wearing hearing aids and using supra-aural headphones. And the results were statistically analyzed.Results There were significant differences in the aided hearing thresholds of CIC hearing aid wearers at 250,1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz in the sound field and when using the supra-aural headphones(P<0.05),but the difference was less than 5 dB HL.The aided hearing thresholds in the sound field and when using the supra-aural headphones were linearly correlated with the pure-tone hearing thresholds at 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz(P<0.01).Conclusion CIC hearing aid wearers can use supra-aural headphones to assess the aided hearing thresholds. However, this study only observes the aided hearing thresholds at 250-4000 Hz, so it can’t replace sound field test and further studies are needed.%目的:验证使用头戴式气导耳机对完全耳道式(completey-in-the-canal,CIC)助听器配戴者进行助听听阈评估是否具有可行性。方法对26例(35耳)CIC型助听器配戴者分别进行裸耳纯音听阈测试、声场条件下的助听听阈测试和头戴式气导耳机条件下的助听听阈测试,并对结果进行统计学分析。结果 CIC型助听器配戴者声场条件下与头戴式气导耳机条件下的助听听阈在250、1000、2000和4000 Hz处差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),但差值均<5 dB HL;声场条件下的助听听阈、头戴式气导耳机条件下的助听听阈和裸耳听阈两两间在250、500、1000、2000和4000 Hz频率下均呈显著直线相关趋势(P<0.01)。结论CIC助听器配戴者可用头戴式气导耳机进行助听听阈测试,但由于本研究只观察了250~4000 Hz

  19. Confidence intervals for return levels for the peaks-over-threshold approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Thomas; Thongwichian, Rossukon

    2017-01-01

    The peaks-over-threshold (POT) approach is an important alternative to the annual block maxima (ABM) method in flood frequency analysis. POT requires the mathematical description of both, the number of exceedances over the threshold as well as the values of those exceedances. Regardless the method, estimates of extreme flood events are typically associated with a large range of uncertainty, which is usually showcased by appropriate confidence intervals (CIs). However, existing methods to estimate CIs for return levels for the POT approach have mostly neglected its dual-domain character and focused on the distribution of the magnitudes only. We present here a customization of two methods, the Profile Likelihood (PL) and test inversion bootstrap (TIB), which account for the dual-domain structure of POT. Both, PL and TIB, are in the framework of ABM already successfully employed for estimating CIs of extreme flood events. A comparison of the performance of the estimated CIs (in terms of coverage error) of the PL, TIB, and percentile bootstrap is done. As result, it is seen that both the lower and upper boundary of the CIs are strongly underestimated for the percentile bootstrap approach. A similar effect (although in a much less pronounced way) can be observed for PL. The performance of the TIB is usually superior to the percentile bootstrap and PL and yielded reasonable estimates for the CIs for large return periods.

  20. The Relationship Between Exposure to Recreational Noise and Temporary Threshold Shifts in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirreffs, Janet; And Others

    An investigation was conducted to identify the effects of exposure to selected entertainment environments on hearing threshold levels. Twenty-five normal hearing females were randomly assigned to one of the following five taped noise conditions: (1) a discotheque band, (2) a motor speedway, (3) a hotel dance band, (4) an amusement park, and (5) a…

  1. Intelligibility of speech in noise at high presentation levels: effects of hearing loss and frequency region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Van; Cord, Mary T

    2007-08-01

    These experiments examined how high presentation levels influence speech recognition for high- and low-frequency stimuli in noise. Normally hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners were tested. In Experiment 1, high- and low-frequency bandwidths yielding 70%-correct word recognition in quiet were determined at levels associated with broadband speech at 75 dB SPL. In Experiment 2, broadband and band-limited sentences (based on passbands measured in Experiment 1) were presented at this level in speech-shaped noise filtered to the same frequency bandwidths as targets. Noise levels were adjusted to produce approximately 30%-correct word recognition. Frequency bandwidths and signal-to-noise ratios supporting criterion performance in Experiment 2 were tested at 75, 87.5, and 100 dB SPL in Experiment 3. Performance tended to decrease as levels increased. For NH listeners, this "rollover" effect was greater for high-frequency and broadband materials than for low-frequency stimuli. For HI listeners, the 75- to 87.5-dB increase improved signal audibility for high-frequency stimuli and rollover was not observed. However, the 87.5- to 100-dB increase produced qualitatively similar results for both groups: scores decreased most for high-frequency stimuli and least for low-frequency materials. Predictions of speech intelligibility by quantitative methods such as the Speech Intelligibility Index may be improved if rollover effects are modeled as frequency dependent.

  2. Entropy-Based Method of Choosing the Decomposition Level in Wavelet Threshold De-noising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fang Sang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the energy distributions of various noises following normal, log-normal and Pearson-III distributions are first described quantitatively using the wavelet energy entropy (WEE, and the results are compared and discussed. Then, on the basis of these analytic results, a method for use in choosing the decomposition level (DL in wavelet threshold de-noising (WTD is put forward. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is verified by analysis of both synthetic and observed series. Analytic results indicate that the proposed method is easy to operate and suitable for various signals. Moreover, contrary to traditional white noise testing which depends on “autocorrelations”, the proposed method uses energy distributions to distinguish real signals and noise in noisy series, therefore the chosen DL is reliable, and the WTD results of time series can be improved.

  3. An Automatic Optic Disk Detection and Segmentation System using Multi-level Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARASULU, B.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Optic disk (OD boundary localization is a substantial problem in ophthalmic image processing research area. In order to segment the region of OD, we developed an automatic system which involves a multi-level thresholding. The OD segmentation results of the system in terms of average precision, recall and accuracy for DRIVE database are 98.88%, 99.91%, 98.83%, for STARE database are 98.62%, 97.38%, 96.11%, and for DIARETDB1 database are 99.29%, 99.90%, 99.20%, respectively. The experimental results show that our system works properly on retinal image databases with diseased retinas, diabetic signs, and a large degree of quality variability.

  4. Does the acceptable noise level (ANL) predict hearing-aid use?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Brännström, K Jonas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that individuals have an inherent acceptance of noise in the presence of speech, and that different acceptance of noise results in different hearing-aid (HA) use. The acceptable noise level (ANL) has been proposed for measurement of this property. It has been...... reviewed journals as well as a number of papers from trade journals, posters and oral presentations from audiology conventions. CONCLUSIONS: An inherent acceptance of noise in the presence of speech may exist, but no method for precise measurement of ANL is available. The ANL model for prediction of HA use...

  5. Dosimetric effect by the low-dose threshold levels in gamma analysis on VMAT QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji Hye; Kim, Min Joo; Park, So Hyun; Lee, Seu Ran; Lee, Min Young; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Based on a survey by Nelms and Simon, more than 70% of institutions use a low-dose threshold between 0% and 10% for gamma analysis. However, there are no clinical data to quantitatively demonstrate the impact of the low-dose threshold on the gamma index. Therefore, we performed a gamma analysis with low-dose thresholds of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% according to both global and local normalization and different acceptance criteria: 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 1%/1 mm. Applying low-dose threshold in the global normalization does not have critical effect to judge patient-specific QA results.

  6. Noise induced hearing loss risk assessment in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing sense is one of the key elements which may have impact on the driver′s task quality. This cross-sectional study investigates the hearing status of 500 truck drivers by pure tone audiometry (AC in one of the cities in Fars province, Iran. Hearing threshold levels of the subjects were measured in frequencies of 500Hz-8000Hz. Screening and determination of permanent threshold shift (PTS was the first aim of this study. Hence tests were done at least 16 hours after any exposure to noticeable sound. The effect of age as a confounding factor was considered using ISO equation and subtracted from whole hearing threshold. The threshold of 25 dB HL and above was considered abnormal but the calculation of hearing was also carried out using 0 dB HL as reference. Subjects were categorized into two groups on the basis of working experience and the hearing threshold of 25 dB was considered a boundary of normal hearing sense. The results of Pearson Chi-Square test showed that working experience as an independent variable has significant contributing effect on hearing thresholds of truck drivers in frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz (p greater than 0.05. Also, it was shown that currently nine and 12.6 % of truck drivers suffer from impaired hearing sense in left and right respectively (hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB in mid frequencies (500, 1000, 2000 Hz and 45% in high frequencies of both ears (4000 and 8000 Hz. The results indicated that hearing damage of professional drivers was expected to occur sooner at 4000 and 8000 Hz than lower frequencies. Finally it was deduced that the occupational conditions of truck drivers may have bilateral, symmetrical harmful effect on hearing threshold sense in all frequencies mainly in frequency of 4000 Hz, so health surveillance programs such as education and periodic medical examinations are emphasized for pre-diagnosing and prevention of any possible impairment and an urgent need to take up

  7. Noise induced hearing loss risk assessment in truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ali; Nasiri, Saleh; Kazerooni, Farshid Khodaparast; Oliaei, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Hearing sense is one of the key elements which may have impact on the driver's task quality. This cross-sectional study investigates the hearing status of 500 truck drivers by pure tone audiometry (AC) in one of the cities in Fars province, Iran. Hearing threshold levels of the subjects were measured in frequencies of 500Hz-8000Hz. Screening and determination of permanent threshold shift (PTS) was the first aim of this study. Hence tests were done at least 16 hours after any exposure to noticeable sound. The effect of age as a confounding factor was considered using ISO equation and subtracted from whole hearing threshold. The threshold of 25 dB HL and above was considered abnormal but the calculation of hearing was also carried out using 0 dB HL as reference. Subjects were categorized into two groups on the basis of working experience and the hearing threshold of 25 dB was considered a boundary of normal hearing sense. The results of Pearson Chi-Square test showed that working experience as an independent variable has significant contributing effect on hearing thresholds of truck drivers in frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz (p greater than 0.05). Also, it was shown that currently nine and 12.6 % of truck drivers suffer from impaired hearing sense in left and right respectively (hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB) in mid frequencies (500, 1000, 2000 Hz) and 45% in high frequencies of both ears (4000 and 8000 Hz). The results indicated that hearing damage of professional drivers was expected to occur sooner at 4000 and 8000 Hz than lower frequencies. Finally it was deduced that the occupational conditions of truck drivers may have bilateral, symmetrical harmful effect on hearing threshold sense in all frequencies mainly in frequency of 4000 Hz, so health surveillance programs such as education and periodic medical examinations are emphasized for pre-diagnosing and prevention of any possible impairment and an urgent need to take up some interventions

  8. 助听器音频补偿效果与构音清晰度的相关研究%A Study of the Relationship between Aided Hearing Thresholds and Speech Intelligibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 孙喜斌; 黄昭鸣; 刘巧云; 张芳; 张磊; 朱群怡

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过分析配戴助听器儿童的音频补偿效果与构音清晰度得分的相关关系,为听障儿童的听觉言语综合康复提供理论依据.方法 对43名配戴助听器儿童进行助听后的声场测试以及构音语音能力主观评估,并进行统计学分析.结果 助听器音频补偿效果越差,听障儿童的构音清晰度得分越低.结论 助听器验配与优化只是补偿听力的完成,进行听觉康复训练和言语矫治是充分发挥助听器作用的必要手段,也是提高听障儿童构音清晰度的前提和基础.%objective To analyze the relationship between aided hearing thresholds and speech intelligibility of children with hearing aids and to provide theoretical basis for their auditory and speech rehabilitation. Methods Forty-three children with hearing aids received the sound field measurement and subjective articulation assessment. The test results were statistically analyzed. Results The results showed that the worse the hearing aid outcome, the lower the scores of speech articulation. Conclusion It is necessary to provide auditory training and speech therapy for hearing-impaired children after the hearing aid fitting, because it is crucial to maximizing the effects of hearing aids and improving the speech intelligibility.

  9. 20 CFR 627.501 - State grievance and hearing procedures for noncriminal complaints at the recipient level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... noncriminal complaints at the recipient level. 627.501 Section 627.501 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... III OF THE ACT Grievances Procedures at the State and Local Level § 627.501 State grievance and hearing procedures for noncriminal complaints at the recipient level. (a)(1) Each recipient shall...

  10. System Level Power Optimization of Digital Audio Back End for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracny, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with power optimization of the audio processing back end for hearing aids - the interpolation filter (IF), the sigma-delta (SD modulator and the Class D power amplifier (PA) as a whole. Specifications are derived and insight into the tradeoffs involved is used to optimize...... the interpolation filter and the SD modulator on the system level so that the switching frequency of the Class D PA - the main power consumer in the back end - is minimized. A figure-of-merit (FOM) which allows judging the power consumption of the digital part of the back end early in the design process is used...... to track the hardware and power demands as the tradeoffs of the system level parameters are investigated. The result is the digital part of the back end optimized with respect to power which provides audio performance comparable to state-of-theart. A combination of system level parameters leading...

  11. The health impact of a hearing disability on older people in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Anthony; O'Loughlin, Kate; Miller, Peta; Kendig, Hal

    2009-12-01

    A series of studies has proposed that hearing loss has adverse effects for other aspects of health. This article examines the health effects associated with self-reported hearing disability on older people. The study utilized the 2003 Australian Survey of Disability, Ageing, and Carers (n = 43,233), a weighted population-based survey providing data on self-reported disability and quality of life, to examine hearing disability among older Australians (55 years plus). Of the estimated 654,113 people reporting hearing disability, 71% experienced limited communication and 60% used hearing aids. Compared with population norms, hearing disability at all levels was associated with poorer physical and mental health scores on the SF-12 measure, especially for people with severe or profound hearing loss, thus suggesting a threshold effect at advanced levels of disability. Data support emerging literature suggesting a causal relationship between hearing disability and quality of life. Prospective studies to further examine this relationship are indicated.

  12. APPLYING CHAOTIC IMPERIALIST COMPETITIVE ALGORITHM FOR MULTI-LEVEL IMAGE THRESHOLDING BASED ON KAPUR’S ENTROPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rouhani Nejad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation is one of the most important operations in image processing and computer vision. Normally, all image processing and computer vision applications are related to segmentation as a pre-processing phase. Image thresholding is one of the most useful methods for image segmentation. Various methods have been represented for image thresholding. One method is Kapur thresholding, which is based on maximizing entropy criterion. In this study, a new meta-heuristic algorithm based on imperialist competition algorithm was proposed for multi-level thresholding based on Kapur's entropy. Also, imperialist competitive algorithm is combined with chaotic functions to enhance search potency in problem space. The results of the proposed method have been compared with particle optimization algorithm and genetic algorithm. The findings revealed that the proposed method was superior to other methods.

  13. Measuring Sound-Processor Threshold Levels for Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients Using Conditioned Play Audiometry via Telepractice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Jenny L.; Hughes, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the use of telepractice for measuring cochlear implant (CI) behavioral threshold (T) levels in children using conditioned play audiometry (CPA). The goals were to determine whether (a) T levels measured via telepractice were not significantly different from those obtained in person, (b) response probability differed…

  14. Threshold Based Kernel Level HTTP Filter (TBHF for DDoS Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ibrahim AK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available HTTP flooding attack has a unique feature of interrupting application level services rather than depleting the network resources as in any other flooding attacks. Bombarding of HTTP GET requests to a target results in Denial of Service (DoS of the web server. Usage of shortened Uniform Resource Locator (URL is one of the best ways to unknowingly trap users for their participation in HTTP GET flooding attack. The existing solutions for HTTP attacks are based on browser level cache maintenance, CAPTCHA technique, and usage of Access Control Lists (ACL. Such techniques fail to prevent dynamic URL based HTTP attacks. To come up with a solution for the prevention of such kind of HTTP flooding attack, a real time HTTP GET flooding attack was generated using d0z-me, a malicious URL shortener tool. When user clicked the shortened URL, it was found that the user intended web page was displayed in the web browser. But simultaneously, an avalanche of HTTP GET requests were generated at the backdrop to the web server based on the scripts downloaded from the attacker. Since HTTP GET request traffic are part of any genuine internet traffic, it becomes difficult for the firewall to detect such kind of attacks. This motivated us to propose a Threshold Based Kernel Level HTTP Filter (TBHF, which would prevent internet users from taking part in such kind of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks unknowingly. Windows Filtering Platform (WFP, which is an Application Programming Interface (API, was used to develop TBHF. The proposed solution was tested by installing TBHF on a victim machine and generating the DDoS attack. It was observed that the TBHF completely prevented the user from participating in DDoS attack by filtering out the malicious HTTP GET requests while allowing other genuine HTTP GET requests generated from that system

  15. CMT: a constrained multi-level thresholding approach for ChIP-Seq data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Rezaeian

    Full Text Available Genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins using ChIP-Seq has emerged as an alternative to ChIP-chip methods. ChIP-Seq technology offers many advantages over ChIP-chip arrays, including but not limited to less noise, higher resolution, and more coverage. Several algorithms have been developed to take advantage of these abilities and find enriched regions by analyzing ChIP-Seq data. However, the complexity of analyzing various patterns of ChIP-Seq signals still needs the development of new algorithms. Most current algorithms use various heuristics to detect regions accurately. However, despite how many formulations are available, it is still difficult to accurately determine individual peaks corresponding to each binding event. We developed Constrained Multi-level Thresholding (CMT, an algorithm used to detect enriched regions on ChIP-Seq data. CMT employs a constraint-based module that can target regions within a specific range. We show that CMT has higher accuracy in detecting enriched regions (peaks by objectively assessing its performance relative to other previously proposed peak finders. This is shown by testing three algorithms on the well-known FoxA1 Data set, four transcription factors (with a total of six antibodies for Drosophila melanogaster and the H3K4ac antibody dataset.

  16. Simultaneous reflection masking: dependency on direct sound level and hearing-impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Mihai, Paul Glad

    2008-01-01

    B-SL direct sound level, NH-listeners showed a binaural suppression effect for delays smaller than 7-10 ms and a binaural enhancement effect for larger delays. When decreasing the direct sound level to 15 dB-SL, the only significant change observed was that the dichotic RMT increased for delays larger than...... about 7 ms. In consequence, the binaural enhancement effect was strongly reduced, but the binaural suppression effect was unchanged. HI-listeners (at 30 dB-SL) showed a strong binaural suppression effect for delays smaller than about 3ms and only a very small binaural enhancement effect for larger...... delays. Hence, in contrast to binaural reflection enhancement, binaural reflection suppression seems to involve mechanisms that are robust to auditory-internal noise-floor and hearing-impairment. Moreover, differences between the RMTs for HI- and NH-listeners were in prin-ciple agreement with differences...

  17. Effects of moderate-level sound exposure on behavioral thresholds in chinchillas

    OpenAIRE

    Carbajal de Nava, Maria Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Normal audiometric thresholds following noise exposure have generally been considered as an indication of a recovered cochlea and intact peripheral auditory system, yet recent animal work has challenged this classic assumption. Moderately noise-exposed animals have been shown to have permanent loss of synapses on inner hair cells (IHCs) and permanent damage to auditory nerve fibers (ANFs), specifically the low-spontaneous rate fibers (low-SR), despite normal electrophysiological thresholds. L...

  18. ∑∆ Modulator System-Level Considerations for Hearing-Aid Audio Class-D Output Stage Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Bruun, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a system-level design of a digital sigma-delta (∑∆) modulator for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage application. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion on various possibilities and tradeoffs of ∑∆ modulator system-level design parameter combinations...

  19. Sound Pressure Levels Measured in a University Concert Band: A Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nicholas V., III

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have reported public school band directors as experiencing noise-induced hearing loss. Little research has focused on collegiate band directors and university student musicians. The present study measures the sound pressure levels generated within a university concert band and compares sound levels with the criteria set by the…

  20. Sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences in young children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deun, Lieselot; van Wieringen, Astrid; Van den Bogaert, Tim; Scherf, Fanny; Offeciers, F Erwin; Van de Heyning, Paul H; Desloovere, Christian; Dhooge, Ingeborg J; Deggouj, Naïma; De Raeve, Leo; Wouters, Jan

    2009-04-01

    In this study, procedures for measuring sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences (BMLDs) in young children were developed. Sensitivity for these tasks was assessed in large groups of children between 4 and 9 yr of age to investigate potential developmental trends. Sound localization was measured in the sound field, with a broadband bell-ring presented from one of nine loudspeakers positioned in the frontal horizontal field. A group of 33 children between 4 and 6 yr of age and 5 adults took part in this experiment. Sound lateralization based on interaural time differences was measured with headphones in 49 children between 4 and 9 yr of age and 10 adults. A low-frequency stimulus containing harmonics 2 to 5 from a click train with a rate of 160 Hz was used. In the BMLD test, the same filtered click train was presented diotically or dichotically (phase reversed or time delayed) in a broadband (200 to 1000 Hz) frozen noise to 23 children between 4 and 6 yr of age and 10 adults. For comparison with literature, additional measurements with a 500-Hz sinusoid were administered to adults. All tasks were adapted to the interest and attention span of young children. Children of 5 yr of age did not perform significantly different from adults on the sound localization task, but mean absolute errors were larger for the 4-yr-olds. Also on the BMLD task, 5-yr-old children performed at the adult level, whereas the 4-yr-old children obtained significantly less binaural unmasking compared with the adults. Concerning sound lateralization, a small but significant difference between adults and children existed, but no age effects were apparent in the 4- to 9-yr-old group. Overall, the variation was relatively large in the 4-yr-old group, with some of the children performing at adult level, in all three tasks. The results of this study show that the modified procedures are suitable for testing children from the age of 4 to 5 yr. Furthermore, it

  1. Hearing and Performance During a 70-h Exposure to Noise Simulating the Space Station Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, S.M.; Crabtree, B.; Baranski, J.V.; Smith, D.G.; Thompson, M.M.; Steeneken, H.J.M.; Verhave, J.A.; Buckey, J.C.; Alvarenga, D.L.; Comtois, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Elevated hearing thresholds have been documented in some astronauts after long-term spaceflights although noise levels were lower than those normally associated with noise-induced hearing loss in ground-based operations. The present study was conducted to determine whether prolonged

  2. [Incidence of normal hearing in acoustic neuroma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donato, G; Russo, A; Taibah, A; Saleh, E; Sanna, M

    1995-04-01

    Unilateral or asymetrical sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus and instability classically represent the main symptoms for the suspected diagnosis of acoustic neurinoma. In literature there are very few studies which refer about acoustic neurinoma in patients with normal hearing. In this article we report the results of a retrospective analysis of 155 acoustic neurinoma cases with normal hearing managed in our center in the last 7 years. These patients are classified in two groups: 1) with normal hearing at the time of diagnosis and 2) with at least a mild sensorineural hearing loss. Of this 155 cases, 21 (13.5%) had normal pure tone audiogram. An important characteristic of these patients, in comparison with the group with normal hearing, is the younger age. Tinnitus, instability, sudden hearing loss with complete recovery and vertigo are the most common symptoms. The mean pure tone threshold is 14.7 dB, speech audiometry is positive in very few cases, while a large number of cases show false negative. ABR are positive in 90.5% of cases, and demonstrate its high sensitivity for retrococlear pathology. The mean tumor size shows significant differences between the group with normal hearing and this with hearing loss. We believe that the presence of this symptoms in a young patient should necessitate complete neurotologic examination and in the patients with normal hearing a high level of suspicion represents the first step for early diagnosis of small tumors; the next step is the through evaluation of patient with pure tone audiogram, ABR, and imaging studies, preferably MRI with gadolinium, as this permits the diagnosis of small intracanalicular tumor. Thus, in cases of small tumors with good hearing we feel that will be possible to adopt hearing conservation surgical approach like FCM and retrosigmoid approach in more cases.

  3. Categorical loudness scaling and equal-loudness contours in listeners with normal hearing and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Trevino, Andrea C; Gombert, Jessa N; Liebig-Trehearn, Lauren; Kopun, Judy G; Jesteadt, Walt; Neely, Stephen T; Gorga, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    This study describes procedures for constructing equal-loudness contours (ELCs) in units of phons from categorical loudness scaling (CLS) data and characterizes the impact of hearing loss on these estimates of loudness. Additionally, this study developed a metric, level-dependent loudness loss, which uses CLS data to specify the deviation from normal loudness perception at various loudness levels and as function of frequency for an individual listener with hearing loss. CLS measurements were made in 87 participants with hearing loss and 61 participants with normal hearing. An assessment of the reliability of CLS measurements was conducted on a subset of the data. CLS measurements were reliable. There was a systematic increase in the slope of the low-level segment of the CLS functions with increase in the degree of hearing loss. ELCs derived from CLS measurements were similar to standardized ELCs (International Organization for Standardization, ISO 226:2003). The presence of hearing loss decreased the vertical spacing of the ELCs, reflecting loudness recruitment and reduced cochlear compression. Representing CLS data in phons may lead to wider acceptance of CLS measurements. Like the audiogram that specifies hearing loss at threshold, level-dependent loudness loss describes deficit for suprathreshold sounds. Such information may have implications for the fitting of hearing aids.

  4. Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

    2005-04-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

  5. Comparison of self-esteem level of adolescents with cochlear implant and normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Sanem; Belgin, Erol

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the levels of self-esteem of adolescents with cochlear implants (before and after cochlear implantation) and the ones who have normal hearing. For this purpose, Rosenberg self-esteem scale is applied upon the study group which consists of 30 adolescents with cochlear implant between the ages of 12-19 and upon the control group which consists of 60 adolescents having the similar characteristics. The scale is used to evaluate the level of self-esteem of adolescents with cochlear implant and with normal hearing. At the end of the application, the scores of these two groups which they got according to their answers were compared statistically. When the results were examined, there seemed to be no significant difference statistically between the self-esteem values of the cochlear implant group and the control group. Apart from this, there seemed to be significant difference statistically between the self-esteem values of the before cochlear implantation and control group. In this study, we examined changes in the level of self-esteem according to different variables. As a result, it was found out that in both groups levels of self-esteem was higher for adolescents who had had preschool education, had brothers/sisters, high level of income, whose mother was working and whose father and mother had higher levels of education. On the other hand, the birth sequence and the child's father's profession did not seem to have any effect on the child's level of self-esteem. As a result of these findings, it was thought that cochlear implantation had a positive effect on life quality and it was suggested that the adolescents and their families should get assistance from experts about the characteristics and principles of approaching the child in this period. The adolescent should be directed towards social activities and courses, their positive sides should be supported and further studies should be carried out with different case groups on

  6. Hearing Characteristics of Stroke Patients: Prevalence and Characteristics of Hearing Impairment and Auditory Processing Disorders in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohi, Nehzat; Vickers, Deborah A; Lakshmanan, Rahul; Chandrashekar, Hoskote; Werring, David J; Warren, Jason D; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2017-06-01

    Stroke survivors may suffer from a range of hearing impairments that may restrict their participation in postacute rehabilitation programs. Hearing impairment may have a significant impact on listening, linguistic skills, and overall communication of the affected stroke patient. However, no studies sought to systematically characterize auditory function of stroke patients in detail, to establish the different types of hearing impairments in this cohort of patients. Such information would be clinically useful in understanding and addressing the hearing needs of stroke survivors. The present study aimed to characterize and classify the hearing impairments, using a detailed audiological assessment test battery, in order to determine the level of clinical need and inform appropriate rehabilitation for this patient population. A case-control study. Forty-two recruited stroke patients who were discharged from a stroke unit and 40 control participants matched for age. All participants underwent pure-tone audiometry and immittance measurements including acoustic reflex threshold, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, auditory-evoked brainstem response, and a central auditory processing assessment battery, performed in a single session. Hearing impairments were classified as peripheral hearing loss (cochlear and neural type), central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and as a combination of CAPD and peripheral hearing loss. Overall mean hearing thresholds were not significantly different between the control and stroke groups. The most common type of hearing impairment in stroke patients was the combination type, "peripheral and CAPD," in the 61- to 80-yr-old subgroup (in 55%), and auditory processing deficits in 18- to 60-yr-olds (in 40%), which were both significantly higher than in controls. This is the first study to examine hearing function in detail in stroke patients. Given the importance of hearing for the efficiency of communication, it is essential to identify

  7. Smartphone-based hearing test as an aid in the initial evaluation of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handzel, Ophir; Ben-Ari, Oded; Damian, Doris; Priel, Maayan M; Cohen, Jacob; Himmelfarb, Mordechai

    2013-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) can cause significant morbidity. Treatment with steroids can improve outcome. Delay in initiation of treatment reduces the chance to regain hearing. For this reason SSNHL is considered an emergency. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination and a standard audiogram, the latter requiring specialized equipment and personnel. Standard audiogram may not be available at the time and place of patient presentation. A smartphone or tablet computer-based hearing test may aid in the decision to prescribe steroids in this setting. In this study the uHear™ hearing test application was utilized. The output of this ear-level air conduction hearing test is reported in hearing grades for 6 frequencies ranging from 250 to 6000 Hz. A total of 32 patients with unilateral SSNHL proven by a standard audiogram were tested. The results of standard and iPod hearing tests were compared. Based on the accepted criterion of SSNHL (at least 30 dB loss - or 2 hearing grades - in 3 consecutive frequencies) the test had a sensitivity of 0.76 and specificity of 0.91. Using a less stringent criterion of a loss of 2 hearing grades over at least 2 frequencies the sensitivity was 0.96 and specificity 0.86. The correlation coefficient for the comparison of the average hearing grade across the 6 measured frequencies of the study and standard audiogram was 0.83. uHear more accurately reflected hearing thresholds at mid and high tones. Similarly to previously published data, low frequency thresholds could be artificially elevated. In conclusion, uHear can be useful in the initial evaluation of patients with single-sided SSNHL by providing important information guiding the decision to initiate treatment before a standard audiogram is available.

  8. Relationship between hearing threshold and peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients%2型糖尿病患者听觉阈值与周围神经病变的关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈娟; 刘芳; 曾辉; 于杰; 李青; 包玉倩; 贾伟平

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过比较无糖尿病的人群和2型糖尿病患者的纯音听阈值、振动觉阈值(VPT),了解2型糖尿病患者周围神经病变(DPN)与耳聋的关系.方法 测定173例研究对象的VPT及纯音听阈值,2型糖尿病患者同时测定感觉神经传导速度(SCV)和运动神经传导速度(MCV),将其分为对照组35例,无糖尿病神经病变组74例,糖尿病伴神经病变组64例.比较3组的基本情况、感音神经性耳聋(SNHL)发生率、纯音听阈值和VPT值,分析听阈值和神经传导速度的关系.结果 伴神经病变的糖尿病组SNHL发生率为29.69%,明显高于无糖尿病神经病变组(17.57%)和对照组(17.14%),且3组的年龄、糖尿病病程、HbA1c、糖化血清蛋白(GA)、空腹血糖、餐后2 h血糖、VPT和听阈值之间有显著性差异(均P<0.05).不同VPT亚组的听阈值之间也存在明显差异(均P<0.05).正中神经传导速度与1.00、2.00、4.00、8.00kHz听阈值呈明显负相关,logistic回归分析显示,年龄(回归系数=0.088,P<0.01)是SNHL的独立危险因素,正中神经MCV(回归系数=-0.135,P=0.046)是影响SNHL的重要因素.结论 糖尿病患者易影响中高频听力,DPN患者常同时合并听力受损,年龄、正中神经MCV是影响SNHL的主要危险因素.%Objective In order to investigate the relationship between hearing loss and diabetic peripheral neuropathy( DPN ) via comparing the pure tone thresholds and vibration perception threshold(VPT) in type 2 diabetic patients and control person without diabetes. Methods 173 subjects including 138 type 2 diabetic patients(DM)and 35 non-diabetes controls were examined for VPT and hearing threshold. Nerve conducting velocity ( NCV )including sensory nerve conducting velocity( SCV )and motorial nerve conducting velocity( MCV )of diabetic patients were determined. The participants were divided into three groups: control group (n = 35 ), DM group without peripheral neuropathy( non-PN group, n = 74 ), and DM

  9. Acceptable noise level (ANL) with Danish and non-semantic speech materials in adult hearing-aid users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Lantz, Johannes; Nielsen, Lars Holme;

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test is used for quantification of the amount of background noise subjects accept when listening to speech. This study investigates Danish hearing-aid users' ANL performance using Danish and non-semantic speech signals, the repeatability of ANL, and the association...

  10. Ensuring Program Uniformity at the Hearing and Appeals Council Levels of the Administrative Review Process. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    We are revising our rules so that more of our procedures at the hearing and Appeals Council levels of our administrative review process are consistent nationwide. We anticipate that these nationally consistent procedures will enable us to administer our disability programs more efficiently and better serve the public.

  11. Acceptable noise level (ANL) with Danish and non-semantic speech materials in adult hearing-aid users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Lantz, Johannes; Nielsen, Lars Holme

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test is used for quantification of the amount of background noise subjects accept when listening to speech. This study investigates Danish hearing-aid users' ANL performance using Danish and non-semantic speech signals, the repeatability of ANL, and the association...

  12. The Hearing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capewell, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Glue ear, a condition resulting in intermittent hearing loss in young children, affects about 80% of young children under seven years old. About 60% of children will spend a third of their time unable to hear within normal thresholds. Teachers are unlikely to consider the sound quality in classrooms. In my research young people provided…

  13. Forecasting the probability of future groundwater levels declining below specified low thresholds in the conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert W.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Dickinson, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    We present a logistic regression approach for forecasting the probability of future groundwater levels declining or maintaining below specific groundwater-level thresholds. We tested our approach on 102 groundwater wells in different climatic regions and aquifers of the United States that are part of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Climate Response Network. We evaluated the importance of current groundwater levels, precipitation, streamflow, seasonal variability, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and atmosphere/ocean indices for developing the logistic regression equations. Several diagnostics of model fit were used to evaluate the regression equations, including testing of autocorrelation of residuals, goodness-of-fit metrics, and bootstrap validation testing. The probabilistic predictions were most successful at wells with high persistence (low month-to-month variability) in their groundwater records and at wells where the groundwater level remained below the defined low threshold for sustained periods (generally three months or longer). The model fit was weakest at wells with strong seasonal variability in levels and with shorter duration low-threshold events. We identified challenges in deriving probabilistic-forecasting models and possible approaches for addressing those challenges.

  14. Effect of Workplace Noise on Hearing Ability in Tile and Ceramic Industry Workers in Iran: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mostaghaci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. Methods. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the level of noise exposure. Hearing threshold in conventional audiometric frequencies was measured and standard threshold shift was calculated for each ear. Results. Hearing threshold was increased during 2 years of follow-up. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 4000, 6000, and 3000 Hz. Standard threshold shift was observed in 13 (2.34%, 49 (8.83%, 22 (3.96%, and 63 (11.35% subjects in the first and second years of follow-up in the right and left ears, respectively. Conclusions. This study has documented a high incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in tile and ceramic workers that would put stress on the importance of using hearing protection devices.

  15. An Auditory Model with Hearing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Bramsløw

    An auditory model based on the psychophysics of hearing has been developed and tested. The model simulates the normal ear or an impaired ear with a given hearing loss. Based on reviews of the current literature, the frequency selectivity and loudness growth as functions of threshold and stimulus...... level have been found and implemented in the model. The auditory model was verified against selected results from the literature, and it was confirmed that the normal spread of masking and loudness growth could be simulated in the model. The effects of hearing loss on these parameters was also...... in qualitative agreement with recent findings. The temporal properties of the ear have currently not been included in the model. As an example of a real-world application of the model, loudness spectrograms for a speech utterance were presented. By introducing hearing loss, the speech sounds became less audible...

  16. Low-level laser therapy for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Mizutari, Kunio; Niwa, Katsuki; Kurioka, Takaomi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Shunichi; Hiroi, Sadayuki; Satoh, Yasushi; Nibuya, Masashi; Tamura, Risa; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2015-05-19

    Noninvasive low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is neuroprotective, but the mechanism of this effect is not fully understood. In this study, the use of LLLT as a novel treatment for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intense noise and their right ears were irradiated with an 808nm diode laser at an output power density of 110 or 165mW/cm(2) for a 30min period for 5 consecutive days. Measurement of the auditory brainstem response revealed an accelerated recovery of auditory function in the groups treated with LLLT compared with the non-treatment group at days 2, 4, 7 and 14 after noise exposure. Morphological observations also revealed a significantly higher outer hair cell survival rate in the LLLT groups. Immunohistochemical analyses for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cleaved caspase-3 were used to examine oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strong immunoreactivities were observed in the inner ear tissues of the non-treatment group, whereas these signals were decreased in the LLLT group at 165mW/cm(2) power density. Our findings suggest that LLLT has cytoprotective effects against NIHL via the inhibition of iNOS expression and apoptosis.

  17. Conditioning the middle ear reflex at sensation levels below reflex threshold: air jet and electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel-Bacon, L; Fulton, R T; Laskowski, R P

    1980-01-01

    An ABAB functional analysis, conditioning and generalization, design was used in 3 experiments (2 were formal studies and 1 was empirical in nature) to investigate the conditionability of the middle ear reflex. The conditioned stimuli were subreflex threshold pure tones of various frequencies and intensities. The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) was an auricular air jet to the contralateral ear in the first experiment and cutaneous electrical stimulation to the ipsolateral, probe ear in the last 2 experiments. Reflexes were monitored by an otoadmittance meter, storage oscilloscope, and strip chart recorder. In the first experiment (air jet UCS), no subjects met the conditioning criterion within the maximum presentation of 400 paired trials, despite pilot evidence which indicated conditioning was feasible. In the second experiment (electrical stimulation UCS), 2 subjects met conditioning criterion; however, only one subject reconditioned and demonstrated partial generalization to other conditioned stimuli. In the third experiment (electrical stimulation UCS), one of 3 subjects who had previously been unconditionable with the air jet UCS met conditioning and reconditioning criterion and demonstrated partial generalization. Results indicate that the middle ear reflex can be conditioned to be elicited by subreflex threshold pure tones, however, results are limited.

