Albrecht, Robert; Jaatinen, Jussi; Lokki, Tapio
Many people are exposed to large sound pressure levels ei- ther occasionally or regularly, and thus need to protect their hearing in order to prevent hearing loss and other hearing disorders. Earplugs are effective at attenuating sound from the environment, but they do not attenuate bone-conducted sound, but instead amplify it at low frequencies due to the occlusion effect. This is a problem, e.g., for many mu- sicians and especially wind instrument players, since this low-frequency amplifica...
Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses. This podcast features information from CDCâs National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health on how to protect yourself from work-related noise-induced hearing loss. Created: 11/9/2015 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Date Released: 11/9/2015.
Rabinowitz, P M; Duran, R
Noise-exposed employees with limited English skills may pose a special challenge for hearing conservation programs. This pilot field study assessed knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding use of hearing protective devices in a largely Hispanic group of 88 workers exposed to industrial noise. Effectiveness of hearing protection was determined through field measurements of personal attenuation ratings. Individual scores on an acculturation scale (first language learned, language at home, degree of literacy in English, preferred language) demonstrated a correlation between a low degree of acculturation and low personal attenuation rating (R2= 0.49, p=0.0001). Low acculturation was also correlated with high-perceived barriers to use of hearing protection (p=0.006). Although neither self reports of self-efficacy nor perceived benefits of hearing protection correlated with personal attenuation rating, perceived barriers to hearing protector use was a significant predictor of hearing protector fit (p=0.05). These results indicate that less acculturated workers may be underutilizing hearing protection in the workplace partly due to perceived barriers to use of hearing protective devices. To be effective, hearing conservation training programs in work sites with an immigrant work force need to address language and cultural barriers to the use of hearing protection.
Laitinen, Heli; Poulsen, Torben
A study about hearing protectors, problems involving hearing protector usage, hearing problems and working surroundings of classical musicians was made in three Danish symphony orchestras. The questionnaire used in the study was based on a previous study, a study made in Sweden to rock musicians......, and a questionnaire used in researching occlusion effect with hearing aid users. Also a section from an EQ-5D- questionnaire (a standardised instrument for use as a measure of health outcome) was included to the study. Orchestras were visited by the authors and informed about hearing protection, hearing loss, and ear...... symptoms. 146 musicians filled out the questionnaire. Results show that musicians wear hearing protectors to some extent but their usage can be irregular and hearing protector is sometimes used in one ear only. Musicians worry about their hearing. The more ear symptoms musicians have, the more they use...
Reddy, Ravi K; Welch, David; Thorne, Peter; Ameratunga, Shanthi
Occupational noise is a significant contributor to disabling hearing loss worldwide. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has resulted in huge human and economic consequences costing New Zealand approximately $53M annually and rising. A high proportion of hearing loss claims are made by workers in the manufacturing sector. Hearing protection devices (HPDs) are used together with engineering and administrative controls to minimize noise exposure and to prevent hearing loss. Unfortunately, inconsistent and improper use of HPDs has hindered efforts to prevent NIHL. The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence the use of HPDs amongst a group of manufacturing workers in New Zealand. A purposive sample of twenty-five workers was recruited to take part in semi-structured interviews. The open-ended questions were aimed at exploring the participants' knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and behavior towards noise and HPDs. The data were analyzed using conventional content analysis and key themes emerged in relation to HPD use. Themes that emerged from the interviews either supported good hearing protection behavior or acted as barriers against it. Five major themes, (perception of noise, hearing preservation, reluctance to use HPDs, workplace interaction, and value of hearing) and sub-themes described various factors that influence hearing protection use. Both personal and environmental factors influence the use of HPDs. Based on this study, personal and environmental factors need to be targeted for further research using ecological models to develop interventions that promote HPD use amongst workers.
McKinley, Richard L; Bjorn, Valerie S; Hall, John A
.... Normally, the source of the noise cannot be quieted without loss in performance. Therefore hearing protection is the primary tool to mitigate aviation personnel noise exposures during operations of aircraft...
anechoic chamber . The subject stood on a platform in the center of this sphere. The location of the platform has the potential to distort the signals from...of the study was specifically built for the measurement of the sound attenuation properties of passive hearing protection devices. The chamber
Behzad Fouladi Deahghi
Full Text Available Background & Objective : Noise is a widespread physical agent and although is a most risk factors in workplaces that workers of health to exposed. Thus, different actions is done for reduce exposure to it in work places, which one of them is use of hearing protection devices. The use of hearing protection devices with approach risk perception of noise induced hearing loss in several manufacturing industry Method: This study was Cross-sectional study and done in five industrial unit with a sound pressure level more of 85 dB-A with the participation of 340 workers. To collect data , individual risk perception and self-investigator questionnaires were used. After collecting data, statistical analysis including Cronbach's alpha and regression were used to analyze the data. Results : Range use of hearing protection devices during shifts work by workers, respectively equal to: 50.4% sometimes, 31.58% never and 18.2% at all times. Also, results indicate significant differences between individual differences and hearing protection devices. Conclusion : Results of this study showed that individual risk perception as an important factor, can do a significant role in predicting the behavior of personals in the use of hearing protection devices, which should be considered in any design and implementation of hearing protection program.
Bogoch, Isaac I; House, Ronald A; Kudla, Irena
This study examines perceptions of rock concert attendees about risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and use of hearing protection at a busy Toronto rock concert venue. Two hundred and four questionnaires were completed and returned (75% response rate) by attendees at four rock concerts. The respondents had an average age of 20.6 years and 55.4% were male. Thirty-four point three percent (34.3%) thought that it was somewhat likely and 39.8% thought it was very likely that noise levels at music concerts could damage their hearing, but 80.2% said that they never wore hearing protection at such events. Tinnitus and other hearing disturbances were experienced by 84.7% and 37.8% of attendees, respectively. Both experiencing hearing disturbances and concern about developing hearing loss were statistically significantly associated with concert attendees' use of hearing protection. Previous use of hearing protection, a higher score on a scale of readiness for behavioural change (Prochaska scale) and lack of concern about the appearance of ear plugs were statistically significantly associated with a reported willingness to use hearing protection in the future if it were provided for free at the door. Hearing protection is currently not worn by most attendees of rock concerts who are at risk of developing NIHL. Ear plugs and tactful NIHL education should be provided at the door, coupled with strategies to reduce music sound levels to safer listening levels.
... HEALTH REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.140 Dual hearing protection level. If during any work shift a miner's noise exposure exceeds the dual hearing protection level, the mine operator must, in addition to the actions required for noise exposures that exceed the permissible exposure level, provide...
Vroon, Jered Hendrik; Kim, Jaebok; Koster, Raphaël
One requirement that arises for a social (semi-autonomous telepresence) robot aimed at conversations with the elderly, is to accommodate hearing problems. In this paper we compare two approaches to this requirement; (1) moving closer, mimicking the leaning behavior commonly observed in elderly with
Balanay, Jo Anne G.; Kearney, Gregory D.
The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms, noisy activities that were participated in, and factors associated with hearing protection use among college students. A 44-item online survey was completed by 2,151 college students (aged 17 years and above) to assess the attitudes toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms related to noise exposure, and use of hearing protection around noisy activities. Among the participants, 39.6% experienced at least one hearing symptom, with ear pain as the most frequently reported (22.5%). About 80% of the participants were involved in at least one noise activity, out of which 41% reported the use of hearing protection. A large majority of those with ear pain, hearing loss, permanent tinnitus, and noise sensitivity was involved in attending a sporting event, which was the most reported noisy activity. The highest reported hearing protection use was in the use of firearms, and the lowest in discos/ dances. The reported use of hearing protection is associated with having at least one hearing symptom but the relationship is stronger with tinnitus, hearing loss, and ear pain (χ2 = 30.5-43.5, P colleges have important roles in protecting young adults’ hearing by integrating hearing conservation topic in the college curriculum, promoting hearing health by student health services, involving student groups in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness and prevention, and establishing noise level limitations for all on-campus events. PMID:26572699
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of technology in industries is ever increasing. With the introduction of this technology come new safety and human performance concerns. Hearing loss caused by industrial noise has been recognized for many years, and protection of employee hearing has been made mandatory by governmental agencies. This paper presents an investigation of occupational noise exposure and Personal hearing protective devices (PHPD in selected industries in the south-eastern Iran. A questionnaire has been used to collect data for workers with high noise exposure and Personal hearing protective devices (PHPD. The subjects were 354 industrial workers expose to noise pressure levels greater than the action level defined in Iranian legislation (85dB (A 8h/d. The results of this study indicated that only younger workers with minor professional experience and with high educational background are used PHPD to protect and preserve their hearing. The finding of this study shows that approximately 75% of the workers with age 18-36 reported the use of personal protective Devices at all the time, and 73% of workers with age more than 46 years old reported that they had never used them PHPD, even though it was mandatory in their workplaces. Statistical data show that, the percentage of male workers (82 with age more than 37 years old having headaches at workplace are higher than female (3.4 with the same age groups. A noise training and education program must be developed for industrial employees in order to protect them from hazardous noise pollution. Employers must play an important role in promoting the regular use of Personal hearing protective devices. Noise level in work areas must be considered in the early design of Hearing Conservation Program.
Michael, John; Weinberg, JoAnn
The Privacy Protection Study Commission (PPSC) held public hearings on personal data record-keeping policies and practices in educational institutions in Los Angeles in October and in Washington, D.C. in November, 1976. Under consideration were the protections afforded parents and students by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.…
Jo Anne G Balanay; Gregory D Kearney
The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms, noisy activities that were participated in, and factors associated with hearing protection use among college students...
Fiorillo, Caitlin E; Rashidi, Vania; Westgate, Philip M; Jacobs, Julie A; Bush, Matthew L; Studts, Christina R
To compare the prevalence of disruptive behavior problems between preschool-aged children with hearing loss and normal hearing. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary academic center. Caregivers of children (2-5 yr old) with normal hearing (NH) (n = 39), hearing loss using hearing aid(s) (HA) (n = 29), or cochlear implant(s) (CI) (n = 21). Demographic information and a mental health history were obtained. Child behavior and language development were assessed. The Young Child-Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV and the MacArthur-Bates Communication Development Inventory III. Distributions of race, socioeconomic status, insurance status, and parental home situation (single versus two parent family) were similar across all groups. Parents of children with hearing loss were significantly more likely to report behavior problems (HA = 41%, CI = 38%) than parents of NH children (10%; p = 0.002). Children with hearing loss were significantly more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder (HA = 48%, CI = 48%) than NH children (23%; p = 0.02). More NH children (8%) than hearing impaired children (0%) had accessed mental health services (p = 0.08). NH children were found to have more advanced language development than hearing-impaired children (p children with hearing loss have higher prevalence of and impairment from disruptive behaviors than their NH peers. These children are less likely to receive appropriate behavioral interventions. Further research is warranted to investigate the impact of disruptive behaviors on speech and hearing rehabilitation. Methods to improve access to effective behavioral interventions in this population are needed.
Balanay, Jo Anne G; Kearney, Gregory D
The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms, noisy activities that were participated in, and factors associated with hearing protection use among college students. A 44-item online survey was completed by 2,151 college students (aged 17 years and above) to assess the attitudes toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms related to noise exposure, and use of hearing protection around noisy activities. Among the participants, 39.6% experienced at least one hearing symptom, with ear pain as the most frequently reported (22.5%). About 80% of the participants were involved in at least one noise activity, out of which 41% reported the use of hearing protection. A large majority of those with ear pain, hearing loss, permanent tinnitus, and noise sensitivity was involved in attending a sporting event, which was the most reported noisy activity. The highest reported hearing protection use was in the use of firearms, and the lowest in discos/ dances. The reported use of hearing protection is associated with having at least one hearing symptom but the relationship is stronger with tinnitus, hearing loss, and ear pain (χ² = 30.5-43.5, P< 0.01) as compared to noise sensitivity (χ² = 3.8, P= 0.03); it is also associated with anti-noise attitudes, particularly in youth social events. Universities and colleges have important roles in protecting young adults' hearing by integrating hearing conservation topic in the college curriculum, promoting hearing health by student health services, involving student groups in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness and prevention, and establishing noise level limitations for all on-campus events.
PUBLISHED Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for voice-hearing (i.e., auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH) has, at best, small to moderate effects. One possible reason for this limited efficacy is that current CBT approaches tend to conceptualize voice-hearing as a homogenous experience in terms of the cognitive processes involved in AVH. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of voice-hearing suggests that many different cognitive processes may be involved in the etiology of AVH. These ...
A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of circumaural hearing protection devices and their predictability when they were being worn by mine employees performing normal work duties. The method employed relied on a physical measurement of the noise reduction of the hearing protectors by utilizing two FM-wireless transmitting and receiving systems. One system measured the outside hearing protector noise level, the second system measured the inside hearing protector noise level. The noise level data of both systems was transmitted back to the corresponding receivers and was recorded onto a two-channel tape recorder. Three methods of evaluating hearing protector performance were explored and compared to the Environmental Protection Agency, Noise Reduction Rating (EPA NRR) values. They were, (1) predicted National Institute for occupational Safety and Health`s (NIOSH) method No. 1 values, (2) field-calculated NIOSH No. 1 values, and (3) measured dBA reduction values, which was the arithmetic A-weighted differences between both microphone locations. The majority of the data was obtained on operators of mobile strip equipment, such as bulldozers, front-end-loaders, and overburden drills. A total of 107 individual tests were conducted using 11 different hearing protectors. The results indicate that the amount of protection, which can vary significantly, is related either to the spectrum shape of the noise, or the C-weighted minus the A-weighted (C-A) value. This is consistent with other researchers. The field measured noise reductions were equivalent to the EPA NRR values when the C-A values were negative or approaching zero. When the C-A values increased, the measured noise reductions significantly decreased.
Social/Behavioral Effects of Violence on Television. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session (October 21, 1981).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.
This subcommittee hearing report presents testimony of television network officials, academic researchers, and consumer representatives concerning the social and behavioral effects of portrayed violence on television, especially as it relates to children. It also provides documents used as attachments to the oral testimony and written statements…
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible gender differences regarding psychometric scales measuring risk perception in noisy situations, attitudes towards loud music, perceived susceptibility to noise, and individual norms and ideals related to activities where loud music is played. In addition the purpose was to analyze whether these variables are associated with protective behavior such as the use of hearing protection. A questionnaire was administered to a Swedish sample including 543 adolescents aged 16 to 20. The result revealed significant gender differences for all the psychometric scales. In addition, all psychometric measures were associated with hearing protection use in musical settings. Contrary to previous studies, gender did not contribute to any explanation of protective behavior by itself in the analysis. One conclusion is that although gender does not contribute by itself for the explanation of protective behavior, gender may affect psychological variables such as risk perception, attitudes and perceived susceptibility and that these variables may in turn be valuable for decision-making and protective behavior in noisy situations. Although women tend to be more ′careful′ psychologically, they nevertheless tend to behave in the same way as men as regards actual noise-related risk taking.
Widen, Stephen; Bohlin, Margareta; Johansson, Ingemar
The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible gender differences regarding psychometric scales measuring risk perception in noisy situations, attitudes towards loud music, perceived susceptibility to noise, and individual norms and ideals related to activities where loud music is played. In addition the purpose was to analyze whether these variables are associated with protective behavior such as the use of hearing protection. A questionnaire was administered to a Swedish sample including 543 adolescents aged 16 to 20. The result revealed significant gender differences for all the psychometric scales. In addition, all psychometric measures were associated with hearing protection use in musical settings. Contrary to previous studies, gender did not contribute to any explanation of protective behavior by itself in the analysis. One conclusion is that although gender does not contribute by itself for the explanation of protective behavior, gender may affect psychological variables such as risk perception, attitudes and perceived susceptibility and that these variables may in turn be valuable for decision-making and protective behavior in noisy situations. Although women tend to be more 'careful' psychologically, they nevertheless tend to behave in the same way as men as regards actual noise-related risk taking.
This study explored attitudes toward leisure noise, use of hearing protection, and perceived susceptibility to leisure-noise damage in young adults with hearing problems. Twelve participants aged between 18 and 35 years took part in a semistructured interview. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. The results showed that a positive attitude to noise, a passion for loud music, a lack of knowledge of the consequences of noise damage, and perceived low risk of hearing problems were associated with people not using earplugs. The aesthetics, comfort, perceived effects on music quality and attitude of others were all barriers to earplug use. Of those who had used earplugs, previous hearing-related symptoms and concern about future hearing damage were the main motivators for use. Four types of people were identified to describe the variation in attitudes and behaviors: those who had no change in behavior or concern about damage; those who were concerned and used earplugs; those who were concerned and avoided loud venues; and those who were concerned about communication difficulties only. Considering the wide variability, it may be more effective to shift attention from trying to change individual attitudes and behaviors to considering systemic changes to protect hearing, through ensuring the music industry and relevant authorities take greater responsibility.
Carmichael, E.L., Harris, F.P., Story, B.H.: Effects of binaural electronic hearing protectors on localization and response time to sounds in the horizontal...The effect of integrated hearing protection surround levels on sound localization Sharon M. Abel, Craig Burrell, Douglas...The effect of integrated hearing protection surround levels on sound localization Sharon M. Abel, Craig
Full Text Available This presentation outlines the importance of awareness training of managers at all levels and miners regarding the importance of hearing protection devices and adequate knowledge, motivation and training to prevent hearing loss....
Full Text Available Background and aimsNoise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL is an important occupational disorder. High percentage of workers in occupational environments did not use the hearing protection device against harmful noise. This study was carried out to study factors related to workers' use of Hearing protection Device in Knitting & spinning factories of Yazd city based on protection motivation theory.MethodsIn this cross-sectional analytical study 280 workers of the knitting & spinning factories of Yazd City who exposed to harmful noise (over 85dB selected among the three factories by cluster sampling. The data gathered via exclusive interviews with selected workers using the questionnaire designed based on protection motivation theory and were analyzedResults42/5 percent of workers permanently used hearing protection devices, and 20/7 percent of workers never use.There was a significant correlation between the age of workers and the mean score components of PMT; perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, perceived response efficacy and protection motivation. There was also a significant correlation between the work experience and the mean score of PMT factors; perceived severity, perceived response efficacy and perceived vulnerability. Also there was a significant correlation between workers' education level and the mean score of perceived response efficacy and there was a significant correlation between protection motivation and the mean score components of PMT; perceived vulnerability, perceived self-efficacy, perceived response efficacy, perceived costs and behaviorConclusionRegarding the significant correlations between the more constructs of PMT and protection motivation of workers for using hearing protective device, designing educational program based on PMT to increase hearing protection devices usage among workers is recommended.
Robinson, Alan M; Vujanovic, Irena; Richter, Claus-Peter
This animal study was designed to determine if minocycline ameliorates cochlear damage is caused by intratympanic injection of the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. Baseline auditory-evoked brainstem responses were measured in gerbils that received 40 mM intratympanic neomycin either with 0, 1.2, or 1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal minocycline. Four weeks later auditory-evoked brainstem responses were measured and compared to the baseline measurements. Minocycline treatments of 1.2 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg resulted in significantly lower threshold increases compared to 0 mg/kg, indicating protection of hearing loss between 6 kHz and 19 kHz. Cochleae were processed for histology and sectioned to allow quantification of the spiral ganglion neurons and histological evaluation of organ of Corti. Significant reduction of spiral ganglion neuron density was demonstrated in animals that did not receive minocycline, indicating that those receiving minocycline demonstrated enhanced survival of spiral ganglion neurons, enhanced survival of sensory hairs cells and spiral ganglion neurons, and reduced hearing threshold elevation correlates with minocycline treatment demonstrating that neomycin induced hearing loss can be reduced by the simultaneous application of minocycline.
Smailes, David; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Dodgson, Guy
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for voice-hearing (i.e., auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH) has, at best, small to moderate effects. One possible reason for this limited efficacy is that current CBT approaches tend to conceptualize voice-hearing as a homogenous experience in terms of the cognitive processes involved in AVH. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of voice-hearing suggests that many different cognitive processes may be involved in the etiology of AVH. These heterogeneous voice-hearing experiences do, however, appear to cluster into a set of subtypes, opening up the possibility of tailoring treatment to the subtype of AVH that a voice-hearer reports. In this paper, we (a) outline our rationale for tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing, (b) describe CBT for three putative subtypes of AVH (inner speech-based AVH, memory-based AVH, and hypervigilance AVH), and (c) discuss potential limitations and problems with such an approach. We conclude by arguing that tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing could prove to be a valuable therapeutic development, which may be especially effective when used in early intervention in psychosis services.
Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Rieffe, Carolien; Kouwenberg, Maartje; De Raeve, Leo J I; Soede, Wim; Briaire, Jeroen J; Frijns, Johan H M
The purpose of this study was to examine several behavioral problems in school-aged hearing-impaired children with hearing aids or cochlear implants, compared to normally hearing children. Additionally, we wanted to investigate which sociodemographic, linguistic, and medical factors contributed to the level of behavioral problems, to pinpoint where targeted interventions can take place. This large, retrospective study included a sample of 261 school-aged children (mean age = 11.8 years, SD = 1.6), that consisted of three age- and gender-matched subgroups: 75 with hearing aids, 57 with cochlear implants, and 129 normally hearing controls. Self- and parent-reports concerning reactive and proactive aggression, delinquency, and symptoms of psychopathy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder were used. In addition, several language and intelligence tests were administered. Hearing-impaired children showed significantly more proactive aggression, symptoms of psychopathy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder than their normally hearing peers. More behavioral problems were associated with special schools for the deaf, sign (-supported) language, hearing aids (in contrast to cochlear implants), higher age, male gender, lower socioeconomic status, lower intelligence, and delayed language development. Hearing-impaired children face multiple problems regarding their behavior. The outcomes implicate that professionals should be aware of the higher risk of developing behavioral problems, in order to screen, detect, and treat in time. Furthermore, the associated risk and protective factors emphasize that clinicians must always consider the heterogeneity of the group of hearing-impaired children, in order to help and support the individual patient.
Johansen, Benjamin; Petersen, Michael Kai; Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik
. A significant difference between program usage, and weekdays versus weekends, were found. Users not only changed programs to modify aspects of directionality and noise reduction, but also continuously adjusted the volume. Rethinking hearing instruments as devices that adaptively learn behavioral patterns based...
Beach, Elizabeth; Williams, Warwick; Gilliver, Megan
while it is difficult to promote the use of hearing protectors in noisy workplaces and leisure settings, some nightclub attendees choose to wear earplugs when exposed to loud music. This qualitative study investigated the perceptions of clubbers about the advantages and disadvantages of earplug use in nightclubs. Such first-hand information could potentially be used to educate non-wearers about the features of different earplug types, the experience of wearing earplugs and their relative merits. structured telephone interviews were conducted with 20 regular clubbers who wear different types of earplugs at nightclubs. Participants were asked about their experience of wearing earplugs and, in particular, what they perceive to be the advantages and disadvantages of earplugs. participants' responses revealed that cheaper foam earplugs are considered less satisfactory than more expensive earplugs, which are relatively discreet and comfortable, facilitate communication with others, create minimal music distortion and, in some cases, improve music sound quality. In terms of effectiveness, all types of earplugs were considered beneficial in reducing the after-effects of loud music and providing hearing protection. the perceived advantages of earplugs, which are often not recognised by non-earplug wearers, should be communicated in order to encourage the use of earplugs among clubbers.
Full Text Available Individuals with hearing impairment are confronted with a lot of problems due to the condition of their disability. This has a negative impact on their social and psychological well-being with multiplying effect on their interpersonal relationship. Therefore, this study investigated the psycho-social influence of hearing impairment on interpersonal behavior of youths with hearing loss.MethodologyThe study adopted a survey research design. A sample consisting of 211 participants with hearing loss were purposively selected from the Federal College of Education (Special Oyo, Nigeria. A questionnaire, part of Psycho-social Competence Scale (PCS, was used for data collection with reliability coefficient of 0.72.ResultsThe findings revealed that hearing impairement affects social interaction of youths with hearing impairment, hearing loss affects emotional well-being of youths with hearing impairment and youths with hearing impairment feel inferior in company of persons without hearing impairment. Based on this, it was recommended that a friendly home environment should be made and youths with hearing impairment should be advised to accept their loss and take it as a challenge that can be used to achieve a better end and the society should have right attitude and beliefs toward youths with hearing impairment.
Wen, Jian; Duan, Na; Wang, Qiang; Jing, Gui-Xia; Xiao, Ying
Iatrogenic noise produced by mastoid or craniotomy drills may cause hearing damage, which is induced by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the reduction of cochlear blood flow (CoBF). This study investigated whether propofol could reduce noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in a guinea pig model. Sixty-four male pigmented guinea pigs were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups: control, noise, propofol and propofol+noise. Propofol was infused intravenously for 20min prior to noise exposure with a loading dose of 5mg·kg-1 for 5min and a maintenance infusion of 20mg·kg-1·h-1 for 135min. For noise exposure, an octave band noise at a 124dB sound pressure level (SPL) was administered to animals for 2h. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and CoBF were monitored continuously. Auditory function was measured by the level of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) before and at 1h, 72h and 240h after noise exposure. Cochlear levels of 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2α) were measured immediately after the termination of noise exposure. Cochlear silver nitrate staining and outer hair cell (OHC) counting were performed after the final functional test. Noise exposure caused decreases in the CoBF and DPOAE amplitudes, over-generation of 8-iso-PGF2α and the loss of OHCs. Pre-treatment with propofol significantly increased the CoBF and DPOAE amplitudes, decreased 8-iso-PGF2α and the loss of OHCs. Propofol exerted protective effects against NIHL in this animal model by suppressing a lipid peroxidation reaction and improving CoBF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hong, OiSaeng; Eakin, Brenda L; Chin, Dal Lae; Feld, Jamie; Vogel, Stephen
Noise-induced hearing loss is a significant occupational injury for firefighters exposed to intermittent noise on the job. It is important to educate firefighters about using hearing protection devices whenever they are exposed to loud noise. Computer technology is a relatively new health education approach and can be useful for tailoring specific aspects of behavioral change training. The purpose of this study is to present the development process of an Internet-based tailored intervention program and to assess its efficacy. The intervention programs were implemented for 372 firefighters (mean age = 44 years, Caucasian = 82%, male = 95%) in three states (California, Illinois, and Indiana). The efficacy was assessed from firefighters' feedback through an Internet-based survey. A multimedia Internet-based training program was developed through (a) determining program content and writing scripts, (b) developing decision-making algorithms for tailoring, (c) graphic design and audio and video productions, (d) creating computer software and a database, and (e) postproduction quality control and pilot testing. Participant feedback regarding the training has been very positive. Participants reported that they liked completing the training via computer (83%) and also that the Internet-based training program was well organized (97%), easy to use (97%), and effective (98%) and held their interest (79%). Almost all (95%) would recommend this Internet training program to other firefighters. Interactive multimedia computer technology using the Internet was a feasible mode of delivery for a hearing protection intervention among firefighters. Participants' favorable feedback strongly supports the continued utilization of this approach for designing and developing interventions to promote healthy behaviors.
Feder, Katya; Michaud, David; McNamee, James; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Davies, Hugh; Leroux, Tony
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss (HL), self-reported occupational noise exposure, and hearing protection usage among Canadians. In-person household interviews were conducted with 3666 participants, aged 16 to 79 years (1811 males) with 94% completing audiometry and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) evaluations. Occupational noise exposure was defined as hazardous when communicating with coworkers at an arm's length distance required speaking in a raised voice. An estimated 42% of respondents reported hazardous occupational noise exposure; 10 years or more was associated with HL regardless of age, sex or education. Absent DPOAEs, tinnitus, and the Wilson audiometric notch were significantly more prevalent in hazardous workplace noise-exposed workers than in nonexposed. When mandatory, 80% reported wearing hearing protection. These findings are consistent with other industrialized countries, underscoring the need for ongoing awareness of noise-induced occupational HL.
... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 Notice of Public Hearings: Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of Public Hearings. SUMMARY: The Copyright Office of the Library of Congress (``Office...
Powell, John A; Kimball, Kent A; Mozo, Ben T; Murphy, Barbara A
Despite significant advances in hearing protection and compliance with protective standards, military personnel are still subject to noise-induced hearing loss in many combat and combat support operations. Although the Army has experienced a decrease of some 15% in primary hearing loss disability cases since 1986, a fiscal year 2000 report documents a 27.5% increase in audiograms, which demonstrated significant threshold shifts in assessed personnel (N = 841/1,077). Compensation for noise-induced hearing loss disability for the Army alone exceeded $180 million in 1998. Thus, communications and hearing protection remain critical issues for personnel involved in Army operations. Aircraft, ground vehicles, and weapons produce noise levels in excess of the limits defined in current hearing conservation standards. Performance of most helmets, improved over the years, remains marginal with regard to speech intelligibility. Furthermore, these helmets do not provide adequate hearing protection. The communications earplug, which consists of a high-quality earphone coupled with an earplug protector, provides the needed extra protection. It weighs less than 15 g and is comfortable when worn over extended periods. It is considered highly acceptable by seasoned Army aviators and crewmembers.
Jessor, R; Turbin, M S; Costa, F M
The role of psychosocial protective factors in adolescent health-enhancing behaviors--healthy diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, good dental hygiene, and seatbelt use--was investigated among 1,493 Hispanic, White, and Black high school students in a large, urban school district. Both proximal (health-related) and distal (conventionality-related) protective factors have significant positive relations with health-enhancing behavior and with the development of health-enhancing behavior. In addition, in cross-sectional analyses, protection was shown to moderate risk. Key proximal protective factors are value on health, perceived effects of health-compromising behavior, and parents who model health behavior. Key distal protective factors are positive orientation to school, friends who model conventional behavior, involvement in prosocial activities, and church attendance. The findings suggest the importance of individual differences on a dimension of conventionality-unconventionality. Strengthening both proximal and distal protective factors may help to promote healthful behaviors in adolescence.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0228 TITLE: Biomechanical Modeling and Measurement of Blast Injury and Hearing Protection Mechanisms PRINCIPAL...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Biomechanical Modeling and Measurement of Blast Injury and Hearing Protection Mechanisms 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0228 5c...blast overpressure transduction from the ear canal to middle ear and the eardrum movement. Results demonstrate biomechanical responses of the ear and
Weichbold, Viktor; Zorowka, Patrick
This study looked at whether a hearing education campaign would have behavioral effects on the music listening practices of high school students. A total of 1757 students participated in a hearing education campaign. Before the campaign and one year thereafter they completed a survey asking for: (1) average frequency of discotheque attendance, (2) average duration of stay in the discotheque, (3) use of earplugs in discotheques, (4) frequency of regeneration breaks while at a discotheque, and (5) mean time per week spent listening to music through headphones. On questions (2), (3) and (5) no relevant post-campaign changes were reported. On question (1) students' answers indicated that the frequency of discotheque attendance had even increased after the campaign. The only change in keeping with the purpose of the campaign was an increase in the number of regeneration breaks when at a discotheque. The effect of hearing education campaigns on music listening behavior is questioned. Additional efforts are suggested to encourage adolescents to adopt protective behaviors.
Yang, Haidi; Pang, Jiaqi; Xiong, Hao; Sun, Yingfeng; Lai, Lan; Chen, Suijun; Ye, Yongyi; Yang, Zhengfei; Zheng, Yiqing
The present study aimed to determine the effects of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury for the carotid system on hearing, particularly, the role of autophagy in this process. Sixty-three Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into three groups: sham surgery animals (S), temporary carotid artery occlusion (ischemia) for 30 min (I30), and temporary carotid artery occlusion for 60 min (I60). Auditory brainstem response measurements were performed on mice. After 72 h of reperfusion, the microcirculation was measured in mice after ischemia injury. Immunofluorescence was used to examine the expression of caspase-3 and light chain 3B in the cochlear sections. Temporary carotid artery occlusion lasting for 30 (I30) or 60 min (I60) caused significant hearing loss in the ischemia phase. Following a recovery during the postreperfusion phase, the temporal threshold shift occurred in the I30 group, whereas a permanent threshold shift occurred in the I60 group. Moreover, both microcirculation and autophagy affected hearing 24 h after reperfusion, whereas at 72 h, autophagy works as an intrinsic cellular process that protects against death from the IR effect. These results suggest that the sooner the reperfusion, the better the hearing recovery. In conclusion, autophagy promotes cell survival in the cochlea; however, excessive IR damage counteracts the beneficial potential of autophagy protection and leads to a permanent threshold shift.
McCullagh, Marjorie C; Ronis, David L
Hearing loss and tinnitus are prevalent in America, and noise-induced hearing loss is a leading cause of hearing loss. Noise-induced hearing loss has negative impact on quality of life, physical and emotional functioning, social life, and employment. In addition, noise-induced hearing loss results in heavy social and economic burdens on families and communities from all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Farmers are a group that is particularly high risk for noise-induced hearing loss, and is underserved by programs designed to limit that risk. They are among the most noise-exposed group of workers, and experience the second highest prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss among all occupational categories. In agriculture, 1.5 million workers (43.3%) report exposure to hazardous noise. Although use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) would protect them from noise-induced hearing loss, use among farmers is low. The purpose of this project is to compare the effectiveness of several approaches to influencing hearing protector use. Approaches include: a) an interactive, predictors-based intervention delivered via the Internet; b) a static informational web site; and c) a mailed sampler of hearing protectors. The goals are to further develop an intervention to promote farmers' use of HPDs, and compare the effectiveness of the interventions delivered in various combinations. Participants will include 701 farmers. Sites will be affiliates of a major farmer organization. Data will be collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. A random intercept mixed model will be used to explore the fixed effects of the three NIHL prevention interventions over time while adjusting for age and gender. This project will involve a partnership between the University of Michigan and a major farmer organization to accomplish project aims. Results of this study will be used to inform future research-to-practice studies to increase hearing protector use. Increased use of hearing protectors is
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Public Hearing Regarding Environmental Protection Agency Region III's Proposed... Withdrawal of Specification), of an Area as a Disposal Site; Spruce No. 1 Surface Mine, Logan County, WV...
Brungart, Douglas S.; Kordik, Alexander J.; Simpson, Brian D.
Recent results have shown that auditory localization in the horizontal plane is dramatically worse for listeners wearing double hearing protection (earplugs and earmuffs) than it is for listeners wearing single hearing protection (earplugs or earmuffs alone). This suggests that double hearing protection might also impair the spatial unmasking that normally occurs when two simultaneous talkers are spatially separated in azimuth (the so-called ``cocktail party'' effect). In this experiment, normal hearing listeners wearing no hearing protection, single hearing protection (earmuffs), or double hearing protection were asked to perform a speech intelligibility task that required them to segregate two simultaneous talkers who were either presented from the same loudspeaker or spatially separated by 90° in azimuth. The listeners were also asked to determine the location of the target talker in each trial. The results show that the listeners were unable to reliably determine the location of the target talker when they wore double hearing protection, but that they were still able to benefit from the spatial separation of the competing talkers. This suggests that the use of double hearing protection causes spatially separated sound sources to be heard at locations that are inaccurate but still distinct enough to enhance the segregation of speech.
Coll, Kenneth M.; Cutler, Martin M.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin; Powell, Stephanie
The study compared psychosocial risk behaviors of adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing with those of their hearing peers in a residential treatment facility. Statistically significant differences emerged between groups. The adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing demonstrated clinically higher scores than those of their hearing peers…
McCullagh, Marjorie C; Banerjee, Tanima; Yang, James J; Bernick, Janice; Duffy, Sonia; Redman, Richard
Although farm operators have frequent exposure to hazardous noise and high rates of noise-induced hearing loss, they have low use of hearing protection devices (HPDs). Women represent about one-third of farm operators, and their numbers are climbing. However, among published studies examining use of HPDs in this worker group, none have examined gender-related differences. The purpose of this study was to examine gender-related differences in use of hearing protection and related predictors among farm operators. Data previously collected at farm shows and by telephone were analyzed using t-tests and generalized linear model with zero inflated negative binomial (ZINB) distribution. The difference in rate of hearing protector use between men and women farm operators was not significant. There was no difference between men and women in most hearing protector-related attitudes and beliefs. Although men and women farm operators had similar rates of use of hearing protectors when working in high-noise environments, attitudes about HPD use differed. Specifically, interpersonal role modeling was a predictor of HPD use among women, but not for men. This difference suggests that while farm operators of both genders may benefit from interventions designed to reduce barriers to HPD use (e.g., difficulty communicating with co-workers and hearing warning sounds), farm women have unique needs in relation to cognitive-perceptual factors that predict HPD use. Women farm operators may lack role models for use of HPDs (e.g., in peers and advertising), contributing to their less frequent use of protection.
Welch, David; Dawes, Patrick J D
Childhood hearing level varies considerably within the range considered normal. Four classes of outcome were investigated for associations with hearing thresholds in this range: ability to identify speech in noise, neurocognitive ability, linguistic ability, and behavior. The research was conducted in a general population cohort of 711 children with mean hearing threshold of 15 dB HL or better. Some outcomes: speech in noise, intelligence, and certain linguistic abilities, were predicted in both boys and girls; effects were stronger in girls. In girls only, poorer hearing predicted worse behavior. These effects remained after statistical control for childhood socioeconomic status and otitis media. Variability in normal hearing, due to causes other than otitis media, is associated with the listening, language, and neurocognitive abilities of children, and the behavior of girls. We suggest that these effects may be present for three reasons, cochlear insults, neurodevelopmental factors, and psychological factors. We discuss how these may interact to produce the effects observed.
participant, usually attached to some sort of insert earplug. For ATF measurements, the microphone is located inside a simulated ear installed in a...USAARL Report No. 2016-05 Analysis of Nonlinear Insertion Loss of Hearing Protection Devices using an Acoustic Test Fixture By Robert Williams1...9 Third-octave band insertion loss
Mohammadkhani, Ghassem; Pourbakht, Akram; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat
Hearing capability plays a principal role on human's communication. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) caused by exposure to high noise levels is a serious socio-economic problem in modern societies. NIHL can either be reversible, resulting in a temporary threshold shifts (TTS) or irreversible, resulting in a permanent threshold shifts (PTS). PTS is often confirmed in the time span of between 2 - 6 weeks. NIHL may be prevented by avoidance of excessive amounts of noise or reducing the sound energy entering the inner ear using hearing protective devices. However, there are some conditions that such prevention is not possible such as noise exceeding the protective capabilities of the hearing protection device, working in military or the person does not tolerate the protection device. Thus the protective agent for preventing NIHL would be useful. Free radical molecules and consequence oxidative stress have been shown to play a significant role in noise-induced hearing loss. Silymarin is an antioxidant flavonoid complex derived from the herb milk thistle has ability to mitigating the oxidative stress, scavenge free radicals. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of silymarin on noise induced hearing loss in guinea pig by auditory brain stem response. Twenty guinea pigs randomly divided into 2 groups. The animals in the experimental group were intraperitoneally injected with 100 mg/kg/day silymarin dissolved in propylene glycol for 6 consecutive days. The control subjects were intraperitoneally injected with propylene glycol for 6 consecutive days. All animals were exposed to 4 kHz octave band noise at 120 dB SPL for 6 hours. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) at frequencies of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 20 kHz were precisely recorded before intervention and then on intervals of 0, 3, 10 and 15 days after noise exposure. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Threshold shifts for the experimental group at all frequencies immediately, 3
Smailes, David; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Dodgson, Guy
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for voice-hearing (i.e., auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH) has, at best, small-to-moderate effects. One possible reason for this limited efficacy is that current CBT approaches tend to conceptualise voice-hearing as a homogenous experience in terms of the cognitive processes involved in AVH. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of voice-hearing suggests that many different cognitive processes may be involved in the etiology of AVH. These heterogeneou...
Quittner, Alexandra L; Barker, David H; Cruz, Ivette; Snell, Carolyn; Grimley, Mary E; Botteri, Melissa
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates predictors of both general and context-specific parenting stress in a cross-sectional sample of hearing parents of young deaf and hearing children. DESIGN: Participants were 181 children who were deaf and 92 children with normal hearing. Perceived parenting stress was measured using both general and context-specific measures. Predictors of parenting stress included parent-reported and observed child behavior problems and language delays. RESULTS: After controlling for maternal education and family income, parents of deaf children reported more context-specific but not general parenting stress than parents of hearing children. Both parent-reported and observed behavior problems were higher in the deaf group compared to the hearing group. Children's hearing status related to child behavior problems by way of oral language delays. Furthermore, hearing status related to parenting stress by way of language delays and child behavior difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Context-specific measures of parenting stress reflect unique challenges of this population. Both language delays and child behavior problems are associated with increased parenting stress. Identification of specific stressors related to parenting a deaf child helps to inform the development of early interventions.
María J. Pino
Full Text Available Objective: To identify possible differences in the level of externalizing behavior problems among children with and without hearing impairment and determine whether any relationship exists between this type of problem and parenting practices. Methods: The Behavior Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate externalizing variables in a sample of 118 boys and girls divided into two matched groups: 59 with hearing disorders and 59 normal-hearing controls. Results: Significant between-group differences were found in hyperactivity, behavioral problems, and externalizing problems, but not in aggression. Significant differences were also found in various aspects of parenting styles. A model for predicting externalizing behavior problems was constructed, achieving a predicted explained variance of 50%. Conclusion: Significant differences do exist between adaptation levels in children with and without hearing impairment. Parenting style also plays an important role.
Pino, María J; Castillo, Rosa A; Raya, Antonio; Herruzo, Javier
To identify possible differences in the level of externalizing behavior problems among children with and without hearing impairment and determine whether any relationship exists between this type of problem and parenting practices. The Behavior Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate externalizing variables in a sample of 118 boys and girls divided into two matched groups: 59 with hearing disorders and 59 normal-hearing controls. Significant between-group differences were found in hyperactivity, behavioral problems, and externalizing problems, but not in aggression. Significant differences were also found in various aspects of parenting styles. A model for predicting externalizing behavior problems was constructed, achieving a predicted explained variance of 50%. Significant differences do exist between adaptation levels in children with and without hearing impairment. Parenting style also plays an important role.
Knobel, Keila Alessandra Baraldi; Lima, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro
Identification of the beliefs and attitudes towards noise exposure and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss in Brazilian children. Prospective cross-sectional study through interviews with children and their parents. 753 children were selected and invited to participate. The final sample was 475 children and 404 parents. In general, children disliked noisy places (67%). Although 87.4% of the children and 93.9% of the parents considered loud sounds damaging to the ears, children were poorly informed about hearing protection and did not have hearing protection devices. Children were mostly exposed to parties and concerts with loud music (51.9%), carnaval (Mardi Gras) parties (38.2%), firecrackers (36.8%), and loud music at home or in the car (33.1%), or from listening to loud music with earphones (17.3%). Compared to children from private schools, children from public schools had a greater preference for loud sounds and were less informed about hearing protection. Knowledge of hearing risk from loud sounds was not enough to prompt preventive behaviors, and adults exposed children to loud sounds.
Andrew D Brown
Full Text Available Hearing protection devices (HPDs such as earplugs offer to mitigate noise exposure and reduce the incidence of hearing loss among persons frequently exposed to intense sound. However, distortions of spatial acoustic information and reduced audibility of low-intensity sounds caused by many existing HPDs can make their use untenable in high-risk (e.g., military or law enforcement environments where auditory situational awareness is imperative. Here we assessed (1 sound source localization accuracy using a head-turning paradigm, (2 speech-in-noise recognition using a modified version of the QuickSIN test, and (3 tone detection thresholds using a two-alternative forced-choice task. Subjects were 10 young normal-hearing males. Four different HPDs were tested (two active, two passive, including two new and previously untested devices. Relative to unoccluded (control performance, all tested HPDs significantly degraded performance across tasks, although one active HPD slightly improved high-frequency tone detection thresholds and did not degrade speech recognition. Behavioral data were examined with respect to head-related transfer functions measured using a binaural manikin with and without tested HPDs in place. Data reinforce previous reports that HPDs significantly compromise a variety of auditory perceptual facilities, particularly sound localization due to distortions of high-frequency spectral cues that are important for the avoidance of front-back confusions.
Brown, Andrew D.; Beemer, Brianne T.; Greene, Nathaniel T.; Argo, Theodore; Meegan, G. Douglas; Tollin, Daniel J.
Hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earplugs offer to mitigate noise exposure and reduce the incidence of hearing loss among persons frequently exposed to intense sound. However, distortions of spatial acoustic information and reduced audibility of low-intensity sounds caused by many existing HPDs can make their use untenable in high-risk (e.g., military or law enforcement) environments where auditory situational awareness is imperative. Here we assessed (1) sound source localization accuracy using a head-turning paradigm, (2) speech-in-noise recognition using a modified version of the QuickSIN test, and (3) tone detection thresholds using a two-alternative forced-choice task. Subjects were 10 young normal-hearing males. Four different HPDs were tested (two active, two passive), including two new and previously untested devices. Relative to unoccluded (control) performance, all tested HPDs significantly degraded performance across tasks, although one active HPD slightly improved high-frequency tone detection thresholds and did not degrade speech recognition. Behavioral data were examined with respect to head-related transfer functions measured using a binaural manikin with and without tested HPDs in place. Data reinforce previous reports that HPDs significantly compromise a variety of auditory perceptual facilities, particularly sound localization due to distortions of high-frequency spectral cues that are important for the avoidance of front-back confusions. PMID:26313145
Bielefeld, Eric C; Hangauer, David; Henderson, Donald
Apoptosis is a significant mechanism of cochlear hair cell loss from noise. Molecules that inhibit apoptotic intracellular signaling reduce cochlear damage and hearing loss from noise. The current study is an extension of a previous study of the protective value of Src-protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors against noise (Harris et al., 2005). The current study tested three Src-inhibitors: the indole-based KX1-141, the biaryl-based KX2-329, and the ATP-competitive KX2-328. Each of the three drugs was delivered into the chinchillas' cochleae by allowing the solutions to diffuse across the round window membrane thirty minutes prior to exposure to impulse noise. Hearing thresholds were measured using auditory evoked responses from electrodes in the inferior colliculi. Ears treated with KX2-329 showed significantly lower threshold shifts and outer hair cell losses than the control group. The cochleae treated with KX1-141 and KX2-328 did not show statistically significant protection from the impulse noise. The finding of protection with KX2-329 demonstrates that a biaryl-based Src inhibitor has protective capacity against noise-induced hearing loss that is as good as that demonstrated by KX1-004, a Src inhibitor drug that has been studied extensively as an otoprotectant against noise, and suggests that KX2-329 could be useful for protection against noise. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.
