Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.
Akram, Bushra; Tariq, Amina; Rafi, Zeeshan
To find the prevalence and to identify the predictors of non-suicidal self-injury among school-going children.. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gujrat, Gujrat Pakistan, from September 2015 to October 2016, and comprised children with intellectual disability and hearing loss. Participants were recruited from schools for special children located in Gujranwala, Jhelum and Gujrat. Multistage stratified sampling technique was used. Of the 325 children, 178(50.4%) had intellectual disability and 175(49.6%) had hearing loss. Findings indicated that the prevalence of self-injurious behaviour was higher in children with intellectual disability 48(27%) compared to their counterparts with hearing loss 3(2%). Neural network, when administered on whole data set, indicated type of disability 0.474(100%), education/training 0.99(20.9%) and access of counselling 0.114(24%) as important predictors of non-suicidal self-injury in both groups. On the other hand, the degree of disability (hearing loss 0.42[100%]; intellectual disability 0.32[100%]), education/ training (hearing loss 0.18[43%]; intellectual disability 0.27[84.5%]) and access of counselling (hearing loss 0.175[41.8%]; intellectual disability 0.256[78.7%]) were important predictors of non-suicidal self-injury among the participants, when neural network was run on the split files on the basis of disability. The prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury among children with intellectual disability was higher as compared to those with hearing loss.
Lykke Hindhede, Anette
Using disability theory as a framework and social science theories of identity to strengthen the arguments, this paper explores empirically how working-age adults confront the medical diagnosis of hearing impairment. For most participants hearing impairment threatens the stability of social...... interaction and the construction of hearing disabled identities is seen as shaped in the interaction with the hearing impaired person‟s surroundings. In order to overcome the potential stigmatisation the „passing‟ as normal becomes predominant. For many the diagnosis provokes radical redefinitions of the self....... The discursively produced categorisation and subjectivity of senescence mean that rehabilitation technologies such as hearing aids identify a particular life-style (disabled) which determines their social significance. Thus wearing a hearing aid works against the contemporary attempt to create socially ideal...
This research investigated the speech, language, and functional auditory outcomes of 119 3-year-old children with hearing loss and additional disabilities. Outcomes were evaluated using direct assessment and caregiver report. Multiple regressions revealed that type of additional disability and level of maternal education were significant predictors of language outcomes. Poorer outcomes were achieved in a combined group of children with autism, cerebral palsy, and/or developmental delay (DD) (Group A), compared with children with vision or speech output impairments, syndromes not entailing DD, or medical disorders (Group B). Better outcomes were associated with higher levels of maternal education. The association between better language outcomes and earlier cochlear implant switch-on approached significance. Further regression analyses were conducted separately for children with different types of additional disabilities. Level of maternal education was the only significant predictor of outcomes for Group A children, whereas degree of hearing loss was the strongest predictor for children in Group B. The findings highlight the variable impact that different types of additional disabilities can have on language development in children with hearing loss. PMID:24150488
In this German study, 317 parents of children with hearing impairments and additional disabilities completed both the Parenting Stress Index and an additional questionnaire on demographics and related information. Analysis showed consistently high stress scores in the Child Domain, whereas the Parent Domain showed only a slight tendency toward…
Full Text Available Background: Balance is a fundamental part of many movement tasks a child performs. Maintaining upright posture is a complex process involving multiple body parts and functional systems. Objective: This study aimed to explore the mean amplitude and velocity of the center of pressure (COP displacements during static balance tests in children with and without disabilities. Methods: Participants were 34 children (age 8.5 to 10.8 years including 6 typically developed children, 8 children with hearing, 8 children with visual and 12 children with intellectual disabilities. Static balance data were obtained in 15 s bipedal stance with eyes open and eyes closed, and also in 10 s unipedal stance. A force plate was used to collect data of COP amplitude in anterior-posterior (COPA-P, medio-lateral (COPM-L directions and COP velocity (COPV. Results: Study outcomes revealed that all subgroups presented larger COP displacement and velocity with eyes closed (p < .001. During bipedal stance with eyes open for results of COPM-L and COPV no significant differences were found between children with and without disabilities (p > .05. Children with intellectual and visual impairments presented significantly larger displacement in COPA-P and COPM-L in comparison with children with hearing impairment and without disability (p < .05. Conclusions: This study provided evidence of comparative outcomes on static stability assessment in elementary school children with and without disability. While in many test items children with disability did not demonstrate a significantly decreased level of postural control outcomes comparing to their peers without disability, the balance assessment should be used for early detection of dysfunction in children, so as to guide the application of appropriate intervention.
Smith, Donald E. P.; And Others
Repeated impedance measures were given over five weeks to 11 autistic, 20 learning-disabled, and 20 normal children. A repeated measures analysis of variance led to the conclusion that fluctuating, negative middle ear pressure greater than normal characterizes both autistic and learning-disabled children with the more abnormal pressures typical in…
Aija Klavina; Anna Zusa-Rodke; Zinta Galeja
Background: Balance is a fundamental part of many movement tasks a child performs. Maintaining upright posture is a complex process involving multiple body parts and functional systems. Objective: This study aimed to explore the mean amplitude and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) displacements during static balance tests in children with and without disabilities. Methods: Participants were 34 children (age 8.5 to 10.8 years) including 6 typically developed children, 8 children with he...
Kreisman, Brian M; John, Andrew B
In 1975, Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142), and it has been revised and modified several times. At the time of this writing, this law was most recently amended by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (Pub. L. No. 108-446, 118 Stat. 2647, December 3, 2004), which took effect on July 1, 2005. Colloquially the law is still referred to as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Children with hearing loss or auditory processing disorder (APD) may qualify for services under IDEA. However, a review of the literature found no review of case law for such children. This article provides a comprehensive review of case law involving the IDEA and children with hearing loss or APD from the U.S. Supreme Court and U.S. courts of appeals. We conducted a systematic review of case law. A LexisNexis search for cases involving IDEA and children with hearing loss or APDs was conducted. For the purpose of the present case review, all appellate decisions (cases accepted by the U.S. courts of appeals or the U.S. Supreme Court) were included if they found that the child had hearing loss or APD, regardless of the reason for the appeal under IDEA. In the instance of multiple cases that involved the same two parties, these cases are summarized together to provide the legal context. Brief explanations of IDEA and the federal judicial process as it pertains to IDEA disputes are presented. Following these explanations, a chronological review of IDEA appellate cases concerning students with hearing loss or APD is provided. The IDEA cases reviewed focus on three main issues: placement of the child, methodology of teaching, and the provision of services. This case law review provides a helpful summary of higher court cases for educational audiologists and parents of children with hearing loss or APDs, as well as educators, individualized education program team members, school administrators, and legal
Gray, Colette; Winter, Eileen
The present study seeks to extend current thinking on participatory research by actively engaging 36 young children with and without a known disability in all aspects of a research project. Matched according to age and gender, six dyads of children attending four early years settings in Northern Ireland chose the research question, selected the…
Sorkin, Donna L; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia; Mellon, Nancy K
Pediatric hearing loss changed more in the past two decades than it had in the prior 100 years with children now identified in the first weeks of life and fit early with amplification. Dramatic improvements in hearing technology allow children the opportunity to listen, speak and read on par with typically hearing peers. National laws mandate that public and private schools, workplaces, and anywhere people go must be accessible to individuals with disabilities. In 2015, most children with hearing loss attended mainstream schools with typically hearing peers. Psychosocial skills still present challenges for some children with hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the influence of the author's methodic of teaching swimming on coordination skills of children with hearing disability of primary school age. Material & Methods: in 20 deaf children’s who are studies in special school of Lviv region we make experimental and control groups, and defined the level of static balance by methodic of Romberg and Bondarevskyy, preserve the active balance while walking on the increase by test «Walk on gymnastic beam» and comprehensive display of coordination skills we used test «Three somersaults forward». The survey was conducted before and after the implementation of our methods of teaching swimming. Results: revealed low level of capacity to preserve static balance and ability to preserve the active balance while walking on the increase at the beginning of research. Conclusion: the defined positive impact of the methodic of teaching swimming in deaf children of experimental group according to results of static balance.
Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.
This paper focuses on definitions, incidence, and characteristics of the multihandicapping condition known as "learning disabled, hearing impaired," in order to provide a means of identifying these children and determining whether or not they require different teaching strategies. (JDD)
Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Button, Laura; Leigh, Greg; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise
Objective This study examined language and speech outcomes in young children with hearing loss and additional disabilities. Design Receptive and expressive language skills and speech output accuracy were evaluated using direct assessment and caregiver report. Results were analysed first for the entire participant cohort, and then to compare results for children with hearing aids (HAs) versus cochlear implants (CIs). Study sample A population-based cohort of 146 5-year-old children with hearing loss and additional disabilities took part. Results Across all participants, multiple regressions showed that better language outcomes were associated with milder hearing loss, use of oral communication, higher levels of cognitive ability and maternal education, and earlier device fitting. Speech output accuracy was associated with use of oral communication only. Average outcomes were similar for children with HAs versus CIs, but their associations with demographic variables differed. For HA users, results resembled those for the whole cohort. For CI users, only use of oral communication and higher cognitive ability levels were significantly associated with better language outcomes. Conclusions The results underscore the importance of early device fitting for children with additional disabilities. Strong conclusions cannot be drawn for CI users given the small number of participants with complete data. PMID:27630013
Mauk, Gary W.; Mauk, Pamela P.
This paper presents a definition of deaf and hard of hearing children with learning disabilities; notes the incidence of children with both disabilities; outlines roadblocks to learning; describes screening, diagnosis, and assessment practices; and offers suggestions for educational programming. (JDD)
The objective of the study was to examine the aetiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a paediatric population presenting to the National Centre of Medical Genetics. A retrospective chart review from 1998 to 2006. One hundred and twenty nine children were investigated for SNHL. The average age of diagnosis of hearing loss was 36 months. The degree of hearing loss was mild in 8 children, moderate in 33 children, severe in 31 children and profound in 57 children. Eighty-five children (66%) were diagnosed with a hereditary hearing loss, 11 (8%) children had an acquired hearing loss and no cause found in 33 (26%) children. This is the first report of the causes of hearing loss in Irish children. The mean age of diagnosis in our cohort is high and emphasises the need for a neonatal screening programme. There remains a number of children for whom the cause of hearing loss remains unknown.
Reichman, Julie; Healey, William C.
A review of research on the relationship of otitis media (ear infection) and learning/language/hearing disorders revealed that incidence of otitis media was twice as common in learning disabled as nonLD students; and that, in general, otitis-prone children scored below controls with frequent evidence of performance deficits. (CL)
Ghassem Mohammad Khani
Full Text Available Objective: Comparing analog and digital hearing aids reducing disability caused by hearing deficiency among moderate to severe sensorineural hearing-impaired persons. Method and Material: This descriptive-analytic study was carried out on two groups of subjects participated in this study in some audiology clinics of hearing aid since May 2002 to October 2003. Twenty subjects wore analog hearing aids and twenty one subjects wore digital hearing aids. In this study , no subject had previous middle ear or psychological problems. APHAB questionnaire was completed before using hearing aid and 2 months after to determine benefit of hearing aid use. Results: Total score mean of APHAB inventory before and after use of analoge hearing aids were 52.215+6.420 and 32.300+3.443 respectively. Also total score mean of APHAB inventory before and after use of digital hearing aids were 54.9252+9.028 and 26.321+10.916 respectively. There was no significant difference between total mean score of APHAB inventory before and after using analog and digital hearing aids (P=0.058.While there was significant difference between total mean score of APHAB questionnaire before and after use of analog hearing aids (P<0.001 and also before and after use of digital hearing aids (P<0.001. Moreover age, gender , litracy level , occupation , degree of hearing loss and manner of hearing aid usage did not have significant effect on APHAB results. Configuration of loss had siginficant effect on aversiveness subscale before and after use of analog hearing aids (P=0.008. Previous experience and duration of hearing aid usage had significant effect on aversiveness subscale before and after use of digital hearing aids (P=0.043 and (P=0.024, respectively , while all of these three items did not have significant effect on total mean score of APHAB inventory and also total mean scores of three subscales of ease of communication , reverberation and background noise. Conclusion: Comparing to
Social Security Administration — The Disability Case Review is a post-effectuation quality review of administrative law judge (ALJ) disability hearing decisions. This dataset includes results from...
Moores, Donald F.
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is having a major impact on the education of deaf and hard of hearing children, and in many ways has taken on an importance far in excess of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which has been evolving since 1975. Congress has appropriated less money for both laws than their…
José Ignacio BENITO-OREJAS
Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The neonatal hearing loss is one of the most common disabilities, with lifelong implications for the child and his family. The implementation of the universal newborn hearing screening and the development in molecular medicine, genetic and integrative neuroscience has perfected the early diagnosis of the hearing loss children and consequently its intervention. With this work, we want to clarify the audiological aspects and causes of the permanent hearing loss diagnosed during the past 20 years. Method: We reviewed retrospectively the records of the children diagnosed with less than 3 years of age of permanent hearing loss, during the period 1994-2015, in a tertiary center. Evaluate the time of home, laterality, type and degree of hearing loss. Depending on the background, genetic testing and other complementary explorations, we present the results of our diagnostic study. Results: In the study-population (n = 183, 71% of the permanent hearing loss > 30 dB HL was diagnosed at birth (congenital. Its main features are the bilaterality (81%, the predominance sensorineural (85% and the grade profound (42% or moderate (30%, more prevalent in the unilateral forms. About the etiologic diagnosis, a 47% of the cases are of origin genetic (29% of which are syndromic, a 25% of cause environmental and a 28% unknown. Discussion: Our results are consistent for the generally accepted distribution of causes, but there are discrepancies in the literature. Despite the different tests used, we had to infer the etiology in 62% of children with hearing loss, finally unknown by 28%. Conclusions: We consider fundamental the monitoring for a consensus standardized etiological protocol that orient in the diagnostic process of hearing loss in children.
Hayward, Denyse V; Ritter, Kathryn; Mousavi, Amin; Vatanapour, Shabnam
To report on the Phase 2 development of the Sound Access Parent Outcomes Instrument (SAPOI), a new instrument focused on formalizing outcomes that parents of children with severe multiple disabilities (SMD) who use amplification prioritize as important. Phase 2 of this project involved item selection and refinement of the SAPOI based on (a) Phase 1 study participant input, (b) clinical specialist feedback, and (c) test-retest instrument reliability. Phase 1 participant responses were utilized to construct a draft version of the SAPOI. Next, clinical specialists examined the instrument for content validity and utility and instrument reliability was examined through a test-retest process with parents of children with SMD. The draft SAPOI was constructed based on Phase 1 participant input. Clinical specialists supported content validity and utility of the instrument and the inclusion of 19 additional items across four categories, namely Child Affect, Child Interaction, Parent Well-being, and Child's Device Use. The SAPOI was completed twice at one-month intervals by parents of children with SMD to examine instrument reliability across the four categories (Child Affect, Child Interaction, Parent Well-being, and Child's Device Use). Instrument reliability was strong-to-excellent across all four sections. The SAPOI shows promise as a much-needed addition to the assessment battery currently used for children with SMD who use cochlear implants and hearing aids. It provides valuable information regarding outcomes resulting from access to sound in this population that currently used assessments do not identify.
Lyon, David J.; And Others
The study investigated specific linguistic abilities/disabilities of 15 children with conductive hearing loss and a history of middle ear dysfunction. Results found significant deficits in verbal intelligence, word recognition, and receptive syntactic skills substantiating the finding that conductive hearing loss due to otitis media is deleterious…
Hrapcak, Susan; Kuper, Hannah; Bartlett, Peter; Devendra, Akash; Makawa, Atupele; Kim, Maria; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Saeed
With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4-14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014. Data was collected through pediatric quality of life and sociodemographic questionnaires, electronic medical record review, and detailed audiologic testing. Hearing loss was defined as >20 decibels hearing level (dBHL) in either ear. Predictors of hearing loss were explored by regression analysis generating age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios. Children with significant hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids. Of 380 patients, 24% had hearing loss: 82% conductive, 14% sensorineural, and 4% mixed. Twenty-one patients (23% of those with hearing loss) were referred for hearing aid fitting. There was a higher prevalence of hearing loss in children with history of frequent ear infections (OR 7.4, 4.2-13.0) and ear drainage (OR 6.4, 3.6-11.6). Hearing loss was linked to history of WHO Stage 3 (OR 2.4, 1.2-4.5) or Stage 4 (OR 6.4, 2.7-15.2) and history of malnutrition (OR 2.1, 1.3-3.5), but not to duration of ART or CD4. Only 40% of caregivers accurately perceived their child's hearing loss. Children with hearing impairment were less likely to attend school and had poorer emotional (p = 0.02) and school functioning (p = 0.04). There is an urgent need for improved screening tools, identification and treatment of hearing problems in HIV-infected children, as hearing loss was common in this group and affected school functioning and quality of life. Clear strategies were identified for prevention and treatment, since most hearing loss was conductive in nature, likely due to
Hrapcak, Susan; Kuper, Hannah; Bartlett, Peter; Devendra, Akash; Makawa, Atupele; Kim, Maria; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Saeed
Introduction With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4–14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014. Data was collected through pediatric quality of life and sociodemographic questionnaires, electronic medical record review, and detailed audiologic testing. Hearing loss was defined as >20 decibels hearing level (dBHL) in either ear. Predictors of hearing loss were explored by regression analysis generating age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios. Children with significant hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids. Results Of 380 patients, 24% had hearing loss: 82% conductive, 14% sensorineural, and 4% mixed. Twenty-one patients (23% of those with hearing loss) were referred for hearing aid fitting. There was a higher prevalence of hearing loss in children with history of frequent ear infections (OR 7.4, 4.2–13.0) and ear drainage (OR 6.4, 3.6–11.6). Hearing loss was linked to history of WHO Stage 3 (OR 2.4, 1.2–4.5) or Stage 4 (OR 6.4, 2.7–15.2) and history of malnutrition (OR 2.1, 1.3–3.5), but not to duration of ART or CD4. Only 40% of caregivers accurately perceived their child’s hearing loss. Children with hearing impairment were less likely to attend school and had poorer emotional (p = 0.02) and school functioning (p = 0.04). Conclusions There is an urgent need for improved screening tools, identification and treatment of hearing problems in HIV-infected children, as hearing loss was common in this group and affected school functioning and quality of life. Clear strategies were identified for prevention and treatment, since most
Basañez, Irving; Nakku, Doreen; Stangl, Susan; Wanna, George B
Hearing loss in children is a common entity worldwide. We examined the prevalence and etiology of hearing loss among primary school children in Mbarara, Uganda. Cross-sectional study in primary school children aged 5-14 was performed to determine the prevalence of hearing loss. Ugandan primary school children were screened for disabling hearing loss (threshold >30dB) and confirmatory audiometry was performed on those who failed the screening. There were 639 children screened. Thirty-five (5.5%) of children screened failed and were referred for further testing. Two children were lost to follow-up. The percentage of children with true hearing loss was 3.1%. The incidence of failed hearing screening and hearing loss in Mbarara, Uganda is similar to other populations. Hearing loss is a significant problem in Uganda and efforts should be made for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20% to 50% among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires measuring sign language, spoken language, hearing abilities, and psychosocial difficulties were given to 334 children with hearing loss. Results show that the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties was 3.7 times greater compared with a group of hearing children. In the group of children with additional disabilities, the prevalence was 3 times greater compared with children without additional disabilities. If sign language and/or oral language abilities are good, the children do not have a substantially higher level of psychosocial difficulties than do hearing children. This study documents the importance of communication-no matter the modality or degree of hearing loss-for the psychosocial well-being of hearing-impaired children.
Verte, Sylvie; Hebbrecht, Lies; Roeyers, Herbert
This study investigated both the quality of sibling relationships and the psychological adjustment siblings experienced across two groups: siblings of children who are deaf or hard of hearing compared to siblings of children with no disability. Twenty-four siblings of children with hearing loss and 24 siblings of children without a disability…
Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.
Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…
Zekveld, A.A.; George, E.L.J.; Houtgast, T.; Kramer, S.E.
Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH;
T. Christensen, Vibeke; V. Rasmussen, Martin; Datta Gupta, Nabanita
Using unique representative data containing self-reported functional and clinically measured hearing ability for the Danish population aged 50-64, we estimate the effect of hearing loss on receipt of disability benefits accounting for potential endogeneity of functional hearing. Our identification...
Hearing loss was significantly associated with age older than 35 years (p= 0.009) and duration of employment greater than 5 years ( p = 0.02 ). Conclusion: Disabling hearing loss was significantly higher in the noise – exposed subjects and indicates the need for a hearing conservation programme amongst these workers.
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone......Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualise the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...
Marlene E Gubata
Full Text Available Hearing loss is a common condition among US adults, with some evidence of increasing prevalence in young adults. Noise-induced hearing loss attributable to employment is a significant source of preventable morbidity world-wide. The US military population is largely comprised of young adult males serving in a wide variety of occupations, many in high noise-level conditions, at least episodically. To identify accession and service-related risk factors for hearing-related disability, matched case-control study of US military personnel was conducted. Individuals evaluated for hearing loss disability in the US Army and Marine Corps were frequency matched to controls without history of disability evaluation on service and enlistment year. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between accession and service-related factors and hearing-related disability evaluations between October 2002 and September 2010. Individuals with medically disqualifying audiograms or hearing loss diagnoses at application for military service were 8 and 4 times more likely, respectively, to have a disability evaluation related to hearing loss, after controlling for relevant accession, demographic, and service-related factors. Conservative hearing loss thresholds on pre-enlistment audiograms, stricter hearing loss medical waiver policies or qualified baseline audiograms pre-enlistment are needed in the U.S military. Industrial corporations or labor unions may also benefit from identifying individuals with moderate hearing loss at the time of employment to ensure use of personal protective equipment and engineer controls of noise.
Christensen, Vibeke Tornhøj; Datta Gupta, Nabanita
Hearing loss is one of the most common conditions related to aging, and previous descriptive evidence links it to early exit from the labor market. These studies are usually based on self-reported hearing difficulties, which are potentially endogenous to labor supply. We use unique representative data collected in the spring of 2005 through in-home interviews. The data contains self-reported functional and clinically-measured hearing ability for a representative sample of the Danish population aged 50-64. We estimate the causal effect of hearing loss on early retirement via disability benefits, taking into account the endogeneity of functional hearing. Our identification strategy involves the simultaneous estimation of labor supply, functional hearing, and coping strategies (i.e. accessing assistive devices at work or informing one's employer about the problem). We use hearing aids as an instrument for functional hearing. Our main empirical findings are that endogeneity bias is more severe for men than women and that functional hearing problems significantly increase the likelihood of receiving disability benefits for both men and women. However, relative to the baseline the effect is larger for men (47% vs. 20%, respectively). Availability of assistive devices in the workplace decreases the likelihood of receiving disability benefits, whereas informing an employer about hearing problems increases this likelihood. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Low, W.K.; Fong, K.W. [Singapore General Hospital (Singapore)
This paper evaluates post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from a disability orientated approach, which takes into account binaural hearing. Newly diagnosed patients with NPC were studied before radiotherapy, and at four months (mean 9.2 months) after radiotherapy, provided they remained disease-free. Each patient was examined clinically and with pure tone audiograms. Tympanometry was used to confirm middle ear effusion. Averaged hearing thresholds over 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz were evaluated. If abnormal (> 30 dB), the resultant hearing disability was illustrated by a modified Glasgow Plot. Twenty-three males and 10 females completed the study. Middle ear effusions resulted in 39.3 per cent (binaural in two patients) and 33.3 per cent (binaural in five patients) of patients having hearing disability pre- and post-irradiation respectively. No patient had hearing disability as a result of a sensoineural loss. It is recommended that future reporting of post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with NPC, as in middle ear surgery, be considered from a disability-orientated approach. (author).
Low, W.K.; Fong, K.W.
This paper evaluates post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from a disability orientated approach, which takes into account binaural hearing. Newly diagnosed patients with NPC were studied before radiotherapy, and at four months (mean 9.2 months) after radiotherapy, provided they remained disease-free. Each patient was examined clinically and with pure tone audiograms. Tympanometry was used to confirm middle ear effusion. Averaged hearing thresholds over 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz were evaluated. If abnormal (> 30 dB), the resultant hearing disability was illustrated by a modified Glasgow Plot. Twenty-three males and 10 females completed the study. Middle ear effusions resulted in 39.3 per cent (binaural in two patients) and 33.3 per cent (binaural in five patients) of patients having hearing disability pre- and post-irradiation respectively. No patient had hearing disability as a result of a sensoineural loss. It is recommended that future reporting of post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with NPC, as in middle ear surgery, be considered from a disability-orientated approach. (author)
Yar Ali Rezay
Full Text Available
Background and aims. Children and adolescents with disabilities appear to have poorer oral health than their non-disabled counterparts. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and severity of oral diseases and treatment needs using world health organization criteria of caries, periodontal disease and malocclusions in a selected population of children with disabilities in Mashhad, Iran.
Materials and methods. A randomized study on 1621 children aged 5-16 was conducted in 13 special schools by six examiners, using a mouth mirror, explorer and enough lighting.
Results. The caries frequency of hearing impaired children (HI was lower than those mentally retarded (MR and visually impaired (VI (DMFT: 2 ± 1.91 versus 2.27± 1.97 and 2.68 ± 2.30, respectively. MR children appear to have poorer oral hygiene and periodontal status than their otherwise disabled counterparts. Most children had class I malocclusion (57%.
Conclusion. According to this study, an epidemiological survey followed by the implementation and evaluation of long-term public dental health care plan for children and adolescents with disabilities is highly recommended.
Chilver-Stainer, Jennifer; Gasser, Luciano; Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina
Children and adolescents with hearing impairments are at risk of being excluded from activities with hearing peers. Moral emotion attributions may represent important indicators for children's identification with the moral norm not to exclude peers based on disability. Against this background, we investigated how 10-, 12- and 15-year-olds…
Schmidt, Claus-Michael; am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette; Matulat, Peter; Knief, Arne; Rosslau, Ken; Deuster, Dirk
The term "nonorganic hearing loss" (NOHL) (pseudohypacusis, functional or psychogenic hearing loss) describes a hearing loss without a detectable corresponding pathology in the auditory system. It is characterized by a discrepancy between elevated pure tone audiometry thresholds and normal speech discrimination. The recommended audiological management of NOHL in children comprises history taking, diagnosis, and counseling. According to the literature, prognosis depends on the severity of the patient's school and/or personal problems. Routine referral to a child psychiatrist is discussed as being controversial. The clinical history of 34 children with NOHL was retrospectively evaluated. In 15 children, follow up audiometry was performed. Results of biographical history, subjective and objective audiometry, additional speech and language assessment, psychological investigations and follow up audiometry are presented and discussed. The prevalence of NOHL was 1.8% in children with suspected hearing loss. Mean age at diagnosis was 10.8 years. Girls were twice as often affected as boys. Patient history showed a high prevalence of emotional and school problems. Pre-existing organic hearing loss can be worsened by nonorganic causes. Children with a fast recovery of hearing thresholds (n=6) showed a high rate (4/6) of family, social and emotional problems. In children with continuous threshold elevation (n=9), biographical history showed no recognizable or obvious family, social or emotional problems; learning disability (4/9) was the most frequently presented characteristic. Due to advances in objective audiometry, the diagnosis of NOHL is less challenging than management and counseling. Considering the high frequency of personal and school problems, a multidisciplinary setting is helpful. On the basis of our results, drawing conclusions from hearing threshold recovery on the severity of underlying psychic problems seems inappropriate. As a consequence, a referral to a
This article discusses issues involved in psychological assessment of children with hearing loss who have additional disabilities or special needs. It provides recommendations for appropriate methods of assessment that accommodate the communication difficulties associated with hearing loss. This article includes assessment procedures for children…
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Al-Essa, Rakan S; Whittingham, JoAnne; Fitzpatrick, Jessica
The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL), examine deterioration in hearing, and explore amplification decisions. Population-based data were collected prospectively from time of diagnosis. Serial audiograms and amplification details were retrospectively extracted from clinical charts to document the trajectory and management of hearing loss. The study included all children identified with UHL in one region of Canada over a 13-year period (2003-2015) after implementation of universal newborn hearing screening. Of 537 children with permanent hearing loss, 20.1% (108) presented with UHL at diagnosis. They were identified at a median age of 13.9 months (IQR: 2.8, 49.0). Children with congenital loss were identified at 2.8 months (IQR: 2.0, 3.6) and made up 47.2% (n = 51), reflecting that a substantial portion had late-onset, acquired or late-identified loss. A total of 42.4% (n = 39) showed deterioration in hearing, including 16 (17.4%) who developed bilateral loss. By study end, 73.1% (79/108) of children had received amplification recommendations. Up to 20% of children with permanent HL are first diagnosed with UHL. About 40% are at risk for deterioration in hearing either in the impaired ear and/or in the normal hearing ear.
John k. McNamara
This paper presents a prevention model for supporting children with learning disabilities. The model holds that children can be identified as at-risk for learning disabilities by identifying and supporting potential academic failure early in their elementary years. A prevention model includes two elements, identification and instruction. Identification entails recognizing those children at-risk for poor achievement in the early primary grades. The second component of the model is to...
Suntjens, E.; Dreschler, W. A.; Hess-Erga, J.; Skrunes, R.; Wijburg, F. A.; Linthorst, G. E.; Tøndel, C.; Biegstraaten, M.
Background Hearing loss (HL) is a well-known feature of Fabry disease (FD). Its presence and characteristics have mainly been studied in adult patients, while only limited data are available on the presence and degree of HL in children with FD. This prompted us to study hearing sensitivity in
Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20 to 50 percent among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires...... disabilities, the prevalence was three times greater compared to children without additional disabilities. If sign-language and/or oral language abilities are good, the children do not have a substantially higher level of psychosocial difficulties than do hearing children. This study documents the importance...
Chilosi, Anna M.; Comparini, Alessandro; Scusa, Maria F.; Berrettini, Stefano; Forli, Francesca; Battini, Roberta; Cipriani, Paola; Cioni, Giovanni
Aim: The effects of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) are often complicated by additional disabilities, but the epidemiology of associated disorders is not clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of additional neurodevelopmental disabilities in a sample of children with SNHL and to investigate the relation…
Nelson, J T; Swan, A A; Swiger, B; Packer, M; Pugh, M J
Hearing loss is the second most common disability awarded by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to former members of the U.S. uniformed services. Hearing readiness and conservation practices differ among the four largest uniformed military services (Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy). Utilizing a data set consisting of all hearing loss claims submitted to the VA from fiscal years 2003-2013, we examined characteristics of veterans submitting claims within one year of separation from military service. Our results indicate that having a hearing loss disability claim granted was significantly more likely for men, individuals over the age of 26 years at the time of the claim, individuals most recently serving in the U.S. Army, and those with at least one hearing loss diagnosis. Importantly, individuals with at least one test record in the Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System-Hearing Conservation (DOEHRS-HC) system were significantly less likely to have a hearing loss disability claim granted by the VA. Within the DOEHRS-HC cohort, those with at least one threshold shift or clinical hearing loss diagnosis while on active duty were more than two and three times more likely to have a hearing loss disability claim granted, respectively. These findings indicate that an established history of reduced hearing ability while on active duty was associated with a significantly increased likelihood of an approved hearing loss disability claim relative to VA claims without such a history. Further, our results show a persistent decreased rate of hearing loss disability awards overall. These findings support increased inclusion of personnel in DoD hearing readiness and conservation programs to reduce VA hearing loss disability awards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bent, Sarah; McShea, Lynzee; Brennan, Siobhan
Background: Hearing loss has a significant impact on living well and on communication in all adults, with the numbers affected increasing with age, and adults with learning disabilities being at particular risk. Methods: A review of the literature on hearing loss in older adults with learning disabilities was completed. Results: A significant…
Wong, Cara L; Ching, Teresa Y C; Cupples, Linda; Button, Laura; Leigh, Greg; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise
This article reports on the psychosocial development and factors influencing outcomes of 5-year-old children with cochlear implants (CIs) or hearing aids (HAs). It further examines differences between children with CIs and HAs with similar levels of hearing loss. Data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment study-a prospective, population-based study. Parents/caregivers of children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ( n = 333), the Social Skills subscale from the Child Development Inventory ( n = 317), and questionnaires on functional auditory behavior (Parents' Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children), and demographics. Children completed assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability (Wechsler Non-verbal Scale of Ability) and language (Preschool Language Scale - fourth edition). On average, parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores on emotional or behavioral difficulties were within 1 SD of the normative mean; however, Child Development Inventory scores on social skills were more than 1 SD below the norm. Children with severe-to-profound hearing losses using HAs had significantly more behavioral problems than children with CIs. Regression analyses showed that non-verbal cognitive ability, language, and functional auditory behavior were significantly associated with psychosocial outcomes for children with HAs, whereas outcomes for children with CIs were associated with functional auditory behavior and the presence of additional disabilities. Age at hearing intervention, severity of hearing loss, and communication mode were not associated with outcomes. The results suggest that even children who develop good language ability with the help of a HA or CI may have psychosocial problems if they exhibit difficulties with listening and communicating in everyday environments. The findings have implications for developing interventions for young children with hearing
Olika, Ruth Erin Liselott
The aim of this research is to find out what kind of attitudes that hearing impaired children face from hearing people, and how these attitudes influence the hearing impaired child’s life. This is a qualitative research project with interview as the instrument of collecting data. The interviews were conducted in Wollega, Ethiopia with four different informant groups: Children with hearing impairment (CWHI), their parents (Parents CWHI), Children with hearing (CWH), and their parents (Parents ...