  18. Maternal distancing strategies toward twin sons, one with mild hearing loss: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Silva, Alicia; Sánchez-García, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The authors apply descriptive and sequential analyses to a mother's distancing strategies toward her 3-year-old twin sons in puzzle assembly and book reading tasks. One boy had normal hearing and the other a mild hearing loss (threshold: 30 dB). The results show that the mother used more distancing behaviors with the son with a hearing loss, and thus gave greater encouragement to this son's cognitive development. These results differ from those of previous studies of deaf or hard of hearing children, whose participants generally had severe or profound hearing loss. In those studies, parents of deaf children used more low-level distancing than parents of normally hearing children. The results of the present study are discussed in terms of their implications for the parenting of twins and of children with mild hearing loss.

  19. Effect of age on inter and intra-subject variability in acceptable noise level (ANL in listeners with normal hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole K. Fasanya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Several industrial engineering and psychological studies have shown that noise affects the important aspects of communication for both adults and children. For speech understanding by hearing aids users and language development in children, an accurate hearing is very important. A metric has been developed for measuring an individual's acceptance of noise while listening to speech in quiet. This metric is known as Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs. Studies have shown large inter-subject variability in acceptance of background noise. An argument has been made that an acceptance of background noise is a “means” that will help to solve the puzzle and monumental problem of hearing aid rejection. Meanwhile, within subject age dependency has not been investigated. This study is conducted to determine if ANL inter and intra-subject variability under music signal depends on age. Twenty subjects participated in the study (average age = 29; SD = 3.7; range 23-35 years. All participants had hearing level not worse than 25dB HL at octave frequencies from 250Hz to 4000Hz. Listeners’ task was to adjust the level of music played in quiet to their most comfortable listening level and then to adjust the level of background noise to the maximum level that they still consider acceptable while listening to music. Further, music is not a speech signal that many researchers have used to determine the significance of age on ANL inter-subject variability. Results of this study supported the findings of others on age dependency, which shows that ANL inter and intra-subject variability is independent of age.

  20. Hearing status among aircraft maintenance personnel in a commercial airline company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Smedje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study subjective and objective hearing loss in a population of aircraft maintenance workers and identify predictors. A total of 327 aircraft maintenance personnel answered a self-administered work environment questionnaire (response rate 76% and underwent audiometric test. The mean values for the hearing threshold at 3, 4, and 6 kHz for the ear with the most hearing loss were compared with a Swedish population database of persons not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise exposure during a working day was measured. Relationships between subjective and objective hearing loss and possible predictors (age, years of employment, self-reported exposure to solvents, blood pressure, and psycho-social factors were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. At younger ages (<40 years, aircraft maintenance workers had higher hearing thresholds (1-3 dB compared to the reference group, but such a difference was not found in older employees. Relationships were found between age and objective hearing loss, and between exposure to solvents and reported subjective hearing loss. Equivalent noise exposure during working days were 70-91 dB(A with a maximal noise level of 119 dB(A. Aircraft maintenance workers are exposed to equivalent noise levels above the Swedish occupational standard, including some very high peak exposures. Younger employees have a higher age-matched hearing threshold level compared with a reference group. Thus, there is a need for further preventive measures.

  1. Hearing status among aircraft maintenance personnel in a commercial airline company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedje, Greta; Lunden, Maria; Gärtner, Lotta; Lundgren, Håkan; Lindgren, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study subjective and objective hearing loss in a population of aircraft maintenance workers and identify predictors. A total of 327 aircraft maintenance personnel answered a self-administered work environment questionnaire (response rate 76%) and underwent audiometric test. The mean values for the hearing threshold at 3, 4, and 6 kHz for the ear with the most hearing loss were compared with a Swedish population database of persons not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise exposure during a working day was measured. Relationships between subjective and objective hearing loss and possible predictors (age, years of employment, self-reported exposure to solvents, blood pressure, and psycho-social factors) were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. At younger ages (aircraft maintenance workers had higher hearing thresholds (1-3 dB) compared to the reference group, but such a difference was not found in older employees. Relationships were found between age and objective hearing loss, and between exposure to solvents and reported subjective hearing loss. Equivalent noise exposure during working days were 70-91 dB(A) with a maximal noise level of 119 dB(A). Aircraft maintenance workers are exposed to equivalent noise levels above the Swedish occupational standard, including some very high peak exposures. Younger employees have a higher age-matched hearing threshold level compared with a reference group. Thus, there is a need for further preventive measures.

  2. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, S., E-mail: hoess@ecossa.d [Ecossa, Giselastr. 6, 82319 Starnberg (Germany); Institute of Biodiversity - Network (IBN), Dreikronengasse 2, 93047 Regensburg (Germany); Ahlf, W., E-mail: ahlf@tu-harburg.d [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Fahnenstich, C. [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Gilberg, D., E-mail: d-gilberg@ect.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hollert, H., E-mail: henner.hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Melbye, K. [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Meller, M., E-mail: m-meller@ecotox-consult.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hammers-Wirtz, M., E-mail: hammers-wirtz@gaiac.rwth-aachen.d [Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment (gaiac), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Heininger, P., E-mail: heininger@bafg.d [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56070 Koblenz (Germany); Neumann-Hensel, H., E-mail: hensel@fintelmann-meyer.d [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ottermanns, R., E-mail: ottermanns@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Ratte, H.-T., E-mail: toni.ratte@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  3. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grezzana, Guilherme Brasil; Moraes, David William; Stein, Airton Tetelbon; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC) physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP) remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. Objective To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Methods A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. Results There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58%) for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%), specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%), and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47%) for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%), specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%), and kappa value of 0.103. Conclusion The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines. PMID:28099585

  4. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Brasil Grezzana

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. Objective: To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8, the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. Results: There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58% for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%, specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%, and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47% for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%, specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%, and kappa value of 0.103. Conclusion: The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines.

  5. Research on critical groundwater level under the threshold value of land subsidence in the typical region of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Liu, J.-R.; Luo, Y.; Yang, Y.; Tian, F.; Lei, K.-C.

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater in Beijing has been excessively exploited in a long time, causing the groundwater level continued to declining and land subsidence areas expanding, which restrained the economic and social sustainable development. Long years of study show good time-space corresponding relationship between groundwater level and land subsidence. To providing scientific basis for the following land subsidence prevention and treatment, quantitative research between groundwater level and settlement is necessary. Multi-linear regression models are set up by long series factual monitoring data about layered water table and settlement in the Tianzhu monitoring station. The results show that: layered settlement is closely related to water table, water level variation and amplitude, especially the water table. Finally, according to the threshold value in the land subsidence prevention and control plan of China (45, 30, 25 mm), the minimum allowable layered water level in this region while settlement achieving the threshold value is calculated between -18.448 and -10.082 m. The results provide a reasonable and operable control target of groundwater level for rational adjustment of groundwater exploited horizon in the future.

  6. Research on critical groundwater level under the threshold value of land subsidence in the typical region of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater in Beijing has been excessively exploited in a long time, causing the groundwater level continued to declining and land subsidence areas expanding, which restrained the economic and social sustainable development. Long years of study show good time-space corresponding relationship between groundwater level and land subsidence. To providing scientific basis for the following land subsidence prevention and treatment, quantitative research between groundwater level and settlement is necessary. Multi-linear regression models are set up by long series factual monitoring data about layered water table and settlement in the Tianzhu monitoring station. The results show that: layered settlement is closely related to water table, water level variation and amplitude, especially the water table. Finally, according to the threshold value in the land subsidence prevention and control plan of China (45, 30, 25 mm, the minimum allowable layered water level in this region while settlement achieving the threshold value is calculated between −18.448 and −10.082 m. The results provide a reasonable and operable control target of groundwater level for rational adjustment of groundwater exploited horizon in the future.

  7. Hearing loss in civilian airline and helicopter pilots compared to air traffic control personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Anthony S; Arva, Per

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate possible hearing loss as a consequence of aviation noise, a comparative analysis of audiometric data from Norwegian Air Traffic Control (ATC) personnel, airline (fixed-wing) pilots, and helicopter pilots was performed. The results may be of use in giving advice regarding preventive measures. Male ATC, airline, and helicopter pilots were selected randomly from the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) medical files. There were 182 subjects included in the study: 50, 81, and 51 subjects for ATC, helicopter, and airline pilots, respectively. Two audiograms with a 2-3-yr interval were analyzed for each individual. Age correction was performed using data from ISO 7129. Threshold changes per year for the frequencies 3, 4, and 6 kHz were examined in particular after age correction. For all three groups, mean hearing threshold levels were above (worse than) ISO 7129 predictions for most frequencies. As expected, hearing thresholds increased with age in the group as a whole. Looking at the 3-, 4-, and 6-kHz frequencies in particular, all groups had small but highly significant increases in hearing thresholds at 4 kHz between the first and second audiogram. The mean hearing thresholds for this group of aviation personnel are higher than International Standard ISO-7129 would predict according to age. Highly significant changes in hearing threshold after age correction, indicating possible noise-induced hearing loss, were found in all groups at 4 kHz. The fact that helicopter pilots had similar hearing loss to their other aviation colleagues indicates that current hearing protection for these pilots is effective in counteracting the increased noise levels in helicopters.

  8. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too ... conversations when two or more people are talking Difficulty ...

  9. Does Acquired Hypothyroidism Affect the Hearing Functions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Arduç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It is well known that congenital hypothyroidism can cause hearing loss. However, conflicting results were found in studies investigating hearing functions in acquired hypothyroidism. Therefore, we evaluated the audiometric findings in patients with acquired hypothyroidism. Material and Method: The study included 58 patients with hypothyroidism and age- and gender-matched 34 healthy controls. Twenty eight (48.27% patients had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 30 (51.73% had obvious hypothyroidism. All subjects had a normal otoscopic examination and tympanometry. Pure tone audiometry at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hertz (Hz was performed in both groups. Blood pressure measurements and the levels of plasma electrolytes, lipids and vitamin B12 were available in all subjects. Results: Hypothyroidism group and control group were similar with respect to systolic and diastolic blood pressures and plasma glucose, lipid, vitamin B12, calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride levels. Significantly higher audiometric thresholds (dB at 250 (10 (0-45 vs. 5 (0-15, p<0.001 and 500 Hz (10 (0-40 vs. 10 (-5-15, p=0.003 were recorded in hypothyroid patients compared to that in healthy controls. Hearing thresholds at 250 and 500 Hz correlated positively with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, and negatively with free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine. Subclinical hypothyroid patients had a higher hearing threshold at 250 Hz than healthy controls (p=0.001. Discussion: Our study demonstrated that hearing ability decreases in hypothyroidism, even in subclinical hypothyroidism. The changes in TSH and thyroid hormone levels seem to be directly related to the hearing loss in this population of patients.

  10. Factors associated with the occurrence of hearing loss after pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Brandt, C.T.;

    2010-01-01

    -tone hearing threshold levels were compared with normative data. Results. Of 240 patients examined by use of audiometry, 129 (54%) had a hearing deficit, and 50 (39%) of these 129 patients were not suspected of hearing loss at discharge from hospital. Of the 240 patients, 16 (7%) had profound unilateral...... is common after pneumococcal meningitis, and audiometry should be performed on all those who survive pneumococcal meningitis. Important risk factors for hearing loss are advanced age, female sex, severity of meningitis, and bacterial serotype...

  11. The Relationship Between Selected Non-Auditory Measures and the Hearing Threshold Levels of an Aviation Noise-Exposed Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-19

    and Kendall, F., J. Biol. Chem., 195:357-366, 1952). 7. Serum Triglycerides: Triglycerides calculated in mg percent from lipo- protein fractions 0...Study, subjects categorized as ..- oD I 3 1473 EDITION OF I NOV SS IS OBSOLETE S/N 0102-014-6601 UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Mo~en

  12. Occupational hearing loss of market mill workers in the city of Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel D Kitcher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL is an irreversible sensorineural hearing loss associated with exposure to high levels of excessive noise. Prevention measures are not well established in developing countries. This comparative cross sectional study aims to determine the prevalence of hearing loss in both a group of high risk workers and a control group and to assess their knowledge of the effects of noise on hearing health. A total of 101 market mill workers and 103 controls employed within markets in the city of Accra, Ghana, were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and pure tone audiometry. The questionnaire assessed factors including self-reported hearing loss, tinnitus, knowledge on the effects of noise on hearing health and the use of hearing protective devices. Pure tone audiometric testing was conducted for both mill workers and controls. Noise levels at the work premises of the mill workers and controls were measured. Symptoms of hearing loss were reported by 24 (23.76% and 8 (7.7% mill workers and controls respectively. Fifty-five (54.5% and fifty-four (52.37% mill workers and controls exhibited knowledge of the effects of noise on hearing health. Five (5.0% mill workers used hearing protective devices. There was significant sensorineural hearing loss and the presence of a 4 kHz audiometric notch among mill workers when compared with controls for the mean thresholds of 2 kHz, 3 kHz and 4 kHz (P = 0. 001. The prevalence of hearing loss in the better hearing ears of the mill workers and controls was 24.8% and 4.8% respectively (P < 0.5. The prevalence of hearing loss, which may be characteristic of NIHL in the better hearing ears of the mill workers and controls was 24.8% and 4.8% respectively. The majority of mill workers did not use hearing protection.

  13. Sound levels, hearing habits and hazards of using portable cassete players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, P.-A.; Axelsson, A.

    1988-12-01

    The maximum output sound pressure level ( SPL) from different types of portable cassette players (PCP's) and different headphones was analyzed by using KEMAR in one-third octave bands. The equivalent free-field dB(A) level (EqA-FFSL) was computed from the one-third octave bands corrected by the free-field to the eardrum transfer function. The dB(A) level varied between 104 dB from a low-cost PCP with supra-aural headphones (earphones with headbands and foam pads fitting against the pinna) to 126 dB from a high quality PCP with semi-aural headphones (small earphones without headbands to be used in the concha of the external ear). The cassette tapes used in this study were recorded with music, white noise, narrowband noise and pure tones. The equivalent and maximum SPL was measured in the ear canal (1 mm from eardrum) with the use of mini-microphones in 15 young subjects listening to pop music from PCP's at the highest level they considered comfortable. These SPL measurements corresponded to 112 dB(A) in free field. In a temporary threshold shift ( TTS) study, ten teenagers—four girls and six boys—listened to pop music for 1 h with PCP's at a level they enjoyed. The mean TTS value was 5-10 dB for frequencies between 1 and 8 kHz. In one subject the maximum TTS was 35 dB at 5-6 dB kHz. In order to acquire information about listening habits among youngsters using PCP's, 154 seventh and eighth graders (age 14-15) were interviewed. They used PCP's much less than expected during most of the year, but an increase was reported during the summer holidays.

  14. Aided and unaided speech perception by older hearing impaired listeners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    Full Text Available The most common complaint of older hearing impaired (OHI listeners is difficulty understanding speech in the presence of noise. However, tests of consonant-identification and sentence reception threshold (SeRT provide different perspectives on the magnitude of impairment. Here we quantified speech perception difficulties in 24 OHI listeners in unaided and aided conditions by analyzing (1 consonant-identification thresholds and consonant confusions for 20 onset and 20 coda consonants in consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC syllables presented at consonant-specific signal-to-noise (SNR levels, and (2 SeRTs obtained with the Quick Speech in Noise Test (QSIN and the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT. Compared to older normal hearing (ONH listeners, nearly all unaided OHI listeners showed abnormal consonant-identification thresholds, abnormal consonant confusions, and reduced psychometric function slopes. Average elevations in consonant-identification thresholds exceeded 35 dB, correlated strongly with impairments in mid-frequency hearing, and were greater for hard-to-identify consonants. Advanced digital hearing aids (HAs improved average consonant-identification thresholds by more than 17 dB, with significant HA benefit seen in 83% of OHI listeners. HAs partially normalized consonant-identification thresholds, reduced abnormal consonant confusions, and increased the slope of psychometric functions. Unaided OHI listeners showed much smaller elevations in SeRTs (mean 6.9 dB than in consonant-identification thresholds and SeRTs in unaided listening conditions correlated strongly (r = 0.91 with identification thresholds of easily identified consonants. HAs produced minimal SeRT benefit (2.0 dB, with only 38% of OHI listeners showing significant improvement. HA benefit on SeRTs was accurately predicted (r = 0.86 by HA benefit on easily identified consonants. Consonant-identification tests can accurately predict sentence processing deficits and HA benefit in OHI

  15. The effect of cockpit noise on the temporary threshold shift of Cessna 172SP flight instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Andrew Robert

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the temporary threshold shift of general aviation flight instructors resulting from their working environment. Exposure to noise before a temporary threshold shift completely recovers can cause a permanent threshold shift with no possibility of recovery, resulting in permanent hearing loss. A result showing minimal to no temporary threshold shift would indicate that hearing personal protective equipment is working properly. This study used sound-level measurements, and audiometric testing, together with survey data to determine whether or not flight instructors were at risk for potential hearing impairment due to temporary threshold shift. Independent t-tests and descriptive statistics were used in analyzing the data. It was determined that there was a difference in temporary threshold shift based on the number of hours a flight instructor flies in a Cessna 172SP for only one frequency - 2000Hz in the left ear. All other frequencies tested in both ears showed no difference. Because there was a very low mean temporary threshold shift at 2000Hz in the left ear and no differences shown for all other frequencies in both ears, it was concluded that there was no need to improve or require additional hearing personal protective equipment, or to require decreased exposure times to aircraft noise.

  16. Hearing damage risk to divers operating noisy tools under water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molvaer, O I; Gjestland, T

    1981-12-01

    During the measurement of noise generated inside a standard hard hat and the underwater noise level produced by a pneumatic rock drill and two different high-pressure water jet lances commonly used in underwater work, noise levels were recorded of up to 170.5 dB(A), in relation to a pressure of 1 muPa, in the water close to the diver's heads. Fortunately, the noise is attenuated by the hoods/helmets worn by the divers and the raised hearing threshold in water and compressed gas. The recorded temporary threshold shifts indicate, however, that lengthy exposure might be hazardous to divers' hearing. This possibility is confirmed by a comparison of the noise levels observed in the present study with hearing damage risk criteria.

  17. Dose-response relationships and threshold levels in skin and respiratory allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mommers, C.; Heer, C.de

    2006-01-01

    A literature study was performed to evaluate dose-response relationships and no-effect levels for sensitization and elicitation in skin- and respiratory allergy. With respect to the skin, dose-response relationships and no-effect levels were found for both intradermal and topical induction, as well

  18. In-air and underwater hearing in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sasia; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    The in-air and underwater hearing abilities of the great cormorant was measured using psychophysical and physiological techniques. The threshold of hearing was established at 3 frequencies in air and 4 frequencies underwater using a go-no go staircase psychophysical paradigm in an outdoor pen....... For the in-water trials the bird was trained to put its head beneath the water surface and respond to any audible sound stimuli by emerging and pressing the beak on a response paddle. The ambient noise levels both in the aerial and underwater experiments indicate that the threshold of hearing was not masked...... vibrometry of the tympanum of a newly dead cormorant underwater indicated that the highest sensitivity underwater would have been expected at 1 kHz, i.e. below the frequency of best hearing as given in the psychophysical trials. This study suggests that cormorants have rather poor in-air hearing abilities...

  19. Mudança significativa do limiar auditivo em trabalhadores expostos a diferentes níveis de ruído Significant auditory threshold shift among workers exposed to different noise levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Cardoso Oliva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a audição e a ocorrência de mudança significativa do limiar auditivo em trabalhadores de frigoríficos expostos a níveis de ruído abaixo das Normas e Regulamentações nacionais e internacionais e compará-los com trabalhadores expostos a níveis de ruído considerados excessivos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se um banco de dados contendo informações longitudinais de 266 trabalhadores. Foram selecionados trabalhadores com um mínimo de três exames audiométricos e os que continham dados de exposição ao ruído. Foram mantidos 63 exames, classificados de acordo com sua exposição ao ruído em três níveis: 79 a 84,9 dB(A, 85 a 89,9 dB(A e 90 a 98,8 dB(A. Foi avaliada a ocorrência de perdas auditivas e de mudança significativa de limiar auditivo dos participantes de cada subgrupo. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se diferenças em todas as frequências nos testes de comparação entre a média dos limiares auditivos para cada frequência em função do nível de exposição ao ruído. A correlação entre a ocorrência de Perda Auditiva Induzida por Níveis de Pressão Sonora Elevados (PAINPSE e os anos de exposição ao ruído dentro da empresa atual foi significativa (R=0,373; p=0,079. Foram encontradas mudanças permanentes de limiar auditivo nos três níveis de exposição ao ruído. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados do presente estudo sugerem a existência de uma associação entre mudança significativa do limiar auditivo dos trabalhadores e os anos de exposição ao ruído considerado de baixo risco.PURPOSE: To assess the hearing status and signs of significant auditory threshold shifts in meat-processing facility workers who are exposed to noise levels below nationally and internationally recommended exposure limits, and to compare these results with data from workers exposed to excessive noise levels. METHODS: Longitudinal audiometric data from 266 workers were evaluated, and only workers with a minimum of three audiometric test results

  20. Hearing Preservation in Acoustic Neuroma Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dongyi; YU Limei; YANG Shiming; YU Liming

    2006-01-01

    Objective To report the authors' experiences in hearing preservation during acoustic neuroma (AN)resection procedures. Methods Two cases of AN removal via retrosigmoid approach were reviewed. Hearing preservation was attempted in the aid of endoscopic technique along with continuous monitoring of the compound action potential (CAP) and auditory brainstem response(ABR) during the surgery. Results The tumor in Case 1 was 1.5 cm in diameter. The average pure-tone hearing threshold was 30 dB HL and ABR was normal. Waves Ⅰ, Ⅲ and V of ABR were present following tumor removal. At 7th month follow-up, audiometric thresholds and ABR inter-peak intervals had recovered to pre-operative levels, with normal facial nerve function. The patient in Case 2 had bilateral AN. The tumors measured 4.0 cm (left) and 5.0 cm (right) on MRI scans. The AN on the right side was removed first, followed by removal of the left AN four months later. Intraoperative CAP monitoring was employed during removal of the left AN. While efforts to preserve the cochlear nerve were not successful, CAPs were still present after tumor removal. Conclusions Intraoperatively recorded CAPs are not reliable in predicting postoperative hearing outcomes. In contrast, ABRs are an indicator of function of the peripheral auditory pathway. Presence of waves Ⅰ, Ⅲ and V following tumor removal may represent preservation of useful hearing.

  1. Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Iran: (1997-2012: Systematic Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Soltanzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss, which is one of the 10 leading occupational diseases, is a debilitating and irreversible disease. During the recent 15-years period (1997-2012, several studies have investigated the association between noise, hearing damage and other side effects of noise in Iran. The aim of this study was to review systematically the relevant literature related to noise-induced hearing loss, lead to developing noise exposure limits. In this systematic review, two researchers independently extracted the data from 31 past studies that had considered noise-induced hearing loss (including hearing loss, temporary and permanent hearing threshold shift and auditory trauma. The data were then recorded in a modified form and Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 16.0. In analyzed studies the weighted average equivalent sound pressure level [L Aeq ] was 90.29 dB(A and average hearing loss was 26.44 dB(A. The Highest degree of hearing loss in the right ear was associated at 4000 Hz, and the highest degree of hearing loss in the left ear was associated to 1000 and 4000 Hz. The majority of the reviewed studies have confirmed that exposure to a noise level above 85 dB (A can lead to an increased chance of hearing loss. Furthermore, the results of the present review indicated that as L Aeq increased up to 85 dB(A, so did the severity of the hearing loss.

  2. Beyond the Sentence Level: What's in a Hearing-Impaired Child's Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    1986-01-01

    A model for studying written language is described and illustrated in a written language sample of a 12-year-old with profound hearing impairment. Approaches are noted for analyzing semantic components, coherence, and causality. Implications for remediation are offered. (CL)

  3. Evaluation of hearing functions in patients with euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduc, Ayse; Isık, Serhat; Allusoglu, Serpil; Iriz, Ayse; Dogan, Bercem Aycicek; Gocer, Celil; Tuna, Mazhar Muslim; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2015-12-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss has been reported in various autoimmune diseases. The relationship between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and the auditory system has not been previously evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effect of euthyroid HT on the hearing ability of adult patients. The study included 30 patients with newly diagnosed euthyroid HT and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. All subjects had a normal otoscopic examination and tympanometry, and they were negative for rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, anti-smooth muscle, antimitochondrial, antineutrophilcytoplasmic, and antigliadin antibodies. Pure tone audiometry exams at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hertz (Hz) were performed in both groups. Thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg) levels were higher in HT group while TSH, free T4, free T3, plasma electrolytes, glucose, lipid profile, vitamin B12, and blood pressure measurements were similar between the two groups. Higher audiometric thresholds and a higher prevalence of hearing loss at 250, 500, and 6000 Hz were detected in the HT patients than in the healthy controls (P < 0.05). Hearing levels at 250 and 500 Hz correlated positively with anti-Tg levels (ρ = 0.650, P = 0.002; ρ = 0.719, P < 0.001, respectively), and this association remained significant in linear regression analysis. Anti-Tg-positive HT patients had higher hearing thresholds at 250 and 500 Hz than anti-Tg-negative HT patients. Hearing thresholds were similar between anti-Tg-negative HT patients and the control subjects. This study demonstrated that hearing functions are impaired in HT patients. Thyroid autoimmunity seems to have an important impact on a decreased hearing ability, particularly at lower frequencies, in this population of patients.

  4. [Study on hearing impairment at high frequency among the flight cadets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglei; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Guo, Rui; Li, Dapeng; Li, Jia; Li, Li

    2014-07-01

    To study the incidence of hearing loss at high frequency and the related influence factors among the flight cadets. Using multi-stage sampling method, 312 flight cadets were randomly selected from grade 2011,2012,2013. The level of binaural hearing threshold at 4 kHz, 6 kHz, 8 kHz were measured by hearing-assistant evaluative apparatus. Whether or not have hearing loss was chosen as dependent variable. Territory, smoking, dietary habit, previous history of tinnitus, the noise exposure time, the vestibular function and the psychological quality were chosen as independent vailables. T test, ANOVA and accumulative logistic regression were performed to analyze the factors influence on hearing impairment by software SPSS 18.0. The morbidity of hearing impairment among flight cadets was 18.9%. Results from single factor analysis showed that the levels of hearing thresholds at 4 kHz, 6 kHz frequency had statistically significant differences between smoking group and non-smoking group (P frequency had statistically significant differences between spicy diet group and not spicy diet group (P frequency had statistically significant differences among different strong noise exposure groups (P frequency hearing loss increased when noise exposing increased. The levels of hearing thresholds at 4 kHz, 6 kHz frequency had statistically significant difference among different vestibular function groups (P frequency, and excellent vestibular function seemed to be a preventive factor. Smoking and strong noise exposure were also risk factors causing hearing impairment at 6 kHz frequency. Hearing impairment appears higher morbidity among flight cadets, and it has statistical correlation with smoking, strong noise exposure and vestibular function.

  5. Measuring Levels of Stress and Depression in Mothers of Children Using Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Santhi S; Prakash, S. G. R.; Ravichandran, Aparna; Susan, K. Y.; Alex, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    Hearing impairment is an exceptional circumstance that restricts the child's ability to communicate verbally. Depression is a common stress-related response for hearing parents of children with hearing loss. Evidence suggests that mothers are more inclined than fathers to experience depression in response to their child's hearing loss (Mavrolas,…

  6. Hearing in school-aged children with trisomy 21 - results of a longitudinal cohort study in children identified at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaneza, M M C; Hunter, K; Irwin, S; Kubba, H

    2016-12-01

    To report the prevalence of hearing problems and the hearing sequelae in school-aged children with trisomy 21 in a longitudinal study. All children with trisomy 21 were identified via schools, community-based child development centres, general practitioners, or the universal newborn hearing screen. Audiological data and otorhinolaryngological problems were prospectively entered in to the Audiological Surveillance Programme database from each visit. Retrospective review of the Audiological Surveillance Programme database in the Glasgow area (United Kingdom) of all children reviewed between 2004 and 2012. All pre-teenaged children with trisomy 21 of school age (aged 5-12 years old). Hearing thresholds, aetiology of hearing loss and management of hearing loss was determined for the cohort of children. A total of 102 children were included. Fifty-four had normal hearing. Twenty-six had fluctuating otitis media with effusion; five had hearing in normal limits, six were managed with hearing aids, fourteen were managed conservatively, and one had ventilation tube insertion. Fifteen had persistent otitis media with effusion; four had ventilation tube insertion; and nine were managed with hearing aids. Seven had mixed hearing loss with four required hearing aids. Otitis media with effusion was the commonest cause of hearing impairment; effusions may fluctuate through the pre-teenaged years, and thus, hearing aids are beneficial. Ventilation tube insertion and bone-conducting hearing aids were useful when ear-level hearing aids were not tolerated. Mixed hearing loss occurred in later years as sensorineural hearing loss developed on a background of otitis media with effusion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Appropriate threshold levels of cardiac beat-to-beat variation in semi-automatic analysis of equine ECG recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Flethøj; Kanters, Jørgen K.; Pedersen, Philip Juul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although premature beats are a matter of concern in horses, the interpretation of equine ECG recordings is complicated by a lack of standardized analysis criteria and a limited knowledge of the normal beat-to-beat variation of equine cardiac rhythm. The purpose of this study was to de......Background: Although premature beats are a matter of concern in horses, the interpretation of equine ECG recordings is complicated by a lack of standardized analysis criteria and a limited knowledge of the normal beat-to-beat variation of equine cardiac rhythm. The purpose of this study...... was to determine the appropriate threshold levels of maximum acceptable deviation of RR intervals in equine ECG analysis, and to evaluate a novel two-step timing algorithm by quantifying the frequency of arrhythmias in a cohort of healthy adult endurance horses. Results: Beat-to-beat variation differed......, range 1–24). Conclusions: Beat-to-beat variation of equine cardiac rhythm varies according to HR, and threshold levels in equine ECG analysis should be adjusted accordingly. Standardization of the analysis criteria will enable comparisons of studies and follow-up examinations of patients. A small number...

  8. Short-term music-induced hearing loss after sound exposure to discotheque music : The effectiveness of a break in reducing temporary threshold shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helleman, Hiske W.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a break in music exposure on temporary threshold shifts. Design: A cross-over design where subjects are exposed to dance music for either two hours consecutively, or exposed to two hours of dance music with a one-hour break in between. Outcome measure was the

  9. Short-term music-induced hearing loss after sound exposure to discotheque music : The effectiveness of a break in reducing temporary threshold shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helleman, Hiske W.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a break in music exposure on temporary threshold shifts. Design: A cross-over design where subjects are exposed to dance music for either two hours consecutively, or exposed to two hours of dance music with a one-hour break in between. Outcome measure was the

  10. Knickpoint Generation and Persistence Following Base-Level Fall: An Examination of Erosional Thresholds in Sediment Flux Dependent Erosion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, B. T.; Whipple, K. X.; Gasparini, N. M.; Wobus, C. W.

    2005-12-01

    Non-lithologic knickpoints, or discrete convexities in longitudinal river profiles, are commonly considered to be the mobile, upstream extent of a transient incisional signal. Downstream of the knickpoint, the landscape is responding to a recent change in base level, uplift rate or climatic condition, while upstream of the knickpoint, the landscape retains its relict form, relatively ignorant the transient signal. Though this model of knickpoint mobility and their capacity to communicate incisional signals throughout basins works well with standard formulations of the stream power erosion model, the recent development of sediment flux dependent erosion models contain explicit thresholds that limit the upstream extent of knickpoint-mediated fluvial adjustment. Sediment flux dependent erosion models fail to communicate incisional signals at small drainage areas as sediment and water discharges are insufficient to effectively erode the bed. As well, if knickpoint slopes increase beyond a threshold value, sediment impacts against the bed become too infrequent and too oblique to continue knickpoint propagation by fluvial mechanisms. This threshold in fluvial erosion could lead to the stagnation of incisional signals and the generation of hanging valleys. This theoretical expectation aligns with our observation that in numerous actively incising landscapes around the world, relict low drainage area basins are often found elevated high above and disconnected from the mainstem by extremely over-steepened channel reaches often composed of one or more near-vertical steps. In order to better understand how river networks respond during transient pulses of incision, we employ a numerical landscape evolution model (CHILD) to test the sensitivity of three different sediment flux dependent erosion models to different base-level fall scenarios. This technique allows us to observe the propagation of the signal throughout a fluvial network composed of tributaries of variable

  11. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for acoustic test signals of short duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Daugaard, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    . The measurements were performed with two types of headphones, Telephonics TDH-39 and Sennheiser HDA-200. The sound pressure levels were measured in an IEC 318 ear simulator with Type 1 adapter (a flat plate) and a conical ring. The audiometric methods used in the experiments were the ascending method (ISO 8253...

  12. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for acoustic test signals of short duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Daugaard, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    . The measurements were performed with two types of headphones, Telephonics TDH-39 and Sennheiser HDA-200. The sound pressure levels were measured in an IEC 318 ear simulator with Type 1 adapter (a flat plate) and a conical ring. The audiometric methods used in the experiments were the ascending method (ISO 8253...

  13. The dose-response relationship between in-ear occupational noise exposure and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Clougherty, Jane E; Neitzel, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    Current understanding of the dose-response relationship between occupational noise and hearing loss is based on cross-sectional studies prior to the widespread use of hearing protection, and with limited data regarding noise exposures below 85 dBA. We report on the hearing loss experience of a unique cohort of industrial workers, with daily monitoring of noise inside of hearing protection devices. At an industrial facility, workers exhibiting accelerated hearing loss were enrolled in a mandatory programme to monitor daily noise exposures inside of hearing protection. We compared these noise measurements (as time-weighted LAVG) to interval rates of high-frequency hearing loss over a 6-year period using a mixed-effects model, adjusting for potential confounders. Workers' high-frequency hearing levels at study inception averaged more than 40 dB Hearing threshold level (HTL). Most noise exposures were less than 85 dBA (mean LAVG 76 dBA, IQR 74-80 dBA). We found no statistical relationship between LAvg and high-frequency hearing loss (p=0.53). Using a metric for monthly maximum noise exposure did not improve model fit. At-ear noise exposures below 85 dBA did not show an association with risk of high-frequency hearing loss among workers with substantial past noise exposure and hearing loss at baseline. Therefore, effective noise control to below 85 dBA may lead to significant reduction in occupational hearing loss risk in such individuals. Further research is needed on the dose-response relationship of noise and hearing loss in individuals with normal hearing and little prior noise exposure.

  14. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF IMAGE DENOISING WITH WAVELET THRESHOLDING METHODS FOR DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anutam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Image Denoising is an important part of diverse image processing and computer vision problems. The important property of a good image denoising model is that it should completely remove noise as far as possible as well as preserve edges. One of the most powerful and perspective approaches in this area is image denoising using discrete wavelet transform (DWT. In this paper, comparison of various Wavelets at different decomposition levels has been done. As number of levels increased, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR of image gets decreased whereas Mean Absolute Error (MAE and Mean Square Error (MSE get increased . A comparison of filters and various wavelet based methods has also been carried out to denoise the image. The simulation results reveal that wavelet based Bayes shrinkage method outperforms other methods.

  15. Preferred real-ear insertion gain on a commercial hearing aid at different speech and noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, F K; Harper, T; Doubek, K

    1994-03-01

    In the present study, we measured preferred real-ear insertion gain (REIG) under different levels of speech and noise to assess whether current automatic gain control (AGC) and automatic signal processing (ASP) hearing aids are operating optimally. Preferred REIG for optimal speech clarity was determined under seven speech and noise conditions. In four conditions, speech (discourse passages) was varied from 55 dB SPL to 85 dB SPL in 10-dB steps at a fixed signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of +5. In the remaining conditions, speech was fixed at 65 dB SPL while the noise level was varied in 5-dB steps to yield S/Ns from +10 to -5. The results showed that subjects selected less gain as speech or noise levels were increased. In general, less overall gain was selected as speech level was increased, and less overall gain, especially in the low-frequency region, was selected as the S/N ratio became progressively poorer. These results are discussed in relation to how hearing aids with adaptive frequency/gain responses should respond to varying input levels to achieve optimal clarity of speech.