Meister, Hartmut; Grugel, Linda; Meis, Markus
To determine the intention to use hearing aids (HAs) by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The TPB is a widely used decision-making model based on three constructs hypothesized to influence the intention to perform a specific behavior; namely, "attitude toward the behavior", "subjective norm", and "behavioral control". The survey was based on a TPB-specific questionnaire addressing factors relevant to HA provision. Data from 204 individuals reporting hearing problems were analyzed. Different subgroups were established according to the stage of their hearing help-seeking. The TPB models' outcome depended on the subgroup. The intention of those participants who had recognized their hearing problems but had not yet consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist was largely dominated by the "subjective norm" construct, whereas those who had already consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist or had already tried out HAs were significantly influenced by all constructs. The intention of participants who already owned HAs was clearly less affected by the "subjective norm" construct but was largely dominated by their "attitude toward HAs". The intention to use HAs can be modeled on the basis of the constructs "attitude toward the behavior", "subjective norm", and "behavioral control". Individual contribution of the constructs to the model depends on the patient's stage of hearing help-seeking. The results speak well for counseling strategies that explicitly consider the individual trajectory of hearing help-seeking.
Huang, Xinghua; Chen, Mo; Ding, Yan; Wang, Qin
Neuronal hearing loss has become a prevalent health problem. This study focused on the function of arctigenin (ARC) in promoting survival and neuronal differentiation of mouse cochlear neural stem cells (NSCs), and its protection against gentamicin (GMC) induced neuronal hearing loss. Mouse cochlea was used to isolate NSCs, which were subsequently cultured in vitro. The effects of ARC on NSC survival, neurosphere formation, differentiation of NSCs, neurite outgrowth, and neural excitability in neuronal network in vitro were examined. Mechanotransduction ability demonstrated by intact cochlea, auditory brainstem response (ABR), and distortion product optoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) amplitude in mice were measured to evaluate effects of ARC on GMC-induced neuronal hearing loss. ARC increased survival, neurosphere formation, neuron differentiation of NSCs in mouse cochlear in vitro. ARC also promoted the outgrowth of neurites, as well as neural excitability of the NSC-differentiated neuron culture. Additionally, ARC rescued mechanotransduction capacity, restored the threshold shifts of ABR and DPOAE in our GMC ototoxicity murine model. This study supports the potential therapeutic role of ARC in promoting both NSCs proliferation and differentiation in vitro to functional neurons, thus supporting its protective function in the therapeutic treatment of neuropathic hearing loss in vivo. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Murphy, William J.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Sondergaard, Jacob; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Khan, Amir; Vernon, Julia; Stewart, Michael
Objective In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed an impulse noise reduction rating (NRR) for hearing protection devices based upon the impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) methods in the ANSI S12.42-2010 standard. This study tests the ANSI S12.42 methods with a range of hearing protection devices measured in field conditions. Design The method utilizes an acoustic test fixture and three ranges for impulse levels: 130–134, 148–152, and 166–170 dB peak SPL. For this study, four different models of hearing protectors were tested: Bilsom 707 Impact II electronic earmuff, E·A·R Pod Express, E·A·R Combat Arms version 4, and the Etymotic Research, Inc. Electronic BlastPLG™ EB1. Study sample Five samples of each protector were fitted on the fixture or inserted in the fixture's ear canal five times for each impulse level. Impulses were generated by a 0.223 caliber rifle. Results The average IPILs increased with peak pressure and ranged between 20 and 38 dB. For some protectors, significant differences were observed across protector examples of the same model, and across insertions. Conclusions The EPA's proposed methods provide consistent and reproducible results. The proposed impulse NRR rating should utilize the minimum and maximum protection percentiles as determined by the ANSI S12.42-2010 methods. PMID:22176308
Murphy, William J; Flamme, Gregory A; Meinke, Deanna K; Sondergaard, Jacob; Finan, Donald S; Lankford, James E; Khan, Amir; Vernon, Julia; Stewart, Michael
In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed an impulse noise reduction rating (NRR) for hearing protection devices based upon the impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) methods in the ANSI S12.42-2010 standard. This study tests the ANSI S12.42 methods with a range of hearing protection devices measured in field conditions. The method utilizes an acoustic test fixture and three ranges for impulse levels: 130-134, 148-152, and 166-170 dB peak SPL. For this study, four different models of hearing protectors were tested: Bilsom 707 Impact II electronic earmuff, E·A·R Pod Express, E·A·R Combat Arms version 4, and the Etymotic Research, Inc. Electronic BlastPLG™ EB1. Five samples of each protector were fitted on the fixture or inserted in the fixture's ear canal five times for each impulse level. Impulses were generated by a 0.223 caliber rifle. The average IPILs increased with peak pressure and ranged between 20 and 38 dB. For some protectors, significant differences were observed across protector examples of the same model, and across insertions. The EPA's proposed methods provide consistent and reproducible results. The proposed impulse NRR rating should utilize the minimum and maximum protection percentiles as determined by the ANSI S12.42-2010 methods.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research showed an increase of noise-induced symptoms in adolescents. Permanent tinnitus as a consequence of loud music exposure is usually considered as noise-induced damage. The objective was to perform an epidemiological study in order to obtain prevalence data of permanent noise-induced tinnitus as well as temporary tinnitus following noise exposure in a young population. In addition the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection were evaluated in order to explain the use/non-use of hearing protection in a young population. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by 3892 high school students (mean age: 16.64 years old, SD: 1.29 years. The prevalence of temporary and permanent tinnitus was assessed. In addition the 'Youth Attitudes to Noise Scale' and the 'Beliefs About Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss' were used in order to assess the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of temporary noise-induced tinnitus and permanent tinnitus in high school students was respectively 74.9% and 18.3%. An increasing prevalence of temporary tinnitus with age was present. Most students had a 'neutral attitude' towards loud music and the use of hearing protection was minimal (4.7%. The limited use of hearing protection is explained by a logistic regression analysis showing the relations between certain parameters and the use of hearing protection. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the very high prevalence of tinnitus in such a young population, the rate of hearing protection use and the knowledge about the risks of loud music is extremely low. Future preventive campaigns should focus more on tinnitus as a warning signal for noise-induced damage and emphasize that also temporary symptoms can result in permanent noise-induced damage.
Nowakowski, Matilda E; Tasker, Susan L; Schmidt, Louis A
Mounting evidence points to joint attention as a mediating variable in children's adaptive behavior development. Joint attention in interactions between hearing mothers and congenitally deaf (n = 27) and hearing (n = 29) children, ages 18-36 months, was examined. All deaf children had severe to profound hearing loss. Mother-child interactions were coded for maternally initiated and child-initiated success rates in establishing joint attention; mothers completed ratings of their children's adaptive behavior. Hearing mother-deaf child dyads had significantly lower maternally initiated success rates. No significant between-group differences on child-initiated success rates were shown. Maternal ratings of adaptive behavior were significantly lower for deaf children, and related positively and significantly to both child-initiated and maternally initiated success rates. The findings suggest that mother-child interactions that are low in successful establishment of joint attention might mediate the development of socioemotional problems evident in deaf children with hearing families.
Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Rieffe, Carolien; Netten, Anouk P; Briaire, Jeroen J; Soede, Wim; Schoones, Jan W; Frijns, Johan H M
Pediatric hearing impairment is a chronic handicap that can potentially lead to the development of psychopathology. Yet, for hearing-impaired children and adolescents, the exact occurrence of various forms of psychopathology and its causes are unclear, while this knowledge is essential to enable targeted screenings and interventions. To investigate the level of psychopathological symptoms in hearing-impaired children and adolescents as compared with normally hearing peers. Second, the influence of type of hearing device and possible risk and protective factors on psychopathology were examined. A systematic literature search was performed covering relevant databases, including PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Two independent researchers identified the relevant articles. The final search was performed on May 2, 2013, and resulted in a total of 35 articles. Literature consistently demonstrated that hearing-impaired children and adolescents were more prone to developing depression, aggression, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and psychopathy than their normally hearing peers. Levels of anxiety, somatization, and delinquency were elevated in some, but not all, hearing-impaired participants, for reasons related to sex, age, and type of school. Divergent results were obtained for the level of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the influence of type of hearing device on psychopathology. Possible risk and protective factors were identified, including age at detection and intervention of hearing loss, additional disabilities, communication skills, intelligence, type of school, and number of siblings. Literature on psychopathology in hearing-impaired children and adolescents is scarce and sometimes inconsistent. To define a more precise occurrence of psychopathology, more studies are needed. These studies should have a longitudinal design to draw firmer conclusions on causality. Hopefully, this will lead to more knowledge in the future to help and
Kieran, S M; Dunne, J; Hughes, J P; Fenton, J E
Professional rugby players utilise various methods of head protection to prevent against the development of a pinna haematoma. This study tests the hypothesis that these measures, whilst preventing injury, decrease the wearers' hearing threshold and therefore their performance. Eight patients had free field audiometry performed in a soundproof room, with warble tones. All patients were young men (mean 24.75 years (range 22-34)). No participant had ear symptomatology or a past history of ear surgery. Three separate audiological assessments were performed on each patient: normal free field audiometry in a sound field room, following application of adhesive tape and whilst wearing a scrum cap. All measurements were performed by a single audiological scientist. A significant clinical drop in hearing threshold was defined as an increase of 10 dB. No patient demonstrated a significant drop in hearing threshold following the application of either tape or a scrum cap, nor was there a significant difference in the mean (SD) warble tone average: air 7.03 (5.47); tape 7.19 (6.40); scrum cap 6.56 (5.58). Theoretical concerns that "ear taping" and scrum caps affect hearing of rugby players are unfounded and should not discourage their use.
Tadros, Sherif F; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D
Aldosterone hormone is a mineralocorticoid secreted by adrenal gland cortex and controls serum sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) levels. Aldosterone has a stimulatory effect on expression of sodium-potassium ATPase (Na, K-ATPase) and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter (NKCC) in cell membranes. In the present investigation, the relation between serum aldosterone levels and age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) and the correlation between these levels versus the degree of presbycusis in humans were examined. Serum aldosterone concentrations were compared between normal hearing and presbycusic groups. Pure-tone audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), hearing in noise test (HINT) and gap detection were tested for each subject and compared to the serum aldosterone levels. A highly significant difference between groups in serum aldosterone concentrations was found (p = 0.0003, t = 3.95, df = 45). Highly significant correlations between pure-tone thresholds in both right and left ears, and HINT scores versus serum aldosterone levels were also discovered. On the contrary, no significant correlations were seen in the case of TEOAEs and gap detection. We conclude that aldosterone hormone may have a protective effect on hearing in old age. This effect is more peripheral than central, appearing to affect inner hair cells more than outer hair cells.
show that listeners in the EWP (Lyric) conditions (open circles and closed squares) can localize low level auditory targets roughly as quickly and...for a transparent hearing protection device that could protect the hearing of normal-hearing listeners without degrading auditory situational...method, suggest that continuous noise protection is also comparable to conventional earplug devices. Behavioral testing on listeners with normal
Delaroche, Monique; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Dauman, René
This paper provides the first report in English of original behavioral audiometry protocols for measuring hearing thresholds in very young children, including the multiply handicapped. Based on reactions to one or two well-calibrated acoustic stimulations delivered in the sound field, the protocol first involves the use of a vibrator to measure hearing levels by bone conduction. This measurement technique, which is not affected by middle ear infections, is the key diagnostic step. Moreover, in profoundly hearing loss children, it triggers reactions through vibratory stimulation and sets the scene for the conditioning of responses. Next, hearing levels are assessed by air conduction with the aid of headphones, in order to measure hearing levels in each ear as early as possible. A unique set-up is used to facilitate the emergence of reliable "surprise reactions", which may be interpreted by a sole examiner. Classical visual reinforcement is replaced by a highly interactive, dynamic and playful exchange between child and examiner, which gives meaning to the perception of stimuli and heralds the learning of hearing. The results concern 105 babies suffering from bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and aged 4-18 months at the first behavioral test. Group 1 comprised 91 babies with no other handicap, in whom full bilateral air conduction was obtained in 82.4% before 12 months and in 98.9% before 18 months. In this group, air conduction in each ear was obtained in 47.0% before 12 months and in 70.3% before 18 months. In Group 2, which included 14 multiply handicapped babies, full bilateral air conduction was obtained in 37.5% before 12 months and in 78.6% before 18 months. Air conduction in both ears was obtained in 28.6% before 18 months. The protocols described make it possible, in a minimum number of sessions, to measure hearing thresholds early over the whole range of hearing frequencies, even in multiply handicapped babies and those suffering from developmental
Full Text Available Hartmut Meister,1 Linda Grugel,1 Markus Meis2 1Jean Uhrmacher Institute for Clinical ENT Research, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Hoerzentrum Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany Objective: To determine the intention to use hearing aids (HAs by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB. Design: The TPB is a widely used decision-making model based on three constructs hypothesized to influence the intention to perform a specific behavior; namely, “attitude toward the behavior”, “subjective norm”, and “behavioral control”. The survey was based on a TPB-specific questionnaire addressing factors relevant to HA provision. Study sample: Data from 204 individuals reporting hearing problems were analyzed. Different subgroups were established according to the stage of their hearing help-seeking. Results: The TPB models’ outcome depended on the subgroup. The intention of those participants who had recognized their hearing problems but had not yet consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist was largely dominated by the “subjective norm” construct, whereas those who had already consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist or had already tried out HAs were significantly influenced by all constructs. The intention of participants who already owned HAs was clearly less affected by the “subjective norm” construct but was largely dominated by their “attitude toward HAs”. Conclusion: The intention to use HAs can be modeled on the basis of the constructs “attitude toward the behavior”, “subjective norm”, and “behavioral control”. Individual contribution of the constructs to the model depends on the patient’s stage of hearing help-seeking. The results speak well for counseling strategies that explicitly consider the individual trajectory of hearing help-seeking. Keywords: hearing aid uptake, motivation, attitude, subjective norm, behavioral control
Edizer, Deniz Tuna; Yigit, Ozgur; Cinar, Zehra; Gul, Mehmet; Kara, Eyyup; Yigitcan, Birgul; Hayır, Duygu; Atas, Ahmet
Aminoglycosides, used to combat with life-threatening infections, have a substantial risk of hearing loss. Nigella sativa is an annual herbaceous plant and used for treatment of many diseases for ages. We aimed to investigate the protective role of intratympanic nigella sativa oil against gentamicin induced hearing loss in an animal model. Twenty eight guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups: i-control, ii- Intratympanic nigella sativa oil (IT-NSO), iii- Intraperitoneal gentamicin (IP-G) and iv- Intraperitoneal gentamicin and intratympanic nigella sativa oil (IP-G + IT-NSO). Preoperative and postoperative hearing thresholds were determined with auditory brainstem response with click and 8 kHz tone-burst stimuli. Histological analysis of the cochlea specimens were performed under light microscope. Semiquantitative grading of the histological findings was carried out and compared between the groups. Highest posttreatment hearing thresholds were detected in IP-G group. Posttreatment mean hearing threshold of the IP-G group with click stimulus was significantly higher than the IP-G + IT-NSO group (p = 0.004). whereas the difference was not significant with 8 kHz tone-burst stimulus (p = 0.137). Both IP-G and IP-G + IT-NSO groups had significantly higher hearing thresholds compared to control and IT-NSO groups (p > 0.05). Histological examination of the control and IT-NSO groups demonstrated normal appearance of cochlear nerve, stria vascularis and organ of Corti. IP-G group showed the most severe histological alterations including hydropic and vacuolar degenerations, hair cell damage and deformation of the basilar mambrane. Histological evidence of damage was significantly reduced in IP-G + IT-NSO group compared to IP-G group. Addition of intratympanic NSO to systemic gentamicin was demonstrated to have beneficial effects in hearing thresholds which was supported by histological findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shetty, Raghavendra M; Pashine, Aditi; Jose, Nijo A; Mantha, Somasundar
To assess and compare the role of IQ on anxiety and behavior of children with and without hearing and speech impairment. A total of 120 children of age group 7-14 years were included in the study, of which control group comprised of 60 normal healthy children and 60 hearing and speech impaired children formed the study group. The study was done in two consecutive sessions. First appointment for Culture Fair Intelligence Test and second appointment for RMS pictorial anxiety score (RMS-PS) and Frankl behavior rating which were assessed during oral prophylaxis. IQ of children with hearing and speech impairment was lower as compared to normal healthy children. There was a positive correlation between IQ and anxiety in children with hearing and speech impairment while no correlation was found with behavior. Children with hearing and speech impairment are less anxious and more cooperative compared to normal healthy child in the dental setting and are, therefore, easier to manage. © 2018 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zane, Thomas; Carlson, Mark; Estep, David; Quinn, Mike
A defining feature of autism spectrum disorders is atypical behaviors, e.g., stereotypy, noncompliance, rituals, and aggression. Deaf and hard of hearing individuals with autism present a greater challenge because of additional issues related to their hearing status. One conceptualization of problem behavior is that it serves a communication…
Automatic DSP (digital signal processing) features, widely available in hearing aids today, are useful because they alleviate the need for the hearing aid wearer to manually adjust the hearing aid as listening conditions change. Although the theoretical basis for the design of these features may be sound, little is known about their behavior in the real world. Data logging offers a glimpse into the life of the individual hearing aid wearer, but there are no published data to date that provide a frame of reference for the interpretation of this information. Further, data logging in hearing aids provides only aggregate summaries for individual features, ignoring complex interactions including the differences between the left and right sides of a bilateral pair. The purpose of this study was to determine the typical behavior of three automatic DSP hearing aid features-expansion, directionality, and noise management-in daily life. Ten individuals with hearing impairment were fitted bilaterally with BTE (behind the ear) hearing aids. The hearing aids were programmed for the individual's hearing loss with expansion, directionality, and noise management set to activate automatically. A PDA (personal digital assistant) logged the input level and status of expansion, directionality, and noise management from both devices at 5 sec intervals. Data were gathered in this manner over a period of 4-5 wk. A total of 741 hr of hearing aid use were logged, 50% of which were spent in environments no louder than 50 dB SPL. Expansion, directionality, and noise management were active 45, 10, and 21% of the time, respectively; the median amount of gain reduction for noise management was ∼1 dB. Although expansion and noise management were always active at the low and high input levels, respectively, activation of directionality never exceeded 50%. Expansion and noise management were sometimes active simultaneously, as were directionality and noise management. Bilateral agreement in
Lauer, Amanda M; Larkin, Gail; Jones, Aikeen; May, Bradford J
Increased prevalence of emotional distress is associated with tinnitus and hearing loss. The underlying mechanisms of the negative emotional response to tinnitus and hearing loss remain poorly understood, and it is challenging to disentangle the emotional consequences of hearing loss from those specific to tinnitus in listeners experiencing both. We addressed these questions in laboratory rats using three common rodent anxiety screening assays: elevated plus maze, open field test, and social interaction test. Open arm activity in the elevated plus maze decreased substantially after one trial in controls, indicating its limited utility for comparing pre- and post-treatment behavior. Open field exploration and social interaction behavior were consistent across multiple sessions in control animals. Individual sound-exposed and salicylate-treated rats showed a range of phenotypes in the open field, including reduced entries into the center in some subjects and reduced locomotion overall. In rats screened for tinnitus, less locomotion was associated with higher tinnitus scores. In salicylate-treated animals, locomotion was correlated with age. Sound-exposed and salicylate-treated rats also showed reduced social interaction. These results suggest that open field exploratory activity is a selective measure for identifying tinnitus distress in individual animals, whereas social interaction reflects the general effects of hearing loss. This animal model will facilitate future studies of the structural and functional changes in the brain pathways underlying emotional distress associated with hearing dysfunction, as well as development of novel interventions to ameliorate or prevent negative emotional responses.
Albert, Avery B.; Jacobs, Holly E.; Siperstein, Gary N.
The present study explored the prevalence of the r-word in schools and students' bystander behavior in response to hearing the word. In total, 2,297 students from 12 high schools across the country participated in this study. Results revealed the r-word was used frequently among high school students, most often toward individuals without…
Joseph, Jennifer M.; And Others
Analysis of a survey given to 134 deaf and hard-of-hearing college students indicated that these students were not well informed about sexual health and sexuality issues, were engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors, and relied primarily on peers for sexual health information. The need for psychometrically sound measures for this topic and…
Dunlap, William R.; Sands, Deanna Iceman
The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was used to classify 118 hearing-impaired persons (88 percent were ages 16-21) into groups based on their ability to be trained in independent living skills. Using cluster analysis, the subjects were placed into three groups according to four domains: communication, daily living, socialization, and maladaptive…
Berger, Elliott H.; Kieper, Ronald W.; Gauger, Dan
With louder and louder weapon systems being developed and military personnel being exposed to steady noise levels approaching and sometimes exceeding 150 dB, a growing interest in greater amounts of hearing protection is evident. When the need for communications is included in the equation, the situation is even more extreme. New initiatives are underway to design improved hearing protection, including active noise reduction (ANR) earplugs and perhaps even active cancellation of head-borne vibration. With that in mind it may be useful to explore the limits to attenuation, and whether they can be approached with existing technology. Data on the noise reduction achievable with high-attenuation foam earplugs, as a function of insertion depth, will be reported. Previous studies will be reviewed that provide indications of the bone-conduction (BC) limits to attenuation that, in terms of mean values, range from 40 to 60 dB across the frequencies from 125 Hz to 8 kHz. Additionally, new research on the effects of a flight helmet on the BC limits, as well as the potential attenuation from deeply inserted passive foam earplugs, worn with passive earmuffs, or with active-noise reduction (ANR) earmuffs, will be examined. The data demonstrate that gains in attenuation exceeding 10 dB above the head-not-covered limits can be achieved if the head is effectively shielded from acoustical stimulation.
Full Text Available In military outdoor shooting training, with safety measures enforced, the risk of a permanent, noise-induced hearing loss is very small. But urban warfare training performed indoors, with reflections from walls, might increase the risk. A question is whether antioxidants can reduce the negative effects of noise on human hearing as it does on research animals. Hearing tests were performed on a control group of 23 military officers before and after a shooting session in a bunker-like room. The experiments were repeated on another group of 11 officers with peroral adminstration of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, directly after the shooting. The measurements performed were tone thresholds; transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, with and without contralateral noise; and psycho-acoustical modulation transfer function (PMTF, thresholds for brief tones in modulated noise. Effects from shooting on hearing thresholds were small, but threshold behavior supports use of NAC treatment. On the PMTF, shooting without NAC gave strong effects. Those effects were like those from continuous noise, which means that strict safety measures should be enforced. The most striking finding was that the non-linearity of the cochlea, that was strongly reduced in the group without NAC, as manifested by the PMTF-results, was practically unchanged in the NAC-group throughout the study. NAC treatment directly after shooting in a bunkerlike room seems to give some protection of the cochlea.
Howard, Daniel R; Mason, Andrew C; Hill, Peggy S M
The prairie mole cricket (Gryllotalpa major Saussure) is a rare orthopteran insect of the tallgrass prairie ecosystem of the south central USA. Populations are known to currently occupy fragmented prairie sites in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Kansas and Missouri, including The Nature Conservancy's Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in north central Oklahoma. Prairie mole cricket populations were surveyed at this site and at another site in Craig County, OK during the spring of 2005 and 2006, using the male cricket's acoustic call to locate advertising aggregations of males. Five males from one large aggregation were removed in a study to describe (1) the hearing thresholds across the call's range of frequencies, (2) the distances over which the higher harmonic components of the male's calls are potentially detectable, (3) the species' sensitivity to ultrasound and (4) the spatio-auditory dynamics of the prairie mole cricket lek. Results indicate that G. major has a bimodal pattern of frequency tuning, with hearing sensitivities greatest at the 2 kHz carrier frequency (41 dB SPL) and declining through the call's frequency range (84 dB at 10 kHz). A second sensitivity peak is evident in the ultrasound range at 25 kHz (62 dB SPL). Spatial analysis of G. major lek sites indicates that approximately 73% of males within the lek are spaced in such a way as to allow acoustic interaction at the species' carrier frequency, while any information in higher harmonic overtones in the call appears to be available only to nearest neighbors.
Silvia Susana Robles Montijo
Full Text Available The present study proposed a descriptive analysis of sociodemographic and family variables, as well as risky sexual behaviors and sexual abuse in a sample of young Mexicans with hearing or visual impairments, examining differences based on gender and type of disability of the participants. 128 young persons (64 hearing impaired and 64 visually impaired of whom, 53.2% were male and 86.6% were single, were included in the study. The instruments used were adapted linguistically to be answered by young people with hearing disabilities, and translated into Braille for visually impaired young people. The results show that participants maintain an active sex life with a risk profile that is characterized by the early onset of sexual intercourse, lack of planning their first sexual encounter, underuse of condoms and victimization of some form of sexual abuse. The risk was higher in women and among those with visual disabilities.
Huttunen, K H; Sivonen, V P; Poykko, V T
Despite a high level of sound exposure and a fairly large selection of earplugs available, musicians have often been reported to use personal hearing protectors only seldom. For better hearing conservation, it is important to identify and eliminate the causes for the low motivation to use hearing protection. We explored the usage rate of custom-molded musician's earplugs (ER-15) among 15 symphony orchestra musicians with a questionnaire, and measured the attenuation properties of their earplugs with a Real-Ear Attenuation at Threshold (REAT) procedure in a sound field. Earplug use was found to be low, and the musicians reported that earplugs hampered listening to their own and their colleagues' playing; earplugs affected either timbre or dynamics, or both. Additionally, several reasons related to discomfort of use were itemized, but the musicians who consistently used their earplugs did so in spite of problems with use. The REAT values obtained in sound field were relatively close to the manufacturer's nominal specifications, being 13.7 dB, on average. In the frequency range studied (0.125-8 kHz), individual variation in REAT was, however, up to 15 dB across the measured frequencies. Fluctuation in attenuation might be related to low use of hearing protectors, and REAT measured at fixed center frequencies may be too robust a method to uncover it. We therefore tested 10 additional subjects to find out whether a sweeping signal used in Bιkιsy audiometry would bring more detailed information on earplug attenuation. Mean attenuation was found to be somewhat closer to the nominal attenuation of the ER-9 and ER-15 earplugs up to about 1 kHz, whereas REAT measurements in sound field revealed more even attenuation at frequencies between 1 and 6 kHz. No significant association was found between earplug attenuation properties and earplug use. It was concluded that support and determination to get accustomed to hearing protector use are important factors in hearing
Full Text Available Context: Damage to the auditory system by loud sounds can be avoided by hearing protection devices (HPDs such as earmuffs, earplugs, or both for maximum attenuation. However, the attenuation can be limited by air conduction (AC leakage around the earplugs and earmuffs by the occlusion effect (OE and by skull vibrations initiating bone conduction (BC. Aims: To assess maximum attenuation by HPDs and possible flanking pathways to the inner ear. Subjects and Methods: AC attenuation and resulting thresholds were assessed using the real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT procedure on 15 normal-hearing participants in four free-field conditions: (a unprotected ears, (b ears covered with earmuffs, (c ears blocked with deeply inserted customized earplugs, and (d ears blocked with both earplugs and earmuffs. BC thresholds were assessed with and without earplugs to assess the OE. Results: Addition of earmuffs to earplugs did not cause significantly greater attenuation than earplugs alone, confirming minimal AC leakage through the external meatus and the absence of the OE. Maximum REATs ranged between 40 and 46 dB, leading to thresholds of 46–54 dB HL. Furthermore, calculation of the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and bone predicted at least 60 dB attenuation of BC. Conclusion: Results do not support the notion that skull vibrations (BC contributed to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. An alternative explanation, supported by experimental evidence, suggests transmission of sound to inner ear via non-osseous pathways such as skin, soft tissues, and fluid. Because the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and soft tissues is smaller than that between air and bone, air-borne sounds would be transmitted to soft tissues more effectively than to bone, and therefore less attenuation is expected through soft tissue sound conduction. This can contribute to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. The present study
Heraldo Lorena Guida
Full Text Available Introduction: Impact noise is characterized by acoustic energy peaks that last less than a second, at intervals of more than 1 s. Objective: To quantify the levels of impact noise to which police officers are exposed during activities at the shooting range and to evaluate the attenuation of the hearing protector. Methods: Measurements were performed in the shooting range of a military police department. An SV 102 audiodosimeter (Svantek was used to measure sound pressure levels. Two microphones were used simultaneously: one external and one insertion type; the firearm used was a 0.40 Taurus® rimless pistol. Results: The values obtained with the external microphone were 146 dBC (peak, and a maximum sound level of 129.4 dBC (fast. The results obtained with the insertion microphone were 138.7dBC (peak, and a maximum sound level of 121.6 dBC (fast. Conclusion: The findings showed high levels of sound pressure in the shooting range, which exceeded the maximum recommended noise (120 dBC, even when measured through the insertion microphone. Therefore, alternatives to improve the performance of hearing protection should be considered.
Wong, Cara L; Ching, Teresa Y; Leigh, Greg; Cupples, Linda; Button, Laura; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise
The aims of this paper were to report on the global psychosocial functioning of 5-year-old DHH children and examine the risk and protective factors that predict outcomes. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a prospective, population-based longitudinal study. Parents/caregivers of 356 children completed questionnaires on psychosocial development (CDI, SDQ), functional communication (PEACH) and demographic information. Children completed standardized assessments of non-verbal cognitive ability (WNV) and language (PLS-4). On average, global psychosocial functioning was within the range of typically developing children; however, variability was high and 12% of children had scores that were more than 2 SDs below the norm. Non-verbal cognitive ability, presence of additional disabilities, language and functional communication significantly predicted outcomes. In contrast, type of hearing device, severity of hearing loss and age at intervention did not. The global psychosocial functioning of this cohort of 5-year-old DHH children fell within the range of typically developing children. The findings suggest that spoken language ability and functional communication skills are vital for healthy psychosocial development.
Full Text Available In order to explore verbal-nonverbal integration, we investigated the influence of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior during spoken language conversation between children with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment (HI and normal-hearing (NH peers. Ten HI-NH and ten NH-NH dyads performed a referential communication task requiring description of faces. During task performance, eye movements and speech were tracked. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model associations between performance on cognitive and linguistic tasks and the probability of gaze to the conversational partner’s face. Analyses compare the listeners in each dyad (HI: n = 10, mean age = 12;6 years, SD = 2;0, mean better ear pure-tone average 33.0 dB HL, SD = 7.8; NH: n = 10, mean age = 13;7 years, SD = 1;11. Group differences in gaze behavior – with HI gazing more to the conversational partner than NH – remained significant despite adjustment for ability on receptive grammar, expressive vocabulary, and complex working memory. Adjustment for phonological short term memory, as measured by nonword repetition, removed group differences, revealing an interaction between group membership and nonword repetition ability. Stratified analysis showed a twofold increase of the probability of gaze-to-partner for HI with low phonological short term memory capacity, and a decreased probability for HI with high capacity, as compared to NH peers. The results revealed differences in gaze behavior attributable to performance on a phonological short term memory task. Participants with hearing impairment and low phonological short term memory capacity showed a doubled probability of gaze to the conversational partner, indicative of a visual bias. The results stress the need to look beyond the hearing impairment in diagnostics and intervention. Acknowledgment of the finding requires clinical assessment of children with hearing impairment to be supported by tasks tapping
Monge Naldi, Arianne; Belfrage, Celina; Jain, Neha; Wei, Eric T; Canto Martorell, Belén; Gassmann, Max; Vogel, Johannes
So far, typical causes of presbycusis such as degeneration of hair cells and/or primary auditory (spiral ganglion) neurons cannot be treated. Because erythropoietin's (Epo) neuroprotective potential has been shown previously, we determined hearing thresholds of juvenile and aged mice overexpressing Epo in neuronal tissues. Behavioral audiometry revealed in contrast to 5 months of age, that 11-month-old Epo-transgenic mice had up to 35 dB lower hearing thresholds between 1.4 and 32 kHz, and at the highest frequencies (50-80 kHz), thresholds could be obtained in aged Epo-transgenic only but not anymore in old C57BL6 control mice. Click-evoked auditory brainstem response showed similar results. Numbers of spiral ganglion neurons in aged C57BL6 but not Epo-transgenic mice were dramatically reduced mainly in the basal turn, the location of high frequencies. In addition, there was a tendency to better preservation of inner and outer hair cells in Epo-transgenic mice. Hence, Epo's known neuroprotective action effectively suppresses the loss of spiral ganglion cells and probably also hair cells and, thus, development of presbycusis in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
1 Figure 2. G.R.A.S. Hearing-Protector Test Fixture Type 45CA (shown with Mx inserted). (The Styrofoam headform was not on...Test Fixture Type 45CA (shown with Mx inserted). (The Styrofoam headform was not on this ATF during testing.) 2.1.2 Research Facilities, Loudspeaker
Guo, Yilian; Zeng, Xiangli; Liu, Ting; Zou, Yudi; Ye, Yanchou
To explore the methods to detect and intervene children's late-onset hearing loss early which are suitable for basic-level hospitals. Udiology and imaging diagnosis had been given to the children who passed the newborn hearing screening but showed auditory behavior disorders in the growth process, and individualized interventions were given according to the results of diagnosis. Seven children with high risk for hereditary deafness were sent to superior hospital and had molecular screening of common mutations of inherited deafness carried out, then corresponding prevention guidance and intervention were given to them. Fifty-two cases with late-onset hearing loss or verbal disorders were detected by auditory behavior observations,including 4 cases of auditory neuropathy, 4 cases of unilateral sensorineural deafness, 27 cases of secretory otitis media. 13 cases of bilateral sensorineural deafness and 4 cases of autism. Seven newborns with high risk of hereditary deafness were sent to the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University and received molecular screening of common mutations of inherited deafness. One case with GJB2 compound heterozygous mutations was detected and followed up to 4 years old, he was found bilateral moderate hearing loss and accepted the hearing aids at 2 years old. Mitochondrial DNA 1555 a > G heterogeneity mutation in 2 cases and GJB2 235 delC single heterozygous mutations in 3 cases, no mutation in 1 case, all these 6 cases have been followed-up until now, their hearing are normal. Children's auditory behavior observations and the superior hospitals referral performing high risk individual screening for newborns with high risk for hereditary deafness can detect children's late-onset hearing loss in time, this model is suitable for basic-level hospitals.
Johnson, Earl E
To determine safe output sound pressure levels (SPL) for sound amplification devices to preserve hearing sensitivity after usage. A mathematical model consisting of the Modified Power Law (MPL) (Humes & Jesteadt, 1991 ) combined with equations for predicting temporary threshold shift (TTS) and subsequent permanent threshold shift (PTS) (Macrae, 1994b ) was used to determine safe output SPL. The study involves no new human subject measurements of loudness tolerance or threshold shifts. PTS was determined by the MPL model for 234 audiograms and the SPL output recommended by four different validated prescription recommendations for hearing aids. PTS can, on rare occasion, occur as a result of SPL delivered by hearing aids at modern day prescription recommendations. The trading relationship of safe output SPL, decibel hearing level (dB HL) threshold, and PTS was captured with algebraic expressions. Better hearing thresholds lowered the safe output SPL and higher thresholds raised the safe output SPL. Safe output SPL can consider the magnitude of unaided hearing loss. For devices not set to prescriptive levels, limiting the output SPL below the safe levels identified should protect against threshold worsening as a result of long-term usage.
Barker, David H; Quittner, Alexandra L; Fink, Nancy E; Eisenberg, Laurie S; Tobey, Emily A; Niparko, John K
The development of language and communication may play an important role in the emergence of behavioral problems in young children, but they are rarely included in predictive models of behavioral development. In this study, cross-sectional relationships between language, attention, and behavior problems were examined using parent report, videotaped observations, and performance measures in a sample of 116 severely and profoundly deaf and 69 normally hearing children ages 1.5 to 5 years. Secondary analyses were performed on data collected as part of the Childhood Development After Cochlear Implantation Study, funded by the National Institutes of Health. Hearing-impaired children showed more language, attention, and behavioral difficulties, and spent less time communicating with their parents than normally hearing children. Structural equation modeling indicated there were significant relationships between language, attention, and child behavior problems. Language was associated with behavior problems both directly and indirectly through effects on attention. Amount of parent-child communication was not related to behavior problems.
Merri J Rosen
Full Text Available The acoustic rearing environment can alter central auditory coding properties, yet altered neural coding is seldom linked with specific deficits to adult perceptual skills. To test whether developmental hearing loss resulted in comparable changes to perception and sensory coding, we examined behavioral and neural detection thresholds for sinusoidally amplitude modulated (sAM stimuli. Behavioral sAM detection thresholds for slow (5 Hz modulations were significantly worse for animals reared with bilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL, as compared to controls. This difference could not be attributed to hearing thresholds, proficiency at the task, or proxies for attention. Detection thresholds across the groups did not differ for fast (100 Hz modulations, a result paralleling that seen in humans. Neural responses to sAM stimuli were recorded in single auditory cortex neurons from separate groups of awake animals. Neurometric analyses indicated equivalent thresholds for the most sensitive neurons, but a significantly poorer detection threshold for slow modulations across the population of CHL neurons as compared to controls. The magnitude of the neural deficit matched that of the behavioral differences, suggesting that a reduction of sensory information can account for limitations to perceptual skills.
Oxenham, Andrew J.; Plack, Christopher J.
Recent physiological studies of basilar-membrane motion have clarified many aspects of normal and pathological cochlear processing. The compressive input-output function in response to tones around the characteristic frequency and the sharp tuning at low levels are examples of basilar-membrane properties that are thought to be important for hearing, but that are also highly vulnerable to cochlear damage. Aspects of auditory perception influenced by cochlear nonlinearity include loudness and dynamic range, temporal processing, and frequency selectivity. Functional models have assisted us in understanding the perceptual consequences of peripheral nonlinearity in a wide variety of psychoacoustic tasks. In addition, many effects of cochlear hearing loss can be simulated within such a model simply by reducing or eliminating the nonlinearity within the model. A number of behavioral measures of cochlear nonlinearity in humans have been developed in recent years. These techniques offer insights into human cochlear processing in general, and may also provide diagnostic information about cochlear function on an individual basis. By gaining a better understanding of the changes in cochlear processing associated with hearing loss, it may be possible to design sound-processing algorithms for hearing aids that better compensate for the effects of cochlear damage. [Work supported by NIH Grant R01DC03909.
He, Qiang; Jia, Zhanwei; Zhang, Ying; Ren, Xiumin
We aimed to investigate the effect of morin hydrate on neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from mouse inner ear and its potential in protecting neuronal hearing loss. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays were employed to assess the effect of morin hydrate on the viability and proliferation of in vitro NSC culture. The NSCs were then differentiated into neurons, in which neurosphere formation and differentiation were evaluated, followed by neurite outgrowth and neural excitability measurements in the subsequent in vitro neuronal network. Mechanotransduction of cochlea ex vivo culture and auditory brainstem responses threshold and distortion product optoacoustic emissions amplitude in mouse ototoxicity model were also measured following gentamicin treatment to investigate the protective role of morin hydrate against neuronal hearing loss. Morin hydrate improved viability and proliferation, neurosphere formation and neuronal differentiation of inner ear NSCs, and promoted in vitro neuronal network functions. In both ex vivo and in vivo ototoxicity models, morin hydrate prevented gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. Morin hydrate exhibited potent properties in promoting growth and differentiation of inner ear NSCs into functional neurons and protecting from gentamicin ototoxicity. Our study supports its clinical potential in treating neuronal hearing loss. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) for the Department of Energy. The INL Protective Security Forces (Pro Force) are involved in training exercises that generate impulse noise by small arms fire. Force-on-force (FOF) training exercises that simulate real world scenarios require the Pro Force to engage the opposition force (OPFOR) while maintaining situational awareness through verbal communications. The Combat Arms earplug was studied to determine if it provides adequate hearing protection in accordance with the requirements of MIL-STD-1474C/D. The Combat Arms earplug uses a design that allows continuous noise through a critical orifice while effectively attenuating high-energy impulse noise. The earplug attenuates noise on a non linear scale, as the sound increases the attenuation increases. The INL studied the effectiveness of the Combat Arms earplug with a Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) head and torso simulator used with a selection of small arms to create impulse sound pressures. The Combat Arms earplugs were inserted into the B&K head and torso ears, and small arms were then discharged to generate the impulse noise. The INL analysis of the data indicates that the Combat Arms earplug does provide adequate protection, in accordance with MIL-STD-1474C/D, when used to protect against impulse noise generated by small arms fire using blank ammunition. Impulse noise generated by small arms fire ranged from 135–160 dB range unfiltered un-weighted. The Combat Arms earplug attenuated the sound pressure 10–25 dB depending on the impulse noise pressure. This assessment is consistent with the results of previously published studies on the Combat Arms earplug (see Section 5, “References”). Based upon these result, the INL intends to use the Combat Arms earplug for FOF training exercises.
Full Text Available We compared the extent of temporary threshold shift (TTS and hair cell loss following high level 4 kHz noise exposure with those preconditioned with moderate level 1 and 4 kHz octave band noise. Fifteen Male albino guinea pigs (300- 350 g in weight were randomly allocated into three groups: those exposed to 4 kHz octave band noise at 102 dB SPL (group 1, n=5; those conditioned with 1 kHz octave band noise at 85 dB SPL, 6 hours per day for 5 days, then exposed to noise (group 2, n=5; those conditioned with 4 kHz octave band noise at 85 dB SPL, then exposed to noise (group 3, n=5. An hour and one week after noise exposure, threshold shifts were evaluated by auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR and then animals were euthanized for histological evaluation. We found that TTS and cochlear damage caused by noise exposure were significantly reduced by 1 kHz and 4 kHz conditioning (P<0.001. We also showed that 4 kHz protocol attenuates noise- induced TTS but no significant TTS reduction occurred by 1 kHz conditioning. Both protocol protected noise-induced cochlear damage. We concluded that lower tone conditioning could not protect against higher tone temporary noise-induced hearing loss, thus conditioning is a local acting and frequency-dependent phenomenon.
Yang, Deng-Hua; Xie, Jing; Liu, Ke; Peng, Zhe; Guo, Jing-Ying; Yu, Shu-Kui; Wang, Guo-Peng; Gong, Shu-Sheng
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) severely impacts the quality of life of affected individuals. Oxidative stress resulting from noise exposure is a significant cause of NIHL. Although histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors were shown to protect against NIHL, the underlying mechanism remains unclear, and it is not known how they act on noise-induced oxidative stress. In the current study, we investigated the expression levels of acetyl-histone H3 (Lys9) (H3-AcK9), histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), an oxidative stress marker, in a guinea pig model of NIHL using immunohistology and Western blotting. We then assessed the effects of systemic administration of the HDAC inhibitor, sodium butyrate (SB), on noise-induced permanent threshold shifts (PTS), hair cell (HC) loss, and changes in the above mentioned markers. The results showed that SB attenuated noise-induced PTS and outer hair cell loss. SB treatment promoted H3-AcK9 expression and repressed HDAC1 expression in the nuclei of HCs and Hensen's cells after noise exposure. Furthermore, SB attenuated the noise-induced increase of 3-NT expression in HCs and Hensen's cells. These findings suggest that SB protects against NIHL by reversing the noise-induced histone acetylation imbalance and inhibiting oxidative stress in cochlear HCs and Hensen's cells. SB treatment may represent a potential strategy to prevent and treat NIHL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tufts, Jennifer B; Hamilton, Mark A; Ucci, Amanda J; Rubas, James
Level-dependent hearing protection devices (HPDs) provide protection from intense sound, while offering amplification for speech and other signals in lower levels of noise. These HPDs have been developed in response to the communication and operational needs of noise-exposed persons in industry and the military. This study was conducted to examine industrial workers' perceptions of the performance of two level-dependent HPDs (one with integrated radio communication capability and one without it) and their customary passive HPDs. This research took place at a plastic film manufacturing plant in Rhode Island, USA, following a mixed-measures design. Fifteen maintenance technicians at the plant evaluated the two level-dependent HPDs, plus their customary passive HPDs, in three separate trial periods. Data were collected via a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Mixed-model analyses of variance were performed on all dependent measures. Linear and quadratic effect sizes were assessed with eta. Results revealed that the two level-dependent HPDs offered better perceived communication and situational awareness than the workers' customary passive HPDs. However, the level-dependent HPDs were rated lower than the passive HPDs in terms of usability and comfort. To increase workers' acceptance of level-dependent HPDs, usability issues must be addressed by the HPD manufacturers.
Jennifer B Tufts
Full Text Available Level-dependent hearing protection devices (HPDs provide protection from intense sound, while offering amplification for speech and other signals in lower levels of noise. These HPDs have been developed in response to the communication and operational needs of noise-exposed persons in industry and the military. This study was conducted to examine industrial workers′ perceptions of the performance of two level-dependent HPDs (one with integrated radio communication capability and one without it and their customary passive HPDs. This research took place at a plastic film manufacturing plant in Rhode Island, USA, following a mixed-measures design. Fifteen maintenance technicians at the plant evaluated the two level-dependent HPDs, plus their customary passive HPDs, in three separate trial periods. Data were collected via a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Mixed-model analyses of variance were performed on all dependent measures. Linear and quadratic effect sizes were assessed with eta. Results revealed that the two level-dependent HPDs offered better perceived communication and situational awareness than the workers′ customary passive HPDs. However, the level-dependent HPDs were rated lower than the passive HPDs in terms of usability and comfort. To increase workers′ acceptance of level-dependent HPDs, usability issues must be addressed by the HPD manufacturers.