Warner-Czyz, Andrea D.; Loy, Betty A.; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A.
Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty chil...
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Lambert, Linda; Whittingham, JoAnne; Leblanc, Emma
Up to 40% of children with hearing loss present with other developmental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children with permanent hearing loss, to describe the audiologic characteristics, and to examine clinical management. Prospective data related to clinical characteristics of children identified with hearing loss and ASD were examined. A retrospective chart review was also conducted to explore clinical management and uptake of amplification. The study included all children in one Canadian region identified with permanent hearing loss and followed from 2002-2010. Of a total of 785 children with permanent hearing loss, 2.2% (n = 17) also received a diagnosis of ASD. The 13 boys and 4 girls presented with a range of audiologic profiles from unilateral to profound bilateral hearing loss. Four of five children with unilateral hearing loss experienced progression to bilateral loss. Amplification was recommended for all but one child and 9 of 16 children continued to use their hearing devices. The higher prevalence rate of ASD in this clinical population is consistent with previous reports. Our findings suggest that some children with autism can derive benefits from the use of amplification.
Saleem, Suhib Saleem
This study aimed to explore the problems facing the students with hearing disability in Najran region based on gender, study stage, and type of disability. The sample of the study consisted of 17 males, 13 females, 16 students with hearing disability in the intermediate stage, and 14 students in the secondary stage in public schools. While the…
Ross, Danielle S.; Holstrum, W. June; Gaffney, Marcus; Green, Denise; Oyler, Robert F.; Gravel, Judith S.
More than 90% of newborns in the United States are now being screened for hearing loss. A large fraction of cases of unilateral hearing loss and mild bilateral hearing loss are not currently identified through newborn hearing screening. This is of concern because a preponderance of research has demonstrated that unilateral hearing loss and mild bilateral hearing loss can lead to developmental delays and educational problems for some children. To help address this probable underidentification ...
Dougherty, William; Kesser, Bradley W
Conductive hearing loss (CHL), far more common than sensorineural hearing loss in children, can be acquired or congenital, can range from mild to moderately severe, and can be caused by a simple cerumen impaction, middle ear fluid, or complex middle ear abnormalities with or without the absence of the ear canal (congenital aural atresia). This article presents evidence-based recommendations for the evaluation and management of the child with both acquired and congenital CHL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Turğut, Nedim; Karlıdağ, Turgut; Başar, Figen; Yalçın, Şinasi; Kaygusuz, İrfan; Keleş, Erol; Birkent, Ömer Faruk
This study aims to review the relationship between written language skills and factors which are thought to affect this skill such as mean hearing loss, duration of auditory deprivation, speech discrimination score, and pre-school education attendance and socioeconomic status of hearing impaired children who attend 4th-7th grades in primary school in inclusive environment. The study included 25 hearing impaired children (14 males, 11 females; mean age 11.4±1.4 years; range 10 to 14 years) (study group) and 20 children (9 males, 11 females; mean age 11.5±1.3 years; range 10 to 14 years) (control group) with normal hearing in the same age group and studying in the same class. Study group was separated into two subgroups as group 1a and group 1b since some of the children with hearing disability used hearing aid while some used cochlear implant. Intragroup comparisons and relational screening were performed for those who use hearing aids and cochlear implants. Intergroup comparisons were performed to evaluate the effect of the parameters on written language skills. Written expression skill level of children with hearing disability was significantly lower than their normal hearing peers (p=0.001). A significant relationship was detected between written language skills and mean hearing loss (p=0.048), duration of auditory deprivation (p=0.021), speech discrimination score (p=0.014), and preschool attendance (p=0.005), when it comes to socioeconomic status we were not able to find any significant relationship (p=0.636). It can be said that hearing loss affects written language skills negatively and hearing impaired individuals develop low-level written language skills compared to their normal hearing peers.
Lew, Joyce; Purcell, Alison A; Doble, Maree; Lim, Lynne H
Early use of hearing devices and family participation in auditory-verbal therapy has been associated with age-appropriate verbal communication outcomes for children with hearing loss. However, there continues to be great variability in outcomes across different oral intervention programmes and little consensus on how therapists should prioritise goals at each therapy session for positive clinical outcomes. This pilot intervention study aimed to determine whether therapy goals that concentrate on teaching preschool children with hearing loss how to distinguish between words in a structured listening programme is effective, and whether gains in speech perception skills impact on vocabulary and speech development without them having to be worked on directly in therapy. A multiple baseline across subjects design was used in this within-subject controlled study. 3 children aged between 2:6 and 3:1 with moderate-severe to severe-profound hearing loss were recruited for a 6-week intervention programme. Each participant commenced at different stages of the 10-staged listening programme depending on their individual listening skills at recruitment. Speech development and vocabulary assessments were conducted before and after the training programme in addition to speech perception assessments and probes conducted throughout the intervention programme. All participants made gains in speech perception skills as well as vocabulary and speech development. Speech perception skills acquired were noted to be maintained a week after intervention. In addition, all participants were able to generalise speech perception skills learnt to words that had not been used in the intervention programme. This pilot study found that therapy directed at listening alone is promising and that it may have positive impact on speech and vocabulary development without these goals having to be incorporated into a therapy programme. Although a larger study is necessary for more conclusive findings, the
Nabors, Laura; Odar Stough, Cathleen; Merianos, Ashley; Peugh, James
To examine parent report of flourishing in children with hearing impairments compared to children without hearing impairments, and to explore whether school engagement and bullying related to child flourishing. Participants were 655 children with hearing impairments and 44, 618 children without hearing impairments who were 10-17 years of age. Caregivers completed telephone interviews about their child's functioning for the National Survey of Children's Health. Children without hearing loss had higher parent-reported flourishing compared to children with hearing loss when controlling for child demographics (i.e., race, age, sex). School engagement was positively related to flourishing of children with hearing loss. Bullying behaviors were not related to flourishing of children with hearing loss. Improving school engagement may increase flourishing of children with hearing loss, which is critical given that children with hearing loss experience lower flourishing than children without hearing loss. Examining the relationships among other risk and resilience factors and flourishing for children with hearing loss will provide information for interventions to enhance the adaptation of these children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Dijk, Catherine; Hugo, René; Louw, Brenda
In South Africa, the current movement towards the inclusion of children with disabilities, including children with hearing loss, is likely to have far-reaching consequences for both teachers and learners. Undoubtedly, needs will arise from teachers during the transition, especially in the areas pertaining to the audiological and educational management of children with hearing loss. Therefore, a descriptive research design was developed comprising of a questionnaire survey followed by focus group interviews to determine teachers' needs. The questionnaire survey explored the needs of 664 teachers while focus group interviews were conducted with 19 teachers of children with hearing loss. Teachers were mostly from special schools as only a very small number of children are educated outside these establishments. Findings revealed that, although participants realised the importance of various aspects of development of the child with hearing loss, they generally did not realise the importance of receiving support from an educational audiologist.
Qureishi, A; Garas, G; Mallick, A; Parker, D
In children, otitis media with effusion is treated using grommets or hearing aids. Parents considering treatment options express concerns regarding the psychosocial impact of hearing aids in terms of self-esteem and bullying. This study assessed the psychosocial impact of hearing aid use. A cross-sectional study was undertaken comparing hearing aid users to non hearing aid users with regard to their attitudes towards hearing aids. All subjects, who had been diagnosed with otitis media with effusion, were aged less than 16 years, were without disability and attended mainstream schools. A questionnaire was designed and utilised. The study comprised 47 children with hearing aids and 50 with grommets. Significant between-group differences (p negative perceptions of non hearing aid users were not reported by hearing aid users. Children with hearing aids do not suffer from bullying or low self-esteem to the extent perceived by parents. This information is useful for informed decisions regarding treatment of otitis media with effusion.
Korver, Anna M. H.; Konings, Saskia; Dekker, Friedo W.; Beers, Mieke; Wever, Capi C.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne M.; de Vries, Jutte; Vossen, Ann; Kant, Sarina; van den Akker-van Marle, Elske; le Cessie, Saskia; Rieffe, Carolien; Ens-Dokkum, Martina; van Straaten, Irma; Uilenburg, Noelle; Elvers, Bert; Loeber, Gerard; Meuwese-Jongejeugd, Anneke; Maré, Marcel; van Zanten, Bert; Goedegebure, André; Coster, Francien; van Dijk, Pim; Goverts, Theo; Admiraal, Ronald; Cremers, Cor; Kunst, Dirk; de Leeuw, Marina; Dijkhuizen, Janette; Scharloo, Marleen; Hoeben, Dirk; Rijpma, Gerti; Graef, Wim; Linschoten, Dik; Kuijper, Jessica; Hof, Nanda; Koldewijn, Reinoud; Pans, Donné; Jorritsma, Frank; van Beurden, Maarten; ter Huurne, Christien; Brienesse, Patrick; Seekles, Lisanne; de Jong, Jantine; Thijssen, Andrea; Lievense, Andrea; van Egdom-van der Wind, Marina; Theunissen, Stephanie; Mooij, Sophie
Newborn hearing screening programs have been implemented in many countries because it was thought that the earlier permanent childhood hearing impairment is detected, the less developmentally disadvantaged children would become. To date, however, no strong evidence exists for universal introduction
Geda, Biftu; Berhane, Yemane; Assefa, Nega; Worku, Alemayehu
The type and extent of childhood disability in Ethiopia is unknown due to lack of accurate and reliable data. This study tried to assess the magnitude and types of disabilities among children 0-14 years of age in eastern Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional community-based study among households that are under demographic and health surveillance in eastern Ethiopia. The study population consisted of all children aged 0-14 year. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the type and severity of the disability. A total of 21,572 children in the age group 0-14 were screened for disability. Of which 586 (2.7%; 95% CI = 2.5%, 2.9%) had at least one kind of disability at the time of the survey. The proportion of disability increased as children were older; measured by the extended Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) chi square for linear trend (M-H = 48.74; Pdisability; 417 (71.2%; 95% CI = 67.5%, 74.9%). Among children with a disability, 179 (31.0%; 95% CI = 27.3%, 34.7%) had a combination of multiple disabilities and about a third, 200 (34.1%; 95% CI = 30.3%, 37.9%) had developed the disability during infancy. Magnitude of disability was higher among boys 335 (2.98%; 95% CIs = 2.66%, 3.30%) compared to girls 251 (2.44%; 95% CIs = 2.14%, 2.74%). Childhood disability is a health challenge in the study area and is already common at an early age. Permanent disability among children may be prevented by an early screening program in the routine child health services and adequate care, especially for hearing impairment.
Full Text Available The paper studies the issue of education of visually impaired children, hearing impaired children and children with intellectual disabilities in regular primary schools in the context of mathematics instruction for beginners. The authors state the basic characteristics of mathematics instruction for beginners with respect to the contents studied in the first four grades of primary school, as well as the key problems and educational needs of visually impaired children, hearing impaired children and children with intellectual disabilities. The basic characteristics of inclusive education and the key role of teacher in this process are pointed out. Starting from the developmental peculiarities of children with disabilities, the authors emphasize the importance of applying an individualized approach in teaching mathematics. Possible didactic and methodical solutions are discussed, as well as different approaches in teaching this subject that can facilitate learning of mathematical contents to visually impaired children, hearing impaired children and children with intellectual disabilities. Bearing in mind the peculiarities of inclusive education, i.e. the need for the children with disabilities to participate in common activities with the other children in the class, the authors emphasize the importance of encouraging interaction and communication among children in the process of learning mathematical contents.
Codina, Charlotte; Buckley, David; Port, Michael; Pascalis, Olivier
This study investigated peripheral vision (at least 30[degrees] eccentric to fixation) development in profoundly deaf children without cochlear implantation, and compared this to age-matched hearing controls as well as to deaf and hearing adult data. Deaf and hearing children between the ages of 5 and 15 years were assessed using a new,…
Kishore, M Thomas
Understanding the disability impact on parenting and caregiving is important for intervention. The present study was designed to understand the differences in perceived disability impact and related coping in mothers having children with intellectual disabilities alone compared to those having children with intellectual disabilities and additional disabilities. Accordingly, 30 mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and 30 mothers of children with intellectual and additional disabilities were assessed for disability impact and coping. Group differences for disability impact were present in specific domains but not overall. Despite variations in coping pattern, both positive and negative coping strategies were observed in both groups. The results may imply that the impact of intellectual disability is so pervasive that except in certain domains mothers may not perceive the further impact of additional disabilities. Positive coping does not rule out negative coping strategies. These findings have specific relevance to service delivery in a cultural context.
Dogan, Murat; Hasanoglu, Gülcihan
Memory plays a profound role in explaining language development, academic learning, and learning disabilities. Even though there is a large body of research on language development, literacy skills, other academic skills, and intellectual characteristics of children with hearing loss, there is no holistic study on their memory processes.…
Carey, John C; Palumbos, Janice C
Hearing loss represents the most common sensory disability of children. Remarkable advances in the identification of genes underlying nonsyndromic and syndromic hearing loss in just the last 2 decades have led to the ability to determine the specific genetic cause of hearing loss in many children. Surprisingly one gene, GJB2, encoding the protein connexin-26, accounts for about 20 % of sensorineural hearing loss (including in India) and is considered the first tier test in evaluating an infant with unexplained congenital hearing loss. Using the knowledge of the etiology of hearing loss, the authors propose a diagnostic reasoning process for the assessment of a child in the pediatric setting. Second tier testing consists of the multiple gene panels using whole exome sequencing strategies, and is becoming available in some regions of the world including the US. Referral to medical genetics is always a consideration in a child with no explanation for the hearing loss and in families with questions about recurrence risk.
Rodríguez-Santos, José Miguel; Calleja, Marina; García-Orza, Javier; Iza, Mauricio; Damas, Jesús
Deaf children usually achieve lower scores on numerical tasks than normally hearing peers. Explanations for mathematical disabilities in hearing children are based on quantity representation deficits (Geary, 1994) or on deficits in accessing these representations (Rousselle & Noël, 2008). The present study aimed to verify, by means of symbolic (Arabic digits) and nonsymbolic (dot constellations and hands) magnitude comparison tasks, whether deaf children show deficits in representations or in accessing numerical representations. The study participants were 10 prelocutive deaf children and 10 normally hearing children. Numerical distance and magnitude were manipulated. Response time (RT) analysis showed similar magnitude and distance effects in both groups on the 3 tasks. However, slower RTs were observed among the deaf participants on the symbolic task alone. These results suggest that although both groups' quantity representations were similar, the deaf group experienced a delay in accessing representations from symbolic codes.
Full Text Available About 10 % of a population have a hearing loss. Combining analytical resources from two interdisciplinary field – Science and Technology Studies and Disability Studies - this thesis investigates the complex interplay between people, technologies and material surroundings. The aim is to learn about how hearing disability becomes ordered in policy making, audiological practice, and everyday life. Disability has traditionally been treated as a physical defect, a problem that can be compensated for utilizing medicine and assistive technologies. Over the last decades, disability policy has undergone a discursive shift. Today, disability is conceptualized as a natural part of societal diversity. Thus, rather than normalizing the disabled individual, society should enable the full inclusion and participation of disabled people in societal life. But how to realize the vision of the universal society? How to translate social rights into empowering medical consultation, enabling technical aids, including material surroundings, and respectful social relations among the people that live and work with hearing disability? Following policy to practice; hearing aids from design to use, and hard of hearing people from the audiological clinic and home, this investigates the transition from disability policy to practice. The result is a comparative, qualitative study of hearing loss in Norway and the Netherlands.
Netten, Anouk P; Rieffe, Carolien; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Korver, Anna M H; Konings, Saskia; Briaire, Jeroen J; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Dekker, Friedo W; Frijns, Johan H M
The first aim of this study was to examine various aspects of Theory of Mind (ToM) development in young children with moderate hearing loss (MHL) compared with hearing peers. The second aim was to examine the relation between language abilities and ToM in both groups. The third aim was to compare the sequence of ToM development between children with MHL and hearing peers. Forty-four children between 3 and 5 years old with MHL (35 to 70 dB HL) who preferred to use spoken language were identified from a nationwide study on hearing loss in young children. These children were compared with 101 hearing peers. Children were observed during several tasks to measure intention understanding, the acknowledgement of the other's desires, and belief understanding. Parents completed two scales of the child development inventory to assess expressive language and language comprehension in all participants. Objective language test scores were available from the medical files of children with MHL. Children with MHL showed comparable levels of intention understanding but lower levels of both desire and belief understanding than hearing peers. Parents reported lower language abilities in children with MHL compared with hearing peers. Yet, the language levels of children with MHL were within the average range compared with test normative samples. A stronger relation between language and ToM was found in the hearing children than in children with MHL. The expected developmental sequence of ToM skills was divergent in approximately one-fourth of children with MHL, when compared with hearing children. Children with MHL have more difficulty in their ToM reasoning than hearing peers, despite the fact that their language abilities lie within the average range compared with test normative samples.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading is the most important human need for learning. In normal-hearing people working memory is a predictor of reading comprehension. In this study the relationship between working memory and reading comprehension skills was studied in hearing-impaired children, and then compared with the normal-hearing group.Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. The working memory and reading comprehension skills of 18 (8 male, 10 female sever hearing-impaired children in year five of exceptional schools were compared by means of a reading test with 18 hearing children as control group. The subjects in the control group were of the same gender and educational level of the sample group.Results: The children with hearing loss performed similarly to the normal-hearing children in tasks related to auditory-verbal memory of sounds (reverse, visual-verbal memory of letters, and visual-verbal memory of pictures. However, they showed lower levels of performance in reading comprehension (p<0.001. Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between working memory and reading comprehension skills.Conclusion: Findings indicated that children with hearing loss have a significant impairment in the reading comprehension skill. Impairment in language knowledge and vocabulary may be the main cause of poor reading comprehension in these children. In hearing-impaired children working memory is not a strong predictor of reading comprehension.
Appachi, Swathi; Specht, Jessica L; Raol, Nikhila; Lieu, Judith E C; Cohen, Michael S; Dedhia, Kavita; Anne, Samantha
Objective Options for management of unilateral hearing loss (UHL) in children include conventional hearing aids, bone-conduction hearing devices, contralateral routing of signal (CROS) aids, and frequency-modulating (FM) systems. The objective of this study was to systematically review the current literature to characterize auditory outcomes of hearing rehabilitation options in UHL. Data Sources PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to January 2016. Manual searches of bibliographies were also performed. Review Methods Studies analyzing auditory outcomes of hearing amplification in children with UHL were included. Outcome measures included functional and objective auditory results. Two independent reviewers evaluated each abstract and article. Results Of the 249 articles identified, 12 met inclusion criteria. Seven articles solely focused on outcomes with bone-conduction hearing devices. Outcomes favored improved pure-tone averages, speech recognition thresholds, and sound localization in implanted patients. Five studies focused on FM systems, conventional hearing aids, or CROS hearing aids. Limited data are available but suggest a trend toward improvement in speech perception with hearing aids. FM systems were shown to have the most benefit for speech recognition in noise. Studies evaluating CROS hearing aids demonstrated variable outcomes. Conclusions Data evaluating functional and objective auditory measures following hearing amplification in children with UHL are limited. Most studies do suggest improvement in speech perception, speech recognition in noise, and sound localization with a hearing rehabilitation device.
Purcell, Patricia L; Jones-Goodrich, Rose; Wisneski, Meghan; Edwards, Todd C; Sie, Kathleen C Y
Management of children with unilateral hearing loss is not standardized. The primary goal of this study was to elicit patient- and parent-reported perspectives regarding usage of hearing devices in pediatric UHL and to suggest a basic algorithmic approach to management. Our tertiary care center recruited families of youth ages 5-19 years with unilateral hearing loss from January 2014 through October 2015. Parents of all youths completed a 36-item survey, and some youth ages 11-19 years participated in hour-long interviews. We assessed patterns of hearing device usage among participants, and performed qualitative data analysis to understand factors considered by youths when deciding whether or not to use a hearing device. Survey information was collected for 50 patients. Distribution of hearing loss severity in affected ear was mild 14%, moderate 26%, severe 22%, and profound 38%. The majority of children had sensorineural hearing loss (57%), followed by mixed (32%), and then conductive (11%). 34 children (68%) had tried a hearing device; 20 continued to use the device. Retention rates were similar among children with different degrees of hearing loss: mild 66%, moderate 50%, severe 60%, profound 64%. Sixteen children tried a wireless contralateral routing of signal (CROS) device, and 15 tried a behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aid. Retention rates for CROS and BTE devices were 69% and 47%, respectively. The most common reason for cessation of use was discomfort, followed by lack of benefit. A majority of children with unilateral hearing loss who tried a hearing device continued to use it, and retention rates were similar across all degrees of hearing loss. These findings suggest that personal hearing devices should be included in management protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Children with disabilities are an integral part of Zimbabwean society. However these children face insurmountable challenges that hinder their human and social capital development. The current study used a mixed methodology approach to examine the socioeconomic circumstances of children living with disabilities ...
Warner-Czyz, Andrea D; Loy, Betty A; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A
Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = - .60, p self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. © The Author(s) 2015.
Andrea D. Warner-Czyz
Full Text Available Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years. Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002 and attention (r = .45, p = .001 temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = − .60, p < .0001. No significant correlations emerged between self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population.
Jarollahi, Farnoush; Mohamadi, Reyhane; Modarresi, Yahya; Agharasouli, Zahra; Rahimzadeh, Shadi; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Keyhani, Mohammad-Reza
Since the pragmatic skills of hearing-impaired Persian-speaking children have not yet been investigated particularly through story retelling, this study aimed to evaluate some pragmatic abilities of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children using a story retelling test. 15 normal-hearing and 15 profound hearing-impaired 7-year-old children were evaluated using the story retelling test with the content validity of 89%, construct validity of 85%, and reliability of 83%. Three macro structure criteria including topic maintenance, event sequencing, explicitness, and four macro structure criteria including referencing, conjunctive cohesion, syntax complexity, and utterance length were assessed. The test was performed with live voice in a quiet room where children were then asked to retell the story. The tasks of the children were recorded on a tape, transcribed, scored and analyzed. In the macro structure criteria, utterances of hearing-impaired students were less consistent, enough information was not given to listeners to have a full understanding of the subject, and the story events were less frequently expressed in a rational order than those of normal-hearing group (P hearing students who obtained high scores, hearing-impaired students failed to gain any scores on the items of this section. These results suggest that Hearing-impaired children were not able to use language as effectively as their hearing peers, and they utilized quite different pragmatic functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Loy, Betty A.; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A.
Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = − .60, p self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. PMID:25755025
Arena, Richard M.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Oleson, Jacob J.
Purpose: A number of studies with large sample sizes have reported lower prevalence of stuttering in children with significant hearing loss compared to children without hearing loss. This study used a parent questionnaire to investigate the characteristics of stuttering (e.g., incidence, prevalence, and age of onset) in children who are hard of…
A group of 127 nursery school children were hearing-tested by means of filtered music audiometry; 18 failed to respond satisfactorily, and of these 11 were found to have previously unsuspected conductive hearing loss. Of the remaining 7 with normal hearing, 4 were subjected to language tests, and all 4 scored poorly.
Full Text Available This study investigated eye-movement patterns during emotion perception for children with hearing aids and hearing children. Seventy-eight participants aged from 3 to 7 were asked to watch videos with a facial expression followed by an oral statement, and these two cues were either congruent or incongruent in emotional valence. Results showed that while hearing children paid more attention to the upper part of the face, children with hearing aids paid more attention to the lower part of the face after the oral statement was presented, especially for the neutral facial expression/neutral oral statement condition. These results suggest that children with hearing aids have an altered eye contact pattern with others and a difficulty in matching visual and voice cues in emotion perception. The negative cause and effect of these gaze patterns should be avoided in earlier rehabilitation for hearing-impaired children with assistive devices.
Scharp, Kristina M.; Barker, Brittan A.; Rucker, Sidney N.; Jones, Hannah D.
We aimed to determine the types of identities hearing parents construct when telling online stories about their children with hearing loss (HL) who use cochlear implants (CIs). To do so, we employed a qualitative design and sampled 20 different blogs United States origins and written by parents of children who use CIs. We then used thematic…
Stegman, Robin Fern
Under federal guidelines, parents of school-aged children with hearing loss are required to attend an individualized education program (IEP) meeting on behalf of their child. However, it remains unclear how prepared hearing parents are to oversee development of IEPs that guarantee their children the best educational outcomes, as well as how much…
Lewis, Dawna; Schmid, Kendra; O'Leary, Samantha; Spalding, Jody; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; High, Robin
Purpose: This study examined the effects of stimulus type and hearing status on speech recognition and listening effort in children with normal hearing (NH) and children with mild bilateral hearing loss (MBHL) or unilateral hearing loss (UHL). Method Children (5-12 years of age) with NH (Experiment 1) and children (8-12 years of age) with MBHL,…
Most, Tova; Michaelis, Hilit
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of hearing loss (HL) on emotion-perception ability among young children with and without HL. Method: A total of 26 children 4.0-6.6 years of age with prelingual sensory-neural HL ranging from moderate to profound and 14 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. They were asked to identify…
Sullivan, Patricia M.
The focus of this paper is children with disabilities exposed to a broad range of violence types including child maltreatment, domestic violence, community violence, and war and terrorism. Because disability research must be interpreted on the basis of the definitional paradigm employed, definitions of disability status and current prevalence…
Tanaka, Akemi J.; Cho, Megan T.; Millan, Francisca; Juusola, Jane; Retterer, Kyle; Joshi, Charuta; Niyazov, Dmitriy; Garnica, Adolfo; Gratz, Edward; Deardorff, Matthew; Wilkins, Alisha; Ortiz-Gonzalez, Xilma; Mathews, Katherine; Panzer, Karin; Brilstra, Eva; Van Gassen, Koen L I; Volker-Touw, Catharina M L; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Sobreira, Nara; Hamosh, Ada; McKnight, Dianalee; Monaghan, Kristin G.; Chung, Wendy K.
Using whole-exome sequencing, we have identified in ten families 14 individuals with microcephaly, developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, spasticity, seizures, sensorineural hearing loss, cortical visual impairment, and rare autosomal-recessive predicted pathogenic variants in
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The birth of a hearing-impaired child and raising him/her often brings special psychological feelings for parents, especially mothers who spend more time with the child. This study aimed to compare the general health status in mothers of hearing-impaired and hearing children. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. General Health Questionnaire was used to identify general health status; and data were analyzed with independent-t test. Results: The general health level of mothers of hearing-impaired children was lower than mothers of normal hearing children (p=0.01 . The average scores of anxiety (p=0.01, depression (p= 0.01 and physical (p=0.02 symptoms and social function (p=0.01 of mothers of hearing-impaired children was higher than mothers of normal hearing ones (p=0.01. Conclusion: Having a child with hearing impairment affects mothers’ general health status. Our findings show that it’s necessary to provide psychological and social support for mothers of hearing-impaired children.
Lachowska, Magdalena; Pastuszka, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz-Moszyńska, Zuzanna; Mikołajewska, Lidia; Niemczyk, Kazimierz
Cochlear implants have become the method of choice for the treatment of severe-to-profound hearing loss in both children and adults. Its benefits are well documented in the pediatric and adult population. Also deaf children with additional needs, including autism, have been covered by this treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits from cochlear implantation in deafened children with autism as the only additional disability. This study analyzes data of six children. The follow-up time was at least 43 months. The following data were analyzed: medical history, reaction to music and sound, Ling's six sounds test, onomatopoeic word test, reaction to spoken child's name, response to requests, questionnaire given to parents, sound processor fitting sessions and data. After cochlear implantation each child presented other communication skills. In some children, the symptoms of speech understanding were observed. No increased hyperactivity associated with daily use cochlear implant was observed. The study showed that in autistic children the perception is very important for a child's sense of security and makes contact with parents easier. Our study showed that oral communication is not likely to be a realistic goal in children with cochlear implants and autism. The implantation results showed benefits that varied among those children. The traditional methods of evaluating the results of cochlear implantation in children with autism are usually insufficient to fully assess the functional benefits. These benefits should be assessed in a more comprehensive manner taking into account the limitations of communication resulting from the essence of autism. It is important that we share knowledge about these complex children with cochlear implants. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Visual functions of children with hearing disability were evaluated in a school of Muscat, Oman in 2006. Two hundred and twenty-three children were tested for near vision, distant vision, contrast sensitivity, color vision, field of vision, motion perception and crowding. Profound and severe hearing loss was noted in 161 and 63 students respectively. Thirty-five (81% students with refractive error were using spectacles. Color vision and field of vision was defective in one student each. In 286 (64.1% eyes, contrast sensitivity was defective. Abnormal contrast sensitivity was not associated with the severity of hearing loss [RR = 1.04 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.29]. Children with hearing impairment should be assessed for visual functions. Refractive error and defect in contrast sensitivity were unusually high among these children. In addition to visual aids, we recommend environmental changes to improve illumination and contrast to improve the quality of life of such children with double disability.
Chilosi, A M; Scusa, M F; Comparini, A; Genovese, E; Forli, F; Berrettini, S; Cipriani, P
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is complicated by additional disabilities in about 30% of cases, but the epidemiology of associated disorders, in terms of type, frequency and aetiology is still not clearly defined. Additional disabilities in a deaf child have important consequences in assessing and choosing a therapeutic treatment, in particular when considering cochlear implantation (CI) or hearing aids (HA). The aim of this paper was to evaluate frequency, type and severity of additional neurodevelopmental disabilities in children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and to investigate the relationship between disability and the etiology of deafness. Eighty children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (mean age 5.4 years) were investigated by means of a diagnostic protocol including clinical, neurodevelopmental, and audiological procedures together with genetic and neurometabolic tests and neuroradiological investigation by brain MRI. Fifty-five percent of the sample exhibited one or more disabilities in addition to deafness, with cognitive, behavioural-emotional and motor disorders being the most frequent. The risk of additional disabilities varied according to aetiology, with a higher incidence in hereditary syndromic deafness, in cases due to pre-perinatal pathology (in comparison to unknown and hereditary non syndromic forms) and in the presence of major brain abnormalities at MRI. Our results suggest that the aetiology of deafness may be a significant risk indicator for the presence of neuropsychiatric disorders. A multidimensional evaluation, including aetiological, neurodevelopmental and MRI investigation is needed for formulating prognosis and for planning therapeutic intervention, especially in those children candidated to cochlear implant.