  16. High Fibrinogen in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Sho; Sakagami, Masafumi; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Shingo; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We used hearing tests and peripheral blood sample analyses to characterize the pathology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and to identify possible prognostic factors for predicting recovery of hearing loss. Study Design A retrospective, multicenter trial was conducted. Methods Two hundred three patients examined within 7 days after the onset of ISSNHL received prednisone with lipo-prostaglandin E1. Pure-tone auditory tests were performed before and after treatment with these drugs. Blood tests were performed on blood samples collected during the patients’ initial visit to our clinic. Results In all patients, elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts, fasting blood sugar levels, HgbA1c, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) significantly correlated with high hearing threshold measurements obtained on the initial visit. High fibrinogen levels, WBC counts, ESR, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were associated with lower hearing recovery rates. Additionally, different audiogram shapes correlated with different blood test factors, indicating that different pathologies were involved. Conclusions High fibrinogen levels measured within seven days after ISSNHL onset correlated with poorer hearing recovery. This may be a consequence of ischemia or infections in the inner ear. The high WBC counts also observed may therefore reflect an immune response to inner ear damage induced by ischemic changes or infections. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies should be selected based on the timing of initial treatment relative to ISSNHL onset. PMID:25166620

  17. High fibrinogen in peripheral blood correlates with poorer hearing recovery in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanzaki

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We used hearing tests and peripheral blood sample analyses to characterize the pathology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL and to identify possible prognostic factors for predicting recovery of hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, multicenter trial was conducted. METHODS: Two hundred three patients examined within 7 days after the onset of ISSNHL received prednisone with lipo-prostaglandin E1. Pure-tone auditory tests were performed before and after treatment with these drugs. Blood tests were performed on blood samples collected during the patients' initial visit to our clinic. RESULTS: In all patients, elevated white blood cell (WBC counts, fasting blood sugar levels, HgbA1c, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR significantly correlated with high hearing threshold measurements obtained on the initial visit. High fibrinogen levels, WBC counts, ESR, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP were associated with lower hearing recovery rates. Additionally, different audiogram shapes correlated with different blood test factors, indicating that different pathologies were involved. CONCLUSIONS: High fibrinogen levels measured within seven days after ISSNHL onset correlated with poorer hearing recovery. This may be a consequence of ischemia or infections in the inner ear. The high WBC counts also observed may therefore reflect an immune response to inner ear damage induced by ischemic changes or infections. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies should be selected based on the timing of initial treatment relative to ISSNHL onset.

  18. Auditory intensity discrimination as a function of level-rove and tone duration in normal-hearing and impaired subjects: the "mid-level hump" revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienkowski, Martin; Hagerman, Bjorn

    2009-07-01

    The just-noticeable difference (DeltaI) in the intensity (I) of sound is typically reported to be a constant or a slightly decreasing ratio of the baseline intensity (known as Weber's law, and the "near-miss to Weber's law", respectively). However, in the relatively few studies on the intensity discrimination of very brief sounds, DeltaI/I is usually found to be non-monotonic, with poorest discrimination in the middle of the auditory dynamic range. Here, it is demonstrated that this "severe departure from Weber's law" or "mid-level hump" is not merely a phenomenon of short-duration sounds. In normal-hearing subjects (n=8), the near-miss to Weber's law that is observed with the discrimination of 300 ms-long, 4 kHz tones, gives way to a significant mid-level hump if tone intensities are not fixed over a great many trials (as is standard practice) but are instead randomly roved, trial-to-trial, over a wide intensity range. This was not the case in subjects with mild to moderate hearing impairment (n=4). Furthermore, in the discrimination of widely-roved, 4 ms-long, 4 kHz tone bursts, the performance of normal-hearing subjects did not significantly worsen at mid-levels compared to the unroved condition, unlike what was found with the 300 ms-long tones. It is suggested that mid-level humps could simply be the product of the well-known mid-level compressive nonlinearity in cochlear mechanics. We further suggest that the hump is eliminated, and the near-miss to Weber's law is produced, by a more central mechanism such as the recently reported "adaptation to sound-level statistics", which is bypassed during wide-range roving and possibly when sound durations are brief.

  19. Low and high frequency tonal threshold audiometry: comparing hearing thresholds between smokers and non-smokers Da audiometria tonal limiar em baixa e alta frequência: comparação dos limiares auditivos entre tabagistas e não-tabagistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cecílio Capra Marques de Oliveira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking can cause many potentially fatal diseases and worsen others. Numerous studies have shown the relationship between smoking and hearing loss. However, the increase in auditory threshold in high frequency arising from smoking has been very little described. AIM: to compare low and high frequency auditory thresholds among a group of smoking and non-smoking male individuals between 18 and 40 years. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MATERIALS AND METHODS: by means of low and high frequency tonal threshold audiometry we studied 30 male individuals between 18 and 40 years and 30 non-smokers of matching age and gender. RESULTS: auditory thresholds were different between smokers and non-smokers, being worse in the former. Although within normal ranges, auditory thresholds in low frequencies were higher among smokers. In high frequencies we noticed a marked increase in auditory thresholds among smokers. CONCLUSION: we found statistically significant difference in auditory thresholds in low and high frequencies, among young male individuals, smokers and non-smokers, being worse in the former.O uso do cigarro pode levar a diversas doenças potencialmente fatais e contribuir para o agravo de outras condições patológicas. Inúmeros estudos mostram a relação entre tabagismo e perda auditiva, entretanto, o aumento dos limiares auditivos em alta frequência decorrente do tabagismo é pouco descrito. OBJETIVO: Comparar os limiares auditivos em baixas e altas frequências, entre um grupo de indivíduos não-tabagistas e tabagistas, do sexo masculino com idades entre 18 e 40 anos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Tipo transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados, através de audiometria tonal limiar em baixas e altas frequências, 30 indivíduos tabagistas do sexo masculino com idades entre 18 e 40 anos e 30 indivíduos não-tabagistas do mesmo sexo e da mesma faixa etária. RESULTADOS: Os limiares auditivos foram diferentes entre os indivíduos do grupo n

  20. A Comparison of Aided Hearing Thresholds by Behavioral Audiometry and Auditory Steady-state Response in Sound Field%声场中记录的听性稳态助听反应阈与行为测试助听听阈的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建华; 蓝小兵; 林琳; 李光智

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the aided hearing thresholds by using multiple-frequency auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to Chirp stimuli in sound field, to observe its correlation with behavioral aided hearing thresholds and to explore the clinical significance of ASSR to Chirp stimuli in evaluation of hearing aid outcome. Methods Twenty-two severely hearing-impaired children (39 ears)with hearing aids received the examination with Eclipse EP25 ASSR device and GSS-61 audiometer to obtain their aided hearing thresholds. Sixteen normal-hearing children (32 ears) received the examination to obtain their behavioral thresholds and ASSR thresholds. Results For the hearing-impaired group, the coefficients of ASSR and behavioral aided hearing thresholds were 0.65,0.68,0.77 and 0.82 at 0.5,1,2 and 4 kHz, respectively(P<0.01), which indicated there were correlations between the two test results. The paired t-test showed that there were significant differences between behavioral thresholds and ASSR thresholds of normal group at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz(P<0.01). The ASSR thresholds were 20-30 dB HL higher than behavioral thresholds, Conclusion The ASSR to Chirp stimuli can be used to evaluate the hearing aid outcomes in clinical practice.%目的 应用多频听觉稳态反应(ASSR)Chirp刺激信号在声场中测试助听反应阈,观察其阈值与行为测试助听听阈的相关性,探讨多频听觉稳态反应Chirp刺激信号声场测试评估助听器补偿效果的临床意义.方法 选取22例(39耳)重度感音神经性听力损失、已配戴助听器的患儿(听障组)和16例(32耳)听力正常儿童(对照组)为研究对象.应用国际听力Eclipse EP25型多频稳态诱发电位仪及美国GSI-61型听力计,分别对听障组在声场中使用两种仪器测试助听听阈;对对照组进行裸耳行为听阈与声场中听觉稳态反应阈测试.结果 在0.5、1、2、4 kHz处,听障组ASSR助听反应阈与行为助听听阈的相关系数分别为0.65、0.68

  1. Modeling speech intelligibility in quiet and noise in listeners with normal and impaired hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Koenraad S; Lyzenga, Johannes; Dreschler, Wouter A; Festen, Joost M

    2010-03-01

    The speech intelligibility index (SII) is an often used calculation method for estimating the proportion of audible speech in noise. For speech reception thresholds (SRTs), measured in normally hearing listeners using various types of stationary noise, this model predicts a fairly constant speech proportion of about 0.33, necessary for Dutch sentence intelligibility. However, when the SII model is applied for SRTs in quiet, the estimated speech proportions are often higher, and show a larger inter-subject variability, than found for speech in noise near normal speech levels [65 dB sound pressure level (SPL)]. The present model attempts to alleviate this problem by including cochlear compression. It is based on a loudness model for normally hearing and hearing-impaired listeners of Moore and Glasberg [(2004). Hear. Res. 188, 70-88]. It estimates internal excitation levels for speech and noise and then calculates the proportion of speech above noise and threshold using similar spectral weighting as used in the SII. The present model and the standard SII were used to predict SII values in quiet and in stationary noise for normally hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. The present model predicted SIIs for three listener types (normal hearing, noise-induced, and age-induced hearing loss) with markedly less variability than the standard SII.

  2. Measuring Hearing in Wild Beluga Whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, T Aran; Castellote, Manuel; Quakenbush, Lori; Hobbs, Roderick; Goertz, Caroline; Gaglione, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We measured the hearing abilities of seven wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) during a collection-and-release experiment in Bristol Bay, AK. Here we summarize the methods and initial data from one animal and discuss the implications of this experiment. Audiograms were collected from 4 to 150 kHz. The animal with the lowest threshold heard best at 80 kHz and demonstrated overall good hearing from 22 to 110 kHz. The robustness of the methodology and data suggest that the auditory evoked potential audiograms can be incorporated into future collection-and-release health assessments. Such methods may provide high-quality results for multiple animals, facilitating population-level audiograms and hearing measures in new species.

  3. Meta-analysis reveals threshold level of rapidly fermentable dietary concentrate that triggers systemic inflammation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebeli, Q; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ametaj, B N

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the extent by which changes in the concentrate level and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content in the diet as well as the severity of acidotic insult, measured as the duration time of rumen pH below 6.0 and daily mean rumen pH, and the concentration of endotoxin in the rumen fluid are involved in the development of inflammatory conditions in cattle. A meta-analytical approach accounting for inter- and intraexperimental variation was used to generate prediction models, and data from recent studies were used to parameterize these models. A total of 10 recently conducted experiments with 43 different dietary treatments fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in this study. Diets of all of the experiments included in this meta-analysis were based on rapidly degradable grain sources, such as barley and wheat, and the findings of this study apply only to these kinds of diets. Data indicated that greater levels of concentrate in the diet were associated with increased concentrations of rumen endotoxin (R(2)=0.27), plasma haptoglobin (R(2)=0.19), and serum amyloid A (SAA) level (R(2)=0.46). Similar correlations, but in opposite directions, were observed between dietary NDF content and rumen endotoxin (R(2)=0.39) and plasma SAA concentrations (R(2)=0.22). The meta-analysis revealed that the relationships between those variables were not linear. Additionally, the breakpoint model fitted to the data of rumen endotoxin, plasma haptoglobin, and SAA indicated the presence of a threshold level of dietary concentrate and NDF, above which those responses became linear to increasing amounts of concentrate or decreasing contents of NDF in the diet. Also, feeding cattle more than 44.1% concentrate or less than 39.2% NDF in the diet was associated with a linear increase in the risk of systemic inflammation. Low daily mean rumen pH (R(2)=0.38) and duration of rumen pH inflammation. Accordingly, only 15 to 21% of the overall variation in the responses of SAA was

  4. Hearing Loss in Perinatally Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Human Immunodeficiency Virus -Exposed but Uninfected Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Peter; Zeldow, Bret; Hoffman, Howard J.; Buchanan, Ashley; Siberry, George K.; Rice, Mabel; Sirois, Patricia A.; Williams, Paige L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about hearing loss in children with HIV infection (HIV+). We examined the prevalence of hearing loss in perinatally HIV+ and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children, compared these to the percentage with hearing loss in the general population, and evaluated possible risk factors for hearing loss in HIV+ and HEU children. Methods Audiometric examinations were completed in children who met any pre-specified criteria for possible hearing loss. The hearing examination consisted of a tympanogram in each ear and pure-tone air-conduction threshold testing from 500 through 4000 Hz. Hearing loss was defined as the pure-tone average over these frequencies ≥20 dB hearing level (HL). The associations of demographic, parent/caregiver, HIV disease, and HIV treatment with hearing loss were evaluated with univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Results Hearing testing was completed in 231 children (145 HIV+ and 86 HEU). Hearing loss occurred in 20.0% of HIV+ children and 10.5% of HEU children. After adjusting for caregiver education level, HIV infection was associated with increased odds of hearing loss [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95–4.76, p=0.07]. Among HIV+ children, those with a CDC Class C diagnosis had over twice the odds of hearing loss (aOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.04–5.87, p=0.04). The prevalence of hearing loss was higher in both HIV+ and HEU children compared with NHANES III children. Conclusions Hearing loss was more common in both HIV+ and HEU children than in healthy children. More advanced HIV illness increased the risk of hearing loss in HIV+ children. PMID:22549437

  5. Ear, Hearing and Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)......An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...

  6. Hearing status among cabin crew in a Swedish commercial airline company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla; Nordquist, Tobias; Dammström, Bo-Göran; Norbäck, Dan

    2009-07-01

    To study hearing loss in commercial airline cabin crew (CC). Totally 155 male and 781 female CC (n = 936) in a Swedish airline company underwent repeated audiometric tests during 1974-2005. The last test was used to study hearing loss. The mean test values at 3, 4, 6 kHz were used for the ear with worse hearing loss. Data were compared with a Swedish population (n = 603) who were not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise levels (Leq) were measured in different aircraft. Leq was 78-84 dB (A), maximum A-weighted exposure was 114 dB. Median values for all ages were close to the reference group. No association was found between years of employment and hearing loss, when adjusting for age and gender by multiple logistic regression analysis. Cabin crew are exposed to equivalent noise levels below the current Swedish occupational standard, and have normal age-matched hearing threshold levels.

  7. Occupational hearing loss of market mill workers in the city of Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitcher, Emmanuel D; Ocansey, Grace; Abaidoo, Benjamin; Atule, Alidu

    2014-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an irreversible sensorineural hearing loss associated with exposure to high levels of excessive noise. Prevention measures are not well established in developing countries. This comparative cross sectional study aims to determine the prevalence of hearing loss in both a group of high risk workers and a control group and to assess their knowledge of the effects of noise on hearing health. A total of 101 market mill workers and 103 controls employed within markets in the city of Accra, Ghana, were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and pure tone audiometry. The questionnaire assessed factors including self-reported hearing loss, tinnitus, knowledge on the effects of noise on hearing health and the use of hearing protective devices. Pure tone audiometric testing was conducted for both mill workers and controls. Noise levels at the work premises of the mill workers and controls were measured. Symptoms of hearing loss were reported by 24 (23.76%) and 8 (7.7%) mill workers and controls respectively. Fifty-five (54.5%) and fifty-four (52.37%) mill workers and controls exhibited knowledge of the effects of noise on hearing health. Five (5.0%) mill workers used hearing protective devices. There was significant sensorineural hearing loss and the presence of a 4 kHz audiometric notch among mill workers when compared with controls for the mean thresholds of 2 kHz, 3 kHz and 4 kHz (P = 0. 001). The prevalence of hearing loss in the better hearing ears of the mill workers and controls was 24.8% and 4.8% respectively (P mill workers and controls was 24.8% and 4.8% respectively. The majority of mill workers did not use hearing protection.

  8. Factors influencing the choice of prescribed hearing aid

    OpenAIRE

    Živić Ljubica; Živić Danijela

    2012-01-01

    In our paper we would like to emphasize the complexity of hearing aid prescription process. It is connected to a series of factors which impact the choice of hearing aid; type of hearing loss, degree of hearing loss according to the average hearing threshold expressed within the range from 500 Hz to 4000 Hz on a tonal audiogram, audiometric curve configuration, speech discrimination ability, patients’ age at which the hearing impairment occurred, time elapsed between the occurrence of h...

  9. Peculiarities of hearing impairment depending on interaction with acoustic stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshchenko, Iryna; Nazarenko, Vasyl; Kolganov, Anatoliy; Tereshchenko, Pavlo

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The functional state of the auditory analyzer of several operators groups was study. The objective of this study was to determine some characteristics of hearing impairment in relation with features of acoustic stimuli and informative significance of noise. Materials and Methods: 236 employees (middle age 35.4 ± 0.74 years) were divided into four groups according to features of noise perception at the workplaces. The levels of permanent shifts of acoustic thresholds were estimated using audiometric method. Statistical Analysis Used: Common statistical methods were used in research. Mean quantity and mean absolute errors were calculated. Statistical significance between operators' groups was calculated with 0.05 confidential intervals. Results: The peculiarities of hearing impairment in observed groups were different. Operators differentiating acoustic signals had peak of hearing impairment in the field of language frequencies, while the employees who work with noise background at the workplaces had maximal hearing threshold on the 4000 Hz frequency (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: Hearing impairment depends both on energy and human interaction with acoustic irritant. The distinctions in hearing impairment may be related with the necessity of recognizing of acoustic signals and their frequency characteristics. PMID:26957812

  10. Limiares de reconhecimento de sentenças no ruído, em campo livre: valores de referência para adultos normo-ouvintes Speech recognition thresholds in noisy areas: reference values for normal hearing adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Oliveira Henriques

    2008-04-01

    , in the presence of a competitive noise, at the fixed intensity of 65 dB H. The incidence angle of both stimuli was 0º- 0º azimuth. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The phrases recognition thresholds in the free fields were obtained in the signal to noise ratio of -8.14 dB H, which is the reference value for normal hearing individuals.

  11. Satisfaction and compliance of adult patients using hearing aid and evaluation of factors affecting them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan; Bayır, Ömer; Er, Serap; Işık, Eray; Saylam, Güleser; Tatar, Emel Çadallı; Özdek, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study are to reveal patient compliance and satisfaction in hearing aid-prescribed adult population and to determine the relevant clinical factors. The study was designed retrospectively, and those patients who have been using hearing aid for at least 6 months were invited for evaluation. Demographical data, hearing aid type (digital vs analog), general satisfaction, and daily usage time were asked. Then, the Hearing Aid Satisfaction Questionnaire (HASQ) was applied to all patients which included visual analog scale (VAS)-based 10 questions about the effects of hearing aid on social communication, efficiency, cosmetics, life quality and cost. Totally 400 patients were included in the study. The HASQ was confirmed to be highly reliable by "Kaiser Meyer Olkin and Bartlett Sphericity" tests after exclusion of aid-cost question. There was a negative correlation between age and satisfaction, and a positive correlation between hearing aid usage time (years) and satisfaction (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between mean HASQ scores regarding gender, employment status, hearing aid type and the site of hearing aid wearing. HASQ scores were significantly worse in pure sensorineural loss type, lower educational status, shorter daily usage time, but better in higher pure tone threshold levels (p < 0.05). Age, time of hearing aid usage daily, type of hearing impairment, the threshold of hearing and education were the factors affecting satisfaction. Regular daily usage of hearing aid should be encouraged in patients, since by this way aid usage and satisfaction may be improved.

  12. Genetic analysis of baker's yeast Msh4-Msh5 reveals a threshold crossover level for meiotic viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K T Nishant

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During meiosis, the Msh4-Msh5 complex is thought to stabilize single-end invasion intermediates that form during early stages of recombination and subsequently bind to Holliday junctions to facilitate crossover formation. To analyze Msh4-Msh5 function, we mutagenized 57 residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh4 and Msh5 that are either conserved across all Msh4/5 family members or are specific to Msh4 and Msh5. The Msh5 subunit appeared more sensitive to mutagenesis. We identified msh4 and msh5 threshold (msh4/5-t mutants that showed wild-type spore viability and crossover interference but displayed, compared to wild-type, up to a two-fold decrease in crossing over on large and medium sized chromosomes (XV, VII, VIII. Crossing over on a small chromosome, however, approached wild-type levels. The msh4/5-t mutants also displayed synaptonemal complex assembly defects. A triple mutant containing a msh4/5-t allele and mutations that decreased meiotic double-strand break levels (spo11-HA and crossover interference (pch2Δ showed synergistic defects in spore viability. Together these results indicate that the baker's yeast meiotic cell does not require the ∼90 crossovers maintained by crossover homeostasis to form viable spores. They also show that Pch2-mediated crossover interference is important to maintain meiotic viability when crossovers become limiting.

  13. The benefit method: fitting hearing aids in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svard, I; Spens, K E; Back, L; Ahlner, B H; Barrenas, M L

    2005-01-01

    The most common complaint among individuals with hearing impairment is the inability to follow a conversation when several people are talking simultaneously, a noisy listening situation which is completely different from the quiet surrounding of the conventional pure tone audiometry used as basis for the hearing aid settings. The purpose of this report was to present important characteristics of the BeneFit Method (BFM), a procedure that fits the hearing aid under simulated conditions of competing speech and also a clinical pilot evaluation study comparing the BFM to the NAL-R recommendations and also to the Logic procedure, a GN resound proprietary fitting algorithm representing a modern digital hearing aid fitting procedure. Speech recognition scores in noise (SRSN) using monosyllabic words presented under different background noise levels were evaluated on 21 randomly selected subjects with hearing impairment. The subjects were fitted with the same type of hearing aid Danalogic 163D according to the BFM procedure as well as the logic procedure, the latter developed and recommended by the manufacturer. A comparison of the SRSN when using the subjects' current hearing aid fitted according to the NAL-R procedure was also made. Only the BFM procedure provided a significant SRSN improvement compared to the unaided condition (Ppatients performed significantly higher SRSN when fitted according to the BFM, than when fitted according the Logic or NAL-R procedures. The BFM procedure, which is based on individual and functional detection of hearing thresholds in noise levels corresponding to a cocktail party condition, can improve SRSN significantly. Hearing aids should be fitted under conditions similar to those when the hearing disability is perceived the most, i.e, in an environment with background noise.

  14. Structure-based thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC): guidance for application to substances present at low levels in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, R; Renwick, A G; Cheeseman, M; Kleiner, J; Mangelsdorf, I; Piersma, A; Schilter, B; Schlatter, J; van Schothorst, F; Vos, J G; Würtzen, G

    2004-01-01

    The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a pragmatic risk assessment tool that is based on the principle of establishing a human exposure threshold value for all chemicals, below which there is a very low probability of an appreciable risk to human health. The concept that there are levels of exposure that do not cause adverse effects is inherent in setting acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for chemicals with known toxicological profiles. The TTC principle extends this concept by proposing that a de minimis value can be identified for many chemicals, in the absence of a full toxicity database, based on their chemical structures and the known toxicity of chemicals which share similar structural characteristics. The establishment and application of widely accepted TTC values would benefit consumers, industry and regulators. By avoiding unnecessary toxicity testing and safety evaluations when human intakes are below such a threshold, application of the TTC approach would focus limited resources of time, cost, animal use and expertise on the testing and evaluation of substances with the greatest potential to pose risks to human health and thereby contribute to a reduction in the use of animals. An Expert Group of the European branch of the International Life Sciences Institute-ILSI Europe-has examined the TTC principle for its wider applicability in food safety evaluation. The Expert Group examined metabolism and accumulation, structural alerts, endocrine disrupting chemicals and specific endpoints, such as neurotoxicity, teratogenicity, developmental toxicity, allergenicity and immunotoxicity, and determined whether such properties or endpoints had to be taken into consideration specifically in a step-wise approach. The Expert Group concluded that the TTC principle can be applied for low concentrations in food of chemicals that lack toxicity data, provided that there is a sound intake estimate. The use of a decision tree to apply the TTC principle is proposed

  15. Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emission Measured Below 300 Hz in Normal-Hearing Human Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Physiological noise levels in the human ear canal often exceed naturally low levels of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) near the threshold of hearing. Low-frequency noise, and electronic filtering to cope with it, has effectively limited the study of OAE to frequencies above about 500 Hz. Presently, ...

  16. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, A; Skogstad, M; Johnsen, T S; Engdahl, B; Tambs, K

    2013-12-01

    There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups.

  17. 动态安全的多级门限多秘密共享方案%Multi-level threshold multi-secret sharing scheme with proactive security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹惠; 王建东

    2009-01-01

    In multi-secret sharing schemes, the secrets can only be shared in the same level threshold. A multi-level threshold multi-secret sharing scheme based on bivariate polynomial and the intractability of the discrete logarithm was proposed. A bivariate polynomial can degenerate to different lower-order bivariate polynomial according to different thresholds. The scheme has the following characteristics: the secrets can be shared in the multiple level threshold; the multiple secrets can be shared in the same level threshold; the scheme is proactive secure, and the shadow of every participant can be renewed periodically.%在已有的多秘密共享方案中,存在只能在同一级门限下共享秘密的限制.基于离散对数问题的难解性,利用二元多项式,给出一种多级门限多秘密共享方案.二元多项式能在不同级门限共享中退化为不同的低阶的二元多项式,实现多级多秘密共享.该方案具有如下特点:在多级门限下共享秘密,在同级门限下可共享任意多个秘密;具有动态安全性,能定时更新成员的子秘密.

  18. A Speech Intelligibility Index-based approach to predict the speech reception threshold for sentences in fluctuating noise for normal-hearing listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Koenraad S.; Versfeld, Niek J.

    2005-04-01

    The SII model in its present form (ANSI S3.5-1997, American National Standards Institute, New York) can accurately describe intelligibility for speech in stationary noise but fails to do so for nonstationary noise maskers. Here, an extension to the SII model is proposed with the aim to predict the speech intelligibility in both stationary and fluctuating noise. The basic principle of the present approach is that both speech and noise signal are partitioned into small time frames. Within each time frame the conventional SII is determined, yielding the speech information available to the listener at that time frame. Next, the SII values of these time frames are averaged, resulting in the SII for that particular condition. Using speech reception threshold (SRT) data from the literature, the extension to the present SII model can give a good account for SRTs in stationary noise, fluctuating speech noise, interrupted noise, and multiple-talker noise. The predictions for sinusoidally intensity modulated (SIM) noise and real speech or speech-like maskers are better than with the original SII model, but are still not accurate. For the latter type of maskers, informational masking may play a role. .

  19. Eigenmode analysis for the radiating stationary state of N two-level atoms in a slab geometry near threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedberg, Richard [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Manassah, Jamal T., E-mail: jmanassah@gmail.co [Department of Electrical Engineering, City College of New York, NY 10031 (United States)

    2010-07-26

    We explore steady states of an open, no end-mirrors, low-Q cw laser pumped above the threshold for laser oscillations. We find that the spatial field profile of the steady state just above the threshold is the same as that of the eigenmode that dominates superradiance in the late linear regime from an initially inverted state without continued pumping. The threshold pumping rate and emission frequency are related to the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalue of this dominant mode.

  20. Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects on your hearing — ringing in the ear (tinnitus) or hearing loss — can occur if you take ... adults with hearing loss, commonly reported problems include: Depression Anxiety An often false sense that others are ...

  1. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  2. Hearing Conservation Live #2430

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  3. Effects of whole body exposure to threshold levels of 50Hz electromagnetic fields on the intramicrovascular leukocyte adhesion in conscious mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, A.; Ohkubo, C. [National Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Whole body exposure effects to threshold levels of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields (3.0, 10.0, 30.0 mT for acute exposure and 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mT for subchronic exposure) on intramicrovascular behavior of leukocytes in the cutaneous microcirculation was evaluated by a dorsal skinfold chamber technique in mice under conscious conditions. The results indicated that the exposure intensity at 3.0 mT is a threshold level for increasing leukocyte adhesion to the endothelial walls.

  4. Level, peculiarities and effects of coal mine noise on pit workers. [correlation between noise intensity and hearing impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlea, I. G.; Bitir, P.; Coculescu, M.

    1974-01-01

    There exists a correlation between noise intensity and spectrum and degree of hearing impairment in the different professional categories in the pit. Most affected are dross miners and drillers. In these, the first degree of hypoacusia sets in within the first five years of exposure. Deafness begins at a frequency of 4,000 Hz, but often enough (20%) at 2,000 Hz as well, progressively evolving through the classical stages if exposure to noise continues. In the coal bearing basins investigated, the noise level is, on the whole, 31.2%, but the conventional zone is not involved by more than 6.3%. Technological and medical measures are proposed for the purpose of avoiding these troubles in the future.

  5. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Worker ... noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Read and comment ...

  6. Could Anemia Cause Hearing Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162793.html Could Anemia Cause Hearing Loss? Iron deficiency might keep ear ... Hearing loss may be linked to iron deficiency anemia -- a combination of low levels of iron and ...

  7. Monitoring audiometry for occupational hearing loss: A case for eliminating 500 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Mark

    2003-04-01

    Audiometric monitoring is an important element in hearing conservation programs. Nearly every existing hearing conservation standard dictate that hearing thresholds should be measured at specific frequencies, and that 500 Hz be among those frequencies tested. Actual and estimated noise-induced permanent threshold shifts were evaluated as a function of exposure duration and exposure level. The results demonstrate 500 Hz to be of little value in assessing noise-induced hearing loss for typical industrial noise exposures of up to 40 years, at least for time-weighted average exposures of up to 100 dBA. Furthermore, few hearing conservation programs currently require audiometric monitoring to be performed in an environment that meets ANSI standards for maximum permissible background noise levels. This is particularly likely to compromise hearing testing at 500 Hz. As a result, this paper argues against the need for testing at 500 Hz, and recommends it be eliminated as a required test frequency in audiometric monitoring for noise-induced occupational hearing loss.

  8. Neural tracking of attended versus ignored speech is differentially affected by hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Eline Borch; Wöstmann, Malte; Obleser, Jonas; Lunner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss manifests as a reduced ability to understand speech, particularly in multitalker situations. In these situations, younger normal-hearing listeners' brains are known to track attended speech through phase-locking of neural activity to the slow-varying envelope of the speech. This study investigates how hearing loss, compensated by hearing aids, affects the neural tracking of the speech-onset envelope in elderly participants with varying degree of hearing loss (n = 27, 62-86 yr; hearing thresholds 11-73 dB hearing level). In an active listening task, a to-be-attended audiobook (signal) was presented either in quiet or against a competing to-be-ignored audiobook (noise) presented at three individualized signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The neural tracking of the to-be-attended and to-be-ignored speech was quantified through the cross-correlation of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the temporal envelope of speech. We primarily investigated the effects of hearing loss and SNR on the neural envelope tracking. First, we found that elderly hearing-impaired listeners' neural responses reliably track the envelope of to-be-attended speech more than to-be-ignored speech. Second, hearing loss relates to the neural tracking of to-be-ignored speech, resulting in a weaker differential neural tracking of to-be-attended vs. to-be-ignored speech in listeners with worse hearing. Third, neural tracking of to-be-attended speech increased with decreasing background noise. Critically, the beneficial effect of reduced noise on neural speech tracking decreased with stronger hearing loss. In sum, our results show that a common sensorineural processing deficit, i.e., hearing loss, interacts with central attention mechanisms and reduces the differential tracking of attended and ignored speech.

  9. An observed relationship between vestibular function and auditory thresholds in aircraft-maintenance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Maya; Boggess, May; D'Este, Catherine; Attia, John; Brown, Anthony

    2011-02-01

    We sought to examine the vestibular function and whether an association exists between vestibular function and hearing thresholds in a group of military aircraft-maintenance workers with exposures to high levels of noise and organic solvents, relative to two different comparison groups. Vestibular function (using functional reach) and hearing (with pure-tone audiometry) were assessed in 601 exposed personnel, compared with two unexposed groups (500 technical trade and 391 nontrade). Linear regression model showed that functional reach was slightly better for the comparison groups than the exposed group, with only one group being statistically significant, and there was a significant association between vestibular function and auditory thresholds at 500 and 1000 Hz. This study has demonstrated a relationship between low-frequency hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, anxiety, and depression in an occupational population.

  10. High pain sensitivity is distinct from high susceptibility to non-painful sensory input at threshold level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Thomas; Springborn, Maria; Croy, Ilona; Kaiser, Jochen; Lötsch, Jörn

    2011-04-01

    Individuals may differ considerably in their sensitivity towards various painful stimuli supporting the notion of a person as stoical or complaining about pain. Molecular and functional imaging research provides support that this may extend also to other sensory qualities. Whether a person can be characterized as possessing a generally high or low sensory acuity is unknown. This was therefore assessed with thresholds to painful and non-painful stimuli, with a focus on chemical stimuli that besides pain may evoke clearly non-painful sensations such as taste or smell. In 36 healthy men and 78 women (ages 18 to 52 years), pain thresholds to chemo-somatosensory (intranasal gaseous CO(2)) and electrical stimuli (cutaneous stimulation) were significantly correlated (ρ(2)=0.2268, psensory qualities, i.e., for the rose-like odor phenyl ethyl alcohol and gustatory thresholds for sour (citric acid) and salty (NaCl). Similarly, pain clusters showed no differences in thresholds to other stimuli. Moreover, no clustering was obtained for thresholds to both painful and non-painful stimuli together. Thus, individuals could not be characterized as highly sensitive (or insensitive) to all chemical stimuli no matter of evoking pain. This suggests that pain is primarily a singular sensory perception distinct from others such as olfaction or taste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A cross-sectional analysis of age and sex patterns in grip strength, tooth loss, near vision and hearing levels in Chinese aged 50-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    By focusing on four health variables, handgrip strength, near visual acuity, tooth loss and hearing level, this study examined the different patterns of age-related changes in these variables in Chinese aged from 50 to 74 years, as well as explored the relationship among the variables in a cross-...

  12. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.;

    2016-01-01

    concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise...... while wearing HPDs. Such a model opens the door to radio communication systems that distinguish receivers and offer more efficient communication between persons wearing HPDs. Design: This paper presents the results of a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of occluding the ear on changes...... in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Study sample: Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Results: Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded...

  13. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    as a substitute for the classical Telephonics TDH 39. The results are given as the Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specified in IEC 60318-3. The results are in good agreement with an independent investigation from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany. From acoustic...

  14. Natural background levels and threshold values of chemical species in three large-scale groundwater bodies in Northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, Antonio, E-mail: ant.molinari2002@libero.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Guadagnini, Laura [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Marcaccio, Marco [ARPA Emilia-Romagna, Direzione Tecnica, Largo Caduti del Lavoro, 6-40122 Bologna (Italy); Guadagnini, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    We analyze natural background levels (NBLs) and threshold values (TVs) of spatially distributed chemical species (NH{sub 4}, B and As) which may be a potential pressure and concern in three large scale alluvial and fluvio-deltaic aquifers at different depths of the Apennines and Po river plains in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy. Our results are based on statistical methodologies designed to separate the natural and anthropogenic contributions in monitored concentrations by modeling the empirical distribution of the detected concentration with a mixture of probability density functions. Available chemical observations are taken over a 20 years period and are associated with different depths and cover planar investigation scales of the order of hundreds of kilometers. High concentration values detected for NH{sub 4} and B appear to be related to high natural background levels. Due to interaction with the host rock in different geochemical environments we observed that concentration vary in time and space (including in depth) consistently with the hydrogeochemical features and the occurrence of natural attenuation mechanisms in the analyzed reservoirs. Conversely, estimated As NBLs are not consistent with the conceptual model of the hydrogeochemical behavior of the systems analyzed and experimental evidences of As content in aquifer cores. This is due to the inability of these techniques to incorporate the complex dynamics of the processes associated with the specific hydrogeochemical setting. Statistical analyses performed upon aggregating the concentration data according to different time observation windows allow identifying temporal dynamics of NBLs and TVs of target compounds within the observation time frame. Our results highlight the benefit of a dynamic monitoring process and analysis of well demarcated groundwater bodies to update the associated NBLs as a function of the temporal dependence of natural processes occurring in the subsurface. Monitoring

  15. Comparative analysis of endurance of not hearing and hearing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwańska Dagmara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Sport participation is important for deaf children, as participants experience physical, psychological and social benefits [23]. This study is a summary of four year’s researches on the endurance level of deaf and well hearing girls and boys. The aim of this study was to compare endurance of not hearing and hearing students.

  16. Hearing status among commercial pilots in a Swedish airline company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla; Dammstrom, Bo-Goran; Norback, Dan

    2008-08-01

    The aim was to study hearing impairment in commercial pilots. A total of 634 male and 30 female pilots (N=664) in a Swedish airline company underwent repeated audiological tests during the period 1974-2005. The last test was used to study hearing impairment. The mean values for the hearing test at 3, 4, and 6 kHz were used for the ear with worse hearing impairment. Data was compared with a general adult Swedish population (n=603) not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise levels gate to gate (Leq) were measured in the cockpit of different aircraft. Leq was 75-81 dB (A), peak exposures were 105 dB (A) from the cabin call signal. Median values were similar as in the reference group at all ages. There was no association between years of employment, tobacco smoking, and hearing impairment, when adjusted for age and gender by multiple logistic regressions analysis. In conclusion, pilots are exposed to equivalent noise levels below the current Swedish occupational standard of 85 dB (A), with short peak exposures above the standard, and have normal age-matched hearing thresholds.

  17. In-air hearing of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Maxwell

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aquatic birds use sounds extensively for in-air communication. Regardless of this, we know very little about their hearing abilities. The in-air audiogram of a male adult great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo was determined using psychophysical methods (method of constants. Hearing thresholds were derived using pure tones of five different frequencies. The lowest threshold was at 2 kHz: 18 dB re 20 µPa rms. Thresholds derived using signal detection theory were within 2 dB of the ones derived using classical psychophysics. The great cormorant is more sensitive to in-air sounds than previously believed and its hearing abilities are comparable to several other species of birds of similar size. This knowledge is important for our understanding of the hearing abilities of other species of sea birds. It can also be used to develop cormorant deterrent devices for fisheries, as well as to assess the impact of increasing in-air anthropogenic noise levels on cormorants and other aquatic birds.