Full Text Available Noise induced hearing loss in adults is the most cause of sensory neural hearing loss after the presbycusis and industry workers severity affect by degenerative results of that. Three large works of Hamadan city which had more than 200 Workers were selected in this demonstrative quest . The mean of sound pressure level evaluated with sound level meter which amount to 82-95 dB. Total exposed workers with higher noise than 85 dB evaluated by pure tone audiometery and otoscopic evaluation and the means of hearing thresholds in four frequency :0.5,1,2,4 kHz balanced with previously . Method of concentration data was direct observation and questionnaire . 809 workers in local works exposed to invasive noise . 20.02% of them hadn’t any hearing protector and 79.98% had , which combinated of wax or dry cotton and fiber glass (76.20%, earplug (7.42%and earmuff(16.38%. The means of hearing thresholds workers with protector equal to 43.36 dB and without that was equal to 44.03 dB (t=0.29, Pv<0.05. Highest percentage quantity in two groups related to age –bracket 40-49 years old. Women with protection(9.43%were more than without protector(3.7% while the most percentage related to men without protector (96.3% in contrast to 90.57%.In totally highest percentage quantity of NIHL was in workers with past-working more than 15 years (67.54% with protector , 67.28%without protector. For awareness of degenerative results the noise in hearing large industry workers of Hamadan city 75% insignificant and 25% had efficient awareness . Not using of protectors by 20.2% of worker showing light awareness to degenerative results of noise on hearing system and poor educational healthing and noting difference in means of hearing loss at protected group on basis duration of using that, strikes the process of hearing conservation program is superficial.
K H Huttunen
Full Text Available Despite a high level of sound exposure and a fairly large selection of earplugs available, musicians have often been reported to use personal hearing protectors only seldom. For better hearing conservation, it is important to identify and eliminate the causes for the low motivation to use hearing protection. We explored the usage rate of custom-molded musician′s earplugs (ER-15 among 15 symphony orchestra musicians with a questionnaire, and measured the attenuation properties of their earplugs with a Real-Ear Attenuation at Threshold (REAT procedure in a sound field. Earplug use was found to be low, and the musicians reported that earplugs hampered listening to their own and their colleagues′ playing; earplugs affected either timbre or dynamics, or both. Additionally, several reasons related to discomfort of use were itemized, but the musicians who consistently used their earplugs did so in spite of problems with use. The REAT values obtained in sound field were relatively close to the manufacturer′s nominal specifications, being 13.7 dB, on average. In the frequency range studied (0.125-8 kHz, individual variation in REAT was, however, up to 15 dB across the measured frequencies. Fluctuation in attenuation might be related to low use of hearing protectors, and REAT measured at fixed center frequencies may be too robust a method to uncover it. We therefore tested 10 additional subjects to find out whether a sweeping signal used in Bιkιsy audiometry would bring more detailed information on earplug attenuation. Mean attenuation was found to be somewhat closer to the nominal attenuation of the ER-9 and ER-15 earplugs up to about 1 kHz, whereas REAT measurements in sound field revealed more even attenuation at frequencies between 1 and 6 kHz. No significant association was found between earplug attenuation properties and earplug use. It was concluded that support and determination to get accustomed to hearing protector use are important
the treatment of hearing loss between 1977 and 2007.1 That is seven billion dollars in just 30 years spent treating an issue which is almost... PROBLEM Over the years, there have been many studies linking helicopter operation to hearing loss later in life. In fact, an Army study found that...being used by UH-1N crews are a step in the right direction, but the hearing loss problem still persists. So, a new form of PPE needs to be
Bisol, Cláudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H; Kato, Sérgio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail
HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was simultaneous video translation of questions to Brazilian Sign Language.) A branched decision-tree structure was used to determine level of sexual experience and hearing status. Deaf participants scored lower on HIV/AIDS knowledge, demonstrating a need to improve school-based instruction and develop campaigns tailored to this group's requirements. Though the hearing students reported more sexual activity than the deaf students, no other significant differences were found in health-related attitudes and behaviors. Two findings of concern are the high rate of sexual abuse reported by deaf participants and the large number of deaf adolescents reporting having a friend with AIDS.
Biabani, Azam; Aliabadi, Mohsen; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Farhadian, Maryam
Labeled noise reduction (NR) data presented by manufacturers are considered one of the main challenging issues for occupational experts in employing hearing protection devices (HPDs). This study aimed to determine the actual NR data of typical HPDs using the objective fit testing method with a microphone in real ear (MIRE) method. Five available commercially earmuff protectors were investigated in 30 workers exposed to reference noise source according to the standard method, ISO 11904-1. Personal attenuation rating (PAR) of the earmuffs was measured based on the MIRE method using a noise dosimeter (SVANTEK, model SV 102). The results showed that means of PAR of the earmuffs are from 49% to 86% of the nominal NR rating. The PAR values of earmuffs when a typical eyewear was worn differed statistically (p 0.05). This study could provide local individual fit data. Ergonomic aspects of the earmuffs and different levels of users experience and awareness can be considered the main factors affecting individual fitting compared with the laboratory condition for acquiring the labeled NR data. Based on the obtained fit testing results, the field application of MIRE can be employed for complementary studies in real workstations while workers perform their regular work duties.
Wolters, Francisca Louisa Carolina
Cisplatin is widely used for the treatment of a variety of tumors. Unfortunately, the therapeutic effect of cisplatin is limited because patients can develop a high frequency hearing loss in both ears. Recovery of this hearing loss is observed sporadically. Animal studies have shown that chronic
Nicholas, Johanna G.; Geers, Ann E.
This study examined early pragmatic skill development in a group of 38 children with severe or profound hearing loss between 1 and 4 years of age who were enrolled in a simultaneous communication (SC) approach to language learning. Both their use of intentionally communicative acts and their use of language were studied in an analysis of 30-min play sessions between a child and the primary caregiver. Results were compared with previously published data from two age-matched groups: 38 deaf children who were enrolled in oral communication (OC) programs and 84 normally hearing (NH) children. All groups showed a significant improvement with age in the communicative behaviors measured; therefore, the overall trend was toward growth-in all age groups-even when the rates of growth differed. By age 3 years, a pattern of communicative function use had emerged in all three groups. Patterns exhibited by deaf children in the SC and OC groups were similar to each other and to younger NH children but dissimilar to NH age mates. Although the use of signed input by normally hearing parents and teachers did not serve to ameliorate the profound effects of hearing loss on communication development in SC children, it did provide some early advantages. The children in SC groups did not exhibit an advantage over children in OC groups in their overall frequency of communication or the breadth of their vocabulary but they began using words earlier and used mature communicative functions significantly more often. Although children in the OC groups did not exhibit a significant advantage in the overall amount of speech used, they showed an advantage in the breadth of their spoken vocabulary in a conversational setting. Implications for early intervention programming are discussed.
Remus Ion Hornoiu
Full Text Available From the perspective of tourism consumers, researchers as well as of other categories of stakeholders, protected natural areas have become holiday destinations based on the principles of sustainable development. The tourism activity is proving to be a real support for the sustainable development of these areas, for the protection of their natural resources, as the degree of awareness with respect to their value and importance is increasingly higher locally, nationally and, sometimes, even regionally. However, the prerequisite for this support is the responsible behaviour of tourism consumers in protected natural areas. International scientific research in this field emphasizes two main trends. On the one hand there is a high degree of awareness with respect to the importance of developing and practising a form of sustainable tourism. However, on the other hand, the offer only partially reaches the level of the demand for sustainable tourism consumption. The main reason for this is the fact that travel agencies do not sufficiently know the potential demand for this type of tourism. The research performed within this article is meant to mitigate this disparity. This study is exploring the behaviour related to tourism consumption in protected areas, focussing on identifying the forms and especially the preference for tourism activities of the representatives of the demand. In the second semester of the 2013/2014 university year, complying with the principles of probabilities in the selection of subjects, 200 questionnaires were administered to the young population; 187 valid answers were obtained. The SPSS software was used for data processing and, as a result of the analysis performed on the survey results, the main characteristics of tourism consumption in protected areas have been identified.
Casali, John G; Ahroon, William A; Lancaster, Jeff A
Operational hearing protection and maintenance of audibility of signals and speech are considered force multipliers in military operations, increasing Soldier survivability and lethality. The in-field research described in this paper was conducted to examine operational performance effects of three different hearing enhancement protection systems (HEPS) that are intended to provide both protection and audibility. The experiment utilized operationally-defined measures in full-scale, simulated combat scenarios with Army ROTC Cadet Soldiers as subjects. The Soldiers' operational performance was evaluated in two missions: reconnaissance and raid (attack on enemy camp). Both missions had substantial hearing requirements, including communications, signal detection/recognition, and distance judgments. Operational performance was measured by objective metrics of Squad performance, including the distances required to detect an enemy insurgent camp under each HEPS, and by subjective metrics, such as the Army's dimensions of combat-related mission success as evaluated by Army Officers who served as training leaders/observers. Other subjective ratings were obtained after each training exercise from both the Officers and the Soldiers, including detailed impressions about each HEPS after extended use. Two of the three HEPS were electronic sound transmission devices (comprising an ambient sound pass-through filtering and amplification circuit): a Peltor Comtac II circumaural headset (NRR=21; 16 dB maximum gain); and a Communications Enhancement Protection System (CEPS) (NRR=29; 36 dB maximum gain). One passive, level-dependent HEPS was used, the yellow end of the Combat Arms Earplug, which provides amplitude-sensitive attenuation that sharply increases when the ambient sound is above about 110 dB (e.g., due to a gunshot), but which provides an NRR of 0 and very little attenuation below 1000 Hz in lower ambient noise levels. In the military mission entailing location of and attack
Eckerle, Judith K; Hill, Lindsay Knauf; Iverson, Sandra; Hellerstedt, Wendy; Gunnar, Megan; Johnson, Dana E
To determine the occurrence of vision and hearing deficits in international adoptees and their associations with emotional, behavioral and cognitive problems. The Minnesota International Adoption Project (MnIAP) was a 556-item survey that was mailed to 2,969 parents who finalized an international adoption in Minnesota (MN) between January 1990 and December 1998 and whose children were between 4 and 18 years-old at the time of the survey. Families returned surveys for 1,906 children (64%); 1,005 had complete data for analyses. The survey included questions about the child's pre-adoption experiences and post-placement medical diagnoses, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Multivariate logistic regression assessed associations between hearing and vision problems and problems identified by the CBCL. Information on hearing and vision screening and specific vision and hearing problems was also collected via a telephone survey (HVS) from 96/184 children (52%) seen between June 1999 and December 2000 at the University of Minnesota International Adoption Clinic. In both cohorts, 61% of children had been screened for vision problems and 59% for hearing problems. Among those children screened, vision (MnIAP = 25%, HVS = 31%) and hearing (MnIAP = 12%, HVS = 13%) problems were common. For MnIAP children, such problems were significant independent predictors for T scores >67 for the CBCL social problems and attention subscales and parent-reported, practitioner-diagnosed developmental delay, learning and speech/language problems, and cognitive impairment. Hearing and vision problems are common in international adoptees and screening and correction are available in the immediate post-arrival period. The importance of identifying vision and hearing problems cannot be overstated as they are risk factors for development and behavior problems.
Chen, Liwei; Yu, Ning; Lu, Yan; Wu, Longjun; Chen, Daishi; Guo, Weiwei; Zhao, Lidong; Liu, Mingbo; Yang, Shiming; Sun, Xuejun; Zhai, Suoqiang
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate hydrogen-saturated saline protecting intensive narrow band noise-induced hearing loss. Guinea pigs were divided into three groups: hydrogen-saturated saline; normal saline; and control. For saline administration, the guinea pigs were given daily abdominal injections (1 ml/100 g) 3 days before and 1 h before narrow band noise exposure (2.5–3.5 kHz 130 dB SPL, 1 h). The guinea pigs in the control group received no treatment. The hearing function was assessed by the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) recording. The changes of free radicals in the cochlea before noise exposure, and immediately and 7 days after noise exposure were also examined. By Scanning electron microscopy and succinate dehydrogenase staining, we found that pre-treatment with hydrogen-saturated saline significantly reduced noise-induced hair cell damage and hearing loss. We also found that the malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation, and hydroxyl levels were significantly lower in the hydrogen-saturated saline group after noise trauma, indicating that hydrogen-saturated saline can decrease the amount of harmful free radicals caused by noise trauma. Our findings suggest that hydrogen-saturated saline is effective in preventing intensive narrow band noise-induced hearing loss through the antioxidant effect. PMID:24945316
Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart
There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults' hearing status. A questionnaire and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). The questionnaire contained the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS) and Beliefs about Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss (BAHPHL). A more positive attitude or belief represented an attitude where noise or hearing loss is seen as unproblematic and attitudes and beliefs regarding HPDs is worse. Hearing was evaluated using (high frequency) pure tone audiometry (PTA), transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. First, mean differences in hearing between the groups with different attitudes and beliefs were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second, a χ² test was used to examine the usage of HPDs by the different groups with different attitudes and beliefs. Young adults with a positive attitude had significantly more deteriorated hearing and used HPDs less than the other subjects. Hearing conservation programs (HCPs) for young adults should provide information and knowledge regarding noise, hearing loss, and HPDs. Barriers wearing HPDs should especially be discussed. Further, those campaigns should focus on self-experienced hearing related symptoms that might serve as triggers for attitudinal and behavioral changes.
Gouma, Panagiota; Mallis, Antonios; Daniilidis, Vasilis; Gouveris, Haralambos; Armenakis, Nikolaos; Naxakis, Stephanos
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a common condition affecting children and a well-known cause of conductive hearing loss that can potentially lead to speech development disorders. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated the influence of OME on development of attention disorders or social adaptation and acceptance. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the behavioral trends of children with OME based on the Achenbach test. A group of 117 patients with episodes of OME at the age of 4-5 was compared with a control group according to the Achenbach system of evaluation, by application of the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL). Patients suffering from OME had more anxiety/depression related disorders and attention disorders as compared with the control group. The psychological effect of OME in children of ages 6-8 is evident with anxiety and depression disorders being especially prominent among these patients.
Lee, Jungmee; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Abel, Rebekah; Banakis, Renee; Grolley, Evan; Lee, Jungwha; Zecker, Steven; Siegel, Jonathan
Objectives The purpose of this study was to obtain behavioral hearing thresholds for frequencies between 0.125 and 20 kHz from a large population between 10 and 65 years old using a clinically feasible calibration method expected to compensate well for variations in the distance between the eardrum and an insert-type sound source. Previous reports of hearing thresholds in the extended high frequencies (> 8 kHz) have either used calibration techniques known to be inaccurate or specialized equipment not suitable for clinical use. Design Hearing thresholds were measured from 352 human subjects between 10 to 65 years old having clinically normal hearing thresholds (simulator. Threshold values were obtained for 21 frequencies between 0.125 and 20 kHz using a modified Békésy technique. Forty six of the subjects returned for a second measurement months later from the initial evaluation. Results In agreement with previous reports hearing thresholds at extended high frequencies were found to be sensitive to age related changes in auditory function. In contrast with previous reports, no gender differences were found in average hearing thresholds at most evaluated frequencies. Two aging processes, one faster than the other in time scale, appear to influence hearing thresholds in different frequency ranges. The standard deviation of test-retest threshold difference for all evaluated frequencies was 5~10 dB, comparable to that reported in the literature for similar measurement techniques, but smaller than that observed for data obtained using the standard clinical procedure. Conclusions The depth-compensated ear-simulator-based calibration method and the modified Békésy technique allow reliable measurement of hearing thresholds over the entire frequency range of human hearing. Hearing thresholds at the extended high frequencies are sensitive to aging and reveal subtle differences, which are not evident in the frequency range evaluated regularly (8 kHz and below). Previously
Lee, Jungmee; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Abel, Rebekah; Banakis, Renee; Grolley, Evan; Lee, Jungwha; Zecker, Steven; Siegel, Jonathan
The purpose of this study was to obtain behavioral hearing thresholds for frequencies between 0.125 and 20 kHz from a large population between 10 and 65 yr old using a clinically feasible calibration method expected to compensate well for variations in the distance between the eardrum and an insert-type sound source. Previous reports of hearing thresholds in the extended high frequencies (>8 kHz) have either used calibration techniques known to be inaccurate or specialized equipment not suitable for clinical use. Hearing thresholds were measured from 352 human subjects between 10 and 65 yr old having clinically normal-hearing thresholds (simulator. Threshold values were obtained for 21 frequencies between 0.125 and 20 kHz using a modified Békésy technique. Forty-six of the subjects returned for a second measurement months later from the initial evaluation. In agreement with previous reports, hearing thresholds at extended high frequencies were found to be sensitive to age-related changes in auditory function. In contrast with previous reports, no gender differences were found in average hearing thresholds at most evaluated frequencies. Two aging processes, one faster than the other in time scale, seem to influence hearing thresholds in different frequency ranges. The standard deviation (SD) of test-retest threshold difference for all evaluated frequencies was 5 to 10 dB, comparable to that reported in the literature for similar measurement techniques but smaller than that observed for data obtained using the standard clinical procedure. The depth-compensated ear simulator-based calibration method and the modified Békésy technique allow reliable measurement of hearing thresholds over the entire frequency range of human hearing. Hearing thresholds at the extended high frequencies are sensitive to aging and reveal subtle differences, which are not evident in the frequency range evaluated regularly (≤8 kHz). Previously reported gender-related differences in
Bodekær, Mette; Øager Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede
Healthy sun habits acquired in childhood could reduce skin cancer incidence. We examined the sun exposure and protection behavior of an expected high-exposure group of children, and the association to their parents. Open, prospective cohort study. One hundred and thirty nine participants (40...... families) kept daily sun behavior diaries (sun exposure, sunscreen use, sunburns) over a 4-month summer period (15,985 diary days). The Pigment Protection Factor (PPF), an objective measure of sun exposure, was measured at two body sites, before and after summer. All participants presented data from...... the same 115 days. Risk behavior (sun exposure of upper body) took place on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys' sun exposure resulted in an increased photo protection over the study period of 1.7 SED (upper arm) and 0.8 SED (shoulder) to elicit erythema...
Szymanski, Christen A.
The prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)--a group of developmental disabilities that cause severe problems with socialization, behavior, and communication--continues to grow. In 2008, the year that "Odyssey" focused on autism, the estimated prevalence of ASD for hearing children was 1 in 150 (CDC, 2007), while today estimates suggest…
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mechanically modified turmeric extract on the parameters of orienting-exploratory behavior in mice with chronic ethanol consumption. Material and methods. Mice behavior was assessed in the "open field" test. In the both control groups the animals received water or 10% ethanol solution; in the test group — turmeric extract in 10% ethanol solution. Amount of blood mononuclear cells, thymocytes, and splenocytes were estimated. Results. Analysis of the behavioral parameters in animals after chronic exposure to ethanol showed suppression of motor and exploratory components of the behavior. In mice that received both ethanol and turmeric extract recorded behavior parameters were significantly higher than in the group of animals who received ethanol only. It was shown that the turmeric extract enhances the amount of blood immune cells. Conclusion. Mechanically modified turmeric extract possesses protective properties against ethanol-induced behavioral disorders.
Johnson, Genevieve Fuji; Mary BURNS; Porth, Kerry
We evaluate the Canadian parliamentary hearings on The Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act to determine whether respectful and fair deliberation occurred. Our focus is on the content, tone, and nature of each question posed by committee members in hearings in both chambers. We find that, on the whole, the vast majority of questions met this baseline, but that committee members were biased toward witnesses in agreement with their position and against witnesses in op...
1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss - do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on CERN premises to participate in the National Hearing Day on: Thursday 10th March From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Gr.Fl. We will be offering hearing tests (audiogram); information, advice on hearing loss, tinnitus and more. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing loss. But PREVENTION IS POSSIBLE AND EFFECTIVE: for example, Hearing protection devices could reduce tinnitus cases by 80%.
1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss - do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on the CERN site to participate in the NATIONAL HEARING DAY on: Thursday 10th March 2005 From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Ground Floor We will be offering hearing tests (audiograms), as well as information and advice on hearing loss, tinnitus, etc. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% of the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing problems but PREVENTION IS POSSIBLE. For example, hearing protection devices can prevent 80% of tinnitus cases.
1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss ? do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on the CERN site to participate in the NATIONAL HEARING DAY on: Thursday 10th March 2005 From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Ground Floor We will be offering hearing tests (audiograms), as well as information and advice on hearing loss, tinnitus, etc. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% of the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing problems but prevention is possible. For example, hearing protection devices can prevent 80% of tinnitus cases.
1 in 10 people suffer from hearing loss - do you? The Medical Service invites everyone working on CERN premises to participate in the National Hearing Day on: Thursday 10th March From 9am to 4pm The Infirmary, Blg. 57, Gr.Fl. We will be offering hearing tests (audiogram); information, advice on hearing loss, tinnitus and more. Deafness does not just affect the elderly: in Europe, 50% the hearing-impaired are under the age of 55. Exposure to excessive noise is one of the main reasons for hearing loss. But prevention is possible and effective: for example, Hearing protection devices could reduce tinnitus cases by 80%.
Li, Shuna; Hang, Lihua; Ma, Yongming
Inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapses of cochlea play important role in transmitting sound signal into auditory nerve and are sensitive to ototoxicity. However, ototoxic damage of ribbon synapses is not understood clearly. Roles of fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) on synapse formation were explored under gentamycin ototoxicity. 6-week-old mice were injected intraperitoneally once daily with 50-150 mg/kg gentamicin for 10 days. Immunostaining with anti- GluR2&3/CtBP2 was used to estimate the number of ribbon synapses in the cochlea. Expression of FGF22 and myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) was assayed with RT-PCR. Expression and localization of FGF22 protein were visualized with anti-FGF22 immunostaining. Hearing thresholds were assessed using auditory brainstem responses. Gentamicin administration caused reduction in ribbon synapse number and hearing impairment without effect on hair cells in CBA/J mouse model. Immunohistochemistry showed that FGF22 protein was expressed in IHCs, but not OHCs of cochlea. Gentamycin attenuated expression of FGF22 but enhanced expression of MEF2D. Cochlear infusion of recombinant FGF22 inhibited expression of MEF2D, preserved ribbon synapses, and restored hearing function impaired by gentamycin. FGF22 restores hearing loss through maintaining ribbon synapse number, likely via inhibition of MEF2D. Activating FGF22 might provide the conceptual basis for the therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... authority infrequently; the vast majority of hearings will continue to be conducted under our standard... Justification for Issuing Final Rule Without Notice and Comment We follow the Administrative Procedure Act (APA... Security Act, 42 U.S.C. 902(a)(5). Generally, the APA requires that an agency provide prior notice and...
Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.
Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.
Brown, Kevin D; Maqsood, Sadia; Huang, Jing-Yi; Pan, Yong; Harkcom, William; Li, Wei; Sauve, Anthony; Verdin, Eric; Jaffrey, Samie R
Intense noise exposure causes hearing loss by inducing degeneration of spiral ganglia neurites that innervate cochlear hair cells. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) exhibits axon-protective effects in cultured neurons; however, its ability to block degeneration in vivo has been difficult to establish due to its poor cell permeability and serum instability. Here, we describe a strategy to increase cochlear NAD(+) levels in mice by administering nicotinamide riboside (NR), a recently described NAD(+) precursor. We find that administration of NR, even after noise exposure, prevents noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and spiral ganglia neurite degeneration. These effects are mediated by the NAD(+)-dependent mitochondrial sirtuin, SIRT3, since SIRT3-overexpressing mice are resistant to NIHL and SIRT3 deletion abrogates the protective effects of NR and expression of NAD(+) biosynthetic enzymes. These findings reveal that administration of NR activates a NAD(+)-SIRT3 pathway that reduces neurite degeneration caused by noise exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weinstein, N D
Four competing theories of health-protective behavior are reviewed: the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action, protection motivation theory, and subjective expected utility theory. In spite of their commonalities, these models are seldom tested against one another. The review points out the similarities and differences among these theories and the data and analyses needed to compare them. In addition to describing the content of the models, their conceptualization of key variables, and the combinatorial rules used to make predictions, some general problems in theory development and testing for health behaviors are examined. The article's goal is to help investigators design studies that will clarify the strengths and weaknesses of these models, leading toward a better understanding of health behavior.
Amirsalari, Susan; Radfar, Shokoufeh; Ajallouyean, Mohammad; Saburi, Amin; Yousefi, Jaleh; Noohi, Sima; Tavallaie, Seyed Abbas; Hassanalifard, Mahdieh; Ghazavi, Yasaman
Overactivity and behavioral problems are common problems in children with prelingually profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Data on epileptiform electroencephalography (EEG) discharges in deaf children with psychological disorders are so limited. The primary focus of this study was to determine the prevalence of epileptiform discharges (EDs) in children with SNHL and overactivity or behavioral problems. A total of 262 patients with prelingually profound SNHL who were referred to our cochlear implantation center between 2008 and 2010 were enrolled in this study. Children with SNHL who had diagnosis of overactivity and/or behavioral problems by a pediatric psychiatrist, underwent electroencephalography (EEG). EEG analysis was carried out by a board-certified pediatric neurologist. The control group consisted of 45 cases with overactivity or behavioral problems and normal hearing. One hundred thirty-eight children with mean age of 3.5±1.23 year were enrolled in the case group, of whom 88 cases (63.7%) were boy. The control group consisted of 45 cases with mean age of 3.2±1.53 years, of whom 30 (66.6%) cases were male. EDs were detected in 28 (20.02%) children of the case group (with SNHL) in comparison with 4 (8.88%) in the control group (without SNHL), which was statistically significantly different. In this study, we obtained higher frequency of EDs in deaf children with overactivity and/or behavioral problem compared to the children without SNHL. Further studies are required to evaluate the possible association of SNHL with EDs in overactive children.
Pedersen, Eric R.; Hummer, Justin F.; Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Traylor, Zach K.; Neighbors, Clayton
Objective: Marijuana use can result in a variety of negative consequences, yet it remains popular among young adults and the general public at large. Combined with the growing empirical support for the benefits of medicinal marijuana as well as the steady increase in popular opinion regarding its legalization, it is of growing importance to identify strategies that may mitigate the harms related to marijuana use, reduce consumption levels, and limit resulting negative consequences among young adults who use marijuana. The purpose of this study was to develop and conduct initial psychometric analyses on a new scale, which we named the Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana (PBSM) scale. Method: A sample of undergraduate college students who reported past-6-month marijuana use (n = 210) responded to the initial pool of PBSM items and completed measures of marijuana use, consequences from marijuana use, alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategies for alcohol. Results: Results from an iterative principal component analyses process yielded a single-factor structure with 39 items. The PBSM mean composite score negatively associated with marijuana use and consequences, with the strongest correlations evident for past-month users. The PBSM also significantly positively correlated with alcohol protective strategies. Conclusions: Protective behavioral strategies for marijuana appear to be a measurable construct that are related to marijuana frequency and consequences, and thus may be a useful component of intervention and prevention programs with young adults. More work testing the PBSM items with larger and more diverse samples of young adults is encouraged. PMID:27172576
Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Tiemeier, Henning; Ringoot, Ank P; Ivanova, Masha Y; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Roza, Sabine J
Infants' temperamental anger or frustration reactions are highly stable, but are also influenced by maturation and experience. It is yet unclear why some infants high in anger or frustration reactions develop disruptive behavior problems whereas others do not. We examined family regularity, conceptualized as the consistency of mealtime and bedtime routines, as a protective factor against the development of oppositional and aggressive behavior. This study used prospectively collected data from 3136 families participating in the Generation R Study. Infant anger or frustration reactions and family regularity were reported by mothers when children were ages 6 months and 2-4 years, respectively. Multiple informants (parents, teachers, and children) and methods (questionnaire and interview) were used in the assessment of children's oppositional and aggressive behavior at age 6. Higher levels of family regularity were associated with lower levels of child aggression independent of temperamental anger or frustration reactions (β = -0.05, p = 0.003). The association between child oppositional behavior and temperamental anger or frustration reactions was moderated by family regularity and child gender (β = 0.11, p = 0.046): family regularity reduced the risk for oppositional behavior among those boys who showed anger or frustration reactions in infancy. In conclusion, family regularity reduced the risk for child aggression and showed a gender-specific protective effect against child oppositional behavior associated with anger or frustration reactions. Families that ensured regularity of mealtime and bedtime routines buffered their infant sons high in anger or frustration reactions from developing oppositional behavior.
Hunter, Seft; Wells, Kristen J.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Boulware, David; Love-Jackson, Kymia; Abdulla, Rania; Roetzheim, Richard G.
Introduction Emerging studies suggest that excessive sun exposure in childhood contributes to the development of skin cancer later in life. Children rarely wear a wide-brimmed hat when outside although these hats offer the best protection to the areas on the face where children are most likely to be sunburned. The current study explores 4th grade student assessment of their sun protection behaviors outside at school and at times other than when they are at school. Method This study utilized baseline data collected in the Fall of 2006 for the Sun Protection for Florida’s Children (SPF) project. In brief, the SPF project is a group randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a school based intervention promoting sun protection in general, and hat use in particular. The project targets all 4th grade students in Hillsborough County Schools, FL. The data reported in this study were collected at baseline before any intervention activities was initiated. Approximately 2,086 4th grade students completed self-report surveys evaluating sun protection behaviors. Trained research assistants carried out 99 direct observations of physical education classes over a five week period during Fall 2006 in Tampa, Florida. Results In general, the self-reported use of various methods of sun protection was low. Approximately one third of students reported that they wore sunscreen (32.8%) or sunglasses (32.3%) before leaving home for school. Only a small percentage of students wore long sleeves (15.0%) or a hat with a brim (16.4%) before leaving for school. In addition, few students wore a hat with a wide brim when outside but not at school (16.4%). Students spent an average of 59.1 minutes per week outdoors while attending school and 35.5 minutes during peak sun exposure. In general, female students and Hispanic, African American, and students of other racial and ethnic groups were more likely to practice sun protection behaviors at school than white or male students. Students who
I. Vogel (Ineke)
textabstractNoise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant social and public-health problem. Long-term exposure to high-volume levels will cause permanent hearing loss after 5-10 years. With the massive spread in the popularity of portable MP3 players, exposure to high sound levels has increased
Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; Gorduysus, Mehmet Omer; El Batawi, Hisham
Objective: Assessing the effectiveness of behavioral modification techniques in combination with visual distraction with/without video eyewear using computerized delivery system-intrasulcular (CDS-IS) during the application of local anesthetic in hearing-impaired pediatric patients undergoing pulp therapy of primary molars. Materials and Methods: This randomized, crossover clinical study includes 15 children (7 boys and 8 girls), mean age was 6.1 years. Children were randomly distributed into...
Ketelaar, Lizet; Wiefferink, Carin H; Frijns, Johan H M; Broekhof, Evelien; Rieffe, Carolien
Moral emotions such as shame, guilt and pride are the result of an evaluation of the own behavior as (morally) right or wrong. The capacity to experience moral emotions is thought to be an important driving force behind socially appropriate behavior. The relationship between moral emotions and social behavior in young children has not been studied extensively in normally hearing (NH) children, let alone in those with a hearing impairment. This study compared young children with hearing impairments who have a cochlear implant (CI) to NH peers regarding the extent to which they display moral emotions, and how this relates to their social functioning and language skills. Responses of 184 NH children and 60 children with CI (14-61 months old) to shame-/guilt- and pride-inducing events were observed. Parents reported on their children's social competence and externalizing behavior, and experimenters observed children's cooperative behavior. To examine the role of communication in the development of moral emotions and social behavior, children's language skills were assessed. Results show that children with CI displayed moral emotions to a lesser degree than NH children. An association between moral emotions and social functioning was found in the NH group, but not in the CI group. General language skills were unrelated to moral emotions in the CI group, yet emotion vocabulary was related to social functioning in both groups of children. We conclude that facilitating emotion language skills has the potential to promote children's social functioning, and could contribute to a decrease in behavioral problems in children with CI specifically. Future studies should examine in greater detail which factors are associated with the development of moral emotions, particularly in children with CI. Some possible directions for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: High incidence of speech disorders in children with cerebral palsy could be related to a deficiency in processing of auditory stimuli. So it is vital to check out any peripheral or central disorders in auditory system using behavioral and electrophysiological auditory tests.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 15 children with spastic diplegia, mean age 5.77, SD 2.26 years, and 15 normal children, mean age 5.33, SD 1.80 years, were tested using pure tone audiometry, immittance and auditory brainstem responses. The results were compared between the two groups.Results: Hearing thresholds and middle ear status were in normal range in all participants; however, contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds were mostly elevated. Comparing absolute latency and interpeak latency intervals of auditory brainstem responses between the two groups, absolute latency interval of later waves, and in specific the V wave, was significantly longer in diplegic children (p=0.04 resulting in a longer III-V interpeak latency intervals (p=0.02.Conclusion: Neurological disorders in ponto-reticulo-spinal pathway, pontine reticular nuclei and upper pons which are adjacent to auditory nuclei of lateral leminiscus and inferior colliculus result in auditory dys-synchrony and increased latency intervals in latter waves of auditory brainstem responses. This could also attributed to functional disorders in wave-generating sites in these patients.
Full Text Available Introduction:One of the recommended methods for evaluation effectiveness of hearing protection is use the acoustic fixture accordance with standard ISO 4869-3. The aim of this study was evaluate the acoustic performance of fixture for using in noise reduction rate tests of hearing protection devices in the laboratory. Methods: In this cross-sectional study , noise reduction rates of five common ear muffs used in the Iran industries were investigated based on the ISO 11904 standard, microphone in real ear method, using noise dosimeter (SVANTEK , Model SV102 equipped with microphone SV25 model which can install inside the ear on 30 subjects under laboratory conditions. Also, noise reduction rate of earmuffs was determined using the fixture model AVASINA9402 accordance with standard procedures. Data were analyzed using the software SPSS21. Results: The results showed the real noise reduction rates of the earmuffs on the studied subjects are from 59% to 94% nominal reduction rates. That rates for the ear muffs on the studied fixture are from 64% to 92.The results showed that the noise reduction rates of the ear muffs on subjects compared with and noise reduction rates of the ear muffs on fixture were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. Conclusion: The results showed the accuracy of noise reduction rate of earmuffs using the fixture compared with real subjects is acceptable. Hence, the fixture is good choice for environments where there’s no possibility of acoustic evaluation on real subjects, also for quality control of productions in the earmuff manufacturers.
Carlo, Gustavo; Mestre, Maria Vicenta; McGinley, Meredith M; Tur-Porcar, Ana; Samper, Paula; Opal, Deanna
Prosocial behaviors, actions intended to help others, may serve a protective function against association with deviant peers and subsequent delinquent and antisocial behaviors. The present study examined the relations among specific types of prosocial behaviors, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquent and aggressive behaviors. Six hundred and sixty-six adolescents (46% girls; M age = 15.33, SD = .47) from Valencia, Spain completed questionnaires of prosocial behaviors, affiliation with deviant peers, antisocial behaviors, and aggression. Results showed that antisocial behaviors were negatively related only to specific forms of prosocial behaviors. Further analyses showed that deviant peer affiliation mediated the relations between compliant prosocial behavior and delinquency and aggression. Although altruism was not directly related to delinquency and aggression, it was indirectly linked to the behaviors via deviant peer affiliation. Discussion focuses on the relevance of specific forms of prosocial behaviors to antisocial behaviors and the risk of deviant peers for prosocial youth. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad Zare; Naghshineh, Elham; Zare, Maryam; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali
Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods...
Full Text Available Human interactions with horses entail certain risks. Although the acceptance and use of protective gear is increasing, a high number of incidents and very low or inconsistent voluntary use of safety equipment are reported. While past studies have examined factors influencing the use of safety gear, they have explored neither their influence on the overall safety behavior, nor their relative influence in relation to each other. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap. We conducted an online survey with 2572 participants. By means of a subsequent multiple regression analysis, we explored 23 different variables in view of their influence on the protective behavior of equestrians. In total, we found 17 variables that exerted a significant influence. The results show that both having positive or negative attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners or riding pupils from the stable have the strongest influence on the safety behavior of German equestrians. We consider such knowledge to be important for both scientists and practitioners, such as producers of protective gear or horse sport associations who might alter safety behavior in such a way that the number of horse-related injuries decreases in the long term.
Griese, Emily R; Buhs, Eric S
A majority of peer victimization research focuses on its associations with negative outcomes, yet efforts to understand possible protective factors that may mitigate these negative outcomes also require attention. The present study was an investigation of the potential moderating effect of prosocial behaviors on loneliness for youth who are peer victimized. Participants were fourth and fifth grade students (511 total; 49 % boys) who were primarily European American (43.4 %) and Hispanic (48.2 %). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the interaction of prosocial behavior and peer victimization (relational and overt forms) on loneliness 1 year later. The results indicated that prosocial behavior significantly moderated the relationship between peer victimization (for the relational form only) and loneliness while controlling for levels of perceived peer support. A multi-group comparison by gender further indicated the moderation was significant for boys only. Potential implications for intervention/prevention efforts focused on developing children's prosocial skills as a possible protective factor for relationally victimized youth are discussed.
Conner, Mark; McEachan, Rosemary; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter
The Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) developed out of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior but has not yet been widely applied to understanding health behaviors. The present research employed the RAA in a prospective design to test predictions of intention and action for groups of protection and risk behaviors separately in the same sample. To test the RAA for health protection and risk behaviors. Measures of RAA components plus past behavior were taken in relation to eight protection and six risk behaviors in 385 adults. Self-reported behavior was assessed one month later. Multi-level modelling showed instrumental attitude, experiential attitude, descriptive norms, capacity and past behavior were significant positive predictors of intentions to engage in protection or risk behaviors. Injunctive norms were only significant predictors of intention in protection behaviors. Autonomy was a significant positive predictor of intentions in protection behaviors and a negative predictor in risk behaviors (the latter relationship became non-significant when controlling for past behavior). Multi-level modelling showed that intention, capacity, and past behavior were significant positive predictors of action for both protection and risk behaviors. Experiential attitude and descriptive norm were additional significant positive predictors of risk behaviors. The RAA has utility in predicting both protection and risk health behaviors although the power of predictors may vary across these types of health behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)
Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.
Keppler, Hannah; Ingeborg, Dhooge; Sofie, Degeest; Bart, Vinck
Excessive recreational noise exposure in young adults might result in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and tinnitus. Inducing behavioral change in young adults is one of the aims of a hearing conservation program (HCP). The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a hearing education program after 6 months in young adults in relation to knowledge regarding their individual hearing status. The results of a questionnaire regarding the weekly equivalent recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, and hearing loss and hearing protector devices (HPDs) were compared between both sessions. Seventy-eight young adults completed the questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposure, youth attitude to noise scale (YANS), and beliefs about hearing protection and hearing loss (BAHPHL). Their hearing status was evaluated based on admittance measures, audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The main analysis consisted of a mixed model analysis of variance with dependent variables of either the noise exposure or the scores on (subscales of) YANS and BAHPHL. The independent variables were hearing status and session one versus session two. There was a significant decrease in recreational noise exposure and several (sub) scales of YANS and BAHPHL between both the sessions. This behavioral change resulted in a more frequent use of HPDs in 12% of the participants. However, the behavioral change was not completely related to the knowledge of young adults' individual hearing status. To prevent hearing damage in young people, investing in HCPs is necessary, apart from regulating sound levels and its compliance at various leisure-time activities. Also, the long-term effect of HCPs and their most cost-efficient repetition rates should be further investigated.
Full Text Available Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection.The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs.Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions.The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis
Xiao, Han; Li, Shiyue; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Gao, Mengting; Yan, Hong; Okafor, Chukwuemeka N
Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection. The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. The advanced structural equation modeling (SEM) method was utilized to assess the complex relationship among schistosomiasis knowledge, previous risk exposure and protective measures in predicting intentions to engage in protective behavior through the PMT constructs. Approximately 70% of participants reported they were always aware of schistosomiasis before exposure to water with endemic schistosomiasis, 6% of the participants reported frequency of weekly or monthly prior exposure to snail-conditioned water. 74% of participants reported having always engaged in protective behaviors in the past three months. Approximately 7% were unlikely or very unlikely to avoid contact with snail-conditioned water, and to use protective behaviors before exposure. Results from SEM analysis indicated that both schistosomiasis knowledge and prior exposure to schistosomiasis were indirectly related to behavior intentions through intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy; prior protective behaviors were indirectly related to behavior intentions through severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy, while awareness had an indirect relationship with behavior intentions through self-efficacy. Among the seven PMT constructs, severity, intrinsic rewards and self-efficacy were significantly associated with behavior intentions. The PMT can be used to predict the intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis intervention
Tak, Sangwoo; Davis, Rickie R; Calvert, Geoffrey M
To estimate the prevalence of workplace noise exposure and use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) at noisy work, NIOSH analyzed 1999-2004 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 9,275 currently employed workers aged > or =16 years were included in the weighted analysis. Hazardous workplace noise exposure was defined as self-reported exposure to noise at their current job that was so loud that the respondent had to speak in a raised voice to be heard. Industry and occupation were determined based on the respondent's current place and type of work. Twenty-two million US workers (17%) reported exposure to hazardous workplace noise. The weighted prevalence of workplace noise exposure was highest for mining (76%, SE = 7.0) followed by lumber/wood product manufacturing (55%, SE = 2.5). High-risk occupations included repair and maintenance, motor vehicle operators, and construction trades. Overall, 34% of the estimated 22 million US workers reporting hazardous workplace exposure reported non-use of HPDs. The proportion of noise-exposed workers who reported non-use of HPDs was highest for healthcare and social services (73.7%, SE = 8.1), followed by educational services (55.5%). Hearing loss prevention and intervention programs should be targeted at those industries and occupations identified to have a high prevalence of workplace noise exposure and those industries with the highest proportion of noise-exposed workers who reported non-use of HPDs. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Ray, Laura R; Solbeck, Jason A; Streeter, Alexander D; Collier, Robert D
A hybrid active noise reduction (ANR) architecture is presented and validated for a circumaural earcup and a communication earplug. The hybrid system combines source-independent feedback ANR with a Lyapunov-tuned leaky LMS filter (LyLMS) improving gain stability margins over feedforward ANR alone. In flat plate testing, the earcup demonstrates an overall C-weighted total noise reduction of 40 dB and 30-32 dB, respectively, for 50-800 Hz sum-of-tones noise and for aircraft or helicopter cockpit noise, improving low frequency (control component acting individually. For the earplug, a filtered-X implementation of the LyLMS accommodates its nonconstant cancellation path gain. A fast time-domain identification method provides a high-fidelity, computationally efficient, infinite impulse response cancellation path model, which is used for both the filtered-X implementation and communication feedthrough. Insertion loss measurements made with a manikin show overall C-weighted total noise reduction provided by the ANR earplug of 46-48 dB for sum-of-tones 80-2000 Hz and 40-41 dB from 63 to 3000 Hz for UH-60 helicopter noise, with negligible degradation in attenuation during speech communication. For both hearing protectors, a stability metric improves by a factor of 2 to several orders of magnitude through hybrid ANR.
Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...
Lane, Kathryn; Wheeler, Katherine; Charles-Guzman, Kizzy; Ahmed, Munerah; Blum, Micheline; Gregory, Katherine; Graber, Nathan; Clark, Nancy; Matte, Thomas
Heat waves can be lethal and routinely prompt public warnings about the dangers of heat. With climate change, extreme heat events will become more frequent and intense. However, little is known about public awareness of heat warnings or behaviors during hot weather. Awareness of heat warnings, prevention behaviors, and air conditioning (AC) prevalence and use in New York City were assessed using quantitative and qualitative methods. A random sample telephone survey was conducted in September 2011 among 719 adults and follow-up focus groups were held in winter 2012 among seniors and potential senior caregivers. During summer 2011, 79 % of adults heard or saw a heat warning. Of the 24 % who were seniors or in fair or poor health, 34 % did not own AC or never/rarely used it on hot days. Of this subgroup, 30 % were unaware of warnings, and 49 % stay home during hot weather. Reasons for not using AC during hot weather include disliking AC (29 %), not feeling hot (19 %), and a preference for fans (18 %). Seniors in the focus groups did not perceive themselves to be at risk, and often did not identify AC as an important health protection strategy. While heat warnings are received by most New Yorkers, AC cost, risk perception problems, and a preference for staying home leave many at risk during heat waves. Improving AC access and risk communications will help better protect the most vulnerable during heat waves.
Han Xiao; Shiyue Li; Xinguang Chen; Bin Yu; Mengting Gao; Hong Yan; Chukwuemeka N Okafor
Background Among millions of people who suffer from schistosomiasis in China, adolescents are at increased risk to be infected. However, there is a lack of theory-guided behavioral prevention intervention programs to protect these adolescents. This study attempted to apply the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in predicting intentions to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis infection. Methods The participants were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. Surve...
In this study, behavioral problems of deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) school-aged children are discussed in the context of executive functioning and communicative competence. Teachers assessed the executive functions of a sample of 214 D/HH students from general schools and schools for the deaf, using a German version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-D). This was complemented by a questionnaire that measured communicative competence and behavioral problems (German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; SDQ-D). The results in nearly all the scales show a significantly higher problem rate for executive functions in the group of D/HH students compared with a normative sample of hearing children. In the D/HH group, students at general schools had better scores on most scales than students at schools for the deaf. Regression analysis reveals the importance of executive functions and communicative competence for behavioral problems. The relevance of the findings for pedagogical work is discussed. A specific focus on competencies such as self-efficacy or self-control in educational concepts for D/HH students seems to be necessary in addition to extending language competencies.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK45 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a... proposed regulations ] (REG-130777-11), providing guidance on the tax treatment of Treasury Inflation...
Full Text Available Protective layers of “hot parts” of the turbo engines as well as co-generative systems of energy industry are exposed to a combination of wear factors which may act together at high values.The main goal of the paper is the behavior of some advanced layers, duplex and triplex, multifunctional, ceramics in relation to the most complex wear factor and disturbing as well, the quick thermal shock.The quick thermal shock test installation designed and constructed by the INCAS covers the domain of some high gradients of heating/cooling and is currently integrated in a network of European infrastructure that evaluates the properties of functional layers for turbo engines.Micro-structure inter- and intra- facial changes gradually induced in ceramic structures are highlighted and on this basis their ranking and selection for application on physical parts are established.