Muus, John S; Weir, Forest W; Kreicher, Kathryn L; Bowlby, Deborah A; Discolo, Christopher M; Meyer, Ted A
Although insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be important for inner-ear development in animal models, little is known about the otologic and audiologic findings of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, type, and severity of hearing impairment in children with GHD. Audiologic, otologic, and demographic data were recorded for children with a diagnosis of GHD in the AudGen database. Data for each patient were selected based on the first encounter with available complete audiometric data or the first encounter with a type of hearing loss documented. The patients were then stratified by type and severity of hearing loss, and otologic issues were documented. A separate cohort comprised of children with GHD without hearing loss was compared as a control. 209 children with GHD met inclusion criteria. 173 (83%) of these patients had hearing loss. 79% of losses were bilateral and 21% were unilateral (309 total ears with hearing loss). 293 of the 309 ears with hearing loss had audiograms with ear-specific thresholds; 47 had conductive, 24 had sensorineural, 65 had mixed and 157 had undefined hearing loss with incomplete audiograms. Pure-tone averages (PTA) were higher among patients with mixed hearing loss compared to patients with all other loss types. Hearing loss is prevalent in children with GHD with a predisposition to be bilateral. These findings suggest the need for increased awareness and routine hearing screening for patients with GHD. Further studies may elucidate the etiology of the hearing impairment in children with GHD to better aid pediatricians, endocrinologists, otolaryngologists and audiologists when assessing and managing these children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marti, Patrizia; Pollini, Alessandro; Rullo, Alessia
tools as well as interactive collaborative environments may represent a unique opportunity for disable children to full engage in play and have fun. The Creative Interactive Play workshop presents a collection of innovative interactive technologies and case studies for inclusive play and discusses...... the challenges and opportunities they can bid to disabled children....
This article explores the fundamental right of disabled children to feel safe and be free from bullying, harassment and abuse. The article proposes that, 20 years since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, disabled children are still facing barriers to securing this right. The article focuses on recent Mencap research that…
Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael
Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…
Bess, Fred H.; Gustafson, Samantha J.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Lambert, E. Warren; Camarata, Stephen M.; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.
Objectives: It has long been speculated that effortful listening places children with hearing loss at risk for fatigue. School-age children with hearing loss experiencing cumulative stress and listening fatigue on a daily basis might undergo dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity resulting in elevated or flattened…
Leticia Macedo Penna
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hearing loss may impair the development of a child. The rehabilitation process for individuals with hearing loss depends on effective interventions.OBJECTIVE: To describe the linguistic profile and the hearing skills of children using hearing aids, to characterize the rehabilitation process and to analyze its association with the children's degree of hearing loss.METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic sample of 110 children using hearing aids (6-10 years of age for mild to profound hearing loss. Tests of language, speech perception, phonemic discrimination, and school performance were performed. The associations were verified by the following tests: chi-squared for linear trend and Kruskal-Wallis.RESULTS: About 65% of the children had altered vocabulary, whereas 89% and 94% had altered phonology and inferior school performance, respectively. The degree of hearing loss was associated with differences in the median age of diagnosis; the age at which the hearing aids were adapted and at which speech therapy was started; and the performance on auditory tests and the type of communication used.CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of hearing loss and the clinical interventions occurred late, contributing to impairments in auditory and language development.
Zeisel, Susan A.; Roberts, Joanne E.
This study examined the prevalence of otitis media with effusion (OME) in 14 children (ages 8-66 months) with developmental disabilities attending center-based childcare. Although younger children had more OME than older children, children with Down syndrome had the highest incidence of OME regardless of age. Implications of OME for fluctuating…
Psillas, George; Psifidis, Anestis; Antoniadou-Hitoglou, Magda; Kouloulas, Athanasios
The purpose of this study was to detect any underlying hearing loss among the healthy pre-school children with speech delay. 76 children, aged from 1 to 5 years, underwent a thorough audiological examination consisting of tympanometry, free field testing, otoacoustic emission recordings and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). If hearing was normal, then they were evaluated by a child neurologist-psychiatrist. According to our findings, the children were classified into 3 groups; those with normal hearing levels (group I, 52 children, 68.4%), sensorineural hearing loss (group II, 22 children, 28.9%) and conductive hearing loss (group III, 2 children, 2.6%). In group I, speech delay was attributed to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), which represents high-functioning autistic children (37 cases). Other causes were specific language impairment (SLI)-expressive (3 cases), bilingualism (2 cases), and unknown etiology (10 cases). More than half (59%) of the children diagnosed with PDD evidenced significant language impairment limited to more than two words. Children with SLI-expressive and bilingualism used a maximum of two words. In group II, 13 children suffered from profound hearing loss in both ears, 3 from severe, 3 had profound hearing loss in one ear and severe in the other, 2 from moderate, and 1 had moderate in one ear and severe in the other. No child had mild sensorineural hearing loss. The children with profound hearing loss in at least one ear had total language impairment using no word at all (10 cases), or a maximum of two words (6 cases). When hearing loss was moderate to severe, then the speech vocabulary was confined to several words (more than two words-6 cases). Only two children suffering from conductive hearing loss both presented with complete lack of speech. A great number of healthy pre-school children with speech delay were found to have normal hearing. In this case, the otolaryngologist should be aware of the possible underlying clinical
Full Text Available Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth of young children in developing countries are at risk for or have developmental delay or disabilities. Inadequate stimulation has significant negative impact on physical, socioemotional and cognitive development of children. Hence early scientific intervention programs are necessary in the management of children at risk for developmental delay.
Hearing and hearing-impaired children between ages 4.5 to 15.5 years in England and Belgium were invited to abstract the concept of emotion from photographs and line drawings of facial expressions and body postures. A further experiment isloated the element of context in the task of decoding expression of emotion, resulting in comparatively…
Seddon, James A; Thee, Stephanie; Jacobs, Kayleen; Ebrahim, Adam; Hesseling, Anneke C; Schaaf, H Simon
The aminoglycosides and polypeptides are vital drugs for the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB). Both classes of drug cause hearing loss. We aimed to determine the extent of hearing loss in children treated for MDR-TB. In this retrospective study, children (Hearing was assessed and classified using audiometry and otoacoustic emissions. Ninety-four children were included (median age: 43 months). Of 93 tested, 28 (30%) were HIV-infected. Twenty-three (24%) children had hearing loss. Culture-confirmed, as opposed to presumed, diagnosis of TB was a risk factor for hearing loss (OR: 4.12; 95% CI: 1.13-15.0; p = 0.02). Seven of 11 (64%) children classified as having hearing loss using audiometry had progression of hearing loss after finishing the injectable drug. Hearing loss is common in children treated for MDR-TB. Alternative drugs are required for the treatment of paediatric MDR-TB. Copyright © 2012 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wolfe, Jace; Schafer, Erin; Martella, Natalie; Morais, Mila; Mann, Misty
Research shows that many older children and teenagers who have mild to moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss do not use their hearing instruments during all waking hours. A variety of reasons may contribute toward this problem, including concerns about cosmetics associated with hearing aid use and the inconvenience of daily maintenance associated with hearing instruments. Extended-wear hearing instruments are inserted into the wearer's ear canal by an audiologist and are essentially invisible to outside observers. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits and limitations associated with use of extended-wear hearing instruments in a group of children with hearing loss. A two-way repeated measures design was used to examine performance differences obtained with the participants' daily-wear hearing instruments versus that obtained with extended-wear hearing instruments. Sixteen children, ages 10-17 yr old, with sensorineural hearing loss ranging from mild to moderately severe. Probe microphone measures were completed to evaluate the aided output of device. Behavioral test measures included word recognition in quiet, sentence recognition in noise, aided warble-tone thresholds, and psychophysical loudness scaling. Questionnaires were also administered to evaluate subjective performance with each hearing technology. Data logging suggested that many participants were not using their daily-wear hearing instruments during all waking hours (mean use was less than 6 h/day). Real ear probe microphone measurements indicated that a closer fit to the Desired Sensation Level Version 5 prescriptive targets was achieved with the children's daily-wear instruments when compared to the extended-wear instruments. There was no statistically significant difference in monosyllabic word recognition at 50 or 60 dBA obtained with the two hearing technologies. Sentence recognition in noise obtained with use of the extended-wear devices was, however, significantly
Rajan, Gunesh; Tavora-Vieira, Dayse; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Godey, Benoit; Müller, Joachim; O'Driscoll, Martin; Skarzynski, Henryk; Skarzynski, Piotr; Usami, Shin-Ichi; Adunka, Oliver; Agrawal, Sumit; Bruce, Iain; De Bodt, Marc; Caversaccio, Marco; Pilsbury, Harold; Gavilán, Javier; Hagen, Rudolf; Hagr, Abdulrahman; Kameswaran, Mohan; Karltorp, Eva; Kompis, Martin; Kuzovkov, Vlad; Lassaletta, Luis; Yongxin, Li; Lorens, Artur; Manoj, Manikoth; Martin, Jane; Mertens, Griet; Mlynski, Robert; Parnes, Lorne; Pulibalathingal, Sasidharan; Radeloff, Andreas; Raine, Christopher H; Rajeswaran, Ranjith; Schmutzhard, Joachim; Sprinzl, Georg; Staecker, Hinrich; Stephan, Kurt; Sugarova, Serafima; Zernotti, Mario; Zorowka, Patrick; Van de Heyning, Paul
To provide multidisciplinary cochlear implant teams with a current consensus statement to support hearing preservation cochlear implantation (HPCI) in children, including those children with symptomatic partial deafness (PD) where the intention is to use electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS). The main objectives are to provide guidelines on who is a candidate, how to assess these children and when to implant if Med-El Flex electrode arrays are chosen for implantation. The HEARRING group reviewed the current evidence and practice regarding the management of children to be considered for HPCI surgery emphasizing the assessment needed prior to implantation in order to demonstrate the benefits in these children over time. The consensus statement addresses following three key questions: (1) Should these children be treated? (2) How to identify these children? (3) How to manage these children? The HEARRING group concludes that irrespective of the degree of residual hearing present, the concepts of hearing and structure preservation should be applied in every child undergoing cochlear implantation and that HPCI is a safe and reliable treatment option. Early detection and multidisciplinary assessment are key to the identification of children with symptomatic PD, these children should undergo HPCI as early as possible.
Tomblin, J Bruce; Oleson, Jacob J; Ambrose, Sophie E; Walker, Elizabeth; Moeller, Mary Pat
IMPORTANCE Hearing loss (HL) in children can be deleterious to their speech and language development. The standard of practice has been early provision of hearing aids (HAs) to moderate these effects; however, there have been few empirical studies evaluating the effectiveness of this practice on speech and language development among children with mild-to-severe HL. OBJECTIVE To investigate the contributions of aided hearing and duration of HA use to speech and language outcomes in children with mild-to-severe HL. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS An observational cross-sectional design was used to examine the association of aided hearing levels and length of HA use with levels of speech and language outcomes. One hundred eighty 3- and 5-year-old children with HL were recruited through records of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and referrals from clinical service providers in the general community in 6 US states. INTERVENTIONS All but 4 children had been fitted with HAs, and measures of aided hearing and the duration of HA use were obtained. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Standardized measures of speech and language ability were obtained. RESULTS Measures of the gain in hearing ability for speech provided by the HA were significantly correlated with levels of speech (ρ179 = 0.20; P = .008) and language: ρ155 = 0.21; P = .01) ability. These correlations were indicative of modest levels of association between aided hearing and speech and language outcomes. These benefits were found for children with mild and moderate-to-severe HL. In addition, the amount of benefit from aided hearing interacted with the duration of HA experience (Speech: F4,161 = 4.98; P < .001; Language: F4,138 = 2.91; P < .02). Longer duration of HA experience was most beneficial for children who had the best aided hearing. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The degree of improved hearing provided by HAs was associated with better speech and language development in children
Marnane, Vivienne; Ching, Teresa YC
Objective To examine usage patterns of hearing aids and cochlear implants in children up to three years of age, how usage changes longitudinally, and factors associated with device usage. Design Parent report and Parent’s Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children (PEACH) data were obtained at six and twelve months after hearing-aid fitting or cochlear implant switch-on, and again at three years of age. The effect of device use on auditory functional performance was investigated using the PEACH questionnaire. Study sample Four hundred and thirteen participants from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study were included for analysis. Result For users of hearing aids, higher usage at three years was associated with higher maternal education, and more severe hearing loss. For users of cochlear implants, higher usage was associated with higher maternal education and the absence of additional disabilities. Higher PEACH scores was associated with higher usage scores. After allowing for the effects of demographic characteristics, device use was not a significant predictor of functional performance. Conclusions Sixty-two percent of children achieved consistent use (>75% of waking hours) within the first year of receiving a hearing aid or a cochlear implant, and 71% by three years of age. PMID:25816866
Masuda, Sawako; Usui, Satoko
A series of 60 children was studied (aged 0 to 10 years, 32 boys, 28 girls) with severe unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of unknown etiology. There were two peaks, at 0 and 6 years. In 19 children, hearing loss was identified during a conservative general health checkup for school or preschool children. In 21 children aged 0 years, 16 were suspected of hearing loss by newborn hearing screening. Temporal bone computed tomography scans were examined in 51 patients. Sixteen ears (31.4%) with hearing loss had inner ear and/or internal auditory canal abnormalities. In one patient, the anomaly was the presence of a bony wall dividing the internal auditory canal into two separate compartments associated with severe inner ear hypoplasia. Two patients had a common cavity. In one of these patients, the anomaly was revealed because of severe bacterial meningitis, and another was detected by newborn hearing screening. Six patients had a narrow internal auditory canal, 4 had a narrow internal auditory canal and hypoplastic cochlea, and 1 had a narrow internal auditory canal and cystic vestibule, and lateral semicircular canal dysplasia. Two patients had a cystic vestibule and lateral semicircular canal dysplasia. One case showed fluctuation of the hearing level in the contralateral ear with normal hearing during the observation period at an average of 20 months. The number of children whose unilateral hearing loss is detected early by newborn hearing screening has enormously increased. Strategies for follow-up, early intervention, and support for families are necessary for young children with unilateral hearing impairment. (author)
Testa, Renée; Pantelis, Christos; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
Our objective was to describe the prevalence, comorbidity, and neuropsychological profiles of children with hoarding and learning disabilities. From 61 children with learning disabilities, 16.4% exhibited hoarding as a major clinical issue. Although children with learning disabilities and hoarding displayed greater rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (30%) as compared to those with learning disabilities without hoarding (5.9%), the majority of patients belonging to the former group did not display obsessive-compulsive disorder diagnosis. When learning disability patients with hoarding were compared to age-, sex-, and IQ-matched learning disability subjects without hoarding, hoarders exhibited a slower learning curve on word list-learning task. In conclusion, salient hoarding behaviors were found to be relatively common in a sample of children with learning disabilities and not necessarily associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, supporting its nosological independence. It is unclear whether underlying cognitive features may play a major role in the development of hoarding behaviors in children with learning disabilities.
Edwards, Lindsey; Figueras, Berta; Mellanby, Jane; Langdon, Dawn
The extent to which cognitive development and abilities are dependent on language remains controversial. In this study, the analogical reasoning skills of deaf and hard of hearing children are explored. Two groups of children (deaf and hard of hearing children with either cochlear implants or hearing aids and hearing children) completed tests of…
Self-reported disability and handicap after hearing-aid fitting and benefit of hearing aids: comparison of fitting procedures, degree of hearing loss, experience with hearing aids and uni- and bilateral fittings
Metselaar, Mick; Maat, Bert; Krijnen, Pieta; Verschuure, Hans; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Feenstra, Louw
Self-reported outcome on hearing disability and handicap as well as overall health-related quality of life were measured after hearing-aid fitting in a large-scale clinical population. Fitting was performed according to two different procedures in a double-blind study design. We used a comparative
Self-reported disability and handicap after hearing-aid fitting and benefit of hearing aids : comparison of fitting procedures, degree of hearing loss, experience with hearing aids and uni- and bilateral fittings
Metselaar, Mick; Maat, Bert; Krijnen, Pieta; Verschuure, Hans; Dreschler, Wouter A; Feenstra, Louw
Self-reported outcome on hearing disability and handicap as well as overall health-related quality of life were measured after hearing-aid fitting in a large-scale clinical population. Fitting was performed according to two different procedures in a double-blind study design. We used a comparative
Hassan, Hatem Ezzeldin; Eldin, Sally Taher Kheir; Al Kasaby, Rasha Mohamed
Background: Many congenitally sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) children and cochlear implant (CI) recipients develop near-normal language skills. However, there is a wide variation in individual outcomes following cochlear implantation, or using hearing aids. Some CI recipients or Hearing aids users never develop useable speech and oral language skills. The causes of this enormous variation in outcomes are only partly understood at the present time. So, the aim of this study was to assess th...
The article reviews the current studies regarding language and cognitive development in children who are deaf. Deaf communicate orally and with sign language. 90 % of deaf children are born into hearing families and hearing parents in most cases do not know the sign language. Besides, hearing parents usually want for their child to become "normally" speaking. Most of the deaf children born into hearing families have very poor early communication. It is now well established that deaf children ...
渋谷, 真二; 今野, 和夫; SHIBUYA, Shinji; KONNO, Kazuo
The awareness of parents about friendship between their children with an intellectual disability and children without a disability is an important factor for their children to make friends without a disability. A questionnare survey was used to parents of upper secondary department of special schools for students with an intellectual disability. They thought that their children had fewer opportunities to get involved with children without a disability. Many of them wished that their children ...
Szilagyi, Peter G.
Few people would disagree that children with disabilities need adequate health insurance. But what kind of health insurance coverage would be optimal for these children? Peter Szilagyi surveys the current state of insurance coverage for children with special health care needs and examines critical aspects of coverage with an eye to helping policy…
Eschenbeck, Heike; Gillé, Vera; Heim-Dreger, Uwe; Schock, Alexandra; Schott, Andrea
This study evaluated stressors and coping strategies in 70 children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) or with auditory processing disorder (APD) attending Grades 5 and 6 of a school for deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Everyday general stressors and more hearing-specific stressors were examined in a hearing-specific modified stress and…
Full Text Available Objective: This study was a basic investigation of the ability of concurrent speech segregation in hearing impaired children. Concurrent segregation is one of the fundamental components of auditory scene analysis and plays an important role in speech perception. In the present study, we compared auditory late responses or ALRs between hearing impaired and normal children. Materials & Methods: Auditory late potentials in response to 12 double vowels were recorded in 10 children with moderate to severe sensory neural hearing loss and 10 normal children. Double vowels (pairs of synthetic vowels were presented concurrently and binaurally. Fundamental frequency (F0 of these vowels and the size of the difference in F0 between vowels was 100 Hz and 0.5 semitones respectively. Results: Comparing N1-P2 amplitude showed statistically significant difference in some stimuli between hearing impaired and normal children (P<0.05. This complex indexing the vowel change detection and reflecting central auditory speech representation without active client participation was decreased in hearing impaired children. Conclusion: This study showed problems in concurrent speech segregation in hearing impaired children evidenced by ALRs. This information indicated deficiencies in bottom-up processing of speech characteristics based on F0 and its differences in these children.
... the complications of otitis media. Although the South African governmental policy guidelines favour the philosophy of screening for hearing loss in infants the implementation is not realised. Widespread newborn and infant hearing screening programmes must be established to ensure equal opportunities for children with ...
Lindley, Lisa C; Colman, Mari Beth; Meadows, John T
Over 42,000 children die each year in the United States, including those with intellectual disability (ID). Survival is often reduced when children with intellectual disability also suffer from significant motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities. Yet, little is known about hospice care for children with intellectual disability. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice utilization. Additionally, we explored whether intellectual disability combined with motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities influenced pediatric hospice utilization. Using a retrospective cohort design and data from the 2009 to 2010 California Medicaid claims files, we conducted a multivariate analysis of hospice utilization. This study shows that intellectual disability was negatively related to hospice enrollment and length of stay. We also found that when children had both intellectual disability and comorbidities, there was a positive association with enrolling in hospice care. A number of clinical implications can be drawn from the study findings that hospice and palliative care nurses use to improve their clinical practice of caring for children with ID and their families at end of life.
Cai, Ting; McPherson, Bradley
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the presence of non-purulent inflammation in the middle ear. Hearing impairment is frequently associated with OME. Pure tone audiometry and speech audiometry are two of the most primarily utilised auditory assessments and provide valuable behavioural and functional estimation on hearing loss. This paper was designed to review and analyse the effects of the presence of OME on children's listening abilities. A systematic and descriptive review. Twelve articles reporting frequency-specific pure tone thresholds and/or speech perception measures in children with OME were identified using PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar search platforms. The hearing loss related to OME averages 18-35 dB HL. The air conduction configuration is roughly flat with a slight elevation at 2000 Hz and a nadir at 8000 Hz. Both speech-in-quiet and speech-in-noise perception have been found to be impaired. OME imposes a series of disadvantages on hearing sensitivity and speech perception in children. Further studies investigating the full range of frequency-specific pure tone thresholds, and that adopt standardised speech test materials are advocated to evaluate hearing related disabilities with greater comprehensiveness, comparability and enhanced consideration of their real life implications.
Floyd, Frank J; Olsen, Darren L
Family interactions are potential contexts for children with intellectual and learning disabilities to develop skillful social behaviors needed to relate effectively with peers. This study examined problem solving interactions within families of elementary school-age children (7-11 years) with intellectual disability (n = 37), specific learning disabilities (n =48), and without disabilities (n = 22). After accounting for group differences in children's behaviors and peer acceptance, across all groups, mothers' behaviors that encouraged egalitarian problem solving predicted more engaged and skillful problem solving by the children. However, mothers' controlling, directive behaviors predicted fewer of these behaviors by the children. Fathers' behaviors had mixed associations with the children's actions, possibly because they were reactive to children's unengaged and negative behaviors. For the children, greater involvement, more facilitative behaviors, and less negativity with their families were associated with greater acceptance from their peers, supporting family-peer linkages for children at risk for peer rejection.
... the necessary skills, many professionals might be involved. General medical tests as well as tests in areas such as neurology (the nervous system), psychology, psychiatry, special education, hearing, speech and vision, and ...
Hearing impairment and deafness among HIV infected children and adolescents in Harare, Zimbabwe. C Chidziva, J Matsekete, T Bandason, S Shamu, T Dzongodza, N Matinhira, HA Mujuru, C Kunzekwenyika, M Wellington, R Luthy, C Prescott, RA Ferrand ...
In comparison to hearing children, children with hearing loss more often experience social-emotional problems. This thesis aimed to assess whether this was also true for 1-to-5-year-old children who had received a cochlear implant (CI) to remediate their hearing loss. In comparison to hearing peers,
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Gaboury, Isabelle; Durieux-Smith, Andrée; Coyle, Doug; Whittingham, JoAnne; Nassrallah, Flora
Children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) are being diagnosed at younger ages because of newborn hearing screening. Historically, they have been considered at risk for difficulties in listening and language development. Little information is available on contemporary cohorts of children identified in the early months of life. We examined auditory and language acquisition outcomes in a contemporary cohort of early-identified children with UHL and compared their outcomes at preschool age with peers with mild bilateral loss and with normal hearing. As part of the Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss in Children Study, we collected auditory and spoken language outcomes on children with unilateral, bilateral hearing loss and with normal hearing over a four-year period. This report provides a cross-sectional analysis of results at age 48 months. A total of 120 children (38 unilateral and 31 bilateral mild, 51 normal hearing) were enrolled in the study from 2010 to 2015. Children started the study at varying ages between 12 and 36 months of age and were followed until age 36-48 months. The median age of identification of hearing loss was 3.4 months (IQR: 2.0, 5.5) for unilateral and 3.6 months (IQR: 2.7, 5.9) for the mild bilateral group. Families completed an intake form at enrolment to provide baseline child and family-related characteristics. Data on amplification fitting and use were collected via parent questionnaires at each annual assessment interval. This study involved a range of auditory development and language measures. For this report, we focus on the end of follow-up results from two auditory development questionnaires and three standardized speech-language assessments. Assessments included in this report were completed at a median age of 47.8 months (IQR: 38.8, 48.5). Using ANOVA, we examined auditory and language outcomes in children with UHL and compared their scores to children with mild bilateral hearing loss and those with normal hearing. On most
Parents of children with disabilities often experience a higher level of stress than parents of children without disabilities, regardless of categories of disabilities. Understanding parental stressors can lead to appropriate interventions and supports for these parents and their children with disabilities. This article discusses issues of…
Peterson, Candida C
Empathy (or sharing another's emotion) and theory of mind (ToM: the understanding that behavior is guided by true and false beliefs) are cornerstones of human social life and relationships. In contrast to ToM, there has been little study of empathy's development, especially in deaf children. Two studies of a total of 117 children (52 hearing; 65 deaf children of hearing parents) aged 4-13 years were therefore designed to (a) compare levels of empathy in deaf and hearing children, and (b) explore correlations of ToM with empathy in deaf and hearing groups. Results showed that (a) deaf children scored lower in empathy than their hearing peers and (b) empathy and ToM were significantly correlated for deaf children but not for the hearing. Possible reasons for these divergent developmental patterns were considered, along with implications for future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others
The impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled children was explored. Three hypnotic training sessions and instructions for six weeks of daily self-hypnotic practice containing suggestions for imagery related to improvement in these areas were given to 15 children, their…
Alexandra Dezani Soares
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Oral narrative is a means of language development assessment. However, standardized data for deaf patients are scarce. The aim here was to compare the use of narrative competence between hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the Department of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Twenty-one moderately to profoundly bilaterally hearing-impaired children (cases and 21 normal-hearing children without language abnormalities (controls, matched according to sex, age, schooling level and school type, were studied. A board showing pictures in a temporally logical sequence was presented to each child, to elicit a narrative, and the child's performance relating to narrative structure and cohesion was measured. The frequencies of variables, their associations (Mann-Whitney test and their 95% confidence intervals was analyzed. RESULTS: The deaf subjects showed poorer performance regarding narrative structure, use of connectives, cohesion measurements and general punctuation (P < 0.05. There were no differences in the number of propositions elaborated or in referent specification between the two groups. The deaf children produced a higher proportion of orientation-related propositions (P = 0.001 and lower proportions of propositions relating to complicating actions (P = 0.015 and character reactions (P = 0.005. CONCLUSION: Hearing-impaired children have abnormalities in different aspects of language, involving form, content and use, in relation to their normal-hearing peers. Narrative competence was also associated with the children's ages and the school type.
El-Badry, Mohamed Mohamed; Hamdy, Nermin Aly; Sobhy, Sayed; Gamal, Reham
This work was designed to study electroencephalogram findings in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss and correlate these findings with the SNHL parameters as duration, etiology, severity, and type. Ninety children with bilateral congenital sensorineural hearing loss served as the study group. They were free from any neurological disorders or symptoms that are commonly associated with abnormal electroencephalogram as convulsions or loss of consciousness. Twenty children having normal hearing with no history of otological or neurological disorders served as the control group. All children participating in the study were subjected to full medical and audiological history, otological examination, neurological examination, audiological evaluation and electroencephalogram recording. Mean age of the children in the control group was 3.56 ± 2.1 years and mean age of the children in the study group was 3.8 ± 2.2 years. While none of the control children had abnormal electroencephalogram, 38 (42.2%) of children with congenital SNHL had epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality. The epileptiform abnormality was generalized in 14 children (36.8%), focal temporal in 17 children (44.7%) and focal other than temporal in 7 children (18.4%). According to the hemispheric side affected, the abnormality was right in 14 children (36.8%), left in 10 children (26.3%) and bilateral in 14 children (36.8%). No statistically significant predominance of specific site or side of the epileptiform abnormality was found. Similarly, no statistical significant prevalent of the epileptiform abnormality was found in relation to the age or sex of children, duration of hearing loss or etiology of hearing loss (i.e., genetic vs. neonatal insults). On the other hand, the epileptiform abnormality was statistically prevalent in children with moderate degree of hearing loss, and in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormality is
Rosa, Francisco; Coutinho, Miguel Bebiano; Ferreira, João Pinto; Sousa, Cecilia Almeida
The aim of this study was to assess the main ear malformations, hearing loss and auditory rehabilitation in children with Treacher Collins syndrome. We performed a retrospective study of 9 children with Treacher Collins syndrome treated in a central hospital between January 2003 and January 2013. This study showed a high incidence of malformations of the outer and middle ear, such as microtia, atresia or stenosis of the external auditory canal, hypoplastic middle ear cavity, dysmorphic or missing ossicular chain. Most patients had bilateral hearing loss of moderate or high degree. In the individuals studied, there was functional improvement in patients with bone-anchored hearing aids in relation to conventional hearing aids by bone conduction. Treacher Collins syndrome is characterized by bilateral malformations of the outer and middle ear. Hearing rehabilitation in these children is of utmost importance, and bone-anchored hearing aids is the method of choice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Children learn to communicate by hearing sounds. If there is hearing loss, the cognitive and speaking abilities and language learning will deteriorate. Early detection and intervention are important factors in the successful treatment of hearing loss in children. Hearing loss (HL is divided into two main groups: conductive hearing loss (CHL and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL, the prevalence of the former being higher in children, many whose causes are easy to detect and treat. Material and Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 785 children, aged 6-7 years, entering elementary school Grade 1 in the school year 2010/2011, were randomly selected from 10% of Ahwaz Hearing Loss Screening Centers, and their audiograms were studied. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and descriptive statistics. Results: Out of the 785 preschool children examined in this study, 77 children (9.8% suffered from HL (42.9% female and 57.1% male, 59.7% from CHL, and 40.3% from SNHL. Twenty-six percent suffered from bilateral HL and 74% from unilateral HL. Thirty-eight point ninety-six percent had abnormal tympanometry, 61% of whom were Type B. Most of the children (53% had mild HL. Thirty-one point two percent of parents were aware of their children's HL. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of HL, especially SNHL, in this study, which is usually permanent but detectable at the neonatal ages, raising public awareness and early screening of ear diseases, which can lead to the detection and treatment in most cases, seem to be vital.
Dursun, Onur Burak; Erhan, Süleyman Erim; Ibiş, Esra Özhan; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Keleş, Sadullah; Şirinkan, Ahmet; Yörük, Özgür; Acar, Ethem; Beyhun, Nazim Ercument
Physical exercise and sports have a key role in preventing physical and psychiatric problems in children. However, children with a disability often experience difficulty participating in physical activity due to a lack of suitable opportunities. Participation in an accessible sport is particularly important for these children, but studies examining which sports are beneficial for which disability groups are rare. In this study, we assessed the effects of ice skating on the psychological well-being, self-concept, and sleep quality of children with hearing or visual impairment. Forty students (20 visually impaired and 20 hearing impaired) aged 8-16 were included in a regular ice skating programme for three months. We examined the sleep quality, self-concept, and behavioural and emotional states of the children before and after participating in the programme. There was a significant improvement in self-concept, behavioural and emotional problems, and sleep quality (p sleep quality (p = 0.019) and emotional problem scores (p = 0.000) of the visually impaired children improved; self-concept, peer relations and hyperactivity scores of these children worsened (p sport alternatives that gives children the opportunity to exercise and have fun together. The results of this study revealed that regular ice skating programmes may have positive effects on the psychological well-being of children with hearing impairment. Despite some positive effects, caution must be use when including visually impaired children in ice skating programmes. Generalization of the study's outcomes is limited as the study group were residential students enrolled in special education institutions for children who are blind or deaf. Ice skating is a community-based sport and a popular leisure activity that can also have benefits for people with disabilities. Ice skating and children with hearing impairment: Self-concept, behavioural and emotional problems, and sleep quality of the children
Full Text Available The right to education is a fundamental right that should not be and can not be denied to any child regardless of his condition of normality or deviation from it. The historic route of educational policies regarding the children with disabilities experienced a positive evolution, from denying the possibility of attending a mainstream school, to current policies of integration and inclusion based on the idea of equal opportunities The rejection of what is considered atypical, unknown, strange, unusual, is the result of perpetuating stereotypes, prejudices regarding the disability, constituting signs of less advanced societies. Is the duty of society to accept children / people with disabilities as part of the reality that surrounds us, and try by all means not to turn a disable child into one normal child, but to normalize the conditions of his life, to give him the possibility to live the same social and school experiences that live any other typically child.
Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research indicates that impaired hearing is one of the most stressful disabilities. The parenting stress involved could lead to family malfunction and improper parenting. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of positive parenting programs on the parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children.Methods: The statistical population comprised mothers of all 7-12-year-old impaired hearing children in Tehran city. Thereafter, using the random sampling method, 24 individuals were shortlisted as research participants and were randomly assigned to two groups: control and experimental. The experimental group was trained with a positive parenting program based on the Sanders program (1993 over eight sessions. The measurement instrument was the Abidin parenting stress questionnaire.Results: The mean score for grades in the experimental groups’ parent and child domains at the pre- and post-test stages had reduced more than that in the control group. In addition, the results of a multivariate covariance analysis indicated that positive parenting training was effective in the reduction of parenting stress scores, reinforcement, and child mood components in the child domain, and in the feelings of competence, relationships with the spouse, and role limitation components (p<0.05 in the parent domain.Conclusion : Considering the benefits of training parents for the reduction of parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children, this method is recommended in all learning centers for the deaf.
Kreicher, Kathryn L; Schopper, Heather K; Naik, Akash N; Hatch, Jonathan L; Meyer, Ted A
To evaluate the type and severity of hearing impairment in pediatric patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and relate these measures to patient demographics, treatment options, and other otologic factors. A retrospective analysis of children with a diagnosis of PCD, Kartagener's syndrome, or situs inversus in the AudGen Database was conducted. Audiograms were analyzed for type of hearing loss (HL), severity, laterality, and progression. Medical charts were reviewed to identify factors that influence severity and progression of hearing loss. 56 patients met inclusion criteria and 42 patients had HL. 66.6% had bilateral and 33.3% had unilateral loss (70 total ears with HL). Conductive hearing loss (CHL) was the most common type of HL, though 30% of children had some sensorineural component to their hearing loss. 92.9% of children with HL received at least one diagnosis of otitis media, but HL did not improve in the majority (77.8%) of ears in our study regardless of ear tube placement. Slight to mild CHL and all types of otitis media are prevalent among patients with PCD, and some of these children have sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). All patients diagnosed with situs inversus at birth should be evaluated by an otolaryngologist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Melo, Renato de Souza
Several studies have demonstrated that children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) may exhibit balance disorders, which can compromise the gait performance of this population. Compare the gait performance of normal hearing (NH) children and those with SNHL, considering the sex and age range of the sample, and analyze gait performance according to degrees of hearing loss and etiological factors in the latter group. This is a cross-sectional study that assessed 96 students, 48 NH and 48 with SNHL, aged between 7 and 18 years. The Brazilian version of the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) was used to analyze gait and the Mann-Whitney test for statistical analysis. The group with SNHL obtained lower average gait performance compared to NH subjects (p=0.000). This was also observed when the children were grouped by sex female and male (p=0.000). The same difference occurred when the children were stratified by age group: 7-18 years (p=0.000). The group with severe and profound hearing loss exhibited worse gait performance than those with mild and moderate loss (p=0.048) and children with prematurity as an etiological factor demonstrated the worst gait performance. The children with SNHL showed worse gait performance compared to NH of the same sex and age group. Those with severe and profound hearing loss and prematurity as an etiological factor demonstrated the worst gait performances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Salt, Alison; Sargent, Jenefer
Children with disability are at a substantially higher risk of visual impairment (VI) (10.5% compared with 0.16%) but also of ocular disorders of all types, including refractive errors and strabismus. The aetiology of VI in children with disability reflects that of the general population and includes cerebral VI, optic atrophy, as well as primary visual disorders such as retinal dystrophies and structural eye anomalies. VI and other potentially correctable ocular disorders may not be recognised without careful assessment and are frequently unidentified in children with complex needs. Although assessment may be more challenging than in other children, identifying these potential additional barriers to learning and development may be critical. There is a need to develop clearer guidelines, referral pathways and closer working between all professionals involved in the care of children with disability and visual disorders to improve our focus on the assessment of vision and outcomes for children with disability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Appelbaum, Eric N; Howell, Jessica B; Chapman, Derek; Pandya, Arti; Dodson, Kelley M
To analyze 2007 Joint Committee on Infant Hearing (JCIH) risk factors in children with confirmed unilateral hearing loss (UHL) who initially passed newborn hearing screening. Retrospective record review of 16,108 infants who passed newborn hearing screening but had one or more JCIH risk factors prompting subsequent follow-up through the universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) program in Virginia from 2010 to 2012. The study was reviewed and qualified as exempt by the Virginia Commonwealth University Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the Virginia Department of Health. Over the 2-year study period, 14896 (4.9% of total births) children passed UNHS but had the presence of one or more JCIH risk factor. Ultimately, we identified 121 babies from this group with confirmed hearing loss (0.7%), with 48 babies (0.2%) showing UHL. The most common risk factors associated with the development of confirmed UHL after passing the initial screen were neonatal indicators, craniofacial anomalies, family history, and stigmata of syndrome associated with hearing loss. Neonatal indicators and craniofacial anomalies were the categories most often found in children with confirmed unilateral hearing loss who initially passed their newborn hearing screen. While neonatal indicators were also the most common associated risk factor in all hearing loss, craniofacial abnormalities are relatively more common in children with UHL who initially passed newborn hearing screening. Further studies assessing the etiology underlying the hearing loss and risk factor associations are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Over 5% of the world's population has disabling hearing loss. The oral health of the disabled may be disused for the reason of the disabling condition, a challenging disease or the limited access to oral health care. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal status of institutionalized hearing impaired (HI children in Khordha district of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study on the HI children was conducted in Khordha district, Odisha. Type III examination procedure was conducted to assess the oral health status of the children. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square test and Student's t-test, and the significance level was fixed at P < 0.05. Results: The final population consisted of 540 HI children out of which 262 (48.5% were male and 278 (51.5% were female, 285 (52.8% children had severe hearing loss and 227 (42.0% had profound hearing loss. Bleeding on probing was found in 72 (13.3% female children as compared to 57 (10.6% male children. While 131 (24.3% female children had calculus, 124 (23.0% male children had the same condition. Total caries prevalence was 19.3%. Statistically highly significant difference was found for mean decayed teeth (DT, missing teeth decayed, missing filled teeth (FT (P < 0.001, while for mean FT there was no statistically significant difference according to age groups. Statistically highly significant difference was found for mean DT, extracted teeth and decayed, extracted, filled teeth (P < 0.001. Conclusion: An improved accessibility to dental services as well as dental health education is necessary to ensure the optimum dental health within the reach of these less fortunate children.
von Wedel, H; von Wedel, U C; Zorowka, P
On the basis of certain fundamental data on the maturation processes of the central auditory pathways in early childhood the importance of early intervention with hearing aids is discussed and emphasized. Pathological hearing, that is acoustical deprivation in early childhood will influence the maturation process. Very often speech development is delayed if diagnosis and therapy or rehabilitation are not early enough. Anamnesis, early diagnosis and clinical differential diagnosis are required before a hearing aid can be fitted. Selection criteria and adjustment parameters are discussed, showing that the hearing aid fitting procedure must be embedded in a complex matrix of requirements related to the development of speech as well as to the cognitive, emotional and social development of the child. As a rule, finding and preparing the "best" hearing aids (binaural fitting is obligatory) for a child is a long and often difficult process, which can only be performed by specialists who are pedo-audiologists. After the binaural fitting of hearing aids an intensive hearing and speech education in close cooperation between parents, pedo-audiologist and teacher must support the whole development of the child.
Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.
Purpose: To determine whether children with mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (CHL) present with disturbances in working memory and whether these disturbances relate to the size of their receptive vocabularies. Method: Children 6 to 9 years of age participated. Aspects of working memory were tapped by articulation rate, forward…
Peterson, Candida C.
Empathy (or sharing another's emotion) and theory of mind (ToM: the understanding that behavior is guided by true and false beliefs) are cornerstones of human social life and relationships. In contrast to ToM, there has been little study of empathy's development, especially in deaf children. Two studies of a total of 117 children (52 hearing; 65…
Alaqrabawi, Wala' S.; Alshawabka, Amneh Z.; Al-Addasi, Zainab M.
This study measured the prevalence of hearing loss among school children in Jordan. A random sample of 1649 children (990 males and 659 females) was collected from randomly chosen 40 schools in Amman. Screening was conducted between November 2010 and October 2014. Otoscopic examination, tympanometry, and audiometry were used for screening. Based…
Beattie, R. G. John L.
This review of research on otitis media in children with existing hearing impairments concludes that the incidence of otitis media is probably higher than in the general population. The possible reasons for higher incidence, effects of otitis media on children with known losses, and the role of the classroom teacher are discussed. (Author/DB)
Richard V. Burkhauser; Mary C. Daly
The U.S. federal government’s program that provides cash benefits to low-income families with a disabled child has grown rapidly over the past 25 years. This growth reflects changes in the implementation of the program rather than declines in children’s health or family income. Unfortunately, most disabled children from families that receive such benefits do not become employed when they grow up, so these policy changes may relegate these children to lifetime government support—probably near ...
Cejas, Ivette; Hoffman, Michael F; Quittner, Alexandra L
The number of children with hearing loss with additional disabilities receiving cochlear implantation has increased dramatically over the past decade. However, little is known about their auditory and speech and language development following implantation. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effects of cochlear implantation on the most common genetic and developmental disorders in children with hearing loss. Benefits of cochlear implantation for children with autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, CHARGE syndrome, cerebral palsy, learning disorders, Usher syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder are reviewed. Our review indicates that children with hearing loss and additional disabilities benefit from cochlear implantation, especially when implanted early. Thus, early interventions seem as important for these children as for deaf children without additional disabilities. Comparisons of outcomes across these disabilities indicate that children with little to no cognitive impairment (eg, Waardenburg sydrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) have better outcomes than those with greater deficits in intellectual functioning (eg, autism, CHARGE syndrome). In addition, parents of children with hearing loss and additional disabilities report higher levels of parenting stress and greater child behavior problems than those without comorbid diagnoses. However, these parents are as sensitive when interacting with their children as parents with typically developing children using cochlear implantation. Given these results, it is critical to evaluate these children's developmental milestones to provide early implantation and intervention, appropriately counsel families regarding realistic expectations for the implant, and facilitate family adaptation.
Coorg, Rohini; Tournay, Anne
Filicide-suicide, or murder of a child by a parent followed by suicide, has an unknown incidence in both the general and disabled population. As there is no national database, the authors examined known associated factors and newspaper reports to characterize filicide-suicide victims and perpetrators involving children with disabilities. A newspaper search was conducted using LexisNexis and NewsBank: Access World News databases through the University of California, Irvine Library's Web site. Age, gender of child and parent, method used, and diagnoses of parent and child were recorded. Twenty-two news articles were found describing a total of 26 disabled children as victims of filicide-suicide between 1982 and 2010. Eighty-one percent of children killed were male, and 54% were autistic. Thirty percent of perpetrators had a reported mental illness. Male children or children with autism may be at risk for filicide-suicide, but accurate record keeping is needed to determine the incidence and risk factors and aid in its prevention in the disabled population.
In this thesis four empirical studies dealt with children with profound multiple disabilities and their parents with regard to: (a) how parents perceived interaction with their children (b) how observed child/parent interaction was linked to behavior style of the children as perceived by the parents (c) how parents of children with profound multiple disabilities perceived child/parent interaction and behavior style of their children in comparison to parents to children without disabilities ma...
Banga, Rupan; Doshi, Jayesh; Child, Anne; Pendleton, Elizabeth; Reid, Andrew; McDermott, Ann-Louise
We sought to determine the outcome of implantation of a bone-anchored hearing device in children with unilateral conductive hearing loss. A retrospective case note analysis was used in a tertiary referral pediatric hospital to study 17 consecutive cases of pediatric patients with unilateral conductive hearing loss who were fitted with a bone-anchored hearing device between 2005 and 2010. The average age of the patients at the time of bone-anchored hearing device fitting was 10 years 6 months (range, 6 years 3 months to 16 years). Qualitative subjective outcome measures demonstrated benefit. The vast majority of patients reported improved social and physical functioning and improved quality of life. All 17 patients are currently using their bone-anchored hearing device on a daily basis after a follow-up of 6 months. This study has shown improved quality of life in children with unilateral hearing loss after implantation of their bone-anchored hearing device. There was a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement in health status reported by children and/or carers. Bone-anchored hearing devices have an important role in the management of children with symptomatic unilateral hearing loss. Perhaps earlier consideration of a bone-anchored hearing device would be appropriate in selected cases.
Levrez, Clovis; Bourdin, Beatrice; Le Driant, Barbara; D'Arc, Baudouin Forgeot; Vandromme, Luc
Even when they have good language skills, many children with hearing loss lag several years behind hearing children in the ability to grasp beliefs of others. The researchers sought to determine whether this lag results from difficulty with the verbal demands of tasks or from conceptual delays. The researchers related children's performance on a nonverbal theory of mind task to their scores on verbal aptitude tests. Twelve French children (average age about 10 years) with severe to profound hearing loss and 12 French hearing children (average about 7 years) were evaluated. The children with hearing loss showed persistent difficulty with theory of mind tasks, even a nonverbal task, presenting results similar to those of hearing 6-year-olds. Also, the children with hearing loss showed a correlation between language level (lexical and morphosyntactic) and understanding of false beliefs. No such correlation was found in the hearing children.
Hosie, J A; Russell, P A; Gray, C D; Scott, C; Hunter, N; Banks, J S; Macaulay, M C
Deaf children of elementary and secondary school age participated in a study designed to examine their understanding of display rules, the principles governing the expression and concealment of emotion in social situations. The results showed that deaf children's knowledge of display rules, as measured by their reported concealment of emotion, was comparable to that of hearing children of the same age. However, deaf children were less likely to report that they would conceal happiness and anger. They were also less likely to produce reasons for concealing emotion and a smaller proportion of their reasons were prosocial, that is, relating to the feelings of others. The results suggest that the understanding of display rules (which function to protect the feelings of other people) may develop more gradually in deaf children raised in a spoken language environment than it does in hearing children.
... with disabilities must be transported in the same vehicles used to transport other children enrolled in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Children with disabilities. 1310.22 Section 1310... START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.22 Children with disabilities. (a...
Buckhalt, Joseph A.
Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality have been associated with impaired cognitive functioning in typically developing children and in children with a wide array of disabilities and medical conditions. Among children with disabilities, those with intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism…
Winegar, Kathryn Lileth
This study examined the inhibition deficit hypothesis in children with math disabilities (MD). Children with and without MD were compared on two inhibition tasks that included the random generation of numbers and letters. The results addressed three hypotheses. Weak support was found for the first hypothesis which stated difficulties related to inhibition are significantly related to math performance. I found partial support for this hypothesis in that inhibition was related to math problem s...
Meister Eduardo Kaehler
Full Text Available With this article we intend to demonstrate the importance of evaluation and follow up of children with learning disabilities, through a multidisciplinary team. As well as to establish the need of intervention. We evaluate 69 children, from Aline Picheth Public School, in Curitiba, attending first or second grade of elementary school, through general and evolutionary neurological examination, pediatric checklist symptoms, and social, linguistic and psychological (WISC-III, Bender Infantile and WPPSI-figures evaluation. The incidence was higher in boys (84,1%, familiar history of learning disabilities was found in 42%, and writing abnormalities in 56,5%. The most frequent diagnosis was attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, in 39,1%. With this program, we aimed to reduce the retention taxes and stress the importance of this evaluation, and, if necessary, multidisciplinar intervention in the cases of learning disabilities.
Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Almost 200 cochlear implantations were done in the four centers (two in Belgrade, per one in Novi Sad and Niš in Serbia from 2002 to 2009. Less than 10% of implantees were postlingually deaf adults. The vast majority, i.e. 90% were pre- and perilingually profoundly deaf children. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of improved auditory perception due to cochlear implantation on comprehension of abstract words in children as compared with hearing impaired children with conventional hearing aids and normal hearing children. Methods. Thirty children were enrolled in this study: 20 hearing impaired and 10 normal hearing. The vocabulary test was used. Results. The overall results for the whole test (100 words showed a significant difference in favor of the normal hearing as compared with hearing impaired children. The normal hearing children successfully described or defined 77.93% of a total of 100 words. Success rate for the cochlear implanted children was 26.87% and for the hearing impaired children with conventional hearing aids 20.32%. Conclusion. Testing for abstract words showed a statistically significant difference between the cochlear implanted and the hearing impaired children with hearing aids (Mann- Whitney U-test, p = 0.019 implying considerable advantage of cochlear implants over hearing aids regarding successful speech development in prelingually deaf children.
Dun, Catharina A J; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Cremers, Cor W R J; Hol, Myrthe K S; Snik, Ad F M
The aim of the study was to investigate whether children with bilateral conductive hearing loss benefit from their second device (i.e., the bilateral bone conduction device [BCD]). Speech recognition in noise was assessed in 10 children fitted with bilateral BCDs during childhood. Speech recognition was measured in 2 conditions with both BCDs active. Spatial resolution was tested with the Minimum Audible Angle test in the bilateral and monaural listening conditions. Children demonstrated an improvement in speech recognition when speech was presented from the front and noise was presented from the right-hand side as compared with both speech and noise being presented from the front. The minimum audible angle decreased from 57° in the best monaural condition to 13° in the bilateral condition. The audiological outcomes demonstrate the advantage of bilateral BCD fitting in children with bilateral conductive hearing loss.
Wong, Cara L.; Ching, Teresa YC; Leigh, Greg; Cupples, Linda; Button, Laura; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise
Objective The aims of this paper were to report on the global psychosocial functioning of 5-year-old DHH children and examine the risk and protective factors that predict outcomes. Design A cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a prospective, population-based longitudinal study. Study Sample Parents/caregivers of 356 children completed questionnaires on psychosocial development (CDI, SDQ), functional communication (PEACH) and demographic information. Children completed standardised assessments of non-verbal cognitive ability (WNV) and language (PLS-4). Results On average, global psychosocial functioning was within the range of typically developing children; however, variability was high and 12% of children had scores that were more than 2 SDs below the norm. Non-verbal cognitive ability, presence of additional disabilities, language and functional communication significantly predicted outcomes. In contrast, type of hearing device, severity of hearing loss and age at intervention did not. Conclusion The global psychosocial functioning of this cohort of 5-year-old DHH children fell within the range of typically developing children. . The findings suggest that spoken language ability and functional communication skills are vital for healthy psychosocial development. PMID:27541363
Tomblin, J Bruce; Walker, Elizabeth A; McCreery, Ryan W; Arenas, Richard M; Harrison, Melody; Moeller, Mary Pat
The primary objective of this article was to describe recruitment, data collection, and methods for a longitudinal, multicenter study involving children with bilateral mild to severe hearing loss. The goals of this research program were to characterize the developmental outcomes of children with mild to severe bilateral hearing loss during infancy and the preschool years. Furthermore, the researchers examined how these outcomes were associated with the child's hearing loss and how home background and clinical interventions mediated and moderated these outcomes. The participants in this study were children who are hard of hearing (CHH) and children with normal hearing (CNH) who provided comparison data. CHH were eligible for participation if (1) their chronological age was between 6 months and 7 years of age at the time of recruitment, (2) they had a better-ear pure-tone average of 25 to 75 dB HL, (3) they had not received a cochlear implant, (4) they were from homes where English was the primary language, and (5) they did not demonstrate significant cognitive or motor delays. Across the time span of recruitment, 430 parents of potential children with hearing loss made contact with the research group. This resulted in 317 CHH who qualified for enrollment. In addition, 117 CNH qualified for enrollment. An accelerated longitudinal design was used, in which multiple age cohorts were followed long enough to provide overlap. Specifically, children were recruited and enrolled continuously across an age span of 6.5 years and were followed for at least 3 years. This design allowed for tests of time (period) versus cohort age effects that could arise by changes in services and technology over time, yet still allowed for examination of important developmental relationships. The distribution of degree of hearing loss for the CHH showed that the majority of CHH had moderate or moderate-to-severe hearing losses, indicating that the sample undersampled children with mild HL. For
Asad, Areej Nimer; Purdy, Suzanne C; Ballard, Elaine; Fairgray, Liz; Bowen, Caroline
In this descriptive study, phonological processes were examined in the speech of children aged 5;0-7;6 (years; months) with mild to profound hearing loss using hearing aids (HAs) and cochlear implants (CIs), in comparison to their peers. A second aim was to compare phonological processes of HA and CI users. Children with hearing loss (CWHL, N = 25) were compared to children with normal hearing (CWNH, N = 30) with similar age, gender, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Speech samples obtained from a list of 88 words, derived from three standardized speech tests, were analyzed using the CASALA (Computer Aided Speech and Language Analysis) program to evaluate participants' phonological systems, based on lax (a process appeared at least twice in the speech of at least two children) and strict (a process appeared at least five times in the speech of at least two children) counting criteria. Developmental phonological processes were eliminated in the speech of younger and older CWNH while eleven developmental phonological processes persisted in the speech of both age groups of CWHL. CWHL showed a similar trend of age of elimination to CWNH, but at a slower rate. Children with HAs and CIs produced similar phonological processes. Final consonant deletion, weak syllable deletion, backing, and glottal replacement were present in the speech of HA users, affecting their overall speech intelligibility. Developmental and non-developmental phonological processes persist in the speech of children with mild to profound hearing loss compared to their peers with typical hearing. The findings indicate that it is important for clinicians to consider phonological assessment in pre-school CWHL and the use of evidence-based speech therapy in order to reduce non-developmental and non-age-appropriate developmental processes, thereby enhancing their speech intelligibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pitaro, Jacob; Bechor-Fellner, Avital; Gavriel, Haim; Marom, Tal; Eviatar, Ephraim
Pediatric sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is uncommon, and the current guidelines for its management refer to adults. Our objective was to review cases of SSNHL in children and examine their etiologies, management, and outcome. We performed a retrospective chart review of all children under the age of 18 years treated for SSNHL between January 2003 and September 2014. Data recorded included age, gender, symptoms, onset of hearing loss, audiometric results, diagnostic studies, treatment, and outcome. Nineteen children were included. Mean age was 14 years (range 7-18 years). Male: female ratio was 9:10. Degree of hearing loss varied from mild to profound across the tested frequencies. Most common accompanying symptom was tinnitus. Serologic tests demonstrated recent Epstein-Barr virus infection in one patient and previous cytomegalovirus infection in six patients. Imaging studies included computed tomography scan (n=3) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (n=12). All imaging studies did not demonstrate any pathology. Treatment included systemic steroids in 19 (100%) children and intratympanic steroids in eight (42%). Hearing completely improved in three (16%) children, partially improved in nine (47%), and there was no improvement in six (32%). One child was lost to follow-up. Viral infection was a common finding in children with SSNHL and no pathological changes were demonstrated on imaging studies. In most patients (63%), hearing improvement was observed. Intratympanic steroid injection can benefit these children. Further studies are required to investigate the etiologies and establish guidelines for the management of SSNHL in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mudrick, Nancy R
Every examination of disability among children must first grapple with definition of disability. The challenges to identifying disability among children involve not only determining the appropriate paradigm for defining disability, but also applying that paradigm to children in a meaningful way. This discussion of the prevalence of disability among children starts by examining the various paradigms utilized to identify disability and how they are interpreted when applied to children. Estimates of the prevalence of childhood disability, under different definitions of disability are presented. The goal of the discussion is to illustrate the sensitivity of the estimates of disability prevalence to the particular definition and data set used. Finally, the potential influence of the choice of paradigm on further measurement and service delivery is outlined.
Peterson, Candida C.; Wellman, Henry M.
We examined deaf and hearing children's progression of steps in theory of mind (ToM) development including their understanding of social pretending. Ninety-three children (33 deaf; 60 hearing) aged 3-13 years were tested on a set of six closely matched ToM tasks. Results showed that deaf children were delayed substantially behind hearing children…
Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars
Deaf and hard of hearing school-aged children are at risk for delayed development of emotion understanding; however, little is known about this during the preschool years. We compared the level of emotion understanding in a group of 35 4-5-year-old children who use hearing aids to that of 130 children with typical hearing. Moreover, we…
Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars
Hearing loss may represent a risk for developing social skills difficulties; however, little is known about the potential risk resulting from unilateral or mild bilateral hearing loss (UMHL). We compared the social skills of 14 children with UMHL and 21 children with moderate to severe hearing loss (MSHL) with those of 123 children with typical…
Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie
This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…
Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna; Watkin, Peter; Worsfold, Sarah; Kennedy, Colin
Background: There are well-replicated findings that link poor development on a range of communication skills with increased behavioural problems. This paper examines this relationship in children with hearing loss. Method: One hundred and twenty children with hearing loss (67 boys, 53 girls) and 63 hearing children (37 boys, 26 girls) with a mean…
McCoy, Thomasin E.; Conrad, Amy L.; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg C.; Bell, Edward F.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory...
Full Text Available Objectives: Phonemic awareness skills have a significant impact on children speech and language. The purpose of this study was investigating the phonemic awareness skills of children with cochlear implant and normal hearing peers in primary school. Methods: phonemic awareness subscales of phonological awareness test were administered to 30 children with cochlear implantation at the first to sixth grades of primary school and 30 children with normal hearing who were matched in age with cochlear implant group. All of children were between 6 to 11 years old. Children with cochlear implant had at least 1 to 2 years of implant experience and they were over 5 years when they receive implantation. Children with cochlear implant were selected from Special education centers in Tehran and children with normal hearing were recruited from primary schools in Tehran. The phonemic awareness skills were assessed in both groups. Results: The results showed that the Mean scores of phonemic awareness skills in cochlear implant children were significantly lower than children with normal hearing (P<.0001. Discussion: children with cochlear implant, despite Cochlear implantation prosthesis, had lower performance in phonemic awareness when compared with normal hearing children. Therefore, due to importance of phonemic awareness skills in learning of literacy skills, and defects of these skills in children with cochlear implant, these skills should be assessed carefully in children with cochlear implant and rehabilitative interventions should be considered.
Full Text Available Introduction: Advanced phonological skills are important for the acquisition of reading skills. Children with hearing impairment have reading skills are weaker than others because of auditory inputs and due to the defect in phonological skills. The use of hearing aids and cochlear implants help to collect information on people who are hard of hearing.Material and Methods: This descriptive - analytic study was done on 12 children with cochlear implant and 12 children with hearing aids that was selected from second grades students of Tehran primary schools. Children's phonological performance was assessed by phonological subtests of Nama reading test and the data were analyzed using SPSS 16.Results: The results showed that the means of scores of children with cochlear implants in Rhyme task were significantly greater than the children with hearing aids (P=0.034. But in means of scores of Phone deletion and Nonword reading tasks were not significant different between two groups (P=0.919, P=0.670.Discussion: Cochlear implant with accessibility auditory inputs can facilitated the acquisition of phonological awareness skills in hearing loss children. But whereas the other language inputs such as sight and touch input helped to developing these skills, children with hearing aids too also can acquisition these skills.
Vickerman, Philip; Blundell, Milly
Since the return of the Labour government to power in the UK in 1997 issues of social inclusion have risen up the political and statutory agenda within higher education (HE). This study reports the findings of disabled students lived experiences and views of transition from induction through to employability within one HE institution. The study…
Most, Tova; Michaelis, Hilit
This study aimed to investigate the effect of hearing loss (HL) on emotion-perception ability among young children with and without HL. A total of 26 children 4.0-6.6 years of age with prelingual sensory-neural HL ranging from moderate to profound and 14 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. They were asked to identify happiness, anger, sadness, and fear expressed by an actress when uttering the same neutral nonsense sentence. Their auditory, visual, and auditory-visual perceptions of the emotional content were assessed. The accuracy of emotion perception among children with HL was lower than that of the NH children in all 3 conditions: auditory, visual, and auditory-visual. Perception through the combined auditory-visual mode significantly surpassed the auditory or visual modes alone in both groups, indicating that children with HL utilized the auditory information for emotion perception. No significant differences in perception emerged according to degree of HL. In addition, children with profound HL and cochlear implants did not perform differently from children with less severe HL who used hearing aids. The relatively high accuracy of emotion perception by children with HL may be explained by their intensive rehabilitation, which emphasizes suprasegmental and paralinguistic aspects of verbal communication.
Klein, Kelsey E; Walker, Elizabeth A; Kirby, Benjamin; McCreery, Ryan W
We examined the effects of vocabulary, lexical characteristics (age of acquisition and phonotactic probability), and auditory access (aided audibility and daily hearing aid [HA] use) on speech perception skills in children with HAs. Participants included 24 children with HAs and 25 children with normal hearing (NH), ages 5-12 years. Groups were matched on age, expressive and receptive vocabulary, articulation, and nonverbal working memory. Participants repeated monosyllabic words and nonwords in noise. Stimuli varied on age of acquisition, lexical frequency, and phonotactic probability. Performance in each condition was measured by the signal-to-noise ratio at which the child could accurately repeat 50% of the stimuli. Children from both groups with larger vocabularies showed better performance than children with smaller vocabularies on nonwords and late-acquired words but not early-acquired words. Overall, children with HAs showed poorer performance than children with NH. Auditory access was not associated with speech perception for the children with HAs. Children with HAs show deficits in sensitivity to phonological structure but appear to take advantage of vocabulary skills to support speech perception in the same way as children with NH. Further investigation is needed to understand the causes of the gap that exists between the overall speech perception abilities of children with HAs and children with NH.
Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP connotes a group of non-progressive, but often variable symptoms of motor impairment of movement and posture, as well as other impairments which are a consequenceof anomalies or brain impairment in different phases of its development. CP is a pathological condition characterised in the fi rst place by motor function impairment to which other disorders such as: visual andhearing impairment, intellectual defi cit, emotional problems, behaviour disorder, speech disorder, epileptic seizure and similar can join. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of joined disabilities ofchildren with cerebral palsy in Tuzla Canton.Methods: The research covers a total sample of 48 examinees, chronological age from 2-19 years, in Tuzla Canton. Research instrument was a Structural Questionnaire for the parents of children and adolescentswith cerebral palsy. Research data were processed by nonparametric statistics method. Basic statistical parameters of frequency and percentages were calculated, and tabular presentation was made.Results: After classification of examinees as per frequency of joined disabilities was done, work results have shown that speech impairment occurred with 35.4 % of children, visual impairment 33.3 %, epilepsy29.3 %, whereas hearing impairment occurred with 2 % of children.Conclusion: In research of frequency of joined disabilities of children with cerebral palsy in Tuzla Canton, most expressed are speech and visual disorders with children, then epilepsy, whereas a small percentageof children are with hearing disorder.
Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata
The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…
Brennan, Marc; McCreery, Ryan; Kopun, Judy; Lewis, Dawna; Alexander, Joshua; Stelmachowicz, Patricia
Purpose: This study compared masking release for adults and children with normal hearing and hearing loss. For the participants with hearing loss, masking release using simulated hearing aid amplification with 2 different compression speeds (slow, fast) was compared. Method: Sentence recognition in unmodulated noise was compared with recognition…
This digest discusses hearing loss in children. Topics covered include: (1) the causes of hearing loss and the three major types of hearing losses, conductive loss, sensorineural loss, and central auditory processing disorder; (2) the federal definitions of "deaf" (hearing loss which adversely affects educational performance and which is…
Ormel, E.A.; Gijsel, M.A.R.; Hermans, D.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In
Derlich, Malgorzata; Krecisz, Krzysztof; Kuczynski, Michal
To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for deteriorated postural control in children with hearing deficit (CwHD), we measured center-of-pressure (COP) variability, mean velocity and entropy in bipedal quiet stance (feet together) with or without the concurrent cognitive task (reaction to visual stimulus) on hard or foam surface in 29 CwHD and a…
Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.