  18. LOWER DOSE OF AMINOGLYCOSIDE OTOTOXIC EXPOSURE CAUSES PRESYNAPTIC ALTERATIONS ASSOICATED WITH HEARING LOSS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ke; WANG Xiaoyu; LI Sijun; TANG Siquan; XU Yice; WANG Xuefeng; SUN Jianhe; YANG Weiyan; YANG Shiming

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study presynaptic alternations of cochlear ribbons arising from aminoglycoside ototoxic stimuli in C57BL/6J mice. Methods Animals were injected with low dose gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day) for 14 days, From the 14th to 28th days, the mice were maintained free of gentamicin treatment. Immunohisto-chemistry labeling was employed to trace RIBEYE, a major presynaptic componment of ribbon synapses. RIBEYE/CtBP2 expression levels were assessed and compared with hearing threshold shifts. Auditory func-tion was assessed by auditory brainstem responses. The stereocilia of outer hair cells (OHCs) and IHCs was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results Hearing thresholds were elevated with peak hearing loss observed on the 7th day after gentamicin exposure, followed by improvement after the 7th day. RIBEYE/CtBP2 expression directly correlated with observed hearing threshold shifts. Strikingly, we did not see any obvious changes in stereocilia in both OHCs and IHCs until the 28th day. Mild changes in stereocil-ia were only observed in OHCs on the 28th day. Conclusions These findings indicate that presynapse co-chlear ribbons, rather than stereocilia, may be sensitive to aminoglycoside ototoxic exposure in mice cochle-ae. A pattern of RIBEYE/CtBP2 expression changes seems to parallel hearing threshold shifts and suggests presynaptic response properties to lower dosage of aminoglycoside ototoxic stimuli.

  19. Underwater Hearing in Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Katie L

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of turtles is poorly understood compared with the other reptiles. Although the mechanism of transduction of sound into a neural signal via hair cells has been described in detail, the rest of the auditory system is largely a black box. What is known is that turtles have higher hearing thresholds than other reptiles, with best frequencies around 500 Hz. They also have lower underwater hearing thresholds than those in air, owing to resonance of the middle ear cavity. Further studies demonstrated that all families of turtles and tortoises share a common middle ear cavity morphology, with scaling best suited to underwater hearing. This supports an aquatic origin of the group. Because turtles hear best under water, it is important to examine their vulnerability to anthropogenic noise. However, the lack of basic data makes such experiments difficult because only a few species of turtles have published audiograms. There are also almost no behavioral data available (understandable due to training difficulties). Finally, few studies show what kinds of sounds are behaviorally relevant. One notable paper revealed that the Australian snake-necked turtle (Chelodina oblonga) has a vocal repertoire in air, at the interface, and under water. Findings like these suggest that there is more to the turtle aquatic auditory scene than previously thought.

  20. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2013-01-01

    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper, an...

  1. Effect of gentamicin and levels of ambient sound on hearing screening outcomes in the neonatal intensive care unit: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garinis, Angela C; Liao, Selena; Cross, Campbell P; Galati, Johnathan; Middaugh, Jessica L; Mace, Jess C; Wood, Anna-Marie; McEvoy, Lindsey; Moneta, Lauren; Lubianski, Troy; Coopersmith, Noe; Vigo, Nicholas; Hart, Christopher; Riddle, Artur; Ettinger, Olivia; Nold, Casey; Durham, Heather; MacArthur, Carol; McEvoy, Cynthia; Steyger, Peter S

    2017-06-01

    Hearing loss rates in infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) run at 2-15%, compared to 0.3% in full-term births. The etiology of this difference remains poorly understood. We examined whether the level of ambient sound and/or cumulative gentamicin (an aminoglycoside) exposure affect NICU hearing screening results, as either exposure can cause acquired, permanent hearing loss. We hypothesized that higher levels of ambient sound in the NICU, and/or gentamicin dosing, increase the risk of referral on the distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) assessments and/or automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) screens. This was a prospective pilot outcomes study of 82 infants (sound pressure level dosimeter was used to collect daily sound exposure in the NICU for each neonate. Gentamicin dosing was also calculated for each infant, including the total daily dose based on body mass (mg/kg/day), as well as the total number of treatment days. DPOAE and AABR assessments were conducted prior to discharge to evaluate hearing status. Exclusion criteria included congenital infections associated with hearing loss, and congenital craniofacial or otologic abnormalities. The mean level of ambient sound was 62.9 dBA (range 51.8-70.6 dBA), greatly exceeding American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendation of 4172 Hz) was 44%. DPOAE referrals were significantly greater for infants receiving >2 days of gentamicin dosing compared to fewer doses (p = 0.004). The effect of sound exposure and gentamicin treatment on hearing could not be determined due to the low number of NICU infants without gentamicin exposure (for control comparisons). All infants were exposed to higher levels of ambient sound that substantially exceed AAP guidelines. More referrals were generated by DPOAE assessments than with AABR screens, with significantly more DPOAE referrals with a high-frequency F2 range, consistent with sound- and/or gentamicin-induced cochlear dysfunction. Adding

  2. Cigarette smoking causes hearing impairment among Bangladeshi population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Faisal Sumit

    Full Text Available Lifestyle including smoking, noise exposure with MP3 player and drinking alcohol are considered as risk factors for affecting hearing synergistically. However, little is known about the association of cigarette smoking with hearing impairment among subjects who carry a lifestyle without using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. We showed here the influence of smoking on hearing among Bangladeshi subjects who maintain a lifestyle devoid of using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. A total of 184 subjects (smokers: 90; non-smokers: 94 were included considering their duration and frequency of smoking for conducting this study. The mean hearing thresholds of non-smoker subjects at 1, 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were 5.63 ± 2.10, 8.56±5.75, 21.06 ± 11.06, 40.79 ± 20.36 decibel (dB, respectively and that of the smokers were 7 ± 3.8, 13.27 ± 8.4, 30.66 ± 12.50 and 56.88 ± 21.58 dB, respectively. The hearing thresholds of the smokers at 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were significantly (p5 years showed higher level of auditory threshold (62.16 ± 19.87 dB at 12 kHz frequency compared with that (41.52 ± 19.21 dB of the subjects smoked for 1-5 years and the difference in auditory thresholds was statistically significant (p<0.0002. In this study, the Brinkman Index (BI of smokers was from 6 to 440 and the adjusted odds ratio showed a positive correlation between hearing loss and smoking when adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI. In addition, age, but not BMI, also played positive role on hearing impairment at all frequencies. Thus, these findings suggested that cigarette smoking affects hearing level at all the frequencies tested but most significantly at extra higher frequencies.

  3. Effect of recreational noise exposure on hearing impairment among teenage students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chen-Yin; Chao, Keh-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have focused on the potential impact of children's hearing loss on learning and development. Recently, numerous teenage students have been found to be fond of listening to music on personal devices and participating in recreational music activities. The objective of this study was to investigate teenage students' hearing impairment, their experience with recreational noise exposure, and their self-reported hearing. The participants were 1878 first-year students at a university in Taiwan. The result of the pure tone audiometry test showed that 11.9% of the participants had one or two ears with a hearing threshold over 25 dB. Over the past year, approximately 80.9% of the participants had taken part in at least one loud-noise recreational activity, and 90.9% of the participants were in the habit of using earphones. Among the participants, 190 students with a high level of recreational noise exposure were assigned to the exposure group, and 191 students with a low level of recreational noise exposure constituted the control group. The exposure group had more hearing problems than the control group, but no significant difference existed between the two groups in the pure tone audiometry test (p=0.857). It is suggested that the schools should reinforce hearing health education and proactively provide intervention measures, such as hearing tests, evaluation of noise exposure, and hearing protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hearing loss from gun and railroad noise--relations with ISO standard 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryter, K D

    1991-12-01

    Pure-tone hearing thresholds and anamnestic data pertaining to nosocusis and exposure to gun noise were analyzed for 9778 male railroad train-crew workers. A major portion of losses in hearing sensitivity due to railroad noise are obscured in comparisons of hearing levels of trainmen with the hearing levels of the unscreened samples of United States males given in Annex B, ISO 1999 [ISO 1999 (1990), "Acoustics--Determination of occupational noise exposure and estimation of noise-induced hearing impairment" (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva)]. Comparisons of the hearing levels, adjusted for nosocusis, of trainmen who had used no guns, with the hearing levels of otologically and noise screened males (Annex A, ISO 1999) reveal significant losses due to railroad noise. Additional losses were found at high frequencies in trainmen who had used guns. It appears that the effective Leq8h exposure level of trainmen to railroad noise is about 92 dBA, and 87-89 dBA to gun noise. These results are in general agreement with those of study of railway workers by Prosser et al. [Br. J. Audiol. 22, 85-91 (1988)]. Asymmetries in losses between the two ears, effects of ear protection, losses from nosocusis, and losses from sport, as compared to military, gun noise exposures, are examined.

  5. Valproate-induced reversible sensorineural hearing loss: a case report with serial audiometry and pharmacokinetic modelling during a valproate rechallenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Li-Ling; Lim, Kheng-Seang; Lo, Yoke-Lin; Bakar, Mohd Zukiflee Abu; Tan, Chong-Tin

    2014-09-01

    Hearing loss has been reported with valproic acid (VPA) use. However, this is the first case of VPA-induced hearing loss that was tested and confirmed with a VPA rechallenge, supported by serial audiometry and pharmacokinetic modelling. A 39-year-old truck driver with temporal lobe epilepsy was treated with VPA at 400 mg, twice daily, and developed hearing loss after each dose, but recovered within three hours. Hearing loss fully resolved after VPA discontinuation. Audiometry performed five hours after VPA rechallenge showed significant improvement in hearing thresholds. Pharmacokinetic modelling during the VPA rechallenge showed that hearing loss occurred at a level below the therapeutic range. Brainstem auditory evoked potential at three months after VPA discontinuation showed bilateral conduction defect between the cochlear and superior olivary nucleus, supporting a pre-existing auditory deficit. VPA may cause temporary hearing threshold shift. Pre-existing auditory defect may be a risk factor for VPA-induced hearing loss. Caution should be taken while prescribing VPA to patients with pre-existing auditory deficit.

  6. Hearing loss and the risk of disability pension in Norway: the Hunt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Krokstad, Steinar; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-12-01

    The purpose was to explore the possible associations between measured hearing thresholds and work related disability pension granted for other medical reasons in a Norwegian population. This study included 25,537 persons from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) aged 20-54 years at baseline in HUNT1 (1984-1986) who also participated in the follow-up study 11 years later, HUNT2 (1995-1997) that included a hearing examination. Logistic regression analyses of disability pension granted up to 1996 or earlier in life were conducted for men and women separately and in two age strata. Effects of low, middle and high-frequency hearing thresholds were explored, adjusting the effects of each hearing frequency for each other. Further adjustment was made for educational level, category of work (seven categories) and general health in HUNT1. In all, 0.4% (16 of 4306) of the disability pensions granted up to 1996 was due to hearing related diagnoses. The risk of being granted disability pension up to 1996 with registered diagnoses not related to hearing loss increased with degree of loss of low-frequency hearing in young and middle-aged men and middle-aged women (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.25-2.37; OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.30; OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.23). Hearing loss diagnoses are rarely reported as main causes in disability statistics, however, degree of hearing loss increased the risk of being granted with disability pensioning with diagnoses not related to hearing loss.

  7. Effects of simultaneous exercise and loud music on hearing acuity and auditory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, Sridhar; Grandjean, Peter W

    2003-05-01

    Hearing acuity can be reduced temporarily after exposure to loud noise, and the physiological responses that occur with exercise may enhance this effect. Currently, it is not known whether short-term reductions in hearing acuity after noise exposure and exercise are a result of temporary changes in auditory function. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the acute effects of simultaneous exercise and loud music on hearing acuity and auditory function in young, healthy women. Nine women (age = 22 +/- 5 years, body mass index = 23.9 +/- 2.2, Vo(2)peak = 30.6 +/- 6.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) with normal hearing thresholds (music exposure of 90 to 95 dB sound pressure level for 20 minutes, (b) exercise at 60% Vo(2)peak on a cycle ergometer for 20 minutes, and (c) simultaneous exercise and music exposure for 20 minutes. Hearing acuity and auditory function were assessed via pure-tone hearing thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes, respectively, at frequencies of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz presented in random order before and after each condition. Results indicate that hearing acuity and auditory function remained unaltered after exposure to each condition (p > 0.05). These findings provide evidence that hearing acuity and auditory function in young women do not change after short-term exposure to moderate-intensity exercise and loud music. Thus, listening to loud music with earphones during moderate-intensity exercise does not pose acute hearing health concerns for young physically fit adults with normal hearing.

  8. e-Health technologies for adult hearing screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stenfelt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of hearing diagnosis methods and hearing screening methods are not isolated phenomena: they are intimately related to changes in the cultural background and to advances in fields of medicine and engineering. In the recent years, there has been a rapid evolution in the development of fast, easy and reliable techniques for lowcost hearing screening initiatives. Since adults and elderly people typically experience a reduced hearing ability in challenging listening situations [e.g., in background noise, in reverberation, or with competing speech (Pichora‑Fuller & Souza, 2003], these newly developed screening tests mainly rely on the recognition of speech stimuli in noise, so that the real experienced listening difficulties can be effectively targeted (Killion & Niquette, 2000. New tests based on the recognition of speech in noise are being developed on portable, battery- operated devices (see, for example, Paglialonga et al., 2011, or distributed diffusely using information and communication technologies. The evolutions of e-Health and telemedicine have shifted focus from patients coming to the hearing clinic for hearing health evaluation towards the possibility of evaluating the hearing status remotely at home. So far, two ways of distributing the hearing test have primarily been used: ordinary telephone networks (excluding mobile networks and the internet. When using the telephone network for hearing screening, the predominantly test is a speech-in-noise test often referred to as the digit triplet test where the subjects hearing status is evaluated as the speech-to-noise threshold for spoken digits. This test is today available in some ten countries in Europe, North America and Australia. The use of internet as testing platform allows several different types of hearing assessment tests such as questionnaires, different types of speech in noise tests, temporal gap detection, sound localization (minimum audible angle, and spectral

  9. Terbutaline: level the playing field for inhaled β2-agonists by introducing a dosing and urine threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Glenn A; Hostrup, Morten

    2017-09-01

    Terbutaline, a short-acting β2-agonist similar to salbutamol, is widely used in Europe in the treatment of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Unlike salbutamol, terbutaline requires therapeutic use exemption (TUE) for therapeutic inhaled use in competitive sport. There is now compelling evidence that supratherapeutic use of terbutaline is performance enhancing, via oral dosing and inhalation. It is likely that the ergogenic effects of terbutaline are class specific for all β2-agonists. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has introduced dosing and urine threshold and decision limits for other common β2-agonists. This allows athletes to use these drugs for therapeutic purposes while minimising the potential for doping and administrative burden of TUEs. However, no such threshold limits currently exist for terbutaline. For terbutaline, athletes can be granted a TUE, then administer the drug via inhalation at supratherapeutic doses with impunity. The introduction of threshold dosing and urine limits for terbutaline should be a high priority, given the drug's demonstrated ergogenic effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully...... account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR...

  11. Relationship Between Hair Cell Loss and Hearing Loss in Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to intense sound or ototoxic chemicals can damage the auditory hair cells of vertebrates, resulting in hearing loss. Although the relationship between such hair cell damage and auditory function is fairly established for terrestrial vertebrates, there are limited data available to understand this relationship in fishes. Although investigators have measured either the morphological damage of the inner ear or the functional deficits in the hearing of fishes, very few have directly measured both in an attempt to find a relationship between the two. Those studies that have examined both auditory hair cell damage in the inner ear and the resulting hearing loss in fishes are reviewed here. In general, there is a significant linear relationship between the number of hair cells lost and the severity of hearing threshold shifts, although this varies between species and different hair cell-damaging stimuli. After trauma to the fish ear, auditory hair cells are able to regenerate to control level densities. With this regeneration also comes a restoration of hearing. Thus there is also a significant relationship between hair cell recovery and hearing recovery in fishes.

  12. Influence of music and music preference on acceptable noise levels in listeners with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Moore, Robert E

    2007-05-01

    Acceptable noise level (ANL) is defined as the maximum level of background noise that an individual is willing to accept while listening to speech. The type of background noise does not affect ANL results with the possible exception of music. The purpose of this study was to determine if ANL for music was different from ANL for twelve-talker babble and investigate if there was a correlation between ANL for music samples and preference for those music samples. Results demonstrated that ANL for music tended to be better than ANL for twelve-talker babble, indicating listeners were more willing to accept music as a background noise than speech babble. The results further demonstrated that ANL for the music samples were not correlated with preference for the music samples, indicating that ANL for music was not related to music preference. Therefore, music appeared to be processed differently as a background noise than twelve-talker babble.

  13. The Effect of Integrated Hearing Protection Surround Levels on Sound Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    less attenuation than conventional devices at safe sound levels, enabling the understanding of spoken commands (Abel and Powlesland, 2010). The...rate of presentation of trials was approximately one every seven seconds. Guessing if uncertain was encouraged and no feedback was given about the...correctness of the judgments. At the start of the experiment a set of two practice trials/loudspeaker with feedback (i.e., 16 trials) was given to

  14. A clinical study of age related hearing loss among diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Krishnappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age related hearing loss is one of the most common chronic health conditions affecting the elderly people. With aging, risk of presbycusis and diabetes increases. Our study aims at evaluating auditory dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus aged above 50 years as compared to non-diabetic patient. We also tried to find the relation between duration of diabetes and severity of hearing loss and whether HbA1c and blood sugars levels affected the type and severity of hearing loss. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study on 106 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 90 non-diabetic patients with age and sex matched (controls was carried out during November 2011 to October 2013. All patients were evaluated for hearing loss by subjecting to pure tone audiometry and blood investigations like glycated hemoglobin, fasting and postprandial blood sugars and serum creatinine levels. Results: A prevalence of 73% hearing loss was seen in diabetics. The degree of hearing loss increased with age. There was bilateral progressive sensory neural hearing loss with right sloping curve in both diabetics as well as controls but with significantly (P < 0.001 higher loss in diabetics (at 4 KHz and 8 KHz. A significant relationship between duration of the diabetes, HbA1c and severity of hearing loss was observed. Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus was associated with higher hearing loss compared to presbycusis and hearing threshold was seen to affect all frequencies, but significantly the higher frequencies in diabetics. As duration of diabetes increased, the severity also increased. Poorer the HbA1c, more severe was the hearing loss.

  15. On the instability threshold of cobalt substituted Ni-Al ferrite at high-microwave-power levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, N.S. E-mail: nidhi@tezu.ernet.in; Srivastava, G.P

    2003-06-01

    Parallel-pump spin-wave instability in polycrystalline Ni-Al ferrite has been measured at 9.384 GHz. The ground degeneracy of Co{sup 2+} ions with concentration between 0.01 and 0.025 ions/f.u. added stoichiometrically, gives minimum losses and high-instability threshold values. Generalized instability theory for oblique pumping is used to reproduce the experimental butterfly curves. Results show a strong dependence of spin-wave linewidth on wave vector and crystalline anisotropy of cobalt.

  16. Correlation between the levels of non-specific physical symptoms and pressure pain thresholds measured by algometry in patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, D; Macedo, L; Goffredo Filho, G; Goes, C; Tesch, R

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies showed that patients with chronic TMD pain also feature increased sensitivity in other craniofacial regions, and even in remote peripheral areas, suggesting that nociceptive processing is centrally facilitated in this patient population. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of a negative correlation between the levels of non-specific physical symptoms and pressure pain thresholds measured by algometry at sites distant from the chief complaint of oro-facial pain in patients with TMD. A total of 20 female patients were evaluated comprising 11 patients diagnosed with myofascial pain (Group I of RDC/TMD) and 9 patients with arthralgia (Group III of RDC/TMD), with both reporting chronic TMD pain for at least 3 months. Patients were tested by the pressure algometry technique, and, in the same visit, clinical diagnosis and levels of non-specific physical symptoms, including pain-related issues or not, were obtained. The raw scores were then standardised into a T-score. The possible correlation between the dependent variable levels of non-specific physical symptoms and pressure pain thresholds measured by algometry at sites distant from the chief complaint of oro-facial pain was assessed with Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results were considered statistically significant, which stood a lower than 5% probability of occurring by chance (P pain-related symptoms, and experimental pressure pain thresholds in patients with painful TMD.

  17. Temporary threshold shifts at 1500 and 2000 Hz induced by loud voice signals communicated through earphones in the pinball industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idota, Nozomi; Horie, Seichi; Tsutsui, Takao; Inoue, Jinro

    2010-10-01

    To assess the risk of hearing loss among workers using earphones as communication devices at noisy worksites, we compared temporary threshold shifts (TTS) between ears on which workers wore earphones and ears on which no earphones were worn. We measured ambient noise and personal noise exposure as well as noise generated by and passed through earphones by applying frequency analysis at three pinball facilities during their hours of actual operation. We assessed hearing levels before and after a work shift (prework and postwork) of 54 workers by pure tone audiometry at six frequencies. The time-weighted averages for ambient noise and personal noise exposure exceeded 85 dB(A) and 90 dB(A), respectively. Overall sound pressure levels generated by and passing through earphones reached 109 dB(A). The one-third octave band spectrum of the earphone noise during the shift exceeded 90 dB(SPL) in the range of 315-2000 Hz. The number of ears demonstrating a TTS, defined as a shift of 10 dB or more in postwork over prework hearing thresholds, was significantly greater at 1500 and 2000 Hz among ears with earphones (P communication devices in noisy environments are exposed to high risk of hearing loss, particularly at the frequencies of 1500 and 2000 Hz. Ideally, hearing conservation programs for such workers should account for potential hearing losses at frequencies of 2000 Hz or lower frequencies induced by amplified voice signals.

  18. Hearing loss and asymmetry in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovell, Y; Sackeim, H A; Epstein, D G; Prudic, J; Devanand, D P; McElhiney, M C; Settembrino, J M; Bruder, G E

    1995-01-01

    To assess patterns of hearing loss and asymmetry in major depressive disorder (MDD), pure-tone and brief-click audiometric thresholds were measured in 59 inpatients with MDD and 40 normal control subjects. For both tasks, patients had higher bilateral thresholds, with marked hearing loss for the highest pure-tone frequency. At lower frequencies, patients displayed significant asymmetry, with poorer hearing in the left ear. After ECT, patients maintained the bilateral hearing losses; however, the baseline asymmetry resolved. These findings suggest that bilateral hearing loss may be a stable characteristic in severe depression. Poorer left ear pure-tone hearing may be present during the depressed state. The baseline asymmetry in audiometric deficits suggests right-hemisphere dysfunction in severe MDD.

  19. Alternate assessment use with students who are deaf or hard of hearing: an exploratory mixed-methods analysis of portfolio, checklists, and out-of-level test formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Wurtz, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present findings on alternate assessments for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH). Drawn from the results of the "Second National Survey of Assessments and Accommodations for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing," this study investigated three alternate assessment formats: portfolio, checklists, and out-of-level testing. Analysis includes descriptive data of alternate assessment use across all three formats, qualitative analyses of teacher perspectives, and an exploratory logistic regression analysis on predictors of alternate assessment use. This exploratory analysis looks at predictors such as state policy, educational setting, grades served, language of instruction, and participant perspectives. Results indicate that predictors at the student, teacher, and system level may influence alternate assessment use for SDHH.

  20. THE PRESENCE OF ADENOID VEGETATIONS AND NASAL SPEECH, AND HEARING LOSS IN RELATION TO SECRETORY OTITIS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela KOPACHEVA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the treatment of 68 children with secretory otitis media. Children underwent adenoid vegetations, nasal speech, conductive hearing loss, ventilation disturbance in Eustachian tube. In all children adenoidectomy was indicated.38 boys and 30 girls at the age of 3-17 were divided in two main groups: * 29 children without hypertrophic (enlarged adenoids, * 39 children with enlarged (hypertrophic adenoids.The surgical treatment included insertion of ventilation tubes and adenoidectomy where there where hypertrophic adenoids.Clinical material was analyzed according to hearing threshold, hearing level, middle ear condition estimated by pure tone audiometry and tympanometry before and after treatment. Data concerning both groups were compared.The results indicated that adenoidectomy combined with the ventilation tubes facilitates secretory otitis media heeling as well as decrease of hearing impairments. That enables prompt restoration of the hearing function as an important precondition for development of the language, social, emotional and academic development of children.

  1. [Hearing disorders with glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremmer, S; Anastassiou, G; Selbach, J M

    2014-02-01

    One of the most common sensory impairments of elderly people is hearing loss. Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Hearing and vision loss typically increase with older age. There is scientific evidence that the coincidence of hearing and vision loss is more frequent than expected by the prevalence of individual disorders. With regards to demographic changes and an aging population, in future, it is probable that the incidence of combined hearing and vision impairments will increase, representing a particular challenge not only for doctors and nurses but also a high burden for the private environment of the patients. Therefore, it is of particular importance to diagnose and to treat hearing and vision loss (dual sensory loss) as early as possible. The treatment of hearing disorders and glaucoma as well as possibly underlying systemic diseases such as circulatory disturbances is as important as responsible rehabilitation measures and the supply of hearing and low vision aids. During the last years, knowledge about the molecular biological background of hearing loss and glaucoma has continuously increased but it is currently still at the level of laboratory and animal experiments. Therefore, it remains to be seen whether and to what extent a real therapy for the underlying genetic, immunological and in particular mitochondrial disorders may be accessible in the future.

  2. Lungfish Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    and urodeles. Based on ABR and vibration measurements also on amphib - ians, lizards, snakes and alligators we can outline scenarios for the initial adaptations of the middle ear to non-tympanic hearing and assess the selection pressures later adapting the middle ear for tympanic hearing. Hearing by bone...

  3. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E; Macdonald, Ewen N; Falk, Tiago H; Voix, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Speech production in noise with varying talker-to-listener distance has been well studied for the open ear condition. However, occluding the ear canal can affect the auditory feedback and cause deviations from the models presented for the open-ear condition. Communication is a main concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise while wearing HPDs. Such a model opens the door to radio communication systems that distinguish receivers and offer more efficient communication between persons wearing HPDs. This paper presents the results of a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of occluding the ear on changes in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded quiet condition. This implies that a model can be developed to better understand speech production for the occluded ear.

  4. Prediction of hearing outcomes by multiple regression analysis in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Tabata, Takahisa; Koizumi, Hiroki; Hohchi, Nobusuke; Takeuchi, Shoko; Kitamura, Takuro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to create a multiple regression model for predicting hearing outcomes of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). The participants were 205 consecutive patients (205 ears) with ISSNHL (hearing level ≥ 40 dB, interval between onset and treatment ≤ 30 days). They received systemic steroid administration combined with intratympanic steroid injection. Data were examined by simple and multiple regression analyses. Three hearing indices (percentage hearing improvement, hearing gain, and posttreatment hearing level [HLpost]) and 7 prognostic factors (age, days from onset to treatment, initial hearing level, initial hearing level at low frequencies, initial hearing level at high frequencies, presence of vertigo, and contralateral hearing level) were included in the multiple regression analysis as dependent and explanatory variables, respectively. In the simple regression analysis, the percentage hearing improvement, hearing gain, and HLpost showed significant correlation with 2, 5, and 6 of the 7 prognostic factors, respectively. The multiple correlation coefficients were 0.396, 0.503, and 0.714 for the percentage hearing improvement, hearing gain, and HLpost, respectively. Predicted values of HLpost calculated by the multiple regression equation were reliable with 70% probability with a 40-dB-width prediction interval. Prediction of HLpost by the multiple regression model may be useful to estimate the hearing prognosis of ISSNHL. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Low empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (preadolescents compared to normal hearing controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk P Netten

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (preadolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy.The study group (mean age 11.9 years consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children's level of empathy, their attendance to others' emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior.Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children.Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships.

  6. Evaluation of Age-Related Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is characterized by an increased hearing threshold and poor speech understanding in a noisy environment, slowed central processing of acoustic information, and impaired localization of sound sources. Presbycusis seriously affects the older people's quality of life. Particularly, hearing loss in the elderly contributes to social isolation, depression, and loss of self-esteem. Current amplification methods related to auditory rehabilitation can provide imp...

  7. Behavioral manifestations of audiometrically-defined "slight" or "hidden" hearing loss revealed by measures of binaural detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Leslie R; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed whether audiometrically-defined "slight" or "hidden" hearing losses might be associated with degradations in binaural processing as measured in binaural detection experiments employing interaurally delayed signals and maskers. Thirty-one listeners participated, all having no greater than slight hearing losses (i.e., no thresholds greater than 25 dB HL). Across the 31 listeners and consistent with the findings of Bernstein and Trahiotis [(2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, EL474-EL479] binaural detection thresholds at 500 Hz and 4 kHz increased with increasing magnitude of interaural delay, suggesting a loss of precision of coding with magnitude of interaural delay. Binaural detection thresholds were consistently found to be elevated for listeners whose absolute thresholds at 4 kHz exceeded 7.5 dB HL. No such elevations were observed in conditions having no binaural cues available to aid detection (i.e., "monaural" conditions). Partitioning and analyses of the data revealed that those elevated thresholds (1) were more attributable to hearing level than to age and (2) result from increased levels of internal noise. The data suggest that listeners whose high-frequency monaural hearing status would be classified audiometrically as being normal or "slight loss" may exhibit substantial and perceptually meaningful losses of binaural processing.

  8. The development and standardization of Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo; Kim, Gungu; Han, Woojae; Kim, Jinsook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to develop and standardize a screening tool for elderly people who wish to check for themselves their level of hearing loss. Methods The Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly (SHSE) consisted of 20 questions based on the characteristics of presbycusis using a five-point scale: seven questions covered general issues related to sensorineural hearing loss, seven covered hearing difficulty under distracting listening conditions, two covered hearing difficulty with fast-rated speech, and four covered the working memory function during communication. To standardize SHSE, 83 elderly participants took part in the study: 25 with normal hearing, and 22, 23, and 13 with mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, respectively, according to their hearing sensitivity. All were retested 3 weeks later using the same questionnaire to confirm its reliability. In addition, validity was assessed using various hearing tests such as a sentence test with background noise, a time-compressed speech test, and a digit span test. Results SHSE and its subcategories showed good internal consistency. SHSE and its subcategories demonstrated high test–retest reliability. A high correlation was observed between the total scores and pure-tone thresholds, which indicated gradually increased SHSE scores of 42.24%, 55.27%, 66.61%, and 78.15% for normal hearing, mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe groups, respectively. With regard to construct validity, SHSE showed a high negative correlation with speech perception scores in noise and a moderate negative correlation with scores of time-compressed speech perception. However, there was no statistical correlation between digit span results and either the SHSE total or its subcategories. A confirmatory factor analysis supported three factors in SHSE. Conclusion We found that the developed SHSE had valuable internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and convergent and construct

  9. 10 Ways to Protect Your Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jennifer Stewart

    2011-01-01

    There are physical symptoms related to noise overexposure--difficulty with communication, ringing in the ears, temporary hearing loss (a.k.a. temporary threshold shift), noise-induced hearing loss--as well as psychological symptoms, such as irritability and psychological fatigue. Since both the physical and psychological symptoms of noise…

  10. Crossing the threshold: gene flow, dominance and the critical level of standing genetic variation required for adaptation to novel environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuismer, S L; MacPherson, A; Rosenblum, E B

    2012-12-01

    Genetic architecture plays an important role in the process of adaptation to novel environments. One example is the role of allelic dominance, where advantageous recessive mutations have a lower probability of fixation than advantageous dominant mutations. This classic observation, termed 'Haldane's sieve', has been well explored theoretically for single isolated populations adapting to new selective regimes. However, the role of dominance is less well understood for peripheral populations adapting to novel environments in the face of recurrent and maladaptive gene flow. Here, we use a combination of analytical approximations and individual-based simulations to explore how dominance influences the likelihood of adaptation to novel peripheral environments. We demonstrate that in the face of recurrent maladaptive gene flow, recessive alleles can fuel adaptation only when their frequency exceeds a critical threshold within the ancestral range.

  11. Estimate of Threshold Level of Inflation in China%中国通货膨胀门限值的实证检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱映凤; 傅强; 袁晨

    2011-01-01

    Regarding threshold level of inflation above which inflation will exert negative impact on economic growth as research subject, this study estimated the threshold level of inflation in China from the year 1978 to 2009 using the threshold regression model which was developed by Khan and other scholars.The estimated model contains four regressors of economic growth rate,inflation rate, population growth rate and industrial added value growth rate.The result suggests that the optimal threshold level of inflation in China is 5 percent.When inflation exceeds 5 percent, it will obviously exert negative impact on economic growth.The existence of the threshold level of inflation not only formulates a specific digital target that keeping inflation below 5 percent for China’s central bank to implement monetary policy, but also helps to expand the discussion of implementation of inflation targeting in China, improves the operation of inflation target quanfizafion and forcast, and provides important support for implementation of inflation targeting in China.%以通货膨胀在何种水平下将对经济增长产生负面影响的通货膨胀门限值为研究对象,借鉴Khan等研究通货膨胀结构断点的方法,建立包括经济增长率、通货膨胀率、人口增长率和工业增加值增长率在内的四元变量门限值回归模型,估计1978年至2009年中国通货膨胀的最优门限值水平.研究结果表明,中国通货膨胀的最优门限值为5%,当通货膨胀超过5%时将时经济增长带来显著的负面影响.最优通货膨胀门限值的存在不仅为中国中央银行实施货币政策制定了一个特定的数字目标,即保持通货膨胀在5%以下,还拓展了通货膨胀目标制在中国实施的讨论,在技术层面上完善了中国通货膨胀目标量化和预测的可操作性,为中国通货膨胀目标制的实施提供重要支持.

  12. Maximizing allele detection: Effects of analytical threshold and DNA levels on rates of allele and locus drop-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakay, Christine A; Bregu, Joli; Grgicak, Catherine M

    2012-12-01

    Interpretation of DNA evidence depends upon the ability of the analyst to accurately compare the DNA profile obtained from an item of evidence and the DNA profile of a standard. This interpretation becomes progressively more difficult as the number of 'drop-out' and 'drop-in' events increase. Analytical thresholds (AT) are typically selected to ensure the false detection of noise is minimized. However, there exists a tradeoff between the erroneous labeling of noise as alleles and the false non-detection of alleles (i.e. drop-out). In this study, the effect ATs had on both types of error was characterized. Various ATs were tested, where three relied upon the analysis of baseline signals obtained from 31 negative samples. The fourth AT was determined by utilizing the relationship between RFU signal and DNA input. The other ATs were the commonly employed 50, 150 and 200 RFU thresholds. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) plots showed that although high ATs completely negated the false labeling of noise, DNA analyzed with ATs derived using analysis of the baseline signal exhibited the lowest rates of drop-out and the lowest total error rates. In another experiment, the effect small changes in ATs had on drop-out was examined. This study showed that as the AT increased from ∼10 to 60 RFU, the number of heterozygous loci exhibiting the loss of one allele increased. Between ATs of 60 and 150 RFU, the frequency of allelic drop-out remained constant at 0.27 (±0.02) and began to decrease when ATs of 150 RFU or greater were utilized. In contrast, the frequency of heterozygous loci exhibiting the loss of both alleles consistently increased with AT. In summary, for samples amplified with less than 0.5ng of DNA, ATs derived from baseline analysis of negatives were shown to decrease the frequency of drop-out by a factor of 100 without significantly increasing rates of erroneous noise detection.

  13. Abnormal auditory mismatch response in tinnitus sufferers with high-frequency hearing loss is associated with subjective distress level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is an auditory sensation frequently following hearing loss. After cochlear injury, deafferented neurons become sensitive to neighbouring intact edge-frequencies, guiding an enhanced central representation of these frequencies. As psychoacoustical data 123 indicate enhanced frequency discrimination ability for edge-frequencies that may be related to a reorganization within the auditory cortex, the aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to search for abnormal auditory mismatch responses in tinnitus sufferers and 2 relate these to subjective indicators of tinnitus. Results Using EEG-mismatch negativity, we demonstrate abnormalities (N = 15 in tinnitus sufferers that are specific to frequencies located at the audiometrically normal lesion-edge as compared to normal hearing controls (N = 15. Groups also differed with respect to the cortical locations of mismatch responsiveness. Sources in the 90–135 ms latency window were generated in more anterior brain regions in the tinnitus group. Both measures of abnormality correlated with emotional-cognitive distress related to tinnitus (r ~ .76. While these two physiological variables were uncorrelated in the control group, they were correlated in the tinnitus group (r = .72. Concerning relationships with parameters of hearing loss (depth and slope, slope turned out to be an important variable. Generally, the steeper the hearing loss is the less distress related to tinnitus was reported. The associations between slope and the relevant neurophysiological variables are in agreement with this finding. Conclusions The present study is the first to show near-to-complete separation of tinnitus sufferers from a normal hearing control group based on neurophysiological variables. The finding of lesion-edge specific effects and associations with slope of hearing loss corroborates the assumption that hearing loss is the basis for tinnitus development. It is likely that some central

  14. [In vivo studies of a piezoelectric implantable hearing aid transducer in the cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plinkert, P K; Baumann, J W; Lenarz, T; Keiner, S; Leysieffer, H; Zenner, H P

    1997-10-01

    Recently, we presented an implantable piezoelectrical hearing aid transducer. Its characteristics make it suitable for implantation in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. The transducer transmits micromechanical vibrations instead of sound into the hearing organ. Efficiency of the transducer implant was investigated in ten cat ears. After determining preoperative (acoustical) BERA threshold, the middle ear was opened and the piezoelectrical transducer coupled to various ossicles or the perilymph. BERA responses were recorded following stimulation of umbo, long incus process, stapes head, stapes foot plate, and vestibulum. By comparing the acoustical and mechanical threshold, a correlation was found between the stimulus level of acoustical and mechanical stimulation. An electrical transducer voltage of 1 Vrms was equivalent to sound-pressure levels between 100 and 128 dB SPL at the tympanic membrane. To judge hearing impression, stimulus-dependent latencies of the early acoustically and mechanically evoked potentials (waves P1 to P5) and their thresholds were analyzed. After coupling the piezoelectrical transducer to the long incus process, latencies corresponded well to stimulation. They were almost completely similar when the equivalent sound-pressure level of 100 dB SPL was achieved by the transducer voltage level.