Saunders, Gabrielle H; Frederick, Melissa T; Silverman, ShienPei C; Nielsen, Claus; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane
Several models of health behavior change are commonly used in health psychology. This study applied the constructs delineated by two models-the transtheoretical model (in which readiness for health behavior change can be described with the stages of precontemplation, contemplation and action) and the health belief model (in which susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action are thought to determine likelihood of health behavior change)-to adults seeking hearing help for the first time. One hundred eighty-two participants (mean age: 69.5 years) were recruited following an initial hearing assessment by an audiologist. Participants' mean four-frequency pure-tone average was 35.4 dB HL, with 25.8% having no hearing impairment, 50.5% having a slight impairment, and 23.1% having a moderate or severe impairment using the World Health Organization definition of hearing loss. Participants' hearing-related attitudes and beliefs toward hearing health behaviors were examined using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) and the health beliefs questionnaire (HBQ), which assess the constructs of the transtheoretical model and the health belief model, respectively. Participants also provided demographic information, and completed the hearing handicap inventory (HHI) to assess participation restrictions, and the psychosocial impact of hearing loss (PIHL) to assess the extent to which hearing impacts competence, self-esteem, and adaptability. Degree of hearing impairment was associated with participation restrictions, perceived competence, self-esteem and adaptability, and attitudes and beliefs measured by the URICA and the HBQ. As degree of impairment increased, participation restrictions measured by the HHI, and impacts of hearing loss, as measured by the PIHL, increased. The majority of first-time help seekers in this study were in the action stage of change. Furthermore, relative to individuals with less hearing impairment
Madson, Michael B; Villarosa, Margo C; Moorer, Kayla D; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil
Drinking motives are robust predictors of alcohol use behaviors among college students. However, less is known about the link between drinking motives and alcohol use behaviors among African American college students. This study explored the associations between drinking motives and alcohol use behaviors in a sample of 215 African American college students. The study also assessed whether protective behavioral strategies mediated the associations between drinking motives and alcohol use behaviors. A direct relationship emerged between enhancement motives and alcohol consumption, harmful drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. Protective behavioral strategies mediated each of these relationships. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi; Maryam Zare; Mehrdad Mostaghaci; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad; Elham Naghshineh
Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive corre...
Seol Ah Kim, MSN, RN
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the significant psychosocial constructs of stages of self-protective behavior are dependent on health problem type. Accordingly, we advise that characteristics of behavior and types of disease and health problem should be given priority when developing intervention programs for particular self-protective health behaviors.
Karen P Maruska
Full Text Available Sexual reproduction in all animals depends on effective communication between signalers and receivers. Many fish species, especially the African cichlids, are well known for their bright coloration and the importance of visual signaling during courtship and mate choice, but little is known about what role acoustic communication plays during mating and how it contributes to sexual selection in this phenotypically diverse group of vertebrates. Here we examined acoustic communication during reproduction in the social cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni. We characterized the sounds and associated behaviors produced by dominant males during courtship, tested for differences in hearing ability associated with female reproductive state and male social status, and then tested the hypothesis that female mate preference is influenced by male sound production. We show that dominant males produce intentional courtship sounds in close proximity to females, and that sounds are spectrally similar to their hearing abilities. Females were 2-5-fold more sensitive to low frequency sounds in the spectral range of male courtship sounds when they were sexually-receptive compared to during the mouthbrooding parental phase. Hearing thresholds were also negatively correlated with circulating sex-steroid levels in females but positively correlated in males, suggesting a potential role for steroids in reproductive-state auditory plasticity. Behavioral experiments showed that receptive females preferred to affiliate with males that were associated with playback of courtship sounds compared to noise controls, indicating that acoustic information is likely important for female mate choice. These data show for the first time in a Tanganyikan cichlid that acoustic communication is important during reproduction as part of a multimodal signaling repertoire, and that perception of auditory information changes depending on the animal's internal physiological state. Our results
Walker, Robrina; Stephens, Robert S
Protective behavioral strategies have emerged as a construct protective against alcohol use. The current study examines the theoretical associations among general coping styles, protective behavioral strategies, drinking to cope motives, and alcohol use in college students. Analyses of fully latent variables were conducted using structural equation modeling in a sample of 327 college students. Protective behavioral strategies partially mediated the association between problem-focused coping and alcohol use. Behaviorally oriented problem-focused coping strategies accounted for the positive relationship between problem-focused coping and protective behavioral strategies whereas cognitively oriented problem-focused coping strategies were associated with less use of protective behavioral strategies and increased alcohol use. This is the first study to find that protective behavioral strategies are more likely to be used by college students who endorse using a problem-focused coping style, especially if they tend to use behaviorally oriented problem-focused coping strategies. These findings extend the literature on protective behavioral strategies and indicate that students less likely to use problem-focused coping skills to deal with stress in general may need additional interventions to increase their use of protective behavioral strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Professional and community concerns about the potentially dangerous noise levels for common leisure activities has led to increased interest on providing hearing health information to participants. However, noise reduction programmes aimed at leisure activities (such as music listening face a unique difficulty. The noise source that is earmarked for reduction by hearing health professionals is often the same one that is viewed as pleasurable by participants. Furthermore, these activities often exist within a social setting, with additional peer influences that may influence behavior. The current study aimed to gain a better understanding of social-based factors that may influence an individual′s motivation to engage in positive hearing health behaviors. Four hundred and eighty-four participants completed questionnaires examining their perceptions of the hearing risk associated with listening to music listening and asking for estimates of their own and their peer′s music listening behaviors. Participants were generally aware of the potential risk posed by listening to personal stereo players (PSPs and the volumes likely to be most dangerous. Approximately one in five participants reported using listening volumes at levels perceived to be dangerous, an incidence rate in keeping with other studies measuring actual PSP use. However, participants showed less awareness of peers′ behavior, consistently overestimating the volumes at which they believed their friends listened. Misperceptions of social norms relating to listening behavior may decrease individuals′ perceptions of susceptibility to hearing damage. The consequences of hearing health promotion are discussed, along with suggestions relating to the development of new programs.
Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that extended exposure to a high level of sound might increase the risk of hearing loss among professional symphony orchestra musicians. One of the major problems associated with musicians' hearing loss is difficulty in estimating its risk simply on the basis of the physical amount of exposure, i.e. the exposure level and duration. The aim of this study was to examine whether the measurement of the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR, which is assumed to protect the cochlear from acoustic damage, could enable us to assess the risk of hearing loss among musicians. To test this, we compared the MOCR strength and the hearing deterioration caused by one-hour instrument practice. The participants in the study were music university students who are majoring in the violin, whose left ear is exposed to intense violin sounds (broadband sounds containing a significant number of high-frequency components during their regular instrument practice. Audiogram and click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs were measured before and after a one-hour violin practice. There was a larger exposure to the left ear than to the right ear, and we observed a left-ear specific temporary threshold shift (TTS after the violin practice. Left-ear CEOAEs decreased proportionally to the TTS. The exposure level, however, could not entirely explain the inter-individual variation in the TTS and the decrease in CEOAE. On the other hand, the MOCR strength could predict the size of the TTS and CEOAE decrease. Our findings imply that, among other factors, the MOCR is a promising measure for assessing the risk of hearing loss among musicians.
Costa, Frances M; Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S
A theory-based protection and risk model was applied to explain variation in college students' cigarette smoking. Key aims were to examine whether psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors can account for cross-sectional and developmental variation in smoking, and to examine whether protection moderates the impact of risk on smoking involvement. Data for this three-wave longitudinal study were collected in fall 2002, spring 2003, and spring 2004 from 549 male and 427 female first-semester college students at the University of Colorado, Boulder. A 32-page questionnaire was used, with content theoretically derived from the constructs in problem-behavior theory. Cigarette smoking (number of cigarettes smoked on an average day in the past month), three types of psychosocial protection (models protection, controls protection, support protection), three types of psychosocial risk (models risk, opportunity risk, and vulnerability risk), two types of behavioral protection (church involvement, academic achievement), and two types of behavioral risk (problem drinking, marijuana use) were assessed. Psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors accounted for significant variation in smoking involvement, and protection moderated the impact of risk. Findings were consistent, for the most part, for both genders and across three separate waves of data. Key predictors of smoking involvement included controls protection, models risk, vulnerability risk, behavioral protection, and behavioral risk. Antecedent protective and risk factors were associated with the initiation of smoking in the college setting. A model of protective and risk factors can be useful in understanding college smoking behavior and suggesting targets for intervention.
Herrenkohl, Todd I; Tajima, Emiko A; Whitney, Stephen D; Huang, Bu
The study investigated protective factors (school commitment/importance, parent/peer disapproval of antisocial behavior, positive future orientation, and religion) hypothesized to lower risk for antisocial behavior among adolescents who, as children, had been physically abused. Protective factors also were investigated for comparison, nonabused children, and for children at risk on abuse and other factors: low socioeconomic status and early antisocial behavior. Analyses used a two-step hierarchical regression approach. In step 1, age, gender, and early antisocial behavior were entered as controls. In step 2, each protective factor was entered separately as a predictor. A final regression model in each case examined the additive (combined) effect of all protective factors on a given outcome. Tests of predictor-by-group interactions were used to examine group differences. Among abused and nonabused children, having a strong commitment to school, having parents and peers who disapprove of antisocial behavior, and being involved in a religious community lowered rates of lifetime violence, delinquency, and status offenses. Having a positive future orientation appeared less powerful as a protective influence. Exposure to an increasing number of protective factors was for each outcome associated with a diminution in risk for antisocial behavior. Protective factors represent targets for preventive intervention that are viable for children as they enter adolescence. The fact that protective factors were predictive of lower antisocial behavior in both the abuse and comparison groups suggests that protective effects are more universal than they are unique to a given group of children.
Lwin, May O.; Li, Benjamin; Ang, Rebecca P.
Online harassment is a widespread phenomenon with consequential implications, especially for adolescents, who tend to engage in high-risk behavior online. Through the use of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT), we examine the predictors motivating the intention of youths to adopt protection behavior against online harassment. A survey was conducted…
Delva, Jorge; Smith, Michael P.; Howell, Richard L.; Harrison, Dianne F.; Wilke, Dina; Jackson, D. Lynn
The authors identified the number, type, and frequency of protective behaviors that undergraduate college students who consume alcohol use to prevent alcohol-related consequences. Their hypothesis was that students who engage in more types of protective behaviors with greater frequency would be less likely to experience alcohol-related…
Abel, S M; Kunov, H; Pichora-Fuller, M K; Alberti, P W
The detection of one-third octave signals superimposed on backgrounds of steady-state and intermittent industrial noise of 84 dBA was investigated for observers with normal hearing or moderate to severe noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Variables included age, noise exposure history, configuration of the audiogram and the wearing of insert hearing protectors. Detection thresholds were obtained binaurally over headphones using a two- interval forced-choice procedure. For unprotected listening all observers showed a masked threshold of about 80 dBA for a one-third octave band cented at 3.15 kHz. Neither variation in noise exposure history nor configuration of the audiogram were significant factors. Using insert protectors in noise, observers with normal hearing showed an advantage on average of 3 dB. Those with NIHL gave masked detection thresholds greater than 100 dBA. Detection of a one-third octave band centred at 1 kHz by hearing-impaired observers with mild to moderate loss at 1 kHz was similar to that for normal observers. A model of the detection process was developed and evaluated.
... often becomes permanent. Some people react to loud noise with anxiety and irritability, an increase in pulse rate and blood pressure, or an increase in stomach acid. Very loud noise can reduce efficiency in performing difficult tasks by ...
Hutt, Rachel L; Buss, Kristin A; Kiel, Elizabeth J
Previous research has shown that caregiver protective behavior may exacerbate toddler distress in specific contexts. The current study sought to extend this work to examine associations between these variables and toddler cortisol reactivity. Ninety-three 24-month-old toddlers were observed across six novel contexts designed to elicit distress. Toddlers were asked to give saliva samples at the beginning and end of the laboratory procedure. Toddler sadness, toddler fear, and caregiver protective behavior were coded. Results indicate that caregiver protective behavior accounted for the association between toddler sadness and cortisol reactivity where higher levels of protective behavior were associated with higher cortisol reactivity. The current study showed that caregiver protective behavior, which functions to prevent a child from interacting with a novel stimulus, is an important mechanism to consider when understanding toddler stress responses during novel contexts.
Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; Gorduysus, Mehmet Omer; El Batawi, Hisham
Assessing the effectiveness of behavioral modification techniques in combination with visual distraction with/without video eyewear using computerized delivery system-intrasulcular (CDS-IS) during the application of local anesthetic in hearing-impaired pediatric patients undergoing pulp therapy of primary molars. This randomized, crossover clinical study includes 15 children (7 boys and 8 girls), mean age was 6.1 years. Children were randomly distributed into two groups (Group A, n = 7; Group B, n = 8). The study involved three sessions, 1-week apart. During Session I, employing Tell-Show-Do technique, prophylactic dental cleaning was done while participants were watching a movie with sign-language interpretation with/without visual eyewear. At the end of Session I, score on Smiley Faces Program was used for anxiety assessment. During Session II and III, respectively, both groups underwent pulp treatment of equivalent teeth in the opposite sides of the mouth with/without video eyewear vice versa. After the procedure, children were instructed to rate their pain during treatment on the Wong-Bakers' (WBs') Faces Pain Scale. Changes in pulse oximeter and heart rate were recorded every 5 min. Paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test were used to assess the significance of changes during each visit. There was a significant (P > 0.04) change in the heart rate observed for Group A underwent pulp treatment while watching video using video eyewear. Self-reported mean pain score also increases during treatment sessions' with video eyewear, for both groups. Routine psychological (Tell-Show-Do) intervention along with visual distraction with full visibility of the surrounding and use of CDS-IS system for anesthetic delivery is recommended as an effective behavior management technique for children with hearing impairment undergoing invasive dental treatment.
Marie-Anne S Rosemberg
Full Text Available This study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of rural and farm adolescents regarding hearing conservation strategies. This qualitative study took place at two high schools in rural Michigan. Twenty-five adolescents living and working on farms or living in rural areas participated in one of two focus groups. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two researchers and checked by an additional researcher to ensure reliability. Noise exposure was ubiquitous among participants, both in farm-related (e.g., equipment, livestock and non-farm-related (e.g., music, firearms activities. Perceived barriers to use of hearing protection devices outweighed perceived benefits, resulting in uncommon use of protection. When hearing protection was used, it was usually earmuffs or earplugs. Participants indicated a lack of training in noise hazards and protective strategies. Despite their acknowledged risk of hearing loss, participants did not associate their use of hearing protection today with their hearing ability later in life. Categories emerging that relate to hearing protector use included: Barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, situational influences, impersonal influences, cues to action, susceptibility, and severity. Farm and rural adolescents are at risk for noise exposure and hearing loss. The findings stress the significance of work environment and adult modeling in facilitating hearing conservation behaviors. As indicated by the youths′ recommendations, school-based interventions may be an effective approach to address this health concern. Intervention studies are needed to test various approaches that can effectively promote use of hearing conservation strategies among rural and farm adolescents.
Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S; McCullagh, Marjorie C; Nordstrom, Megan
This study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of rural and farm adolescents regarding hearing conservation strategies. This qualitative study took place at two high schools in rural Michigan. Twenty-five adolescents living and working on farms or living in rural areas participated in one of two focus groups. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two researchers and checked by an additional researcher to ensure reliability. Noise exposure was ubiquitous among participants, both in farm-related (e.g., equipment, livestock) and non-farm-related (e.g., music, firearms) activities. Perceived barriers to use of hearing protection devices outweighed perceived benefits, resulting in uncommon use of protection. When hearing protection was used, it was usually earmuffs or earplugs. Participants indicated a lack of training in noise hazards and protective strategies. Despite their acknowledged risk of hearing loss, participants did not associate their use of hearing protection today with their hearing ability later in life. Categories emerging that relate to hearing protector use included: Barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, situational influences, impersonal influences, cues to action, susceptibility, and severity. Farm and rural adolescents are at risk for noise exposure and hearing loss. The findings stress the significance of work environment and adult modeling in facilitating hearing conservation behaviors. As indicated by the youths' recommendations, school-based interventions may be an effective approach to address this health concern. Intervention studies are needed to test various approaches that can effectively promote use of hearing conservation strategies among rural and farm adolescents.
Bonino, Angela Yarnell; Leibold, Lori J
Collecting reliable behavioral data from toddlers and preschoolers is challenging. As a result, there are significant gaps in our understanding of human auditory development for these age groups. This paper describes an observer-based procedure for measuring hearing sensitivity with a two-interval, two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Young children are trained to perform a play-based, motor response (e.g., putting a block in a bucket) whenever they hear a target signal. An experimenter observes the child's behavior and makes a judgment about whether the signal was presented during the first or second observation interval; the experimenter is blinded to the true signal interval, so this judgment is based solely on the child's behavior. These procedures were used to test 2 to 4 year-olds (n = 33) with no known hearing problems. The signal was a 1,000 Hz warble tone presented in quiet, and the signal level was adjusted to estimate a threshold corresponding to 71%-correct detection. A valid threshold was obtained for 82% of children. These results indicate that the two-interval procedure is both feasible and reliable for use with toddlers and preschoolers. The two-interval, observer-based procedure described in this paper is a powerful tool for evaluating hearing in young children because it guards against response bias on the part of the experimenter.
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the protective effect of moderate noisy backgrounds on guinea pig's hearing after an exposure to a traumatic noise. Methods Thirty guinea pigs were randomly divided into five groups (6 each. Animals in group A, B, C and D were subjected to noise of 84 decibels sound pressure level (dB SPL for 4, 8, 24 and 0 hour respectively after a traumatic exposure of 110 dB SPL, and those in group E were kept in quiet environment. Distortion product oto-acoustic emission (DPOAE amplitudes were determined on 1 day prior, and 1 and 7 days after noise exposure. Blood plasma was obtained to determine the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA and the activities of hemocuprein (SOD and nitricoxide synthase (NOS at the end of the experiment. Results Noise-induced hearing loss was caused in group D after a traumatic exposure. At the 1st and 7th day after exposure, DPOAE amplitudes were higher in group A and B than in group D, especially at high frequencies, while no significant difference was observed between group C and D. At the 7th day after exposure, the activity of SOD lowered, while the content of MDA increased in group A and B as compared with group E (P<0.05. The content of MDA in group A increased as compared with group D (P<0.05. Conclusion After the traumatic noise-exposure, the recovery of noise-induced hearing loss, especially the high-frequency hearing loss could be motivated when exposed to noise at 84 dB SPL for 4 or 8 hours.
... observing their behavior in response to sounds. Today’s technology, however, allows even a sleeping baby to be evaluated. Many hospitals now screen newborns’ hearing before they even leave ...
Mah, Beth L; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Smith, Roger
Successful parenting requires maternal behaviors that promote infant survival such as protection from predators. In animal studies, oxytocin (OT) has been linked to maternal aggression to protect offspring. No human study has explored this topic. Mothers with a diagnosis of postnatal depression (PND) are at higher risk of neglecting their infants. We hypothesized that intranasal OT administration would increase the protective behaviors of mothers with PND, toward their infants. Sixteen mothers with a diagnosis of PND participated in a double-blind, randomized-controlled, within-subject pilot study. Participants received intranasal OT during one visit and placebo spray on the alternate visit. Maternal protective behavior toward their infant was measured, in the presence of a socially intrusive stranger. The enthusiastic stranger paradigm stimulated participants' protective responses in the presence of an intrusive stranger. Furthermore, this protective response of mothers with a diagnosis of PND was increased in the OT condition. The study introduces a new paradigm, the enthusiastic stranger paradigm, which may be used to examine a neglected type of parental behavior, that is, protection of offspring. The protective response of mothers with PND increased, in line with the 'tend and defend' effects of OT in animal models. In future work it should be tested whether this protection effect can also be found in nonclinical samples, or whether it is specific for clinically depressed mothers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Logan, Diane E.; Koo, Kelly H.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lewis, Melissa A.
Alcohol use among college students is linked to an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviors, including casual sex and unprotected sex. These behaviors increase college students' risks for negative social and health-related consequences. This study examined the relationship between drinking behaviors and protective behavioral strategies (PBS), expectancies and perceptions of sexual risk, and actual alcohol-related sexual behaviors and consequences. Sexually active college students completed web-based self-report measures of drinking behaviors and use of PBS, alcohol expectancies and perceptions of risk, sexual behaviors and related consequences (n = 524; 57.1% women). Findings indicated that PBS were related to lower expectancies of sexual risk and sexual disinhibition, and among lighter drinkers, lower expectancies of sexual enhancement from alcohol. PBS were also related to decreased perceptions of sexual-related risks, some alcohol-related sexual behaviors, including number of drinks before/during sex, and number of sexual consequences, but were not related to abstaining during sex, frequency of alcohol-related sexual behavior, or general condom use. These findings demonstrate a disconnect between perceived and actual risks among college students, such that decreased perceptions of risk may not be associated with protective behaviors. Prevention and intervention implications are discussed. PMID:25350078
ITD information (Jin et al., 2004). Changes to binaural cues can negatively affect a listener’s ability to accurately identify a sound source’s...impose changes to binaural cues. For example, Javer and Schwarz (1995) used hearing aids to introduce a timing delay to sounds arriving at the two ears...potentially alter binaural differences in intensity and affect the ability to correctly perceive the laterality of a sound (Dillon, 2001). Sounds
Yi, Siyan; Poudel, Krishna C; Yasuoka, Junko; Palmer, Paula H; Yi, Songky; Jimba, Masamine
.... The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male...
Full Text Available The fast developing social network is a double-edged sword. It remains a serious problem to provide users with excellent mobile social network services as well as protecting privacy data. Most popular social applications utilize behavior of users to build connection with people having similar behavior, thus improving user experience. However, many users do not want to share their certain behavioral information to the recommendation system. In this paper, we aim to design a secure friend recommendation system based on the user behavior, called PRUB. The system proposed aims at achieving fine-grained recommendation to friends who share some same characteristics without exposing the actual user behavior. We utilized the anonymous data from a Chinese ISP, which records the user browsing behavior, for 3 months to test our system. The experiment result shows that our system can achieve a remarkable recommendation goal and, at the same time, protect the privacy of the user behavior information.
Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham
Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.
Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi
Full Text Available Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.
Lohman, Brenda J.; Billings, Amanda
Protective and risk factors associated with rates of early sexual debut and risky sexual behaviors for a sample of low-income adolescent boys were examined using bioecological theory framed by a resiliency perspective. Protective processes examined include a close mother-son and father-son relationship, parental monitoring and family routines, as…
Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.
... with unilateral hearing should be monitored closely for linguistic, educational, or social gaps. For more information about ... see: Info to Go/Hearing Aids For more information about cochlear implants, see: Info ... resources about hearing, see: Hearing and Amplification (My Baby's ...
J. Rijlaarsdam (Jolien); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.P. Ringoot (Ank); Ivanova, M.Y. (Masha Y.); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); S.J. Roza (Sabine)
textabstractInfants’ temperamental anger or frustration reactions are highly stable, but are also influenced by maturation and experience. It is yet unclear why some infants high in anger or frustration reactions develop disruptive behavior problems whereas others do not. We examined family
Kastelein, R.A.; Helder-Hoek, L.; Gransier, R.; Terhune, J.M.; Jennings, N.; Jong, C.A.F. de
Acoustic mitigation devices (AMDs) are used to deter marine mammals from construction sites to prevent hearing injury by offshore pile-driving noise. In order to quantify the distance at which AMDs designed as ‘seal scarers’ are detected by seals, the 50% hearing thresholds for playbacks of their
Clifford, Royce E; Coleman, John K M; Balough, Ben J; Liu, Jianzhong; Kopke, Richard D; Jackson, Ronald L
Despite efforts at public health awareness and stringent industrial standards for hearing protection, noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains a formidable public health concern. Although many antioxidants have proven to be beneficial in the laboratory for prevention of permanent NIHL, low-dose combinations of compounds with different biochemical mechanisms of action may allow long-term administration with fewer side effects and equal efficacy. The mixture of D-methionine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine administered at levels less than 10% of standard dosing has not been previously reported. Twenty-six female adult Chinchilla laniger were placed in 4 study groups, consisting of (1) a group receiving combination 12.5 mg/kg each D-methionine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (DMET/NAC group), (2) a group receiving 12.5 mg/kg D-methionine (DMET-only group), (3) a group receiving 12.5 mg/kg N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC-only group), and (4) saline controls. Laboratory. All groups received twice-daily intraperitoneal injections 2 days prior to noise exposure, 1 hour before and after exposure on day 3, and for 2 days subsequently, totaling 10 doses of 125 mg/kg for each antioxidant over 5 days. Although NAC-only animals paralleled saline control recovery during 3 weeks, the DMET-only group revealed gradual improvement with statistically significant recovery in the middle frequencies. The DMET/NAC group showed significant improvement at most frequencies compared with controls (P noise exposure with either DMET only or a combination of low-dose DMET/NAC, demonstrating a considerably lower dose of antioxidants required than previously reported for hearing recovery following acoustic trauma.
Halstead, Scott B; Russell, Philip K
Clinical observations from the third year of the Sanofi Pasteur chimeric yellow fever dengue tetravalent vaccine (CYD) trials document both protection and vaccination-enhanced dengue disease among vaccine recipients. Children who were 5 years-old or younger when vaccinated experienced a DENV disease resulting in hospitalization at 5 times the rate of controls. On closer inspection, hospitalized cases among vaccinated seropositives, those at highest risk to hospitalized disease accompanying a dengue virus (DENV) infection, were greatly reduced by vaccination. But, seronegative individuals of all ages after being vaccinated were only modestly protected from mild to moderate disease throughout the entire observation period despite developing neutralizing antibodies at high rates. Applying a simple epidemiological model to the data, vaccinated seronegative individuals of all ages were at increased risk of developing hospitalized disease during a subsequent wild type DENV infection. The etiology of disease in placebo and vaccinated children resulting in hospitalization during a DENV infection, while clinically similar are of different origin. The implications of the observed mixture of DENV protection and enhanced disease in CYD vaccinees are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Skin cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in most of the countries and more than 90% of cancer cases are related to ultra violet rays of the sun. Therefore protective behaviors against sunlight are considered the most essential measures for skin cancer prevention. This study has been conducted to determine the frequency of protective behavior against sunlight among female students of Tehran city high schools. The Health Belief Model has been used for this cross-sectional study to analyze the factors related to protective behaviors. A multi-phase sampling method was used. 941 female student of Tehran city high schools were studied using a probed question form. The data were then analyzed using SPSS software. During the study of protective behaviors against the sunlight, 24.7% of participants mentioned that they always use sunscreen. The behavior of using sunscreen is related to perceived sensitivity, severity and benefit amongst the students (P<0.05. Also 3.8% of the students who participated in our study were always using gloves in summer to protect against sunlight. The behavior of using gloves in summer was also related to perceived sensitivity, severity and benefit (P<0.05. Physicians were the most effective influencing people with 84.9% influence on the appropriate decision making by these students. There is a low frequency of protective behavior against sunlight among the female students of Tehran city high schools. These findings show the necessity of training the students in this regard and promote the protective behaviors amongst them.
Rivers, Susan E.; Brackett, Marc A.; Omori, Mika; Sickler, Cole; Bertoli, Michelle C.; Salovey, Peter
Involvement in health-endangering behaviors is considered a reflection of college students' psychosocial development; however, not all students participate in these activities. Emotion skills, such as the ability to interpret and manage emotions, may serve as a protective factor against risk-taking behavior among emerging adults. We compared the…
Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…
Dieckmann, Nathan F; Peters, Ellen; Leon, Juan; Benavides, Martin; Baker, David P; Norris, Alison
A wealth of studies has indicated that greater cognitive ability is related to healthier behaviors and outcomes throughout the lifespan. In the present paper, we focus on objective numeracy (ability with numbers) and present findings from a study conducted in the Peruvian Highlands that examines the relations among formal education, numeracy, other more general cognitive skills, and a sex-related protective behavior (condom use). Our results show a potential unique protective effect of numeracy on this healthprotective behavior even after accounting for measures of fluid intelligence and potential confounding factors. These results add to a growing literature highlighting the robust protective effect on health behaviors of greater cognitive skills that are enhanced through schooling. Challenges for future research will be identifying the causal mechanisms that underlie these effects and translating this knowledge into effective interventions for improving health.
Full Text Available In order to study the mechanical behaviour of elastomers at large deformations a theoretical description was developed for the loading-unloading hysteresis loop at large deformations and as a function of the strain rate. Bergstrm and Boyces proposition that the elastomer behaviour is controlled by two contributions the first one corresponding to the equilibrium state and the second one to a non-linear rate-dependent deviation from that equilibrium state and their use of Zeners rheological model were applied to an uniaxial tension configuration. A validation of the description was performed with nitrile rubber. A good agreement of the theoretical description with experimental results was obtained. This simple description of the hysteresis behaviour of elastomers as a function of the strain rate provides a useful tool for estimating the mechanical behaviour at various strain rates with potential application in the design of protective gloves.
Xu, J.; Hu, R.; Chen, X.; Hu, D.
By combining zeolite with water, a novel nanocomposite may exhibit extraordinary capability of energy absorption and impact mitigation. The multiple size of zeolite may lead to simultaneous yet different infiltration behaviors of water molecules, and thus multi-staged energy mitigation characteristics (which may benefit the scope of application). In this study, we investigate the dynamic infiltration behavior of water into mordenite zeolite (MOR) using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Thanks to its hydrophobicity and multi pore-sized structure, the MOR system has a decent energy mitigation performance upon high impact speed. Parametric studies are carried out to investigate the effects of various parameters, including the impact speed, mass, and water/zeolite ratio, on energy mitigating characteristics. The MOR/water mixture may perform better at a higher impact energy with higher MOR zeolite-water ratio. Upon unloading, the defiltration of water molecules is faster and more complete at higher impact speed. Results may guide the design and application of the energy mitigation nanosystem.
Legislative Proposals To Protect Children from Inappropriate Materials on the Internet. Hearing on H.R. 3783, H.R. 774, H.R. 1180, H.R. 1964, H.R. 3177, and H.R. 3442 before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Trade, and Consumer Protection of the Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Commerce.
This hearing addresses legislative proposals to protect children from inappropriate materials on the Internet. Among the issues discussed are federal investments and information access, defining standards for protection, child pornography and marketing to children, filtering technology and adult verification services, and freedom of speech.…
Strengthening Education Research and Privacy Protections to Better Serve Students. Hearing before the Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourteenth Congress, Second Session (March 22, 2016). Serial Number 114-45
US House of Representatives, 2016
This document records testimony from a hearing held to examine strengthening education research and privacy protections to better serve students. Education research has long played an important role in our Nation's classrooms. States and school districts use research to identify teaching and learning strategies that improve classroom instruction…
Haney, Meryem Ozturk; Ordin, Yaprak Sarigol; Arkan, Gulcihan
The aim of this study was to compare liver transplant recipients (LTRs) with the general population regarding their knowledge of skin cancer, sun health, sun protection behaviors, and affecting factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Turkey between March 2016 and September 2016 with 104 LTRs and 100 participants from the general population group (GPG). The mean age of the LTRs was 53.2 ± 11.8 and that of the GPG was 42.7 ± 14.5. The LTRs' skin cancer and sun knowledge were significantly lower than in the GPG, but there was no difference between the two groups in terms of their sun protection behavior scores. The most commonly used sun protection behaviors of LTRs were not being outside and not sunbathing between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., wearing clothing that covers the skin, and avoiding the solarium. Behaviors commonly practiced by the GPG were wearing sunglasses, wearing sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 or higher before going outside, wearing sunscreen at the beach, while swimming or doing physical activity outside, and reapplying it every 2 h. Results of our study will contribute to the development of education and training programs for LTRs on skin cancer. The results also demonstrated the importance of practicing adequate sun protection behaviors which will certainly impact their future health.
Alali, Khaled; Casali, John G
The purpose of this study was to assess normal hearing listeners' performance in detecting a stationary backup alarm signal and to quantify the linear distance at detection point. Detection distances for 12 participants with normal hearing were measured while they were fitted with 7 hearing protectors and while they were unoccluded (open ear). A standard (narrowband) backup alarm signal and a broadband (pulsed white noise) backup alarm signal from Brigade were used. The method of limits, with distance as the physical measurement variable and threshold detection as the task, was employed to find at which distance the participant could first detect the backup alarms. A within-subject Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant main effect of the listening conditions on the detection distance in feet. Post hoc analyses indicated that the Bilsom L3HV conventional passive earmuff (at 1132.2 ft detection distance) was significantly poorer compared to all other HPDs and the open ear in detection distance achieved, and that there were no statistically-significant differences between the unoccluded ear (1652.3 ft), EB-15-Lo BlastPLGTM (1546.2 ft), EB-15-Hi BlastPLGTM (1543.4 ft), E-A-R/3M Combat ArmsTM earplug-nonlinear, level-dependent state (1507.8 ft), E-A-R/3M HiFiTM earplug (1497.7 ft), and Bilsom ImpactTM dichotic electronic earmuff (1567.2 ft). In addition, the E-A-R/3M Combat ArmsTM earplug-passive steady state resulted in significantly longer detection distances than only the open ear condition, at 1474.1 ft versus 1652.3 ft for the open ear. ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of the backup alarm type on detection distance. The means were 1600.9 ft for the standard (narrowband) backup alarm signal, and a significantly closer 1379.4 ft was required for the Brigade broadband backup alarm signal. For on-ground workers, it is crucial to detect backup alarm signals as far away as possible rather than at close distances since this will provide them
Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.
The nurses of the Medical Service would like invite all persons working on the CERN site to take part in a: HEARING LOSS DETECTION WEEK From 28 August to 1st September 2006 At the Infirmary, Building 57 from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Hearing tests - advice - information - documentation - protective equipment
Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Carlo, Gustavo; Nielson, Matthew G
The current study examined bidirectional, longitudinal links between prosocial and problem behavior. Participants (N = 500) were recruited from a Northwestern city in the United States and assessed for 3 consecutive years from 2009 to 2011 (M(age) of youth at Time 1 = 13.32, SD = 1.05; 52% girls; 67% European American, 33% single-parent families). Results suggested that effects of earlier prosocial behavior toward family and strangers were predictive of fewer problem behaviors 2 years later, while results for prosocial behavior toward friends were more mixed. Results also suggested depression predicted lower prosocial behavior toward family members and anxiety predicted higher prosocial behavior toward friends. Findings show a complex pattern of relations that demonstrate the need to consider targets of helping. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Bennett, Rebecca J; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Meyer, Carly J; Eikelboom, Robert H
To gather perspectives of hearing aid owners and hearing healthcare clinicians with regard to problems that arise after hearing aid fitting and use these perspectives to generate a conceptual framework to gain a better understanding of these problems. Participants included a group of 17 hearing aid owners and a group of 21 hearing healthcare clinicians; data collection occurred separately for each group. Participants each attended two group sessions in Perth, Western Australia, wherein they: (1) generated statements describing the problems associated with hearing aids and (2) grouped and rated the statements to identify key themes. Concept mapping was used to generate a conceptual framework. Participants identified four concepts regarding hearing aid problems as follows: (1) hearing aid management; (2) hearing aid sound quality and performance; (3) feelings, thoughts, and behaviors; and (4) information and training. While hearing aid owners and clinicians generated similar results regarding the concepts derived, the clinicians reported that the problems identified had a greater negative impact on hearing aid success than did hearing aid owners. The magnitude and diversity of hearing aid problems identified in this study highlight the ongoing challenges that hearing aid owners face and suggest that current processes for hearing aid fitting can be improved. Problems relating to hearing aid management were most often deemed to have the greatest impact on hearing aid success and be the most preventable/solvable, and thus are a good starting point when addressing hearing aid-related problems.
Mitchell, Marie S; Baer, Michael D; Ambrose, Maureen L; Folger, Robert; Palmer, Noel F
Workplace cheating behavior is unethical behavior that seeks to create an unfair advantage and enhance benefits for the actor. Although cheating is clearly unwanted behavior within organizations, organizations may unknowingly increase cheating as a byproduct of their pursuit of high performance. We theorize that as organizations place a strong emphasis on high levels of performance, they may also enhance employees' self-interested motives and need for self-protection. We suggest that demands for high performance may elicit performance pressure-the subjective experience that employees must raise their performance efforts or face significant consequences. Employees' perception of the need to raise performance paired with the potential for negative consequences is threatening and heightens self-protection needs. Driven by self-protection, employees experience anger and heightened self-serving cognitions, which motivate cheating behavior. A multistudy approach was used to test our predictions. Study 1 developed and provided validity evidence for a measure of cheating behavior. Studies 2 and 3 tested our predictions in time-separated field studies. Results from Study 2 demonstrated that anger mediates the effects of performance pressure on cheating behavior. Study 3 replicated the Study 2 findings, and extended them to show that self-serving cognitions also mediate the effects of performance pressure on cheating behavior. Implications of our findings for theory and practice are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Rew, Lynn; Wong, Y Joel; Sternglanz, R Weylin
The purpose of this study was to examine (1) the relationship between children's use of prayer as a coping strategy and other protective resources, and (2) whether children who prayed frequently and those who never prayed exhibited different levels of perceived stress and health behaviors. Prayer was found to be positively related to the protective resources of social connectedness and sense of humor. In addition, children who prayed frequently reported significantly higher levels of positive health behaviors than children who never prayed. These two groups of children did not significantly differ in their levels of perceived stress.
Singh, Anant; Kumar, Anil
Sleep deprivation is considered as a risk factor for various diseases. Sleep deprivation leads to behavioral, hormonal, neurochemical and biochemical alterations in the animals. The present study was designed to explore the possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in protective effect of alprazolam against 72h sleep deprivation-induced behavior alterations and oxidative damage in mice. In the present study, sleep deprivation caused anxiety-like behavior, weight loss, impaired ambulatory movements and oxidative damage as indicated by increase in lipid peroxidation, nitrite level and depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase activity in sleep-deprived mice brain. Treatment with alprazolam (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, ip) significantly improved behavioral alterations. Biochemically, alprazolam treatment significantly restored depleted reduced glutathione, catalase activity, reversed raised lipid peroxidation and nitrite level. Combination of flumazenil (0.5 mg/kg) and picrotoxin (0.5 mg/kg) with lower dose of alprazolam (0.25mg/kg) significantly antagonized protective effect of alprazolam. However, combination of muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) with alprazolam (0.25 mg/kg, ip) potentiated protective effect of alprazolam. On the basis of these results, it might be suggested that alprazolam might produce protective effect by involving GABAergic system against sleep deprivation-induced behavior alterations and related oxidative damage.
... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Hearing ProblemsLoss in the ability to hear or discriminate ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a ...
Sharon Rodine; Roy F. Oman; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Eleni Tolma; LaDonna Marshall; Janene Fluhr
The potential of Community Involvement as a protective factor (youth asset) for eight adolescent risk behaviors was examined in this study. Cross-sectional data were collected from a randomly-selected population using in-home, in-person interviews in racially diverse inner-city neighborhoods of two Midwestern cities. Research participants were teenagers (n=1,278) and parents of the teenagers (n=1,278). Data included demographic variables; eight adolescent risk behaviors, including sexual acti...
Anouk P Netten
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (preadolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy.The study group (mean age 11.9 years consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children's level of empathy, their attendance to others' emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior.Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children.Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships.
Ikinger, Christina-Maria; Baldamus, Jana; Spiller, Achim
.... While past studies have examined factors influencing the use of safety gear, they have explored neither their influence on the overall safety behavior, nor their relative influence in relation to each...
Ho, Shirley S; Lwin, May O; Yee, Andrew Z H; Lee, Edmund W J
Using an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study explores how the original TPB variables (attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control), personality traits, privacy concern, past privacy protection behaviors (PPBs), as well as parental mediation strategies relate to adolescents' intention to engage in privacy protection measures. We administered a cross-sectional survey to a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 4,920) in Singapore. The sample comprised 50.5 percent females and 49.5 percent males with age ranging from 13 to 21 years (M = 14.73). Results from the hierarchical regression analysis showed that the proposed extended TPB model received partial support. Subjective norms, among the TPB and other factors, have the strongest relationship with adolescents' intention to engage in PPBs on social network sites. Adolescents' privacy concern and their past PPBs are more important in influencing their future PPB compared with personality traits such as neuroticism and extraversion. Adolescents whose parents have engaged in regulated parental mediation are more likely to protect their privacy on SNSs compared with adolescents whose parents have adopted active mediation style.
Rodek, Jelena; Sekulic, Damir; Pasalic, Emir
Religiousness is rarely studied in relation to doping behaviors in sport. In this study, we sampled 27 weightlifting/powerlifting athletes from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Using the originally developed questionnaire and by means of Spearman's correlation, we interpreted data and discussed relationships between (a) social, religious, sport, and educational factors, and (b) substance use criteria, including cigarettes, alcohol, analgesics, nutritional supplementation, and doping behaviors. In conclusion, we found (1) that religiousness can be considered as a potential protective factor against doping, but also (2) that religious subjects tend to deny and underestimate the doping behaviors in their sport. Both of these findings should be extensively studied in future investigations.
Cabrera, Nolan L.; Leckie, James O.
Agricultural pesticide use is the highest of any industry, yet there is little research evaluating farmworkers' understandings of the health risks chemical exposure poses. This study examines pesticide education, risk perception, and self-protective behaviors among farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley. Fifty current and former farmworkers…
J. Keith Gilless; Jeremy S. Fried
A fire behavior module was developed for the California Fire Economics Simulator version 2 (CFES2), a stochastic simulation model of initial attack on wildland fire used by the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Fire rate of spread (ROS) and fire dispatch level (FDL) for simulated fires "occurring" on the same day are determined by making...
Napper, Lucy E.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.
Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) are useful skills for reducing the negative consequences of alcohol. The moderating effects of anxiety on the relationship between 3 different types of PBS and negative consequences were examined among students accessing college counseling services. Results revealed a significant interaction between anxiety…
Saint-Jacques, Marie-Christine; Cloutier, Richard; Pauze, Robert; Simard, Marie; Gagne, Marie-Helene; Poulin, Amelie
This study focuses on the impacts of serial transitions on externalized and internalized behavior disorders, anxiety, and depression among children in child protection services. The research was carried out with a sample of 741 children. The findings demonstrate that the number of times a family is blended is a stronger predictive factor for…
Martens, Matthew P.; Karakashian, Michael A.; Fleming, Kristie M.; Fowler, Roneferiti M.; Hatchett, E. Suzanne; Cimini, M. Dolores
The purpose of this study was to determine if use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Participants were 186 college students at a state university campus in the Northeastern United States participating in a study examining the effectiveness of a brief…
Araas, Teresa E.; Adams, Troy B.
Objective: Alcohol abuse among college students is associated with a quality of life burden. The current study replicated and extended previous research on protective behavioral strategies (PBS) by examining relationships between PBS use and negative alcohol-related consequences. Method: A national sample of 29,792 U. S. college students who…
Palmer, Rebekka S.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.
Alcohol use and sexual assault on college campuses are highly prevalent and the focus of numerous prevention and intervention efforts. Our goals were to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between coercive sexual experiences, utilization of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female…
Kaljee, Linda M; Chen, Xinguang
Social capital and health research has emerged as a focus of contemporary behavioral epidemiology, while intervention research is seeking more effective measures to increase health protective behaviors and decrease health-risk behaviors. In this review we explored current literature on social capital and health outcomes at the micro-, mesa-, and macro-levels with a particular emphasis on research that incorporates a social capital framework, and adolescent and young adult engagement in risk behaviors. These data indicate that across a broad range of socio-cultural and economic contexts, social capital can affect individuals' risk for negative health outcomes and their engagement in risk behaviors. Further research is needed which should focus on differentiating and measuring positive and negative social capital within both mainstream and alternative social networks, assessing how social constructions of gender, ethnicity, and race - within specific cultural contexts - mediate the relationship between social capital and risk and/or protective behaviors. This new research should integrate the existing research within historical socioeconomic and political conditions. In addition, social capital scales need to be developed to be both culturally and developmentally appropriate for use with adolescents living in a diversity of settings. Despite the proliferation of social capital research, the concept remains underutilized in both assessment and intervention development for adolescents' and young adults' engagement in risk behaviors and their associated short- and long-term poor health outcomes.
Kaynak, Ovgü; Lepore, Stephen J; Kliewer, Wendy; Jaggi, Lena
Peer victimization is linked to adjustment problems in youth, including aggressive behavior, yet not all victimized youth are aggressive. The present study investigated whether youth's anger regulation coping might attenuate the positive association between peer victimization and subsequent aggressive behavior. Longitudinal data from 485 7th-grade students (55% female, mean age = 12.84 years) and their teachers were collected in the fall and six months later. Teacher ratings of youth aggressive behavior at follow-up were the primary outcome, with statistical adjustments for baseline aggressive behavior and demographics. Results from multilevel models showed significant interactive effects of baseline anger regulation and peer victimization on residualized teacher-rated aggressive behaviors that were consistent with the hypothesis that anger regulation played a protective role: under high levels of peer victimization, youth with higher levels of anger regulation displayed lower levels of aggressive behavior than their counterparts with lower levels of anger regulation. These findings suggest that targeting and improving students' ability to regulate their anger may be protective in the face of peer victimization and reduce subsequent aggressive behavior.
Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K; Shannon, Lisa
The purpose of this study was to describe risky sexual behaviors among women with protective orders against violent male partners (N=673), as well as to examine associations of relationship factors, psychological abuse, severity of partner violence, sexual violence, and women's substance abuse with risky sexual behavior. An HIV sexual risk index was computed based on the participant's self-reported risky sexual behavior, the participants' estimations of the abusive partner's extra dyadic sexual behavior and the abusive partner's illicit drug use. The majority of women engaged in risky sexual practices and had partners who engaged in risky sexual practices. Results of OLS regression analysis showed that the participant's age, length of the participant's relationship with the abusive partner, severity of physical violence, substance abuse/dependence (alcohol and illicit drug) were significantly associated with risky sexual behavior. Implications for future research and HIV prevention interventions with partner violence victims are discussed.