Background: The more a novel word conforms to the phonotactics of the language, the more wordlike it is and the easier it is to learn. It is unknown to what extent children with hearing loss (CHL) take advantage of phonotactic cues to support word learning. Aims: This study investigated whether CHL had similar sensitivities to wordlikeness during…
Hofmann, Kristin; Chilla, Solveig
Adopting a bimodal bilingual language acquisition model, this qualitative case study is the first in Germany to investigate the spoken and sign language development of hearing children of deaf adults (codas). The spoken language competence of six codas within the age range of 3;10 to 6;4 is assessed by a series of standardised tests (SETK 3-5,…
Surian, Luca; Tedoldi, Mariantonia; Siegel, Michael
We investigated whether access to a sign language affects the development of pragmatic competence in three groups of deaf children aged 6 to 11 years: native signers from deaf families receiving bimodal/bilingual instruction, native signers from deaf families receiving oralist instruction and late signers from hearing families receiving oralist…
Ormel, Ellen A.; Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Hermans, Daan; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo
Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In the present study, the quality of the semantic…
Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.; Werfel, Krystal; Camarata, Stephen; Bess, Fred H.
Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the effect of hearing loss on subjective reports of fatigue in school-age children using a standardized measure. Methods: As part of a larger ongoing study, the authors obtained subjective ratings of fatigue using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (Varni,…
Novelli-Olmstead, Tina; Ling, Daniel
Seven hearing impaired children (five to seven years old) assigned to the Speakers group made highly significant gains in speech production and auditory discrimination of speech, while Listeners made only slight speech production gains and no gains in auditory discrimination. Combined speech and auditory training was more effective than auditory…
Tharpe, Anne Marie; Gustafson, Samantha
Any degree of hearing loss can have a negative impact on child development. The amount of impact is largely determined by the type, quality, and timeliness of intervention. Early identification and management of hearing loss is essential for minimizing the impact of hearing loss and ensuring that children can reach their cognitive, linguistic, educational, and social potential. Advances in hearing technology and broadening of candidacy for same, have resulted in improved outcomes for many children with hearing loss. Through ongoing hearing monitoring throughout childhood, children with congenital, late-onset, or progressive losses can receive timely management from interprofessional, collaborative teams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Feng-Jiao; Wang, Da-Yong; Wang, Hong-Yang; Wang, Li; Yang, Feng-Bo; Lan, Lan; Guan, Jing; Yin, Zi-Fang; Rosenhall, Ulf; Yu, Lan; Hellstrom, Sten; Xue, Xi-Jun; Duan, Mao-Li; Wang, Qiu-Ju
The prevalence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children (CSSNHL) is consistently increasing. However, the pathology and prognosis of CSSNHL are still poorly understood. This retrospective study evaluated clinical characteristics and possible associated factors of CSSNHL. One hundred and thirty-six CSSNHL patients treated in Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Institute of Otolaryngology at Chinese PLA General Hospital between July 2008 and August 2015 were included in this study. These patients were analyzed for clinical characteristics, audiological characteristics, laboratory examinations, and prognostic factors. Among the 136 patients (151 ears), 121 patients (121 ears, 80.1%) were diagnosed with unilaterally CSSNHL, and 15 patients (30 ears, 19.9%) with bilateral CSSNHL. The complete recovery rate of CSSNHL was 9.3%, and the overall recovery rate was 37.7%. We found that initial degree of hearing loss, onset of treatment, tinnitus, the ascending type audiogram, gender, side of hearing loss, the recorded auditory brainstem response (ABR), and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) had prognostic significance. Age, ear fullness, and vertigo had no significant correlation with recovery. Furthermore, the relevant blood tests showed 30.8% of the children had abnormal white blood cell (WBC) counts, 22.1% had elevated homocysteine levels, 65.8% had high alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 33.8% had high IgE antibody levels, and 86.1% had positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibodies. CSSNHL commonly occurs unilaterally and results in severe hearing loss. Initial severe hearing loss and bilateral hearing loss are negative prognostic factors for hearing recovery, while positive prognostic factors include tinnitus, gender, the ascending type audiogram, early treatment, identifiable ABR waves, and DPOAEs. Age, vertigo, and ear fullness are not correlated with the recovery. Some serologic indicators, including the level of WBC, platelet
Santos, Saturnino; Domínguez, M Jesús; Cervera, Javier; Suárez, Alicia; Bueno, Antonio; Bartolomé, Margarita; López, Rafael
Among the temporal bone abnormalities that can be found in the etiological study of paediatric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) by imaging techniques, those related to the internal auditory canal (IAC) are the least frequent. The most prevalent of these abnormalities that is associated with SNHL is stenotic IAC due to its association with cochlear nerve deficiencies. Less frequent and less concomitant with SNHL is the finding of an enlarged IAC (>8mm). Retrospective and descriptive review of clinical associations, imaging, audiological patterns and treatment of 9 children with hearing loss and enlarged IAC in the period 1999 to 2012. Two groups of patients are described. The first, without association with vestibulocochlear dysplasias, consisted of: 2 patients with SNHL without other temporal bone or systemic abnormalities, one with bilateral mixed HL from chromosome 18q deletion, one with a genetic X-linked DFN3 hearing loss, one with unilateral hearing loss in neurofibromatosis type 2 with bilateral acoustic neuroma, and one with unilateral hearing loss with cochlear nerve deficiency. The second group, with association with vestibulocochlear dysplasias, was comprised of: one patient with moderate bilateral mixed hearing loss in branchio-oto-renal syndrome, one with profound unilateral SNHL with recurrent meningitis, and another with profound bilateral SNHL with congenital hypothyroidism. The presence of an enlarged IAC in children can be found in different clinical and audiological settings with relevancies that can range from life-threatening situations, such as recurrent meningitis, to isolated hearing loss with no other associations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Bond, Bradley J.
Research Findings: Media representations of physical disability can influence the attitudes of child audiences. In the current study, the depiction of physical disability was analyzed in more than 400 episodes of children's television programming to better understand how media depict physical disability to children and, in turn, how exposure may…
Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
Being the parent of a disabled child is not easy, it is experienced as a situation marked by stress, crises and grief. As Vygotsky described eighty years ago, the development of children with disabilities and the culture do not fit as they do for non-disabled children. The development of a child...
Friberg, Emilie; Gustafsson, Klas; Alexanderson, Kristina
Hearing difficulties is a large public health problem, prognosticated to be the ninth leading burden of disease in 2030, and may also involve large consequences for work capacity. However, research regarding sickness absence and disability pension in relation to hearing difficulties is scarce. The aim was to gain knowledge about hearing difficulties or other ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence and disability pension through conducting a systematic literature review of published studies. Studies presenting empirical data on hearing difficulties or ear-related diagnoses and sick leave or disability pension, published in scientific peer-reviewed journals, were included. Studies were sought for in three ways: in literature databases (Pub-Med, Embase, PsycInfo, SSCI, and Cochrane) through March 2011, through scrutinising lists of references, and through contacts. Identified publications were assessed for relevance and data was extracted from the studies deemed relevant. A total of 18 studies were assessed as relevant and included in this review, regardless of scientific quality. Fourteen studies presented empirical data on hearing difficulties/ear diagnoses and sick leave and six on these conditions and disability pension. Only two studies presented rate ratios or odds ratios regarding associations between hearing difficulties and sick leave, and only two on hearing difficulties and risk of disability pension. Both measures of hearing difficulties and of sick leave varied considerable between the studies. Remarkably few studies on hearing difficulties in relation to sickness absence or disability pension were identified. The results presented in them cannot provide evidence for direction or magnitude of potential associations.
Stiles, Derek J; McGregor, Karla K; Bentler, Ruth A
To determine whether children with mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (CHL) present with disturbances in working memory and whether these disturbances relate to the size of their receptive vocabularies. Children 6 to 9 years of age participated. Aspects of working memory were tapped by articulation rate, forward and backward digit span in the auditory and visual modalities, Corsi span, parent surveys, and a sequential encoding task. Articulation rate, digit spans, and Corsi spans were also administered in low-level broadband noise. CHL and children with normal hearing (CNH) demonstrated auditory advantage in forward serial recall. CHL demonstrated slower articulation rates than CNH, but similar memory spans. CHL with poor executive function presented with poorer performance on the Corsi span task. The presence of background noise had no effect on performance in either group. CHL presented with significantly smaller receptive vocabularies than their CNH peers. Across groups, receptive vocabulary size was positively correlated with digit span in quiet, Corsi span in noise, and articulation rate. In the presence of mild-to-moderately severe hearing loss, children demonstrated resilient working memory systems. For all children, working memory and vocabulary were related; that is, children with poorer working memory had smaller vocabulary sizes.
Welch, Graham F; Saunders, Jo; Edwards, Sian; Palmer, Zoe; Himonides, Evangelos; Knight, Julian; Mahon, Merle; Griffin, Susanna; Vickers, Deborah A
This article reports a pilot study of the potential benefits of a sustained programme of singing activities on the musical behaviours and hearing acuity of young children with hearing impairment (HI). Twenty-nine children (n=12 HI and n=17 NH) aged between 5 and 7 years from an inner-city primary school in London participated, following appropriate ethical approval. The predominantly classroom-based programme was designed by colleagues from the UCL Institute of Education and UCL Ear Institute in collaboration with a multi-arts charity Creative Futures and delivered by an experienced early years music specialist weekly across two school terms. There was a particular emphasis on building a repertoire of simple songs with actions and allied vocal exploration. Musical learning was also supported by activities that drew on visual imagery for sound and that included simple notation and physical gesture. An overall impact assessment of the pilot programme embraced pre- and post-intervention measures of pitch discrimination, speech perception in noise and singing competency. Subsequent statistical data analyses suggest that the programme had a positive impact on participant children's singing range, particularly (but not only) for HI children with hearing aids, and also in their singing skills. HI children's pitch perception also improved measurably over time. Findings imply that all children, including those with HI, can benefit from regular and sustained access to age-appropriate musical activities.
The scientific article "Development of memory in preschool children with disabilities in the game" reveals the relevance of the application of the game as the leading activity during the preschool years to optimize the development of the mental process of memory in children with disabilities. Work on the development of children's memory in the form of a game as the most effective form, aimed at attracting the attention of professionals working with preschool children with disabilities, a...
Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Yc; Button, Laura; Seeto, Mark; Zhang, Vicky; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise; Marnane, Vivienne
This study investigated the factors influencing 5-year language, speech and everyday functioning of children with congenital hearing loss. Standardised tests including PLS-4, PPVT-4 and DEAP were directly administered to children. Parent reports on language (CDI) and everyday functioning (PEACH) were collected. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of a range of demographic variables on outcomes. Participants were 339 children enrolled in the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. Children's average receptive and expressive language scores were approximately 1 SD below the mean of typically developing children, and scores on speech production and everyday functioning were more than 1 SD below. Regression models accounted for 70-23% of variance in scores across different tests. Earlier CI switch-on and higher non-verbal ability were associated with better outcomes in most domains. Earlier HA fitting and use of oral communication were associated with better outcomes on directly administered language assessments. Severity of hearing loss and maternal education influenced outcomes of children with HAs. The presence of additional disabilities affected outcomes of children with CIs. The findings provide strong evidence for the benefits of early HA fitting and early CI for improving children's outcomes.
Paatsch, Louise E; Toe, Dianne M
Pragmatic skills are the key to a satisfying and sustained conversation. Such conversation is critical for the development of meaningful friendships. Previous studies have investigated the conversational skills of deaf children while interacting with adults or when interacting with peers in structured referential tasks. There are few published studies that have compared the pragmatic skills of children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) in free conversation with their hearing peers. In this study, the conversational skills of 31 children who are D/HH when interacting with a hearing friend were compared with those of 31 pairs of hearing children. Findings suggest that school-aged children (Years 3-6 of study; aged 8-12 years) who are D/HH have a wide range of pragmatic skills that they use effectively when conversing with their hearing peers. Specifically, these children asked more questions, made more personal comments, initiated more topics, and took longer turns in their conversations with a hearing friend. In contrast, the conversations between hearing peers were very balanced with similar topic initiation, length of turn, numbers of questions, personal comments, and minimal answers. These findings will help teachers to provide support for both pragmatic and social skills in children who are D/HH.
van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W; Treffers, Philip D A
In this study socio-demographic, deafness-related and diagnostic characteristics of hearing impaired children and adolescents referred to a national mental health service for deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents were examined. Socio-demographic and diagnostic characteristics were compared to corresponding characteristics of hearing referred peers with identified mental health problems. The difference in characteristics between them and hearing referred peers with identified mental health problems was analyzed. A total of 389 deaf and hard of hearing and 3361 hearing children and adolescents was extracted from a database, all first referrals of patients of a center for child and adolescent psychiatry over a 15-year period. With deaf and hard of hearing patients we found higher rates of environmental stress, as indicated by conditions such as more one parent families (38.6% versus 25.8%), and more parents with a low educational level (44.2% versus 31.1%). Moreover, deaf and hard of hearing patients were older at their first referral (10.8 versus 9.4 years) and had higher rates of pervasive developmental disorders (23.7% versus 12.3%) and mental retardation (20.3% versus 3.9%). Within the target group of deaf and hard of hearing patients, most patients were deaf (68.9%; 22.3% was severely hard of hearing), relatively few (13.7%) had a non-syndromal hereditary hearing impairment, and more (21.3%) had a disabling physical health condition, especially those with a pervasive developmental disorder (42.6%). These findings illustrate both the complexity of the problems of deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents referred to specialist mental health services, and the need for preventive interventions aimed at early recognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lewis, Dawna E; Smith, Nicholas A; Spalding, Jody L; Valente, Daniel L
Visual information from talkers facilitates speech intelligibility for listeners when audibility is challenged by environmental noise and hearing loss. Less is known about how listeners actively process and attend to visual information from different talkers in complex multi-talker environments. This study tracked looking behavior in children with normal hearing (NH), mild bilateral hearing loss (MBHL), and unilateral hearing loss (UHL) in a complex multi-talker environment to examine the extent to which children look at talkers and whether looking patterns relate to performance on a speech-understanding task. It was hypothesized that performance would decrease as perceptual complexity increased and that children with hearing loss would perform more poorly than their peers with NH. Children with MBHL or UHL were expected to demonstrate greater attention to individual talkers during multi-talker exchanges, indicating that they were more likely to attempt to use visual information from talkers to assist in speech understanding in adverse acoustics. It also was of interest to examine whether MBHL, versus UHL, would differentially affect performance and looking behavior. Eighteen children with NH, eight children with MBHL, and 10 children with UHL participated (8-12 years). They followed audiovisual instructions for placing objects on a mat under three conditions: a single talker providing instructions via a video monitor, four possible talkers alternately providing instructions on separate monitors in front of the listener, and the same four talkers providing both target and nontarget information. Multi-talker background noise was presented at a 5 dB signal-to-noise ratio during testing. An eye tracker monitored looking behavior while children performed the experimental task. Behavioral task performance was higher for children with NH than for either group of children with hearing loss. There were no differences in performance between children with UHL and children
Hoffman, Michael F.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette
This study compared levels of social competence and language development in 74 young children with hearing loss and 38 hearing peers aged 2.5-5.3 years. This study was the first to examine the relationship between oral language and social competence using a dynamic systems framework in children with and without hearing loss. We hypothesized that,…
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Grandpierre, Viviane; Durieux-Smith, Andrée; Gaboury, Isabelle; Coyle, Doug; Na, Eunjung; Sallam, Nusaiba
Children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss are now commonly identified early through newborn hearing screening initiatives. There remains considerable uncertainty about how to support parents and about which services to provide for children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss. The goal of this study was to learn about…
Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit
Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…
Moeller, Mary Pat; Tomblin, J Bruce
The landscape of service provision for young children with hearing loss has shifted in recent years as a result of newborn hearing screening and the early provision of interventions, including hearing technologies. It is expected that early service provision will minimize or prevent linguistic delays that typically accompany untreated permanent childhood hearing loss. The post-newborn hearing screening era has seen a resurgence of interest in empirically examining the outcomes of children with hearing loss to determine if service innovations have resulted in expected improvements in children's functioning. The Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss (OCHL) project was among these recent research efforts, and this introductory article provides background in the form of literature review and theoretical discussion to support the goals of the study. The Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss project was designed to examine the language and auditory outcomes of infants and preschool-age children with permanent, bilateral, mild-to-severe hearing loss, and to identify factors that moderate the relationship between hearing loss and longitudinal outcomes. The authors propose that children who are hard of hearing experience limitations in access to linguistic input, which lead to a decrease in uptake of language exposure and an overall reduction in linguistic experience. The authors explore this hypothesis in relation to three primary factors that are proposed to influence children's access to linguistic input: aided audibility, duration and consistency of hearing aid use, and characteristics of caregiver input.
Koravand, Amineh; Al Osman, Rida; Rivest, Véronique; Poulin, Catherine
The main objective of the present study was to investigate subcortical auditory processing in children with sensorineural hearing loss. Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABRs) were recorded using click and speech/da/stimuli. Twenty-five children, aged 6-14 years old, participated in the study: 13 with normal hearing acuity and 12 with sensorineural hearing loss. No significant differences were observed for the click-evoked ABRs between normal hearing and hearing-impaired groups. For the speech-evoked ABRs, no significant differences were found for the latencies of the following responses between the two groups: onset (V and A), transition (C), one of the steady-state wave (F), and offset (O). However, the latency of the steady-state waves (D and E) was significantly longer for the hearing-impaired compared to the normal hearing group. Furthermore, the amplitude of the offset wave O and of the envelope frequency response (EFR) of the speech-evoked ABRs was significantly larger for the hearing-impaired compared to the normal hearing group. Results obtained from the speech-evoked ABRs suggest that children with a mild to moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss have a specific pattern of subcortical auditory processing. Our results show differences for the speech-evoked ABRs in normal hearing children compared to hearing-impaired children. These results add to the body of the literature on how children with hearing loss process speech at the brainstem level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction. Approaching of patients with general and, mainly, auditive disabilities requires specific methods of behavioural and therapeutical management, on short-, medium- and long-term period. Scope. Quantification of the psycho-emotional reactions of childern suffering from auditive disabilities in the stomatological office, compara‑ tively with those with normal keenness of hearing. Mate‑ rials and method. The experiments were performed on a group of 207 children, with the limit of chronological age between 6 - 11 years, 120 of them registered with auditive disabilities and 87 – with normal keeness of hearing. The Raven Test of Progressive Matrices and the questionnaire were employed as investigation methods. Results. The mean age of the subjects considered in the study was of 9 years, with a standard deviation of 1.4. A statistically sig‑ nificant association was established between the moment of their addressing the stomatologist and the presence of the auditive-type disability (r=0.87, p=0.00321, 95%CI. Most of the children (69% with normal keenness of hea‑ ring come to the stomatological office alone, only rarely being accompanied by friends or parents, whereas those with sensorial auditive disabilities are usually accompa‑ nied by parents, professors or educators (67.5%. Discus‑ sion. Explanations on the stomatological treatment to be applied, details on its stages may prepare an adequate reaction from the part of the child-patient. The statistically significant differences observed, as a function of their audi‑ tive disabilities, among the accompanied children may be explained exactly by this situation, causing in itself a higher dependence and need of support from the part of the others, especially for exceeding the barriers that may prevent a normal communication. Conclusions. An adequate approaching of the child – affected or not with auditive disabilities – may model his attitudes and beha‑ viour during the
Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.
Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…
Lieberman, Lauren J.; Volding, Lori; Winnick, Joseph P.
Deaf children of Deaf parents perform better academically (Ritter-Brinton & Stewart, 1992), linguistically (Courtin, 2000; M. Harris, 2001; Vaccari & Marschark, 1997), and socially (Hadadian & Rose, 1991; M. Harris, 2001) than Deaf children of hearing parents. Twenty-nine Deaf children in residential schools were assessed to determine if a…
Ahmad, Aznan Che; Brown, P. Margaret
This study investigated how the type and duration of early intervention (EI) experience impacts hearing parents' views of the importance of different types of facilitative communication strategies when interacting with their children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Sixteen mothers were involved in the study. Respondents were allocated to…
Lous, J; Burton, M J; Felding, J U; Ovesen, T; Rovers, M M; Williamson, I
. Potentially adverse effects on the tympanic membrane are common after grommet insertion. Therefore an initial period of watchful waiting seems to be an appropriate management strategy for most children with OME. As no evidence is yet available for the subgroups of children with speech or language delays, behavioural and learning problems or children with defined clinical syndromes (generally excluded from the primary studies included in this review), the clinician will need to make decisions regarding treatment for such children based on other evidence and indications of disability related to hearing impairment. This review does not resolve the discrepancy between parental and clinical observation of a beneficial treatment effect and the results in the reviewed RCT showing only a short-term effect on hearing and virtually no effect on development. Is the perceived, often dramatic, effect of grommets only a short-term one? Are some children more sensitive to OME-related hearing loss than others? If so, how do we identify them?Further research should focus upon indications. Studies should use sufficiently large sample sizes to show significant interactions. There is a need to determine the most suitable variables and appropriate "softer" outcomes to be the subject of these interaction tests. Interesting options include measures of speech-in-noise and binaural hearing. The generally modest results in the trials which are included in this review should make it easier to justify randomisation of more severely affected and higher-risk children in appropriately constructed trials. Randomised controlled trials are necessary in these children before more detailed conclusions about the effectiveness of grommets can be drawn.
Gan, Richard Wei Chern; Overton, Parisa; Benton, Claire; Daniel, Matija
ENT surgeons may refer children with otitis media with effusion (OME) to audiology for consideration of hearing aids. They are an option for the treatment of OME, but are only effective if the child actually wears them. Our study investigated what proportion of children referred for hearing aids actually receive them, and whether children use them. Retrospective study of children referred to audiology from November 2013 to August 2014, including 70 children referred by ENT for hearing aids for OME, plus a further 5 children with OME given hearing aids through direct access audiology service. During the study period, there were 202 referrals of children to audiology, of which 70 (34.7%) were for consideration of hearing aids for OME. Of these 70 referred children, 37 (52.9%) were not fitted with hearing aids due to normal audiometry (23), asymptomatic mild hearing loss (7), nonattendance (3), clinical decision to just monitor hearing (1), parental decline (2), and unrecorded reason (1). A total of 38 children (including direct access patients) were fitted with hearing aids for OME. Majority (36/38) of children issued aids used them, 16 all day, 7 only at school, 1 only at home, 3 only when needed, and 9 used them for an unspecified duration; 1 child's use of hearing aids was unrecorded, and 1 child refused to use it. 21 were fitted bilaterally and 17 unilaterally. 37 were behind the ear aids and 1 a BAHA softband. A third of referrals to paediatric audiology by ENT are for consideration of hearing aids for OME. Only about half of children referred to audiology for hearing aids for OME actually receive them, as by the time they see audiology the hearing loss has frequently resolved or is asymptomatic so that aiding is unwarranted. Once fitted, they appear to be well accepted. Hearing aids have fair utilization in children fitted with them for OME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Lisa K.; And Others
Past research has demonstrated a relationship between children's physical attractiveness and their self-esteem. Other research has found that learning disabled children are at risk for having low self-esteem. This study examined the relationship between self-esteem and facial attractiveness in learning disabled children. Subjects were 20 diagnosed…
Dr. Santhi S Prakash
Full Text Available Purpose: Inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classrooms has become the focus of extensive research in education. It has both academic and social benefits for all students, such as providing opportunities for communication and social interaction. The evaluation of teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion appears to be a good method to determine the success of the programme. Although this has been widely researched in many countries, the available evidence is not consistent. This study was undertaken in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India, to measure and compare teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with hearing impairment in schools.Method: A questionnaire developed by Giles and Tanner (1995 measuring three domains - (1 effective strategies for meeting the needs of all students, (2 the support for educational change in their district, and (3 inclusive education - was modified in keeping with cultural and geographical variations and used as the test tool. A hundred teachers of various Government and non-Government schools in 2 districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, participated in the study.Results: Higher scores on domain 1 indicate that teachers feel effective strategies to benefit students with disabilities should be implemented in schools. The results also indicate that most teachers are agreeable to the inclusion of students with disabilities in their classrooms. Significant difference in attitudes was observed, based on the teachers’ qualifications, teaching experience, gender, level of teaching and management.Conclusion: The study concludes that there is a need for intervention to foster more positive attitudes among teachers, if the implementation of inclusive education is to succeed. It also has implications for the framing of laws and policies for children with hearing impairments.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.117
Dasteh Goli N.*BSc
Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases. Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review. Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community. Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.
Antonopoulou, Katerina; Hadjikakou, Kika; Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Nicolaou, Nicoletta
The present study aims to determine whether rearing a deaf or hard-of-hearing (d/hh) child would differentiate the parenting and disciplinary preference of parents between the d/hh and the hearing child. The parenting styles of 30 hearing mothers from Cyprus were assessed using the Greek version of the Parenting Styles & Dimensions Questionnaire. Additionally, mothers rated sibling interactions using the sibling inventory of behavior. The results indicated that the dominant parenting style for both the hearing and the d/hh children among the participating mothers was the authoritative type and the least prevalent parental types were the permissive and the strict. Moreover, mothers' perceptions of sibling relationship were found to be a significant factor in predicting mothers' reported parenting styles in this sample. The contribution of the present findings to our knowledge of the parenting characteristics and practices of families who have a d/hh child along with their possible implications for child and family services are discussed.
Gordon, Karen A; Cushing, Sharon L; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Polonenko, Melissa J; Papsin, Blake C
Access to bilateral hearing can be provided to children with hearing loss by fitting appropriate hearing devices to each affected ear. It is not clear, however, that bilateral input is properly integrated through hearing devices to promote binaural hearing. In the present review, we examine evidence indicating that abnormal binaural hearing continues to be a challenge for children with hearing loss despite early access to bilateral input. Behavioral responses and electrophysiological data in children, combined with data from developing animal models, reveal that deafness in early life disrupts binaural hearing and that present hearing devices are unable to reverse these changes and/or promote expected development. Possible limitations of hearing devices include mismatches in binaural place, level, and timing of stimulation. Such mismatches could be common in children with hearing loss. One potential solution is to modify present device fitting beyond providing audibility to each ear by implementing binaural fitting targets. Efforts to better integrate bilateral input could improve spatial hearing in children with hearing loss.
A case study documents the consequences of parental deafness on the personality development of hearing children. Of central dynamic significance are unacknowledged feelings of resentment generated by (1) acute feelings of humiliation experienced about the parents' imperfections, (2) identity confusion resulting from the parents' suspicious attitude toward the hearing world, and (3) the inevitable role-reversal resulting from the parents' handicapped status. The possibility of taking triumphant pleasure in more fortunate life circumstances evokes intense guilt and forms the basis for a conflictual attitude toward success. A proclivity toward guilt appears to be an outstanding psychological characteristic of children of handicapped parents, irrespective of the nature of the handicap. Some relevant variables include: greater resentment due to unavoidable early frustrations, a reluctance to direct aggression outward, despair about making reparations to parents seen as damaged by the child's aggression, and absence of external controls on the expression hostility (victories are easy). Some parallels are noted between conflicts displayed in hearing children of deaf parents and children of immigrant parents.
Full Text Available Hearing age is defined as a period of using any amplification. Most researches indicate that hearing age influences the developmental rate of auditory and speech-language abilities in deaf children, especially when cochlear implantation was performed before the age of three. This research is aimed at analyzing the influence of hearing age on understanding verbal instructions in children with cochlear implants. The sample consists of 23 children with cochlear implants and 21 children with normal hearing, aged between 4 and 10. Hearing age of children with cochlear implants was between 2 and 7 years. Token Test with toys, adapted for children with hearing impairments, was used to analyze understanding verbal instructions. The results indicate that there are statistically significant differences between children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing, aged between 4 and 7, on all subtests and the total score regardless of the hearing age (sub1 p<0.001, sub2 p<0.000, sub3 p<0.001, total score p<0.000. No statistically significant differences were determined on any of the subtests in children aged between 7.1 and 10, regardless of the hearing age. Comparative results analysis within the experimental group of children with different hearing age indicates that the difference in understanding verbal instructions between these two groups is not statistically significant.
The maltreatment of children with disabilities is a serious public health issue. Children with disabilities are 3 to 4 times more likely to be abused or neglected than are their typically developing peers. When maltreated, they are more likely to be seriously injured or harmed. As alarming as these numbers are, they likely underestimate the problem. Children with disabilities encounter all 4 types of abuse: physical, sexual, neglect, and emotional. Here, the author discusses risk factors associated with the maltreatment of children with disabilities, which, as expected, include both child and family factors.
Daub, Olivia; Bagatto, Marlene P; Johnson, Andrew M; Cardy, Janis Oram
Early auditory experiences are fundamental in infant language acquisition. Research consistently demonstrates the benefits of early intervention (i.e., hearing aids) to language outcomes in children who are deaf and hard of hearing. The nature of these benefits and their relation with prefitting development are, however, not well understood. This study examined Ontario Infant Hearing Program birth cohorts to explore predictors of performance on the Preschool Language Scale-Fourth Edition at the time of (N = 47) and after (N = 19) initial hearing aid intervention. Regression analyses revealed that, before the hearing aid fitting, severity of hearing loss negatively predicted 19% and 10% of the variance in auditory comprehension and expressive communication, respectively. After hearing aid fitting, children's standard scores on language measures remained stable, but they made significant improvement in their progress values, which represent individual skills acquired on the test, rather than standing relative to same-age peers. Magnitude of change in progress values was predicted by a negative interaction of prefitting language ability and severity of hearing loss for the Auditory Comprehension scale. These findings highlight the importance of considering a child's prefitting language ability in interpreting eventual language outcomes. Possible mechanisms of hearing aid benefit are discussed. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5538868.
... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.512 Hearing rights. (a... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing rights. 300.512 Section 300.512 Education...
Walker, Elizabeth A; Holte, Lenore; McCreery, Ryan W; Spratford, Meredith; Page, Thomas; Moeller, Mary Pat
This study examined the effects of consistent hearing aid (HA) use on outcomes in children with mild hearing loss (HL). Five- or 7-year-old children with mild HL were separated into 3 groups on the basis of patterns of daily HA use. Using analyses of variance, we compared outcomes between groups on speech and language tests and a speech perception in noise task. Regression models were used to investigate the influence of cumulative auditory experience (audibility, early intervention, HA use) on outcomes. Full-time HA users demonstrated significantly higher scores on vocabulary and grammar measures compared with nonusers. There were no significant differences between the 3 groups on articulation or speech perception measures. After controlling for the variance in age at confirmation of HL, level of audibility, and enrollment in early intervention, only amount of daily HA use was a significant predictor of grammar and vocabulary. The current results provide evidence that children's language development benefits from consistent HA use. Nonusers are at risk in areas such as vocabulary and grammar compared with other children with mild HL who wear HAs regularly. Service providers should work collaboratively to encourage consistent HA use.
Full Text Available The present study examined differences in modality use during episodes of joint attention between hearing parent-hearing child dyads and hearing parent-deaf child dyads. Hearing children were age-matched to deaf children. Dyads were video recorded in a free play session with analyses focused on uni- and multimodality use during joint attention episodes. Results revealed that adults in hearing parent-deaf child dyads spent a significantly greater proportion of time interacting with their children using multiple communicative modalities than adults in hearing parent-hearing child dyads, who tended to use the auditory modality (e.g., oral language most often. While these findings demonstrate that hearing parents accommodate their children's hearing status, we observed greater overall time spent in joint attention in hearing parent-hearing child dyads than hearing parent-deaf child dyads. Our results point to important avenues for future research on how parents can better accommodate their child’s hearing status through the use of multimodal communication strategies.
Ehlers, Erica; Kan, Alan; Winn, Matthew B; Stoelb, Corey; Litovsky, Ruth Y
Children who use bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) show significantly poorer sound localization skills than their normal hearing (NH) peers. This difference has been attributed, in part, to the fact that cochlear implants (CIs) do not faithfully transmit interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs), which are known to be important cues for sound localization. Interestingly, little is known about binaural sensitivity in NH children, in particular, with stimuli that constrain acoustic cues in a manner representative of CI processing. In order to better understand and evaluate binaural hearing in children with BiCIs, the authors first undertook a study on binaural sensitivity in NH children ages 8-10, and in adults. Experiments evaluated sound discrimination and lateralization using ITD and ILD cues, for stimuli with robust envelope cues, but poor representation of temporal fine structure. Stimuli were spondaic words, Gaussian-enveloped tone pulse trains (100 pulse-per-second), and transposed tones. Results showed that discrimination thresholds in children were adult-like (15-389 μs for ITDs and 0.5-6.0 dB for ILDs). However, lateralization based on the same binaural cues showed higher variability than seen in adults. Results are discussed in the context of factors that may be responsible for poor representation of binaural cues in bilaterally implanted children.