  15. Hearing Changes After Intratympanically Applied Steroids for Primary Therapy of Sudden Hearing Loss: A Meta-analysis Using Mathematical Simulations of Drug Delivery Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebau, Arne; Pogorzelski, Olivia; Salt, Alec N; Plontke, Stefan K

    2017-01-01

    Controlled and uncontrolled studies with primary intratympanic or combined intratympanic and systemic application of glucocorticosteroids for idiopathic sudden hearing loss were analyzed by means of a meta-analysis in an attempt to establish optimal local drug delivery protocols. A total of 25 studies with 28 treatment groups between January 2000 and June 2014 were selected that adequately described drug delivery protocols. Cochlear drug levels were calculated by a validated computer model of drug dispersion in the inner ear fluids based on the concentration and volume of glucocorticoids applied, the time the drug remained in the middle ear, and the specific timing of injections. Various factors were compared with hearing outcome, including baseline data, individual parameters of the application protocols, calculated peak concentration (Cmax), and total dose (area under the curve). There was no dependence of hearing outcome on individual parameters of the application protocol, Cmax, or area under the curve. Final hearing threshold was notably independent of delay of treatment. During primary intratympanic or combined steroid therapy of idiopathic sudden hearing loss, the tendency toward early treatment having a positive effect on hearing improvement is thought to be a "sham effect," likely related to spontaneous recovery. Change in pure-tone average may not be an adequate outcome parameter to assess effectiveness of the intervention, as it depends on the degree of initial hearing loss. Final pure-tone average provides a better alternative.

  16. Comparison of Nursing Home Hearing Handicap Index with Audiological Findings: A Presbycusis Study

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    M. H. Nilforoush

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing evaluation usually includes hearing threshold assessment, middle ear function, and word recognition tests that lead to an accurate result of peripheral and central auditory system. However, they have some limitations because they cannot fully encompass all aspects of hearing loss problems. Using self-assessment approach, via a questionnaire or telephone survey, is one of the easiest methods to study hearing loss in population. In this research, 60 nursing home residents (27 females and 33 males ranging from 55 to 85 years with a mean age of were studied via completing self-assessment questionnaire by the elderly cases (NHHI self-version and the other one was filled by the nursing home personnel (NHHI staff-version. The effects of the hearing loss level on the self- and staff-version scores indicated that there is a significant relationship between self- and staff-version with hearing loss levels ( in male and female. Results from this study demonstrate the usefulness of NHHI questionnaire for evaluating hearing handicap of aged people and it may be a useful adjunct in setting up treatment and determining proper care.

  17. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2013-01-01

    , an interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system......Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper...

  18. Association Between Hearing Impairment and Albuminuria With or Without Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Da Jung; Lee, Jae Ho; Kim, Taehoon; Kim, Hak-Geon; Lee, Jae Young; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2017-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the accurate association between hearing loss (HL) and albuminuria in patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of our study was to identify the clinical effects of albuminuria on HL with or without DM. This study included 9,762 patients from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2011 and 2013. Participants were divided into 4 groups based on DM and urine albumin/creatinine ratio levels: group 1 included participants with neither DM nor albuminuria, group 2 included participants without DM and with albuminuria, group 3 included patients with DM and without albuminuria, and group 4 included patients with both DM and albuminuria. The low- or mid-frequency and high-frequency, and average hearing threshold values were obtained. There were 7,508, 545, 1,325, and 384 participants in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the 3 hearing thresholds in group 1 were the lowest and those in group 4 were the highest among the 4 groups. No significant differences were observed in those thresholds between groups 2 and 3. Group 4 was associated with HL compared with the other groups, but moderate to severe HL was not associated with DM or albuminuria. The presence of albuminuria was associated with a modest effect on hearing thresholds regardless of presence of DM.

  19. Nicotine Addiction and Hearing Loss in Young Subjects From Beirut, Lebanon

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    El Zir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Many studies have established an association between cigarette smoking and Hearing Loss (HL mostly in subjects working in noisy places. However, few studies are devoted to the relationship between environmental noise and smoking through nicotine addiction. Objectives The present study aimed to examine the effect of nicotine dependence on hearing loss and its association with environmental (non-occupational noise among young subjects in Beirut. Patients and Methods The study recruited smokers (100 and non-smokers as a reference group (100 aged 21 to 50 years living in noisy or quiet areas of Beirut [70 to 90 A-weighted decibels (dBA]. After filling out a questionnaire related to medical history and lifestyle risk factors, including smoking and exposure to noise, each volunteer was subject to a hearing assessment including otoscopy and screening pure-tone air. The incidence of hearing loss was defined as a pure-tone average of thresholds at 2000, 4000 and 8000 Hz greater than 25-dB hearing level in either ear. Smokers were referred to perform the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence. A saliva sample was also collected from all subjects for cotinine determination, a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke. Results The obtained results showed that smoking is associated with hearing loss at 8000Hz after age 40. Current smokers are 1.73 times as likely to have hearing loss as nonsmokers (P < 0.05. Saliva cotinine levels were divided into three categories: group 1 (< 15 ng/mL, group 2 (16 - 75 ng/mL and group 3 (76 - 125 ng/mL. The incidence of hearing loss in each group was, respectively, 13 %, 16% and 23% (P < 0.05. Conclusions The significant difference between groups 1 and 3 permits to establish a correlation between degree of nicotine addiction and hearing loss. However, further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms leading to hearing loss.

  20. Residual Hearing Preservation with the Evo® Cochlear Implant Electrode Array: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Danieli, Fabiana; Magalhães, Ana Tereza de Matos; Gnansia, Dan; Hoen, Michel

    2016-10-01

    Introduction The preservation of residual hearing is currently an important challenge for cochlear implant surgeries. Indeed, if patients exhibit functional hearing after cochlear implantation, they can benefit from the combination of acoustical stimulation, usually in the low-frequencies and electrical stimulation in the high-frequencies. This combined mode of stimulation has proven to be beneficial both in terms of speech perception and of sound quality. Finding the right procedures for conducting soft-surgeries and designing electrode arrays dedicated to hearing preservation is an open issue. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the combination of a soft-surgery procedure implicating round-window insertion and the use of dexamethasone and hyaluronic acid during surgery, with the use of a specifically designed straight soft electrode array, on hearing preservation in patients with functional hearing in the low frequencies. Methods This pre-clinical trial was conducted on seven patients with residual hearing in the low frequencies. The surgical method used employed a round window insertion and the use of topical dexamethasone. Results The soft-surgery protocol could be successfully followed in five patients. In this group, the average hearing threshold shift compared with pre-operative values was of 18.7 +/- 16.1 dB HL up to 500 Hz and 15.7 +/- 15.1 up to 1 kHz, demonstrating satisfying levels of hearing preservation. Conclusion We were able to demonstrate the possibility of preserving residual hearing in most of the patients using the EVO electrode. Significant residual hearing preservation levels were was obtained when a soft surgical approach involving round window insertion, dexamethasone and hyaluronic use during the surgery.

  1. Hearing complaints and the audiological profile of the users of an academic health center in the western region of São Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; de Andrade, Camila Quintiliano; Pereira, Marília Barbieri; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Few population-based studies have quantified hearing levels in Brazil; additional studies on this subject are needed. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize hearing complaints and the audiological profile of the population served by the Clinical Audiology Service of an Academic Health Center in the western region of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2003 and 2008. An additional aim was to check whether there is a positive association between the signs/symptoms and type of hearing loss. Methods: This was a retrospective study of the records of 2,145 patients. The health history, tonal and vocal audiometry, and imitanciometry findings were analyzed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 20.6 years. The majority of the subjects had normal hearing thresholds, and the prevalence of hearing loss was approximately 35%. As the patient's age increased, the frequency of conductive hearing loss decreased and that of sensorineural hearing loss increased. There was a tendency toward hearing loss worsening with age. Conclusion: Hearing complaints can predict the type of hearing loss; therefore, they should always be valued because they can be used as a form of screening and thus help to determine the diagnostic hypothesis. This could help to reduce the gap between the patient's perception of the complaints and the audiological assessment and thus improve the prognosis. PMID:25992004

  2. Hearing complaints and the audiological profile of the users of an academic health center in the western region of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samelli, Alessandra Giannella

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few population-based studies have quantified hearing levels in Brazil; additional studies on this subject are needed. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize hearing complaints and the audiological profile of the population served by the Clinical Audiology Service of an Academic Health Center in the western region of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2003 and 2008. An additional aim was to check whether there is a positive association between the signs/symptoms and type of hearing loss. Methods: This was a retrospective study of the records of 2,145 patients. The health history, tonal and vocal audiometry, and imitanciometry findings were analyzed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 20.6 years. The majority of the subjects had normal hearing thresholds, and the prevalence of hearing loss was approximately 35%. As the patient's age increased, the frequency of conductive hearing loss decreased and that of sensorineural hearing loss increased. There was a tendency toward hearing loss worsening with age. Conclusion: Hearing complaints can predict the type of hearing loss; therefore, they should always be valued because they can be used as a form of screening and thus help to determine the diagnostic hypothesis. This could help to reduce the gap between the patient's perception of the complaints and the audiological assessment and thus improve the prognosis.

  3. Factors influencing the choice of prescribed hearing aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ljubica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we would like to emphasize the complexity of hearing aid prescription process. It is connected to a series of factors which impact the choice of hearing aid; type of hearing loss, degree of hearing loss according to the average hearing threshold expressed within the range from 500 Hz to 4000 Hz on a tonal audiogram, audiometric curve configuration, speech discrimination ability, patients’ age at which the hearing impairment occurred, time elapsed between the occurrence of hearing impairment and prescription of a hearing aid, patients’ age, physical and mental health and their cognitive function, anatomical characteristics of the auricle and external auditory canal, patient and parent motivation, cosmetic factors, financial abilities, cooperation with hearing aids manufacturers. This paper is important for everyday practice and can be used as a kind of guideline to the hearing aid prescription process.

  4. Factors influencing the choice of prescribed hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivić, Ljubica; Zivić, Danijela

    2012-01-01

    In our paper we would like to emphasize the complexity of hearing aid prescription process. It is connected to a series of factors which impact the choice of hearing aid; type of hearing loss, degree of hearing loss according to the average hearing threshold expressed within the range from 500 Hz to 4000 Hz on a tonal audiogram, audiometric curve configuration, speech discrimination ability, patients' age at which the hearing impairment occurred, time elapsed between the occurrence of hearing impairment and prescription of a hearing aid, patients' age, physical and mental health and their cognitive function, anatomical characteristics of the auricle and external auditory canal, patient and parent motivation, cosmetic factors, financial abilities, cooperation with hearing aids manufacturers. This paper is important for everyday practice and can be used as a kind of guideline to the hearing aid prescription process.

  5. Hearing aid fitting in older persons with hearing impairment: the influence of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss on hearing aid benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meister H

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hartmut Meister,1 Sebastian Rählmann,1 Martin Walger,2 Sabine Margolf-Hackl,3 Jürgen Kießling3 1Jean Uhrmacher Institute for Clinical ENT-Research, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 3Department of Othorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany Purpose: To examine the association of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss with clinically assessed hearing aid benefit in older hearing-impaired persons.Methods: Hearing aid benefit was assessed using objective measures regarding speech recognition in quiet and noisy environments as well as a subjective measure reflecting everyday situations captured using a standardized questionnaire. A broad range of general cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and intelligence were determined using different neuropsychological tests. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the outcome of the neuropsychological tests as well as age and hearing loss as independent variables and the benefit measures as dependent variables. Thirty experienced older hearing aid users with typical age-related hearing impairment participated.Results: Most of the benefit measures revealed that the participants obtained significant improvement with their hearing aids. Regression models showed a significant relationship between a fluid intelligence measure and objective hearing aid benefit. When individual hearing thresholds were considered as an additional independent variable, hearing loss was the only significant contributor to the benefit models. Lower cognitive capacity – as determined by the fluid intelligence measure – was significantly associated with greater hearing loss. Subjective benefit could not be predicted by any of the variables considered.Conclusion: The present study does not give evidence that hearing aid benefit is critically associated with cognitive

  6. Towards a Molecular Understanding of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0500 TITLE: Towards a Molecular Understanding of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ronna...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Towards a Molecular Understanding of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0500 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...investigation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Permanent threshold shift, Temporary threshold shift, Noise induced hearing loss , Ribotag, RNA-seq, hair cell, supporting cell

  7. Hearing impairment and ear pathology in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, P; Bridges, A; Guragain, R; Friedman, D; Prasad, R; Weir, N

    1993-05-01

    A stratified random cluster sample of 15,845 subjects was performed in two regions of Nepal to determine the prevalence and main causes of hearing impairment (the most common disability) and the prevalence of ear disease. Subjects reporting current ear pain, or ear discharge, or hearing impairment on direct questioning by a Nepali health worker (primary screening failed), had otoscopy and audiometry (using the Liverpool Field Audiometer) performed, and a questionnaire administered relating to past history. In every fifth house subjects who passed the primary screening (1,716 subjects) were examined to assess the false negative rate of screening. An estimated 16.6 per cent of the study population have hearing impairment (either ear worse than 30 dB hearing threshold level (HTL) 1.0-4.0 kHz, or 50 dB HTL 0.5 kHz), and 7.4 per cent ear drum pathology, equivalent to respectively 2.71 and 1.48 million people extrapolated to the whole of Nepal. Most hearing impairment in the school age group (55.2 per cent) is associated with otitis media or its sequelae. Probably at least 14 per cent of sensorineural deafness is preventable (7 per cent infectious disease, 3.9 per cent trauma, 0.8 per cent noise exposure, 1 per cent cretinism, and 1 per cent abnormal pregnancy or labour). Most individuals reporting current ear pathology (61 per cent) had never attended a health post, and of those receiving ear drop treatment, 84 per cent still had serious pathology. Of subjects who reported ear drop treatment at any time, 31 per cent still had serious pathology. The use of traditional remedies was prevalent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Progestin negatively affects hearing in aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Patricia; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Tadros, Sherif F; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2006-09-19

    Female hormone influences on auditory system aging are not completely understood. Because of widespread clinical use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it is critical to understand HRT effects on sensory systems. The present study retrospectively analyzed and compared hearing abilities among 124 postmenopausal women taking HRT, treated with estrogen and progestin (E+P; n = 32), estrogen alone (E; n = 30), and a third [non-hormone replacement therapy (NHRT; n = 62)] control group. Subjects were 60-86 years old and were matched for age and health status. All had relatively healthy medical histories and no significant noise exposure, middle-ear problems, or major surgeries. Hearing tests included pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), transient otoacoustic emissions, and the hearing-in-noise test (HINT). The HINT tests for speech perception in background noise, the major complaint of hearing-impaired persons. Pure-tone thresholds in both ears were elevated (poorer) for the E+P relative to the E and control groups. For DPOAEs, the E+P group presented with lower (worse) levels than the E and control groups, with significant differences for both ears. For the HINT results, the E+P group had poorer speech perception than the E and control groups across all background noise speaker locations and in quiet. These findings suggest that the presence of P as a component of HRT results in poorer hearing abilities in aged women taking HRT, affecting both the peripheral (ear) and central (brain) auditory systems, and it interferes with the perception of speech in background noise.

  9. Hearing Loss: Diagnosis and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazove, Philip; Atcherson, Samuel R; Moreland, Christopher; McKee, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    Hearing loss is a common disability in the United States, most frequent among men, elderly individuals, and veterans but is increasingly affecting other younger adults. Types of hearing loss include sensorineural, conductive, and mixed. Hearing loss in children often is related to infections, time spent in a neonatal intensive care unit, and genetic etiologies. Presbycusis (ie, age-related hearing loss) is the most common etiology in adults. Adverse effects of untreated hearing loss include isolation, depression, lower income, and higher unemployment. Hearing aid use reduces levels of disability, cognitive impairment, and psychosocial distress while improving quality of life. At least 75% of individuals with hearing loss are not receiving treatment for it. All infants should be screened for hearing loss, as should children and adults with risk factors. The Joint Commission on Infant Hearing Screening has a 1-3-6 goal for screening: identification by age 1 month, confirmation by age 3 months, and intervention by age 6 months. The presence of an ongoing physician-patient relationship increases the likelihood that a patient will admit to having a hearing loss. Adults can be screened using single-question or standardized instrument screens. All patients with suspected hearing loss should undergo audiometry by an audiology subspecialist.

  10. Determining the Threshold Levels of Economic Security of the Region’s Territorial Systems on the Basis of Models of Discriminant Analysis and Euclidean Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilko Andriy D.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to highlight the results of the analysis of existing approaches to statement and solution of problems of evaluating the economic security level of the region in the context of its territorial systems, and develop the author’s own scientific and methodical approach to evaluating the economic security level of the region’s territorial systems and modeling its threshold values on the basis of discriminant analysis and Euclidean distance. In view of the available statistical information, taking into account the results of our own previous studies of the problematic of economic security management, there calculated the integral index of economic security for territorial systems of the region, as well as the index of social tension in the territorial systems of the region, which became the basis for the development of discriminant models of determining security threshold levels. The analysis of the results obtained after using the discriminant models as well as models developed on the basis of the analysis of the weighted Euclidean distance has shown that they are comparable and complementary in their nature. In other words, the proposed methodologies can be successfully used in the practice of formulating strategies and target programs of regional development.

  11. How do albino fish hear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, W; Ladich, F

    2011-03-01

    Pigmentation disorders such as albinism are occasionally associated with hearing impairments in mammals. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether such a phenomenon also exists in non-mammalian vertebrates. We measured the hearing abilities of normally pigmented and albinotic specimens of two catfish species, the European wels Silurus glanis (Siluridae) and the South American bronze catfish Corydoras aeneus (Callichthyidae). The non-invasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) recording technique was utilized to determine hearing thresholds at 10 frequencies from 0.05 to 5 kHz. Neither auditory sensitivity nor shape of AEP waveforms differed between normally pigmented and albinotic specimens at any frequency tested in both species. Silurus glanis and C. aeneus showed the best hearing between 0.3 and 1 kHz; the lowest thresholds were 78.4 dB at 0.5 kHz in S. glanis (pigmented), 75 dB at 1 kHz in S. glanis (albinotic), 77.6 dB at 0.5 kHz in C. aeneus (pigmented) and 76.9 dB at 1 kHz in C. aeneus (albinotic). This study indicates no association between albinism and hearing ability. Perhaps because of the lack of melanin in the fish inner ear, hearing in fishes is less likely to be affected by albinism than in mammals.

  12. Characterization of hearing loss in aged type II diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Kim, SungHee; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Presbycusis - age-related hearing loss - is the number one communicative disorder and a significant chronic medical condition of the aged. Little is known about how type II diabetes, another prevalent age-related medical condition, and presbycusis interact. The present investigation aimed to comprehensively characterize the nature of hearing impairment in aged type II diabetics. Hearing tests measuring both peripheral (cochlea) and central (brainstem and cortex) auditory processing were utilized. The majority of differences between the hearing abilities of the aged diabetics and their age-matched controls were found in measures of inner ear function. For example, large differences were found in pure-tone audiograms, wideband noise and speech reception thresholds, and otoacoustic emissions. The greatest deficits tended to be at low frequencies. In addition, there was a strong tendency for diabetes to affect the right ear more than the left. One possible interpretation is that as one develops presbycusis, the right ear advantage is lost, and this decline is accelerated by diabetes. In contrast, auditory processing tests that measure both peripheral and central processing showed fewer declines between the elderly diabetics and the control group. Consequences of elevated blood sugar levels as possible underlying physiological mechanisms for the hearing loss are discussed.

  13. From individual to population level effects of toxicants in the tubicifid Branchiura sowerbyi using threshold effect models in a Bayesian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Billoir, Elise; Péry, Alexandre R R; Garric, Jeanne; Charles, Sandrine

    2010-05-01

    Effects of zinc were studied in the freshwater worm Branchiura sowerbyi using partial and full life-cycle tests. Only newborn and juveniles were sensitive to zinc, displaying effects on survival, growth, and age at first brood at environmentally relevant concentrations. Threshold effect models were proposed to assess toxic effects on individuals. They were fitted to life-cycle test data using Bayesian inference and adequately described life-history trait data in exposed organisms. The daily asymptotic growth rate of theoretical populations was then simulated with a matrix population model, based upon individual-level outputs. Population-level outputs were in accordance with existing literature for controls. Working in a Bayesian framework allowed incorporating parameter uncertainty in the simulation of the population-level response to zinc exposure, thus increasing the relevance of test results in the context of ecological risk assessment.

  14. Assessment of hearing and hearing disorders in rock/jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähärit, Kim; Zachau, Gunilla; Eklöf, Mats; Sandsjö, Leif; Möller, Claes

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess hearing and hearing disorders among rock/jazz musicians. One hundred and thirty-nine (43 women and 96 men) musicians participated. The results are based on pure-tone audiometry and questionnaire responses. According to our definition of hearing loss, tinnitus, hyperacusis, distortion and/or diplacusis as hearing disorders, we found disorders in 74%, of the rock/jazz musicians studied. Hearing loss, tinnitus and hyperacusis were most common, and the latter two were found significantly more frequently than in different reference populations. The women showed bilateral, significantly better hearing thresholds at 3-6 kHz than the men. Hyperacusis, and the combination of both hyperacusis and tinnitus, were found to be significantly more frequent among women than among men. Hearing loss and tinnitus were significantly more common among men than among women. It is important to evaluate all kinds of hearing problems (other than hearing loss) in musicians, since they represent an occupational group especially dependent on optimal, functional hearing. On the basis of our results, we suggest that hearing problems such as tinnitus, hyperacusis, distortion and/or diplacusis should, in addition to hearing loss, be defined as hearing disorders.

  15. Prediction of speech intelligibility in spatial noise and reverberation for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutelmann, Rainer; Brand, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Binaural speech intelligibility of individual listeners under realistic conditions was predicted using a model consisting of a gammatone filter bank, an independent equalization-cancellation (EC) process in each frequency band, a gammatone resynthesis, and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Hearing loss was simulated by adding uncorrelated masking noises (according to the pure-tone audiogram) to the ear channels. Speech intelligibility measurements were carried out with 8 normal-hearing and 15 hearing-impaired listeners, collecting speech reception threshold (SRT) data for three different room acoustic conditions (anechoic, office room, cafeteria hall) and eight directions of a single noise source (speech in front). Artificial EC processing errors derived from binaural masking level difference data using pure tones were incorporated into the model. Except for an adjustment of the SII-to-intelligibility mapping function, no model parameter was fitted to the SRT data of this study. The overall correlation coefficient between predicted and observed SRTs was 0.95. The dependence of the SRT of an individual listener on the noise direction and on room acoustics was predicted with a median correlation coefficient of 0.91. The effect of individual hearing impairment was predicted with a median correlation coefficient of 0.95. However, for mild hearing losses the release from masking was overestimated.

  16. Noise-induced hearing impairment and handicap

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    A permanent, noise-induced hearing loss has doubly harmful effect on speech communications. First, the elevation in the threshold of hearing means that many speech sounds are too weak to be heard, and second, very intense speech sounds may appear to be distorted. The whole question of the impact of noise-induced hearing loss upon the impairments and handicaps experienced by people with such hearing losses was somewhat controversial partly because of the economic aspects of related practical noise control and workmen's compensation.

  17. Sudden hearing loss: Our experiences in treatment with vasoactive and corticosteroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ljubica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sudden hearing loss is a clinical entity of ambiguously defined aetiology manifested by hearing loss of more than 30 dB on three contiguous frequencies occurring within 72 hours. The lack of standard therapy protocol led to the use of variety of different therapies, thus making difficult objective quantification of their effect. Objective. The aim of the study was to present our experience in the treatment of sudden hearing loss with administration of vasoactive and corticosteroid therapy. Methods. Our research included 59 hospitally treated patients with a sudden hearing loss. During the period 1995-2004, 37 patients were treated using vasoactive agents (xanthinol nicotinate and pentoxifylline, and from 2004-2009, 22 patients were treated using parenteral corticosteroids (dexamethasone. All patients had unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of different level at frequencies from 500-4000 Hz, while other diagnostic procedures (laboratory tests, internist and neurology examinations, X-ray were within normal limits. Evaluation of therapy effect was done by follow-up of hearing threshold changes and subjective complaints. Results. The results showed that full recovery was achieved in patients with a mild and not fully severe hearing loss, with the majority of those (73% under corticosteroid treatment. In these patients recovery was also achieved more rapidly. A partial recovery of hearing was detected in patients with hearing loss of more than 80 dB, and mostly in patients treated with corticosteroids. Conclusion. Although statistical evaluation does not indicate significant differences between the application of vasoactive drugs or corticosteroids, clinical findings support advantages of corticosteroid therapy. Treatment of hearing loss, although controversial, requires change of some up-to-now used agents. Advantages should go in favour of contricosteroids.

  18. What's Hearing Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches What's Hearing Loss? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Hearing Loss? Print A ... brain, allowing you to hear. continue Types of Hearing Loss There are a few different types of hearing ...

  19. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... are some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed ...

  20. Hearing Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Hearing Assistive Technology Hearing Assistive Technology: FM Systems | Infrared Systems | Induction ... Assistive Technology Systems Solutions What are hearing assistive technology systems (HATS)? Hearing assistive technology systems (HATS) are ...

  1. An Electroacoustic Hearing Protector Simulator That Accurately Predicts Pressure Levels in the Ear Based on Standard Performance Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    dynamics of hearing hazard from continuous noise exposure is a mature field. As a result, national and international standards exist regarding...f Qf f Qf f f f KfA efA Qf fj f f K V VfA Cfj IVI CCfj RIILfjV j ni out V out V ni θ ππ π θ where | A(f) | is the magnitude and θ is the

  2. In vivo experiments in the cat with an implantable piezoelectric hearing aid transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plinkert, P K; Baumann, J W; Lenarz, T; Keiner, S; Leysieffer, H; Zenner, H P

    2000-01-01

    We have recently developed an implantable piezoelectric hearing aid transducer that is suitable for implantation in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. The transducer does not transmit sound but conducts micromechanical vibrations to the cochlea. In ten cat ears we investigated the efficiency of the implantable transducer with respect to the direct transfer of vibrations within the audible frequency range via the ossicles to the cochlea or directly into the vestibule. The acoustically evoked brainstem potential (ABR) threshold was determined prior to implantation, and the middle ear was then opened and the piezoelectric transducer coupled to the ossicles or to the perilymph. Acoustically evoked brainstem potentials were recorded following stimulation at the umbo, long process of the incus, stapes head, stapes foot plate, and in the vestibulum. Comparisons of the acoustically and mechanically evoked thresholds revealed a good correlation of the two stimulation levels. An electrical transducer voltage of 1 V(RMS) produced equivalent sound pressure levels (SPL) of 100-128 dB at the tympanic membrane. To assess the hearing we compared stimulus-dependent latencies of the early potentials (peaks P1-P5) and thresholds. This evaluation was based on four ears with normal hearing in which the piezoelectric transducer was coupled to the long process of the incus. The mean values of the latencies and their scattering range correlated extremely well in the two stimulation modes. They were nearly identical when the equivalent SPL of 100 dB was assigned to the maximally applied electrical level of 0 dB. These in vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that the characteristics of the transducer warrant its development further from the prototype stage to become a component of an implantable hearing device for patients with sensorineural hearing loss.

  3. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...... in impulse noise, protectors with active noise reduction). Furthermore, an overview of the present European standards (CEN) and the relation to American and Australian/New Zealand standards will be discussed....

  4. Relationship between hearing complaint and hearing loss among older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presbycusis is a public health problem. Despite its high prevalence, many elders do not have their hearing ability investigated periodically, because they do not have a specific complaint. Objective: To check whether there is a relationship between the complaint and the presence of hearing loss in elder people. Method: Transversal study in elders from a neighborhood in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul. After the definition of the neighborhood's geographic boundaries, all houses were visited, the older people's addresses were ascertained and the invitations to take part in the research were provided. A questionnaire survey was applied which had a question about hearing loss complaint and air-conducted hearing thresholds were obtained and studied. Out of the 72 identified elders 50 elders agreed to participate, 35 (70% women, and 15 (30% men. Results: It was confirmed that only 12 (24% elders showed a specific complaint of hearing loss, although 33 (66% elders showed slight, moderate, severe and profound hearing losses. Conclusion: Data analysis confirmed there was no relationship between the complaint and the presence of hearing loss in the assessed group, and demonstrated the need to forward the elders for audiological evaluation even without any specific complaint.

  5. Sudden hearing loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ječmenica, Jovana; Bajec-Opančina, Aleksandra

    2014-08-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is defined as a unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with at least 30 dB decrease in threshold in 3 contiguous test frequencies occurring over 72 hours or less. It is very rare in children. Sudden hearing loss is a symptom that suggests that there is a problem in the inner ear, surrounding structures, or the whole organism. The etiology and development of this disorder are still not fully understood. The literature contains numerous models of the pathogenesis of SSHL, with childhood SSHL having certain peculiarities. In practical terms, the multifactorial nature of SSHL is important in the choice of diagnostic methods and treatment methods. It is important to determine the cause and effect relationship between the underlying disease and hearing loss.

  6. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  7. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  8. Auditory sensitivity and the outer hair cell system in the CBA mouse model of age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2010-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss is a highly prevalent sensory disorder, from both the clinical and animal model perspectives. Understanding of the neurophysiologic, structural, and molecular biologic bases of age-related hearing loss will facilitate development of biomedical therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow, or reverse its progression. Thus, increased understanding of relationships between aging of the cochlear (auditory portion of the inner ear) hair cell system and decline in overall hearing ability is necessary. The goal of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that there would be correlations between physiologic measures of outer hair cell function (otoacoustic emission levels) and hearing sensitivity (auditory brainstem response thresholds), starting in middle age. For the CBA mouse, a useful animal model of age-related hearing loss, it was found that correlations between these two hearing measures occurred only for high sound frequencies in middle age. However, in old age, a correlation was observed across the entire mouse range of hearing. These findings have implications for improved early detection of progression of age-related hearing loss in middle-aged mammals, including mice and humans, and distinguishing peripheral etiologies from central auditory system decline.

  9. How well can centenarians hear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhongping; Zhao, Lijun; Pu, Lichun; Wang, Mingxiao; Zhang, Qian; He, David Z Z

    2013-01-01

    With advancements in modern medicine and significant improvements in life conditions in the past four decades, the elderly population is rapidly expanding. There is a growing number of those aged 100 years and older. While many changes in the human body occur with physiological aging, as many as 35% to 50% of the population aged 65 to 75 years have presbycusis. Presbycusis is a progressive sensorineural hearing loss that occurs as people get older. There are many studies of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss in the United States, Europe, and Asia. However, no audiological assessment of the population aged 100 years and older has been done. Therefore, it is not clear how well centenarians can hear. We measured middle ear impedance, pure-tone behavioral thresholds, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission from 74 centenarians living in the city of Shaoxing, China, to evaluate their middle and inner ear functions. We show that most centenarian listeners had an "As" type tympanogram, suggesting reduced static compliance of the tympanic membrane. Hearing threshold tests using pure-tone audiometry show that all centenarian subjects had varying degrees of hearing loss. More than 90% suffered from moderate to severe (41 to 80 dB) hearing loss below 2,000 Hz, and profound (>81 dB) hearing loss at 4,000 and 8,000 Hz. Otoacoustic emission, which is generated by the active process of cochlear outer hair cells, was undetectable in the majority of listeners. Our study shows the extent and severity of hearing loss in the centenarian population and represents the first audiological assessment of their middle and inner ear functions.

  10. How well can centenarians hear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongping Mao

    Full Text Available With advancements in modern medicine and significant improvements in life conditions in the past four decades, the elderly population is rapidly expanding. There is a growing number of those aged 100 years and older. While many changes in the human body occur with physiological aging, as many as 35% to 50% of the population aged 65 to 75 years have presbycusis. Presbycusis is a progressive sensorineural hearing loss that occurs as people get older. There are many studies of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss in the United States, Europe, and Asia. However, no audiological assessment of the population aged 100 years and older has been done. Therefore, it is not clear how well centenarians can hear. We measured middle ear impedance, pure-tone behavioral thresholds, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission from 74 centenarians living in the city of Shaoxing, China, to evaluate their middle and inner ear functions. We show that most centenarian listeners had an "As" type tympanogram, suggesting reduced static compliance of the tympanic membrane. Hearing threshold tests using pure-tone audiometry show that all centenarian subjects had varying degrees of hearing loss. More than 90% suffered from moderate to severe (41 to 80 dB hearing loss below 2,000 Hz, and profound (>81 dB hearing loss at 4,000 and 8,000 Hz. Otoacoustic emission, which is generated by the active process of cochlear outer hair cells, was undetectable in the majority of listeners. Our study shows the extent and severity of hearing loss in the centenarian population and represents the first audiological assessment of their middle and inner ear functions.

  11. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Plasma Apelin Levels and Pain Threshold in T1DM Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Delavar, Reza; Heidarianpour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2) leads to secondary complications such as neuropathy, which reduce a patient’s quality of life. Apelin and its receptor, APJ, have been shown to have antinociceptive effects and to decrease blood glucose levels. Objectives The present experimental study was conducted in Iran and investigated the role of apelin, which is used to manage type 1 diabetes mellitus, during exercise training. Materials and Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 36) were assigned by...

  12. Costs and health effects of screening and delivery of hearing aids in Tamil Nadu, India: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Anand

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of disease of hearing disorders among adults is high, but a significant part goes undetected. Screening programs in combination with the delivery of hearing aids can alleviate this situation, but the economic attractiveness of such programs is unknown. This study aims to evaluate the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of alternative delivering hearing aids models in Tamil Nadu, India Methods In an observational study design, we estimated total costs and effects of two active screening programs in the community in combination with the provision of hearing aids at secondary care level, and the costs and effects of the provision of hearing aids at tertiary care level. Screening and hearing aid delivery costs were estimated on the basis of program records and an empirical assessment of health personnel time input. Household costs for seeking and undergoing hearing health care were collected with a questionnaire (see Additional file 2. Health effects were estimated on the basis of compliance with the hearing aid, and associated changes in disability, and were expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted. Results Active screening and provision of hearing aids at the secondary care level costs around Rs.7,000 (US$152 per patient, whereas provision of hearing aids at the tertiary care level costs Rs 5,693 (US$122 per patient. The cost per DALY averted was around RS 42,200 (US$900 at secondary care level and Rs 33,900 (US$720 at tertiary care level. The majority of people did consult other providers before being screened in the community. Costs of food and transport ranged between Rs. 2 (US$0,04 and Rs. 39 (US$0,83. Conclusion Active screening and provision of hearing aids at the secondary care level is slightly more costly than passive screening and fitting of hearing aids at the tertiary care level, but seems also able to reach a higher coverage of hearing aids services. Although crude

  13. [Aggravation after Diagnosis of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Ichiro; Nemoto, Toshimitsu; Tsukuda, Tomoko; Koshizuka, Keiichi

    2015-03-01

    Among 95 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss who received inpatient treatment at our hospital within the 27-month period between October 2009 and December 2011, those in whom hearing loss was aggravated after diagnosis were compared with a control group. Hearing loss aggravation was defined as a decrease by 10 dB or more in the mean hearing threshold at 5 frequencies from 250 to 4,000 Hz or decrease of 15 dB or more in the hearing threshold at 2 consecutive frequencies. Hearing loss was aggravated after diagnosis in 22 (23.2%) of the 95 patients, showing a similar tendency to that previously reported. Although the grades of hearing loss in these patients were higher than those in 73 control group patients, according to the sudden hearing loss severity classification, their outcomes were favorable. The hearing loss aggravation group consisted of those with steroid-dependent hearing loss (6) and those who had undergone perilymphatic fistula repair (4), in addition to a large number of patients with idiopathic hearing loss, including suspicious perilymphatic fistula (10). When hearing loss becomes aggravated after the diagnosis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, it may be important to determine the most appropriate approach in each case, such as a careful and gradual decrease in the adenocortical steroid dose and the consideration of perilymphatic fistula repair.

  14. Lowering the background level and the energy threshold of Micromegas x-ray detectors for axion searches

    CERN Document Server

    Iguaz, F J; Aznar, F; Castel, J F; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galan, J; Garcia, J A; Garza, J G; Giomataris, I; Irastorza, I G; Papaevangelou, T; Rodriguez, A; Tomas, A; Vafeiadis, T; Yildiz, S C

    2014-01-01

    Axion helioscopes search for solar axions by their conversion in x-rays in the presence of high magnetic fields. The use of low background x-ray detectors is an essential component contributing to the sensitivity of these searches. In this work, we review the recent advances on Micromegas detectors used in the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and proposed for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The actual setup in CAST has achieved background levels below 10$^{-6}$ keV$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. This reduction is based on active and passive shielding techniques, the selection of radiopure materials, offline discrimination techniques and the high granularity of the readout. We describe in detail the background model of the detector, based on its operation at CAST site and at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), as well as on Geant4 simulations. The best levels currently achieved at LSC are low than 10$^{-7}$ keV$^{-1}$ ...