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who will conduct the hearing? 708.25 Section 708.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Investigation, Hearing and Decision Process § 708.25 Who will conduct the hearing? (a) The OHA Director will appoint a Hearing Officer from the...
Bernstein, Leslie R; Trahiotis, Constantine
This study assessed whether audiometrically-defined "slight" or "hidden" hearing losses might be associated with degradations in binaural processing as measured in binaural detection experiments employing interaurally delayed signals and maskers. Thirty-one listeners participated, all having no greater than slight hearing losses (i.e., no thresholds greater than 25 dB HL). Across the 31 listeners and consistent with the findings of Bernstein and Trahiotis [(2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, EL474-EL479] binaural detection thresholds at 500 Hz and 4 kHz increased with increasing magnitude of interaural delay, suggesting a loss of precision of coding with magnitude of interaural delay. Binaural detection thresholds were consistently found to be elevated for listeners whose absolute thresholds at 4 kHz exceeded 7.5 dB HL. No such elevations were observed in conditions having no binaural cues available to aid detection (i.e., "monaural" conditions). Partitioning and analyses of the data revealed that those elevated thresholds (1) were more attributable to hearing level than to age and (2) result from increased levels of internal noise. The data suggest that listeners whose high-frequency monaural hearing status would be classified audiometrically as being normal or "slight loss" may exhibit substantial and perceptually meaningful losses of binaural processing.
O'Brien, Ian; Ackermann, Bronwen J; Driscoll, Tim
Orchestral musicians are an at-risk population for noise-induced hearing loss. Following strategic approaches to mitigate exposure, many must use earplugs to safeguard their hearing, although reported usage rates are poor. Australia has progressive hearing conservation programs within many of its orchestras, yet little is known of earplug usage rates, abilities with earplugs or self-perceived hearing loss in this population. To help direct and inform future approaches to hearing conservation in Australia's orchestras a questionnaire assessing hearing conservation behaviors and the prevalence of self-perceived hearing loss was distributed. A total of 580 musicians across eight professional orchestras were surveyed, with 367 completed surveys (63%) returned. Eighty percent of respondents reported a risk of hearing damage in the orchestra, 64% used earplugs of some type at least some of the time and 83% found this use difficult/impossible. Forty-three percent reported a hearing loss, including 54% in pit orchestras and 46% of those ≤50 years of age. Brass players were least likely to use earplugs, most likely to report usage difficulties and most likely of those ≤50 years of age to report a hearing loss. While earplug usage rates in Australia are encouraging and may be linked to hearing conservation measures in the orchestras, the widespread difficulty reported with the use of these earplugs, the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss and the continued vulnerability of those most at-risk indicate improvements in both earplug design and further education for musicians are required to progress hearing conservation options for this population.
Effects of low speed wind on the recognition/identification and pass-through communication tasks of auditory situation awareness afforded by military hearing protection/enhancement devices and tactical communication and protective systems.
Lee, Kichol; Casali, John G
To investigate the effect of controlled low-speed wind-noise on the auditory situation awareness performance afforded by military hearing protection/enhancement devices (HPED) and tactical communication and protective systems (TCAPS). Recognition/identification and pass-through communications tasks were separately conducted under three wind conditions (0, 5, and 10 mph). Subjects wore two in-ear-type TCAPS, one earmuff-type TCAPS, a Combat Arms Earplug in its 'open' or pass-through setting, and an EB-15LE electronic earplug. Devices with electronic gain systems were tested under two gain settings: 'unity' and 'max'. Testing without any device (open ear) was conducted as a control. Ten subjects were recruited from the student population at Virginia Tech. Audiometric requirements were 25 dBHL or better at 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 Hz in both ears. Performance on the interaction of communication task-by-device was significantly different only in 0 mph wind speed. The between-device performance differences varied with azimuthal speaker locations. It is evident from this study that stable (non-gusting) wind speeds up to 10 mph did not significantly degrade recognition/identification task performance and pass-through communication performance of the group of HPEDs and TCAPS tested. However, the various devices performed differently as the test sound signal speaker location was varied and it appears that physical as well as electronic features may have contributed to this directional result.
Palmer, Rebekka S; McMahon, Thomas J; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Ball, Samuel A
Alcohol use and sexual assault on college campuses are highly prevalent and the focus of numerous prevention and intervention efforts. Our goals were to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between coercive sexual experiences, utilization of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female college students. We surveyed 370 college students regarding their past year experiences and found that 34% of women and 31% of men reported unwanted sexual contact, 6% of women and 13% of men reported engaging in sexually coercive behavior, and 4% of women and 9% of men reported experiencing both unwanted contact and engaging in sexually coercive behavior. Findings indicated students who experienced unwanted sexual contact reported significant differences in alcohol expectancies. More specifically, those who engaged in sexually coercive behaviors had significantly higher sex-related alcohol expectancies. In addition, recipients of unwanted contact reported higher alcohol consumption, used fewer protective strategies when drinking, and experienced more negative consequences due to their alcohol use. Results suggest that campus alcohol and sexual assault prevention efforts should include information on alcohol expectancies and use of protective strategies.
Kearney, Gregory D; Shaw, Robert; Prentice, Matthew; Tutor-Marcom, Robin
Agricultural workers who work in enclosed poultry operations are at increased risk of respiratory exposure to atmospheric contaminants, including dusts, endotoxins, particulate from feathers, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from animal excrement. Given the relatively large number of small, family-run poultry farms in North Carolina, there has been relatively little research in the area documenting human lung function and perception of using respiratory protection among poultry workers. This study assesses respiratory health, knowledge, and perception of wearing respiratory protection among a sample of poultry workers attending a regional farm show in North Carolina. Lung function (spirometry), airway inflammation (exhaled nitric oxide), self-reported respiratory symptoms, and behavior of wearing respiratory protection were evaluated. Overall, mean lung function values were slightly lower than normal predicted values. The majority of participants ranked using respiratory protection as very important (51.9%); however, actual self-reported behavior was low (16.7%). In bivariate analysis, associations between the importance of wearing respiratory protection and the number of poultry houses (P=.04), as well as using a respirator and the number of poultry houses (P=.01) were statistically significant. Improved educational opportunities, including fit-testing and proper respiratory selection, should be emphasized for workers at small, poultry farm operations.
Yan, Shuxian; Xu, Feng; Yang, Chunxue; Li, Fei; Fan, Jing; Wang, Linggao; Cai, Minqiang; Zhu, Jianfeng; Kan, Haidong; Xu, Jinhua
Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women). Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products. PMID:25794187
Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Madson, Michael B.; Ricedorf, Amy
Previous research has shown that protective behavioral strategies tend to be associated with lower levels of alcohol consumption and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem would moderate the association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related outcomes.…
Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil
White, non-Hispanic college students tend to drink more alcohol and experience more negative consequences than African American college students. However, racial differences have not been examined for protective behavioral strategies. This study examined whether race and gender moderated the associations that protective behavioral strategies had with alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences. In general, the use of protective behavioral strategies were associated with greater deceases in consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences for White, non-Hispanic students than African American students, which suggests important racial differences related to protective strategy use. Research and clinical implications are provided.
Xing, Ming-luan; Zhou, Xu-dong; Yuan, Wei-ming; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Mei-bian; Zou, Hua; Zhao, Hai-ying
To apply theory of reasoned action at survey on welding workers occupational health protection behaviors and explore related influencing factors. nine companies were randomly selected from areas with many welding works in Zhejiang Province. All welding workers were surveyed using a questionnaire based on theory of reasoned action. 10.06%, 26.80% and 37.50% of the respondents never or seldom used eyeshade, mask and earplug, respectively. After controlling the socio-demographic factors, welding workers' behavioral belief was correlated with the behaviors of eyeshade-mask and earplug use (χ(2) = 31.88, 18.77 and 37.77, P welding worker occupational health related behaviors. It is useful to improve occupational health education, to effectively select health education objective and to tailor health education contents.
F. A. Romaniouk
Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to mathematical modeling of a transformer substation with protected electric power lines. It is proposed to use systems of dynamic modeling for investigations applying a method of calculative experiment with the purpose to evaluate behavior of protection and automation at short circuits. The paper contains comparison of results obtained with the help of program-simulated complex on the basis of a complex mathematical model of an object and with the help of dynamic modeling system – MathLab.
Bravo, Adrian J; Anthenien, Amber M; Prince, Mark A; Pearson, Matthew R
Given that both marijuana use and cannabis use disorder peak among college students, it is imperative to determine the factors that may reduce risk of problematic marijuana use and/or the development of cannabis use disorder. From a harm reduction perspective, the present study examined whether the use of marijuana protective behavioral strategies (PBS) buffers or amplifies the effects of several distinct risk and protective factors that have been shown to relate to marijuana-related outcomes (i.e., use frequency and consequences). Specifically, we examined marijuana-PBS use as a moderator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits, marijuana use motives, gender, and marijuana use frequency on marijuana-related outcomes in a large sample of college students (n=2093 past month marijuana users across 11 universities). In all models PBS use was robustly related with use frequency and consequences (i.e., strongly negatively associated with marijuana outcomes). Among interactions, we found: 1) unique significant interactions between specific impulsivity-like traits (i.e., premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking) and marijuana-PBS use in predicting marijuana consequences, 2) unique significant interactions between each marijuana use motive and marijuana-PBS use in predicting marijuana use frequency and 3) marijuana-PBS use buffered the risk associated with male gender in predicting both marijuana outcomes. Our results suggest that marijuana-PBS use can buffer risk factors and enhance protective factors among marijuana using college students. Future research is needed to understand context-specific factors and individual-level factors that may make marijuana-PBS use more effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... are some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed ...
Willis, Katie L
The hearing of turtles is poorly understood compared with the other reptiles. Although the mechanism of transduction of sound into a neural signal via hair cells has been described in detail, the rest of the auditory system is largely a black box. What is known is that turtles have higher hearing thresholds than other reptiles, with best frequencies around 500 Hz. They also have lower underwater hearing thresholds than those in air, owing to resonance of the middle ear cavity. Further studies demonstrated that all families of turtles and tortoises share a common middle ear cavity morphology, with scaling best suited to underwater hearing. This supports an aquatic origin of the group. Because turtles hear best under water, it is important to examine their vulnerability to anthropogenic noise. However, the lack of basic data makes such experiments difficult because only a few species of turtles have published audiograms. There are also almost no behavioral data available (understandable due to training difficulties). Finally, few studies show what kinds of sounds are behaviorally relevant. One notable paper revealed that the Australian snake-necked turtle (Chelodina oblonga) has a vocal repertoire in air, at the interface, and under water. Findings like these suggest that there is more to the turtle aquatic auditory scene than previously thought.
Full Text Available The potential of Community Involvement as a protective factor (youth asset for eight adolescent risk behaviors was examined in this study. Cross-sectional data were collected from a randomly-selected population using in-home, in-person interviews in racially diverse inner-city neighborhoods of two Midwestern cities. Research participants were teenagers (n=1,278 and parents of the teenagers (n=1,278. Data included demographic variables; eight adolescent risk behaviors, including sexual activity, violence and the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs. This study found youth with the Community Involvement asset were significantly (p
Maymone, Mayra B C; Neamah, Hind H; Wirya, Stephen A; Patzelt, Nicole M; Zancanaro, Pedro Q; Vashi, Neelam A
Disorders of hyperpigmentation are seen commonly in clinical practice. Despite numerous studies investigating sun-protective habits among healthy persons, little is known about these behaviors within patient populations with hyperpigmentation disorders. We sought to examine photo-protective behaviors and their associations in individuals with disorders of hyperpigmentation. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 404 adults who complained of cutaneous hyperpigmentation. About 67.5% reported using a product containing sunscreen, and 91% endorsed using one with a sun protection factor of 21 or higher. Among the participants, 48.5% were not sure if their sunscreen provided broad-spectrum protection, and only 7.6% reapplied every 2 hours. The odds of a patient with melasma using sunscreen were 6.7 times the odds of a patient with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation using sunscreen (P < .001). Additional predictors for sunscreen use were female sex (OR = 3.8, P = .0004) and disease duration of ≥1 year (OR = 2.1, P = .003). In a multivariate analysis, the odds ratio of sunscreen use among African Americans compared to whites was 0.31 (P = .008). Limitations included recall bias, question misinterpretation, and reporter bias. Patients diagnosed with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, men, and those with disease duration <1 year reported lower sunscreen usage. These groups might benefit from increased counseling on sun-protective behaviors. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Youn, Seounmi; Hall, Kimberly
Survey data from 395 high school students revealed that girls perceive more privacy risks and have a higher level of privacy concerns than boys. Regarding privacy protection behaviors, boys tended to read unsolicited e-mail and register for Web sites while directly sending complaints in response to unsolicited e-mail. This study found girls to provide inaccurate information as their privacy concerns increased. Boys, however, refrained from registering to Web sites as their concerns increased.
Barry, Adam; Madson, Michael; Moorer, Kayla; Christman, Kaila
Little research examines protective behavioral strategies (PBS) use among college high-risk drinking sub-groups. A secondary data analysis of the 2011 National College Health Assessment (n = 18,483 drinkers [13% Greek]) revealed fraternity and sorority members used PBS significantly (p < 0.001) less and reported significantly (p < 0.001)…
Linden, Ashley N.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J.
An extensive body of research asserts alcohol expectancies, or beliefs regarding the effects of alcohol, as an important influence on drinking. However, the extent to which expectancies are related to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) has yet to be examined. Existing alcohol mediational models suggest associations between expectancies and drinking motives as well as positive drinking motives and PBS use. Thus, it is possible that drinking motives and PBS use act as i...
Verroen, Stephan; Gutteling, Jan M; De Vries, Peter W
In times of a high-impact safety incident citizens may have a variety of sources available to help them cope with the situation. This research focuses on the interplay of efficacy information in risk communication messages and peer feedback, such as responses on social network sites (SNSs) in the context of a high-impact risk on the intention to engage in self-protective behavior. The study pitted high and low efficacy information messages against supporting and opposing peer feedback (N = 242). Results show a significant interaction effect between efficacy information in a news article and peer feedback from SNS messages on both the intention to engage in self-protective behavior and levels of involvement. Participants who received the article with more efficacy information and also received supportive peer feedback via SNS messages were more likely to express higher levels of involvement and greater intentions to engage in protective behavior. When confronted with a low efficacious news article, the effect of peer feedback on these two variables was significantly stronger. Finally, implications for theory and government risk communication are discussed. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
Full Text Available Purpose. Skin protection behaviors and environmental exposure play a crucial role in the development and subsequent management of melanoma. This study investigates gender-based differences in skin protection behaviors after melanoma treatment. Methods. Patients diagnosed and surgically treated for cutaneous melanomas over the last six years in a geographically high risk area were surveyed over telephone using a standardized script. Results. Of 150 survey results obtained, there were 82 males and 68 females. Overall, 87% of participants reported skin self-examination for abnormal markings more often and 94% reported wearing skin protective clothing more often, with females being more than males. Females limited outdoor activity more often than males, 79% to 54%, p<0.05. When outside, females sought shade more often than males, 75% to 56%, p<0.05. However, males wore a wide brim hat more often than females, 52% to 28%, p<0.05. Interestingly, 60% of participants reported wearing SPF 30 sunscreen less often, p<0.05. Conclusion. Larger percentage of females adopted behavioral changes to prevent future melanoma. Those living in high risk areas and with outdoor occupations need particular attention to skin care. Population based screening should be adopted to deal with this rising public health crisis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia. Methods From October 2007 to January 2008, we collected data from 1,049 students aged 14 to 20 years. Risky sexual behavior was measured using a scale consisting of four items: sexual intercourse during the past three months, number of sex partners during the past three months, age at first experience of sexual intercourse, and use of condom in last sexual intercourse. The risk factors examined included substance use, depression, peer delinquency, family violence, and community violence. Studied protective factors included family support function, frequency of family dinner, and school attachment. Results Of the 1,049 students surveyed, 12.7% reported sexual intercourse during the past three months. Out of those sexually active students, 34.6% reported having two or more sex partners over the same period, and 52.6% did not use a condom during their last sexual intercourse. After controlling for other covariates, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated among male participants with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of peer delinquency, and higher family income. In contrast, risky sexual behavior did not retain its associations with any of the measured protective factors among male participants. Among female participants, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of community-violence witnessing, and lower levels of family support. Conclusions The findings suggest the importance of considering
Yi, Siyan; Poudel, Krishna C; Yasuoka, Junko; Palmer, Paula H; Yi, Songky; Jimba, Masamine
In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia. From October 2007 to January 2008, we collected data from 1,049 students aged 14 to 20 years. Risky sexual behavior was measured using a scale consisting of four items: sexual intercourse during the past three months, number of sex partners during the past three months, age at first experience of sexual intercourse, and use of condom in last sexual intercourse. The risk factors examined included substance use, depression, peer delinquency, family violence, and community violence. Studied protective factors included family support function, frequency of family dinner, and school attachment. Of the 1,049 students surveyed, 12.7% reported sexual intercourse during the past three months. Out of those sexually active students, 34.6% reported having two or more sex partners over the same period, and 52.6% did not use a condom during their last sexual intercourse. After controlling for other covariates, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated among male participants with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of peer delinquency, and higher family income. In contrast, risky sexual behavior did not retain its associations with any of the measured protective factors among male participants. Among female participants, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of community-violence witnessing, and lower levels of family support. The findings suggest the importance of considering gender-related differences in the effects of risk and protective factors
Balaban, V; Stauffer, W; Hammad, A; Afgarshe, M; Abd-Alla, M; Ahmed, Q; Memish, Z; Saba, J; Harton, E; Palumbo, G; Marano, N
Respiratory-borne infectious diseases can spread rapidly at mass gatherings. The 2009 Hajj took place during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. This study investigates factors associated with compliance with recommended influenza A (H1N1)-related health practices and behaviors among American pilgrims to the 2009 Hajj: receiving seasonal influenza vaccinations, receiving influenza A (H1N1) vaccinations, and behaviors intended to mitigate respiratory illness. American residents from Minnesota and Michigan completed anonymous surveys prior to and following travel to the 2009 Hajj. Surveys assessed demographics; knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) related to influenza A (H1N1); seasonal and H1N1 vaccinations; health-seeking behaviors; sources of health information; and protective behaviors during the Hajj. Pre- and post-travel surveys were completed by 186 participants. Receiving seasonal influenza vaccination was reported by 138 (63%) respondents, and 80 (36%) reported receiving an influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. One hundred forty-four (79%) respondents reported engaging in protective behaviors during the Hajj to prevent illness. In multivariable models, greater perceived severity of influenza A (H1N1) before traveling was associated with: seasonal influenza vaccination (OR=1.74, 95% CI=1.14-2.62, p=.01), influenza A (H1N1) vaccination (OR=2.02, 95% CI=1.35-3.02, p=.001), and engaging in protective behaviors during the Hajj (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.00-2.63, p=.003). This study found that accurate knowledge of influenza A (H1N1) symptoms, transmission, and prevention was associated with greater perceived severity of influenza A (H1N1); and perceived influenza A (H1N1) severity was associated with engaging in recommended protective health practices. Understanding the barriers to and facilitators of compliance with recommended behaviors can help guide the development of tailored outreach strategies to mitigate the impact and spread of respiratory disease. Copyright © 2013
... of hearing loss. Hearing loss can have a negative effect on communication, relationships, school/work performance, and emotional ... the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the ... in Effect Guidance Document: Conditions for Sale for Air-Conduction ...
Christensen, Christian Bech; Madsen, Peter Teglberg; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob
Recent research has shown that tympanic middle ears evolved independently in the major vertebrate groups and represent independent experiments in terrestrial hearing. Furthermore, the tympanic ear emerged quite late – ap - proximately 120 mya after the origin of the tetrapods and approximately 70...... my after the first truly terrestrial tetrapods emerged. One of the major challenges is to understand the transitional stages from tetrapod ancestors to the tympanic tetrapod ear, for example how a non-tympanic ear functions in terrestrial hearing. Lungfish are the closest living relatives...... and urodeles. Based on ABR and vibration measurements also on amphib - ians, lizards, snakes and alligators we can outline scenarios for the initial adaptations of the middle ear to non-tympanic hearing and assess the selection pressures later adapting the middle ear for tympanic hearing. Hearing by bone...
Diao, Diana Y; Lee, Tim K
Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes. PMID:24379732
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony
Preliminary studies with homeless youth find surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest youths’ online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical first step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media especially as it relates to whom they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of Social Networking Sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult to reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N=1046) were recruited through three drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether or not they engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed. PMID:27337044
Su, Brooke M; Chan, Dylan K
There have been concerns about increasing levels of hearing impairment in children and adolescents, especially in relation to noise exposure, because even mild levels of hearing loss can affect educational outcomes. To further characterize changes in prevalence of hearing loss and noise exposures in the US pediatric population over time. This is a retrospective analysis of demographic and audiometric data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994), NHANES 2005-2006, NHANES 2007-2008, and NHANES 2009-2010. The NHANES are nationally representative survey data sets collected and managed by the US National Center for Health Statistics, and this study includes a total of 7036 survey participants ages 12 to 19 years with available audiometric measurements. Hearing-related behaviors and risk factors such as history of ear infections, noise exposures, firearm use, and hearing protection use. Level of hearing loss measured by pure-tone audiometry, as well as high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss and noise-induced threshold shifts. Overall, data from 7036 survey participants ages 12 to 19 years with available audiometric measurements were analyzed. The prevalence of hearing loss increased from NHANES III to NHANES 2007-2008 (17.0% to 22.5% for >15 dB hearing loss; absolute difference, 5.5%; 95% CI, 6.1%-10.3%) but decreased in the NHANES 2009-2010 to 15.2% (absolute difference, 7.2%; 95% CI, 2.0%-12.4%) with no significant overall secular trend identified. There was an overall rise in exposure to loud noise or music through headphones 24 hours prior to audiometric testing from NHANES III to NHANES 2009-2010. However, noise exposure, either prolonged or recent, was not consistently associated with an increased risk of hearing loss across all surveys. The most recent survey cycle showed that nonwhite race/ethnicity and low socioeconomic status are independent risk factors for hearing loss. This analysis did not identify
Full Text Available Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women. Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p < 0.05. Fifty-five percent of the participants never use an umbrella under sunlight, only 26.5% of the respondents wear hats, and 21.3% of the participants applied sunscreen. Females and individuals of a younger age and higher education level were more likely to perform sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p < 0.001. Conclusion: There is a deficit in the use of sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products.
Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident. 19 references.
Cavender, Anna; Ladner, Richard E.
For many people with hearing impairments, the degree of hearing loss is only a small aspect of their disability and does not necessarily determine the types of accessibility solutions or accommodations that may be required. For some people, the ability to adjust the audio volume may be sufficient. For others, translation to a signed language may be more appropriate. For still others, access to text alternatives may be the best solution. Because of these differences, it is important for researchers in Web accessibility to understand that people with hearing impairments may have very different cultural-linguistic traditions and personal backgrounds.
Ex vivo experiments have strangely shown that inhibition or stimulation of NAD metabolism can be neuroprotective. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Brown et al. (2014) demonstrate that cochlear NAD is diminished by deafening noise but protected by nicotinamide riboside or WldS mutation. Hearing protection by nicotinamide riboside depends on Sirt3. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mariola Sliwinska-Kowalska; Adrian Davis
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English), which were identified by a literature search of accessible medic...
Nguyen, Norma; Walters, Scott T; Wyatt, Todd M; DeJong, William
This study examined patterns and correlates of protective drinking behaviors among incoming first-year college students. Incoming first-year students (n=76,882) from 258 colleges across the U.S. provided baseline data on demographics, drinking practices, and protective behaviors as part of a web-based alcohol education program. Across the several colleges, responses to protective behavior questions were collected from seven weeks before the start of the school year to five weeks after. Factor analysis identified three protective behavior sub-factors: Limit Drinking, Avoid Drinking and Driving, and Intent to Get Drunk. Both Limit Drinking and Avoid Drinking and Driving generally declined over the course of the data collection period while Intent to Get Drunk and peak blood alcohol concentration increased immediately after the start of school. In multiple regression analyses, the number of heavy drinking episodes in the past two weeks had a strong negative association with a Total Protective Behavior Score and the Limit Drinking Score, and a positive association with the Intent to Get Drunk Score. With the exception of the Intent to Get Drunk Score, women were more likely to use protective behaviors than men. Underage drinkers used protective behaviors less often than their of-age peers, though the effect was small. Race/ethnicity, time to matriculation, and intent to join/membership in a fraternity/sorority had negligible effects on protective behavior scores. College students increase risky drinking after the start of school while progressively using fewer behaviors that might mitigate the consequences of drinking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cort, David A; Tu, Hsin Fei
How are people's expression of HIV stigma beliefs connected to their own personal decisions concerning safe sexual practices? Does this relationship vary across countries and by the national context in which people reside? To answer these questions, we develop and test individual, contextual, and cross-level interactional hypotheses of the impact of instrumental HIV stigma attitudes on several measures of protective sexual behavior. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 467,656 unpartnered individuals across 34 sub-Saharan African countries, we first find that counterintuitively, conservative HIV stigma attitudes are associated with lower likelihoods of participating in all types of protective sexual behaviors. Second, this negative relationship is most pronounced in the Southern and Eastern regions of Africa, where HIV prevalence is highest. Together, these findings suggest that stigma beliefs can shape private behaviors in counterintuitive yet important ways that have profound implications for current epidemiological and public health approaches to slowing the spread of HIV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rahne, Torsten; Ehelebe, Thomas
Patients suffering from conductive or mixed hearing loss may benefit from bone-conduction hearing systems (BAHS). The amount of amplification provided by the hearing system is selected based on the individual’s sensorineural frequency-specific threshold. With patients who are not able to provide thresholds behaviorally, such as young children, objective methods are required to estimate the unaided and aided hearing threshold and thus the success of the hearing system fitting. In a prospective...
Borowsky, Iris Wagman; Taliaferro, Lindsay A; McMorris, Barbara J
To identify risk and protective factors associated with thinking about or attempting suicide among youth involved in verbal and social bullying. We analyzed data on 130,908 students in the sixth, ninth, and twelfth grades responding to the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey. Among students involved in frequent bullying (once a week or more during the past 30 days), we compared those who did and did not report suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt during the past year. Separate analyses were conducted for perpetrators only, victims only, and bully-victims. Overall, 6.1% of students reported frequent perpetration only, 9.6% frequent victimization only, and 3.1% both. Suicidal thinking or a suicide attempt was reported by 22% of perpetrators only, 29% of victims only, and 38% of bully-victims. In logistic regression models controlling for demographic and other risk and protective factors, a history of self-injury and emotional distress were risk factors that cross-cut the three bullying involvement groups. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, a mental health problem, and running away from home were additional risk factors for perpetrators only and victims only. Parent connectedness was a cross-cutting protective factor, whereas stronger perceived caring by friends and by nonparental adults were additional protective factors for some groups. A range of risk and protective factors were associated with suicidal ideation and a suicide attempt among youth involved in verbal and social bullying. Findings may assist in identifying youth at increased risk for suicidal thinking and behavior and in promoting key protective factors. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... known as noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) . Personal music players are among the chief culprits of NIHL ...
the federal standard. Footnote** See Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.95 "Occupational Noise Exposure." (Back to text) | USDOL | CONTACT INFORMATION | DISCLAIMER | 15 of 15 OSHA 3074 - Hearing Conservation
Full Text Available We studied the relationship between investor protection, government behavior, and financial development using data covering six provinces (Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Zhejiang, Henan, and Sichuan and two provincial-level cities (Beijing and Shanghai in China for the period 2005–2014. Using panel data estimation techniques, we found that there is a positive relationship between investor protection and financial development; by contrast, highly-intense government intervention leads to more financial impediments. Moreover, government intervention in education could promote financial development through its contribution to having a higher amount of the fund supply. Our empirical findings have important implications for policy-makers in terms of reforming the capital market regulation.
Huggins, Suzanne Perrigue; Rooney, Mary E; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
This study examined the extent to which ADHD was associated with risky sexual behaviors (RSBs) in a sample of 92 undergraduates with (n = 44) and without (n = 48) ADHD. Mother-child relationship quality was examined as a potential moderator. We conducted comprehensive assessments for ADHD and comorbid conditions and collected measures of RSB and mother-child relationship quality. Female students with ADHD were least likely to use condoms than males overall and females without ADHD. An interaction between ADHD and mother-child relationship quality accounted for significant variance in the number of past-year sexual partners, such that a high-quality relationship was protective only for students with ADHD. No other significant associations were found between ADHD and RSB. Results suggest that female college students with ADHD are at risk for unprotected sex. Moreover, a positive mother-child relationship may be protective for college students with ADHD in relation to RSB. © 2012 SAGE Publications.
Luebbe, Aaron M.; Varvel, Shiloh; Dude, Kim
Transactional associations of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and risk-amplifying behaviors (RAB) to alcohol-related negative consequences were tested. A sample of 138 undergraduate women was assessed with self-report measures at two time points four months apart. Over and above quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, engagement in…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the impact of self-regulatory planning in health and dietary behavior focus on the promotion of health protective behaviors. This study investigates and compares the predictive value of action planning in health protective behavior and the restriction of health risk behavior. Methods Two longitudinal observational studies were performed simultaneously, one focusing on fruit consumption (N = 572 and one on high-caloric snack consumption (N = 585 in Dutch adults. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate and compare the predictive value of action planning in both behaviors, correcting for demographics and the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The nature of the influence of action planning was investigated by testing mediating and moderating effects. Results Action planning was a significant predictor of fruit consumption and restricted snack consumption beyond the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The strength of the predictive value of action planning did not differ between the two behaviors. Evidence for mediation of the intention - behavior relationship was found for both behaviors. Positive moderating effects of action planning were demonstrated for fruit consumption, indicating that individuals who report high levels of action planning are significantly more likely to translate their intentions into actual behavior. Conclusion The results indicate that the planning of specific preparatory actions predicts the performance of healthy dietary behavior and support the application of self-regulatory planning in both health protective and health
Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md
This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents' risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia.
Kerekes, Nóra; Falk, Örjan; Brändström, Sven; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Råstam, Maria; Hofvander, Björn
Childhood aggressive antisocial behavior (CD) is one of the strongest predictors of mental health problems and criminal behavior in adulthood. The aims of this study were to describe personality profiles in children with CD, and to determine the strength of association between defined neurodevelopmental symptoms, dimensions of character maturity and CD. A sample of 1886 children with a close to equal distribution of age (9 or 12) and gender, enriched for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems were selected from the nationwide Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. Their parents rated them according to the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory following a telephone interview during which information about the children's development and mental health was assessed with the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory. Scores on the CD module significantly and positively correlated with scores on the Novelty Seeking temperament dimension and negatively with scores on character maturity (Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness). In the group of children with either neurodevelopmental or behavioral problems, the prevalence of low or very low character maturity was 50%, while when these two problems coexisted the prevalence of low or very low character maturity increased to 70%. Neurodevelopmental problems (such as: oppositional defiant disorder, symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder) and low scores on character maturity emerged as independently significant predictors of CD; in a multivariable model, only oppositional defiant symptoms and impulsivity significantly increased the risk for coexisting CD while a mature self-agency in a child (Self-Directedness) remained a significant protective factor. These results suggest that children's willpower, the capacity to achieve personally chosen goals may be an important protective factor - even in the presence of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems - against
Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md
Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359
Full Text Available Diana Y Diao,1 Tim K Lee1,21Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Cancer Control Research Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes.Keywords: skin cancer, melanoma, risk, prevention, behaviour
Guerrero, Lourdes R; Dudovitz, Rebecca; Chung, Paul J; Dosanjh, Kulwant K; Wong, Mitchell D
Grit, defined as "working strenuously toward challenges, maintaining effort and interest over years despite failure, adversity, and plateaus in progress," is strongly associated with academic achievement and life success and may also be associated with health outcomes and behaviors. We examined predictors of grit, and the association between grit and health behaviors among at-risk Latino adolescents. We analyzed baseline survey data collected in 2013-2014 from a sample of 1270 9th graders in low-income neighborhoods of Los Angeles. We examined factors associated with grit and whether grit is associated with substance use and delinquent behaviors, controlling for adolescent and parent sociodemographic factors. In a sample of mostly Latino adolescents (89.5%), compared to those with low grit, those with high grit had significantly lower odds of alcohol use in the last 30 days (odds ratio 0.30, P parenting style, parental employment, and high self-efficacy scores. Grit may be an important candidate protective factor against substance use and other risk behaviors among Latino adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Hearing Loss Homepage Facts Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Genetics of Hearing Loss Screening & Diagnosis Types of Hearing Loss About Sound Treatment & Intervention Services Learning Language Bacterial Meningitis Studies Data & Statistics EHDI Annual Data 2015 ...
... Hearing Loss Homepage Facts Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Genetics of Hearing Loss Screening & Diagnosis Types of Hearing Loss About Sound Treatment & Intervention Services Learning Language Bacterial Meningitis Studies Data & Statistics EHDI Annual Data 2015 ...
... Weight for Me? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs What's Hearing Loss? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Hearing Loss? Print ... problem can also develop later in life. How Hearing Works To understand how and why hearing loss ...
Thomsen, Edward K; Koimbu, Gussy; Pulford, Justin; Jamea-Maiasa, Sharon; Ura, Yangta; Keven, John B; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo; Hetzel, Manuel W; Reimer, Lisa J
Behavioral resilience in mosquitoes poses a significant challenge to mosquito control. Although behavior changes in anopheline vectors have been reported over the last decade, there are no empirical data to suggest they compromise the efficacy of vector control in reducing malaria transmission. In this study, we quantified human exposure to both bites and infective bites of a major malaria vector in Papua New Guinea over the course of 4 years surrounding nationwide bednet distribution. We also quantified malaria infection prevalence in the human population during the same time period. We observed a shift in mosquito biting to earlier hours of the evening, before individuals are indoors and protected by bednets, followed by a return to preintervention biting rates. As a result, net users and non-net users experienced higher levels of transmission than before the intervention. The personal protection provided by a bednet decreased over the study period and was lowest in the adult population, who may be an important reservoir for transmission. Malaria prevalence decreased in only 1 of 3 study villages after the distribution. This study highlights the necessity of validating and deploying vector control measures targeting outdoor exposure to control and eliminate malaria.
Pearson, Matthew R
Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) are specific behaviors one can utilize to minimize the harmful consequences of alcohol consumption. Recently, there has been an increasing amount of interest in use of PBS among college students, especially as an intervention target. The purpose of the present comprehensive review of the PBS literature was to examine the measurement of PBS and summarize the quantitative relationships between PBS use and other variables. The review found inconsistency across studies in terms of how the use of PBS is operationalized and found only two PBS measures with good psychometric properties that have been replicated. Although several antecedents to PBS use were identified, most were only examined in single studies. Moderators of the predictive effects of PBS use on outcomes have similarly suffered from lack of replication in the literature. Of all 62 published reports reviewed, 80% reported only cross-sectional data, which is unfortunate given that PBS use may change over time and in different contexts. In addition, only two attempted to minimize potential recall biases associated with retrospective assessment of PBS use, and only two used an approach that allowed the examination of both within-subject and between-subject effects. In terms of the gaps in the literature, there is a dearth of longitudinal studies of PBS use, especially intensive longitudinal studies, which are integral to identifying more specifically how, when, and for whom use of PBS can be protective. © 2013.
Small, Meg L; Morgan, Nicole; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Maggs, Jennifer L
Recent studies suggest that parents maintain influence as their adolescents transition into college. Advances in communication technology make frequent communication between parents and college students easy and affordable. This study examines the protective effect of parent-college student communication on student eating and physical activity behaviors. Participants were 746 first-year, first-time, full-time students at a large university in the United States who completed a baseline and 14 daily web-based surveys. On days when students communicated with their parents for 30 minutes or more, they consumed fruits and vegetables, an additional 14%, more times and were 50% more likely to engage in 30 minutes or more of physical activity, consistent with a protective within-person effect. Encouraging parents to communicate with their college-aged children could improve these students' daily eating and physical activity behaviors and should be explored as a relatively easy and affordable component of a student preventive intervention. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pearson, Matthew R.
Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) are specific behaviors one can utilize to minimize the harmful consequences of alcohol consumption. Recently, there has been an increasing amount of interest in use of PBS among college students, especially as an intervention target. The purpose of the present comprehensive review of the PBS literature was to examine the measurement of PBS and summarize the quantitative relationships between PBS use and other variables. The review found inconsistency across studies in terms of how use of PBS is operationalized and found only two PBS measures with good psychometric properties that have been replicated. Although several antecedents to PBS use were identified, most were only examined in single studies. Moderators of the predictive effects of PBS use on outcomes have similarly suffered from a lack of replication in the literature. Of all 62 published reports reviewed, 80% reported only cross-sectional data, which is unfortunate given that PBS use may change over time and in different contexts. In addition, only two attempted to minimize potential recall biases associated with retrospective assessment of PBS use, and only two used an approach that allowed the examination of both within-subject and between-subject effects. In terms of the gaps in the literature, there is a dearth of longitudinal studies of PBS use, especially intensive longitudinal studies, which are integral to identifying more specifically how, when, and for whom use of PBS can be protective. PMID:24036089
Benton, Stephen L; Downey, Ronald G; Glider, Peggy J; Benton, Sherry A
This study examined whether college students' descriptive norm perceptions of protective behavioral drinking strategies explain variance in use of such strategies, controlling for covariates of students' gender, typical number of drinks, and negative drinking consequences. Derivation (n = 7,960; 55.2% women) and replication (n = 8,534; 54.5% women) samples of undergraduate students completed the Campus Alcohol Survey in classroom settings. Students estimated how frequently other students used each of nine protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and how frequently they themselves used each strategy. All items assessing norm perception of PBS (NPPBS) had pattern matrix coefficients exceeding .50 on a single factor, and all contributed to the overall scale reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .81). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated NPPBS explained significant variance in PBS, controlling for covariates, and explained an additional 7% of variance (p students believed peers used PBS less frequently than they themselves did (eta(p) (2) = .091, p students-especially women-underestimate how frequently other students use PBS. Such norm misperception may enhance students' feelings of competence and self-esteem. The positive relationship between NPPBS and PBS indicates students with high NPPBS are more likely to use the strategies themselves.
Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami
There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school violence…
Bockarjova, M.; Steg, L.
Scholars have proposed that the Protection Motivation Theory provides a valuable framework to explain pro-environmental choices, by employing a wide set of predictors, such as the costs and benefits of current (maladaptive) behavior as well as prospective adaptive behavior. However, no comprehensive
Peacey, Victoria; Steptoe, Andrew; Sandennan, Robbert; Wardle, Jane; Sanderman, R.
Objective. Sun protection behaviors are important to the prevention of skin cancers, but little is known about changes over time in attitudes and behavior. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out among university students in thirteen European countries in 1990 (n = 10,241) and 2000 (n =
Punt, M.J.; Weikard, H.P.; Ierland, van E.C.; Stel, J.H.
In this paper we investigate effects of overlap in species between ecosystems along a linear gradient on the location of marine protected areas (MPAs) under full cooperation, strategic behavior and conservation autarky. Compared to the full cooperation outcome, both strategic behavior and
Bockarjova, M.; Steg, L.
Scholars have proposed that the Protection Motivation Theory provides a valuable framework to explain pro-environmental choices, by employing a wide set of predictors, such as the costs and benefits of current (maladaptive) behavior as well as prospective adaptive behavior. However, no comprehensive
Saeri, Alexander K; Ogilvie, Claudette; La Macchia, Stephen T; Smith, Joanne R; Louis, Winnifred R
The present research adopts an extended theory of the planned behavior model that included descriptive norms, risk, and trust to investigate online privacy protection in Facebook users. Facebook users (N = 119) completed a questionnaire assessing their attitude, subjective injunctive norm, subjective descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, implicit perceived risk, trust of other Facebook users, and intentions toward protecting their privacy online. Behavior was measured indirectly 2 weeks after the study. The data show partial support for the theory of planned behavior and strong support for the independence of subjective injunctive and descriptive norms. Risk also uniquely predicted intentions over and above the theory of planned behavior, but there were no unique effects of trust on intentions, nor of risk or trust on behavior. Implications are discussed.
Blankenship, Philip A; Cheatwood, Joseph L; Wallace, Douglas G
Spatial and temporal information processing provide a foundation for higher cognitive functions. The survival of animals depends on integrating spatial and temporal information to organize behavior. In general, previous research has focused on only one source of information processing; however, there is evidence to support a convergence in the processing of egocentric-spatial and temporal information within a cortico-striatal system of structures. The current study evaluated the contributions of the dorsocentral striatum (DCS) to egocentric-spatial and temporal (within the seconds-to-minutes range) processing of information using a food protection task. Long-Evans rats received unilateral NMDA lesions of the DCS followed by testing in a food protection task. Performance in this task is mediated by the motivation of the animal to consume a food item, their perception of the time required to consume a food item, their sensory ability to process egocentric cues, and their motor ability to evade an incoming conspecific. Unilateral DCS lesions were shown to impact both spatial and temporal characteristics of food protection. These results suggest that the DCS may be a critical structure for the integration of egocentric-spatial and temporal information within the interval timing range.
Netten, Anouk P.; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Frijns, Johan H. M.
Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the level of empathy in deaf and hard of hearing (pre)adolescents compared to normal hearing controls and to define the influence of language and various hearing loss characteristics on the development of empathy. Methods The study group (mean age 11.9 years) consisted of 122 deaf and hard of hearing children (52 children with cochlear implants and 70 children with conventional hearing aids) and 162 normal hearing children. The two groups were compared using self-reports, a parent-report and observation tasks to rate the children’s level of empathy, their attendance to others’ emotions, emotion recognition, and supportive behavior. Results Deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than normal hearing children, regardless of their type of hearing device. The level of emotion recognition was equal in both groups. During observations, deaf and hard of hearing children showed more attention to the emotion evoking events but less supportive behavior compared to their normal hearing peers. Deaf and hard of hearing children attending mainstream education or using oral language show higher levels of cognitive empathy and prosocial motivation than deaf and hard of hearing children who use sign (supported) language or attend special education. However, they are still outperformed by normal hearing children. Conclusions Deaf and hard of hearing children, especially those in special education, show lower levels of empathy than normal hearing children, which can have consequences for initiating and maintaining relationships. PMID:25906365
Amy F. Bruce, MSN, RN, NE-BC
Full Text Available Skin cancer rates have risen over the past decades, making it imperative that adults understand the need for protection from sun exposure. Though some risk factors have been identified as predictive for skin cancers, there is a lack of synthesized information about factors that influence adults in their decisions to engage in sun protective behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of the science on influential factors for sun protective behaviors in the general adult population. A rigorous literature search inclusive of a generally White, Caucasian, and non-Hispanic adult population was performed, and screening yielded 18 quantitative studies for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that modifiable and non-modifiable factors are interdependent and play a role in sun protective behaviors. This study resulted in a proposed conceptual model for affecting behavioral change in sun protection including the following factors: personal characteristics, cognitive factors, family dynamics, and social/peer group influences. These factors are introduced to propose tailored nursing interventions that would change current sun protective behavior practice. Key implications for nursing research and practice focus on feasibility of annual skin cancer screening facilitated by advanced practice nurses, incorporating the identified influential factors to reduce skin cancer risk and unnecessary sun exposure.
Villarosa, Margo C; Moorer, Kayla D; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J
The link between social anxiety and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students has been well documented. Protective behavioral strategies are cognitive-behavioral strategies that college students use in an effort to reduce harm while they are drinking. In the current study we examined the mediating role of the 2 categories of protective behavioral strategies (i.e., controlled consumption and serious harm reduction) in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 572 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, alcohol use, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Only serious harm reduction strategies emerged as a mediator of the association that social anxiety symptoms had with alcohol-related negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
Liam E. Browne
Full Text Available Potentially harmful stimuli are detected at the skin by nociceptor sensory neurons that drive rapid protective withdrawal reflexes and pain. We set out to define, at a millisecond timescale, the relationship between the activity of these sensory neurons and the resultant behavioral output. Brief optogenetic activation of cutaneous nociceptors was found to activate only a single action potential in each fiber. This minimal input was used to determine high-speed behavioral responses in freely behaving mice. The localized stimulus generated widespread dynamic repositioning and alerting sub-second behaviors whose nature and timing depended on the context of the animal and its position, activity, and alertness. Our findings show that the primary response to injurious stimuli is not limited, fixed, or localized, but is dynamic, and that it involves recruitment and gating of multiple circuits distributed throughout the central nervous system at a sub-second timescale to effectively both alert to the presence of danger and minimize risk of harm.