Jnaneswar, Avinash; Subramaniya, Goutham Bala; Pathi, Jayashree; Jha, Kunal; Suresan, Vinay; Kumar, Gunjan
Over 5% of the world's population has disabling hearing loss. The oral health of the disabled may be disused for the reason of the disabling condition, a challenging disease or the limited access to oral health care. The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal status of institutionalized hearing impaired (HI) children in Khordha district of Odisha. A descriptive cross-sectional study on the HI children was conducted in Khordha district, Odisha. Type III examination procedure was conducted to assess the oral health status of the children. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square test and Student's t-test, and the significance level was fixed at P caries prevalence was 19.3%. Statistically highly significant difference was found for mean decayed teeth (DT), missing teeth decayed, missing filled teeth (FT) (P dental services as well as dental health education is necessary to ensure the optimum dental health within the reach of these less fortunate children.
Full Text Available Objective: to establish the prevalence institutional alterations in hearing and languaje in children aged 4 and 5 years, attending the Growth and Development program at the Social Institution of Popayan in 2012. Methodology: We performed a cross-sectional study in sample of 96 children who attended four points ESE Care Popayan, during the months of december 2011 and January 2012. Were evaluated by Fonoaudiología, who applied the Reynell test to assess languaje and tone audiometry and otoacoustic emissions to assess hearing. Results: the mean age of the population was 59.34 months, while 50% was made up of men. The 78.1% had alterations in expressive language and 41.7% in language understanding, 29.2% showed changes of left ear as otoacoustic emissions and according to tone audiometry, high frequency of right are the most affected. Conclusions: the high prevalence of alterations in speech and hearing in children found to initiate processes that are more complex as the acquisition of reading and writing, could trigger negative consequences such as poor school performance and even dropouts.
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (NJ1), 2011
Parents are often worried when their child has learning problems in school. There are many reasons for school failure, but a common one is a specific learning disability. Children with learning disabilities can have intelligence in the normal range but the specific learning disability may make teachers and parents concerned about their general…
Wingerden-Fontein, E.G. van; Segers, P.C.J.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
Background Knowledge about predictors for reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is still fragmented. Aims This study compared reading comprehension, word decoding, listening comprehension, and reading related linguistic and cognitive precursor measures in children
Andersen, Richard D.
The nature of chronic infections in developmentally disabled children is reviewed, along with appropriate management strategies for care providers and implications for other children. Discussed are herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. (Author/JDD)
Ronoh, Steve; Gaillard, J. C.; Marlowe, Jay
Every year, worldwide, disasters affect approximately seven million children with disabilities, highlighting their potential vulnerability. Although there is a growing move internationally to promote the rights of children with disabilities, they still receive little attention from disaster risk reduction (DRR) researchers and policy makers. They…
Hatamizadeh, N; Ghasemi, M; Saeedi, A; Kazemnejad, A
Although educational main streaming of children with special needs formally began in Iran since 1992 there is little information whether hearing impaired children feel competent in regular schools. To determine the perceived competence and school adjustment of hearing impaired children in mainstream primary school settings, the self-perception profile was administered to 60 mainstreamed hard of hearing children and 60 classmates with normal hearing matched for gender by a single interviewer. The instrument comprised 28 items, 23 of which were similar to those of 'adapted test Image for children with cochlear implants' asking children about their feelings about their own cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and communication competence and school adjustment. The Cronbach alpha coefficient for the instrument was 0.93. Hard of hearing children rated their competence significantly poorer than their hearing classmates for all domains. Mean differences for the five domains ranged from 0.48 (for physical competence) to 0.90 (for school adjustment) on a scale of 1-4. There were no significant differences between girls' and boys' competence, in either the hearing or the hearing impaired groups. Classifying overall scores for perceived competence into four groups ('poor competence', 'low competence', 'moderate competence' and 'high competence'), 23.4% of hearing impaired children but none of the hearing classmates rated themselves as having low or poor competence. On the other hand 85% of hearing children and only 18.3% of hearing impaired children rated themselves as highly competent. We suggest that periodical assessments of mainstreamed children might help to identify those children who are having difficulty adapting to their environment.
Levrez, Clovis; Bourdin, Beatrice; Le Driant, Barbara; Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Vandromme, Luc
Even when they have good language skills, many children with hearing loss lag several years behind hearing children in the ability to grasp beliefs of others. The researchers sought to determine whether this lag results from difficulty with the verbal demands of tasks or from conceptual delays. The researchers related children's performance on a…
DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.
Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…
Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y. C.
Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their…
This study evaluated school functioning of a sample of children with hearing impairments who were mainstreamed in regular educational settings. Participants comprised 47 children aged 7;2 to 9;3 years with various degrees and types of hearing loss. Teachers evaluated the children using the Hebrew version of the Screening Instrument For Targeting…
Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the
Natalie Ann Flickner
Full Text Available Children with Disabilities are one of the groups of children most in need globally. The author uses her personal story of growing up as a child with mild cerebral palsy to express her solidarity and highlight the multiple needs of children with disabilities around the world. These children should no longer be stigmatized by the world wide church but instead be embraced and ministered to in the name of Jesus.
Hoog, Brigitte E.; Langereis, Margreet C.; Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo
Background: The spoken language difficulties of children with moderate or severe to profound hearing loss are mainly related to limited auditory speech perception. However, degraded or filtered auditory input as evidenced in children with cochlear implants (CIs) may result in less efficient or slower language processing as well. To provide insight…
Bess, Fred H.; Hornsby, Benjamin W.Y.
Anecdotal reports of fatigue after sustained speech-processing demands are common among adults with hearing loss; however, systematic research examining hearing loss-related fatigue is limited, particularly with regard to fatigue among children with hearing loss (CHL). Many audiologists, educators, and parents have long suspected that CHL…
Morrison, Helen Mccaffrey
Locus equations derived from productions by three children with hearing loss revealed sensory and motor influences on anticipatory coarticulation. Participants who received auditory access to speech via hearing aids and cochlear implants at different ages (5-39 months) were recorded at approximately 6 and 12 months after hearing technology…
Ertmer, David J.
Background: Newborn hearing screening, early intervention programs, and advancements in cochlear implant and hearing aid technology have greatly increased opportunities for children with hearing loss to become intelligible talkers. Optimizing speech intelligibility requires that progress be monitored closely. Although direct assessment of…
The purpose of this study was to assess an intervention program on the fundamental movement skill of students with and without hearing impairment, using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) standardized Turkish norm. Preschool children with and without hearing impairment participated in this study. At the beginning of the study, most of the children with hearing impairment demonstrated developmental delay on the Locomotor subscale (6/7), as did about one-third (4/11) of the children without hearing impairment. For the Object control subscale, 4/7 of children with hearing impairment and none without hearing impairment showed developmental delay prior to the intervention program. After the intervention program, 3/7 children with hearing impairment had developmental delay on the Locomotor subscale. On the Object control subscale, 2/7 children with hearing impairment and none without hearing impairment showed developmental delay. The six-week intervention program improved TGMD-2 scores of children with hearing impairment, yet did not yield statistically significant improvement of fundamental movement skills.
This study examined the unanticipated effects that children with learning disabilities have on the life of their families. Eleven parents of students aged 8 to 16 years old participated in two separate focus group interviews. Findings showed that children with learning disabilities had a range of effects on their families. These included family…
Parenting children with disabilities means coming to terms with feelings of loss and grief and balancing these with hope and resilience. Drawing from personal experiences as a parent with two disabled children, the author refers to elements of Schlossberg's model of transition, Herman's writings about trauma and recovery, and elements of…
Siebert, Erin A.; Hamm, Jessica; Yun, Joonkoo
The purpose of this study was to identify parental influences on physical activity behaviours of children with disabilities. One hundred and forty-eight parents of children with disabilities responded to a survey about factors related to parent and child physical activity, parental support and belief in their child's abilities regarding physical…
Yagmurlu, Bilge; Yavuz, H. Melis
The aim of the study was to investigate social competence in children with orthopaedic disability and its concurrent relations to child's temperament, health condition, and maternal warmth. Participants were 68 Turkish children (mean = 5.94 years) with chronic orthopaedic disability and their mothers coming from disadvantaged backgrounds. Mother…
Shariatzadeh, Nastaran; Doustmohammadian, Aazam; Neyestani, Tirang Reza; Abtahi, Mitra
Full text: Background and Objective: Malnutrition can potentially prone a disabled child to further morbidities thus imposing further suffering to the affected child and his/her family. There for, periodically assess the nutritional status of children with disabilities to perform the appropriate nutritional care needs of this vulnerable group. This is the first report on the prevalence of malnutrition and nutritional status of physically disabled children from Iran. Present study investigates prevalence of malnutrition and nutritional status in Iranian children with physical disabled. Materials and Methods: A total of 290 physically disabled children aged 6- 12 years old, of both sexes, and from all specialized schools in Tehran (Iran’s capital), Meshed and Rasht (two major cities in North and East of Iran) were enrolled in a descriptive cross sectional study. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all subjects. In those disabled children whose heights could not be measured directly, height was estimated using Arm Length (AL) and Tibia Length (TL). Percent of low weight, thinness and short stature was determined in disabled children using CDC standards and Z- score. Dietary assessment was performed using 24hr and food-frequency questionnaires. Results: The result based on Z score of weight showed that 49.5% and 40.1% of disabled girls and boys were underweight respectively. Only 11.2% of disabled girls’ weights were between 3 and 95 percentiles and none of them were above percentile 95. However 2% of disabled boys’ weights were above 95 percentile. Comparison with anthropometric data from other studies showed that low weight was more prevalent in disabled than in non- disabled children (p<0.001). Moreover, both disabled boys and girls had significantly shorter statures than their non disabled counterparts. In disabled children, while the mean energy intake was more than 90% of the amount required, mean calcium and iron
Ramzan, N.; Minhas, K.
Objectives: To find the prevalence of anxiety and depression in mothers of disabled and non-disabled children and to find the association of anxiety and depression with demographic characteristics in district Sheikhupura. Method: A cross sectional comparative study was conducted to find differences in the level of anxiety and depression in both groups of mothers i.e. among mothers of disabled and non-disabled children. A convenient sampling technique was used to select 340 mothers belonging to both groups (n = 170 in each group). Urdu version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess anxiety and depression in mothers. Data was analyzed using ANCOVA (SPSS version 17). Results: The Results of ANCOV A revealed statistically significant differences (p < .001) in the level of anxiety and depression in both groups of mothers. Majority of mothers (78%) belonging to children with disability had anxiety. Only 52% mothers belonging to non-disabled children had anxiety. Similarly, as compared to 46% mothers of non-disabled children, 76% mothers belonging to children with disability had depression. Correlation analysis revealed a significantly positive relationship of anxiety and depression with mothers' age (p < .05) and statistically significant inverse relationship with disabled child's age, mothers educational (p < .0 I) ana family income status. Conclusion: As the disabled child advances in age, mother better understands the demands of raising a disabled child and thus can cope with these demands affectively and with lesser anxiety. Implications of the study would assist psychologists in devising techniques for reducing level of anxiety and depression in mothers of disabled children. (author)
Samuel W Logan
Full Text Available Background: Social mobility is defined as the co-occurrence of self-directed locomotion and direct peer interaction. Social mobility is a product of dynamic child-environment interactions and thus likely to vary across contexts (e.g., classroom, gymnasium and playground. Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in children’s social mobility (1 across contexts by age, and (2 between non-disabled and disabled children. Method: Participants (n = 55 non-disabled and 3 disabled children; Mage = 3.1 years, SD = 1.4 were video-recorded within a university-based early learning center. Children were recorded for 20 minutes in each context: classroom, gymnasium, and playground. A 15-second momentary time sampling method was used to code social mobility, the simultaneous occurrence of self-directed locomotion and direct peer interaction. This variable was calculated as percent time within each context. Results: A planned Friedman’s rank ANOVA (n = 55, stratified by age, indicated that older children (3-5 years old differed across contexts in their social mobility (χ2 (2 ~ 7.3 – 10.5, p < 0.025, whereas younger children (1-2 years old were similar across contexts. Social mobility was significantly lower in the classroom compared to the playground and gymnasium (with no difference between the latter contexts for older children. Visual analysis confirmed that disabled children (n = 3 engaged in substantially less time in social mobility (average 0% - 1%, compared to non-disabled, age-similar peers (2-3 year olds average 1% -12% across all contexts. Conclusion: A substantial gap exists between non-disabled and disabled children for social mobility. There is an increase in magnitude and variability of social mobility around age 3 that suggests the gap between non-disabled and disabled children will continue to widen.
Cheung, Karen K L; Lau, Ada H Y; Lam, Joffee H S; Lee, Kathy Y S
This study investigated the Cantonese tone production ability of children with hearing impairment studying in mainstream schools. The participants were 87 Cantonese-speaking children with mild-to-profound degrees of hearing loss aged 5.92-13.58 in Hong Kong. Most of the children were fitted with hearing aids (n = 65); 17 of them had profound hearing impairment, one who had severe hearing loss had cochlear implantation, and four who had mild hearing loss were without any hearing device. The Hong Kong Cantonese Articulation Test was administered, and the tones produced were rated by two of the authors and a speech-language pathologist. Group effects of tones, hearing loss level, and also an interaction of the two were found to be significant. The children with profound hearing impairment performed significantly worse than most of the other children. Tone 1 was produced most accurately, whereas tone 6 productions were the poorest. No relationship was found between the number of years of mainstreaming and tone production ability. Tone production error pattern revealed that confusion patterns in tone perception coincided with those in production. Tones having a similar fundamental frequency (F0) at the onset also posed difficulty in tone production for children with hearing impairment.
Cai, Ting; McPherson, Bradley; Li, Caiwei; Yang, Feng
Conductive hearing loss simulations have attempted to estimate the speech-understanding difficulties of children with otitis media with effusion (OME). However, the validity of this approach has not been evaluated. The research aim of the present study was to investigate whether a simple, frequency-specific, attenuation-based simulation of OME-related hearing loss was able to reflect the actual effects of conductive hearing loss on speech perception. Forty-one school-age children with OME-related hearing loss were recruited. Each child with OME was matched with a same sex and age counterpart with normal hearing to make a participant pair. Pure-tone threshold differences at octave frequencies from 125 to 8000 Hz for every participant pair were used as the simulation attenuation levels for the normal-hearing children. Another group of 41 school-age otologically normal children were recruited as a control group without actual or simulated hearing loss. The Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test was utilized, and sentence recall accuracy at four signal to noise ratios (SNR) considered representative of classroom-listening conditions were derived, as well as reception thresholds for sentences (RTS) in quiet and in noise using adaptive protocols. The speech perception in quiet and in noise of children with simulated OME-related hearing loss was significantly poorer than that of otologically normal children. Analysis showed that RTS in quiet of children with OME-related hearing loss and of children with simulated OME-related hearing loss was significantly correlated and comparable. A repeated-measures analysis suggested that sentence recall accuracy obtained at 5-dB SNR, 0-dB SNR, and -5-dB SNR was similar between children with actual and simulated OME-related hearing loss. However, RTS in noise in children with OME was significantly better than that for children with simulated OME-related hearing loss. The present frequency-specific, attenuation-based simulation method reflected
Kalathottukaren, Rose Thomas; Purdy, Suzanne C; Ballard, Elaine
Auditory development in children with hearing loss, including the perception of prosody, depends on having adequate input from cochlear implants and/or hearing aids. Lack of adequate auditory stimulation can lead to delayed speech and language development. Nevertheless, prosody perception and production in people with hearing loss have received less attention than other aspects of language. The perception of auditory information conveyed through prosody using variations in the pitch, amplitude, and duration of speech is not usually evaluated clinically. This study (1) compared prosody perception and production abilities in children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing; and (2) investigated the effect of age, hearing level, and musicality on prosody perception. Participants were 16 children with hearing loss and 16 typically developing controls matched for age and gender. Fifteen of the children with hearing loss were tested while using amplification (n = 9 hearing aids, n = 6 cochlear implants). Six receptive subtests of the Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C), the Child Paralanguage subtest of Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy 2 (DANVA 2), and Contour and Interval subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) were used. Audio recordings of the children's reading samples were rated using a perceptual prosody rating scale by nine experienced listeners who were blinded to the children's hearing status. Thirty two children, 16 with hearing loss (mean age = 8.71 yr) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children with normal hearing (mean age = 8.87 yr). Assessments were completed in one session lasting 1-2 hours in a quiet room. Test items were presented using a laptop computer through loudspeaker at a comfortable listening level. For children with hearing loss using hearing instruments, all tests were completed with hearing devices set at their everyday listening setting. All PEPS
Sahar Mohammad Esmaeilzadeh
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Grammatical skills development of hearing-impaired children depends on using appropriate educational rehabilitation programs. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of linguistic plays on the grammatical skills in hearing-impaired children with hearing aids.Methods: Ten hearing-impaired children with hearing aids, aged between 5 and 7, were randomly assigned to two groups (5 children in each group. Each treatment group received 12 sessions on linguistic plays. The grammatical skills of these children were evaluated via the TOLD-P: 3 (Persian version; in addition, their level of intelligence was assessed by the Raven test.Results: The difference between the scores of both control and treatment groups revealed a statistically significant difference in grammatical skills (t=7.61, p=0.001 and three subskills of the children who participated in the linguistic plays. These subskills include syntactic understanding (t=3.16, p=0.013, sentence imitation (t=1.71, p=0.006, and morphological completion (t=6.55, p=0.001. In other words, the findings suggest that linguistic plays have a significant impact on the improvement of the aforementioned skills in hearing-impaired children.Conclusion: Results suggest that it would be beneficial to include linguistic plays as part of routine rehabilitation programs as a means of improving the grammatical difficulties of children. After partaking in linguistic plays, children significantly improved their ability to comprehend the meaning of sentences and also to recognize, understand, and use common Persian morphological forms.
Ncube, B. L.; Perry, A.; Weiss, J. A.
Background: Research examining the quality of life (QoL) of children with severe developmental disabilities (SDD) is limited. The present study examines parent perceptions of child QoL in children with SDD compared with typically developing (TD) children and then examines predictors of QoL for the SDD group. Method: Parents of 246 children with…
Full Text Available Ivette Cejas,1 Michael F Hoffman,2 Alexandra L Quittner21Department of Otolaryngology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: The number of children with hearing loss with additional disabilities receiving cochlear implantation has increased dramatically over the past decade. However, little is known about their auditory and speech and language development following implantation. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effects of cochlear implantation on the most common genetic and developmental disorders in children with hearing loss. Benefits of cochlear implantation for children with autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, CHARGE syndrome, cerebral palsy, learning disorders, Usher syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder are reviewed. Our review indicates that children with hearing loss and additional disabilities benefit from cochlear implantation, especially when implanted early. Thus, early interventions seem as important for these children as for deaf children without additional disabilities. Comparisons of outcomes across these disabilities indicate that children with little to no cognitive impairment (eg, Waardenburg sydrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have better outcomes than those with greater deficits in intellectual functioning (eg, autism, CHARGE syndrome. In addition, parents of children with hearing loss and additional disabilities report higher levels of parenting stress and greater child behavior problems than those without comorbid diagnoses. However, these parents are as sensitive when interacting with their children as parents with typically developing children using cochlear implantation. Given these results, it is critical to evaluate these children's developmental milestones to provide early implantation and intervention, appropriately counsel families regarding realistic
Full Text Available Whereas the language development of children with sensorineural hearing impairment (SNHI has repeatedly been shown to differ from that of peers with normal hearing (NH, few studies have used an experimental approach to investigate the consequences on everyday communicative interaction. This mini review gives an overview of a range of studies on children with SNHI and NH exploring intra- and inter-individual cognitive and linguistic systems during communication.Over the last decade, our research group has studied the conversational strategies of Swedish speaking children and adolescents with SNHI and NH using referential communication, an experimental analogue to problem-solving in the classroom. We have established verbal and nonverbal control and validation mechanisms, related to working memory capacity (WMC and phonological short term memory (PSTM. We present main findings and future directions relevant for the field of cognitive hearing science and for the clinical and school-based management of children and adolescents with SNHI.
Monteiro de Sousa AM
Full Text Available Aneliza Maria Monteiro de Sousa,1 Jônatas de França Barros,2 Brígido Martins de Sousa Neto31Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil; 2Department of Physical Education at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 3University Center UNIEURO, Brasilia, Federal District, BrazilPurpose: To describe the behavior of the postural control in children with profound sensorineural hearing loss and compare the results of experimental tests with hearing children aged 7 to 10 years.Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional study where 100 children were divided into experimental and control groups. We used a force platform, AccuSway Plus, where the tests were conducted under the experimental conditions: open base, eyes open (OBEO; open base, eyes closed (OBEC; closed base, eyes open (CBEO; closed base, eyes closed (CBEC. The body sway velocity (V of the center of pressure, the displacement in the anteroposterior direction (COPap and mediolateral (COPml of the center of pressure were the parameters to evaluate the postural control. For statistical analysis we used the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test, with a significance level of 5%.Results: In comparisons of variables between the groups, the experimental group outperformed by at least 75% of the control group values. In terms of global trends, the experimental group shows higher values of body oscillations in all experimental conditions and variables evaluated. Children with hearing loss had poorer balance performance compared to the group of hearing. The inferential analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in the balance between deaf and hearing children in the OBEC experimental condition in relation to the COPml parameter (P = 0.04. There were no statistically significant differences in comparisons between the sexes when the groups were analyzed separately. The prevalence of unknown etiology
Wiefferink, Carin H; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; Frijns, Johan H M
The purpose of the present study was to compare children with a cochlear implant and normal hearing children on aspects of emotion regulation (emotion expression and coping strategies) and social functioning (social competence and externalizing behaviors) and the relation between emotion regulation and social functioning. Participants were 69 children with cochlear implants (CI children) and 67 normal hearing children (NH children) aged 1.5-5 years. Parents answered questionnaires about their children's language skills, social functioning, and emotion regulation. Children also completed simple tasks to measure their emotion regulation abilities. Cochlear implant children had fewer adequate emotion regulation strategies and were less socially competent than normal hearing children. The parents of cochlear implant children did not report fewer externalizing behaviors than those of normal hearing children. While social competence in normal hearing children was strongly related to emotion regulation, cochlear implant children regulated their emotions in ways that were unrelated with social competence. On the other hand, emotion regulation explained externalizing behaviors better in cochlear implant children than in normal hearing children. While better language skills were related to higher social competence in both groups, they were related to fewer externalizing behaviors only in cochlear implant children. Our results indicate that cochlear implant children have less adequate emotion-regulation strategies and less social competence than normal hearing children. Since they received their implants relatively recently, they might eventually catch up with their hearing peers. Longitudinal studies should further explore the development of emotion regulation and social functioning in cochlear implant children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael; Dickson, Hanna; Cantu, Amy; Wickesberg, Jennifer; Gifford, René H.
Background: There is a critical need to understand better speech and language development in bilingual children learning two spoken languages who use cochlear implants (CIs) and hearing aids (HAs). The paucity of knowledge in this area poses a significant barrier to providing maximal communicative outcomes to a growing number of children who have…
Renahan, Navanith; Varma, R Balagopal; Kumaran, Parvathy; Xavier, Arun M
The number of deaf children has dramatically increased in the past few decades. These children present to the pediatric dentist a unique set of challenges mostly pertaining to the establishment of communication with them. There have been very few attempts in the past to break down these challenges and formulate a strategy on how to manage them effectively. This is a case report of a child who was successfully managed using two different modes of communication. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages are mentioned, and a common strategy incorporating the positives of both the methods has been devised. Renahan N, Varma RB, Kumaran P, Xavier AM. Unique Approach to Dental Management of Children with Hearing Impairment. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):107-110.
Banda, Francis M; Powis, Kathleen M; Mokoka, Agnes B; Mmapetla, Moalosi; Westmoreland, Katherine D; David, Thuso; Steenhoff, Andrew P
Objective . To describe and quantify hearing impairment among children referred to the audiology clinic in Princess Marina Hospital, a public referral hospital in Botswana. Methods . In a retrospective case series, we reviewed medical records of children aged 10 years and younger whose hearing was assessed between January 2006 and December 2015 at the audiology clinic of Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Results . Of 622 children, 50% were male, and median age was 6.7 years (interquartile range = 5.0-8.3). Hearing impairment was diagnosed in 32% of clinic attendees, comprising sensorineural (23%), conductive (25%), and mixed (11%) hearing loss, while 41% of children with diagnosed hearing impairment did not have a classification type. Hearing impairment was mild in 22.9%, moderate in 22.4%, severe in 19.4%, profound in 16.9%, and of undocumented severity in 18.4%. Children younger than 5 years were 2.7 times (95% confidence interval = 1.29-5.49; P = .008) more likely to be diagnosed with sensorineural hearing impairment compared with those older than 5 years. By contrast, children older than 5 years were 9.6 times (95% confidence interval = 2.22-41.0; P = .002) more likely to be diagnosed with conductive hearing loss compared with those under 5 years. Conclusion . Hearing impairment was common among children referred to this audiology clinic in Botswana. Of those with hearing impairment, more than a third had moderate or severe deficits, suggesting that referrals for hearing assessments are not occurring early enough. Hearing awareness programs individually tailored to parents, educators, and health care workers are needed. Neonatal and school hearing screening programs would also be beneficial.
de Souza Melo, Renato
Head movements are controlled by the vestibular system. Children with sensorineural hearing loss can present restrictions in ampleness of head movements due to damage in the vestibule-cochlear systems, resulting from injury in the inner ear. To evaluate the ampleness of head movements of children with normal hearing and children with sensorineural hearing loss and compare data between groups. Cross-sectional study that evaluated the ampleness of head movements of 96 students, being 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, of both sexes, with aged between 7 and 18 years old. The performance of ampleness of head movements was analyzed by a manual goniometric evaluation, according the references proposed by Marques. To the statistical analysis we used the t-Student test in case of normality of the data or the Mann-Whitney test when did not applied the suppositions of normality. Hearing loss children showed less mean in ampleness of all movements of head compared to normal hearing children, pointing difference to movements of flexion (p = 0,001), lateral inclination to the right (p = 0,025) and lateral rotation to the left (p = 0,021). Hearing loss children showed reduction in the ampleness of these head movements: flexion, lateral inclination to the right and lateral rotation to the left compared to normal hearing children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goberis, Dianne; Beams, Dinah; Dalpes, Molly; Abrisch, Amanda; Baca, Rosalinda; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine
This article will provide information about the Pragmatics Checklist, which consists of 45 items and is scored as: (1) not present, (2) present but preverbal, (3) present with one to three words, and (4) present with complex language. Information for both children who are deaf or hard of hearing and those with normal hearing are presented. Children who are deaf or hard of hearing are significantly older when demonstrating skill with complex language than their normal hearing peers. In general, even at the age of 7 years, there are several items that are not mastered by 75% of the deaf or hard of hearing children. Additionally, the article will provide some suggestions of strategies that can be considered as a means to facilitate the development of these pragmatic language skills for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Keefe, Douglas H; Sanford, Chris A; Ellison, John C; Fitzpatrick, Denis F; Gorga, Michael P
This study tested the hypothesis that wideband aural absorbance predicts conductive hearing loss (CHL) in children medically classified as having otitis media with effusion. Absorbance was measured in the ear canal over frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz at ambient pressure or as a swept tympanogram. CHL was defined using criterion air-bone gaps of 20, 25, and 30 dB at octaves from 0.25 to 4 kHz. A likelihood-ratio predictor of CHL was constructed across frequency for ambient absorbance, and across frequency and pressure for absorbance tympanometry. Performance was evaluated at individual frequencies and for any frequency at which a CHL was present. Absorbance and conventional 0.226-kHz tympanograms were measured in children of age three to eight years with CHL and with normal hearing. Absorbance was smaller at frequencies above 0.7 kHz in the CHL group than the control group. Based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, wideband absorbance in ambient and tympanometric tests were significantly better predictors of CHL than tympanometric width, the best 0.226-kHz predictor. Accuracies of ambient and tympanometric wideband absorbance did not differ. Absorbance accurately predicted CHL in children and was more accurate than conventional 0.226-kHz tympanometry.
Seyede Zohre Mousavi
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Oral stereognosis is the ability to recognize the objects placed in the mouth; this plays a significant role in speech sounds production. Since the children with hearing loss have articulation disorders, this study aimed to clear the relation of hearing loss degrees and oral stereognosis in 5-year-old children.Methods: In this cross-sectional non-invasive study, 40 children of 5-year-old (30 children with different degrees of hearing loss and 10 normal children were involved. Oral steriognostic test was done for all of them and the Mann-Whitney U was used for statistical analysis.Results: There were significant differences between the mean of oral stereognostic ability between the normal children and the children with severe (p<0.01 or profound hearing loss (p=0.05. There was no significant difference between the mean of oral stereognostic ability among the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss compared with together. Besides, there was no significant difference between the mean of the time of diagnosis among all of hearing loss and normal children.Conclusion: The study shows that the children with moderate, severe and profound hearing loss have inefficient oral stereognosis in comparison with the normal children.
Maes, Leen; De Kegel, Alexandra; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Dhooge, Ingeborg
Vertigo and imbalance are often underestimated in the pediatric population, due to limited communication abilities, atypical symptoms, and relatively quick adaptation and compensation in children. Moreover, examination and interpretation of vestibular tests are very challenging, because of difficulties with cooperation and maintenance of alertness, and because of the sometimes nauseatic reactions. Therefore, it is of great importance for each vestibular laboratory to implement a child-friendly test protocol with age-appropriate normative data. Because of the often masked appearance of vestibular problems in young children, the vestibular organ should be routinely examined in high-risk pediatric groups, such as children with a hearing impairment. Purposes of the present study were (1) to determine age-appropriate normative data for two child-friendly vestibular laboratory techniques (rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential [cVEMP] test) in a group of children without auditory or vestibular complaints, and (2) to examine vestibular function in a group of children presenting with bilateral hearing impairment. Forty-eight typically developing children (mean age 8 years 0 months; range: 4 years 1 month to 12 years 11 months) without any auditory or vestibular complaints as well as 39 children (mean age 7 years 8 months; range: 3 years 8 months to 12 years 10 months) with a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were included in this study. All children underwent three sinusoidal rotations (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 Hz at 50 degrees/s) and bilateral cVEMP testing. No significant age differences were found for the rotatory test, whereas a significant increase of N1 latency and a significant threshold decrease was noticeable for the cVEMP, resulting in age-appropriate normative data. Hearing-impaired children demonstrated significantly lower gain values at the 0.01 Hz rotation and a larger percentage of absent cVEMP responses compared with normal-hearing children
Cawthon, Stephanie W; Caemmerer, Jacqueline M
Parent involvement and parent expectations are important factors in successful academic and career outcomes for students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. Parental roles are particularly important during the transition planning process for students with disabilities. Results are presented from an exploratory study of 56 parents that measured their involvement, perceptions, and expectations during the transition process. Parents positively rated their experiences with the individualized education program (IEP) process and held high expectations for both their child's educational attainment and employment. However, differences in expectations and perceptions emerged among parents whose children had co-occurring disabilities. Future directions for research and practice are discussed, including the implications of the demographics of the study sample and the relationship between parental demographics and parents' expectations for their children.
Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars
Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…
Kyle, Fiona E.; Campbell, Ruth; Mohammed, Tara; Coleman, Mike; MacSweeney, Mairead
Purpose: In this article, the authors describe the development of a new instrument, the Test of Child Speechreading (ToCS), which was specifically designed for use with deaf and hearing children. Speechreading is a skill that is required for deaf children to access the language of the hearing community. ToCS is a deaf-friendly, computer-based test…
Laws, Glynis; Hall, Amanda
Background: Although many children with Down syndrome experience hearing loss, there has been little research to investigate its impact on speech and language development. Studies that have investigated the association give inconsistent results. These have often been based on samples where children with the most severe hearing impairments have…
Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.