  15. Shipboard assessment of hearing sensitivity of tropical fishes immediately after exposure to seismic air gun emissions at Scott Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Mardi C; Miksis-Olds, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the potential effects of emissions from an air gun array on hearing of tropical reef fish using AEP thresholds measured in the field. Over 7 days, 51 Chromis viridis,47 Lutjanus kasmira, 20 Myripristis murdjan, and 10 Sargocentron spiniferum were tested. AEP thresholds were determined before and after exposure to emissions from one or two passes of an airgun array. Temporary threshold shift resulting from sound exposure was not found in any species,even when cumulative sound exposure levels reached 190 dB re 1 μPa2-s.

  16. Hearing in the Juvenile Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas): A Comparison of Underwater and Aerial Hearing Using Auditory Evoked Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniak, Wendy E D; Mann, David A; Harms, Craig A; Jones, T Todd; Eckert, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtles spend much of their life in aquatic environments, but critical portions of their life cycle, such as nesting and hatching, occur in terrestrial environments, suggesting that it may be important for them to detect sounds in both air and water. In this study we compared underwater and aerial hearing sensitivities in five juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) by measuring auditory evoked potential responses to tone pip stimuli. Green sea turtles detected acoustic stimuli in both media, responding to underwater stimuli between 50 and 1600 Hz and aerial stimuli between 50 and 800 Hz, with maximum sensitivity between 200 and 400 Hz underwater and 300 and 400 Hz in air. When underwater and aerial hearing sensitivities were compared in terms of pressure, green sea turtle aerial sound pressure thresholds were lower than underwater thresholds, however they detected a wider range of frequencies underwater. When thresholds were compared in terms of sound intensity, green sea turtle sound intensity level thresholds were 2-39 dB lower underwater particularly at frequencies below 400 Hz. Acoustic stimuli may provide important environmental cues for sea turtles. Further research is needed to determine how sea turtles behaviorally and physiologically respond to sounds in their environment.

  17. Hearing in the Juvenile Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas): A Comparison of Underwater and Aerial Hearing Using Auditory Evoked Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniak, Wendy E. D.; Mann, David A.; Harms, Craig A.; Jones, T. Todd; Eckert, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtles spend much of their life in aquatic environments, but critical portions of their life cycle, such as nesting and hatching, occur in terrestrial environments, suggesting that it may be important for them to detect sounds in both air and water. In this study we compared underwater and aerial hearing sensitivities in five juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) by measuring auditory evoked potential responses to tone pip stimuli. Green sea turtles detected acoustic stimuli in both media, responding to underwater stimuli between 50 and 1600 Hz and aerial stimuli between 50 and 800 Hz, with maximum sensitivity between 200 and 400 Hz underwater and 300 and 400 Hz in air. When underwater and aerial hearing sensitivities were compared in terms of pressure, green sea turtle aerial sound pressure thresholds were lower than underwater thresholds, however they detected a wider range of frequencies underwater. When thresholds were compared in terms of sound intensity, green sea turtle sound intensity level thresholds were 2–39 dB lower underwater particularly at frequencies below 400 Hz. Acoustic stimuli may provide important environmental cues for sea turtles. Further research is needed to determine how sea turtles behaviorally and physiologically respond to sounds in their environment. PMID:27741231

  18. Food for Survival: Diagnosing Crop Patterns to Secure Lower Threshold Food Security Levels in Farm Households of Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niragira, Sanctus; D'Haese, Marijke; D'Haese, Luc; Ndimubandi, Jean; Desiere, Sam; Buysse, Jeroen

    2015-06-01

    Burundi is one of the world's poorest countries, coming last in the Global Food Index (2013). Yet, a large majority of its population depends on agriculture. Most smallholder families do not produce enough to support their own families. To estimate the optimal crop mix and resources needed to provide the family with food containing sufficient energy, fat, and protein. This study uses mathematical programming to obtain the optimal crop mix that could maximize output given the constraints on production factor endowments and the need to feed the household. The model is calibrated with household-level data collected in 2010 in Ngozi Province in northern Burundi. Four models are developed, each representing a different farm type. The typology is based on 2007 data. Model predictions are compared with data collected during a revisit of the area in 2012. By producing a smaller number of crops and concentrating on those in which they have a comparative advantage, and trading produce and input with other farms, large and medium-sized farms can improve their productivity and hire extra workers to supplement family labor. Predictions of crops to be planted coincided to a high degree with those that farmers planted 2 years after our survey on newly acquired plots. Despite land scarcity, it is still possible for households that own land to find optimal crop combinations that can meet their minimal food security requirements while generating a certain level of income. Nearly landless households would benefit from the increased off-farm employment opportunities. With only 0.05 ha of land per capita, the annotation Nearly Landless is used to highlight the limited access to land observed in this farm category. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Sudden Bilateral Hearing Loss After Cervical and Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Jameson K; Portnuff, Cory D F; Hondorp, Brian M; Cass, Stephen P

    2015-07-01

    Cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs and oVEMPs) are commonly used in evaluation of neurotologic disorders. We present a case of sudden bilateral hearing loss immediately after oVEMP and cVEMP testing. The hearing loss did not recover. To our knowledge, no previous case reports discuss sudden hearing loss, especially bilateral, associated with VEMP testing. A single patient with sudden bilateral hearing loss that has persisted after cVEMP and oVEMP. The patient had a history of chronic daily dizziness. She underwent vestibular function testing that included cVEMP and oVEMP testing. A significant bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was noted immediately after cVEMP and oVEMP testing and confirmed with audiometric testing. Despite the use of oral steroids, her hearing loss did not recover. Serial audiograms, calculated maximum total sound energies to each ear. Pre-VEMP versus post-VEMP audiograms show increased thresholds and decreased word recognition scores; total sound energy delivered to each ear shows significant sound exposure. Although VEMP testing is thought to be safe and well tolerated, a significant amount of sound can be delivered to the cochlea, and certain individuals may be susceptible to acoustic trauma at these levels. We recommend limits for VEMP stimuli levels and attention to total sound exposure when multiple trials are used.

  20. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kwame R. Gyamfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. Methods. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. Results. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44% of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41–55 dBA and severely (71–90 dBA impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84. Conclusion. This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat.

  1. Effects of aquaculture production noise on hearing, growth, and disease resistance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, L.E.; Davidson, J. W.; Smith, M.E.; Frankel, A.S.; Ellison, W.T.; Mazik, P.M.; Popper, A.N.; Bebak, J.

    2007-01-01

    Intensive aquaculture production often utilizes equipment (e.g., aerators, air and water pumps, harvesters, blowers, filtration systems, and maintenance machinery) that increases noise levels in fish culture tanks. Consequently, chronic exposure to elevated noise levels in tanks could negatively impact cultured species. Possible effects include impairment of the auditory system, increased stress, and reduced growth rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of sound exposure on the hearing sensitivity, growth, and survival of cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Two cohorts of rainbow trout were cultured for 8??months in replicated tanks consisting of three sound treatments: 115, 130, or 150 decibels referenced at 1 micropascal (dB re 1????Pa root mean square [RMS]) levels. Auditory evoked potential (AEP) recordings revealed no significant differences in hearing thresholds resulting from exposure to increased ambient sound levels. Although there was no evident noise-induced hearing loss, there were significant differences in hearing thresholds between the two fish cohorts examined. No statistical effect of sound treatment was found for growth rate and mortality within each fish cohort. There was no significant difference in mortality between sound treatments when fish were exposed to the pathogen Yersinia ruckeri, but there was significantly different mortality between cohorts. This study indicated that rainbow trout hearing sensitivity, growth, survival, stress, and disease susceptibility were not negatively impacted by noise levels common to recirculating aquaculture systems. These findings should not be generalized to all cultured fish species, however, because many species, including catfish and cyprinids, have much greater hearing sensitivity than rainbow trout and could be affected differently by noise. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Hearing Aid Primer 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetter, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    This hearing aid primer is designed to define the differences among the three levels of hearing instrument technology: conventional analog circuit technology (most basic), digitally programmable/analog circuit technology (moderately advanced), and fully digital technology (most advanced). Both moderate and advanced technologies mean that hearing…

  3. Expression levels of the BAK1 and BCL2 genes highlight the role of apoptosis in age-related hearing impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Masoumeh Falah,1,2 Mohammad Najafi,2 Massoud Houshmand,3 Mohammad Farhadi1 1ENT and Head & Neck Research Center and Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Biochemistry Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran Abstract: Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI is a progressive and a common sensory disorder in the elderly and will become an increasingly important clinical problem given the growing elderly population. Apoptosis of cochlear cells is an important factor in animal models of ARHI. As these cells cannot regenerate, their loss leads to irreversible hearing impairment. Identification of molecular mechanisms can facilitate disease prevention and effective treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of the genes BAK1 and BCL2 as two arms of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway between patients with ARHI and healthy subjects. ARHI and healthy subjects were selected after an ear nose throat examination, otoscopic investigation, and pure tone audiometry. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and relative gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. BAK1 and the BAK1/BCL2 ratio were statistically significantly upregulated in the ARHI subjects. The BAK1/BCL2 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the audiometric tests. Our results indicate that BAK-mediated apoptosis may be a core mechanism in the progression of ARHI in humans, similar to finding in animal models. Moreover, the gene expression changes in peripheral blood samples could be used as a rapid and simple biomarker for early detection of ARHI. Keywords: age-related hearing impairment (ARHI, presbycusis, biomarker, treatment

  4. Winner's Curse Correction and Variable Thresholding Improve Performance of Polygenic Risk Modeling Based on Genome-Wide Association Study Summary-Level Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianxin; Park, Ju-Hyun; Duan, Jubao; Berndt, Sonja T; Moy, Winton; Yu, Kai; Song, Lei; Wheeler, William; Hua, Xing; Silverman, Debra; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Figueroa, Jonine D; Cortessis, Victoria K; Malats, Núria; Karagas, Margaret R; Vineis, Paolo; Chang, I-Shou; Lin, Dongxin; Zhou, Baosen; Seow, Adeline; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hong, Yun-Chul; Caporaso, Neil E; Wolpin, Brian; Jacobs, Eric; Petersen, Gloria M; Klein, Alison P; Li, Donghui; Risch, Harvey; Sanders, Alan R; Hsu, Li; Schoen, Robert E; Brenner, Hermann; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Gejman, Pablo; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Landi, Maria Teresa; Levinson, Douglas F; Chanock, Stephen J; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2016-12-01

    Recent heritability analyses have indicated that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have the potential to improve genetic risk prediction for complex diseases based on polygenic risk score (PRS), a simple modelling technique that can be implemented using summary-level data from the discovery samples. We herein propose modifications to improve the performance of PRS. We introduce threshold-dependent winner's-curse adjustments for marginal association coefficients that are used to weight the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PRS. Further, as a way to incorporate external functional/annotation knowledge that could identify subsets of SNPs highly enriched for associations, we propose variable thresholds for SNPs selection. We applied our methods to GWAS summary-level data of 14 complex diseases. Across all diseases, a simple winner's curse correction uniformly led to enhancement of performance of the models, whereas incorporation of functional SNPs was beneficial only for selected diseases. Compared to the standard PRS algorithm, the proposed methods in combination led to notable gain in efficiency (25-50% increase in the prediction R2) for 5 of 14 diseases. As an example, for GWAS of type 2 diabetes, winner's curse correction improved prediction R2 from 2.29% based on the standard PRS to 3.10% (P = 0.0017) and incorporating functional annotation data further improved R2 to 3.53% (P = 2×10-5). Our simulation studies illustrate why differential treatment of certain categories of functional SNPs, even when shown to be highly enriched for GWAS-heritability, does not lead to proportionate improvement in genetic risk-prediction because of non-uniform linkage disequilibrium structure.

  5. Winner's Curse Correction and Variable Thresholding Improve Performance of Polygenic Risk Modeling Based on Genome-Wide Association Study Summary-Level Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Shi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent heritability analyses have indicated that genome-wide association studies (GWAS have the potential to improve genetic risk prediction for complex diseases based on polygenic risk score (PRS, a simple modelling technique that can be implemented using summary-level data from the discovery samples. We herein propose modifications to improve the performance of PRS. We introduce threshold-dependent winner's-curse adjustments for marginal association coefficients that are used to weight the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in PRS. Further, as a way to incorporate external functional/annotation knowledge that could identify subsets of SNPs highly enriched for associations, we propose variable thresholds for SNPs selection. We applied our methods to GWAS summary-level data of 14 complex diseases. Across all diseases, a simple winner's curse correction uniformly led to enhancement of performance of the models, whereas incorporation of functional SNPs was beneficial only for selected diseases. Compared to the standard PRS algorithm, the proposed methods in combination led to notable gain in efficiency (25-50% increase in the prediction R2 for 5 of 14 diseases. As an example, for GWAS of type 2 diabetes, winner's curse correction improved prediction R2 from 2.29% based on the standard PRS to 3.10% (P = 0.0017 and incorporating functional annotation data further improved R2 to 3.53% (P = 2×10-5. Our simulation studies illustrate why differential treatment of certain categories of functional SNPs, even when shown to be highly enriched for GWAS-heritability, does not lead to proportionate improvement in genetic risk-prediction because of non-uniform linkage disequilibrium structure.

  6. A 1-channel 3-band wide dynamic range compression chip for vibration transducer of implantable hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwook; Seong, Kiwoong; Kim, Myoungnam; Cho, Jinho; Lee, Jyunghyun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a digital audio processing chip which uses a wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) algorithm is designed and implemented for implantable hearing aids system. The designed chip operates at a single voltage of 3.3V and drives a 16 bit parallel input and output at 32 kHz sample. The designed chip has 1-channel 3-band WDRC composed of a FIR filter bank, a level detector, and a compression part. To verify the performance of the designed chip, we measured the frequency separations of bands and compression gain control to reflect the hearing threshold level.

  7. Hearing Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, Anna; Ladner, Richard E.

    For many people with hearing impairments, the degree of hearing loss is only a small aspect of their disability and does not necessarily determine the types of accessibility solutions or accommodations that may be required. For some people, the ability to adjust the audio volume may be sufficient. For others, translation to a signed language may be more appropriate. For still others, access to text alternatives may be the best solution. Because of these differences, it is important for researchers in Web accessibility to understand that people with hearing impairments may have very different cultural-linguistic traditions and personal backgrounds.

  8. 噪声岗位人员累积噪声暴露量与听力损伤的关系%Relationship between cumulative noise exposure level and hearing loss induced by occupational noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中付

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between cumulative noise exposure (CNE) level and hearing loss induced by occupational noise.Methods In accordance with the data from ISO R1999,the relationship between hearing loss percentage and CNE was studied with statistical description method and three dimension curve graph.Results Hearing loss was not just a one-dimensional function CNE,but a twodimensional function of CNE (the intensity of noise exposure and the duration of noise exposure).Hearing loss curves presented flections at different intensities of noise exposure.When CNE hearing loss was approximately equal to the sum of noise exposure intensity and 7 dBA,hearing loss curves all presented flections.Hearing loss developed with the cumulated noise exposure level.When CNE was lower than the values of reflections,hearing loss worsened gradually and slowly with the intensity of cumulated noise exposure.Conversely,the opposite could be sighted in hearing loss.Conclusions The flexion pattern indicated that the hearing of those individuals could be worsened and even failed to recover permanently,once they were detected to have hearing loss induced by occupational noise exposure.%目的 研究不同噪声强度下的累积噪声暴露量(cumulative noise exposure,CNE)与听力损伤的关系.方法 根据ISO 1999提供的数据,采用统计的方法用三维曲面描述听力损伤百分率与CNE的相关性.结果 听力损伤不是一元(累积噪声暴露量)函数,而是二元(噪声暴露强度、噪声暴露年限)函数;不同噪声暴露强度下听力损伤出现拐点规律.在不同的噪声暴露强度下,当CNE近似等于噪声暴露强度+7 dBA时,听力损伤变化均出现拐点;当CNE小于拐点值时,听力损伤随累积暴露量增加变化缓慢;反之,变化急剧加大.结论 拐点规律表明,在噪声岗位工作时,一旦发现有听力损伤,可能会加剧,甚至导致听力难以恢复.

  9. Hearing dummies: individualized computer models of hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Manasa R; Lecluyse, Wendy; Tan, Christine M; Jürgens, Tim; Meddis, Ray

    2014-10-01

    Objective: Our aim was to explore the usage of individualized computer models to simulate hearing loss based on detailed psychophysical assessment and to offer hypothetical diagnoses of the underlying pathology. Individualized computer models of normal and impaired hearing were constructed and evaluated using the psychophysical data obtained from human listeners. Computer models of impaired hearing were generated to reflect the hypothesized underlying pathology (e.g. dead regions, outer hair cell dysfunction, or reductions in endocochlear potential). These models were evaluated in terms of their ability to replicate the original patient data. Auditory profiles were measured for two normal and five hearing-impaired listeners using a battery of three psychophysical tests (absolute thresholds, frequency selectivity, and compression). The individualized computer models were found to match the data. Useful fits to the impaired profiles could be obtained by changing only a single parameter in the model of normal hearing. Sometimes, however, it was necessary to include an additional dead region. The creation of individualized computer models of hearing loss can be used to simulate auditory profiles of impaired listeners and suggest hypotheses concerning the underlying peripheral pathology.

  10. Acoustic Reflex Thresholds in Normal, Cochlear, and Retrocochlear Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Shahnaz

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The cut off points of 90th percentile of acoustic reflex thresholds were determined in the normal and sensory hearing loss.All subjects had measurable hearing(ANSI-1969≤110 dBHL in three frequencies of 500,1000 and 2000Hz.While hearing loss was more than 55dB, The cut off point was higher in studies that NR responses was included.In cases that hearing loss was less than 75dB 90th percentile can be used in diganosis of retrochochlear lesions.Since Acoustic reflexes are absent in both mentioned pathologies in greater amount of hearing loss,It would be less efficient in diffrential diganisis of cochlear and retrochochlear lesions to use acoustic reflex thresholds under the mentioned circumstances.

  11. Development of a theory-based, multi-level, low-intensity, low-cost intervention to improve long-term hearing aid use in adult auditory rehabilitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Fiona C.

    2016-01-01

    Poorly managed hearing loss can lead to cognitive decline, depression and reduced quality of life. Using a hearing aid can help but evidence suggests up to 40% of people who are fitted with a hearing aid do not use it. While there are many reported reasons for non-use, research suggests that audiologist behaviour in the fitting consultation could play a key role in supporting hearing aid use. Following a systematic review of interventions to improve hearing aid use, this research used the ...

  12. Automated screening for high-frequency hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaming, Marcel S M G; MacKinnon, Robert C; Jansen, Marije; Moore, David R

    2014-01-01

    Hearing loss at high frequencies produces perceptual difficulties and is often an early sign of a more general hearing loss. This study reports the development and validation of two new speech-based hearing screening tests in English that focus on detecting hearing loss at frequencies above 2000 Hz. The Internet-delivered, speech-in noise tests used closed target-word sets of digit triplets or consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words presented against a speech-shaped noise masker. The digit triplet test uses the digits 0 to 9 (excluding the disyllabic 7), grouped in quasi-random triplets. The CVC test uses simple words (e.g., "cat") selected for the high-frequency spectral content of the consonants. During testing, triplets or CVC words were identified in an adaptive procedure to obtain the speech reception threshold (SRT) in noise. For these new, high-frequency (HF) tests, the noise was low-pass filtered to produce greater masking of the low-frequency speech components, increasing the sensitivity of the test for HF hearing loss. Individual test tokens (digits, CVCs) were first homogenized using a group of 10 normal-hearing (NH) listeners by equalizing intelligibility across tokens at several speech-in-noise levels. Both tests were then validated and standardized using groups of 24 NH listeners and 50 listeners with hearing impairment. Performance on the new high frequency digit triplet (HF-triplet) and CVC (HF-CVC) tests was compared with audiometric hearing loss, and with that on the unfiltered, broadband digit triplet test (BB-triplet) test, and the ASL (Adaptive Sentence Lists) speech-in-noise test. The HF-triplet and HF-CVC test results (SRT) both correlated positively and highly with high-frequency audiometric hearing loss and with the ASL test. SRT for both tests as a function of high-frequency hearing loss increased at nearly three times the rate as that of the BB-triplet test. The intraindividual variability (SD) on the tests was about 2.1 (HF-triplet) and 1

  13. Fish Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  14. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... slightly different from the ITC and is nearly hidden in the ear canal. Both canal hearing aids ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  15. Differential pathologies resulting from sound exposure: Tinnitus vs hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Ryan James

    The first step in identifying the mechanism(s) responsible for tinnitus development would be to discover a neural correlate that is differentially expressed in tinnitus-positive compared to tinnitus negative animals. Previous research has identified several neural correlates of tinnitus in animals that have tested positive for tinnitus. However it is unknown whether all or some of these correlates are linked to tinnitus or if they are a byproduct of hearing loss, a common outcome of tinnitus induction. Abnormally high spontaneous activity has frequently been linked to tinnitus. However, while some studies demonstrate that hyperactivity positively correlates with behavioral evidence of tinnitus, others show that when all animals develop hyperactivity to sound exposure, not all exposed animals show evidence of tinnitus. My working hypothesis is that certain aspects of hyperactivity are linked to tinnitus while other aspects are linked to hearing loss. The first specific aim utilized the gap induced prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (GIPAS) to monitor the development of tinnitus in CBA/CaJ mice during one year following sound exposure. Immediately after sound exposure, GIPAS testing revealed widespread gap detection deficits across all frequencies, which was likely due to temporary threshold shifts. However, three months after sound exposure these deficits were limited to a narrow frequency band and were consistently detected up to one year after exposure. This suggests the development of chronic tinnitus is a long lasting and highly dynamic process. The second specific aim assessed hearing loss in sound exposed mice using several techniques. Acoustic brainstem responses recorded initially after sound exposure reveal large magnitude deficits in all exposed mice. However, at the three month period, thresholds return to control levels in all mice suggesting that ABRs are not a reliable tool for assessing permanent hearing loss. Input/output functions of

  16. Interaction of smoking and occupational noise exposure on hearing loss: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Saber

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noise is the most common hazardous agent at workplaces. Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL has been known since the industrial revolution. Although NIHL is permanent, irreversible and frequent, it is preventable. The economic costs of NIHL have been estimated to be about billions of dollars. Besides, cigarette smoking is a common habit worldwide, and according to some recent studies smoking and noise may act in common causal pathways for hearing loss. Methods A cross-sectional study was designed to study the effect of smoking on NIHL in 206 male smoker workers and 206 male non-smoker workers in a large food-producing factory, in which workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85dBA. To determine noise exposure level, we used sound level measurements reported by industrial hygienists. A qualified audiologist assessed hearing acuity by using standardized audiometric procedures assuring at least 14 h of noise avoidance. Results We observed that the percentage of workers with hearing threshold differences of greater than or equal to 30 dB between 4000 Hz and 1000 Hz in both ears were 49.5% and 11.2% in smoker and non smoker groups, respectively (Odds ratio = 7.8, 95% CI = 4.7 – 13, and the percentage of workers with a hearing threshold of greater than 25dB at 4000 Hz in the better ear were 63.6% and 18.4% in smoker and non smoker groups, respectively. This difference was statistically significant after adjustment for age and exposure duration. Conclusion It can be concluded that smoking can accelerate noise induced hearing loss, but more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms. Accurate follow up of smoker workers who are exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA is suggested. Smokers should periodically attend educational courses on "smoking cessation", especially in noisy workplaces.

  17. Expression levels of the BAK1 and BCL2 genes highlight the role of apoptosis in age-related hearing impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Masoumeh; Najafi, Mohammad; Houshmand, Massoud; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a progressive and a common sensory disorder in the elderly and will become an increasingly important clinical problem given the growing elderly population. Apoptosis of cochlear cells is an important factor in animal models of ARHI. As these cells cannot regenerate, their loss leads to irreversible hearing impairment. Identification of molecular mechanisms can facilitate disease prevention and effective treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of the genes BAK1 and BCL2 as two arms of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway between patients with ARHI and healthy subjects. ARHI and healthy subjects were selected after an ear nose throat examination, otoscopic investigation, and pure tone audiometry. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and relative gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. BAK1 and the BAK1/BCL2 ratio were statistically significantly upregulated in the ARHI subjects. The BAK1/BCL2 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the audiometric tests. Our results indicate that BAK-mediated apoptosis may be a core mechanism in the progression of ARHI in humans, similar to finding in animal models. Moreover, the gene expression changes in peripheral blood samples could be used as a rapid and simple biomarker for early detection of ARHI. PMID:27555755

  18. Intramuscular depot formulations of leuprolide acetate suppress testosterone levels below a 20 ng/dL threshold: a retrospective analysis of two Phase III studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitz A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aaron Spitz,1 Marc Gittelman,2 Lawrence I Karsh,3 Sanja Dragnic,4 Ahmed M Soliman,5 Aditya Lele,6 Damian Gruca,7 Michael Norton4 1Orange County Urology Associates, Laguna Beach, CA, 221st Century Oncology/UroMedix-Aventura Division, Aventura, FL, 3The Urology Center of Colorado, Denver, CO, 4US Medical Affairs, 5Health Economics and Outcomes Research, 6Data and Statistical Sciences, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA; 7Global Medical Affairs, AbbVie Deutschland, Ludwigshafen, Germany Introduction: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogs is a standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer. GnRH analog therapy can reduce testosterone to “castrate” levels, historically defined as <50 ng/dL. With the advent of newer assays, a lower threshold of <20 ng/dL has recently been proposed. We report the results of a retrospective analysis of two Phase III trials of 4- and 6-month depot microsphere formulations of leuprolide acetate (LA, a GnRH agonist that has previously demonstrated efficacy in testosterone suppression to <50 ng/dL in patients on ADT. This analysis investigates the ability of these LA formulations to suppress to ≤20 ng/dL levels.Methods: In two of five AbbVie/Abbott clinical trials of microsphere formulations of LA for ADT, analytic technology permitting testosterone detection as low as 3 ng/dL was used and thus was selected for this analysis. Both trials were open-label, fixed-dose studies in prostate cancer patients, naïve to ADT. Patients received either 30 mg (4-month formulation; n=49 or 45 mg (6-month formulation; n=151 depot injections of LA microspheres. Treatment duration was up to 32 weeks for the 4-month formulation and 48 weeks for the 6-month formulation. The proportion of patients achieving the 20 ng/dL threshold was determined every 4 weeks.Results: Pooled analysis showed that 152 of 193 (79% of patients achieved serum testosterone levels of ≤20 ng/dL at 4 weeks, and

  19. Long-term results of hearing preservation cochlear implant surgery in patients with residual low frequency hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteki, Hideaki; Nishio, Shin-Ya; Miyagawa, Maiko; Tsukada, Keita; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Usami, Shin-Ichi

    2017-05-01

    Differences were found between patients with stable hearing and those with progressive hearing loss in the lower frequencies with respect to the rate of progression in the contralateral ear. It is suggested that the electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) can provide improvement in hearing ability over the long-term if residual hearing might be lost to some extent. To evaluate the long-term threshold changes in the low frequency hearing of the implanted ear as compared with the non-implanted ear, and the hearing abilities with EAS along with the extent of residual hearing. Seventeen individuals were enrolled and received the EAS implant with a 24-mm FLEXeas electrode array. Hearing thresholds and speech perception were measured pre- and post-operatively for 1-5 years. Post-operative hearing preservation (HP) rates were calculated using the preservation numerical scale. The average linear regression coefficient for the decline in hearing preservation score was -6.9 for the implanted ear and the patients were subsequently categorized into two groups: those with better than average, stable hearing; and those with worse than average, progressive hearing loss. EAS showed better results than electric stimulation alone, in spite of an absence of speech perception with acoustic stimulation.

  20. CORRELATION BETWEEN TYMPANIC MEMBRANE PERFORATION AND HEARING LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija RISTOVSKA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Perforation of the tympanic membrane primarily results from middle ear infections, trauma or iatrogenic causes. The perforation causes conductive hearing loss by reducing the surface area available for sound transmission to the ossicular chain. Objective: The objective was to analyze the characteristics of tympanic membrane perforations in relation to hearing loss and to determine the type and degree of hearing loss. Materials and methods: We analyzed audiometric, otoscopic findings and medical reports of 218 patients, 114 males (52.3% and 104 females (47.7%, aged 9 to 75 years (mean age of 47.9 years, examined during the period of November 2012 to October 2015. For statistical data analysis we used Chi-square test with level of significance p<0.05. Results: Most of the patients had unilateral perforations (89% with right ear predominance and involvement of two quadrants of pars tensa (37.2%. Mean air-bone gap was 23.9 dB. The largest air-bone gap was at frequency of 250 Hz. Most of the patients (73.1% had mixed hearing loss (p=0.032, and average hearing thresholds from 21 to 40 dB. Conclusion: Mean air-bone gap is largest at the lower frequencies, and decreases as frequency increases. Size of the perforation has effect on hearing loss. Mean air-bone gap increases with increasing size of the perforation. There is no big difference between the mean air-bone gap in posterior versus anterior perforations.

  1. Severe progressive sensorineural hearing loss improved after removal of large jugular foramen schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Naoki; Kohno, Naoyuki; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2011-06-01

    We report a very rare case of hearing improvement after removal of the intracranial part of a jugular foramen schwannoma (JFS) presenting with chronic and severe progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The patient presented with progressive hearing impairment in his right ear, lasting 2 years. The patient's pure tone audiogram revealed severe SNHL. His speech discrimination score (SDS) was 0%. Auditory-evoked brain responses (ABRs) comprised only I waves following 30-100dB stimulation, although distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) had good responses. These test results indicated that his hearing impairment was retrocochlear SNHL. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed within the right jugular foramen a large intracranial-extracranial tumor that compressed the brainstem. The intracranial part of the tumor was resected through retrosigmoidal craniotomy, and the tumor was pathologically diagnosed as a schwannoma. Several months after the operation, the patient's auditory thresholds improved to a level consistent with mild SNHL, ABR V waves emerged following 60-90dB stimulation, and SDS improved significantly to 95%. This case demonstrates that hearing improvement can be achieved after surgery for JFS presenting with severe and chronic progressive SNHL, and that good DPOAE responses and the presence of ABR I waves may be predictors of postoperative hearing recovery in JFS.

  2. Prevalence of hearing impairment in elderly patients referred to the audiology service in Manaus, Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Geovanna Moraes Crispim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the audiological findings (type, audiometric configuration, degree of hearing loss and its association with gender and age in subjects aged over 60 years, treated at outpatient clinic of specialties of Manaus. Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study conducted with the universe of elderly who underwent audiometry from January to December 2010, with a total of 574 subjects. To classify the type, degree and configuration of hearing loss, we used the criteria adopted by Santos & Russo, Davis & Silverman and Silman & Silverman, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using measures of central tendency, dispersion and frequency distributions. To check for statistically significant differences, we used the chi-square test, with a significance level of 5% (p ≤ 0.05. Results: The prevalence of 94.4% (n = 542 of hearing loss, sensorineural predominantly (85.5%, n = 491 and mild (60%, n = 188 in females and degree moderate or greater in males (50%, n = 130, downward sloping (54.2%, n = 311 in both sexes. The percentage of normality was low, with 261 (3.4% for men and 313 (7.3% for women. Conclusion: The prevalence of hearing loss increased with age, being equal to 100% in individuals 80 years or older, and men have the worst hearing thresholds. There is need for greater awareness about hearing loss in the elderly, needing additional population-based and multicentric studies in order to support public policies.

  3. The use of the kurtosis metric in the evaluation of occupational hearing loss in workers in China: Implications for hearing risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I Davis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined: (1 the value of using the statistical metric, kurtosis [β(t], along with an energy metric to determine the hazard to hearing from high level industrial noise environments, and (2 the accuracy of the International Standard Organization (ISO-1999:1990 model for median noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS estimates with actual recent epidemiological data obtained on 240 highly screened workers exposed to high-level industrial noise in China. A cross-sectional approach was used in this study. Shift-long temporal waveforms of the noise that workers were exposed to for evaluation of noise exposures and audiometric threshold measures were obtained on all selected subjects. The subjects were exposed to only one occupational noise exposure without the use of hearing protection devices. The results suggest that: (1 the kurtosis metric is an important variable in determining the hazards to hearing posed by a high-level industrial noise environment for hearing conservation purposes, i.e., the kurtosis differentiated between the hazardous effects produced by Gaussian and non-Gaussian noise environments, (2 the ISO-1999 predictive model does not accurately estimate the degree of median NIPTS incurred to high level kurtosis industrial noise, and (3 the inherent large variability in NIPTS among subjects emphasize the need to develop and analyze a larger database of workers with well-documented exposures to better understand the effect of kurtosis on NIPTS incurred from high level industrial noise exposures. A better understanding of the role of the kurtosis metric may lead to its incorporation into a new generation of more predictive hearing risk assessment for occupational noise exposure.

  4. Dipole hearing measurements in elasmobranch fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Brandon M; Mann, David A

    2007-01-01

    The hearing thresholds of the horn shark Heterodontus francisci and the white-spotted bamboo shark Chiloscyllium plagiosum were measured using auditory evoked potentials (AEP) in response to a dipole sound stimulus. The audiograms were similar between the two species with lower frequencies yielding lower particle acceleration thresholds. The particle acceleration audiograms showed more sensitive hearing at low frequencies than previous elasmobranch audiograms, except for the lemon shark Negaprion brevirsotris. Auditory evoked potential signals were also recorded while the dipole stimulus was moved to different locations above the head and body. The strongest AEP signals were recorded from the area around the parietal fossa, supporting previous experiments that suggested this region is important for elasmobranch hearing. This is the first time that hearing experiments have been conducted using a dipole stimulus with elasmobranchs, which more closely mimics the natural sounds of swimming prey.

  5. A study on hearing evaluation in patients of chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate hearing threshold and the severity of hearing loss at different frequencies (250Hz, 500Hz, 1000Hz, 2000Hz, 3000Hz, 4000Hz, 6000Hz, and 8000Hz in patients of chronic renal failure (CRF, and to analyze the role of duration of disease on hearing threshold in patients of CRF. Materials and Methods: Fifty two patients of CRF were evaluated in Nephrology unit and ENT OPD. Cases with middle ear involvement were not included in the study. Pure tone audiometry was done in all cases to establish hearing threshold at different frequencies. Cases with hearing loss were classified according to the severity of hearing loss. In patients with sensorineural hearing loss, mean hearing threshold was calculated. Cases were classified in two groups on the basis of duration of disease (less than two years and more than two years and the mean hearing thresholds were calculated. The significant differences between the mean hearing thresholds of these two groups were assessed using student′s t test for unequal samples. Results : A total of 52 patients (28 males and 24 females were included in the study. Majority of the patients were in 21 to 40 year age group (mean age 36.84 years. Of the 104 ears, 76 ears (73.07% had sensorineural hearing loss and 28 ears (26.93% had normal hearing. Majority of the ears with hearing loss had mild (44.73% or moderate (42.11% sensorineural hearing loss. Mean hearing threshold was higher at low frequencies and high frequencies with a relative sparing of mid frequencies. Comparison of the mean hearing threshold in patients of Group I (duration of disease less than two years - 42 ears and Group II (duration of disease more than two years - 34 ears showed a statistically significant difference (P<0.05 in mean hearing threshold at 250 Hz. Conclusion: Hearing loss is present in majority of the patients of CRF. Most of the cases have mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing

  6. Immersive simulation of hearing loss and auditory prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Patrick M.; Desloge, Joseph G.

    2004-05-01

    Simulation of hearing loss is useful for demonstrating the communication challenges facing hearing-impaired people. However, current simulations, most of which are only recordings, do not actually elevate thresholds; i.e., they do not simulate hearing loss, per se. The hearing loss simulator described in this talk is immersive; the user's detection thresh- olds for ambient sounds are shifted by a prescribed degree. This threshold shift is achieved through a combination of passive attenuation (from muff-type hearing protectors) and additive masking noise (introduced by within-muff earphones). Acoustic signals picked up by microphones near each ear are processed through bandpass AGC channels and delivered via the earphones to complete the simulation of frequency-dependent hearing loss and loudness recruitment. Preliminary results validating the accuracy of specified threshold shift will be presented, along with speech-reception data comparing simulated with actual hearing losses. Subjective reactions of users engaged in one-on-one conversation suggest that strong feelings of communication disability are engendered by even moderate degrees of simulated hearing loss. The system, which is capable of simulating any degree of recruiting hearing loss along with hearing aids or cochlear implants, can provide effective interactive demonstrations of both auditory communication handicap and rehabilitation options. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  7. Cochlear implantation with the nucleus slim straight electrode in subjects with residual low-frequency hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarzynski, Henryk; Lorens, Artur; Matusiak, Monika; Porowski, Marek; Skarzynski, Piotr H; James, Chris J

    2014-01-01

    To measure benefit in terms of speech recognition in quiet and in noise, and conservation of residual hearing in three groups of subjects implanted with the Nucleus Straight Research Array cochlear implant. This device incorporates the Nucleus Slim Straight electrode carrier designed to be easier to insert into the cochlea via the round window while potentially minimizing insertion trauma. The study was prospective, with sequential enrolment and within-subject repeated measures; 35 subjects were 15 to 84 years of age with varying levels of bilateral high-frequency HL. Subjects were divided into three groups (A, B, and C) according to preoperative air conduction hearing thresholds in the ear to implant at 500 Hz; A ≤ 50 (n = 11), 50 diff. 26.6%pts, p diff. 7.9%pts, p = 0.72). However, a greater proportion of subjects in group A (81%) achieved a "worthwhile" gain in speech recognition score (>20%pts) in quiet compared with group C (63%). More importantly, for speech recognition in noise, all subjects in groups A and B achieved a >20%pts gain compared with only 73% in group C. Hearing in implanted ears was well conserved for low frequencies, both initially and up to 12 months postoperatively (15 dB median increase in thresholds 250 to 500 Hz). Only 3 of 35 (9%) cases lost all residual hearing in the implanted ear by 12 months. Where characteristic frequency corresponded to a position occupied by the electrode array, threshold increase was correlated with the preoperative hearing threshold (r = 0.7; p 135 degrees (r = 0.05; p > 0.05). Gains in speech recognition scores for subjects with better residual low-frequency hearing were greater or equal to those obtained by subjects with poorer residual hearing. Residual hearing after cochlear implantation with the Nucleus Slim Straight electrode array was well conserved across all three groups. It appears that the gain provided by outer hair cell function may be completely suppressed when an electrode array is in close

  8. SUDDEN ONSET SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS: MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS To study the efficacy of transcutaneous nitroglycerin and pulse steroid injection in patients with sudden hearing loss. MATERIAL AND METHOD This was a prospective study conducted in the Department of ENT, KIMS, Bhubaneswar; 31 patients who fit to inclusion criteria included in this study. RESULTS Out of 31 patients of sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss, 18 (58.06% patients had threshold closer to 30 dB.