Serpanos, Yula C; Berg, Abbey L; Renne, Brittany
The purpose of this study was (a) to investigate the behaviors, knowledge, and motivators associated with personal listening device (PLD) use and (b) to determine the influence of different types of hearing health risk education information (text with or without visual images) on motivation to modify PLD listening use behaviors in young adults. College-age students (N = 523) completed a paper-and-pencil survey tapping their behaviors, knowledge, and motivation regarding listening to music or media at high volume using PLDs. Participants rated their motivation to listen to PLDs at lower volume levels following each of three information sets: text only, behind-the-ear hearing aid image with text, and inner ear hair cell damage image with text. Acoustically pleasing and emotional motives were the most frequently cited (38%-45%) reasons for listening to music or media using a PLD at high volume levels. The behind-the-ear hearing aid image with text information was significantly (p < .0001) more motivating to participants than text alone or the inner ear hair cell damage image with text. Evocative imagery using hearing aids may be an effective approach in hearing protective health campaigns for motivating safer listening practices with PLDs in young adults.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explain individuals’ engagement in sustainable waste management behaviors (SWMBs based on the application of protection motivation theory (PMT. SWMBs include waste avoidance, green purchasing, reuse and recycle, and waste disposal behaviors. Considering the amount of solid waste generation per capita per day during the past 10 years, the statistical records from the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA illustrate the increasing trend of solid waste generation from 1.18 kg per capita per day in 2005 to 1.28 kg per capita per day 2015. Many scholars have asserted that human beings should alter their behaviors to successfully reduce their environmental impact. Several environmental problems (e.g., air pollution, water pollution, and odors caused by waste disposal are consequences of human behaviors; therefore, citizens’ engagement in SWMBs should be widely promoted. This study applies PMT to explore how individuals’ SWMBs are influenced by their perceived threats caused by environmental contamination from waste disposal and their perceived coping capability. The Bangkok metropolitan area was selected as a case study because it has faced serious waste management problems, caused by increasing amounts of solid waste over the last ten years. Questionnaire surveys were administered to 193 public and private office workers residing in the city of Bangkok. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to justify the effects of individual threat appraisal and coping appraisal on SWMB engagement. The results illustrated that respondents’ self-efficacy could explain all types of SWMBs. On the contrary, response efficacy was not a significant predictor of all behaviors. People’s perceived severity of adverse consequences caused by pollutants could significantly explain their waste disposal and reuse and recycle behaviors, and the perceived probability of being impacted by pollutants could explain only reuse and
Despite all the HCP models and HPD types, noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) compensation statistics are still incredibly high. ... The article describes a new paradigm of personal (custom-made) hearing conservation based on individual risk profiles, personal hearing protection, and higher HPD/HCP standards to prevent ...
Abel, Sharon M
.... They also completed a 56-item questionnaire relating to demographics, occupational and non occupational noise exposure history, training in and utilization of personal hearing protection, and risk...
Full Text Available Background. Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in the United States (US. However, knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes regarding sun protection vary among the general population. The purpose of this study is to examine sun protection behaviors of low-income primary care patients and assess the association between these health behaviors and the self-efficacy, susceptibility, and skin cancer awareness. Methods. Uninsured primary care patients utilizing a free clinic (N=551 completed a self-administered survey in May and June 2015. Results. Using sunscreen was the least common tactic among the participants of this study. Skin cancer awareness and self-efficacy are important to improve sun protection behaviors. Spanish speakers may have lower levels of skin care awareness compared to US born and non-US born English speakers. Male and female participants use different sun protection methods. Conclusion. It is important to increase skin cancer awareness with self-efficacy interventions as well as education on low-cost sun protection methods. Spanish speaking patients would be a target population for promoting awareness. Male and female patients would need separate gender-specific sun protection education. Future studies should implement educational programs and assess the effectiveness of the programs to further promote skin cancer prevention among underserved populations.
Poulsen, Torben; Koskinen, Heli
that musicians are aware of the dangers of loud music, that they only use hearing protectors to some extent, and that hearing protector is sometimes used only in one ear. Musicians are concerned about their hearing and musicians that experience hearing problems use hearing protectors more frequently. At present......A questionnaire study was performed about the use of hearing protectors in Danish symphony orchestras. The musicians in three Danish symphony orchestras were asked to complete a questionnaire about their use of hearing protection. A total of 146 musicians filled in the questionnaire. Results showed...... an investigation is performed about the use of hearing aids as hearing protectors by symphony orchestra musicians. Preliminary results from this investigation will be presented at the conference....
Holloway, Ian W.; Dunlap, Shannon; del Pino, Homero E.; Hermanstyne, Keith; Pulsipher, Craig; Landovitz, Raphael J.
Online social networking refers to the use of internet-based technologies that facilitate connection and communication between users. These platforms may be accessed via computer or mobile device (e.g., tablet, smartphone); communication between users may include linking of profiles, posting of text, photo and video content, instant messaging and email. This review provides an overview of recent research on the relationship between online social networking and sexual risk and protective behaviors with a focus on use of social networking sites (SNS) among young people and populations at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While findings are mixed, the widespread use of SNS for sexual communication and partner seeking presents opportunities for the delivery and evaluation of public health interventions. Results of SNS-based interventions to reduce sexual risk are synthesized in order to offer hands-on advice for clinicians and researchers interested in engaging patients and study participants via online social networking. PMID:25642408
Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Ghosn, Louis J.
A high temperature damping test apparatus has been developed using a high heat flux CO 2 laser rig in conjunction with a TIRA S540 25 kHz Shaker and Polytec OFV 5000 Vibrometer system. The test rig has been successfully used to determine the damping performance of metallic and ceramic protective coating systems at high temperature for turbine engine applications. The initial work has been primarily focused on the microstructure and processing effects on the coating temperature-dependence damping behavior. Advanced ceramic coatings, including multicomponent tetragonal and cubic phase thermal barrier coatings, along with composite bond coats, have also been investigated. The coating high temperature damping mechanisms will also be discussed.
Holloway, Ian W; Dunlap, Shannon; Del Pino, Homero E; Hermanstyne, Keith; Pulsipher, Craig; Landovitz, Raphael J
Online social networking refers to the use of internet-based technologies that facilitate connection and communication between users. These platforms may be accessed via computer or mobile device (e.g., tablet, smartphone); communication between users may include linking of profiles, posting of text, photo and video content, instant messaging and email. This review provides an overview of recent research on the relationship between online social networking and sexual risk and protective behaviors with a focus on use of social networking sites (SNS) among young people and populations at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While findings are mixed, the widespread use of SNS for sexual communication and partner seeking presents opportunities for the delivery and evaluation of public health interventions. Results of SNS-based interventions to reduce sexual risk are synthesized in order to offer hands-on advice for clinicians and researchers interested in engaging patients and study participants via online social networking.
Aygun, Ozcan; Ergun, Ayse
The aim of this research was to adapt the Sun Protection Behavior Scale (SPBS) to Turkish and to perform validity and reliability analyses. The scale was administered to a total of 900 adolescents, the retest to 91 adolescents. The construct validity of the scale was evaluated using exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The EFA and CFA were applied to sample groups of 449 and 451 people, respectively. The Cronbach alpha coefficients for the Turkish form of the SPBS (α = .74) and its sunscreen (α = .88) and hat use (α = .70) subscales were found to be ≥.70 while the sun avoidance subscale was calculated to be .67. The item-total score correlation between the scale and its subscales was ≥.26 and the test-retest correlations were found to be ≥.51. The CFA results verified the 8-item, 3-factor Turkish version of the SPBS. The confirmatory factor loadings for the scale were .45-.80 for sun avoidance, .72-.93 for sunscreen use, and .66-.83 for hat use. In particular, SPBS and sunscreen use (p < .001) exhibited significantly high mean scores among girls and economically better backgrounds (p = .007, p < .001, respectively). In addition, SPBS (p = .004) and hat use (p < .001) revealed that the mean scores were significantly high in younger adolescents. The SPBS was found to be valid and reliable and its psychometric characteristics acceptable. The scale can be used to measure the behavior of Turkish adolescent populations with respect to sun protection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Walton, AnnMarie Lee; LePrevost, Catherine E; Linnan, Laura; Sanchez-Birkhead, Ana; Mooney, Kathi
Pesticide exposure is associated with deleterious health effects. Prior studies suggest Latino farmworkers perceive little control over their occupational health. Using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical guide, we explored the perceptions of Latino farmworkers working in tobacco in North Carolina (n = 72) about benefits and facilitators of pesticide protective behaviors as well as barriers, and strategies to overcome barriers to their use. Interviews were conducted with participants at farmworker housing during non-work time. Qualitative data were analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Farmworkers recognized pesticide protective behaviors as helping them to not get sick and stay healthy. Farmworkers perceived work experience as facilitating protective behaviors. Wetness in the field was the most commonly cited barrier to protective behavior use. To overcome this barrier, farmworkers suggested use of water-resistant outerwear, as well as packing a change of clothes for mid-day, with space and time to change provided by employers. Examination of the efficacy and feasibility of farmworkers' suggestions for addressing barriers is warranted. Training and behavior modeling by experienced peers may improve behavior adoption and perceived control.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the differences between the aspects of aggressive behavior, their strengths (protective factors in the prevention of behavioral disorders and academic achievement, in children within and out of institutional forms of education. The study was conducted on a sample of 264 students in seventh and eighth class of elementary school, of whom 134 were in institutional care, while 130 were outside the institutional forms of education. Data were collected by a questionnaire, which included two measuring instruments: Check-list of advantages and Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ. The children who live in institutional care showed a higher incidence of aggressive behavior, compared with children who are out of institutional care. Children placed in institutional care have less protective factors for the prevention of behavioral disorders, worse general school success, as well as poorer success in Nature/ Biology, compared to non-institutional children. A negative and statistically significant relationship was found between the incidence of aggressive behaviors and protective factors in the prevention of conduct disorder, as well as between the incidence of aggressive behavior and overall school success. A significant positive correlation was found between the protective factors and success in the English language. The results indicate the necessity to consider alternative forms of care for children without parental care, in close cooperation of all relevant institutions and individuals who take care for children.
Kumar, Anil; Dogra, Samrita; Prakash, Atish
Aluminium is a potent neurotoxin and has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) causality for decades. Prolonged aluminium exposure induces oxidative stress and increases amyloid beta levels in vivo. Current treatment modalities for AD provide only symptomatic relief thus necessitating the development of new drugs with fewer side effects. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the protective effect of chronic curcumin administration against aluminium-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats. Aluminium chloride (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered to rats daily for 6 weeks. Rats were concomitantly treated with curcumin (per se; 30 and 60 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for a period of 6 weeks. On the 21st and 42nd day of the study behavioral studies to evaluate memory (Morris water maze and elevated plus maze task paradigms) and locomotion (photoactometer) were done. The rats were sacrificed on 43rd day following the last behavioral test and various biochemical tests were performed to assess the extent of oxidative damage. Chronic aluminium chloride administration resulted in poor retention of memory in Morris water maze, elevated plus maze task paradigms and caused marked oxidative damage. It also caused a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase activity and aluminium concentration in aluminium treated rats. Chronic administration of curcumin significantly improved memory retention in both tasks, attenuated oxidative damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and aluminium concentration in aluminium treated rats (Paluminium-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage.
Braitman, Abby L.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Kate B.
Protective behavioral strategies (PBS), or harm-reduction behaviors that can potentially reduce alcohol consumption or associated problems, have been assessed in varied ways throughout the literature. Existing scales vary in focus (i.e., broad vs. narrow), and importantly, in response options (i.e., absolute frequency vs. contingent frequency). Absolute frequency conflates PBS use with number of drinking occasions, resulting in inconsistencies in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol outcomes, whereas contingent frequency is less precise, which could reduce power. The current study proposes the use of absolute frequencies to maximize precision, with an adjustment for number of drinking days to extricate PBS use from drinking occasions, resulting in a contingent score. Study 1 examined the associations between PBS subscales using the Strategy Questionnaire (Sugarman & Carey, 2007) and alcohol outcomes, finding that in raw score form the association between PBS and typical alcohol outcomes varied greatly from significantly positive to significantly negative, but adjusted score relationships were all consistent with harm reduction perspectives. In addition, curvilinear relationships with typical alcohol use were eliminated using the score adjustment, resulting in linear associations. Study 2 confirmed the findings from Study 1 with a more precise timeframe, additional alcohol assessments, and heavier college drinkers. The relationships between alcohol outcomes and PBS in raw score form were again varied, but became consistently negative using the score adjustment. Researchers examining PBS and related constructs should consider modifying current scales to include a precise frequency response scale that is adjusted to account for number of drinking occasions. PMID:25180560
Kelly R Moran
Full Text Available Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport. Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions. Understanding the determinants of the public's behavioral response is crucial for devising public health campaigns, providing information to parametrize mathematical models, and ultimately limiting disease spread. While other reviews have qualitatively analyzed the body of work on demographic determinants of health-protective behavior, this meta-analysis quantitatively combines the results from 85 publications to determine the global relationship between gender and health-protective behavioral response. The results show that women in the general population are about 50% more likely than men to adopt/practice non-pharmaceutical behaviors. Conversely, men in the general population are marginally (about 12% more likely than women to adopt/practice pharmaceutical behaviors. It is possible that factors other than pharmaceutical/non-pharmaceutical status not included in this analysis act as moderators of this relationship. These results suggest an inherent difference in how men and women respond to epidemic and pandemic respiratory infectious diseases. This information can be used to target specific groups when developing non-pharmaceutical public health campaigns and to parameterize epidemic models incorporating demographic information.
... of intention to hold a hearing. 164.24 Section 164.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...) Commencement of Proceeding § 164.24 Response to the Administrator's notice of intention to hold a hearing. Any... intention to hold a hearing, shall file with the hearing clerk, within the time set by the Administrator in...
Jaiteh, Vanessa F.; Lindfield, Steve J.; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Warren, Carol; Fitzpatrick, Ben; Loneragan, Neil R.
Fisheries are complex social-ecological systems, where managers struggle to balance the socio-economic interests of fishing communities with the biology and ecology of fisheries species. Spatial closures are a popular measure to address conservation and fisheries management goals, including the protection of shark populations. However, very little research has been published on the effectiveness of shark-specific closures to protect sharks, or their impacts on fisher behavior. Situated within...
Holmes, Alice E; Widén, Stephen E; Erlandsson, Soly; Carver, Courtney L; White, Lori L
To estimate the prevalence of perceived hearing loss, tinnitus, and temporary threshold shift (TTS) in community college students and to see whether those students' attitudes toward noise affected their perception of their own possible hearing loss, tinnitus, and TTS. Young adults (N = 245; age 18-27) completed 3 questionnaires: the Hearing Symptom Description, Youth Attitude to Noise Scale, and Adolescents' Habits and Hearing Protection Use. Perceived TTS and pain associated with loud noise were the most common hearing related factors, followed by perceived tinnitus and hearing loss. The students' attitudes toward noise in their daily environment showed the most negative response, whereas attitudes toward noise and concentration indicated a more positive, or less harmful, response. Chi-square analysis indicated a significant correlation between perceived hearing loss and respondents' overall attitudes toward noise exposure. Hearing protection use was limited for all participants, with the majority reporting never having used hearing protection. Approximately 6% of respondents reported perceived hearing loss, and 13.5% reported prolonged tinnitus. In general, participants had neutral attitudes toward noise. Over 20% of participants reported ear pain, tinnitus, and/or TTS after noise exposure at least sometimes. Coincidentally, few participants reported consistent use of hearing protection.
... 100dB or louder. Protect your hearing from loud music from personal music devices and concerts. Wear ear plugs or special ... NIDCD-supported research that has shown how the brain processes speech and how we focus only on ...
Rosenbaum, Janet; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; Diclemente, Ralph
Adolescent employment predicts lower educational engagement and achievement and greater engagement with risk behaviors. Most research has studied middle class rather than disadvantaged adolescents. We identified risk and protective behaviors associated with employment using data from a 3-wave, 12-month study of 715 low-socio-economic status female African American adolescents who were ages 15–21 at baseline. Adolescents who were employed at wave 2 (n=214) were matched with adolescents who wer...
Maretić Edita; Sindik Joško
The aim of the study was to determine the differences between the aspects of aggressive behavior, their strengths (protective factors) in the prevention of behavioral disorders and academic achievement, in children within and out of institutional forms of education. The study was conducted on a sample of 264 students in seventh and eighth class of elementary school, of whom 134 were in institutional care, while 130 were outside the institutional forms of education. Data were collected by a qu...
We have tested the hearing of bottlenose dolphins, Risso's dolphins, and False killer whales using both the behavioral techniques and the envelope following response evoked auditory potential procedure...
Do, Yuno; Kim, Ji Yoon; Lineman, Maurice; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Joo, Gea-Jae
Improving public awareness of protected wetlands facilitates sustainable wetland management, which depends on public participation. One way of gauging public interest is by tracking Internet search behavior (ISB). We assessed public awareness of issues related to protected wetland areas (PWAs) in South Korea by examining the frequencies of specific queries (PWAs, Ramsar, Upo wetland, Sunchon Bay, etc.) using relative search volumes (RSVs) obtained from an Internet search engine. RSV shows how many times a search term is used relative to a second search term during a specific period. Public awareness of PWAs changed from 2007 to 2013. Initially the majority of Internet searches were related to the most well-known tidal and inland wetlands Sunchon Bay and Upo wetlands, which are the largest existing wetlands in Korea with the greatest historical exposure. Public awareness, as reflected in RSVs, of wetlands increased significantly following PWA designation for the wetlands in 2008, which followed the Ramsar 10th Conference of Contracting Parties to the Convention on Wetlands (COP10) meeting. Public interest was strongly correlated to the number of news articles in the popular media, as evidenced by the increase in Internet searches for specific wetlands and words associated with specific wetlands. Correspondingly, the number of visitors to specific wetlands increased. To increase public interest in wetlands, wetland aspects that enhance wetland conservation should be promoted by the government and enhanced via public education. Our approach can be used to gauge public awareness and participation in a wide range of conservation efforts. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.
Solomon, R. J.
Background: A conceptual framework about protective factors (models protection, controls protection, support protection) and risk factors (models risk, opportunity risk, vulnerability risk) was employed to articulate the content of five psychosocial contexts of adolescent life--individual, family, peers, school, and neighborhood--in a study of…
... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient Health Information News media interested in ... One of the most common birth defects is hearing loss or deafness (congenital), which can affect as ...
... enough to enjoy talking with friends or family. Hearing disorders make it hard, but not impossible, to ... often be helped. Deafness can keep you from hearing sound at all. What causes hearing loss? Some ...
Background material for measurements of hearing for grammar school pupils. The note gives the necessary background for the exercise 'Measurement on Hearing'. The topics comprise sound and decibel, the ear, basic psychoacoustics, hearing threshold, audiometric measurement methods, speech and speech...
... learning speech and language long before they talk. Hearing problems can be temporary or permanent. Sometimes, ear infections, injuries or diseases affect hearing. If your child does not hear well, get ...
Istre, C.O. Jr.
The physiological changes in the auditory organ are described with the protective equipment available for prevention of occupationally related hearing losses. Since most affected employees are unaware of the hearing loss until the damage is irreversible the author stresses that protective equipment usage must be mandatory for supervisory as well as active workers. Mechanical movement, combustion, and high pressure venting are all listed as detrimental to human hearing. (PSB)
Auchter, Melissa; Le Prell, Colleen G
Hearing loss prevention has always been an important issue for audiologists. The importance of hearing loss prevention education for young musicians is now recognized by the National Association for Music Education as well as the National Association of Schools of Music. Adopt-a-Band is a commercial program designed to foster hearing loss prevention behavior in young musicians. This study assessed changes in earplug use, measured using self-report surveys, after Adopt-a-Band training. Participants were members of 2 high school marching bands who viewed an informational DVD and reviewed fact sheets. Flat-attenuation earplugs were distributed, and training was provided. In addition, study participants engaged in discussion of hearing loss with a doctor of audiology student. Before training, 23% of participants reported they had previously used hearing protection. Immediately after training, 94% of participants reported they planned to use hearing protection at least occasionally. In a final end-of-season survey, earplug use had reliably increased; 62% of participants reported they used earplugs at least occasionally. Earplug use increased, but self-reported behavioral change was not as robust as predicted from self-reported participant intentions. Participant comments regarding factors that influenced their earplug use decisions suggest opportunities to improve training.
Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English, which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment.
Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Davis, Adrian
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English), which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment.
Braitman, Abby L; Henson, James M; Carey, Kate B
Protective behavioral strategies (PBS), or harm-reduction behaviors that can potentially reduce alcohol consumption or associated problems, have been assessed in varied ways throughout the literature. Existing scales vary in focus (i.e., broad vs. narrow), and importantly, in response options (i.e., absolute frequency vs. contingent frequency). Absolute frequency conflates PBS use with number of drinking occasions, resulting in inconsistencies in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol outcomes, whereas contingent frequency is less precise, which could reduce power. The current study proposes the use of absolute frequencies to maximize precision, with an adjustment for number of drinking days to extricate PBS use from drinking occasions, resulting in a contingent score. Study 1 examined the associations between PBS subscales using the Strategy Questionnaire (Sugarman & Carey, 2007) and alcohol outcomes, finding that in raw score form the association between PBS and typical alcohol outcomes varied greatly from significantly positive to significantly negative, but adjusted score relationships were all consistent with harm reduction perspectives. In addition, curvilinear relationships with typical alcohol use were eliminated using the score adjustment, resulting in linear associations. Study 2 confirmed the findings from Study 1 with a more precise timeframe, additional alcohol assessments, and heavier college drinkers. The relationships between alcohol outcomes and PBS in raw score form were again varied, but became consistently negative using the score adjustment. Researchers examining PBS and related constructs should consider modifying current scales to include a precise frequency response scale that is adjusted to account for number of drinking occasions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Kim, Junghee; Park, Sunhee
The literature indicates that protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have been effective in addressing problem drinking among college students. However, the effects of PBS on problem drinking have not been thoroughly investigated among Korean college students. Thus, the two study aims were to (a) examine drinking behavior among Korean college students and (b) investigate the effects of PBS on problem drinking. A pilot study was first conducted to obtain information needed to determine a sample size and to examine the understandability and reliability of seven instruments. The instruments were then used to collect data from full-time college students (N=479). The data were analyzed using (a) descriptive statistics such as frequencies and means for the first aim and (b) multivariate logistic regression for the second aim. Approximately 93% of the respondents had drunk alcohol during the month before the survey, and 72.7% were problem drinkers. The use of PBS significantly decreased the odds of problem drinking (odds ratio [OR]=0.90 [95% CI, 0.87-0.93]). In addition, male gender and positive alcohol expectancy were associated with increased odds of problem drinking (ORs=3.32 [95% CI, 1.59-6.94] and 1.04 [95% CI, 1.01-1.08]), whereas greater age of drinking onset was associated with decreased odds of problem drinking (OR=0.81 [95% CI, 0.70-0.94]). Given the prevalence of the drinking problem among Korean college students, it is important to develop and implement interventions that will encourage students to use PBS in order to avoid problem drinking and its negative consequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mao, Zhongping; Zhao, Lijun; Pu, Lichun; Wang, Mingxiao; Zhang, Qian; He, David Z. Z.
With advancements in modern medicine and significant improvements in life conditions in the past four decades, the elderly population is rapidly expanding. There is a growing number of those aged 100 years and older. While many changes in the human body occur with physiological aging, as many as 35% to 50% of the population aged 65 to 75 years have presbycusis. Presbycusis is a progressive sensorineural hearing loss that occurs as people get older. There are many studies of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss in the United States, Europe, and Asia. However, no audiological assessment of the population aged 100 years and older has been done. Therefore, it is not clear how well centenarians can hear. We measured middle ear impedance, pure-tone behavioral thresholds, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission from 74 centenarians living in the city of Shaoxing, China, to evaluate their middle and inner ear functions. We show that most centenarian listeners had an “As” type tympanogram, suggesting reduced static compliance of the tympanic membrane. Hearing threshold tests using pure-tone audiometry show that all centenarian subjects had varying degrees of hearing loss. More than 90% suffered from moderate to severe (41 to 80 dB) hearing loss below 2,000 Hz, and profound (>81 dB) hearing loss at 4,000 and 8,000 Hz. Otoacoustic emission, which is generated by the active process of cochlear outer hair cells, was undetectable in the majority of listeners. Our study shows the extent and severity of hearing loss in the centenarian population and represents the first audiological assessment of their middle and inner ear functions. PMID:23755251
Full Text Available With advancements in modern medicine and significant improvements in life conditions in the past four decades, the elderly population is rapidly expanding. There is a growing number of those aged 100 years and older. While many changes in the human body occur with physiological aging, as many as 35% to 50% of the population aged 65 to 75 years have presbycusis. Presbycusis is a progressive sensorineural hearing loss that occurs as people get older. There are many studies of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss in the United States, Europe, and Asia. However, no audiological assessment of the population aged 100 years and older has been done. Therefore, it is not clear how well centenarians can hear. We measured middle ear impedance, pure-tone behavioral thresholds, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission from 74 centenarians living in the city of Shaoxing, China, to evaluate their middle and inner ear functions. We show that most centenarian listeners had an "As" type tympanogram, suggesting reduced static compliance of the tympanic membrane. Hearing threshold tests using pure-tone audiometry show that all centenarian subjects had varying degrees of hearing loss. More than 90% suffered from moderate to severe (41 to 80 dB hearing loss below 2,000 Hz, and profound (>81 dB hearing loss at 4,000 and 8,000 Hz. Otoacoustic emission, which is generated by the active process of cochlear outer hair cells, was undetectable in the majority of listeners. Our study shows the extent and severity of hearing loss in the centenarian population and represents the first audiological assessment of their middle and inner ear functions.
Full Text Available Cr3C2-NiCr coatings are greatly used to protect critical components in corrosive environments and to extend their lifetime and/or improve functional performance. However, the pores formed during spraying restrict the coating’s applicability area for many corrosion protection applications. To overcome this technical challenge, bilayer coatings have been developed, in which an additional layer (the so-called “intermediate layer” is deposited on the substrate before spraying the Cr3C2-NiCr coating (the so-called “top layer”. The corrosion behavior of the bilayer coating depends on the composition and microstructure of each layer. In the present work, different single-layer coatings (i.e., Cr3C2-NiCr, Fe- and Ni-based coatings were initially sprayed by a high-velocity air fuel (HVAF process. Microstructure analysis, as well as electrochemical tests, for example, open-circuit potential (OCP and polarization tests, were performed. The potential difference (ΔE had a great influence on galvanic corrosion between the top and intermediate layers, and thus, the coatings were ranked based on the OCP values (from high to low as follows: NiCoCrAlY > NiCr > Cr3C2-NiCr > NiAl > Fe-based coatings (alloyed with Cr > pure Ni. The Ni-based coatings were chosen to be further used as intermediate layers with the Cr3C2-NiCr top layer due to their capabilities to show high OCP. The corrosion resistance (Rp of the bilayer coatings was ranked (from high to low as follows: NiCoCrAlY/Cr3C2-NiCr > NiCr/Cr3C2-NiCr > NiAl/Cr3C2-NiCr > Ni/Cr3C2-NiCr. It was shown that splat boundaries and interconnected pores are detrimental for corrosion resistance, however, a sufficient reservoir of protective scale-forming elements (such as Cr or/and Al in the intermediate layer can significantly improve the corrosion resistance.
Pearson, Matthew R; Kite, Benjamin A; Henson, James M
In the present study, we examined whether use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between self-control constructs and alcohol-related outcomes. According to the two-mode model of self-control, good self-control (planfulness; measured with Future Time Perspective, Problem Solving, and Self-Reinforcement) and poor regulation (impulsivity; measured with Present Time Perspective, Poor Delay of Gratification, Distractibility) are theorized to be relatively independent constructs rather than opposite ends of a single continuum. The analytic sample consisted of 278 college student drinkers (68% women) who responded to a battery of surveys at a single time point. Using a structural equation model based on the two-mode model of self-control, we found that good self-control predicted increased use of three types of protective behavioral strategies (Manner of Drinking, Limiting/Stopping Drinking, and Serious Harm Reduction). Poor regulation was unrelated to use of protective behavioral strategies, but had direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol problems. Further, protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between good self-control and alcohol use. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.
Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…
Pearson, Matthew R.; Kite, Benjamin A.; Henson, James M.
In the present study, we examined whether the use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) mediates the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related problems using a sample of 278 college students. Validating the 5-factor model of impulsivity, we showed that each impulsivity-like trait had a distinct pattern of relationships with PBS…
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul
The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…
Pearson, Matthew R.; Kite, Benjamin A.; Henson, James M.
In the present study, we examined whether use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between self-control constructs and alcohol-related outcomes. According to the two-mode model of self-control, good self-control (planfulness; measured with Future Time Perspective, Problem Solving, and Self-Reinforcement) and poor regulation (impulsivity; measured with Present Time Perspective, Poor Delay of Gratification, Distractibility) are theorized to be relatively independent constructs rather than opposite ends of a single continuum. The analytic sample consisted of 278 college student drinkers (68% women) who responded to a battery of surveys at a single time point. Using a structural equation model based on the two-mode model of self-control, we found that good self-control predicted increased use of three types of protective behavioral strategies (Manner of Drinking, Limiting/Stopping Drinking, and Serious Harm Reduction). Poor regulation was unrelated to use of protective behavioral strategies, but had direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol problems. Further, protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between good self-control and alcohol use. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22663345
Landry, Alicia S.; Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil
The current study examined the degree to which associations that protective behavioral strategy use had with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences were moderated by disordered eating and race. Participants were 382 female undergraduates (ages 18-25) who had consumed alcohol at least once within the previous month.…
DE, Kiehl K, Pennington S, Wong S, Henry KR (1999) Killer whale (Orcinus orca) hearing: Auditory brainstem response and behavioral audiograms. J...Supin AY (2005) Behavioral and auditory evoked potential audiograms of a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens). J Acoust Soc Am 118:2688-2695...documented in older bottlenose dolphins and suggested in a false killer whale ; hearing loss has also been related to antibiotic treatment in belugas
Spadaro, L.; Gomez-Rosas, G.; Rubio-González, C.; Bolmaro, R.; Chavez-Chavez, A.; Hereñú, S.
The laser shock peening (LSP) is a new technique that improves the fatigue life of metallic components by inducing deep compressive residual stresses through the surface. However, the beneficial effects of LSP depend on the persistence and stability of such residual stress fields under cyclic loading and temperature. Moreover, if no absorbent coating is used in LSP operation, thermal effects can occur on the metallic substrate. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of LSP, without protective coating and with different pulse densities, on the low cyclic fatigue behavior of a superferritic stainless steel UNS S 44600. These results are correlated with observations performed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS). The hole-drilling method is used to measure residual stresses. The micro-hardness and roughness profiles are also presented. This paper shows that LSP without coating produces beneficial compression residual stresses. However, in the first 10 μm beneath the surface, thermal effects occur that induce intergranular corrosion. This intergranular corrosion deteriorates the fatigue properties of a superferritic stainless steel UNS S 44600.
Pearson, Matthew R; D'Lima, Gabrielle M; Kelley, Michelle L
The purpose of the present study was to examine associations between use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and alcohol-related outcomes (alcohol consumption, negative alcohol consequences, and positive alcohol consequences) using a daily diary approach. This approach is less affected by retrospective memory biases than typical self-reports of alcohol-related variables and allows the examination of both between-subjects and within-person effects. Using hierarchical linear modeling of data from 40 subjects who completed daily dairies for up to 15 days, we found significant within-person variation in PBS use over time, and each type of PBS had unique relationships with alcohol-related outcomes. For example, within-person variation in Serious Harm Reduction, one form of PBS, predicted increased daily alcohol use, negative consequences, and positive consequences. Our findings suggest the importance of intensive longitudinal methods to examine both between-subjects and within-subjects effects of PBS use and alcohol-related outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Breastfeeding is associated with numerous health benefits to offspring and mothers and may improve maternal-infant bonding. Ample evidence suggests breastfeeding can improve child neurodevelopment, but more research is needed to establish whether breastfeeding is linked to the development of child psychopathology. This paper aims to explore the effects of both breastfeeding and mother-child interactions on child behavioral outcomes at a later age. Children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study (N = 1267, at age six years old were assessed, along with their parents. Children who were breastfed exclusively for a period of time in the presence of active bonding were compared to those who were breastfed in the absence of active bonding as well as to children who were not exclusively breastfed, with or without active bonding. Results from ANOVA and GLM, using SPSS20, indicate that children who were breastfed and whose mothers actively engaged with them displayed the lowest risk of internalizing problems (mean = 10.01, SD = 7.21, while those who were neither exclusively breastfed nor exposed to active bonding had the least protection against later internalizing problems (mean = 12.79, SD = 8.14. The effect of breastfeeding on internalizing pathology likely represents a biosocial and holistic effect of physiological, and nutritive, and maternal-infant bonding benefits.
Martens, Matthew P; Ferrier, Amanda G; Cimini, M Dolores
Heavy alcohol use among college students represents a public health problem on American college campuses. Use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) has been shown to be related to reduced alcohol use and fewer alcohol-related problems, but the relationship of PBS to other alcohol-related constructs is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of PBS mediated the relationship between positively and negatively reinforcing drinking motives and both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected on 254 undergraduate students at a large, public university in the northeast region of the United States. Approximately one third (n = 90) of the participants were volunteers, whereas the remaining individuals enrolled in the study as an option for satisfying an alcohol-related campus judicial sanction. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that use of PBS partially mediated the relationships between positively reinforcing (i.e., social and enhancement) drinking motives and both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Use of PBS did not mediate the relationship between negatively reinforcing (i.e., coping) drinking motives and alcohol use or alcohol-related problems. The theoretical models accounted for 26% of the variance in alcohol use and 24% of the variance in alcohol-related problems. This study suggests that PBS should be incorporated into theoretical models devoted to understanding college student drinking.
Barry, Adam E; Merianos, Ashley L
This study assessed whether college student (1) protective behavioral strategy (PBS) use differed between those who reached legal intoxication during their most recent drinking episode compared to those who did not reach the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) threshold, and (2) frequency of PBS use could explain the variance associated with BAC during the most recent drinking episode, above and beyond one's sex, age, and involvement in the Greek system. Secondary data analysis of the American College of Health Association's National College Health Assessment. Forty-four distinct campuses were included. A total of 21479 college students were included. BAC and PBS were measured. The data were analyzed by conducting both independent samples t-tests and a multiple regression model. Effect sizes are reported. Participants who reached legal intoxication used PBS less frequently ( P develop strategies that encourage college student use of PBS prior to, and during, drinking episodes. More frequent use of PBS can reduce intoxication as well as occurrence of alcohol-associated consequences.
Linden, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J
An extensive body of research asserts alcohol expectancies, or beliefs regarding the effects of alcohol, as an important influence on drinking. However, the extent to which expectancies are related to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) has yet to be examined. Existing alcohol mediational models suggest associations between expectancies and drinking motives as well as positive drinking motives and PBS use. Thus, it is possible that drinking motives and PBS use act as intervening factors in the relationship between expectancies and alcohol outcomes. Consequently, the cross-sectional study presented here aimed to test the indirect effect of expectancies (i.e., social facilitation) on alcohol outcomes through drinking motives and PBS use. Participants were 520 (358 female) college student drinkers with a mean age of 20.80 (SD = 4.61) years. Students completed measures of expectancies, drinking motives, PBS use, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that drinking motives and PBS mediated the relationship between social expectancies and alcohol use. In particular, expectancies were associated with greater positive drinking motives, drinking motives were associated with less PBS use, and PBS was associated with less alcohol use and fewer alcohol-related problems. Given the key role of PBS in explaining drinking outcomes in our model, active efforts to incorporate PBS in alcohol interventions may be particularly beneficial for college students. Further, our findings support the consideration of PBS use as a part of the motivational model of alcohol use in future work.
Janssen, Eva; van Kann, Dave; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian; van Osch, Liesbeth
This study investigated sun protective behavior during snow sports and its psychosocial determinants. A longitudinal study was conducted among 418 Dutch adults who planned to go on a ski holiday. Participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire before and after their ski trip. In the baseline questionnaire several psychosocial factors were measured (i.e. knowledge, risk perception, worry, attitude, social influence, self-efficacy and intention). At follow-up, sunscreen use and frequency of sunburns were measured. The results showed that, despite their generally high intention, a substantial part of the respondents (40%) did not use sunscreen adequately during their ski holiday. Furthermore, one-fourth of the respondents reported at least one sunburn during their ski holiday. Men and younger respondents used sunscreen less frequently and were sunburnt more often. Sunscreen use was predicted by a positive attitude, high self-efficacy levels, high intention, high knowledge and high perceived risk. The background and psychosocial variables explained 32% of the total variance of sunscreen use. Suggestions for future research and interventions are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hill, Mary L; Masuda, Akihiko; Latzman, Robert D
The purpose of the current study was to examine whether body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility would be uniquely and significantly associated with disordered eating behavior. In addition, the study examined if body mass index (BMI) moderated the relationships between each of the body image related variables and disordered eating. Two-hundred-fifty-eight female participants completed the web-based survey. Body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility were significantly related to disordered eating behavior, after controlling for ethnicity and BMI, and BMI moderated the relation between body image flexibility and disordered eating. Specifically, for those with low BMI, greater body image flexibility was associated with reduced disordered eating behavior. Body image flexibility was not associated with disordered eating behavior among those with average or high BMI. These results suggest that greater body image flexibility may serve as a protective factor against disordered eating behaviors for those with low BMI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
You, Sungeun; Park, Moran
Suicide prevention efforts in reducing risk factors have been found to be more beneficial to older women than men, suggesting potential gender differences in effective prevention. The study aimed to examine gender difference in resilience for suicidal behavior in a community sample of older adults in Korea. A community-based survey was conducted to investigate resilience and risk factors of suicidal behavior using the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), as well as questions regarding physical illness and depression history. After accounting for well-known risk factors, resilience was inversely associated with suicidal behavior, but this protective role of resilience was applicable to men only. The findings of this study indicated gender difference in resilience against suicidal behavior in the elderly population. Gender-specific preventive intervention strategies need to be developed for community-based suicide prevention for older adults.
Javier F. Boyas
Full Text Available Latino Day Laborers (LDLs are employed in occupations where multiple work hazards exist. One such hazard is the overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation for continuous periods of time. Regular sun exposure can put individuals at increased risk of developing skin cancers, especially without adequate protection. The purpose of this cross-sectional exploratory study was to use a social cognitive framework to assess skin protective behaviors among LDLs. A community-based nonrandom and purposive sample of LDLs was recruited in two states: Mississippi and Illinois. The study sample consisted of 137 male participants, of which the majority were of Mexican ancestry (72%. The average age was 35.40 (SD=9.89 years. Results demonstrated that a substantial number of LDLs do not adequately practice sun protection behaviors on a regular basis. The skin cancer knowledge scores were very modest. The most frequently indicated barriers towards sun protection were “inconvenient,” “forget to use,” and “not being able to reapply sunscreen.” Overall, LDLs had moderate confidence in their abilities to adopt successful sun protection strategies. This study underscores the need for intervention programs aimed at LDLs to reduce extended time in the sun and increase use of sun protective measures when working outdoors.
National Telecommunications and Information Administration Authorization. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on HR 5497, a Bill to Authorize Appropriations for the National Telecommunications and Information Administration for Fiscal Years of 1985 and 1986.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.
This report on a hearing on legislation to authorize an increased appropriation for the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) for fiscal years 1985 and 1986 contains an introductory statement by Timothy E. Wirth, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance; the text of the bill;…
Marlene E Gubata
Full Text Available Hearing loss is a common condition among US adults, with some evidence of increasing prevalence in young adults. Noise-induced hearing loss attributable to employment is a significant source of preventable morbidity world-wide. The US military population is largely comprised of young adult males serving in a wide variety of occupations, many in high noise-level conditions, at least episodically. To identify accession and service-related risk factors for hearing-related disability, matched case-control study of US military personnel was conducted. Individuals evaluated for hearing loss disability in the US Army and Marine Corps were frequency matched to controls without history of disability evaluation on service and enlistment year. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between accession and service-related factors and hearing-related disability evaluations between October 2002 and September 2010. Individuals with medically disqualifying audiograms or hearing loss diagnoses at application for military service were 8 and 4 times more likely, respectively, to have a disability evaluation related to hearing loss, after controlling for relevant accession, demographic, and service-related factors. Conservative hearing loss thresholds on pre-enlistment audiograms, stricter hearing loss medical waiver policies or qualified baseline audiograms pre-enlistment are needed in the U.S military. Industrial corporations or labor unions may also benefit from identifying individuals with moderate hearing loss at the time of employment to ensure use of personal protective equipment and engineer controls of noise.
Occlusion effects result from amplification of low frequency components of body- transmitted sound when the ear canal is occluded with hearing protection devices, hearing aids, or other canal-sealing inserts. Since the occlusion effect will enhance the hearing of bodily- generated sounds and result in distorted perception of oneâ s own voice, many people report annoyance with hearing aids and hearing protectors that produce occlusion effects. Previous research has studied the effects of ear ...
M Charles Liberman
Full Text Available Recent work suggests that hair cells are not the most vulnerable elements in the inner ear; rather, it is the synapses between hair cells and cochlear nerve terminals that degenerate first in the aging or noise-exposed ear. This primary neural degeneration does not affect hearing thresholds, but likely contributes to problems understanding speech in difficult listening environments, and may be important in the generation of tinnitus and/or hyperacusis. To look for signs of cochlear synaptopathy in humans, we recruited college students and divided them into low-risk and high-risk groups based on self-report of noise exposure and use of hearing protection. Cochlear function was assessed by otoacoustic emissions and click-evoked electrocochleography; hearing was assessed by behavioral audiometry and word recognition with or without noise or time compression and reverberation. Both groups had normal thresholds at standard audiometric frequencies, however, the high-risk group showed significant threshold elevation at high frequencies (10-16 kHz, consistent with early stages of noise damage. Electrocochleography showed a significant difference in the ratio between the waveform peaks generated by hair cells (Summating Potential; SP vs. cochlear neurons (Action Potential; AP, i.e. the SP/AP ratio, consistent with selective neural loss. The high-risk group also showed significantly poorer performance on word recognition in noise or with time compression and reverberation, and reported heightened reactions to sound consistent with hyperacusis. These results suggest that the SP/AP ratio may be useful in the diagnosis of "hidden hearing loss" and that, as suggested by animal models, the noise-induced loss of cochlear nerve synapses leads to deficits in hearing abilities in difficult listening situations, despite the presence of normal thresholds at standard audiometric frequencies.
Pedersen, Eric R; Huang, Wenjing; Dvorak, Robert D; Prince, Mark A; Hummer, Justin F
Given recent state legislation legalizing marijuana for recreational purposes and majority popular opinion favoring these laws, we developed the Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana scale (PBSM) to identify strategies that may mitigate the harms related to marijuana use among those young people who choose to use the drug. In the current study, we expand on the initial exploratory study of the PBSM to further validate the measure with a large and geographically diverse sample (N = 2,117; 60% women, 30% non-White) of college students from 11 different universities across the United States. We sought to develop a psychometrically sound item bank for the PBSM and to create a short assessment form that minimizes respondent burden and time. Quantitative item analyses, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with item response theory (IRT) and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF), revealed an item bank of 36 items that was examined for unidimensionality and good content coverage, as well as a short form of 17 items that is free of bias in terms of gender (men vs. women), race (White vs. non-White), ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic), and recreational marijuana use legal status (state recreational marijuana was legal for 25.5% of participants). We also provide a scoring table for easy transformation from sum scores to IRT scale scores. The PBSM item bank and short form associated strongly and negatively with past month marijuana use and consequences. The measure may be useful to researchers and clinicians conducting intervention and prevention programs with young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Linden, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J
The use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) has been shown to reduce heavy alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems among college students. Limited research has examined how mental health is related to PBS use in the prediction of alcohol outcomes. Consequently, the aims of the present study were to (a) examine the relationship between anxiety symptoms and the use of PBS, (b) examine PBS as a mediator of the association between anxiety and alcohol-related problems, and (c) test anxiety as a moderator of the relationship between the use of PBS and alcohol-related problems. Participants were college students (N = 199, 67% women) who completed self-report measures of typical anxiety symptoms, use of PBS, and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that anxiety was significantly negatively related to PBS use. Additionally, the association between anxiety and alcohol-related consequences was mediated by the use of PBS. The association between PBS use and alcohol-related problems was also contingent on one's level of anxiety. That is, although the relationship between the use of PBS and problems was negative regardless of anxiety level, those with higher anxiety exhibited a stronger, negative relationship between PBS and problems. These findings suggest that PBS is both a mediator in the anxiety and alcohol-related problems association as well as an important factor in reducing negative consequences for college students higher in anxiety. Results indicate that college students with anxiety would be ideal candidates for harm-reduction interventions that emphasize the use of PBS in drinking contexts.
Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James; Todd, Paul
Major risks associated with radiation exposures on deep space missions include carcinogenesis due to heavy-particle exposure of cancer-prone tissues and performance decrements due to neurological damage produced by heavy particles. Because exposure to heavy particles can cause oxidative stress, it is possible that antioxidants can be used to mitigate these risks (and possibly some health risks of microgravity). To assess the capacity of antioxidant diets to mitigate the effects of exposure to heavy particles, rats were maintained on antioxidant diets containing 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to exposure to 1.5 or 2.0 Gy of accelerated iron particles at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation rats were tested on a series of behavioral tasks: amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning, operant responding and spatial learning and memory. The results indicated that the performance of the irradiated rats maintained on the antioxidant diets was, in general, significantly better than that of the control animals, although the effectiveness of the diets ameliorating the radiation-induced deterioration in performance varied as a function of both the specific diet and the specific endpoint. In addition, animals fed antioxidant diets prior to exposure showed reduced heavy particle-induced tumorigenesis one year after exposure compared to the animals fed the control diet. These results suggest that antioxidant diets have the potential to serve as part of a system designed to provide protection to astronauts against the effects of heavy particles on exploratory missions outside the magnetic field of the earth.