Purpose: Children must develop optimal perceptual weighting strategies for processing speech in their first language. Hearing loss can interfere with that development, especially if cochlear implants are required. The three goals of this study were to measure, for children with and without hearing loss: (a) cue weighting for a manner distinction,…
Ugwuanyi, L. T.; Adaka, T. A.
The paper focused on the effect of auditory training on reading comprehension of children with hearing impairment in Enugu State. A total of 33 children with conductive, sensory neural and mixed hearing loss were sampled for the study in the two schools for the Deaf in Enugu State. The design employed for the study was a quasi experiment (pre-test…
Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, Pittsburgh.
This packet contains seven brochures developed during a project on literacy education and parenting skills for deaf parents of young hearing children (DP/HC). The topics of the brochures are as follows: behavior management, self-esteem, speech development in children, language development, nutrition, safety, and deaf parents in a hearing child's…
Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne
The purpose of this research was to investigate factors that influence professionals' guidance of parents of children with hearing loss regarding spoken language multilingualism and spoken language choice. Sixteen professionals who provide services to children and young people with hearing loss completed an online survey, rating the importance of…
Coppens, Karien M.; Tellings, Agnes; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert
Purpose: To address the problem of low reading comprehension scores among children with hearing impairment, it is necessary to have a better understanding of their reading vocabulary. In this study, the authors investigated whether task and word type differentiate the reading vocabulary knowledge of children with and without severe hearing loss.…
Davis, Cheryl; Bullis, Michael
This article summarizes 43 empirical studies of school-to-community transition of hearing-impaired persons with developmental disabilities; discusses data collection and interpretation issues; and recommends future research, development, and evaluation. The studies deal with such areas as career/vocational preparation, independent living skills,…
McShea, Lynzee; Fulton, John; Hayes, Catherine
Background: People with intellectual disabilities are more likely to have hearing loss than the general population. For those unable to self-advocate, the responsibility of detection and management falls to their caregivers. Methods: This is the first cycle of a project using action research methodology to improve services. Twenty care workers…
Percy-Smith, L.; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Gudman, M.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to make a quantitative comparison of parameters of self-esteem and social well-being between children with cochlear implants and normal-hearing children. Material and methods: Data were obtained from 164 children with cochlear implant (CI) and 2169 normal......-hearing children (NH). Parental questionnaires, used in a national survey assessing the self-esteem and well-being of normal-hearing children, were applied to the cochlear implanted group, in order to allow direct comparisons. Results: The children in the CI group rated significantly higher on questions about well...... overall self-esteem or number of friends. The two groups of children scored similarly on being confident, independent, social, not worried and happy. Conclusion: Children with cochlear implant score equal to or better than their normal-hearing peers on matters of self-esteem and social well-being. (C...
Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Martin, Vivienne; Day, Julia; Mahler, Nicole; Youn, Samantha; Street, Laura; Cook, Cassandra; Orsini, Julia
This paper reports language ability and everyday functioning of 133 children with hearing impairment who were evaluated at 3 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. The language abilities of children were evaluated using the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) and Child Development Inventory (CDI). Everyday functioning of children was e...
Christianson, A L; Zwane, M E; Manga, P; Rosen, E; Venter, A; Downs, D; Kromberg, J G R
The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and its associated disabilities in rural South African children aged 2-9 years. It was undertaken in eight villages in the district of Bushbuckridge, Northern Province, South Africa. A two-phase design was utilized. The first phase involved screening children on a house-to-house basis by interviewing mothers or caregivers using an internationally validated questionnaire for detecting childhood disability in developing countries. The second phase consisted of a paediatric/neurodevelopmental assessment of the children who screened positive. A total of 6692 children were screened; 722 (10.8%) had a paediatric evaluation and 238 children were diagnosed with ID, giving a minimum observed prevalence of 35.6 per 1000 children in this population. The prevalence of severe and mild ID was 0.64 per 1000 and 29.1 per 1000 children, respectively. The male:female ratio of children with ID was 3:2. In the affected children, a congenital aetiology for the ID was determined in 49 subjects (20.6%), an acquired aetiology in 15 (6.3%) and the aetiology was undetermined in 174 children (73.1%). Epilepsy (15.5%) and cerebral palsy (8.4%) were the commonest associated disabilities. The present study represents the first data on the prevalence of ID and associated disabilities in rural South African children. The prevalence of ID was comparable with results from a study performed in one other African country (Zambia) as well as those from other developing countries. The data provide an initial factual insight into ID and its associated disabilities for healthcare, social service and educational policy planners. This study provides a basis for the initiation and development of appropriate and integrated services for the best possible care of individuals affected with these disabilities, and for their possible prevention.
Tucker, Corinna J; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather
Children with a physical disability, psychological disorder, or of nonnormative weight are often targets of peer victimization. Sibling victimization, however, is more common than peer victimization, but rarely explored. We investigated linkages between sibling victimization and whether children had a physical disability, psychological disorder (i.e., internalizing disorder, attention deficit disorder/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder), and were perceived by parents as being thinner than average or overweight. Also, we explored how the extent and kinds of sibling victimization experiences were related to these characteristics in childhood. A US probability sample of adult caregivers of a child aged 0 to 9 (N = 780; 50% women; mean age 4.58) in 2-child households who completed a telephone interview. Controlling for other forms of maltreatment and individual and family characteristics, children with a physical disability and parent-perceived children who are thinner than average and children who are overweight experienced more sibling victimization. Children with an internalizing disorder experienced less sibling victimization. Sibling victimization did not differ for children with and without ADHD. Children perceived to be overweight by parents and children with a physical disability were at increased risk of experiencing more types of sibling victimization. Children with a physical disability had greater odds of being victims of property victimization by a sibling. Children with a physical disability or perceived as different from average weight are at risk for sibling victimization. Using a nationally representative sample, this is the first study to highlight the importance of screening for sibling victimization in families of children with a disability and/or nonnormative weight status.
Goudie, Anthony; Havercamp, Susan; Jamieson, Barry; Sahr, Timothy
The purpose of this study was to empirically test if siblings of children with disability had higher levels of parent-reported behavioral and emotional functional impairment compared with a peer group of siblings residing with only typically developing children. This was a retrospective secondary analysis of data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We included only households with at least 2 children to ensure sibling relationships. Two groups of siblings were formed: 245 siblings resided in households with a child with disability and 6564 siblings resided in households with typically developing children. Parents responded to questions from the Columbia Impairment Scale to identify functional impairment in their children. On the basis of parent reports and after adjusting for sibling demographic characteristics and household background, siblings of children with disability were more likely than siblings residing with typically developing children to have problems with interpersonal relationships, psychopathological functioning, functioning at school, and use of leisure time (P siblings of children with disability classified with significant functional impairment was 16.0% at the first measurement period and 24.2% at the second (P siblings of typically developing children there was a smaller percentage increase from 9.5% to 10.3% (P mental health services and, as such, early assessment and interventions to limit increasing severity and short- to long-term consequences need to be addressed. Health care professionals need to consider a family-based health care approach for families raising children with disability.
Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojicic
Full Text Available This article reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the attitudes of parents of “normal” developing children toward the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream education in Macedonia. Specifically, the study was aimed to explore the similarities and differences in the attitudes of two groups of parents: a group of parents of preschool children and a group of parents of school age children. Participants included 88 parents. Generally, many of the parents accept inclusive education, but most of them still think the special school is better place for education of children with disability.
Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael; Schuele, C. Melanie
Children with hearing loss who are developing spoken language tend to lag behind children with normal hearing in vocabulary knowledge. Thus, researchers must validate instructional practices that lead to improved vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate how semantic richness of instruction…
Pakulski, Lori A.; Kaderavek, Joan N.
This study examined the effects of a reading intervention on narrative production, narrative comprehension, and reading motivation interest in children with hearing loss. Seven school children between the ages of 9 and 11 were paired with younger "reading buddies" (without hearing loss). The children with hearing loss read storybooks to…
Lin, Sue C; Gold, Robert S
Assistive technology (AT) enhances the ability of individuals with disabilities to be fully engaged in activities at home, at school, and within their communities-especially for children with developmental disabilities (DD) with physical, sensory, learning, and/or communication impairments. The prevalence of children with DD in the United States has risen from 12.84% in 1997 to 15.04% in 2008. Thus, it is important to monitor the status of their AT needs, functional difficulties, services utilization, and coordination. Using data from the 2009-2010 National Survey on Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), we conducted bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis, which found that 90% or more of parents of both children with DD and other CSHCN reported that their child's AT needs were met for vision, hearing, mobility, communication, and durable medical equipment; furthermore, children with DD had lower odds of AT needs met for vision and hearing and increased odds for meeting AT needs in mobility and communication. Our findings outline the current AT needs of children with DD nationally. Fulfilling these needs has the potential to engender positive lifelong effects on the child's disabilities, sense of independence, self-confidence, and productivity.
Kim, Eunha; Hwang, Jowon; Park, Sukyoung
This study examined how child problem behaviour could be related to maternal Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean culture syndrome, meaning "anger illness") among Korean mothers of children with developmental disabilities. Acceptance of disabilities and parenting stress were tested as mediators for the relationship between child problem behaviour and…
Full Text Available All children need access to good quality eye care, and this must include children with disabilities. Childhood disability is very common. The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that there are at least 93 million children with disabilities worldwide, which equates to one in twenty children.1 Childhood disability is particularly common in low- and middle-income countries.
Coppens, Karien M; Tellings, Agnes; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert
To address the problem of low reading comprehension scores among children with hearing impairment, it is necessary to have a better understanding of their reading vocabulary. In this study, the authors investigated whether task and word type differentiate the reading vocabulary knowledge of children with and without severe hearing loss. Seventy-two children with hearing loss and 72 children with normal hearing performed a lexical and a use decision task. Both tasks contained the same 180 words divided over 7 clusters, each cluster containing words with a similar pattern of scores on 8 word properties (word class, frequency, morphological family size, length, age of acquisition, mode of acquisition, imageability, and familiarity). Whereas the children with normal hearing scored better on the 2 tasks than the children with hearing loss, the size of the difference varied depending on the type of task and word. Performance differences between the 2 groups increased as words and tasks became more complex. Despite delays, children with hearing loss showed a similar pattern of vocabulary acquisition as their peers with normal hearing. For the most precise assessment of reading vocabulary possible, a range of tasks and word types should be used.
Purcell, Patricia L; Shinn, Justin R; Davis, Greg E; Sie, Kathleen C Y
In this meta-analysis, we reviewed observational studies investigating differences in intelligence quotient (IQ) scores of children with unilateral hearing loss compared to children with normal hearing. PubMed Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, PsycINFO. A query identified all English-language studies related to pediatric unilateral hearing loss published between January 1980 and December 2014. Titles, abstracts, and articles were reviewed to identify observational studies reporting IQ scores. There were 261 unique titles, with 29 articles undergoing full review. Four articles were identified, which included 173 children with unilateral hearing loss and 202 children with normal hearing. Ages ranged from 6 to 18 years. Three studies were conducted in the United States and one in Mexico. All were of high quality. All studies reported full-scale IQ results; three reported verbal IQ results; and two reported performance IQ results. Children with unilateral hearing loss scored 6.3 points lower on full-scale IQ, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-9.1, -3.5], P value analysis suggests children with unilateral hearing loss have lower full-scale and performance IQ scores than children with normal hearing. There also may be disparity in verbal IQ scores. Laryngoscope, 126:746-754, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Chen, Guanming; Fu, Siqing; Luo, Shaojun; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Guoqiang
Newborn hearing screening has been successfully implemented worldwide to improve the detection of hearing loss. However, delayed-onset hearing loss subsequent to newborn hearing screening remains a concern. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of delayed-onset hearing loss in preschool children who previously passed newborn hearing screening in Hubei Province in mid-south China. Preschool children were screened by transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) for delayed-onset hearing loss. Children referred after the TEOAE screening were assessed audiologically. Between March 2010 and September 2011, 28 546 preschool children (4.86 ± 1.67 years old), who had passed newborn hearing screening were targeted for screening from four cities in Hubei Province, China. During the study period, 540 children (1.89%) were referred for audiologic assessment and 22 (0.77/1000) of them had permanent delayed-onset hearing loss, including 8 (0.28/1000) with bilateral moderate hearing loss, 10 (0.35/1000) with mild bilateral hearing loss, 2 (0.07/1000) with unilateral moderate hearing loss, and 2 (0.07/1000) with unilateral mild hearing loss. Despite the success of newborn hearing screening, the provision of hearing screening in preschool remains essential for identifying delayed-onset hearing loss.
Tomblin, J Bruce; Harrison, Melody; Ambrose, Sophie E; Walker, Elizabeth A; Oleson, Jacob J; Moeller, Mary Pat
This study examined the language outcomes of children with mild to severe hearing loss during the preschool years. The longitudinal design was leveraged to test whether language growth trajectories were associated with degree of hearing loss and whether aided hearing influenced language growth in a systematic manner. The study also explored the influence of the timing of hearing aid fitting and extent of use on children's language growth. Finally, the study tested the hypothesis that morphosyntax may be at particular risk due to the demands it places on the processing of fine details in the linguistic input. The full cohort of children in this study comprised 290 children who were hard of hearing (CHH) and 112 children with normal hearing who participated in the Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss (OCHL) study between the ages of 2 and 6 years. CHH had a mean better-ear pure-tone average of 47.66 dB HL (SD = 13.35). All children received a comprehensive battery of language measures at annual intervals, including standardized tests, parent-report measures, and spontaneous and elicited language samples. Principal components analysis supported the use of a single composite language score for each of the age levels (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years). Measures of unaided (better-ear pure-tone average, speech intelligibility index) and aided (residualized speech intelligibility index) hearing were collected, along with parent-report measures of daily hearing aid use time. Mixed modeling procedures were applied to examine the rate of change (227 CHH; 94 children with normal hearing) in language ability over time in relation to (1) degree of hearing loss, (2) aided hearing, (3) age of hearing aid fit and duration of use, and (4) daily hearing aid use. Principal components analysis was also employed to examine factor loadings from spontaneous language samples and to test their correspondence with standardized measures. Multiple regression analysis was used to test for
Favazza, Paddy C.; Phillipsen, Leslie; Kumar, Poonam
Results of two studies indicate the Acceptance Scale for Kindergartners was reliable with a sample of minority, low socioeconomic status children and that children exposed to all of the components of an intervention designed to promote acceptance of young children with disabilities had short-term and long-term gains in acceptance. (Contains…
Johnson, Doris J.; Grant, James O.
Writing samples of 295 primary school children improved in productivity, syntax, and level of abstraction from grade one through three. The writing of learning-disabled children who were matched with average reading ability primary-school children indicated no significant differences in productivity, but problems in syntax (especially morphology),…
Masterson, Julie J.; And Others
Children (ages 9-13) with language-learning disabilities were administered 5 types of verbal analogies: synonyms, antonyms, linear order, category membership, and functional relationship. Subjects performed worse than mental age-matched children on all types of analogies and performed worse than language age-matched children on all types except…
Schmidt, Ellyn; Pyers, Jennie
One early-developing component of theory of mind is an understanding of the link between sensory perception and knowledge formation. We know little about the extent to which children's first-hand sensory experiences drive the development of this understanding, as most tasks capturing this early understanding target vision, with less attention paid to the other senses. In this study, 64 typically hearing children (Mage = 4.0 years) and 21 orally educated deaf children (Mage = 5.44 years) were asked to identify which of two informants knew the identity of a toy animal when each had differing perceptual access to the animal. In the 'seeing' condition, one informant saw the animal and the other did not; in the 'hearing' condition, one informant heard the animal and the other did not. For both hearing and deaf children, there was no difference between performance on hearing and seeing trials, but deaf children were delayed in both conditions. Further, within both the hearing and deaf groups, older children outperformed younger children on these tasks, indicating that there is a developmental progression. Taken together, the pattern of results suggests that experiences other than first-hand sensory experiences drive children's developing understanding that sensory perception is associated with knowledge. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
For a report on the stress experiences of parents with hearing-impaired children in Germany, 317 parents completed a survey on how their families communicate and socialize, among other issues. The report focuses on how contacts with other parents and with hearing-impaired adults affect stress experiences, in the context of the child's hearing status and the means of communication. Parents who frequently meet with other parents show evidence of a warm, accepting, trusting relationship with their child. Parents who have many contacts with hearing-impaired adults show evidence of a strong sense of competence in regard to their child's upbringing. The findings confirm the implication found in most reports describing empirical studies. Social support is to be regarded as a cornerstone of psychosocial intervention and has to play as great a role as possible in institutional programs.
Luna-Reyes, O B; Reyes, T M; So, F Y; Matti, B M; Lardizabal, A A
The energy expenditures (Ee) for locomotion by nondisabled and disabled Filipino children aged 7 to 13 were determined and compared using indirect calorimetry. Forty-one controls (20 boys and 21 girls) ambulated at a comfortable pace; 16 children (eight boys and eight girls) with lower extremity poliomyelitis of varying severity ambulated by (1) wheelchair propulsion, (2) bilateral axillary crutches, (3) unilateral lower extremity ankle-foot orthoses or knee-ankle-foot orthoses, and (4) unassisted. Disabled children, regardless of their mode of ambulation, had to expend significantly more energy to ambulate than normal children (p less than 0.05). Wheelchair propulsion cost 16% more energy than the normal gait; crutch ambulation cost 41% more than the control. Children using unilateral braces sacrificed speed to attain near-normal Ee. When they ambulated without orthoses, their Ee increased by 109% over the control. In ascending order, the least energy was expanded by normal ambulation followed by disabled ambulation with unilateral brace, disabled propelling a wheelchair, disabled ambulation with bilateral axillary crutches, and disabled ambulation without brace. Efficiency of locomotion was reflected in the values obtained for Ee in terms of kcal x 10(-3)/kg/m, as demonstrated by the lower Ee but slower ambulation of children with braces, as compared to the nondisabled children.
Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth
This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…
Bradley, Robert H.; And Others
This study examined relationships between parenting, severity of disability, and 5 aspects of family ecology for 83 preschool and 69 elementary school children with disabilities. Family ecology variables included socioeconomic status, coping styles, social support, stressful life events, and marital quality. Results showed positive correlations…
Kolbe, Sherry L.
The 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments offered a welcome shield for disabled students who found themselves unfairly disciplined within their school placements. Highlights the disagreements that continue over the bill's interpretation, and the fight by advocates for the disabled to limit unreasonable suspensions and…
Werfel, Krystal L.; Lund, Emily; Schuele, C. Melanie
Measures of print knowledge were compared across preschoolers with hearing loss and normal hearing. Alphabet knowledge did not differ between groups, but preschoolers with hearing loss performed lower on measures of print concepts and concepts of written words than preschoolers with normal hearing. Further study is needed in this area.
Torre, Peter; Zeldow, Bret; Hoffman, Howard J.; Buchanan, Ashley; Siberry, George K.; Rice, Mabel; Sirois, Patricia A.; Williams, Paige L.
Background Little is known about hearing loss in children with HIV infection (HIV+). We examined the prevalence of hearing loss in perinatally HIV+ and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children, compared these to the percentage with hearing loss in the general population, and evaluated possible risk factors for hearing loss in HIV+ and HEU children. Methods Audiometric examinations were completed in children who met any pre-specified criteria for possible hearing loss. The hearing examination consisted of a tympanogram in each ear and pure-tone air-conduction threshold testing from 500 through 4000 Hz. Hearing loss was defined as the pure-tone average over these frequencies ≥20 dB hearing level (HL). The associations of demographic, parent/caregiver, HIV disease, and HIV treatment with hearing loss were evaluated with univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Results Hearing testing was completed in 231 children (145 HIV+ and 86 HEU). Hearing loss occurred in 20.0% of HIV+ children and 10.5% of HEU children. After adjusting for caregiver education level, HIV infection was associated with increased odds of hearing loss [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95–4.76, p=0.07]. Among HIV+ children, those with a CDC Class C diagnosis had over twice the odds of hearing loss (aOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.04–5.87, p=0.04). The prevalence of hearing loss was higher in both HIV+ and HEU children compared with NHANES III children. Conclusions Hearing loss was more common in both HIV+ and HEU children than in healthy children. More advanced HIV illness increased the risk of hearing loss in HIV+ children. PMID:22549437
Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V; Patil, Vishwanath D; Patil, Nanasaheb M; Mogasale, Vittal
To measure the prevalence of specific learning disabilities (SpLDs) such as dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia among primary school children in a South Indian city. A cross-sectional multi-staged stratified randomized cluster sampling study was conducted among children aged 8-11 years from third and fourth standard. A six level screening approach that commenced with identification of scholastic backwardness followed by stepwise exclusion of impaired vision and hearing, chronic medical conditions and subnormal intelligence was carried out among these children. In the final step, the remaining children were subjected to specific tests for reading, comprehension, writing and mathematical calculation. The prevalence of specific learning disabilities was 15.17% in sampled children, whereas 12.5%, 11.2% and 10.5% had dysgraphia, dyslexia and dyscalculia respectively. This study suggests that the prevalence of SpLDs is at the higher side of previous estimations in India. The study is unique due to its large geographically representative design and identification of the problem using simplified screening approach and tools, which minimizes the number and time of specialist requirement and spares the expensive investigation. This approach and tools are suitable for field situations and resource scarce settings. Based on the authors' experience, they express the need for more prevalence studies, remedial education and policy interventions to manage SpLDs at main stream educational system to improve the school performance in Indian children.
Full Text Available Objective: A research was conducted to assess the phonological awareness in hearing-impaired children in comparison to normal children. In this context, we discussed about the ability of these children in identification of rhyme and word segmentation to syllables. Method and Material: The sample of this study is composed of 320 children, 160 normal & 160 hearing-impaired with a hearing-loss. Of over 70 dB, studying in the 1st t 4th grade of the primary schools in Tehran. They are divided into two groups at each level (20 girls & 20 boys. Results: 1 Hearing-impaired children's scores on test related to rhyme and syllable is lower as compared with normal children. 2 Hearing-impaired children are more potent on test of word segmentation to syllables in comparison to that related to rhyme, while normal children are more successful on test of word segmentation to syllables as compared with that related to rhyme. Discussion: Hearing is an important factor in phonological awareness. Formal education at special schools doesn't compensate for the hearing impairment as to development of the phonological awareness.
Henry, L.; Conners, F.
To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and word length effects). Neither the intellectual disabilities nor MA groups showed evidence for memory coding strategies. However, children in these gr...
Sigafoos, J; Dempsey, R
Some learners with multiple disabilities display idiosyncratic gestures that are interpreted as a means of making choices. In the present study, we assessed the validity of idiosyncratic choice-making behaviors of 3 children with multiple disabilities. Opportunities for each child to choose between food and drink were provided under two conditions. In one condition, the children were given the food or drink item corresponding to their prior choice. In the other condition, the teacher delivere...
Lewis, Michael A.
The booklet is intended to provide practical information on hearing aids for hearing impaired children, their families and teachers. Illustrations are provided to describe the hearing process. The nature of hearing loss is considered in terms of types (conductive, sensori-neural, and mixed), causes, degrees, and educational implications. Four…
Prakash, Santhi S; Prakash, S. G. R.; Ravichandran, Aparna; Susan, K. Y.; Alex, Winnie
Hearing impairment is an exceptional circumstance that restricts the child's ability to communicate verbally. Depression is a common stress-related response for hearing parents of children with hearing loss. Evidence suggests that mothers are more inclined than fathers to experience depression in response to their child's hearing loss (Mavrolas,…
Antonopoulou, Katerina; Hadjikakou, Kika; Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Nicolaou, Nicoletta
The present study aims to determine whether rearing a deaf or hard-of-hearing (d/hh) child would differentiate the parenting and disciplinary preference of parents between the d/hh and the hearing child. The parenting styles of 30 hearing mothers from Cyprus were assessed using the Greek version of the Parenting Styles & Dimensions…
Nicolielo-Carrilho, Ana Paola; Hage, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos
to check the use of metacognitive reading strategies in children with learning disabilities and determine whether there is a relationship between their use and text comprehension. the study was conducted on 30 children, aged 8 to 12 years, of both genders, divided into experimental group (EG) - 15 children with learning disabilities; and control group (CG) - 15 children without disability. All children were submitted to the Reading Strategies Scale and Prolec text comprehension subtest. The sample was described in mean, median, minimum and maximum values. Comparative analysis was performed between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test. The degree of correlation between variables was verified by Spearman Correlation Analysis. The significance level was set at 5%. across the total scores of the scale, EG performance was lower in all descriptive measures, with a significant difference compared to CG. The EG achieved a performance close to children without difficulties only in global strategies. The correlation between the use of metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension was positive. children with learning disabilities showed deficits in the use of metacognitive reading strategies when compared to children without learning disabilities. The better the performance in reading strategies, the better textual comprehension was and vice versa, suggesting that metacognitive reading skills contribute to reading comprehension.
Peterson, Candida C; O'Reilly, Karin; Wellman, Henry M
This study had two primary aims. First, we compared deaf and hearing children during middle and late childhood on (a) cognitive understanding of basic and advanced theory of mind (ToM) and (b) social dimensions of peer group relations, including popularity, isolation, leadership, and the disposition to interact positively with peers. Second, using correlational analyses, we examined ToM's connections with these social variables to see whether and how ToM impacts children's social lives. A total of 57 children (36 deaf children of hearing parents and 21 hearing children) 6 to 14years of age completed a 6-step developmental ToM Scale, and their teachers reported on the social variables. Hearing children outperformed deaf children on ToM and all teacher-rated variables. For deaf children, popularity correlated positively, and social isolation correlated negatively, with ToM even after controlling for age, gender, and language ability. For hearing children, the only ToM link was a weak correlation with leadership. Possible reasons for the differences between deaf and hearing groups are discussed, together with the likelihood of bidirectional causal links and implications for deaf children's social development in school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Dos Santos, Johnny Cesconetto; Grandpierre, Viviane; Whittingham, JoAnne
Several studies have shown that early identification of childhood hearing loss leads to better language outcomes. However, delays in the confirmation of hearing loss persist even in the presence of well-established universal newborn hearing screening programs (UNHS). The objective of this population-based study was to document the proportion of children who experienced delayed confirmation of congenital and early onset hearing loss in a UNHS program in one region of Canada. The study also sought to determine the reasons for delayed confirmation of hearing loss in children. Population level data related to age of first assessment, age of identification and clinical characteristics were collected prospectively for all children identified through the UNHS program. We documented the number of children who experienced delay (defined as more than 3 months) from initial audiologic assessment to confirmation of hearing loss. A detailed chart review was subsequently performed to examine the reasons for delay to confirmation. Of 418 children identified from 2003 to 2013, 182 (43.5%) presented with congenital or early onset hearing loss, of whom 30 (16.5%) experienced more than 3 months delay from initial audiologic assessment to confirmation of their hearing disorder. The median age of first assessment and confirmation of hearing loss for these 30 children was 3.7 months (IQR: 2.0, 7.6) and 13.8 months (IQR: 9.7, 26.1) respectively. Close examination of the factors related to delay to confirmation revealed that for the overwhelming majority of children, a constellation of factors contributed to late diagnosis. Several children (n = 22; 73.3%) presented with developmental/medical issues, 15 of whom also had middle ear dysfunction at assessment, and 9 of whom had documented family follow-up concerns. For the remaining eight children, additional reasons included ongoing middle ear dysfunction for five children, complicated by family follow-up concerns (n = 3) and mild
Tengroth, Birgitta; Hederstierna, Christina; Neovius, Erik; Flynn, Traci
Children with cleft lip and palate have a high prevalence of otitis media with effusion (OME) which is often associated with a fluctuating, conductive hearing loss in the low and mid-frequencies and a risk for permanent hearing loss in the higher frequencies. Although common, there is no consensus on the treatment of OME with ventilation tubes. The aim of this study is to document if the risk for permanent hearing loss and acquired cholesteatoma increases due to treatment with ventilation tubes (VT treatments) during childhood in a group of children with cleft lip and palate. A retrospective medical chart review of 33 children (25 boys and 8 girls) born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) was completed. Audiological data (results of hearing sensitivity tests, the total number of hearing tests, and number of VT treatments) were extracted from medical records from when the children were 4-7 and >7-10 years of age. The hearing thresholds in the speech frequencies improved with age (p 7-10 years of age. There were no significant correlations between number of VT treatments and hearing thresholds at >7-10 years. Four of the 33 children presented with complications: two children exhibited perforations of the ear drum (6.1%) and two children developed unilateral cholesteatoma (6.1%). In the current study, the hearing sensitivity of children with cleft lip and palate improved with age. However, this improvement was not seen in the higher frequencies. Twelve percent of the children experienced complications following VT treatments. Due to these complications, it is recommended that all children with cleft palate should have routine follow-ups by an ENT doctor and audiologist. As part of the routine follow-up care, hearing assessments should be performed before and after VT treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Parents' Assessments of Disability in Their Children Using World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth Version Joined Body Functions and Activity Codes Related to Everyday Life
Illum, Niels Ove; Gradel, Kim Oren
: Parents of 162 children with spina bifida, spinal muscular atrophy, muscular disorders, cerebral palsy, visual impairment, hearing impairment, mental disability, or disability following brain tumours performed scoring for 26 body functions qualifiers (b codes) and activities and participation qualifiers......AIM: To help parents assess disability in their own children using World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth Version (ICF-CY) code qualifier scoring and to assess the validity and reliability of the data sets obtained. METHOD...... of 1.01 and 1.00. The mean corresponding outfit MNSQ was 1.05 and 1.01. The ICF-CY code τ thresholds and category measures were continuous when assessed and reassessed by parents. Participating children had a mean of 56 codes scores (range: 26-130) before and a mean of 55.9 scores (range: 25-125) after...
Ewelina Karolina Kucharska
Full Text Available Introduction and Aim In the life of every human senses, including the sense of hearing, they play an important role in the harmonious development. Each hearing loss in childhood influences, depending on the depth, nature and time of its inception, in a negative way on the development of many mental activities, intellectual, behavior, cognitive, causing significant impairment in the child's position the hearing impaired, deaf and especially in the world of the hearing. The aim of this study is to assess the parents' awareness of hearing loss in children with hearing loss as a result of a survey of parents of children from the first classes of primary schools in the Lublin province. Material and Methods Analysis was performed on 31 results of parents of children with hearing impairment made in children aged 6 and 7 years, pupils and primary schools in the Lublin province. Parents were asked the question: 'Do you think your child has hearing problems?' The analysis indicated the assessment of awareness of parents of children with hearing disorders. Results In the study group, as many as 77% of parents stated that the child does not have problems with hearing, only 3% of parents noted the problem, while 20% of parents did not answer the question. Conclusions Based on the research it can be stated with a high percentage of parents still do not notice hearing loss in their children. Early notice of the problem, the correct procedure and the cooperation with the parent group of specialists are often the way to success. It is crucial to support the child in difficult situations, which often is exposed to contact with all sorts of obstacles. An important issue is the numerous health programs, shaping the attitude of parents and society as a whole.
Although the number of students with both learning disability and hearing impairment (LDHI) currently enrolled in secondary and postsecondary programs has not been precisely determined, it is clear that these students are currently receiving inadequate assessment and support in many institutions. The best route for serving these students would seem to be collaborative efforts between deaf educators and learning disabilities specialists, yet serious gaps exist between these two professions in regard to interpretation of laws governing special services, training of professionals, and locations of educational programs. The difficulties of developing collaborative work have been compounded by controversies within each field and the heterogeneity of the populations served by both disciplines. Those interested in creating good LDHI assessments should begin by considering the qualifications needed by those conducting evaluation procedures. The inadequacies of current formal assessment devices for this population need to be recognized; informal procedures, such as teacher observation and curriculum-based assessments, are still some of the best tools available for identification and educational planning.