  9. Restaurant noise, hearing loss, and hearing aids.

    OpenAIRE

    Lebo, C P; M.F. Smith; Mosher, E R; Jelonek, S J; Schwind, D R; Decker, K E; Krusemark, H J; Kurz, P L

    1994-01-01

    Our multidisciplinary team obtained noise data in 27 San Francisco Bay Area restaurants. These data included typical minimum, peak, and average sound pressure levels; digital tape recordings; subjective noise ratings; and on-site unaided and aided speech discrimination tests. We report the details and implications of these noise measurements and provide basic information on selecting hearing aids and suggestions for coping with restaurant noise.

  10. Restaurant noise, hearing loss, and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebo, C P; Smith, M F; Mosher, E R; Jelonek, S J; Schwind, D R; Decker, K E; Krusemark, H J; Kurz, P L

    1994-07-01

    Our multidisciplinary team obtained noise data in 27 San Francisco Bay Area restaurants. These data included typical minimum, peak, and average sound pressure levels; digital tape recordings; subjective noise ratings; and on-site unaided and aided speech discrimination tests. We report the details and implications of these noise measurements and provide basic information on selecting hearing aids and suggestions for coping with restaurant noise.

  11. Effect of Hearing Aids on Auditory Function in Infants with Perinatal Brain Injury and Severe Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Aguirre, Alma Janeth; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Harmony, Thalía; Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background Approximately 2–4% of newborns with perinatal risk factors present with hearing loss. Our aim was to analyze the effect of hearing aid use on auditory function evaluated based on otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), auditory brain responses (ABRs) and auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) in infants with perinatal brain injury and profound hearing loss. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospective, longitudinal study of auditory function in infants with profound hearing loss. Right side hearing before and after hearing aid use was compared with left side hearing (not stimulated and used as control). All infants were subjected to OAE, ABR and ASSR evaluations before and after hearing aid use. The average ABR threshold decreased from 90.0 to 80.0 dB (p = 0.003) after six months of hearing aid use. In the left ear, which was used as a control, the ABR threshold decreased from 94.6 to 87.6 dB, which was not significant (p>0.05). In addition, the ASSR threshold in the 4000-Hz frequency decreased from 89 dB to 72 dB (p = 0.013) after six months of right ear hearing aid use; the other frequencies in the right ear and all frequencies in the left ear did not show significant differences in any of the measured parameters (p>0.05). OAEs were absent in the baseline test and showed no changes after hearing aid use in the right ear (p>0.05). Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence that early hearing aid use decreases the hearing threshold in ABR and ASSR assessments with no functional modifications in the auditory receptor, as evaluated by OAEs. PMID:22808289

  12. Low Empathy in Deaf and Hard of Hearing (Pre)Adolescents Compared to Normal Hearing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Anouk P.; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy. Methods The study group (mean age 11.9 years) consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids) and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children’s level of empathy, their attendance to others’ emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior. Results Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported) language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children. Conclusions Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships. PMID:25906365

  13. The effects of hearing loss on the contribution of high- and low-frequency speech information to speech understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.; Ricketts, Todd A.

    2003-03-01

    The speech understanding of persons with ``flat'' hearing loss (HI) was compared to a normal-hearing (NH) control group to examine how hearing loss affects the contribution of speech information in various frequency regions. Speech understanding in noise was assessed at multiple low- and high-pass filter cutoff frequencies. Noise levels were chosen to ensure that the noise, rather than quiet thresholds, determined audibility. The performance of HI subjects was compared to a NH group listening at the same signal-to-noise ratio and a comparable presentation level. Although absolute speech scores for the HI group were reduced, performance improvements as the speech and noise bandwidth increased were comparable between groups. These data suggest that the presence of hearing loss results in a uniform, rather than frequency-specific, deficit in the contribution of speech information. Measures of auditory thresholds in noise and speech intelligibility index (SII) calculations were also performed. These data suggest that differences in performance between the HI and NH groups are due primarily to audibility differences between groups. Measures of auditory thresholds in noise showed the ``effective masking spectrum'' of the noise was greater for the HI than the NH subjects.

  14. Effect of cigarette smoking on noise-induced hearing loss in workers exposed to occupational noise in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Tao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to high noise level environments has the potential to cause noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL, and cigarette smoking has also been shown to have a potential adverse effect on hearing. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking interacts with noise in the development of hearing loss, and if so, the extent of the contribution from smoking on NIHL. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the effect of smoking on NIHL in 517 male workers (non-smokers: N = 199; smokers: N = 318 exposed to a high-level industrial noise environment in China. Shift-long temporal waveforms of the noise that workers were exposed to for evaluation of noise exposures, and audiometric threshold measures were obtained on all selected subjects. The subjects used hearing protection devices only within the last 1-2 years. The results suggest that smoking has an adverse effect on NIHL in workers exposed to high level industrial noise, i.e., the median high frequency hearing thresholds were significantly greater in smokers than non-smokers exposed to noise for more than 10 years. This effect was observed at 4.0 and 6.0 kHz. Smoking did not have an adverse effect on NIHL in workers exposed to noise less than 10 years. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR for high frequency hearing loss (i.e., hearing threshold greater than 40 dB at 4.0 kHz were 1.94 for smokers in comparison to non-smokers. The results suggest that: (1 smokers have a higher risk of developing high frequency hearing loss than non-smokers with a similar occupational noise exposure, and (2 the interaction between cigarette smoking and high-level noise exposure may be additive. There is a need to develop and analyze a larger database of workers with well-documented exposures and smoking histories for better understanding of the effect of smoking on NIHL incurred from high-level industrial noise exposures. A better understanding of the role of smoking may

  15. Theory of Auditory Thresholds in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael J.

    2001-03-01

    The influence of thermal pressure fluctuations at the tympanic membrane has been previously investigated as a possible determinant of the threshold of hearing in humans (L.J. Sivian and S.D. White, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. IV, 4;288(1933).). More recent work has focussed more precisely on the relation between statistical mechanics and sensory signal processing by biological means in creatures' brains (W. Bialek, in ``Physics of Biological Systems: from molecules to species'', H. Flyvberg et al, (Eds), p. 252; Springer 1997.). Clinical data on the frequency dependence of hearing thresholds in humans and other primates (W.C. Stebbins, ``The Acoustic Sense of Animals'', Harvard 1983.) has long been available. I have derived an expression for the frequency dependence of hearing thresholds in primates, including humans, by first calculating the frequency dependence of thermal pressure fluctuations at eardrums from damped normal modes excited in model ear canals of given simple geometry. I then show that most of the features of the clinical data are directly related to the frequency dependence of the ratio of thermal noise pressure arising from without to that arising from within the masking bandwidth which signals must dominate in order to be sensed. The higher intensity of threshold signals in primates smaller than humans, which is clinically observed over much but not all of the human auditory spectrum is shown to arise from their smaller meatus dimensions. note

  16. Deaf/Hearing Research Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsey, Ju-Lee A; Dunn, Kim Misener; Gentzke, Scott W; Joharchi, Hannah A; Clark, M Diane

    2017-01-01

    Deaf individuals typically are seen through the lens of the dominant hearing society's perception, i.e., that being deaf is an impairment. Today, a small but growing number of Deaf and hearing researchers are challenging this perception. The authors examined perceptions of what components are necessary for a successful Deaf/hearing research partnership, and propose that it is essential for Deaf and hearing researchers to embrace a Deaf epistemology. The authors found that a core category of equity is the key to effective teams. This equity is based in part on the mutual understanding that American Sign Language is the lingua franca of the team, as it provides full and easy access between Deaf and hearing team members. Additionally, a transformative paradigm, as a research frame, was found to be necessary to focus on leveling the playing field for Deaf researchers.

  17. Applications of direct-to-consumer hearing devices for adults with hearing loss: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchaiah V

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vinaya Manchaiah,1–4 Brian Taylor,5 Ashley L Dockens,1 Nicole R Tran,1 Kayla Lane,1 Mariana Castle,1 Vibhu Grover1 1Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, USA; 2The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Audiology India, Mysore, 4Department of Speech and Hearing, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, India; 5Taylor Audio LLC, Minneapolis, MN, USA Background: This systematic literature review is aimed at investigating applications of direct-to-consumer hearing devices for adults with hearing loss. This review discusses three categories of direct-to-consumer hearing devices: 1 personal sound amplification products (PSAPs, 2 direct-mail hearing aids, and 3 over-the-counter (OTC hearing aids.Method: A literature review was conducted using EBSCOhost and included the databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. After applying prior agreed inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 reports were included in the review.Results: Included studies fell into three domains: 1 electroacoustic characteristics, 2 consumer surveys, and 3 outcome evaluations. Electroacoustic characteristics of these devices vary significantly with some meeting the stringent acoustic criteria used for hearing aids, while others producing dangerous output levels (ie, over 120-dB sound pressure level. Low-end (or low-cost devices were typically poor in acoustic quality and did not meet gain levels necessary for most adult and elderly hearing loss patterns (eg, presbycusis, especially in high frequencies. Despite direct-mail hearing aids and PSAPs being associated with lower satisfaction when compared to hearing aids purchased through hearing health care professionals, consumer surveys suggest that 5%–19% of people with hearing loss purchase hearing aids through direct-mail or online. Studies on outcome evaluation suggest positive

  18. Psycho-physiological characteristics of female basketball players with hearing problems as the basis for the technical tactic training methodic in world level teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhanneta Kozina; Irina Sobko; Tetiana Yermakova; Miroslawa Cieslicka; Walery Zukow; Michael Chia; Volodymyr Goncharenko; Olga Goncharenko; Vitalii Korobeinik

    2016-01-01

      Purpose: to work out and experimentally prove methodic of technical tactic training for elite female basketball players with hearing problems, considering their psycho-physiological characteristics. Material...

  19. Relation between arterial hypertension and hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the relationship between systemic arterial hypertension (SAH and hearing loss in middle-aged patient. Method: This study was carried out in the period from January to December 2007. The research was composed by 392 patients of both genders, aged from 45 to 60 years old. Anamnesis and threshold tonal audiometry data were analyzed. Results: There was a significant association between SAH and hearing loss. Conclusion: The results showed an evident association between SAH and hearing loss, which requires the disclosure of a preventive process.

  20. Evaluation of age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Su; Chung, Jong Woo

    2013-09-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is characterized by an increased hearing threshold and poor speech understanding in a noisy environment, slowed central processing of acoustic information, and impaired localization of sound sources. Presbycusis seriously affects the older people's quality of life. Particularly, hearing loss in the elderly contributes to social isolation, depression, and loss of self-esteem. Current amplification methods related to auditory rehabilitation can provide improved communication ability to users. But, simple auditory rehabilitation is ineffective in managing the central auditory processing disorder and the psychosocial problem of presbycusis. The evaluation of central auditory processing disorder and psychosocial disorder in presbycusis should not be overlooked while providing auditory rehabilitation.

  1. Comparison of Reading Literacy in Hearing Impaired and Normal Hearing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ali Asghar Kakojoibari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: listening, speaking, reading and writing are considered the lingual skills. These skills are in direct relation with each other. Listening is the first skill learnt by the individual through development. If damaged by hearing impairment, listening can cause serious defect to lingual skills. The goal of our research was to study the effect of hearing loss on reading literacy in hearing impairment students in comparison with normal hearing students.Methods: Study was performed using the examination booklets of Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS 2001. 119 hearing impairment students of 4th grade primary school, last year guidance school, and last year high school levels in schools providing exceptional student education were included. These individuals were compared to 46 normal hearing students of 4th grade primary school of ordinary schools. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using t-test.Results: Reading literacy and literal contents understanding was shown to have a significant difference between normal hearing and whole hearing impaired student (p<0.05, except the ones in high school level with moderate hearing loss. There was also seen a significant difference between normal hearing and hearing impairment students in understanding of information contents (p=0.03.Conclusion: Hearing loss has a negative effect on reading literacy. Consequently, curriculum change and evolution of educational programs in exceptional centers is needed, in order to promote reading literacy and to enhance rest hearing

  2. Timbre discrimination in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners under different noise conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroglu, Suzan; Kollmeier, Birger

    2008-07-18

    In an attempt to quantify differences in object separation and timbre discrimination between normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners with a moderate sensorineural hearing loss of two different configurations, psychoacoustic measurements were performed with a total of 50 listeners. The experiments determined just noticeable differences (JND) of timbre in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects along continua of "morphed" musical instruments and investigated the variance of JND in silence and different background noise conditions and on different sound levels. The results show that timbre JNDs of subjects with a steep hearing loss are significantly higher than of normal-hearing subjects, both in silence and noise, whereas timbre JNDs of flat/diagonal hearing-impaired subjects are similar to JNDs of normal-hearing subjects for signal levels above 55 dB (plus appropriate amplification for hearing-impaired). In noise (SNR=+10 dB) timbre JNDs of all subject groups are significantly higher than in silence. In the condition testing, transferability from silence to noise (i.e., the ability to imagine how the stimulus heard in silence would sound in noise), no significant JND differences across listener groups were found. The results can be explained by primary factors involved in sensorineural hearing loss and contradict the hypothesis that hearing-impaired people generally have more problems in object discrimination than normal-hearing people.

  3. Hazardous decibels: hearing health of firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, OiSaeng; Samo, Daniel G

    2007-08-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss ranks among the most significant occupational health problems. In the United States, more than 1 million firefighters are at risk for noise-induced hearing loss due to exposure to hazardous levels of intermittent noise from sirens, air horns, and engines of emergency vehicles and fire trucks. Although irreversible, noise-induced hearing loss is entirely preventable through both engineering controls and personal protective equipment. This article describes occupational noise exposure, hearing loss, and strategies to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among firefighters.

  4. Swept-sine noise-induced damage as a hearing loss model for preclinical assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eSanz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mouse models are key tools for studying cochlear alterations in noise-induced hearing loss and for evaluating new therapies. Stimuli used to induce deafness in mice are usually white and octave band noises that include very low frequencies, considering the large mouse auditory range. We designed different sound stimuli, enriched in frequencies up to 20 kHz (violet noises to examine their impact on hearing thresholds and cochlear cytoarchitecture after short exposure. In addition, we developed a cytocochleogram to quantitatively assess the ensuing structural degeneration and its functional correlation. Finally, we used this mouse model and cochleogram procedure to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of transforming growth factor β1 inhibitors P17 and P144 on noise-induced hearing loss. CBA mice were exposed to violet swept-sine noise with different frequency ranges (2-20 or 9-13 kHz and levels (105 or 120 dB SPL for 30 minutes. Mice were evaluated by auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emission tests prior to and 2, 14 and 28 days after noise exposure. Cochlear pathology was assessed with gross histology; hair cell number was estimated by a stereological counting method. Our results indicate that functional and morphological changes induced by violet swept-sine noise depend on the sound level and frequency composition. Partial hearing recovery followed the exposure to 105 dB SPL, whereas permanent cochlear damage resulted from the exposure to 120 dB SPL. Exposure to 9-13 kHz noise caused an auditory threshold shift in those frequencies that correlated with hair cell loss in the corresponding areas of the cochlea that were spotted on the cytocochleogram. In summary, we present mouse models of noise-induced hearing loss, which depending on the sound properties of the noise, cause different degrees of cochlear damage, and could therefore be used to study molecules which are potential players in hearing loss protection and repair.

  5. Cancer treatment in determination of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Priscila Feliciano de; Oliveira, Camila Silva; Andrade, Joice Santos; Santos, Tamara Figueiredo do Carmo; Oliveira-Barreto, Aline Cabral de

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiotherapy in oncology have repercussions in hearing health, and can damage structures of the inner ear. These repercussions usually, result in a bilateral and irreversible hearing loss. To identify sensorineural hearing loss cases with complaints of tinnitus and difficulty in speech understanding and investigate their relationship with the types of chemotherapy and radiotherapy the patients received. Cross-sectional, clinical, observational, analytical, historical cohort study of 58 subjects treated in a public hospital in the state of Sergipe, diagnosed with neoplasia. The subjects were submitted to anamnesis, conventional pure tone audiometry, and speech recognition threshold. Of the 116 ears, 25.9% presented sensorioneural hearing loss characterized by changes in high frequencies. There was a positive correlation between hearing loss and the association of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (p=0.035; R=0.196). The auditory complaint analysis shows that most of the subjects had tinnitus and speech understanding difficulty, even with a normal auditory threshold. Cancer treatment causes hearing loss, associated with the administration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cyclophosphamide increased the risk of causing hearing loss. Complaints of tinnitus and speech understanding difficulty were observed. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. The development and standardization of Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gibbeum Kim,1 Wondo Na,1 Gungu Kim,1 Woojae Han,2 Jinsook Kim2 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Hallym University Graduate School, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea; 2Division of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Research Institute of Audiology and Speech Pathology, College of Natural Sciences, Hallym Universtiy, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea Purpose: The present study aimed to develop and standardize a screening tool for elderly people who wish to check for themselves their level of hearing loss. Methods: The Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly (SHSE consisted of 20 questions based on the characteristics of presbycusis using a five-point scale: seven questions covered general issues related to sensorineural hearing loss, seven covered hearing difficulty under distracting listening conditions, two covered hearing difficulty with fast-rated speech, and four covered the working memory function during communication. To standardize SHSE, 83 elderly participants took part in the study: 25 with normal hearing, and 22, 23, and 13 with mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, respectively, according to their hearing sensitivity. All were retested 3 weeks later using the same questionnaire to confirm its reliability. In addition, validity was assessed using various hearing tests such as a sentence test with background noise, a time-compressed speech test, and a digit span test. Results: SHSE and its subcategories showed good internal consistency. SHSE and its subcategories demonstrated high test–retest reliability. A high correlation was observed between the total scores and pure-tone thresholds, which indicated gradually increased SHSE scores of 42.24%, 55.27%, 66.61%, and 78.15% for normal hearing, mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe groups, respectively. With regard to construct validity, SHSE showed a high negative correlation with speech perception scores in noise and a moderate negative

  7. Applications of direct-to-consumer hearing devices for adults with hearing loss: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Taylor, Brian; Dockens, Ashley L; Tran, Nicole R; Lane, Kayla; Castle, Mariana; Grover, Vibhu

    2017-01-01

    Background This systematic literature review is aimed at investigating applications of direct-to-consumer hearing devices for adults with hearing loss. This review discusses three categories of direct-to-consumer hearing devices: 1) personal sound amplification products (PSAPs), 2) direct-mail hearing aids, and 3) over-the-counter (OTC) hearing aids. Method A literature review was conducted using EBSCOhost and included the databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. After applying prior agreed inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 reports were included in the review. Results Included studies fell into three domains: 1) electroacoustic characteristics, 2) consumer surveys, and 3) outcome evaluations. Electroacoustic characteristics of these devices vary significantly with some meeting the stringent acoustic criteria used for hearing aids, while others producing dangerous output levels (ie, over 120-dB sound pressure level). Low-end (or low-cost) devices were typically poor in acoustic quality and did not meet gain levels necessary for most adult and elderly hearing loss patterns (eg, presbycusis), especially in high frequencies. Despite direct-mail hearing aids and PSAPs being associated with lower satisfaction when compared to hearing aids purchased through hearing health care professionals, consumer surveys suggest that 5%–19% of people with hearing loss purchase hearing aids through direct-mail or online. Studies on outcome evaluation suggest positive outcomes of OTC devices in the elderly population. Of note, OTC outcomes appear better when a hearing health care professional supports these users. Conclusion While some direct-to-consumer hearing devices have the capability to produce adverse effects due to production of dangerously high sound levels and internal noise, the existing literature suggests that there are potential benefits of these devices. Research of direct-to-consumer hearing devices is limited, and current published studies are of weak quality. Much

  8. Applications of direct-to-consumer hearing devices for adults with hearing loss: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Taylor, Brian; Dockens, Ashley L; Tran, Nicole R; Lane, Kayla; Castle, Mariana; Grover, Vibhu

    2017-01-01

    This systematic literature review is aimed at investigating applications of direct-to-consumer hearing devices for adults with hearing loss. This review discusses three categories of direct-to-consumer hearing devices: 1) personal sound amplification products (PSAPs), 2) direct-mail hearing aids, and 3) over-the-counter (OTC) hearing aids. A literature review was conducted using EBSCOhost and included the databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. After applying prior agreed inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 reports were included in the review. Included studies fell into three domains: 1) electroacoustic characteristics, 2) consumer surveys, and 3) outcome evaluations. Electroacoustic characteristics of these devices vary significantly with some meeting the stringent acoustic criteria used for hearing aids, while others producing dangerous output levels (ie, over 120-dB sound pressure level). Low-end (or low-cost) devices were typically poor in acoustic quality and did not meet gain levels necessary for most adult and elderly hearing loss patterns (eg, presbycusis), especially in high frequencies. Despite direct-mail hearing aids and PSAPs being associated with lower satisfaction when compared to hearing aids purchased through hearing health care professionals, consumer surveys suggest that 5%-19% of people with hearing loss purchase hearing aids through direct-mail or online. Studies on outcome evaluation suggest positive outcomes of OTC devices in the elderly population. Of note, OTC outcomes appear better when a hearing health care professional supports these users. While some direct-to-consumer hearing devices have the capability to produce adverse effects due to production of dangerously high sound levels and internal noise, the existing literature suggests that there are potential benefits of these devices. Research of direct-to-consumer hearing devices is limited, and current published studies are of weak quality. Much effort is needed to understand the

  9. Usefulness of high doses of glucocorticoids and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in sudden sensorineural hearing loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narozny, Waldemar; Sicko, Zdzislaw; Przewozny, Tomasz; Stankiewicz, Czeslaw; Kot, Jacek; Kuczkowski, Jerzy

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the effect of pharmacologic (steroids, vasodilators, vitamins, and Betaserc) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy on patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The pharmacologic arm of the study consisted of 52 patients with defined sudden sensorineural hearing loss treated simultaneously in the ENT Department and National Center for Hyperbaric Medicine of the Medical University of Gdansk, Poland, from 1997 to 2000 (Group A). The hyperbaric oxygen therapy consisted of exposure to 100% oxygen at a pressure of 250 kPa for a total of 60 minutes in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber. The control group included 81 patients with defined sudden sensorineural hearing loss treated in the ENT Department, Medical University of Gdansk, from 1980 to 1996 (Group B). Both groups were comparable regarding the age of the patients, season of hearing loss occurrence, tinnitus and vestibular symptom frequency, delay before therapy, and average threshold loss before the start of treatment. The treatment results (hearing gain) were estimated using pure-tone audiometry. We retrospectively analyzed the audiograms of all patients. Patients from Group A (blood flow-promoting drugs, glucocorticoids in high doses, betahistine, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy) showed significantly better recovery of hearing levels compared with those from Group B (blood flow-promoting drugs and glucocorticoids in low doses) at seven frequencies (500, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 6,000, and 8,000 Hz) (p < 0.05) and four groups of frequencies (pure-tone average, high-tone average, pure middle-tone average, and overall average) (p < 0.05). Percentage hearing gain in all investigated frequencies was also better in Group A versus Group B, and the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). We conclude that hyperbaric oxygen therapy with high doses of glucocorticoids improves the results of conventional sudden sensorineural hearing loss treatment and should be recommended. In addition, the best

  10. Pathophysiology of Age-Related Hearing Loss (Peripheral and Central)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2013-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) refers to bilaterally symmetrical hearing loss resulting from aging process. Presbycusis is a complex phenomenon characterized by audiometric threshold shift, deterioration in speech-understanding and speech-perception difficulties in noisy environments. Factors contributing to presbycusis include mitochondria DNA mutation, genetic disorders including Ahl, hypertension, diabetes, metabolic disease and other systemic diseases in the intrinsic aspects. Ext...

  11. Regenerative efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells from human placenta in sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Kicheol; Choi, Mi Young; Kong, Ji Sun; Kim, Woo Jin; Park, Kyoung Ho

    2016-12-01

    Hearing loss is a common chronic disorder characterized by decline of auditory function. The global population have suffered from deafness and the transplantation of stem cells is regarded as a therapeutic strategy for this disease. We collected placenta from a total of 13 samples of full term pregnant women and isolated MSCs derived from human placenta and transplanted MSCs on deaf animal model. The normal group and the sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) group and the experimental (transplanted MSCs) group were compared and estimated hearing level using auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings and the otoacoustic emission (OAE) test. ABR threshold value and DPOAE level showed that MSCs transplantation groups was improved than the SNHL group. And the number of spiral ganglion neurons were increased in all turn of the cochlea. And there was no evidence of acute immunological rejection and inflammation response was not observed. This study is to evaluate regenerative efficacy of hearing loss by transplanting mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from human placenta (amnion and chorion) in deaf animal model. We identified that MSCs transplantation restored auditory impairment and promoted cell regeneration. We hope to overcome sensorineural hearing loss by transplanting stem cells such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from easily accessible adult stem cell source in placenta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence of noise-induced hearing loss in young people studying popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    The number of students studying popular music, music technology, and sound engineering courses at both school and university to has increased rapidly in the last few years. These students are generally involved in music-making/recording and listening to a high level, usually in environments with amplified music. Recent studies have shown that these students are potentially exposed to a high risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL( and are not covered by the same regulatory framework as employees. This study examined the pure tone air conduction hearing thresholds of 50 undergraduate students, including recent school leavers, on a range of popular music courses, to assess if there was evidence of hearing loss. Forty-four percent of students showed evidence of audiometric notch at 4-6 kHz, and 16% were classified under the UK Occupational Health and Safety guidelines as exhibiting mild hearing loss. Instance of audiometric notch was considerably higher than reported from studies of the general population but was around the same level or lower than that reported from studies of "traditional" music courses and conservatoires, suggesting no higher risk for popular music students than for "classical" music students. No relationship with age was present, suggesting that younger students were as likely to exhibit audiometric notch as mature students. This indicates that these students may be damaging their hearing through leisure activities while still at school, suggesting a need for robust education measures to focus on noise exposure of young people.

  13. Lateralized speech perception in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners and its relationship to temporal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locsei, Gusztav; Pedersen, Julie Hefting; Laugesen, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of temporal fine structure (TFS) coding in spatially complex, lateralized listening tasks. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured in young normal-hearing (NH) and two groups of elderly hearing-impaired (HI) listeners in the presence of speech-shaped noise...

  14. 高压氧对肾上腺素诱导的内耳损伤大鼠听力及下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴激素水平的影响%Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on the hearing of inner ear and the hormone levels of HPA axis in rats induced by adrenaline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘树义; 杨晨; 陈晓; 孟祥恩; 张良

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on the damage of inner ear and hearing loss induced by adrenaline and also to monitor changes in hormone levels related with stress,so as to evaluate effects of HBO on hearing damage and related stressors.Methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:the blank control group,the adrenaline group and the adrenaline plus HBO group.Infusion of adrenaline through the access of middle ear for a succession of 5 days till hearing loss was induced,while the animals in the control group were only given physiologic saline.After completion of medication,the animals in the HBO group received HBO therapy 1 session / a day for 3 consecutive days,and the animals in the other 2 groups were left untreated for natural recovery.Changes in hearing thresholds in rats were detected through monitoring of evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR).After termination of the experiment,the animals were sacrificed for detection of serum hormone levels.Results The administration of adrenaline through the access of middle ear could elevate the hearing threshold of the rats.The final hearing threshold of the rats in the HBO group [(26.01 ± 7.95) dB] was lower than that of the adrenaline group [(39.69 ± 8.26) dB] (P < 0.05).Cortisol level in the animals of the control group was the lowest,followed by the animals in the HBO group.The cortisol level in the animals of the model group was the highest.Conclusions HBO therapy could alleviate hearing damage of the rats induced by adrenaline.Cortical levels were closely associated with the seriousness of hearing damage.%目的 观察高压氧暴露对肾上腺素导致的大鼠内耳损伤、听力下降的影响,以及相关激素的改变情况,评价高压氧治疗对听力及激素水平的影响.方法 24只大鼠按数字表法随机分为3组:空白对照组、肾上腺素组、肾上腺素+高压氧组.肾上腺素组、肾上腺素+高压氧组连续5d经中

  15. Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Yazdani

    2008-12-01

    loss in any of the study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Hearing thresholds at frequencies which are important for speech comprehension are significantly worse in individuals with ocular PXF as compared to matched controls. This finding may support the multi-organ nature of PXF syndrome.

  1. Effect of batroxobin combined with ginkgo dipyidamolum on hearing and hemorheology in patients with sudden hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Jun Ren

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of batroxobin in combined with ginkgo dipyidamolum on the hearing and hemorheology in patients with sudden hearing loss (SHL).Methods:A total of 80 patients with SHL who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2015 to December, 2015 in ENT Department were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the two groups were given batroxobin injection (10 BU) + 0.9% NaCl (100 mL), ivdrip, once every other day. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional ginkgo dipyidamolum injection (30 mL) + 5% glucose (250 mL), iv drip, 1 time/d. The fasting elbow venous blood before treatment and 10 d after treatment in the two groups was collected. The blood rheometer was used to detect the plasma PV, HS, MS, and LS. The full automatic coagulation apparatus was used to detect TT, PT, ATPP, FIB, and PF. ELISA was used to detect the serum Connexin26 and Connexin30 levels. AC40 audio tester was used to measure the hearing threshold value before and after treatment.Results:PV, HS, MS, and LS levels after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and the improved degree of the above indicators in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05). TT, PT, and ATPP after treatment in the two groups were significantly elevated, while FIB and PF were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and the improved degree of the above indicators in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05). Connexin26 and Connexin30 levels after treatment in the two groups were significantly elevated when compared with before treatment (P<0.05). Connexin26 and Connexin30 levels after treatment in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The hearing threshold value after treatment

  2. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Christian Lein Størmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of TromsØ. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians.

  3. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størmer, Carl Christian Lein; Laukli, Einar; Høydal, Erik Harry; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of TromsØ. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians.

  4. Assessing the Level of Performance of Sign Language Interpreters from Impaired Hearing Students' Perspectives at Public and Private Jordanian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanikat, Feryal Abdel-Hadi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the level of performance of sign language interpreters in both public and private Jordanian universities, as well as to recognize the effect of the study variables specifically gender and qualifications for acoustically disabled and interpreter, and the experience of the interpreter on the level of the performance…

  5. Erratum: Correction to Table 3, in: Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz (International Journal of Audiology (2009) 48 (271-276))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The main results in Poulsen & Oakley (2009) are given as the equivalent threshold sound pressure level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specifi ed in IEC 60318-3. These results are all correct. The ETSPL values for the ear simulator specifi ed in IEC 60318-1 were calculated from acoustic...

  6. About Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... measured is 120 dB. "O" and "X" - The symbols used to record thresholds on an audiogram. "O" ... Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20002 Copyright © 2015 Gallaudet University Stay Connected Facebook Twitter Subscribe Odyssey E-Newsletter @ ...

  7. The effect of different cochlear implant microphones on acoustic hearing individuals’ binaural benefits for speech perception in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, Justin M.; Freed, Daniel J.; Fisher, Laurel M.; Pal, Ivan; Soli, Sigfrid D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Cochlear implant microphones differ in placement, frequency response, and other characteristics such as whether they are directional. Although normal hearing individuals are often used as controls in studies examining cochlear implant users’ binaural benefits, the considerable differences across cochlear implant microphones make such comparisons potentially misleading. The goal of this study was to examine binaural benefits for speech perception in noise for normal hearing individuals using stimuli processed by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) based on the different cochlear implant microphones. Design HRTFs were created for different cochlear implant microphones and used to test participants on the Hearing in Noise Test. Experiment 1 tested cochlear implant users and normal hearing individuals with HRTF-processed stimuli and with sound field testing to determine whether the HRTFs adequately simulated sound field testing. Experiment 2 determined the measurement error and performance-intensity function for the Hearing in Noise Test with normal hearing individuals listening to stimuli processed with the various HRTFs. Experiment 3 compared normal hearing listeners’ performance across HRTFs to determine how the HRTFs affected performance. Experiment 4 evaluated binaural benefits for normal hearing listeners using the various HRTFs, including ones that were modified to investigate the contributions of interaural time and level cues. Results The results indicated that the HRTFs adequately simulated sound field testing for the Hearing in Noise Test. They also demonstrated that the test-retest reliability and performance-intensity function were consistent across HRTFs, and that the measurement error for the test was 1.3 dB, with a change in signal-to-noise ratio of 1 dB reflecting a 10% change in intelligibility. There were significant differences in performance when using the various HRTFs, with particularly good thresholds for the HRTF based on the

  8. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Keppler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults′ hearing status. A questionnaire and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years. The questionnaire contained the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS and Beliefs about Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss (BAHPHL. A more positive attitude or belief represented an attitude where noise or hearing loss is seen as unproblematic and attitudes and beliefs regarding HPDs is worse. Hearing was evaluated using (high frequency pure tone audiometry (PTA, transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. First, mean differences in hearing between the groups with different attitudes and beliefs were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Second, a χ2 test was used to examine the usage of HPDs by the different groups with different attitudes and beliefs. Young adults with a positive attitude had significantly more deteriorated hearing and used HPDs less than the other subjects. Hearing conservation programs (HCPs for young adults should provide information and knowledge regarding noise, hearing loss, and HPDs. Barriers wearing HPDs should especially be discussed. Further, those campaigns should focus on self-experienced hearing related symptoms that might serve as triggers for attitudinal and behavioral changes.

  9. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults' hearing status. A questionnaire and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). The questionnaire contained the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS) and Beliefs about Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss (BAHPHL). A more positive attitude or belief represented an attitude where noise or hearing loss is seen as unproblematic and attitudes and beliefs regarding HPDs is worse. Hearing was evaluated using (high frequency) pure tone audiometry (PTA), transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. First, mean differences in hearing between the groups with different attitudes and beliefs were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second, a χ² test was used to examine the usage of HPDs by the different groups with different attitudes and beliefs. Young adults with a positive attitude had significantly more deteriorated hearing and used HPDs less than the other subjects. Hearing conservation programs (HCPs) for young adults should provide information and knowledge regarding noise, hearing loss, and HPDs. Barriers wearing HPDs should especially be discussed. Further, those campaigns should focus on self-experienced hearing related symptoms that might serve as triggers for attitudinal and behavioral changes.

  10. The effect of rest periods on temporary threshold shift (TTS) after noise exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, R.

    1991-12-01

    In a series of experimental studies the hypothesis that periods of silence reduce the risk of hearing impairment was tested. The noise exposure was comparable to that of workers in the engineering industry: e.g., during 10 minutes' grinding. Two different experiments with rest periods of different lengths and repetition rates were performed. Frequent short periods of silence offered the best protection. Significantly less influence on hearing, temporary threshold shift (TTS), was obtained when repeated 5-second pauses were allowed than during continuous work. The studies also included experiments with impulse noise. This consisted of a different series of sledgehammer impacts, with a peak level of 130 dB(A). Different repetition rates were tested in order to determine whether the reaction time of the acoustic reflex influenced its protective effect. A low repetition rate gave less temporary impairment than a higher repetition rate, although the total number of impacts was the same.

  11. Association Between Hepatitis B and Hearing Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Shayani Nasab

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Viral diseases are one of the common causes of hearing loss. The inner ear may be involved directly or by secondary reaction (e.g., polyarthritis nodosa. This study was performed to investigate the relation between positive HBS-Ag (hepatitis B disease and hearing loss.Methods: This case-study research was done on 95 hepatitis-B patients as the case group and 97 normal cases as the control group. They were selected sequentially and audiologic tests were performed on the participants. The hearing thresholds of the two groups were compared using the t-test.Results: According to audiometry results, pure tone average (mean thresholds of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz were 22.1 dB for the left ear and 23.95 dB for the right ear in hepatitis-B group and 8.4 dB for the left ear and 8.95 dB for the right ear in the control group (HBS-Ag negative. The difference between two groups was statistically significant with p-value less than 0.05.Conclusion: The results show that hepatitis-B patients are more prone to hearing loss and that hepatitis B disease can cause hearing loss. This study suggests that hepatitis B prophylaxis is important in decreasing hepatitis-B involvement and therefore, hearing loss.