Bravo, Adrian J; Prince, Mark A; Pearson, Matthew R
College-related alcohol beliefs, or beliefs that drinking alcohol is central to the college experience, have been shown to robustly predict alcohol-related outcomes among college students. Given the strength of these associations, it is imperative to understand more proximal factors (i.e., closer in a causal chain leading to alcohol-related outcomes) that can explain these associations. The current research examined alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as a potential mediator of the association between college-related alcohol beliefs and alcohol outcomes among college student drinkers. Participants were undergraduate students from a large southeastern university (Sample 1; n = 561) and a large southwestern university (Sample 2; n = 563) in the United States that consumed alcohol at least once in the previous month. Path analysis was conducted examining the concurrent associations between college-related alcohol beliefs, PBS use (both as a single facet and multidimensionally), alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences (i.e., double mediation). In both samples, there was a significant double-mediated association that suggested that higher college-related alcohol beliefs is associated with lower PBS use (single facet), which is associated with higher alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. Multidimensionally, only one double-mediation effect (in Sample 2 only) was significant (i.e., college-related alcohol beliefs → manner of drinking PBS → alcohol consumption → alcohol-related consequences). Conclusions/Importance: These results suggest that targeting these college-related alcohol beliefs as well as PBS use are promising targets for college alcohol interventions. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
When insects communicate by sound, or use acoustic cues to escape predators or detect prey or hosts they have to localize the sound in most cases, to perform adaptive behavioral responses. In the case of particle velocity receivers such as the antennae of mosquitoes, directionality is no problem because such receivers are inherently directional. Insects equipped with bilateral pairs of tympanate ears could principally make use of binaural cues for sound localization, like all other animals with two ears. However, their small size is a major problem to create sufficiently large binaural cues, with respect to both interaural time differences (ITDs, because interaural distances are so small), but also with respect to interaural intensity differences (IIDs), since the ratio of body size to the wavelength of sound is rather unfavorable for diffractive effects. In my review, I will only shortly cover these biophysical aspects of directional hearing. Instead, I will focus on aspects of directional hearing which received relatively little attention previously, the evolution of a pressure difference receiver, 3D-hearing, directional hearing outdoors, and directional hearing for auditory scene analysis.
José Fernando Polanski
Full Text Available Objective: To describe a case of hearing rehabilitation with bone anchored hearing aid in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome. Case description: 3 years old patient, male, with Treacher Collins syndrome and severe complications due to the syndrome, mostly related to the upper airway and hearing. He had bilateral atresia of external auditory canals, and malformation of the pinna. The initial hearing rehabilitation was with bone vibration arch, but there was poor acceptance due the discomfort caused by skull compression. It was prescribed a model of bone-anchored hearing aid, in soft band format. The results were evaluated through behavioral hearing tests and questionnaires Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS and Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS. Comments: The patient had a higher acceptance of the bone-anchored hearing aid compared to the traditional bone vibration arch. Audiological tests and the speech and auditory skills assessments also showed better communication and hearing outcomes. The bone-anchored hearing aid is a good option in hearing rehabilitation in this syndrome.
Heckman, C J; Handorf, E; Darlow, S D; Yaroch, A L; Raivitch, S
The study's purpose was to select/refine measures assessing psychosocial constructs associated with skin cancer risk/protective behaviors. Cognitive interviewing was conducted with twenty participants locally, and a survey was conducted with 965 adults aged 18-25 years at moderate to high risk of developing skin cancer, recruited nationally online. Psychosocial measures assessed variables from the Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction. As a result of expert review and cognitive interviewing, items were removed, added, and/or made simpler, more personal, consistent, and less ambiguous. A factor analysis resulted in 14 scales and adequate model fit. Internal reliability and test-retest reliability was acceptable to good. Correlations among the psychosocial and behavioral variables were generally significant and in expected directions, demonstrating convergent validity. We have refined measures that assess important psychosocial constructs associated with skin cancer-related behaviors, that research participants can understand and complete successfully, and that are reliable and demonstrate evidence for validity.
T Christensen, Vibeke
This summary presents the results of a study of the impact of reduced hearing in relation to labour-market attachment and working life. Reduced hearing contributes to early retirement. Many people with impaired hearing are not aware of the impact of their hearing problems on their working life an...
Li, Ya-Huei; Mgbere, Osaro; Abughosh, Susan; Chen, Hua; Cuccaro, Paula; Essien, Ekere James
Risk and protective processes are integrated developmental processes that directly or indirectly affect behavioral outcomes. A better understanding of these processes is needed, in order to gauge their contribution to sexual risk behaviors. This retrospective cross-sectional study modeled the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships to examine the social contexts of African-American (AA) adolescents associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD)- and HIV-risk behaviors. We used data from 1,619 AA adolescents with an average age of 16±1.8 years obtained from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for this study. Confirmatory factor analysis followed by structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the latent constructs that reflect the social-interactional components of the ecodevelopmental theory. Among contextual factors, findings indicated that a feeling of love from father, school, religion, and parent attitudes toward adolescent sexual behavior were all factors that played significant roles in the sexual behavior of AA adolescents. AA adolescents who reported feeling love from their father, feeling a strong negative attitude from their parents toward having sex at a very young age, and having a strong bond with school personnel were associated with better health statuses. The level of parents' involvement in their children's lives was reflected in the adolescents' feeling of love from parents and moderated by their socioeconomic status. Being male, attaining increased age, and being a sexual minority were associated with higher likelihood of exhibiting risky sexual behavior. In contrast, higher socioeconomic status and fathers' level of involvement were indirectly associated with reduced STD/HIV-related sexual risk behavior. In conclusion, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at maximal protection against STD/HIV-related risk behavior among AA adolescents should adopt both self- and context-based strategies
Curran, James R.
As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682
Anderson, Sara; Donlan, Alice E; McDermott, Elana R; Zaff, Jonathan F
Adolescence can be characterized as a time when aggression, delinquency, and violence (taken together as antisocial behavior) increase. Adolescents who engage in antisocial behavior increase local crime and can create unsafe conditions for families. Understanding the protective factors that mitigate antisocial behavior can help to inform prevention practices. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (n = 1,072, 51.40% female, 39.18% Hispanic, 32.28% Black), we examined how self-control, social support, and neighborhood characteristics were associated with these behaviors. Using latent profile analyses, we categorized neighborhoods based on several dimensions, including violence, disadvantage, and collective efficacy. Then, we examined how self-control and social support were associated with antisocial behavior within and across neighborhoods. Results suggested that self-control was a protective feature in only some types of disadvantaged and dangerous neighborhoods. We discuss findings in terms of implications for programs and policies to mitigate youth violence and delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Orchestral musicians are an at-risk population for noise-induced hearing loss. Following strategic approaches to mitigate exposure, many must use earplugs to safeguard their hearing, although reported usage rates are poor. Australia has progressive hearing conservation programs within many of its orchestras, yet little is known of earplug usage rates, abilities with earplugs or self-perceived hearing loss in this population. To help direct and inform future approaches to hearing conservation in Australia′s orchestras a questionnaire assessing hearing conservation behaviors and the prevalence of self-perceived hearing loss was distributed. A total of 580 musicians across eight professional orchestras were surveyed, with 367 completed surveys (63% returned. Eighty percent of respondents reported a risk of hearing damage in the orchestra, 64% used earplugs of some type at least some of the time and 83% found this use difficult/impossible. Forty-three percent reported a hearing loss, including 54% in pit orchestras and 46% of those ≤50 years of age. Brass players were least likely to use earplugs, most likely to report usage difficulties and most likely of those ≤50 years of age to report a hearing loss. While earplug usage rates in Australia are encouraging and may be linked to hearing conservation measures in the orchestras, the widespread difficulty reported with the use of these earplugs, the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss and the continued vulnerability of those most at-risk indicate improvements in both earplug design and further education for musicians are required to progress hearing conservation options for this population.
Ashok Murthy, V.; Krishna, Kirtan
To study hearing loss in healthy pregnant women. Tertiary care hospital. Prospective study. We screened fifty healthy, non-complicated pregnant women (study group) in the third trimester for hearing loss who had no previous history for the same. Fifty healthy, non-pregnant women (control group) were also screened for hearing loss with a normal pure tone audiogram (PTA) for evidence of hearing loss. Thirteen women in the study group had evidence of hearing loss, in the form of absence of disto...
Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M
Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Knudsen, Line Vestergaard; Öberg, Marie; Nielsen, Claus; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E.
Objectives: This descriptive summary of the literature provides an overview of the available studies (published between January 1980 and January 2009) on correlates of help-seeking behavior for hearing loss, hearing-aid uptake, hearing-aid use, and satisfaction with the device. Methods: Publications were identified by structured searches in Pubmed and Cinahl and by inspecting the reference lists of relevant articles. The articles covered different stages that a person with hearing impairment may go through: prior to hearing aid fitting, the period covering the fitting and the period post hearing aid fitting. Inclusion of articles occurred according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted by two independent researchers. Thirty-nine papers were included that identified 31 factors examined in relation to the four outcome measures. These covered personal factors (e.g., source of motivation, expectation, attitude), demographic factors (e.g., age, gender) and external factors (e.g., cost, counseling). Only two studies covered the actual fitting process. There was only one factor positively affecting all four outcome variables. This was self-reported hearing disability. The vast majority of studies showed no relationship of age and gender with any of the outcome domains. Discussion and conclusion: Whereas research of the last 28 years yielded valuable information regarding relevant and irrelevant factors in hearing aid health care, there are still many relevant issues that have never been investigated in controlled studies. These are discussed. PMID:21109549
van Riper, Carena J.; Sharp, Ryan; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Vagias, Wade M.; Kwenye, Jane; Depper, Gina; Freimund, Wayne
Successfully promoting and encouraging the adoption of environmental stewardship behavior is an important responsibility for public land management agencies. Although people increasingly report high levels of concern about environmental issues, widespread patterns of stewardship behavior have not followed suit (Moore 2002). One concept that can be applied in social science research to explain behavior change is that of values. More specifically, held and assigned values lie at the heart of understanding why people around the world continue to live in unsustainable ways that impact parks and protected areas. A held value is an individual psychological orientation defined by Rokeach as “an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally and socially preferable” (1973, 550). Held values are at the core of human cognition, and as such, influence attitudes and behavior. Assigned values on the other hand, according to Brown (1984), are the perceived qualities of an environment that are based on and deduced from held values. In other words, assigned values are considered the material and nonmaterial benefits that people believe they obtain from ecosystems. Held and assigned values predict stewardship behaviors (Figure 1). During the 2013 George Wright Society Conference on Parks, Protected Areas, and Cultural Sites, we organized a session to improve our understanding of why individuals and groups choose to engage in stewardship behaviors that benefit the environment. We used held and assigned values as vehicles to explore what people cared about in diverse landscapes, review select case studies from across the globe, and question how best to incorporate visitor perspectives into protected area management decisions and policymaking. In addition to sharing project results, we also discussed the importance of accounting for multiple and often competing value perspectives, potential ways to integrate disciplinary perspectives on
Pearson, Matthew R.; Kite, Benjamin A.; Henson, James M.
In the present study, we examined whether use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between self-control constructs and alcohol-related outcomes. According to the two-mode model of self-control, good self-control (planfulness; measured with Future Time Perspective, Problem Solving, and Self-Reinforcement) and poor regulation (impulsivity; measured with Present Time Perspective, Poor Delay of Gratification, Distractibility) are theorized to be relatively independent con...
Kenney, Shannon R.; LaBrie, Joseph W.
Recent research indicates that protective behavioral strategies (PBS)—previously established as effective self-regulating tools for reducing alcohol risk among college students—may be especially useful for students with poor mental health, who are shown to be at heightened risk for alcohol-related harm. The current study examined the moderating influence of mental health (depression and anxiety severity), gender, and race (White, Asian) in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol-related ...
Walton, AnnMarie Lee; LePrevost, Catherine E.; Linnan, Laura; Sanchez-Birkhead, Ana; Mooney, Kathi
Pesticide exposure is associated with deleterious health effects. Prior studies suggest Latino farmworkers perceive little control over their occupational health. Using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical guide, we explored the perceptions of Latino farmworkers working in tobacco in North Carolina (n = 72) about benefits and facilitators of pesticide protective behaviors as well as barriers, and strategies to overcome barriers to their use. Interviews were conducted with participants at ...
Kenney, Shannon R.; Napper, Lucy E.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Martens, Matthew. P.
College students’ use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students’ use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women ran...
Full Text Available Understanding underlying pathological mechanisms is prerequisite for a sensible design of protective therapies against hearing loss. The triad of age-related, noise-generated, and drug-induced hearing loss ¬¬displays intriguing similarities in some cellular responses of cochlear sensory cells such as a potential involvement of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic and necrotic cell death. On the other hand, detailed studies have revealed that molecular pathways are considerably complex and, importantly, it has become clear that pharmacological protection successful against one form of hearing loss will not necessarily protect against another. This review will summarize pathological and pathophysiological features of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI in human and animal models and address selected aspects of the commonality (or lack thereof of cellular responses in ARHI to drugs and noise.
Yang, Chao-Hui; Schrepfer, Thomas; Schacht, Jochen
Understanding underlying pathological mechanisms is prerequisite for a sensible design of protective therapies against hearing loss. The triad of age-related, noise-generated, and drug-induced hearing loss displays intriguing similarities in some cellular responses of cochlear sensory cells such as a potential involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic and necrotic cell death. On the other hand, detailed studies have revealed that molecular pathways are considerably complex and, importantly, it has become clear that pharmacological protection successful against one form of hearing loss will not necessarily protect against another. This review will summarize pathological and pathophysiological features of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) in human and animal models and address selected aspects of the commonality (or lack thereof) of cellular responses in ARHI to drugs and noise. PMID:26283913
Telzer, Eva H; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J
Adolescent substance use is one of today's most important social concerns, with Latino youth exhibiting the highest overall rates of substance use. Recognizing the particular importance of family connection and support for families from Mexican backgrounds, the current study seeks to examine how family obligation values and family assistance behaviors may be a source of protection or risk for substance use among Mexican-American adolescents. Three hundred and eighty-five adolescents (51% female) from Mexican backgrounds completed a questionnaire and daily diary for 14 consecutive days. Results suggest that family obligation values are protective, relating to lower substance use, due, in part, to the links with less association with deviant peers and increased adolescent disclosure. In contrast, family assistance behaviors are a source of risk within high parent-child conflict homes, relating to higher levels of substance use. These findings suggest that cultural values are protective against substance use, but the translation of these values into behaviors can be a risk factor depending upon the relational context of the family.
... Hearing Loss Homepage Facts Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Genetics of Hearing Loss Screening & Diagnosis Types of Hearing Loss About Sound Treatment & Intervention Services Learning Language Bacterial Meningitis Studies Data & Statistics EHDI Annual Data 2015 ...
Nabors, Laura; Odar Stough, Cathleen; Merianos, Ashley; Peugh, James
To examine parent report of flourishing in children with hearing impairments compared to children without hearing impairments, and to explore whether school engagement and bullying related to child flourishing. Participants were 655 children with hearing impairments and 44, 618 children without hearing impairments who were 10-17 years of age. Caregivers completed telephone interviews about their child's functioning for the National Survey of Children's Health. Children without hearing loss had higher parent-reported flourishing compared to children with hearing loss when controlling for child demographics (i.e., race, age, sex). School engagement was positively related to flourishing of children with hearing loss. Bullying behaviors were not related to flourishing of children with hearing loss. Improving school engagement may increase flourishing of children with hearing loss, which is critical given that children with hearing loss experience lower flourishing than children without hearing loss. Examining the relationships among other risk and resilience factors and flourishing for children with hearing loss will provide information for interventions to enhance the adaptation of these children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Garcia, Seth L; Smith, Kenneth J; Palmer, Catherine
Occupational noise threatens U.S. worker health and safety and commands a significant financial burden on state and federal government worker compensation programs. Previous studies suggest that hearing conservation programs have contributed to reduced occupational hearing loss for noise-exposed workers. Many military personnel are overexposed to noise and are provided hearing conservation services. Select military branches require all active duty personnel to follow hearing conservation program guidelines, regardless of individual noise exposure. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a military hearing conservation program, relative to no intervention, in relation to cases of hearing loss prevented. We employed cost-effectiveness analytic methods to compare the costs and effectiveness, in terms of hearing loss cases prevented, of a military hearing conservation program relative to no program. We used costs and probability estimates available in the literature and publicly available sources. The effectiveness of the interventions was analyzed based on whether hearing loss occurred over a 20-yr time frame. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention was $10,657 per case of hearing loss prevented. Workers were 28% less likely to sustain hearing loss in our model when they received the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention, which reflected the greater effectiveness of the hearing conservation program. Cost-effectiveness results were sensitive to estimated values for the probability of acquiring hearing loss from both interventions and the cost of hearing protection. We performed a Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis where we simultaneously varied all the model parameters to their extreme plausible bounds. When we ran 10,000 Monte Carlo iterations, we observed that the hearing conservation program was more cost-effective in 99% of cases when decision makers were willing to
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony
Preliminary studies with homeless youth have found surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest that youth's online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical 1st step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media, especially as it relates to who they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of social networking sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult-to-reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N = 1,046) were recruited through 3 drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether youth engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed.
Kastelein, R.A.; Hoek, L.; Gransier, R.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Terhune, J.M.; Jennings, N.
Acoustic Mitigation Devices (AMDs) are used to deter marine mammals from construction sites, in order to prevent hearing injury by offshore pile driving noise. To estimate the distance at which two AMDs designed as ‘seal scarers’ (Ace Aquatec and Lofitech) are detected by harbor porpoises, the 50%
Full Text Available Ya-Huei Li,1 Osaro Mgbere,1,2 Susan Abughosh,1 Hua Chen,1 Paula Cuccaro,3 Ekere James Essien1,3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Houston Health Department, Houston, TX, USA; 3Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Risk and protective processes are integrated developmental processes that directly or indirectly affect behavioral outcomes. A better understanding of these processes is needed, in order to gauge their contribution to sexual risk behaviors. This retrospective cross-sectional study modeled the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships to examine the social contexts of African-American (AA adolescents associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD- and HIV-risk behaviors. We used data from 1,619 AA adolescents with an average age of 16±1.8 years obtained from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for this study. Confirmatory factor analysis followed by structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the latent constructs that reflect the social–interactional components of the ecodevelopmental theory. Among contextual factors, findings indicated that a feeling of love from father, school, religion, and parent attitudes toward adolescent sexual behavior were all factors that played significant roles in the sexual behavior of AA adolescents. AA adolescents who reported feeling love from their father, feeling a strong negative attitude from their parents toward having sex at a very young age, and having a strong bond with school personnel were associated with better health statuses. The level of parents’ involvement in their children’s lives was reflected in the adolescents’ feeling of love from parents and moderated by their socioeconomic status. Being male, attaining
Marta Regueira Dias Prestes
Full Text Available Olimiar auditivo nem sempre prediz o desempenho em ambientes com redundância extrínseca reduzida. OBJETIVO: Investigar o relato de dificuldades de comunicação de adultos com audiograma normal e verificar o quadro subjacente por meio de avaliações comportamental e eletrofisiológica. MÉTODO: Estudo caso-controle de indivíduos com limiares normais, distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo estudo, 10 adultos com queixas auditivas de comunicação e grupo controle, 10 adultos, sem queixas. Foi medida a frequência em que os participantes apresentam dificuldades de comunicação e realizados testes de fala no silêncio e no ruído, audiometria e potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: O grupo estudo se diferenciou estatisticamente do grupo controle apenas nos escores de dificuldades de comunicação. Foi constatada uma correlação positiva entre os limiares tonais e os escores no autorrelato de dificuldade. CONCLUSÃO: A presença de queixa auditiva na ausência de alterações no audiograma não esteve associada a diferença no desempenho no reconhecimento de fala no ruído, nem nas demais avaliações. Com base na análise de correlação, observou-se que, quanto mais elevados os limiares auditivos, maiores os escores no relato de dificuldades auditivas relacionadas às situações de comunicação, mesmo os limiares variando de 0 a 25 dB.Hearing thresholds are not always predictive of performance in environments with reduced extrinsic redundancy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the communication disorders reported by adults with normal hearing, and to assess their underlying conditions through behavioral and electrophysiological testing. METHOD: This case control study enrolled 20 adults with normal hearing thresholds and divided them into two groups: a case group with 10 adults with hearing impairment-related communication disorders and a control group with 10 adults with normal hearing. The frequency of occurrence of
Lykke Hindhede, Anette
Using disability theory as a framework and social science theories of identity to strengthen the arguments, this paper explores empirically how working-age adults confront the medical diagnosis of hearing impairment. For most participants hearing impairment threatens the stability of social...... interaction and the construction of hearing disabled identities is seen as shaped in the interaction with the hearing impaired person‟s surroundings. In order to overcome the potential stigmatisation the „passing‟ as normal becomes predominant. For many the diagnosis provokes radical redefinitions of the self....... The discursively produced categorisation and subjectivity of senescence mean that rehabilitation technologies such as hearing aids identify a particular life-style (disabled) which determines their social significance. Thus wearing a hearing aid works against the contemporary attempt to create socially ideal...
Okazaki, Shintaro; Benavent-Climent, Amadeo; Navarro, Angeles; Henseler, Jörg
With a social marketing perspective, this study explores community disaster preparedness, by considering appropriate sources of information about disaster severity, the ways community members process information, and how social marketing programs might improve people's ability to protect themselves
Rodica Minciu; Mihaela Padurean; Delia Popescu; Remus Hornoiu
.... In this context, more and more emphasis is placed on finding and promoting low environmental impact forms of travel, including eco-tourism, rural tourism, tourism in protected areas, cultural tourism...
... Join our e-newsletter! Resources Eldercare at Home: Hearing Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem Fifty percent ... at all). Unfortunately, not many older people with hearing problems visit a hearing specialist or wear a hearing ...
Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Herting, Jerald R.; Hooven, Carole L.; Walsh, Elaine; Thompson, Elaine Adams
This study extends prior examination of adolescent violence etiology, drawing on an ethnically diverse, community accessed, yet emotionally vulnerable sample (N = 849) of adolescents at-risk for school drop-out. A balanced risk and protective factor framework captured theorized dimensions of strain, coping, and support resources. We tested the combined and unique contribution of risk and protective components spanning individual, peer/school, and family predictor domains, including victimizat...
Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.
Arlinger, Stig; Lunner, Thomas; Lyxell, Björn; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen
Cognitive Hearing Science or Auditory Cognitive Science is an emerging field of interdisciplinary research concerning the interactions between hearing and cognition. It follows a trend over the last half century for interdisciplinary fields to develop, beginning with Neuroscience, then Cognitive Science, then Cognitive Neuroscience, and then Cognitive Vision Science. A common theme is that an interdisciplinary approach is necessary to understand complex human behaviors, to develop technologies incorporating knowledge of these behaviors, and to find solutions for individuals with impairments that undermine typical behaviors. Accordingly, researchers in traditional academic disciplines, such as Psychology, Physiology, Linguistics, Philosophy, Anthropology, and Sociology benefit from collaborations with each other, and with researchers in Computer Science and Engineering working on the design of technologies, and with health professionals working with individuals who have impairments. The factors that triggered the emergence of Cognitive Hearing Science include the maturation of the component disciplines of Hearing Science and Cognitive Science, new opportunities to use complex digital signal-processing to design technologies suited to performance in challenging everyday environments, and increasing social imperatives to help people whose communication problems span hearing and cognition. Cognitive Hearing Science is illustrated in research on three general topics: (1) language processing in challenging listening conditions; (2) use of auditory communication technologies or the visual modality to boost performance; (3) changes in performance with development, aging, and rehabilitative training. Future directions for modeling and the translation of research into practice are suggested.
Ybarra, Michele L; Boyd, Danah
To examine whether clan membership mediates observed associations between violent game content and externalizing behaviors among youth who play massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs). Responses from 486 11- to 18-year-olds who: live in the United States, read English, have been online at least once in the past 6 months, and have played MMOGs in the past year were examined. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the population-averaged incident rate ratio of aggressive, delinquent, and seriously violent behaviors among MMOG players given one's self-reported exposure to in-game content depicting violence. Twenty-nine percent of all youth respondents played MMOGs in the past year. Rates of aggressive, IRR: 1.59, 95% CI [1.11, 2.26], and delinquent, IRR: 1.44, 95% CI [0.99, 2.08], behaviors were significantly higher for MMOG players who were in clans versus not in clans. For females, clan membership attenuated but did not eliminate the observed relation between exposure to in-game violent content and both aggressive and seriously violent behavior (16% and 10% reductions in IRR, respectively); whereas for males, clan membership was largely uninfluential (i.e., less than 2% change). Clan membership is neither associated with lower rates of externalizing behaviors for youth, nor does it affect the likelihood of reporting externalizing behaviors among male players. There is some suggestion that clan membership may attenuate the concurrent association between in-game violent content and some externalizing behaviors for females.
Solanki, Naimesh; Atrooz, Fatin; Asghar, Saman; Salim, Samina
Earlier, we reported that elevated anxiety-like behavior and high aggression in aged retired breeder Long-Evans (L-E) rats was associated with increased plasma corticosterone and elevated oxidative stress levels. In the present study, we examined how this aged aggressive and anxious rat strain responds to acute sleep deprivation (24h) and whether their behaviors can be modulated via antioxidant tempol treatment. Four groups of L-E rats were utilized: naïve control (NC), tempol treated control (T+NC), sleep deprived (SD), tempol treated and sleep deprived (T+SD). Thus, two groups were treated with tempol (1mM in drinking water for 2 weeks) while the other two were not. Two groups were subjected to acute sleep deprivation (24h) using the columns-in-water model while the other two were not. Sleep deprivation induced anxiety-like behavior, led to significant depression-like behavior and short-term memory impairment in SD rats. And, decision-making behavior also was compromised in SD rats. These behavioral and cognitive impairments were prevented with tempol treatment in T+SD rats. Tempol treatment also reduced SD-induced increase in corticosterone and oxidative stress levels in T+SD rats. These results suggest potential involvement of oxidative stress mechanisms in regulation of sleep deprivation induced behavioral and cognitive deficits in male aged-aggressive rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Avaliação do conforto do protetor auditivo individual numa intervenção para prevenção de perdas auditivas The evaluation of comfort of the personal hearing protection devices as an intervention for hearing loss prevention
Patricia Schiniski Sviech
conducted. The study population was 20 workers exposed to noise levels above 80 dB(A. The workers used two types of HPD (earplugs and earmuffs, each for 15 days, followed by an application of the questionnaire after each trial period. RESULTS: 85% of the participants were males and 15% females and their average age was 35 years old. The comfort index for the studied earplug was 4.6, and for the studied earmuff was 6.1. The participants wore the HPDs during their full work shift which lasted 6 hours and 40 minutes. Other barriers were indentified to the use of hearing protection: interference with communication (20%, decreased hearing (10% and lack of clarity on the need to use it (10%. CONCLUSION: the HPDs analyzed in this study had their scores acceptable and were considered both comfortable. However, there was a significant difference in the comfort Index between protectors of different types (earplug and earmuff. The conclusion was that the earmuff is considered the most comfortable and more accepted HPDs by this population.
Dai, Donghua; Gu, Dongdong
A selective laser melting (SLM) physical model of the change from heat conduction to keyhole-mode process is proposed, providing the transformation of the thermal behavior in the SLM process. Both thermo-capillary force and recoil pressure, which are the major driving forces for the molten flow, are incorporated in the formulation. The effect of the protective atmosphere on the thermal behavior, molten pool dynamics, velocity field of the evaporation material and resultant surface morphology has been investigated. It shows that the motion direction of the evaporation material plays a crucial role in the formation of the terminally solidified surface morphology of the SLM-processed part. For the application of N2 protective atmosphere, the evaporation material has a tendency to encounter in the frontier of the laser scan direction, resulting in the stack of molten material and the attendant formation of humps in the top surface. As Ar protective atmosphere is used, the vector direction of the evaporation material is typically upwards, leading to a uniform recoil pressure forced on the free surface and the formation of fine and flat melt pool surface. The surface quality and morphology are experimentally acquired, which are in a good agreement with the results predicted by simulation.
Marlatt, Edward A
Especially in the education of students who are deaf or hard of hearing, teachers' practical knowledge storage is almost never measured. The Survey of Practical Knowledge was used to compare the practical knowledge storage of deaf and hearing teachers of these students. Surveyed were 48 deaf and 115 hearing individuals at the preservice and in-service experience levels. Practical knowledge storage was defined as images, rules of practice, and practical principles. Results indicate that deaf teachers tend to view students as equals but are more likely to emphasize control over classroom behavior than hearing teachers. Hearing teachers tend to stress efforts to engage students in subject matter by providing variety and relating it to life experiences. Given the trend toward high-stakes testing of teachers, further research is encouraged on role differences between deaf and hearing teachers working with students who are deaf or hard of hearing.
Kataoka, Tetsuyuki; Kokusyo, Goji; Tanaka, Yukihisa; Kobayashi, Seiichi
Effect of unit load per travel wheel on the protective pipe was studied when electricity cable distribution lines were buried in the depth less than the present standard for electric equipment, and logical burying depth was investigated. Test items were material test of the protective pipe, indoor load test, and field test at loamy ground. Impact resistance hard PVC pipe was used as the protective pipe, and its strength and elastic modulus were measured. Along with these tests, it was confirmed that there was no problem of cracking by repeated flattening or breakage by fatigue. By indoor test, it was observed that, in case of shallow burying, creap deformation was small, stress concentrate occured at the middle of axial direction, and that flattening ratio was seriously affected by the method of backfilling. Field test was conducted by applying the static load of a 20 ton dump truck, and the deformation, stress, and subsidence of the protective pipe, were measured. As the conclusion of those experiments, it was found that burying of protective pipe in the depth of not less than 30 cm is allowable, as long as sufficient bakfilling is made. (14 figs, 3 tabs, 3 refs)
The legal system has been preparing for an explosion of epigenetic issues in public health, environmental regulation and litigation. So far, this explosion has been muted, and for now epigenetic data protection merely seems to be "enjoying" the same technological and legal challenges experienced by other clinical and research data. However, three areas of development suggest where epigenetic data protection may prove problematic. This article examines these three issues, noting the rapid expansion of research based on EMR-sourced clinical data, the large number of data protection models that can apply to genetic data (including point-of-use prohibitions on discrimination and confidentiality), and the increasing and controversial dangers of deidentified information being reidentified. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hearing Loss and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Introduction Significant hearing loss has been reported in approximately 50% of people with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) beginning any time from childhood into middle age. While not ...
Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)
Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.
... and how often you are exposed to loud music Headphone use Family history of hearing loss Jobs or activities that increase your chance of hearing loss from music are: Being a musician, sound crew member, or ...
SS Mazloomy Mahmoodabad
Full Text Available Introduction: Skin cancer is regarded as the most common cancer in most countries, whose most important risk factor is exposure to sunlight. Since prevention programs demand to be held in this regard in childhood and adolescence, this study aimed to determine the Knowledge, attitude, and performance of secondary school female students towards skin cancer and sun protection behaviors in Yazd. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted on 513 secondary school female students, who were selected using a stratified sampling method. The data collection tool was a questionnaire that its reliability was confirmed in Mazloomy's study via Cronbach alpha (0.81. Moreover, the study data were analyzed by descriptive statistics as well as analytic statistics using SPSS software (ver. 11.5. Results: Mean age of participants was 15/88±1/04 years. Mean and standard deviation scores of knowledge, attitude, performance were reported 12.19 ± 5.44 (total core= 37, 18.98 ± 2.26 (total core= 24 and 7.47 ± 2/51 (total core= 16 respectively. Using sunscreen (71.5% was introduced as the most prevalent sun protection behavior. A significant correlation was observed between knowledge and attitude (r= 0.350, p=0.000, as well as performance(r= 0.264, p=0.000 and age (r= 0.134, p=0.010. Conclusion: As the study findings revealed, lack of knowledge as well as undesirable sun protection behaviors except for using sunscreen supported the need to conduct school-based educational intervention.
Teenagers are presented with increasing degrees of freedom and exposure to risk in the current fast-paced electronic age. Teenagers challenge parents to help them find ways to overcome the risks around them. This book speaks to the parent child relationship and provides parents with insights on how to protect their children from the dangers around…
Voydanoff, Patricia; Donnelly, Brenda W.
Examines a model in which protective factors are expected to reduce the impact of economic, family, and community risk factors on parental well-being. Marital happiness and perceived school environment are positively related to parental well-being. Parental well-being, marital happiness, and parents' community resources show modest positive…
Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary; Chapman, Rebekah
Typically adolescents' friends are considered a risk factor for adolescent engagement in risk-taking. This study took a more novel approach, by examining adolescent friendship as a protective factor. In particular it investigated friends' potential to intervene to reduce risk-taking. Five-hundred-forty adolescents (mean age 13.47 years) were asked…
Laird, Robert D.; Marks, Loren D.; Marrero, Matthew D.
Three hypotheses with the potential to provide information on the role of religiosity as a promotive and protective factor in early adolescence were tested. Adolescents (N = 166, M age = 13 years, 49% female, 49% European American, 45% African American) and mothers reported their own personal importance of religion and the frequency of their…
Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Herting, Jerald R.; Hooven, Carole L.; Walsh, Elaine; Thompson, Elaine Adams
This study extends prior examination of adolescent violence etiology, drawing on an ethnically diverse, community accessed, yet emotionally vulnerable sample (N = 849) of adolescents at-risk for school dropout. A balanced risk and protective factor framework captured theorized dimensions of strain, coping, and support resources. We tested the…
This paper offers an account of ongoing research into hearing. I offer a characterization of 'skil- led practitioners' from an Ethnomethodological perspective. The skilled practitioner in question is a generic 'hard of hearing' person. The ambition is that such a characterization, both in its...... making and its final state, may be an intrinsic part of design practices concerning the development of hearing aids....
Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.
Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.
... distinction between hearing aids and personal sound amplification products (PSAPs), as well as the regulatory... protection of the public health, FDA seeks to further clarify the definitions of hearing aids and PSAPs. This... represent the Agency's current thinking on the definitions and regulatory requirements for hearing aids and...
may be susceptible to a genetic predisposition for age-related hearing loss and/or noise-induced hearing loss. Given this level of confidence, it is...administrative controls, and effective use of hearing protective devices. While PTS can be due to hazardous noise exposure, other factors such as disease
Pedro Henrique Cipresso Pereira
Full Text Available The present study analyzed heterotypic schooling behavior and protective mimicry relationships involving species of the genus Haemulon and other coral reef fishes on coastal reefs at Tamandaré, Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. The work was performed during 35 hours of direct observation using the "focal animal" method. The observed events involved 14 species of reef fish in eight different families. The phenomenon of mixed schooling appeared to be related to the large number of individuals of the genus Haemulon present in reef environments and to the tendency of individuals with limited populations to try to aggregate in schools (e.g. genus Scarus.
Fernandez, Antonio R; Crawford, J Mac; Studnek, Jonathan R; Wilkins, J R
The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of hearing problems among a national cohort of emergency medical service (EMS) professionals, determine factors associated with hearing problems, and estimate the percentage of EMS professionals who utilize hearing protection. Utilizing results from a questionnaire, individuals who reported hearing problems were compared to individuals who had not. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with hearing problems. Finally, items regarding use of hearing protection were assessed to estimate the percentage of usage among EMS professionals. In total, 1,058 (57%) participants responded to the questionnaire. Of those, 1,024 (97%) who completed the hearing problems question were utilized for analysis. There were 153 (14.9%) cases of self-reported hearing problems. The final logistic regression model included lifetime occupational noise exposure 0.99 (95% CI = 0.9997-1.0002), report of previous back problems (odds ratio (OR) = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.8340-4.1042), large community size (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.1211-2.4843), and minority status (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.3719-0.9867). Finally, 213 (20.8%) individuals reported utilizing some form of hearing protection at their main EMS job. The results from this analysis are the first national estimates of the prevalence of self reported hearing problems among EMS professionals. This study was also the first to estimate the percentage of EMS professionals who self reported the utilization of hearing protection. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Rüedi-Bettschen, Daniela; Wood, Sherri L; Gunnell, Melinda G; West, C Michael; Pidaparthi, Rama R; Carroll, F Ivy; Blough, Bruce E; Owens, S Michael
(+)-Methamphetamine (METH) addiction is a chronic disease that interferes with fundamental brain-mediated behaviors and biological functions like eating. These studies present preclinical efficacy and safety profiles for a METH conjugate vaccine (IC(KLH)-SMO9) designed to treat METH abuse. ICKLH-SMO9 efficacy and safety were assessed over a 16-week period by monitoring general health and stability of responding in a food maintained behavioral paradigm. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to lever press for food reinforcers until stable behavior was established. Rats (n=9/group) were then immunized with 100 μg of a control antigenic carrier protein (IC(KLH)-Cys) or IC(KLH)-SMO9 in Alhydrogel adjuvant, with booster immunizations at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Health, immunization site and behavior were assessed daily. No adverse effects were found. During weeks 14-16, when antibody titers and METH affinity (K(d)=13.9 ± 1.7 nM) were maximal, all rats received progressively higher METH doses (0.3-3.0 mg/kg) every 3-4 days, followed by behavioral testing. Even though the lower METH doses from 0.3 to 1.0 mg/kg produced no impairment in food maintained behavior, 3.0-mg/kg in control rats showed significantly (pMETH dose, even though METH serum concentrations showed profound increases due to anti-METH antibody binding. These findings suggest the IC(KLH)-SMO9 vaccine is effective and safe at reducing adverse METH-induced effects, even at high METH doses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
N. A. Dorodnikov
Full Text Available The paper deals with the results of probabilistic model development for behavioral computer network. We present a method for the system state simulation immediately after the attack. To describe the threats we have selected an appropriate set of mathematical models for processes. The authors have proposed a modification of the attack trees theory including probabilistic attack trees, describing the ways to achieve objectives by illegal intruders and calculating the probability of the various types of threats. The proposed method enables to assess the levels of risks and vulnerability of the studied networks with the aid of the system behavior simulation.
Parchment, Tyrone M; Small, Latoya; Osuji, Hadiza; McKay, Mary; Bhana, Arvin
The mental health of children is too frequently overlooked in resource scarce low and middle-income countries. South Africa represents one of many country contexts struggling to meet the mental health needs of large numbers of young people. Family caregivers have been identified as potential protective influences on child mental health, even for those children being reared with high exposure to poverty. This paper explores contextual influences on South African caregiver's social-emotional health living in communities impacted by poverty and food insecurity as they attempt to support their children's prosocial skills and behavior. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to explore the relationship between neighborhood social cohesion and caregiver report of child's prosocial behavior as mediated by the caregiver's mental health (n=478). Results indicated that the more caregivers experience their communities as socially cohesive, the better their social-emotional well-being, thus positively related to their reports of children's prosocial behavior. Furthermore, when there is a male head of household, caregivers reported better social-emotional well-being in comparison to female headed of household. The more food secure caregivers also were likely to report better general health. South African community characteristics and caregivers, in particular male caregivers, are integral to child and caregiver mental health. Future research should examine the impact of interventions that mobilize community and caregiver supports for children's prosocial behavior and mental health.
Amuta, Ann O.; Barry, Adam E.
Background: Approximately 1580 people die from cancer each day. Family history is highlighted as an especially important indicator of cancer risk. Purpose: To determine whether having a family member with cancer influences preventive behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical activity, and screenings). Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis…
Nancy. E. Gillette; A. Steve Munson
The discovery and elucidation of volatile behavioral chemicals used by bark beetles to locate hosts and mates has revealed a rich potential for humans to sabotage beetle host-finding and reproduction. Here, we present a description of currently available semiochemical methods for use in monitoring and controlling bark beetle pests in western conifer forests. Delivery...
The studies reported in this thesis show that despite the development that the human brain has undergone during evolution, this organ and the behavior it brings forth is still strongly sensitive to the effects of testosterone. Testosterone strengthens the neural response to sounds of crying babies,
Tanaka-Ouyang, Lei; Marlin, Sandrine; Nevoux, Jérôme
Deafness is the most common sensory disability in developed countries affecting more than 2 births in 1000. Eighty percent of congenital deafness is genetic. Universal newborn hearing screening has been in place since 2012 in France. All genetic hearing losses are not congenital and all congenital hearing losses are not genetic. Genetic hearing loss may be syndromic (associated with other symptoms) (10 %) or non-syndromic (isolated) (90 %). Hearing loss may initially be the only symptom of syndromic deafness. A genetic origin can be diagnosed and must therefore be evoked systematically even in the adult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Schubert, C. R.; Cruickshanks, K. J.; Wiley, T. L.; Klein, R.; Klein, B E; Tweed, T. S.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if infectious diseases usually experienced in childhood have an effect on hearing ability later in life. METHODS: The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (N = 3,753) is a population-based study of age-related hearing loss in adults aged 48 to 92 years in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of this study, infectious disease history was obtained and hearing was tested using pure-tone audiometry. Hearing loss was defined as a pure-tone average of thresholds at 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz,...
Current standards for occupational noise exposure are discussed briefly. Previously published data from two major surveys are used to derive noise-induced hearing loss audiograms for workers of average, and above average, sensitivity who have spent a working life of 40 yr exposed to noise at the maximum levels currently recommended; estimates of the percentage risk of hearing loss are quoted. A number of individual cases, in which claimants have been exposed to noise levels close to the current criteria, are described. It is concluded that the standards currently in use do not provide anything like complete protection especially to the more sensitive workers, and may leave employers open to common law actions for damages.
Frederiksen, Thomas W; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Stokholm, Zara A
AIMS: To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD) over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline...... and the follow-up populations according to first year of occupational noise exposure is evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2001-2003, we conducted a baseline survey of noise- and hearing-related disorders in 11 industries with suspected high noise levels. In 2009-2010, we were able to follow up on 271 out...... of the 554 baseline workers (49%). Mean noise levels per industry and self-reported HPD use are described at baseline and follow-up. The association between cumulative occupational noise exposure and hearing threshold shift over the 10-year period was assessed using linear regression, and the risk of hearing...
Full Text Available This paper deals with noise-induced hearing loss protection in the South African mining industry. I deals with several issues, including standards and regulations, medical issues and compensation...
Schüz, Natalie; Eid, Michael
Sun protection standards among teenagers are low while sun exposure peaks in this age group. Study 1 explores predictors of adolescent protection intentions and exposure behavior. Study 2 tests the effectiveness of an intervention based on these predictors. Study 1(cross-sectional, N = 207, ages 15-18) and Study 2 (RCT, N = 253, ages 13-19) were conducted in schools. Path models were used to analyze data. Self-efficacy (β = .26, p behavior. The intervention effected changes in all predictors except self-efficacy. Changes in outcome expectancies (β = .19, p behavior changes. Target group- and behavior-specific intervention components are as important for changes in intentions and behavior as components derived from common health behavior theories.
N. A. Dorodnikov; S. A. Arustamov
The paper deals with the results of probabilistic model development for behavioral computer network. We present a method for the system state simulation immediately after the attack. To describe the threats we have selected an appropriate set of mathematical models for processes. The authors have proposed a modification of the attack trees theory including probabilistic attack trees, describing the ways to achieve objectives by illegal intruders and calculating the probability of the various ...
Jiang, Yingying; Chen, Jingqi; Yu, Buyi; Jin, Yichen
This study aims to examine the rate and risk factors for physical violence (PV) by parents against hearing loss children in Beijing, China. Cross-sectional study was carried out among 86 couples of parents of hearing loss children from two special education schools in Beijing. Parents' self-reporting questionnaires were used to collect information about parental PV behaviors during the past 12 months, definition of child abuse, attitudes towards the use of corporal punishment to discipline children, parents' childhood experience of PV victimization, and demographic characteristics. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The rates of minor PV and severe PV reported by parents were 44.8% and 15.7%, respectively. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that the risk factors of PV were: lower educational attainment, favorable or tolerant attitudes towards the use of corporal punishment to discipline children, parents' experiences of PV victimization in childhood, and younger children. PV by parents against hearing loss children was common in Beijing. It is urgent to develop prevention programs to improve parents' parenting skills and protect children with hearing loss from PV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Damania, R.; Stringer, R.; Karanth, K.U.; Stith, B.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is classified as endangered and populations continue to decline. This paper presents a formal economic analysis of the two most imminent threats to the survival of wild tigers: poaching tigers and hunting their prey. A model is developed to examine interactions between tigers and farm households living in and around tiger habitats. The analysis extends the existing literature on tiger demography, incorporating predator-prey interactions and exploring the sensitivity of tiger populations to key economic parameters. The analysis aims to contribute to policy debates on how best to protect one of the world's most endangered wild cats.
Full Text Available An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP, confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV, has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES systems. This research focuses on the size of an AP within an air vessel and tries to describe how it affects important parameters of the system, i.e., the pressure in the pipe, stored pressure, flow velocity, displaced volume of water and water level in the CAV. Results present a specific range of air pockets based on a dimensionless parameter extractable for other real systems.
Dandoulaki, M.; Kourou, A.; Panoutsopoulou, M.
It is vastly accepted that earthquake education is the way to earthquake protection. Nonetheless experience demonstrates that knowing what to do does not necessarily result in a better behaviour in case of a real earthquake. A research project titled: "Seismopolis" - "Pilot integrated System for Public Familiarization with Earthquakes and Information on Earthquake Protection" aimed at the improvement of the behaviour of people through an appropriate amalgamation of knowledge transfer and virtually experiencing an earthquake situation. Seismopolis combines well established education means such as books and leaflets with new technologies like earthquake simulation and virtual reality. It comprises a series of 5 main spaces that the visitor passes one-by-one. Space 1. Reception and introductory information. Visitors are given fundamental information on earthquakes and earthquake protection, as well as on the appropriate behaviour in case of an earthquake. Space 2. Earthquake simulation room Visitors experience an earthquake in a room. A typical kitchen is set on a shake table area (3m x 6m planar triaxial shake table) and is shaken in both horizontal and vertical directions by introducing seismographs of real or virtual earthquakes. Space 3. Virtual reality room Visitors may have the opportunity to virtually move around in the building or in the city after an earthquake disaster and take action as in a real-life situation, wearing stereoscopic glasses and using navigation tools. Space 4. Information and resources library Visitors are offered the opportunity to know more about earthquake protection. A series of means are available for this, some developed especially for Seismopolis (3 books, 2 Cds, a website and an interactive table game). Space 5. De-briefing area Visitors may be subjected to a pedagogical and psychological evaluation at the end of their visit and offered support if needed. For the evaluation of the "Seismopolis" Centre, a pilot application of the
Carl Christian Lein Størmer
Full Text Available Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of TromsØ. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians.
E. E. Savel'eva
Full Text Available Objective: comparative analysis of objective hearing function examination methods in children and identification of the factors affecting examination results. Patients and methods. We studied hearing in 473 children of 3 months – 5 years of age with sensorineural hearing loss and surdity. The control group was comprised of 30 children with normal hearing. Along with the standard clinical examination of ENT-organs, we performed tympanometry and reflexometry, examination of delayed evoked otoacoustic emission and reflection-source frequency otoacoustic emission, registered short-latency auditory evoked potentials and auditory steady state response (ASSR in all children. We also conducted behavioral audiometry in children of 2-3 years of age and play audiometry in older children. Results. Various hearing loss risk factors are revealed in anamneses of most children (77% with sensorineural hearing loss and surdity. The most sensitive (Se = 100% and specific (Sp = 98.3% method of diagnosing hearing level in children is the registration of short-latency brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Conclusions. The most reliable results of hearing thresholds identification are obtained when classic psychoacoustic hearing function examination methods are combined with modern electrophysiological examination method and hearing loss grade verification using surdopedagogic tests.
Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J
The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.
Moore, Brian C. J.
The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601
Lewis, Melissa A; Rees, Michiko; Logan, Diane E; Kaysen, Debra L; Kilmer, Jason R
Alcohol use has been implicated as a risk factor for sexual negative consequences, such as unprotected sexual intercourse. The present research was conducted to examine the relationship between drinking protective behavioral strategies and consensual sex-related alcohol negative consequences, and whether this relationship varied by gender. Additionally, typical number of drinks during sexual behavior was evaluated as a potential mediator of this association. Heavy drinking, sexually active college students (N = 297, 50.2% women) completed self-report measures of drinking protective behavioral strategies, alcohol consumption, and sex-related alcohol negative consequences. Findings indicated that women who used drinking protective behavioral strategies more frequently were less likely to experience sex-related alcohol negative consequences whereas this relationship was not significant for men. For women, this relationship was mediated by the typical number of drinks consumed during sexual behavior. The current research demonstrates that use of drinking protective behavioral strategies is related to a reduction in women's sex-related risks when drinking. Findings are discussed in terms of alcohol myopia theory. Implications for interventions aimed to reduce higher risk sexual behavior among college students are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
... Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification hearings. 86.1853-01 Section 86.1853-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...
... is not hearing high-pitched sounds, like the singing of birds, or not understanding speech when in ... radio. Music, the sounds of nature, and the voices of loved ones can bring you pleasure; sirens ...
Snyder, Robert; Johnson, Jordan
"I've never heard of a small speck of dust that is able to yell" says Horton of a sound he hears well (Geisel 1954). It is always valuable to connect science to student's interests and their everyday world--so what better way to teach concepts relating to sound than to read "Horton Hears a Who" by Dr. Seuss? Here the authors present several…
Emmanuel D Kitcher
Full Text Available Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL is an irreversible sensorineural hearing loss associated with exposure to high levels of excessive noise. Prevention measures are not well established in developing countries. This comparative cross sectional study aims to determine the prevalence of hearing loss in both a group of high risk workers and a control group and to assess their knowledge of the effects of noise on hearing health. A total of 101 market mill workers and 103 controls employed within markets in the city of Accra, Ghana, were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and pure tone audiometry. The questionnaire assessed factors including self-reported hearing loss, tinnitus, knowledge on the effects of noise on hearing health and the use of hearing protective devices. Pure tone audiometric testing was conducted for both mill workers and controls. Noise levels at the work premises of the mill workers and controls were measured. Symptoms of hearing loss were reported by 24 (23.76% and 8 (7.7% mill workers and controls respectively. Fifty-five (54.5% and fifty-four (52.37% mill workers and controls exhibited knowledge of the effects of noise on hearing health. Five (5.0% mill workers used hearing protective devices. There was significant sensorineural hearing loss and the presence of a 4 kHz audiometric notch among mill workers when compared with controls for the mean thresholds of 2 kHz, 3 kHz and 4 kHz (P = 0. 001. The prevalence of hearing loss in the better hearing ears of the mill workers and controls was 24.8% and 4.8% respectively (P < 0.5. The prevalence of hearing loss, which may be characteristic of NIHL in the better hearing ears of the mill workers and controls was 24.8% and 4.8% respectively. The majority of mill workers did not use hearing protection.
Michael R Kotowski; Smith, Sandi W; Johnstone, Patti M.; Erin Pritt
Brochures containing messages developed according to the Extended Parallel Process Model were deployed to increase intentions to use hearing protection for college students. These brochures were presented to one-half of a college student sample, after which a questionnaire was administered to assess perceptions of threat, efficacy, and behavioral intentions. The other half of the sample completed the questionnaire and then received brochures. Results indicated that people receiving the brochu...
Snik, A.F.M.; Agterberg, M.J.H.; Bosman, A.
Application of bilateral hearing devices in bilateral hearing loss and unilateral application in unilateral hearing loss (second ear with normal hearing) does not a priori lead to binaural hearing. An overview is presented on several measures of binaural benefits that have been used in patients with
Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Thomas H Riess
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male circumcision has been shown to reduce the transmission of HIV from women to men through vaginal sex by approximately 60%. There is concern that men may engage in risk compensation after becoming circumcised, diminishing the benefits of male circumcision. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 sexually active circumcised men in Kisumu, Kenya from March to November 2008. Most respondents reported no behavior change or increasing protective sexual behaviors including increasing condom use and reducing the number of sexual partners. A minority of men reported engaging in higher risk behaviors either not using condoms or increasing the number of sex partners. Circumcised respondents described being able to perform more rounds of sex, easier condom use, and fewer cuts on the penis during sex. CONCLUSIONS: Results illustrate that information about MC's protection against HIV has disseminated into the larger community and MC accompanied by counseling and HIV testing can foster positive behavior change and maintain sexual behavior.
Kotowski, Michael R; Smith, Sandi W; Johnstone, Patti M; Pritt, Erin
Brochures containing messages developed according to the Extended Parallel Process Model were deployed to increase intentions to use hearing protection for college students. These brochures were presented to one-half of a college student sample, after which a questionnaire was administered to assess perceptions of threat, efficacy, and behavioral intentions. The other half of the sample completed the questionnaire and then received brochures. Results indicated that people receiving the brochure before the questionnaire reported greater perceptions of hearing loss threat and efficacy to use ear plugs when in loud environments, however, intentions to use ear plugs were unchanged. Distribution of the brochure also resulted in greater perceptions of hearing loss threat and efficacy to use over-the-ear headphones when using devices such as MP3 players. In this case, however, intentions to use over-the-ear headphones increased. Results are discussed in terms of future research and practical applications.
Michael R Kotowski
Full Text Available Brochures containing messages developed according to the Extended Parallel Process Model were deployed to increase intentions to use hearing protection for college students. These brochures were presented to one-half of a college student sample, after which a questionnaire was administered to assess perceptions of threat, efficacy, and behavioral intentions. The other half of the sample completed the questionnaire and then received brochures. Results indicated that people receiving the brochure before the questionnaire reported greater perceptions of hearing loss threat and efficacy to use ear plugs when in loud environments, however, intentions to use ear plugs were unchanged. Distribution of the brochure also resulted in greater perceptions of hearing loss threat and efficacy to use over-the-ear headphones when using devices such as MP3 players. In this case, however, intentions to use over-the-ear headphones increased. Results are discussed in terms of future research and practical applications.
Zeng, Gao-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Lu, Li; Xiao, De-Qiang; Zong, Shao-Hui; He, Jian-Ming
The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a traditional Chinese medicinal ginger root extract (GRE) to prevent behavioral dysfunction in the Alzheimer disease (AD) rat model. Rat AD models were established by an operation (OP) in which rats were treated with a one-time intra-cerebroventricuIar injection of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and continuous gavage of aluminum chloride every day for 4 weeks. GRE was administered intra-gastrically to rats. After 35 days, learning and memory were assessed in all of the rats. Brain sections were processed for immunohistochemistry and Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) and Nissl staining. The latency to show significant memory deficits was shorter in the group that received OP with a high dose of GRE (HG)(OP+HG) than in the groups that received OP with a low or moderate dose of GRE (LG, MG)(OP+LG, OP+MG) (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the OP+MG and OP+LG groups was up-regulated compared to the OP+HG groups (p<0.05). The rats in the OP+HG groups had lower levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and malondialdehyde (MDA) expression than the rats in the OP+MG and OP+LG groups (p<0.05). This experiment demonstrates that the administration of GRE reverses behavioral dysfunction and prevents AD-like symptoms in our rat model.
Full Text Available Lifestyle interventions such as diet, exercise, and cognitive training represent a quietly emerging revolution in the modern approach to counteracting age-related declines in brain health. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that long-term dietary supplementation with antioxidants and mitochondrial cofactors (AOX or behavioral enrichment with social, cognitive, and exercise components (ENR, can effectively improve cognitive performance and reduce brain pathology of aged canines, including oxidative damage and Aβ accumulation. In this study, we build on and extend our previous findings by investigating if the interventions reduce caspase activation and ceramide accumulation in the aged frontal cortex, since caspase activation and ceramide accumulation are common convergence points for oxidative damage and Aβ, among other factors associated with the aged and AD brain. Aged beagles were placed into one of four treatment groups: CON--control environment/control diet, AOX--control environment/antioxidant diet, ENR--enriched environment/control diet, AOX/ENR--enriched environment/antioxidant diet for 2.8 years. Following behavioral testing, brains were removed and frontal cortices were analyzed to monitor levels of active caspase 3, active caspase 9 and their respective cleavage products such as tau and semaphorin7a, and ceramides. Our results show that levels of activated caspase-3 were reduced by ENR and AOX interventions with the largest reduction occurring with combined AOX/ENR group. Further, reductions in caspase-3 correlated with reduced errors in a reversal learning task, which depends on frontal cortex function. In addition, animals treated with an AOX arm showed reduced numbers of cells expressing active caspase 9 or its cleavage product semaphorin 7A, while ENR (but not AOX reduced ceramide levels. Overall, these data demonstrate that lifestyle interventions curtail activation of pro-degenerative pathways to improve cellular
How Data Mining Threatens Student Privacy. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies of the Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives Serial No. 113-76 and the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives Serial No. 113-61, House of Representatives, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, Second Session (June 25, 2014)
US House of Representatives, 2015
This paper presents the first joint hearing of the Subcommittee on Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies of the Committee on Homeland Security and the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. The subcommittees met to examine data collection…
Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa
to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem is the way...... in which the hearing aid user’s implicit and often unrealistic expectations are handled. This kind of research has potential application for developing a model of best practices....
Park, Homin; Basaran, Can; Park, Taejoon; Son, Sang Hyuk
Research on smart environments saturated with ubiquitous computing devices is rapidly advancing while raising serious privacy issues. According to recent studies, privacy concerns significantly hinder widespread adoption of smart home technologies. Previous work has shown that it is possible to infer the activities of daily living within environments equipped with wireless sensors by monitoring radio fingerprints and traffic patterns. Since data encryption cannot prevent privacy invasions exploiting transmission pattern analysis and statistical inference, various methods based on fake data generation for concealing traffic patterns have been studied. In this paper, we describe an energy-efficient, light-weight, low-latency algorithm for creating dummy activities that are semantically similar to the observed phenomena. By using these cloaking activities, the amount of fake data transmissions can be flexibly controlled to support a trade-off between energy efficiency and privacy protection. According to the experiments using real data collected from a smart home environment, our proposed method can extend the lifetime of the network by more than 2× compared to the previous methods in the literature. Furthermore, the activity cloaking method supports low latency transmission of real data while also significantly reducing the accuracy of the wireless snooping attacks.
Sheridan, Mary D.; Peckham, Catherine S.
Evaluated for social and educational aspects at 7 years of age were 133 children with moderate hearing loss, 46 children with severe unilateral hearing loss, and 215 children with normal hearing but with unintelligible speech. (DB)
... visit this page: About CDC.gov . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hearing ... noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Read and comment ...
Keidser, Gitte; Rudner, Mary; Seeto, Mark; Hygge, Staffan; Rönnberg, Jerker
Verbal reasoning performance is an indicator of the ability to think constructively in everyday life and relies on both crystallized and fluid intelligence. This study aimed to determine the effect of functional hearing on verbal reasoning when controlling for age, gender, and education. In addition, the study investigated whether hearing aid usage mitigated the effect and examined different routes from hearing to verbal reasoning. Cross-sectional data on 40- to 70-year-old community-dwelling participants from the UK Biobank resource were accessed. Data consisted of behavioral and subjective measures of functional hearing, assessments of numerical and linguistic verbal reasoning, measures of executive function, and demographic and lifestyle information. Data on 119,093 participants who had completed hearing and verbal reasoning tests were submitted to multiple regression analyses, and data on 61,688 of these participants, who had completed additional cognitive tests and provided relevant lifestyle information, were submitted to structural equation modeling. Poorer performance on the behavioral measure of functional hearing was significantly associated with poorer verbal reasoning in both the numerical and linguistic domains (p < 0.001). There was no association between the subjective measure of functional hearing and verbal reasoning. Functional hearing significantly interacted with education (p < 0.002), showing a trend for functional hearing to have a greater impact on verbal reasoning among those with a higher level of formal education. Among those with poor hearing, hearing aid usage had a significant positive, but not necessarily causal, effect on both numerical and linguistic verbal reasoning (p < 0.005). The estimated effect of hearing aid usage was less than the effect of poor functional hearing. Structural equation modeling analyses confirmed that controlling for education reduced the effect of functional hearing on verbal reasoning and showed that
Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...
Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.
Kononova, Anastasia; Yuan, Shupei; Joo, Eunsin
As health organizations increasingly use the Internet to communicate medical information and advice (Shortliffe et al., 2000; World Health Organization, 2013), studying factors that affect health information processing and health-protective behaviors becomes extremely important. The present research applied the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion to explore the effects of media multitasking, polychronicity (preference for multitasking), and strength of health-related arguments on health-protective behavioral intentions. Participants read an online article about influenza that included strong and weak suggestions to engage in flu-preventive behaviors. In one condition, participants read the article and checked Facebook; in another condition, they were exposed only to the article. Participants expressed greater health-protective behavioral intentions in the media multitasking condition than in the control condition. Strong arguments were found to elicit more positive behavioral intentions than weak arguments. Moderate and high polychronics showed greater behavioral intentions than low polychronics when they read the article in the multitasking condition. The difference in intentions to follow strong and weak arguments decreased for moderate and high polychronics. The results of the present study suggest that health communication practitioners should account for not only media use situations in which individuals typically read about health online but also individual differences in information processing, which puts more emphasis on the strength of health-protective suggestions when targeting light multitaskers.
Ward, S. W.
Uncomplicated, inexpensive intercom protects head, face, and hearing. Adaptation of highly suitable stock helmet and face shield unit to stock intercom headset provided ideal unit, allowing wearer total use of hands and body while protecting head, face, and hearing. Unit allows wearer to work effectively, efficiently, and safely while communicating from remote areas that require special precautions. Total cost of fabricating unit, using stock parts and including labor, less than $100.
Kenney, Shannon R.; LaBrie, Joseph W.
Recent research indicates that protective behavioral strategies (PBS)—previously established as effective self-regulating tools for reducing alcohol risk among college students—may be especially useful for students with poor mental health, who are shown to be at heightened risk for alcohol-related harm. The current study examined the moderating influence of mental health (depression and anxiety severity), gender, and race (White, Asian) in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 1,782 undergraduate students from two West Coast universities who reported past month incidence of heavy episodic drinking. Students reported on their drinking, experience of alcohol-related consequences, use of PBS, and depression and anxiety symptomatology. Overall, results demonstrated that among participants experiencing depression or anxiety, greater PBS utilization was associated with significantly lower levels of alcohol-related consequences, even after controlling for drinking and other predictors. However, findings also revealed important distinctions in the potential effectiveness of PBS by depression/anxiety severity and racial-gender subgroup, such that Asian men with poor mental health appeared to garner unique and substantial benefit (i.e., lesser consequences) from increased PBS use. Further, PBS were found to offer substantial protective benefit for White females, irrespective of mental health. This study points to the potential for targeted PBS-specific skills training and interventions to minimize alcohol-related risks faced by the growing subpopulation of college students experiencing psychological distress, and further highlights important race-gender differentials. PMID:24079648
Bravo, Adrian J; Prince, Mark A; Pearson, Matthew R
Given the high prevalence of marijuana use among college students, it is imperative to determine the factors that may reduce risk of problematic marijuana use and/or the development of cannabis use disorder. We examined marijuana protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as a proximal predictor of marijuana-related outcomes and a mediator of the associations between other known risk/protective factors and marijuana-related outcomes. Using data from a sample of 2,129 past-month marijuana users, collected from 11 universities in the United States, we examined marijuana PBS use as a mediator of the effects of sex, age at first use, impulsivity-like traits, and marijuana use motives on marijuana use frequency and marijuana related consequences. Marijuana PBS was identified as a robust negative predictor of marijuana use frequency and marijuana-related consequences. Further, Marijuana PBS use fully or partially mediated the effects of sex, premeditation, perseverance, coping motives, enhancement motives, conformity motives, and expansion motives on marijuana outcomes. Our results suggest that marijuana PBS use is a good candidate to be considered as a mechanism by which marijuana users moderate their marijuana use and attenuate their risk of experiencing marijuana-related consequences.
Marler, Jeffrey A; Sitcovsky, Jessica L; Mervis, Carolyn B; Kistler, Doris J; Wightman, Frederic L
Hearing loss is common in school-age individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and extensive in adults. Prior studies with relatively small sample sizes suggest that hearing loss in WS has an early onset and may be progressive, yet the auditory phenotype and the scope of the hearing loss have not been adequately characterized. We used standard audiometric tools: Otoscopy, tympanometry, air-conduction (bone conduction when available) behavioral testing, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to measure hearing sensitivity and outer hair cell function. We tested 81 individuals with WS aged 5.33-59.50 years. Sixty-three percent of the school-age and 92% of the adult participants had mild to moderately-severe hearing loss. The hearing loss in at least 50% was sensorineural. DPOAE testing corroborated behavioral results. Strikingly, 12 of 14 participants with hearing within normal limits bilaterally had 4,000-Hz DPOAE input/output (DPOAE IO) functions indicative of outer hair cell damage and impaired cochlear compression. Our results indicate that hearing loss is very common in WS. Furthermore, individuals with WS who have "normal" hearing as defined by behavioral thresholds may actually have sub-clinical impairments or undetected cochlear pathology. Our findings suggest outer hair cell dysfunction in otherwise normal hearing individuals. The DPOAE IO in this same group revealed growth functions typically seen in groups with noise-induced damage. Given this pattern of findings, individuals with WS may be at increased risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Recommendations regarding audiological testing for individuals with WS and accommodations for these individuals in both academic and nonacademic settings are provided.
Yang, Wen; Sherman, Vincent R; Gludovatz, Bernd; Mackey, Mason; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Chang, Edwin H; Schaible, Eric; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A
The scales of the arapaima (Arapaima gigas), one of the largest freshwater fish in the world, can serve as inspiration for the design of flexible dermal armor. Each scale is composed of two layers: a laminate composite of parallel collagen fibrils and a hard, highly mineralized surface layer. We review the structure of the arapaima scales and examine the functions of the different layers, focusing on the mechanical behavior, including tension and penetration of the scales, with and without the highly mineralized outer layer. We show that the fracture of the mineral and the stretching, rotation and delamination of collagen fibrils dissipate a significant amount of energy prior to catastrophic failure, providing high toughness and resistance to penetration by predator teeth. We show that the arapaima's scale has evolved to minimize damage from penetration by predator teeth through a Bouligand-like arrangement of successive layers, each consisting of parallel collagen fibrils with different orientations. This inhibits crack propagation and restricts damage to an area adjoining the penetration. The flexibility of the lamellae is instrumental to the redistribution of the compressive stresses in the underlying tissue, decreasing the severity of the concentrated load produced by the action of a tooth. The experimental results, combined with small-angle X-ray scattering characterization and molecular dynamics simulations, provide a complete picture of the mechanisms of deformation, delamination and rotation of the lamellae during tensile extension of the scale. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.
... of Braces Eating Disorders Mitral Valve Prolapse Arrhythmias Hearing Evaluation in Children KidsHealth > For Parents > Hearing Evaluation ... hearing screened early and checked regularly. Causes of Hearing Loss Hearing loss is a common birth defect, ...
... factor for hearing loss. Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is thought to have both genetic and environmental ... Encyclopedia: Hearing or speech impairment - resources Health Topic: Hearing Disorders and Deafness Health Topic: Hearing Problems in Children Health Topic: ...
Erickson, Joan Good
Maintaining that teachers of English are in an opportune position to detect and help students with verbal communication problems, this essay provides the necessary guidance by (1) describing the various speech disorders of articulation, voice, fluency, (2) listing the behaviors indicating hearing loss, and (3) discussing the causes and effects of…
MacDonald, J. A.; Shahrestani, S.; Weis, J. S.
Behaviors, activity budgets, and spatial locations of reef-associated schoolmaster snapper ( Lutjanus apodus) and non-reef-associated checkered puffer ( Sphoeroides testudineus) were cataloged in mangrove forests in Caribbean Honduras to see how and where they spent their time and whether this changed as they grew. For schoolmasters, swimming was the most common behavior, while checkered puffers spent the majority of their time resting. Both remained completely within (as opposed to outside) the mangrove roots and in the lower half of the water column most of the time. However, as the size of the fish increased there was a clear decrease in the time spent both within the root system and closer to the substrate; the larger fish spent more time higher up in the water column and outside the root system. This was observed in both the schoolmaster and the puffer; the schoolmaster subsequently moves to reefs while the puffer does not. Coupled with limited feeding, the results suggest a primarily protective function for mangroves.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington Disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder in which caspase activation and cleavage of substrates, including the huntingtin protein, has been invoked as a pathological mechanism. Specific changes in caspase-2 (casp2 activity have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of HD, however unique casp2 cleavage substrates have remained elusive. We thus utilized mice completely lacking casp2 (casp2-/- to examine the role played by casp2 in the progression of HD. This 'substrate agnostic' approach allows us to query the effect of casp2 on HD progression without pre-defining proteolytic substrates of interest. Results YAC128 HD model mice lacking casp2 show protection from well-validated motor and cognitive features of HD, including performance on rotarod, swimming T-maze, pre-pulse inhibition, spontaneous alternation and locomotor tasks. However, the specific pathological features of the YAC128 mice including striatal volume loss and testicular degeneration are unaltered in mice lacking casp2. The application of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques validates specific neuropathology in the YAC128 mice that is not altered by ablation of casp2. Conclusions The rescue of behavioral phenotypes in the absence of pathological improvement suggests that different pathways may be operative in the dysfunction of neural circuitry in HD leading to behavioral changes compared to the processes leading to cell death and volume loss. Inhibition of caspase-2 activity may be associated with symptomatic improvement in HD.
Sheffield, Benjamin; Brungart, Douglas; Tufts, Jennifer; Ness, James
To examine the relationship between hearing acuity and operational performance in simulated dismounted combat. Individuals wearing hearing loss simulation systems competed in a paintball-based exercise where the objective was to be the last player remaining. Four hearing loss profiles were tested in each round (no hearing loss, mild, moderate and severe) and four rounds were played to make up a match. This allowed counterbalancing of simulated hearing loss across participants. Forty-three participants across two data collection sites (Fort Detrick, Maryland and the United States Military Academy, New York). All participants self-reported normal hearing except for two who reported mild hearing loss. Impaired hearing had a greater impact on the offensive capabilities of participants than it did on their "survival", likely due to the tendency for individuals with simulated impairment to adopt a more conservative behavioural strategy than those with normal hearing. These preliminary results provide valuable insights into the impact of impaired hearing on combat effectiveness, with implications for the development of improved auditory fitness-for-duty standards, the establishment of performance requirements for hearing protection technologies, and the refinement of strategies to train military personnel on how to use hearing protection in combat environments.
Rosenbaum, Janet; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph
Adolescent employment predicts lower educational engagement and achievement and greater engagement with risk behaviors. Most research has studied middle class rather than disadvantaged adolescents. We identified risk and protective behaviors associated with employment using data from a 3-wave, 12-month study of 715 low-socio-economic status female African American adolescents who were ages 15-21 at baseline. Adolescents who were employed at wave 2 (n=214) were matched with adolescents who were not employed at wave 2 (n=422) using nearest-neighbor matching on baseline factors within propensity score calipers on factors including marijuana use, sex while high, pregnancy risk, and socioeconomic status. We compared employed and non-employed teens on risk behaviors including marijuana use, sex while high or drunk, and a biomarker for semen exposure in the past 14 days. Employed teens were 44% as likely to say that their boyfriend is their primary spending money source and 43% as likely to be emotionally abused, but these benefits did not persist after employment ended. Six months after employment, employed respondents reported using marijuana 57% more often and had sex while drunk or high 2.7 times as frequently. Women who were employed at both waves 2 and 3 were 17% as likely to have their boyfriend as a primary source of spending money and 13% more likely to graduate high school, but they used marijuana twice as often, alcohol 1.6 times as often, had 1.6 times as many sexual partners, and had sex while high or drunk 2.3 times as often. Female teens who work may avoid potentially coercive romantic relationships, but they may buy drugs or alcohol with their earnings.
Clarke, Nickeisha; Kim, Su-Young; E. Ray, Anne; R. White, Helene; Jiao, Yang; Mun, Eun-Young
This study examined race and gender differences in use of specific types of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and the moderating effects of race and gender on the relationship between PBS use and alcohol problems, controlling for alcohol use, among a large sample of Asian, Black, and White college drinkers. There were significant racial and gender differences in the types of PBS used. Moderation analyses indicated that PBS were more protective for women than men against experiencing alco...
Crepaz, Nicole; Tungol-Ashmon, Malu V.; Vosburgh, H. Waverly; Baack, Brittney N.; Mullins, Mary M.
Despite several advantages to bringing couples together to learn how to protect themselves and new-born children from the risk of HIV infection, most interventions are designed for individuals or groups, not for dyads. This meta-analysis provides a direct test of whether couple-based interventions are more effective in promoting HIV protective behaviors than interventions delivered to individuals. We conducted systematic searches of five electronic databases and 60 journals. Eligible studies ...
Vanessa Flora Jaiteh; Steven John Lindfield; Sangeeta eMangubhai; Carol eWarren; Ben eFitzpatrick; Neil eLoneragan
Fisheries are complex social-ecological systems, where managers struggle to balance the socio-economic interests of fishing communities with the biology and ecology of fisheries species. Spatial closures are a popular measure to address conservation and fisheries management goals, including the protection of shark populations. However, very little research has been published on the effectiveness of shark-specific closures to protect sharks, or their impacts on fisher behavior. Situated within...
Rabinowitz, Peter M; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Clougherty, Jane E; Neitzel, Richard L
Current understanding of the dose-response relationship between occupational noise and hearing loss is based on cross-sectional studies prior to the widespread use of hearing protection, and with limited data regarding noise exposures below 85 dBA. We report on the hearing loss experience of a unique cohort of industrial workers, with daily monitoring of noise inside of hearing protection devices. At an industrial facility, workers exhibiting accelerated hearing loss were enrolled in a mandatory programme to monitor daily noise exposures inside of hearing protection. We compared these noise measurements (as time-weighted LAVG) to interval rates of high-frequency hearing loss over a 6-year period using a mixed-effects model, adjusting for potential confounders. Workers' high-frequency hearing levels at study inception averaged more than 40 dB Hearing threshold level (HTL). Most noise exposures were less than 85 dBA (mean LAVG 76 dBA, IQR 74-80 dBA). We found no statistical relationship between LAvg and high-frequency hearing loss (p=0.53). Using a metric for monthly maximum noise exposure did not improve model fit. At-ear noise exposures below 85 dBA did not show an association with risk of high-frequency hearing loss among workers with substantial past noise exposure and hearing loss at baseline. Therefore, effective noise control to below 85 dBA may lead to significant reduction in occupational hearing loss risk in such individuals. Further research is needed on the dose-response relationship of noise and hearing loss in individuals with normal hearing and little prior noise exposure.
Garnefski, Nadia; Kraaij, Vivian
The aim of the study was to examine whether a cognitive-behavioral self-help program was effective in improving depressed mood and anxiety in people with acquired deafness. Participants were 45 persons with acquired deafness, randomly allocated to the Cognitive-Behavioral Self-help (CBS) group or the Waiting List Control (WLC) group. Depression…
Garstecki, D C; Erler, S F
Little gender-specific data related to hearing loss and hearing loss management are available. The purpose of this investigation was to examine personal and social conditions affecting women at selected stages of the adult life course that may influence hearing loss management. In all, 191 women in three age groups, ranging from 35 to 85 years old, participated. None reported hearing problems. Participants completed a demographic data form and were given a standard audiometric evaluation to confirm age-normal hearing. Each completed assessments of speech understanding in quiet and noise, auditory signal duration discrimination, and binaural processing. Measures of hearing knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes; health-related locus of control; ego strength; and, social support were administered. Results revealed that although some variables deteriorate among subsequent age groups (i.e., hearing thresholds, central auditory processing, and ego strength), the reverse is true for others (i.e., social interaction and satisfaction with income). Age-specific sociodemographic burdens that may interfere with hearing loss management were noted. New psychosocial data are revealed against which women and men with impaired hearing may be compared.
Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital virally induced hearing loss. Maternal infection is most often asymptomatic as is the infection in the newborn. Hearing loss occurs in both clinically apparent infection and in the asymptomatic infection. Current methods of detection, treatment, and prevention and research efforts are…
Hutchison, Barbara; Covan, Eleanor K; Bogus, Janet C
We used a novel approach allowing participants in this study to self-monitor their hearing sensitivity to familiar sounds in the environment. The objective of this approach was to establish whether participants in the 80-89 and 90-99 age groups would recognize the degree of their hearing impairment. It was our hope that participants would value audiology treatment and that it would improve their quality of life over a short period. The pilot study took place in a clinical environment where participants answered survey questions before and after audiology treatment, which pertained to their hearing impairment, morale, social support, and life satisfaction. Caregivers were included in the research to rate and record participants' problem behaviors (e.g., shouting, anger, agitation, repetitive speech dialog, and depression) before, during, and after treatment. This research validates other scientists' findings that annoying problem behaviors may actually be the result of hearing loss because of a person's inability to recognize speech. The pilot study shows that participants with mild dementia adapted well to speech and sounds in the natural environment without agitation as well as to management of hearing aids within a 30-day period. The participants with moderate dementia were slower to adapt. All participants with dementia required the cooperation of their caregivers to maintain hygiene of ear canals and hearing aids and insertion. This study suggests that the sooner people receive treatment for hearing loss, the quicker they are to recognize speech and to master hearing aid technology.
an anechoic chamber . The subject stood on a platform in the center of this sphere. The platform was adjusted in order to center the subject’s head...earmuffs with the foam tips resting in the outer ear canal. The arms of the headband had resonant chambers designed to absorb sounds before they...enter the ear. The chambers of the Allen Sound Sensor were similar in size to those of the SG 26. The chambers on the SG 31 were larger, to provide
Buck, K; Zimpfer-Jost, V
.... The impact of ANR protectors on the noise exposure and on the speech intelligibility is discussed. Critical parameters like stability and overload are discussed and some basic design rules will be shown. The problems arising during an implementation earplugs will finally be discussed.
...) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) Pt. 989.... Place a newspaper display advertisement announcing the time and place of the hearing as well as other... or advertisements in local publications. At the conclusion of the hearing, the hearing officer should...
Göpfert, Martin C; Hennig, R Matthias
Insect hearing has independently evolved multiple times in the context of intraspecific communication and predator detection by transforming proprioceptive organs into ears. Research over the past decade, ranging from the biophysics of sound reception to molecular aspects of auditory transduction to the neuronal mechanisms of auditory signal processing, has greatly advanced our understanding of how insects hear. Apart from evolutionary innovations that seem unique to insect hearing, parallels between insect and vertebrate auditory systems have been uncovered, and the auditory sensory cells of insects and vertebrates turned out to be evolutionarily related. This review summarizes our current understanding of insect hearing. It also discusses recent advances in insect auditory research, which have put forward insect auditory systems for studying biological aspects that extend beyond hearing, such as cilium function, neuronal signal computation, and sensory system evolution.
Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.
Full Text Available It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR, held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium.
Kilimann, I; Óvari, A; Hermann, A; Witt, G; Pau, H W; Teipel, S
The World Health Organization (WHO) burden of disease study identified dementia and hearing problems as leading causes of loss of quality of life in the industrial world. The prevalence of dementia and hearing problems increases in aging societies. Comorbidity of these two diseases causes increasing demands on healthcare systems. The similarity and possible interaction of symptoms renders diagnosis and therapy of dementia and hearing loss a challenge for neurologists, psychiatrists, ear, nose and throat (ENT) and hearing specialists. Knowledge of both diseases enables an early intervention and helps preserve participation in society and thereby reducing the risk of developing dementia. This paper focuses on the characteristics of the diagnosis and therapy of hearing problems and dementia.
The study examined the social and academic adjustment problems of some mainstreamed hearing and hearing-impaired students who were randomly selected from two integrated schools in Ibadan metropolis. The sample consisted of 232 junior secondary school students. 125 of them are hearing while 107 are hearing ...
Vlaming, M.S.M.G.; Kollmeier, B.; Dreschler, W.A.; Martin, R.; Wouters, J.; Grover, B.; Mohammadh, Y.; Houtgast, T.
A group of 28 research partners joined the EU-funded project HearCom with the overall aim to improve hearing communication. One of the main achievements has been the provision of advanced hearing screening tests by telephone and Internet. Next to that it was aimed to harmonize hearing diagnostic
Vlaming, Marcel S. M. G.; Kollmeier, Birger; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Martin, Rainer; Wouters, Jan; Grover, Brian; Mohammadh, Yehya; Houtgast, Tammo
A group of 28 research partners joined the EU-funded project HearCom with the overall aim to improve hearing communication. One of the main achievements has been the provision of advanced hearing screening tests by telephone and Internet. Next to that it was aimed to harmonize hearing diagnostic
Liu, Rugang; Li, Youwei; Wangen, Knut R; Maitland, Elizabeth; Nicholas, Stephen; Wang, Jian
With China's accelerating urbanization, migrant workers comprise up to 40% of the urban population of China's largest cities. More mobile than non-migrant urban dwellers, migrants are more likely to contract and spread hepatitis B (HB) than non-migrants. Due to the mandatory system of household registration (hukou), migrants are less likely to be covered by national HB immunization programs and also to have more limited access to public health services where they work than non-migrants. Migrants form a significant sub-group in all Chinese cities posing unique public policy vaccination challenges. Using protection motivation theory (PMT), we developed and measured HB cognitive variables and analyze the factors affecting HB vaccination behavior and willingness to vaccinate by migrant workers. We propose public policy interventions to increase HB vaccination rates of migrant workers. We developed a questionnaire to collect information on the HB vaccination characteristics of 1684 respondents from 6 provinces and Beijing. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create PMT variables and a binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the factors affecting migrant workers' HB vaccination behavior and willingness to vaccinate. Vulnerability and response-efficacy were significant PMT cognition factors determining HB vaccination behavior. The HB vaccination rate for migrants decreased with increasing age and was smaller for the primary education than the high education group. The vaccination rate of the medical insurance group was significantly greater than the non-insured group, and the vaccination probability was significantly higher for the self-rated good health compared to the self-rated poor health group. Geographical birth location mattered: the vaccination rate for Beijing city and Ningxia province migrants were higher than for Hebei province and the vaccination rate was lower for migrants born far from health facilities compared to those located middle
Foulon, Ina; Vleurinck, Leen; Kerkhofs, Kristin; Gordts, Frans
This study had three main goals: (1) to determine the hearing configuration in hearing-impaired children born with a congenital CMV (cCMV) infection, (2) to see whether auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) was present, and (3) to propose a flow chart for the follow-up of hearing in children with cCMV. Hearing configuration and the presence of ANSD in cCMV infected children was analysed. Selection criteria were: hearing-impaired children with a regular audiometric follow-up for at least 36 months, no other major risk factors for hearing loss, a normal middle-ear status, and an appropriate behavioral response to the given pure-tone stimuli. Out of a cohort of 206 cCMV infected children, 18 hearing-impaired children were selected. Audiograms of all children showed a flat configuration of SNHL: the slope between octave bands was never greater than 10 decibels. None of the 18 children were found to have ANSD. Hearing impairment in cCMV infants affected all frequencies equally and ANSD does not appear to be a feature of cCMV infection. A flow chart for hearing follow-up in children with cCMV infection was suggested in order to provide guidance, improve uniformity in follow-up, and to make results easier to compare.
Gordon, Karen A; Cushing, Sharon L; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Polonenko, Melissa J; Papsin, Blake C
Access to bilateral hearing can be provided to children with hearing loss by fitting appropriate hearing devices to each affected ear. It is not clear, however, that bilateral input is properly integrated through hearing devices to promote binaural hearing. In the present review, we examine evidence indicating that abnormal binaural hearing continues to be a challenge for children with hearing loss despite early access to bilateral input. Behavioral responses and electrophysiological data in children, combined with data from developing animal models, reveal that deafness in early life disrupts binaural hearing and that present hearing devices are unable to reverse these changes and/or promote expected development. Possible limitations of hearing devices include mismatches in binaural place, level, and timing of stimulation. Such mismatches could be common in children with hearing loss. One potential solution is to modify present device fitting beyond providing audibility to each ear by implementing binaural fitting targets. Efforts to better integrate bilateral input could improve spatial hearing in children with hearing loss.
Kenney, Shannon R; LaBrie, Joseph W
Recent research indicates that protective behavioral strategies (PBS)-previously established as effective self-regulating tools for reducing alcohol risk among college students-may be especially useful for students with poor mental health, who are shown to be at heightened risk for alcohol-related harm. The current study examined the moderating influence of mental health (depression and anxiety severity), gender, and race (White, Asian) in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 1,782 undergraduate students from two West Coast universities who reported past-month incidence of heavy episodic drinking (HED). Students reported on their drinking, experience of alcohol-related consequences, use of PBS, and depression and anxiety symptomatology. Overall, results demonstrated that among participants experiencing depression or anxiety, greater PBS utilization was associated with significantly lower levels of alcohol-related consequences, even after controlling for drinking and other predictors. However, findings also revealed important distinctions in the potential effectiveness of PBS by depression/anxiety severity and racial-gender subgroup, such that Asian men with poor mental health appeared to garner unique and substantial benefit (i.e., lesser consequences) from increased PBS use. Further, PBS were found to offer substantial protective benefit for White females, irrespective of mental health. This study points to the potential for targeted PBS-specific skills training and interventions to minimize alcohol-related risks faced by the growing subpopulation of college students experiencing psychological distress, and further highlights important race and gender differentials. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Binaural hearing is an important phenomenon in hearing for human being. Nowadays, the role of binaural hearing in the process of amplification has been focused. Since hearing aids act separately in the process of amplification and hearing, the attentions has been devoted to designing a system for binaural amplification by means of Beam forming which will be explained in more details in the current article.
... COMMISSION Public Hearing AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold a public hearing on May 10, 2012, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. At this public hearing, the Commission will hear testimony on the projects listed in the Supplementary...
... COMMISSION Public Hearing AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold a public hearing on November 13, 2013, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. At this public hearing, the Commission will hear testimony on the projects listed in the...
... COMMISSION Public Hearing AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold a public hearing on February 14, 2013, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. At this public hearing, the Commission will hear testimony on the projects listed in the...
... COMMISSION Public Hearing AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold a public hearing on May 23, 2013, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. At this public hearing, the Commission will hear testimony on the projects listed in the Supplementary...
Olson, Anna D; Gooding, Lori F; Shikoh, Fara; Graf, Julie
College musicians exhibit greater declines in hearing than the general population and are at particular risk because they rehearse and perform daily in loud environments. Also, they engage in use of personal listening devices which increases the amount of "exposure" time. Despite increased risk, many do not use hearing protection devices (HPD). The purpose of this study was to (1) to identify the present level of education about hearing health, (2) identify the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using HPD, and (3) evaluate results among different musical instrument groups. A mixed-methods group design was used including both quantitative and qualitative instruments. SPSS was used to generate descriptive statistics, and non-parametric statistical analysis was performed on quantitative data. NVivo software was used to evaluate qualitative responses. Of the 90 college instrumental music students who participated, 12% reported a history of hearing loss, and over one-third reported tinnitus. Seventy-seven percent of participants had never received any training about hearing health and only a small percentage of students used HPD. The most cited reason for lack of protection use was its negative impact on sound quality. However, group differences were noted between brass, woodwind, and percussion musicians in terms of HPD uptake. Improving the type of information disseminated to college musicians may reduce the risk of ear-related deficits. Noise dosage information, HPD information, and prevention education grounded in theories like the Health Belief Model may increase awareness and promote greater use of HPDs in this population.
Amuta, Ann O.; Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Popoola, Olufemi A.; Crosslin, Katie
Background: Obesity prevalence among children and adolescents has dramatically increased in the past decade and has resulted in higher rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among adolescents. Purpose: To examine whether there are gender differences in T2DM risk perception, attitude toward T2DM protective behaviors, physical activity, and…
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew
The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…
Full Text Available Context: Young people regularly expose themselves to leisure noise and are at risk for acquiring hearing damage. Aims: The objective of this study was to compare young adults’ hearing status in relation to sociodemographic variables, leisure noise exposure and attitudes and beliefs towards noise. Settings and Design: A self-administered questionnaire regarding hearing, the amount of leisure noise exposure and attitudes towards noise and hearing protection as well as an audiological test battery were completed. Five hundred and seventeen subjects between 18 and 30 years were included. Subject and Methods: Hearing was evaluated using conventional audiometry, transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. On the basis of their hearing status, participants were categorised into normal hearing, sub-clinical or clinical hearing loss. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent samples t-tests, chi-square tests and multiple regression models were used to evaluate the relation between groups based on hearing status, sociodemographics, leisure noise and attitudes towards noise. Results: Age was significantly related to hearing status. Although, the subjects in this study frequently participated in leisure activities, no significant associations between leisure noise exposure and hearing status could be detected. No relation with subjects’ attitudes or the use of hearing protection devices was found. Conclusions: This study could not demonstrate clinically significant leisure noise-induced hearing damage, which may lead to more non-protective behaviour. However, the effects of leisure noise may become noticeable over a long-term use since age was found to be related with sub-clinical hearing loss. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of noise exposure.
Rahne, Torsten; Ehelebe, Thomas
Patients suffering from conductive or mixed hearing loss may benefit from bone-conduction hearing systems (BAHS). The amount of amplification provided by the hearing system is selected based on the individual's sensorineural frequency-specific threshold. With patients who are not able to provide thresholds behaviorally, such as young children, objective methods are required to estimate the unaided and aided hearing threshold and thus the success of the hearing system fitting. In a prospective study with ten adult Baha softband users, aided and unaided frequency-specific thresholds were estimated. Aided thresholds to tone bursts via Baha stimulation were obtained behaviorally and electrophysiologically using cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) and were compared to pure-tone thresholds using routine clinical audiometry. For all stimulation frequencies, the frequency-specific electrophysiological and behavioral hearing thresholds measured with Baha stimulation were highly correlated and not different. Increased thresholds were observed only with the 0.5 kHz Baha stimulation as compared to the pure-tone audiogram. Objective measurement of frequency-specific hearing thresholds with CAEPs is applicable to BAHS users.
Full Text Available Patients suffering from conductive or mixed hearing loss may benefit from bone-conduction hearing systems (BAHS. The amount of amplification provided by the hearing system is selected based on the individual’s sensorineural frequency-specific threshold. With patients who are not able to provide thresholds behaviorally, such as young children, objective methods are required to estimate the unaided and aided hearing threshold and thus the success of the hearing system fitting. In a prospective study with ten adult Baha softband users, aided and unaided frequency-specific thresholds were estimated. Aided thresholds to tone bursts via Baha stimulation were obtained behaviorally and electrophysiologically using cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs and were compared to pure-tone thresholds using routine clinical audiometry. For all stimulation frequencies, the frequency-specific electrophysiological and behavioral hearing thresholds measured with Baha stimulation were highly correlated and not different. Increased thresholds were observed only with the 0.5 kHz Baha stimulation as compared to the pure-tone audiogram. Objective measurement of frequency-specific hearing thresholds with CAEPs is applicable to BAHS users.
One of the most common complaints of people with impaired hearing concerns their difficulty with understanding speech. Particularly in the presence of background noise, hearing-impaired people often encounter great difficulties with speech communication. In most cases, the problem persists even...... if reduced audibility has been compensated for by hearing aids. It has been hypothesized that part of the difficulty arises from changes in the perception of sounds that are well above hearing threshold, such as reduced frequency selectivity and deficits in the processing of temporal fine structure (TFS......) at the output of the inner-ear (cochlear) filters. The purpose of this work was to investigate these aspects in detail. One chapter studies relations between frequency selectivity, TFS processing, and speech reception in listeners with normal and impaired hearing, using behavioral listening experiments. While...
Thorpe, Roland; Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Ferrucci, Luigi
Background. Hearing loss has been associated with cognitive and functional decline in older adults and may be amenable to rehabilitative interventions, but national estimates of hearing loss prevalence and hearing aid use in older adults are unavailable. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2005–2006 cycle of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, which is the first cycle to ever incorporate hearing assessment in adults aged 70 years and older. Audiometry was performed in 717 older adults, and data on hearing aid use, noise exposure, medical history, and demographics were obtained from interviews. Analyses incorporated sampling weights to account for the complex sampling design and yield results that are generalizable to the U.S. population. Results. The prevalence of hearing loss defined as a speech frequency pure tone average of more than 25 dB in the better ear was 63.1% (95% confidence interval: 57.4–68.8). Age, sex, and race were the factors most strongly associated with hearing loss after multivariate adjustment, with black race being substantially protective against hearing loss (odds ratio 0.32 compared with white participants [95% confidence interval: 0.19–0.53]). Hearing aids were used in 40.0% (95% confidence interval: 35.1–44.8) of adults with moderate hearing loss, but in only 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 0.8–6.0) of those with a mild hearing loss. Conclusion. Hearing loss is prevalent in nearly two thirds of adults aged 70 years and older in the U.S. population. Additional research is needed to determine the epidemiological and physiological basis for the protective effect of black race against hearing loss and to determine the role of hearing aids in those with a mild hearing loss. PMID:21357188