  12. Lungfish Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    Recent research has shown that tympanic middle ears evolved independently in the major vertebrate groups and represent independent experiments in terrestrial hearing. Furthermore, the tympanic ear emerged quite late – ap - proximately 120 mya after the origin of the tetrapods and approximately 70...... cros - sopterygian ear with immobile middle ear bone, 2) increased inner ear frequency ranges, 3) mobile middle ear structures and 4) the tympanic middle ear....

  13. Transforming growth factor β1 inhibition protects from noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eMurillo-Cuesta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to noise damages the principal cochlear structures leading to hearing impairment. Inflammatory and immune responses are central mechanisms in cochlear defensive response to noise but, if unregulated, they contribute to inner ear damage and hearing loss. Transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß is a key regulator of both responses and high levels of this factor have been associated with cochlear injury in hearing loss animal models. To evaluate the potential of targeting TGF-ß as a therapeutic strategy for preventing or ameliorating noise-induced hearing loss, we studied the auditory function, cochlear morphology, gene expression and oxidative stress markers in mice exposed to noise and treated with TGF-ß1 peptidic inhibitors P17 and P144, just before or immediately after noise insult. Our results indicate that systemic administration of both peptides significantly improved both the evolution of hearing thresholds and the degenerative changes induced by noise-exposure in lateral wall structures. Moreover, treatments ameliorated the inflammatory state and redox balance. These therapeutic effects were dose-dependent and more effective if the TGF-ß1 inhibitors were administered prior to inducing the injury. In conclusion, inhibition of TGF-ß1 actions with antagonistic peptides represents a new, promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention and repair of noise-induced cochlear damage.

  14. Case Factors Affecting Hearing Aid Recommendations by Hearing Care Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gioia, Carmine; Ben-Akiva, Moshe; Jørgensen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Professional recommendations to patients concerning hearing instrument (HI) technology levels are not currently evidence-based. Pre-fitting parameters have not been proven to be the primary indicators for optimal patient outcome with different HI technology levels. This results...... in subjective decision-making as regards the technology level recommendation made by professionals. Purpose: The objective of this study is to gain insight into the decision-making criteria utilized by professionals when recommending HI technology levels to hearing-impaired patients....

  15. Effect of otologic drill noise on ABR thresholds in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suits, G W; Brummett, R E; Nunley, J

    1993-10-01

    The noise generated by the otologic drill has been implicated as a cause of sensorineural hearing loss after ear surgery. However, clinical studies on this subject are contradictory and difficult to interpret. Therefore a guinea pig model was used to study whether the level of noise generated by the otologic drill can cause threshold shifts in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The source noise was a recording obtained during a human cadaver mastoidectomy using a microphone and an accelerometer. Ten female Topeka-strain guinea pigs were exposed to the recorded drill noise for a period of 55 minutes. Exposure included both air-conducted energy from a speaker and bone-conducted energy from a bone vibrator applied directly to the skull. ABR threshold measurements were taken pre-exposure (baseline), immediately after exposure, and at weekly intervals thereafter for 3 weeks. Three control animals were subjected to the same procedure without the sound exposure. A significant threshold shift (p < 0.0001) was seen for each frequency tested (2, 4, 8, 16, 20, and 32 kHz) immediately after exposure to noise in all experimental animals. Thresholds returned to baseline within 3 weeks. We conclude that the level of noise generated by the otologic drill in mastoid surgery can cause a temporary threshold shift in this guinea pig model.

  16. Temporary Hearing Loss and Rock Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danenberg, Mary A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Pre- and post-exposure testing of normal-hearing secondary school students (N=20) and adult chaperones (N=7) exposed to live rock music indicated that almost all subjects experienced at least a five-decibel threshold shift, with most also reporting tinnitus. Of six subjects retested three days later, four demonstrated partial recovery. (Author/CB)

  17. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... One of the most common birth defects is hearing loss or deafness (congenital), which can affect as many ...

  18. Hearing Problems in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most children hear and listen from the moment they are born. They learn to talk by imitating the sounds around them ... United States are born deaf or hard-of-hearing. More lose their hearing later during childhood. Babies ...

  19. Hearing Conservation Self-Study #12350

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  20. Image Segmentation with Multi-Threshold of Gray-Level & Gradient-Magnitude Entropy Based on Genetic Algorithm%基于遗传算法的灰度-梯度熵多阈值图像分割

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺建峰; 符增; 易三莉; 相艳; 崔锐

    2015-01-01

    Due to considering the gray level spatial distribution information, some image segmentation technologies based on entropy threshold can enhance the thresholding segmentation performance. However, they still cannot dis-tinguish image edges and noise well. Even though GLGM (gray-level&gradient-magnitude) entropy can effectively solve the problem, it cannot segment effectively multi-objective and complex image. So, this paper proposes image segmentation with multi-threshold of GLGM entropy based on genetic algorithm. In the proposed method, integral figure is introduced in order to make threshold searching dimension from original O(9 ´ L) to O(L) , and the single threshold segmentation of GLGM entropy is further extended to multi-threshold segmentation. Lastly, the real-code-GA is used to search the best thresholds. The simulation results show that this method can be effectively applied for the multi-threshold segmentation of complex images.%一些基于熵的阈值图像分割技术考虑了空间信息,从而能够提高阈值分割的性能,但是仍然不能较好地区分边缘和噪声。尽管灰度-梯度(gray-level & gradient-magnitude,GLGM)熵算法能有效地解决以上问题,但是针对多目标和复杂图像却不能有效地分割。为此,提出了一种基于遗传算法(genetic algorithm,GA)的GLGM熵多阈值快速分割方法。该方法应用积分图思想将GLGM熵算法阈值搜索空间从O(9´ L)降到O(L),并将GLGM熵算法从单阈值拓展到多阈值。最后应用基于实数编码的遗传算法搜索GLGM熵多阈值的最佳阈值。仿真结果表明,该方法能够实现图像的快速多阈值分割,适合复杂图像分割。

  1. Elderly With Different Types of Hearing Loss and Comorbidities: Satisfaction With Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Hearing loss is developing when age is rising. Initiation and progression rates of hearing loss vary among different individuals and groups. Objectives The current study aimed to determine satisfaction of the elderly with their hearing aids in different types of hearing loss and comorbidities. Patients and Methods The study was conducted on 40 elderly subjects suffering from hearing loss and using hearing aids. The data collection method included assessment of hearing loss in addition to using a questionnaire to estimate respondents' satisfaction with their hearing aids in daily life. The Persian version of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL questionnaire was administered. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS software version19. Results The mean satisfaction scores of the elderly were 4.83 ± 0.51 and 5.36 ± 0.30 in the sensorineural loss groups. There was no significant difference between different comorbidities. There was a significant difference between satisfaction level of cost and services subscales in the symmetrical styles of hearing loss (P value = 0.04. Conclusions The findings of the study indicated a high satisfaction of the elderly with their hearing aids, considering the type of hearing loss. Despite all the efforts to improve the audiologic services during verification process, the elderly should be consulted specifically in order to fit their hearing aid as well as their expectations from aid.

  2. Temporal integration near threshold fine structure - The role of cochlear processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Mauermann, Manfred; Verhey, Jesko L.

    structure, but lack a decrease of thresholds with increased pulse duration. The model was extended by including a temporal integrator which introduces a low-pass behavior of the data with different slopes of the predicted threshold curves, producing good agreement with the data. On the basis of the model......The hearing thresholds of normal hearing listeners often show quasi-periodic variations when measured with a high frequency resolution. This hearing threshold fine structure is related to other frequency specific variations in the perception of sound such as loudness and amplitude modulated tones...... at low intensities. The detection threshold of a pulsed tone also depends not only on the pulse duration, but also on the position of its frequency within threshold fine structure. The present study investigates if psychoacoustical data on detection of a pulsed tone can be explained with a nonlinear...

  3. Childhood Hearing Health: Educating for Prevention of Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1% presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential.

  4. Quality of Life and Hearing Eight Years After Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Kati; Kivekäs, Ilkka; Rautiainen, Markus; Kotti, Voitto; Vasama, Juha-Pekka

    2017-04-01

    To explore long-term hearing results, quality of life (QoL), quality of hearing (QoH), work-related stress, tinnitus, and balance problems after idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). Cross-sectional study. We reviewed the audiograms of 680 patients with unilateral ISSNHL on average 8 years after the hearing impairment, and then divided the patients into two study groups based on whether their ISSNHL had recovered to normal (pure tone average [PTA] ≤ 30 dB) or not (PTA > 30 dB). The inclusion criteria were a hearing threshold decrease of 30 dB or more in at least three contiguous frequencies occurring within 72 hours in the affected ear and normal hearing in the contralateral ear. Audiograms of 217 patients fulfilled the criteria. We reviewed their medical records; measured present QoL, QoH, and work-related stress with specific questionnaires; and updated the hearing status. Poor hearing outcome after ISSNHL was correlated with age, severity of hearing loss, and vertigo together with ISSNHL. Quality of life and QoH were statistically significantly better in patients with recovered hearing, and the patients had statistically significantly less tinnitus and balance problems. During the 8-year follow-up, the PTA of the affected ear deteriorated on average 7 dB, and healthy ear deteriorated 6 dB. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss that failed to recover had a negative impact on long-term QoL and QoH. The hearing deteriorated as a function of age similarly both in the affected and the healthy ear, and there were no differences between the groups. The cumulative recurrence rate for ISSNHL was 3.5%. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:927-931, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Unilateral sudden hearing loss: a rare symptom of Moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Fatih; Berçin, Sami; Müderris, Togay; Yalçıner, Gökhan; Ünal, Özkan; Kırış, Muzaffer

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old female patient experienced a sudden onset of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss due to Moyamoya disease. A detailed summary of audiological and neurological findings indicated that the sudden hearing loss might be due to Moyamoya disease resulting in occlusion of posterior and middle cerebral arteries. Intravenous prednisolone and trimetazidine dihydrochloride may improve hearing thresholds and speech understanding. To our knowledge, this is the first article in the literature reporting a case of sudden hearing loss as the first manifestation of Moyamoya disease in a young adult.

  6. Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy on pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, and SF-MPQ indexes of women with myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Laís Valencise; Carvalho, Vinícius Almeida; Rodrigues, Flávia Cássia Cabral; Bataglion, César; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade

    2017-02-01

    Women with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) frequently report pain areas in body regions. This process is associated with central sensitization phenomena, present in chronic pain. The low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been reported as a therapeutic option for the painful TMD treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of LLLT on pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS), pain sensitivity in orofacial and corporal points (pressure pain threshold, PPT), and on Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) indexes of women with myofascial pain (subtype of muscle TMD). Ninety-one women (18-60 years) were included in the study, among which 61 were diagnosed with myofascial pain (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorder-Ia and Ib) and were divided into laser (n = 31) and placebo group (n = 30), and 30 were controls. The LLLT was applied at pre-established points, twice a week, eight sessions (780 nm; masseter and anterior temporal = 5 J/cm(2), 20 mW, 10 s; TMJ area = 7.5 J/cm(2), 30 mW, 10 s). Pain intensity, pain sensitivity, and the SF-MPQ indexes were measured at the baseline, during laser sessions, and 30 days after treatment. For intra-group comparisons, the Friedman test was performed, and for inter-group, the Mann-Whitney test. Increased pain sensitivity was found in women with myofascial pain when compared to controls (p intensity for both groups after LLLT. The LLLT did not change the PPT for any group (p > 0.05). Active laser and placebo reduced the indexes of sensory, total pain, and VAS, maintaining the results after 30 days; there was a reduction in the affective pain rating index for both groups, with no maintenance after 30 days for placebo, and the present pain intensity decreased in the laser group and did not change in the placebo after LLLT. In conclusion, the LLLT active or placebo are effective in reducing the overall subjective perception of myofascial pain (VAS and SF

  7. The challenge of localizing vehicle backup alarms: Effects of passive and electronic hearing protectors, ambient noise level, and backup alarm spectral content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A Alali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A human factors experiment employed a hemi-anechoic sound field in which listeners were required to localize a vehicular backup alarm warning signal (both a standard and a frequency-augmented alarm in 360-degrees azimuth in pink noise of 60 dBA and 90 dBA. Measures of localization performance included: (1 percentage correct localization, (2 percentage of right--left localization errors, (3 percentage of front-rear localization errors, and (4 localization absolute deviation in degrees from the alarm′s actual location. In summary, the data demonstrated that, with some exceptions, normal hearing listeners′ ability to localize the backup alarm in 360-degrees azimuth did not improve when wearing augmented hearing protectors (including dichotic sound transmission earmuffs, flat attenuation earplugs, and level-dependent earplugs as compared to when wearing conventional passive earmuffs or earplugs of the foam or flanged types. Exceptions were that in the 90 dBA pink noise, the flat attenuation earplug yielded significantly better accuracy than the polyurethane foam earplug and both the dichotic and the custom-made diotic electronic sound transmission earmuffs. However, the flat attenuation earplug showed no benefit over the standard pre-molded earplug, the arc earplug, and the passive earmuff. Confusions of front-rear alarm directions were most significant in the 90 dBA noise condition, wherein two types of triple-flanged earplugs exhibited significantly fewer front-rear confusions than either of the electronic muffs. On all measures, the diotic sound transmission earmuff resulted in the poorest localization of any of the protectors due to the fact that its single-microphone design did not enable interaural cues to be heard. Localization was consistently more degraded in the 90 dBA pink noise as compared with the relatively quiet condition of the 60 dBA pink noise. A frequency-augmented backup alarm, which incorporated 400 Hz and 4000 Hz components

  8. Hearing in young adults. Part II: The effects of recreational noise exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Great concern arises from recreational noise exposure, which might lead to noise-induced hearing loss in young adults. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of recreational noise exposure on hearing function in young adults. A questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposures and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). Based on the duration of exposure and self-estimated loudness of various leisure-time activities, the weekly and lifetime equivalent noise exposure were calculated. Subjects were categorized in groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure based on these values. Hearing was evaluated using audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Mean differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no significant differences in hearing thresholds, TEOAE amplitudes, and DPOAE amplitudes between groups with low, intermediate, or high recreational noise exposure. Nevertheless, one-third of our subjects exceeded the weekly equivalent noise exposure for all activities of 75 dBA. Further, the highest equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs) were calculated for the activities visiting nightclubs or pubs, attending concerts or festivals, and playing in a band or orchestra. Moreover, temporary tinnitus after recreational noise exposure was found in 86% of our subjects. There were no significant differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure. Nevertheless, a long-term assessment of young adults’ hearing in relation to recreational noise exposure is needed. PMID:26356366

  9. Hearing in young adults. Part II: The effects of recreational noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Keppler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Great concern arises from recreational noise exposure, which might lead to noise-induced hearing loss in young adults. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of recreational noise exposure on hearing function in young adults. A questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposures and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years. Based on the duration of exposure and self-estimated loudness of various leisure-time activities, the weekly and lifetime equivalent noise exposure were calculated. Subjects were categorized in groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure based on these values. Hearing was evaluated using audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs. Mean differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. There were no significant differences in hearing thresholds, TEOAE amplitudes, and DPOAE amplitudes between groups with low, intermediate, or high recreational noise exposure. Nevertheless, one-third of our subjects exceeded the weekly equivalent noise exposure for all activities of 75 dBA. Further, the highest equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs were calculated for the activities visiting nightclubs or pubs, attending concerts or festivals, and playing in a band or orchestra. Moreover, temporary tinnitus after recreational noise exposure was found in 86% of our subjects. There were no significant differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure. Nevertheless, a long-term assessment of young adults′ hearing in relation to recreational noise exposure is needed.

  10. A partial hearing animal model for chronic electro-acoustic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, S.; Wise, A. K.; Millard, R. E.; Shepherd, R. K.; Fallon, J. B.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Cochlear implants (CIs) have provided some auditory function to hundreds of thousands of people around the world. Although traditionally carried out only in profoundly deaf patients, the eligibility criteria for implantation have recently been relaxed to include many partially-deaf patients with useful levels of hearing. These patients receive both electrical stimulation from their implant and acoustic stimulation via their residual hearing (electro-acoustic stimulation; EAS) and perform very well. It is unclear how EAS improves speech perception over electrical stimulation alone, and little evidence exists about the nature of the interactions between electric and acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, clinical results suggest that some patients that undergo cochlear implantation lose some, if not all, of their residual hearing, reducing the advantages of EAS over electrical stimulation alone. A reliable animal model with clinically-relevant partial deafness combined with clinical CIs is important to enable these issues to be studied. This paper outlines such a model that has been successfully used in our laboratory. Approach. This paper outlines a battery of techniques used in our laboratory to generate, validate and examine an animal model of partial deafness and chronic CI use. Main results. Ototoxic deafening produced bilaterally symmetrical hearing thresholds in neonatal and adult animals. Electrical activation of the auditory system was confirmed, and all animals were chronically stimulated via adapted clinical CIs. Acoustic compound action potentials (CAPs) were obtained from partially-hearing cochleae, using the CI amplifier. Immunohistochemical analysis allows the effects of deafness and electrical stimulation on cell survival to be studied. Significance. This animal model has applications in EAS research, including investigating the functional interactions between electric and acoustic stimulation, and the development of techniques to maintain residual

  11. Hearing in young adults. Part II: The effects of recreational noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Great concern arises from recreational noise exposure, which might lead to noise-induced hearing loss in young adults. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of recreational noise exposure on hearing function in young adults. A questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposures and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). Based on the duration of exposure and self-estimated loudness of various leisure-time activities, the weekly and lifetime equivalent noise exposure were calculated. Subjects were categorized in groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure based on these values. Hearing was evaluated using audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Mean differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no significant differences in hearing thresholds, TEOAE amplitudes, and DPOAE amplitudes between groups with low, intermediate, or high recreational noise exposure. Nevertheless, one-third of our subjects exceeded the weekly equivalent noise exposure for all activities of 75 dBA. Further, the highest equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs) were calculated for the activities visiting nightclubs or pubs, attending concerts or festivals, and playing in a band or orchestra. Moreover, temporary tinnitus after recreational noise exposure was found in 86% of our subjects. There were no significant differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure. Nevertheless, a long-term assessment of young adults' hearing in relation to recreational noise exposure is needed.

  12. Laser application in otology for hearing restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Igino

    1994-09-01

    Prior to the development of the stapes replacement prosthesis in the early 1950s, loss of hearing due to otosclerosis remained an untreatable disease. Today, loss of hearing due to otosclerosis can be restored in the majority of cases to near normal levels. Since 1980 the laser has played a major and important role in otosclerosis surgery. This paper explores the use of lasers for hearing restoration and compares the results of laser surgery to non-laser surgery.

  13. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Pillion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  14. Noise exposure and hearing impairment among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Qian Lao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a major concern in the non-manufacturing industries. This study aimed to investigate the occupational noise exposure and the NIHL among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees working in the service industry in Hong Kong. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey involved a total of 1,670 participants. Among them, 937 were randomly selected from the workers of Chinese restaurants and 733 were selected from workers in three entertainment sectors: radio and television stations; cultural performance halls or auditoria of the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD; and karaoke bars. Noise exposure levels were measured in the sampled restaurants and entertainment sectors. Each participant received an audiometric screening test. Those who were found to have abnormalities were required to take another diagnostic test in the health center. The "Klockhoff digit" method was used to classify NIHL in the present study. RESULTS: The main source of noise inside restaurants was the stoves. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 3 to 6 KHz and a substantial proportion (23.7% of the workers fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL. For entertainment sectors, employees in radio and television stations generally had higher exposure levels than those in the halls or auditoria of the LCSD and karaoke bars. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 6 KHz and a substantial proportion of the employees fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL (38.6%, 95%CI: 35.1-42.1%. Being male, older, and having longer service and daily alcohol consumption were associated with noise-induced hearing impairment both in restaurant workers and entertainment employees. CONCLUSION: Excessive noise exposure is common in the Chinese restaurant and entertainment industries and a substantial proportion of restaurant workers and entertainment employees suffer from NIHL. Comprehensive hearing

  15. Noise exposure and hearing impairment among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Au, Dennis Kin Kwok; Chiu, Yuk Lan; Wong, Claudie Chiu Yi; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major concern in the non-manufacturing industries. This study aimed to investigate the occupational noise exposure and the NIHL among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees working in the service industry in Hong Kong. This cross-sectional survey involved a total of 1,670 participants. Among them, 937 were randomly selected from the workers of Chinese restaurants and 733 were selected from workers in three entertainment sectors: radio and television stations; cultural performance halls or auditoria of the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD); and karaoke bars. Noise exposure levels were measured in the sampled restaurants and entertainment sectors. Each participant received an audiometric screening test. Those who were found to have abnormalities were required to take another diagnostic test in the health center. The "Klockhoff digit" method was used to classify NIHL in the present study. The main source of noise inside restaurants was the stoves. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 3 to 6 KHz and a substantial proportion (23.7%) of the workers fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL. For entertainment sectors, employees in radio and television stations generally had higher exposure levels than those in the halls or auditoria of the LCSD and karaoke bars. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 6 KHz and a substantial proportion of the employees fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL (38.6%, 95%CI: 35.1-42.1%). Being male, older, and having longer service and daily alcohol consumption were associated with noise-induced hearing impairment both in restaurant workers and entertainment employees. Excessive noise exposure is common in the Chinese restaurant and entertainment industries and a substantial proportion of restaurant workers and entertainment employees suffer from NIHL. Comprehensive hearing conservation programs should be introduced to the service industry

  16. Temporal Resolution of the Normal Ear in Listeners with Unilateral Hearing Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Dey, Ratul; Davessar, Jai Lal

    2015-12-01

    Unilateral hearing loss (UHL) leads to an imbalanced input to the brain and results in cortical reorganization. In listeners with unilateral impairments, while the perceptual deficits associated with the impaired ear are well documented, less is known regarding the auditory processing in the unimpaired, clinically normal ear. It is commonly accepted that perceptual consequences are unlikely to occur in the normal ear for listeners with UHL. This study investigated whether the temporal resolution in the normal-hearing (NH) ear of listeners with long-standing UHL is similar to those in listeners with NH. Temporal resolution was assayed via measuring gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in within- and between-channel paradigms. GDTs were assessed in the normal ear of adults with long-standing, severe-to-profound UHL (N = 13) and age-matched, NH listeners (N = 22) at two presentation levels (30 and 55 dB sensation level). Analysis indicated that within-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were not significantly different than those for the NH subject group, but the between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were poorer (by greater than a factor of 2) than those for the listeners with NH. The hearing thresholds in the normal or impaired ears were not associated with the elevated between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL. Contrary to the common assumption that auditory processing capabilities are preserved for the normal ear in listeners with UHL, the current study demonstrated that a long-standing unilateral hearing impairment may adversely affect auditory perception--temporal resolution--in the clinically normal ear. From a translational perspective, these findings imply that the temporal processing deficits in the unimpaired ear of listeners with unilateral hearing impairments may contribute to their overall auditory perceptual difficulties.

  17. Speech perception in older hearing impaired listeners: benefits of perceptual training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    Full Text Available Hearing aids (HAs only partially restore the ability of older hearing impaired (OHI listeners to understand speech in noise, due in large part to persistent deficits in consonant identification. Here, we investigated whether adaptive perceptual training would improve consonant-identification in noise in sixteen aided OHI listeners who underwent 40 hours of computer-based training in their homes. Listeners identified 20 onset and 20 coda consonants in 9,600 consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC syllables containing different vowels (/ɑ/, /i/, or /u/ and spoken by four different talkers. Consonants were presented at three consonant-specific signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs spanning a 12 dB range. Noise levels were adjusted over training sessions based on d' measures. Listeners were tested before and after training to measure (1 changes in consonant-identification thresholds using syllables spoken by familiar and unfamiliar talkers, and (2 sentence reception thresholds (SeRTs using two different sentence tests. Consonant-identification thresholds improved gradually during training. Laboratory tests of d' thresholds showed an average improvement of 9.1 dB, with 94% of listeners showing statistically significant training benefit. Training normalized consonant confusions and improved the thresholds of some consonants into the normal range. Benefits were equivalent for onset and coda consonants, syllables containing different vowels, and syllables presented at different SNRs. Greater training benefits were found for hard-to-identify consonants and for consonants spoken by familiar than unfamiliar talkers. SeRTs, tested with simple sentences, showed less elevation than consonant-identification thresholds prior to training and failed to show significant training benefit, although SeRT improvements did correlate with improvements in consonant thresholds. We argue that the lack of SeRT improvement reflects the dominant role of top-down semantic processing in

  18. Hearing evaluation in patients with chronic renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evis Bendo; Margarita Resuli; Spiros Metaxas

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate hearing threshold and the severity of hearing loss at different frequencies in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), and to analyze the role of duration of disease on hearing threshold in patients of CRF by measuring pure-tone audiometry (PTA) and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE). Methods: There were analysed 61 subjects (122 ears) from which 12 were patients starting hemodialise (A), 24 subjects were patients undergoing hemodialise over a year (B), 15 subjects were patients undergoing conservative treatment (C) and 10 controls (D). We did hearing evaluation by testing them using tympanometry, PTA and DPOAEs. Other parameters (blood pressure, body weight, blood chemistries) were also evaluated. Results:It was found a severe high-frequency hearing loss among patients with CRF comparing to the control group. Duration on haemodialysis treatment does not seem to have a significant impact on the incidence of hearing loss, although the method of treatment may influence the impact of the disease on hearing. Hearing loss among patients with CRF seemed to deteriorate further a year after the first evaluation. Conclusions:DPOAE raised the percentages of detection of SNHL indicating that it is a better technique than the conventional PTA for evaluation of hearing acuity.

  19. Risk factors for hearing loss in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment was defined according to average threshold greater than 35dBNA, in the frequencies of 1,000; 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, in the best ear. Results: Statistically significant odds ratios were: a to audiological history: noise exposure and family history of deafness; b to situations involving hearing difficulty: television, church, telephone, silent environment, spatial location of sound, difficulty with voices and noisy environment; c to otologic history: tinnitus, otorrhea and nausea; and d to medical history: visual problems, smoke, alcohol, thyroid problems and kidney disease. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlighted, for sensorineural hearing loss, risk factors related to audiologic, otologic and medical history, and to situations involving hearing difficulty.

  20. Prevalence of minimal hearing loss in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Eun; Ahn, Jungmin; Park, Hyun Woo; Baek, Sun-Young; Kim, Seonwoo; Moon, Il Joon

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of minimal hearing loss (MHL) in South Korea based on the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 16,630 representative individuals (older than 12 years) who completed ear examinations and structured questionnaires were analyzed. Only participants who had normal tympanic membranes were included. MHL was categorized into the following three groups: 1) unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USHL, pure-tone average (PTA) ≥ 15 dB in the affected ear), 2) bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (BSHL, 15 dB ≤ PTA hearing loss (HFSHL, two or more high-frequency thresholds > 25 dB in either ear). To evaluate clinical symptoms, subjective hearing status, tinnitus, and quality of life of each MHL group were compared to those of normal-hearing listeners. The use of hearing aids (HAs) was also investigated in the MHL population. The prevalence of normal hearing and MHL were 58.4% and 37.4%, respectively. In univariate analyses, the prevalence of MHL increased with age. It was significantly increased in males. Regarding clinical symptoms, 13.0% and 92.1% of participants with MHL reported difficulties with hearing and annoying tinnitus, respectively. In multivariate analyses, these proportions were significantly higher in the MHL groups than in normal-hearing listeners. Participants with MHL also showed significantly lower Euro Qol-5D index scores than did normal-hearing listeners. Regarding hearing rehabilitation, among minimally hearing impaired participants with subjective hearing loss, only 0.47% of individuals used HAs. Our results reveal that MHL is common in South Korea. It is associated with significant subjective hearing loss, tinnitus, and poor quality of life. Therefore, clinicians need to pay attention to this special group and provide proper counselling and rehabilitative management.

  1. Parton distributions with threshold resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca; Ubiali, Maria; Ball, Richard D; Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Hartland, Nathan P

    2015-01-01

    We construct a set of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in which fixed-order NLO and NNLO calculations are supplemented with soft-gluon (threshold) resummation up to NLL and NNLL accuracy respectively, suitable for use in conjunction with any QCD calculation in which threshold resummation is included at the level of partonic cross sections. These resummed PDF sets, based on the NNPDF3.0 analysis, are extracted from deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan, and top quark pair production data, for which resummed calculations can be consistently used. We find that, close to threshold, the inclusion of resummed PDFs can partially compensate the enhancement in resummed matrix elements, leading to resummed hadronic cross-sections closer to the fixed-order calculation. On the other hand, far from threshold, resummed PDFs reduce to their fixed-order counterparts. Our results demonstrate the need for a consistent use of resummed PDFs in resummed calculations.

  2. Sensorineural hearing loss in patients with sickle cell anaemia in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulevskaya, G; Oburra, H; Aluoch, J R

    1996-07-01

    The auditory function of sixty two Kenyan sickle cell anaemia patients aged seven to thirty years was compared to age-matched fifty five healthy controls with haemoglobin AA. Sensorineural hearing loss of 30 db and above was demonstrated in 25 (40%) of sickle cell anaemia patients and in three (5.5%) control subjects. Both sexes were equally affected. Bilateral lesion registered in 16%. Hearing threshold level was normal in 97% of the sickle cell group. High frequencies were commonly affected with hearing loss of 30-40 db. Two cases with severe unilateral deafness at all frequencies had severe recruitment suggestive of cochlea lesion. There were no cases of acoustic reflex decay in all study patients. The hearing loss was of slow onset. The high risk of deafness in Kenyan sickle cell anaemia patients may be a reflection of the severe course of the disease due to specific Kenyan haematological profile (haplotype 20 with low Hb F level), the level of medical care available and the geographical distribution in the tropics together with other factors.

  3. IL-2 Modulates the TCR Signaling Threshold for CD8 but Not CD4 T Cell Proliferation on a Single-Cell Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au-Yeung, Byron B; Smith, Geoffrey Alexander; Mueller, James L; Heyn, Cheryl S; Jaszczak, Rebecca Garrett; Weiss, Arthur; Zikherman, Julie

    2017-03-15

    Lymphocytes integrate Ag and cytokine receptor signals to make cell fate decisions. Using a specific reporter of TCR signaling that is insensitive to cytokine signaling, Nur77-eGFP, we identify a sharp, minimal threshold of cumulative TCR signaling required for proliferation in CD4 and CD8 T cells that is independent of both Ag concentration and affinity. Unexpectedly, IL-2 reduces this threshold in CD8 but not CD4 T cells, suggesting that integration of multiple mitogenic inputs may alter the minimal requirement for TCR signaling in CD8 T cells. Neither naive CD4 nor naive CD8 T cells are responsive to low doses of IL-2. We show that activated CD8 T cells become responsive to low doses of IL-2 more quickly than CD4 T cells, and propose that this relative delay in turn accounts for the differential effects of IL-2 on the minimal TCR signaling threshold for proliferation in these populations. In contrast to Nur77-eGFP, c-Myc protein expression integrates mitogenic signals downstream of both IL-2 and the TCR, yet marks an invariant minimal threshold of cumulative mitogenic stimulation required for cell division. Our work provides a conceptual framework for understanding the regulation of clonal expansion of CD8 T cells by subthreshold TCR signaling in the context of mitogenic IL-2 signals, thereby rendering CD8 T cells exquisitely dependent upon environmental cues. Conversely, CD4 T cell proliferation requires an invariant minimal intensity of TCR signaling that is not modulated by IL-2, thereby restricting responses to low-affinity or low-abundance self-antigens even in the context of an inflammatory milieu.

  4. A threshold for concern? C-reactive protein levels following operatively managed neck of femur fractures can detect infectious complications with a simple formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, George; Holton, James; Chapman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) rises in response to multiple stimuli, including surgical procedures and infections. Deviations from the predicted CRP response to a given procedure may be an early indication of a postoperative complication. Three hundred and fifty-four patients with an operatively managed neck of femur fracture admitted over a 1-year period to an NHS Hospital Trust were included. CRP values collected during the postoperative period were retrospectively examined, and objective evidence of postoperative complications was sought. Data analysis explored daily CRP thresholds that maximised sensitivity and specificity for the detection of patients with a postoperative complication. From the 5th to the 30th postoperative day, a CRP value in excess of the threshold defined by the formula 500/d (where d represents the number of postoperative days) retrospectively detected patients with a postoperative complication with a sensitivity of 0.97 and specificity of 0.82. Patients with a CRP value above the 500/d threshold during this period had a significantly increased 30-day mortality (10.0% vs. 3.9%, RR=2.74, p=0.03). Following operatively managed neck of femur fractures, a CRP value in excess of the threshold defined by the formula 500/d may indicate the presence of a postoperative complication and defines a group with increased mortality. In this context, a prompt wound review and septic screen could promote the early detection and management of infectious postoperative complications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hearing with an atympanic ear: good vibration and poor sound-pressure detection in the royal python, Python regius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    are sensitive to sound pressure and (2) snakes are sensitive to vibrations, but cannot hear the sound pressure per se. Vibration and sound-pressure sensitivities were quantified by measuring brainstem evoked potentials in 11 royal pythons, Python regius. Vibrograms and audiograms showed greatest sensitivity...... at low frequencies of 80-160 Hz, with sensitivities of -54 dB re. 1 m s(-2) and 78 dB re. 20 μPa, respectively. To investigate whether pythons detect sound pressure or sound-induced head vibrations, we measured the sound-induced head vibrations in three dimensions when snakes were exposed to sound...... pressure at threshold levels. In general, head vibrations induced by threshold-level sound pressure were equal to or greater than those induced by threshold-level vibrations, and therefore sound-pressure sensitivity can be explained by sound-induced head vibration. From this we conclude that pythons...

  6. Music effect on pain threshold evaluated with current perception threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Music relieves anxiety and psychotic tension. This effect of music is applied to surgical operation in the hospital and dental office. It is still unclear whether this music effect is only limited to the psychological aspect but not to the physical aspect or whether its music effect is influenced by the mood or emotion of audience. To elucidate these issues, we evaluated the music effect on pain threshold by current perception threshold (CPT) and profile of mood states (POMC) test. METHODS: Healthy 30 subjects (12 men, 18 women, 25-49 years old, mean age 34.9) were tested. (1)After POMC test, all subjects were evaluated pain threshold with CPT by Neurometer (Radionics, USA) under 6 conditions, silence, listening to the slow tempo classic music, nursery music, hard rock music, classic paino music and relaxation music with 30 seconds interval. (2)After Stroop color word test as the stresser, pain threshold was evaluated with CPT under 2 conditions, silence and listening to the slow tempo classic music. RESULTS: Under litening to the music, CPT sores increased, especially 2 000 Hz level related with compression, warm and pain sensation. Type of music, preference of music and stress also affected CPT score. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the concentration on the music raise the pain threshold and that stress and mood influence the music effect on pain threshold.

  7. Relationships Among Factors Relevant to Abdominal Fat and Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young; Park, Mina

    2017-05-11

    Metabolic syndrome is related with abdominal fat and with age-related hearing loss (ARHL). In this study, we evaluated the association between a variety of factors relevant to abdominal fat (FRAs) and hearing thresholds. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of 2,602 subjects aged over 40 years with symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss who underwent abdominal fat computed tomography (CT) scans. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to demonstrate the association between each FRA and hearing thresholds at low and high frequencies. Four of 5 FRAs were associated with hearing thresholds at high frequencies in males. All FRAs examined showed a relationship with hearing thresholds at low frequencies in females. Diabetes mellitus (DM) among clinical factors and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) among the 5 FRAs were the most reflective of hearing thresholds in both males and females. We found that FRAs were associated with hearing loss with frequency specific characteristics according to sex and reinforced that DM and VAT is particularly an important role for hearing.

  8. A Survey of Relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis and Hearing Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baradaranfar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RA (rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic multisystem disease with a variety of systemic manifestations. One of these manifestations, is hearing disorder, so study of the relation between RA and hearing disorders is seem important. This was a case-control study which has done from December 2004 to August 2006. This study compared 50 patients with RA, with age, sex and job-matched as control. Audiometric tests in different frequencies show that hearing threshold in high frequencies specially in 8000 Hz had a significant difference between two groups, also acoustic reflexes were absent in case groups and had significant difference between two groups too. The evaluation of sensory neural hearing loss showed that this hearing loss is sensory not neural. Based on this study, frequent evaluation of audiometric tests is recommended for controlling hearing disorders by therapeutic and rehabilitation procedures in RA patients.

  9. Effects of UMTS cellular phones on human hearing: results of the European project EMFnEAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzini, Marta; Sibella, Federica; Lutman, Mark E; Mishra, Srikanta; Moulin, Annie; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Woznicka, Ewelina; Politanski, Piotr; Zmyslony, Marek; Thuroczy, Gyorgy; Molnár, Ferenc; Kubinyi, Györgyi; Tavartkiladze, George; Bronyakin, Stanislav; Uloziene, Ingrida; Uloza, Virgijlius; Gradauskiene, Egle; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2009-08-01

    Abstract The European project EMFnEAR was undertaken to assess potential changes in human auditory function after a short-term exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation produced by UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) mobile phones. Participants were healthy young adults with no hearing or ear disorders. Auditory function was as