Polonenko, Melissa J; Carinci, Lora; Gordon, Karen A; Papsin, Blake C; Cushing, Sharon L
Bilateral hearing is important for learning, development, and function in complex everyday environments. Children with conductive and mixed hearing loss (HL) have been treated for years with percutaneous coupling through an abutment, which achieves powerful output, but the implant site is susceptible to skin reactions and trauma. To overcome these complications, transcutaneous magnetic coupling systems were recently introduced. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the new transcutaneous magnetic coupling is an effective coupling paradigm for bone-conduction hearing aids (BCHAs). We hypothesized that magnetic coupling will (1) have limited adverse events, (2) provide adequate functional gain, (3) improve spatial hearing and aid listening in everyday situations, and (4) provide satisfactory outcomes to children and their families given one normal hearing ear. Retrospective analysis of audiological outcomes in a tertiary academic pediatric hospital. Nine children aged 5-17 yr with permanent unilateral conductive HL (UCHL) or mixed HL were implanted with a transcutaneous magnet-retained BCHA. Average hearing thresholds of the better and implanted ears were 12.3 ± 11.5 dB HL and 69.1 ± 11.6 dB HL, respectively, with a 59.4 ± 4.8 dB (mean ± standard deviation) conductive component. Data were extracted from audiology charts of the children with permanent UCHL or mixed HL who qualified for a surgically retained BCHA and agreed to the magnetic coupling. Outcomes were collected from the 3- to 9-mo follow-up appointments, and included surgical complications, aided audiometric thresholds with varying magnet strength, speech performance in quiet and noise, and patient-rated benefit and satisfaction using questionnaires. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze audiometric outcomes, and nonparametric tests were used to evaluate rated benefit and satisfaction. All nine children tolerated the device and only one child had discomfort at the wound
Shauli, Sophie; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet
Hearing-impaired children's chances of integrating into hearing society largely depend on their parents, who need to learn vast amounts of science knowledge in the field of hearing. This study characterized the role played by science knowledge in the lives of nonscientists faced with science-related decisions by examining the interactions between general science knowledge, contextual science knowledge in the field of hearing, and parents' advocacy knowledge and attitudes. Based on six semi-structured interviews and 115 questionnaires completed by parents of hearing-impaired children, contextual science knowledge emerged as the only predictor for having slightly better advocacy attitudes and knowledge (5.5% explained variance). Although general science knowledge was the best predictor of contextual knowledge (14% of explained variance), it was not a direct predictor of advocacy knowledge and attitudes. Science knowledge plays some role in the lives of hearing-impaired families, even if they do not list it as a resource for successful rehabilitation.
Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Rieffe, Carolien; Netten, Anouk P.; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Soede, Wim; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Frijns, Johan H. M.
OBJECTIVE: Sufficient self-esteem is extremely important for psychosocial functioning. It is hypothesized that hearing-impaired (HI) children have lower levels of self-esteem, because, among other things, they frequently experience lower language and communication skills. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare HI children's self-esteem across different domains with those of normal hearing (NH) children and to investigate the influence of communication, type of education, and audiolog...
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper
Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...
Werfel, Krystal L.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Method: Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed…
Full Text Available Large number of children with intellectual disabilities encounters behavioral problems or show disharmonic behavior within the family, at school and in the community. Researches show that 30-50% of persons with intellectual disabilities have some behavioral problems. The behavior of children with intellectual disabilities depends on many factors: age of the child, level of intellectual disability, cognitive potentials, level of psycho-physical development, differentiation of emotions, communicative skills, social status and conditions of the environment (in the family and the wider community where the child lives. The influence of some of these factors has been analyzed by this research. There are many ins truments (questionnaires, scales that evaluate behavior of persons with intellectual disabilities, and reveal problems that these persons have in their psychosocial development and social life. This research used the AAMD Adaptive behavior Scale (part II and Scale for evaluating behavior of the child in school by authors Bojanin, Savanovikj.
Full Text Available Cochlear implants (CIs electrically stimulate the auditory nerve providing children who are deaf with access to speech and music. Because of device limitations, it was hypothesized that children using CIs develop abnormal perception of musical cues. Perception of pitch and rhythm as well as memory for music was measured by the children’s version of the Montreal Battery of Amusia (MBEA in 23 unilateral CI users and 22 age-matched children with normal hearing. Children with CIs were less accurate than their normal hearing peers (p<0.05. CI users were best able to discern rhythm changes (p < .01 and to remember musical pieces (p < .01. Contrary to expectations, abilities to hear cues in music improved as the age at implantation increased (p < .01. Further analyses revealed that this was because the children implanted at older ages also had better low frequency hearing prior to cochlear implantation and were able to use this hearing prior to cochlear implantation by wearing hearing aids. Access to early acoustical hearing in the lower frequency ranges appears to establish a base for music perception, which can be accessed with later electrical CI hearing.
Chiossi, Julia Santos Costa; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo
to investigate if preoperative residual hearing in prelingually deafened children can interfere on cochlear implant indication and outcomes. a systematic-review was conducted in five international databases up to November-2016, to locate articles that evaluated cochlear implantation in children with some degree of preoperative residual hearing. Outcomes were auditory, language and cognition performances after cochlear implant. The quality of the studies was assessed and classified according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence table - 2011. Risk of biases were also described. From the 30 articles reviewed, two types of questions were identified: (a) what are the benefits of cochlear implantation in children with residual hearing? (b) is the preoperative residual hearing a predictor of cochlear implant outcome? Studies ranged from 04 to 188 subjects, evaluating populations between 1.8 and 10.3 years old. The definition of residual hearing varied between studies. The majority of articles (n = 22) evaluated speech perception as the outcome and 14 also assessed language and speech production. There is evidence that cochlear implant is beneficial to children with residual hearing. Preoperative residual hearing seems to be valuable to predict speech perception outcomes after cochlear implantation, even though the mechanism of how it happens is not clear. More extensive researches must be conducted in order to make recommendations and to set prognosis for cochlear implants based on children preoperative residual hearing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper
This book introduces current theories and research on disability, and builds on the premise that disability has to be understood from the dialectical dynamics of biology, psychology, and culture over time. Based on the newest empirical research on children with disabilities, the book overcomes th...... and degrees of disability through the lens of Vygotsky’s cultural-historical developmental theories. Some of the themes discussed are inclusion, mental health, communication, aids and family life.......This book introduces current theories and research on disability, and builds on the premise that disability has to be understood from the dialectical dynamics of biology, psychology, and culture over time. Based on the newest empirical research on children with disabilities, the book overcomes...... the limitations of the medical and social models of disability by arguing for a dialectical biopsychosocial model. The proposed model builds on Vygotsky’s cultural-historical ideas of developmental incongruence, implying that the disability emerges from the misfit between individual abilities and the cultural...
Rohlfs, Anna-Katharina; Friedhoff, Johannes; Bohnert, Andrea; Breitfuss, Achim; Hess, Markus; Müller, Frank; Strauch, Anke; Röhrs, Marianne; Wiesner, Thomas
Despite the introduction of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS), unilateral hearing loss (UHL) is sometimes recognized late. This diagnostic delay has adverse repercussions, given the importance of binaural hearing for the development of normal auditory processing. It is incorrect to maintain that unilateral hearing is the minimum requirement for adequate speech development and that hearing aid provision is consequently unnecessary. In our retrospective study, hearing aid provision resulted in improved directional and selective hearing (quiet and noisy environments) and, compared with their chronically ill counterparts, the children in our study displayed superior health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores in all areas. On the basis of the results, the authors conclude that even mild hearing losses (from an auditory threshold of 30 to 40 dB) should have the opportunity for hearing aid provision. A selective literature review was conducted in PubMed and textbooks and with reference to national and international guidelines. Early diagnosis and treatment of UHL have a positive effect on verbal-cognitive, linguistic, communicative, and socio-emotional development, as demonstrated by neurophysiological studies. Among the treatment modalities with differing effects on the quality of binaural hearing, cochlear implants are now used increasingly in children with hearing loss bordering on deafness. Published evidence and clinical experience support early diagnosis and treatment. Wherever feasible, hearing aid provision before or at the end of the first year of life is recommended for children with UHL. What is Known: • Almost 30 years ago, poor academic performance was reported in children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL). • Despite improvements in treatment options, it is traditionally held that unilateral hearing is the minimum requirement for adequate speech development and hearing aid provision is unnecessary. What is New: • Academic and behavioral
Wriedt, Elke; Wiberg, Anja; Sakar, Vehbi; Noterdaeme, Michele
This article gives an overview of the consultant child and adolescent psychiatric services in the region of Upper Bavaria (Germany). The data of 257 children and adolescents with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders were evaluated. About 14% of the children with ID in special schools or day care centers, and 40% of the children with ID in residential care showed a definite psychiatric disorder. The most frequently diagnosed disorders were adjustment disorders, hyperkinetic disorders and conduct disorders, as well as emotional problems and pervasive developmental disorders. Children with severe intellectual disability had more additional somatic disorders and were more impaired in their psychosocial functions. The results show the need for psychiatric services for children and adolescents with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders. The development and implementation of integrative and interdisciplinary models is necessary to allow for adequate medical care for these patients.
Bess, F H; Dodd-Murphy, J; Parker, R A
This study was designed to determine the prevalence of minimal sensorineural hearing loss (MSHL) in school-age children and to assess the relationship of MSHL to educational performance and functional status. To determine prevalence, a single-staged sampling frame of all schools in the district was created for 3rd, 6th, and 9th grades. Schools were selected with probability proportional to size in each grade group. The final study sample was 1218 children. To assess the association of MSHL with educational performance, children identified with MSHL were assigned as cases into a subsequent case-control study. Scores of the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (4th Edition) (CTBS/4) then were compared between children with MSHL and children with normal hearing. School teachers completed the Screening Instrument for Targeting Education Risk (SIFTER) and the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist for a subsample of children with MSHL and their normally hearing counterparts. Finally, data on grade retention for a sample of children with MSHL were obtained from school records and compared with school district norm data. To assess the relationship between MSHL and functional status, test scores of all children with MSHL and all children with normal hearing in grades 6 and 9 were compared on the COOP Adolescent Chart Method (COOP), a screening tool for functional status. MSHL was exhibited by 5.4% of the study sample. The prevalence of all types of hearing impairment was 11.3%. Third grade children with MSHL exhibited significantly lower scores than normally hearing controls on a series of subtests of the CTBS/4; however, no differences were noted at the 6th and 9th grade levels. The SIFTER results revealed that children with MSHL scored poorer on the communication subtest than normal-hearing controls. Thirty-seven percent of the children with MSHL failed at least one grade. Finally, children with MSHL exhibited significantly greater dysfunction than children with normal hearing
MacCrosain, A M
Sleep problems are more common amongst children with intellectual disability than other children. The implications for families, teachers and classmates, as well as the children themselves, are profound.
Kouwenberg, Maartje; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; de Rooij, Mark
Victimization is a relatively common, yet serious problem, with potentially severe consequences for children's psychosocial and academic functioning. Children who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (DHH) may be at a higher risk for victimization than hearing children. The aims of the present study were to compare DHH and hearing children on i) self-reported experiences of victimization and ii) associations between victimization, parental- and child variables. In total 188 children (mean age 11;11 years) from the Netherlands and Dutch-speaking part of Belgium participated in the study. No difference between DHH and hearing children were found on general experiences of victimization. However, differences between the groups were found on specific forms of experienced victimization and on the associations between victimization and parental variables. For DHH children, parental sensitivity and parents who challenge their DHH children to become competent in the practical, emotional, cognitive and social domain is associated with them being less victimized. For hearing children at this age these relations were reversed, absent or more complex. Finally, DHH children in special schools were more victimized than DHH children in regular schools. It can be concluded that parents can play an important role in reducing social problems experienced by DHH children and young adolescents. PMID:23284923
Delgado, Christine E. F.
Special education outcomes were evaluated for 3,608 children (2,513 males) with a preschool history of developmental disability. Sixty-six percent of the children had an identified disability in fourth grade. The percentage of children with a disability at outcome varied across preschool disability categories from 54% to 96%. The consistency of…
McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja
This article explores instances of humor in literature as it relates to children with disabilities and offers ways to help children and adolescents build an authentic understanding of disability and disability humor. The prevalent message in the books reviewed is that children with disability not only appreciate humor but also can produce various…
Argyrakouli, Effi; Zafiropoulou, Maria
This study examined the self-esteem of 50 mothers of children with intellectual disabilities living in central Greece and 50 similar mothers of non-disabled children. Results indicated significantly lower self-esteem for mothers of children with intellectual disabilities. The best predictor of positive maternal self-esteem in the disabled group…
Beckett, Angharad E.
In the United Kingdom, the introduction of the Disability Equality Duty 2006 has provided a new window of opportunity to promote the idea that education has a role to play in changing non-disabled children/young people's attitudes towards disabled people. This article explores the issues raised by the application of the Disability Equality Duty to…
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Grandpierre, Viviane; Durieux-Smith, Andrée; Gaboury, Isabelle; Coyle, Doug; Na, Eunjung; Sallam, Nusaiba
Abstract Children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss are now commonly identified early through newborn hearing screening initiatives. There remains considerable uncertainty about how to support parents and about which services to provide for children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss. The goal of this study was to learn about parents’ experiences and understand, from their perspectives, the impact of hearing loss in the mild range on the child’s functioning. Parents of 20 children in Ontario, Canada, participated in the study. The median age of identification of hearing loss was 4.6 months (interquartile range: 3.6, 10.8). Parents appreciated learning early about hearing loss, but their experiences with the early process were mixed. Parents felt that professionals minimized the importance of milder hearing loss. There was substantial uncertainty about the need for hearing aids and the findings suggest that parents need specific guidance. Parents expressed concerns about the potential impact of hearing loss on their child’s development, particularly at later ages. PMID:26433195
Full Text Available Introduction: A hearing– impaired patient is defined as one with abnormal or reduced function in hearing resulting from an auditory disorder. The goal of any preschool and schools screening program should be to accurately indentify those children whose hearing has been impaired due to conductive and / or sensory– neural pathology. Methods: This cross– sectional descriptive study was done on 577 children (299 girls and 278 boys aged between 3–6 years at kindergartens of Yazd city from September 2005 to January 2006. The otoscopy examination, pure-tone screening and impedance study was conducted after completion of awareness form of the hearing loss existence by the parents. Results: In this study, there were 12.6% abnormal conditions of external ear canal, 34.2% abnormal tympanic membrane, 35.9% abnormal tympanograms and 13.4% hearing loss including 11.5% conductive hearing loss, 1.5% sensory-neural hearing loss and 0.5% mixed hearing loss. Conclusion: With respect to the high prevalence and negative effects of middle ear disorders in learning of preschool children, and also due to the importance of early identification and intervention of hearing loss in aural rehabilitation programs, increasing the awareness and education of people, especially parents about the effects of hearing disorders and its prevention and identification is very important
Werfel, Krystal L.; Douglas, Michael; Ackal, Leigh
This case report details a year-long phonological awareness (PA) intervention for pre-kindergarten children with hearing loss (CHL) who use listening and spoken language. All children wore cochlear implants and/or hearing aids. Intervention occurred for 15 min/day, 4 days per week across the pre-kindergarten school year and was delivered by…
In my diploma work I would like to focus on theme of spending free time in school for hearing impaired children (age 6-12) . The work has two parts. In the first one - theoretical- literary - I will describe types of spending free time of deaf and hard of hearing children different enviroments : family, school, out of school. In the second one -practical research - I will focus on the profile of school for hearing impaired children. I would like to touch the problem of activities (during the ...
Kiki, A; Kiliç, N; Oktay, H
PROBLEM/OBJECTIVES: Maxillary constriction and high palatal arch are associated with increased risk of chronic eustachian tube dysfunction and conductive hearing loss (CHL) due to chronic effusion. However, this relationship has not been clearly demonstrated. This study assessed CHL in school children with a narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault. Thirty-two children with maxillary constriction were randomly selected for the study group and 28 children with normal transverse maxillary development were selected for the control group. Pure-tone audiograms were obtained for all children, and hearing levels and air-bone gaps were measured. Air-bone gap measurements in the control group ranged from 5.50 to 14.50 decibels (dB), and in the study group they were between 5.00 and 24.00 dB. In the study group, 14 (43.8%) children had slight CHL, and the remaining 18 (56.2%) children had normal hearing levels. In the control group, all of the children had normal hearing levels. Hearing levels and air-bone gaps were greater in the study group than the control group. This study showed that children with a narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault may have slight CHL. Therefore, the onset of CHL should be followed with hearing screening programs.
Coppens, K.M.; Tellings, A.E.J.M.; Veld, W.M. van der; Schreuder, R.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
In the present study we examined the effect of hearing status on reading vocabulary development. More specifically, we examined the change of lexical competence in children with hearing loss over grade 4-7 and the predictors of this change. Therefore, we used a multi-factor longitudinal design with
Lederberg, Amy R.; Schick, Brenda; Spencer, Patricia E.
Childhood hearing loss presents challenges to language development, especially spoken language. In this article, we review existing literature on deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children's patterns and trajectories of language as well as development of theory of mind and literacy. Individual trajectories vary significantly, reflecting access to…
Dr. Younes Lotfi
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing impairment affects all aspect of individual life, specially language and communication skills. When hearing impairment is congenital or occurs early in life, the child’s ability to learn optimally through audition, will be affected. The aim of this study was to evaluate linguistic skills of preschool hearing impaired children and compare these skills with normal peers.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 38 preschool hearing impaired children that the main handicap was severe to profound hearing loss with ability to communicate orally and 28 normal children with the same cultural and social context. Twenty four non linguistic variables including age, gender, the age of entrance of preschool center, number of hearing aids, etc. were obtained by filling a questionnaire and fifteen linguistics variables including number of utterance, morphemes, correct utterance, noun phrase, ambiguous utterance, correct sentences, compound sentences, etc. were collected by some part of TOLD-P-3 test and three complementary questions. Then we compared the data from two groups.Results: There were significant differences between number of utterance, number of correct mean length utterance, number of well-formed sentences in normal and hearing impaired group (p0.05.Conclusion: This study showed a severe deficit in linguistic skills in preschool hearing impaired children.
Coppens, Karien M.; Tellings, Agnes; van der Veld, William; Schreuder, Robert; Verhoeven, Ludo
In the present study we examined the effect of hearing status on reading vocabulary development. More specifically, we examined the change of lexical competence in children with hearing loss over grade 4-7 and the predictors of this change. Therefore, we used a multi-factor longitudinal design with multiple outcomes, measuring the reading…
Shenglin, Liu; Raver, Sharon A.
In the last decade, China began developing early intervention services for very young children with hearing loss, and their families. This article presents a broad description of some of these programs, including the national rehabilitation networks for speech and hearing training, increased attention on the development of professionals, the…
Nasralla, Heloisa Romeiro
Full Text Available Introduction The factors that affect the development of children with and without hearing disabilities are similar, provided their innate communication abilities are taken into account. Parents need to mourn the loss of the expected normally hearing child, and it is important that parents create bonds of affection with their child. Objective To conduct a postevaluation of the development and cognition of 20 candidates for cochlear implants between 1 and 13 years of age and to observe important factors in their development. Methods The following instruments were used in accordance with their individual merits: interviews with parents; the Vineland Social Maturity Scale; the Columbia Maturity Scale; free drawings; Bender and Pre-Bender testing; and pedagogical tests. Results The results are described. Conclusion Parental acceptance of a child's deafness proved to be the starting point for the child's verbal or gestural communication development, as well as for cognitive, motor, and emotional development. If the association between deafness and fine motor skills (with or without multiple disabilities undermines the development of a child's speech, it does not greatly affect communication when the child interacts with his or her peers and receives maternal stimulation. Overprotection and poor sociability make children less independent, impairs their development, and causes low self-esteem. Further observational studies are warranted to determine how cochlear implants contribute to patient recovery.
Nasralla, Heloisa Romeiro; Goffi Gomez, Maria Valéria Schimidt; Magalhaes, Ana Tereza; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira
Introduction The factors that affect the development of children with and without hearing disabilities are similar, provided their innate communication abilities are taken into account. Parents need to mourn the loss of the expected normally hearing child, and it is important that parents create bonds of affection with their child. Objective To conduct a postevaluation of the development and cognition of 20 candidates for cochlear implants between 1 and 13 years of age and to observe important factors in their development. Methods The following instruments were used in accordance with their individual merits: interviews with parents; the Vineland Social Maturity Scale; the Columbia Maturity Scale; free drawings; Bender and Pre-Bender testing; and pedagogical tests. Results The results are described. Conclusion Parental acceptance of a child's deafness proved to be the starting point for the child's verbal or gestural communication development, as well as for cognitive, motor, and emotional development. If the association between deafness and fine motor skills (with or without multiple disabilities) undermines the development of a child's speech, it does not greatly affect communication when the child interacts with his or her peers and receives maternal stimulation. Overprotection and poor sociability make children less independent, impairs their development, and causes low self-esteem. Further observational studies are warranted to determine how cochlear implants contribute to patient recovery.
Eisen, Isabel; Cunningham, Barbara Jane; Campbell, Wenonah
This review summarized studies that used participatory photography with children with disabilities, including those with communication impairments, and described modifications made to the methodology to facilitate their participation in qualitative research. In the fall of 2016, we searched Psycinfo (OVID), ERIC, CINAHL and Web of Science to identify studies that used participatory photography with children with disabilities. The search was repeated in January 2018 to retrieve any new publications. The first author extracted data that described the characteristics of each study and the modifications used. Of the 258 articles identified, 19 met inclusion criteria. Participants ranged from 4-21 years old and had a variety of disabilities. Study topics included education, leisure activities and adulthood. Researchers modified participatory photography to enhance accessibility by: modifying cameras; providing individual training; teaching consent through role play; allowing children to direct adults to take photographs; including additional forms of media; using diaries and questionnaires; providing individual interviews with simplified questions; using multiple forms of communication; and modifying how photographs are shared. Participatory photography can be an effective method for studying the lived experiences of children with disabilities, particularly those with communication impairments. Methodological modifications can enhance the accessibility of this approach for this population. Implications for Rehabilitation Participatory photography may be an effective qualitative research method for learning about the perspectives and experiences of children with disabilities on a wide array of topics. There are many specific modifications that researchers can use to support the inclusion of children with disabilities in participatory photography research. The findings of studies that use participatory photography methodology may provide rehabilitation professionals
Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.
Background: This study examined whether service utilisation among children with intellectual disability (ID) varied by ethnic cultural group. Method: Survey carried out in four special schools in London. Information was provided by school teachers using case files, and 242 children aged 7 to 17 years with mild and moderate ID were identified.…
Study investigated why teachers exclude children with intellectual disability from the regular classrooms in Nigeria. Participants were, 169 regular teachers randomly selected from Oyo and Ogun states. Questionnaire was used to collect data result revealed that 57.4% regular teachers could not cope with children with ID ...
De, Sukanya; Small, Jacqueline; Baur, Louise A.
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with developmental disabilities attending a metropolitan Diagnosis and Assessment Service. Method: A retrospective chart review was carried out for 98 children (67 male) aged 2-18 years. Data on age, sex, weight, height, and severity of…
Hartman, Esther; Smith, J.; Westendorp, M.; Visscher, C.
BackgroundFew studies examined the development of physical fitness in children and youth with intellectual disabilities (ID), but the developmental patterns of physical fitness are largely unknown. The first aim was to examine physical fitness of primary school children with ID, aged 8-12, and
Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee
Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…
Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the problems that parents or caregivers of children with mental health disabilities and disorders in Namibia experience when accessing healthcare resources for their children. Method: Data was collected through focus group discussions with the participants and ...
Background. Children with disabling chronic conditions often have extensive, complex and unmet healthcare and educational needs. ... such children that access specialist health and special educational services, particularly in an urban setting, and what services exist for them. ..... Kromberg J, Zwane E, Manga P, et al.
Fuchs, Douglas; And Others
Two studies were conducted to compare the performance instability of children (grades 3-9) labeled learning disabled/brain injured (LD/BI) to the performance instability of emotionally handicapped (EH) children. In the first study, 50 LD/BI and 37 EH students were measured on three third grade reading passages twice, once within one sitting and…
Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others
Explored the impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled (LD) children. Important predictors of self-esteem improvement were the child's hypnotic susceptibility score and self-hypnotic practice by children and parents. Hypnotherapy is of potential benefit to self-esteem…
Raja, B. William Dharma; Kumar, S. Praveen
This paper focusses on the need and benefit of using multimedia applications to cater to the needs of children with learning disabilities. The children with special educational needs found in various schools may face difficulties in acquiring academic skills such as reading, spelling, writing, speaking, understanding, listening, thinking or…
Johnson, R A; Khatena, J
Verbal originality scores were obtained from Onomatopoeia and Images, Form 1B, given to 181 deaf and 236 hearing Ss aged 10 to 19 yr. The hearing Ss scored significantly higher than the deaf Ss. Significant main effects for age were found but not for sex. The only significant interaction was found for hearing status and age. Deaf Ss became more productive as age increased, while performance of hearing Ss relative to age fluctuated.
Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Goel, Sonu; Das, Shyam Sinder; Sarkar, Siddharth; Sharma, Vijaylaxmi; Panigrahi, Mahima
To assess the prevalence and patterns of learning disabilities (LD) in school going children in a northern city of India. The present cross-sectional study comprised of three-staged screening procedure for assessing learning disabilities of 3rd and 4th grade students studying in government schools. The first stage comprised of the teacher identifying at-risk student. In the second stage, teachers assessed at-risk students using Specific Learning Disability-Screening Questionnaire (SLD-SQ). The third stage comprised of assessment of the screen positive students using Brigance Diagnostic Inventory (BDI) part of NIMHANS Index of Specific Learning Disabilities for identifying the cases of LD. A total of 1211 (33.6%) children out of the total screened (n = 3600) were identified as at-risk by the teachers at the first stage. Of them, 360 were found to screen positive on the second stage using SLD-SQ. The most common deficits were missing out words or sentences while reading, misplacing letters or words while reading or writing, and making frequent mistake in spelling while writing or reading. Of these, 108 children were confirmed to have learning disability on the third stage using BDI, which represented 3.08% of the total population. Learning disability is an important concern in young school aged children. Early identification of such students can help in early institution of intervention and suitable modifications in teaching techniques.
Mahomed-Asmail, Faheema; Swanepoel, De Wet; Eikelboom, Robert H
This study aimed to describe the prevalence and characteristics of hearing loss in school-aged children in an urban South African population. Children from grade one to three from five schools in the Gauteng Province of South Africa formed a representative sample for this study. All children underwent otoscopic examinations, tympanometry and pure tone screening (25dB HL at 1, 2 and 4kHz). Children who failed the screening test and 5% of those who passed the screening test underwent diagnostic audiometry. A total of 1070 children were screened. Otoscopic examinations revealed that a total of 6.6% ears had cerumen and 7.5% of ears presented with a type-B tympanogram. 24 children (12 male, 12 female) were diagnosed with hearing loss. The overall prevalence of hearing loss was 2.2% with Caucasian children being 2.9 times more (95% confidence interval, 1.2-6.9) likely to have a hearing loss than African children. Hearing loss prevalence in urban South African school-aged children suggest that many children (2.2%) are in need of some form of follow-up services, most for medical intervention (1.2%) with a smaller population requiring audiological intervention (0.4%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hammer, Annemiek; Coene, Martine
In this study, the acquisition of Dutch finite verb morphology is investigated in children with cochlear implants (CIs) with profound hearing loss and in children with hearing aids (HAs) with moderate to severe hearing loss. Comparing these two groups of children increases our insight into how hearing experience and audibility affect the acquisition of morphosyntax. Spontaneous speech samples were analyzed of 48 children with CIs and 29 children with HAs, ages 4 to 7 years. These language samples were analyzed by means of standardized language analysis involving mean length of utterance, the number of finite verbs produced, and target-like subject-verb agreement. The outcomes were interpreted relative to expectations based on the performance of typically developing peers with normal hearing. Outcomes of all measures were correlated with hearing level in the group of HA users and age at implantation in the group of CI users. For both groups, the number of finite verbs that were produced in 50-utterance sample was on par with mean length of utterance and at the lower bound of the normal distribution. No significant differences were found between children with CIs and HAs on any of the measures under investigation. Yet, both groups produced more subject-verb agreement errors than are to be expected for typically developing hearing peers. No significant correlation was found between the hearing level of the children and the relevant measures of verb morphology, both with respect to the overall number of verbs that were used and the number of errors that children made. Within the group of CI users, the outcomes were significantly correlated with age at implantation. When producing finite verb morphology, profoundly deaf children wearing CIs perform similarly to their peers with moderate-to-severe hearing loss wearing HAs. Hearing loss negatively affects the acquisition of subject-verb agreement regardless of the hearing device (CI or HA) that the child is wearing. The
BIN YAO; HAN-RONG WU
Objective To investigate prevalence rate of learning disabilities (LD) in Chinese children, and to explore related risk factors, and to provide theoretical basis for preventing such disabilities.Methods One thousand and one hundred fifty one children were randomly selected in primary schools. According to criteria set by ICD-10, 118 children diagnosed as LD were classified into the study group. Four hundred and ninety one children were classified into the normal control group. Five hundred and forty two children were classified into the excellent control group. The study instruments included PRS (The pupil rating scale revised screening for learning disabilities), Conners' children behavior check-list taken by parents and YG-WR character check-list. Results The prevalence rate of LD in Chinese children was 10.3%. Significant differences were observed between LD and normally learning children, and between the LD group and the excellent group, in terms of scores of Conners' behavior check-list (P＜0.05). The study further showed that individual differences in character between the LD group and the control groups still existed even after controlling individual differences in age, IQ, and gender. Some possible causal explanations contributing to LD were improper teaching by parents, low educational level of the parents, and children's characteristics and social relationships. Conclusion These data underscore the fact that LD is a serious national public health problem in China. LD is resulted from a number of factors. Good studying and living environments should be created for LD children.
Schönweiler, R; Schönweiler, B; Schmelzeisen, R
Children with cleft palates often suffer from chronic conductive hearing losses, delayed language acquisition and speech disorders. This study presents results of speech and language outcomes in relation to hearing function and types of palatal malformations found. 417 children with cleft palates were examined during followup evaluations that extended over several years. Disorders were studied as they affected the ears, nose and throat, audiometry and speech and language pathology. Children with isolated cleft lips were excluded. Among the total group, 8% had normal speech and language development while 92% had speech or language disorders. 80% of these latter children had hearing problems that predominantly consisted of fluctuating conductive hearing losses caused by otitis media with effusion. 5% had sensorineural hearing losses. Fifty-eight children (14%) with rhinolalia aperta were not improved by speech therapy and required velopharyngoplasties, using a cranial-based pharyngeal flap. Language skills did not depend on the type of cleft palate presents but on the frequency and amount of hearing loss found. Otomicroscopy and audiometric follow-ups with insertions of ventilation tubes were considered to be most important for language development in those children with repeated middle ear infections. Speech or language therapy was necessary in 49% of the children.
Peterson, Candida C
In the context of the established finding that theory-of-mind (ToM) growth is seriously delayed in late-signing deaf children, and some evidence of equivalent delays in those learning speech with conventional hearing aids, this study's novel contribution was to explore ToM development in deaf children with cochlear implants. Implants can substantially boost auditory acuity and rates of language growth. Despite the implant, there are often problems socialising with hearing peers and some language difficulties, lending special theoretical interest to the present comparative design. A total of 52 children aged 4 to 12 years took a battery of false belief tests of ToM. There were 26 oral deaf children, half with implants and half with hearing aids, evenly divided between oral-only versus sign-plus-oral schools. Comparison groups of age-matched high-functioning children with autism and younger hearing children were also included. No significant ToM differences emerged between deaf children with implants and those with hearing aids, nor between those in oral-only versus sign-plus-oral schools. Nor did the deaf children perform any better on the ToM tasks than their age peers with autism. Hearing preschoolers scored significantly higher than all other groups. For the deaf and the autistic children, as well as the preschoolers, rate of language development and verbal maturity significantly predicted variability in ToM, over and above chronological age. The finding that deaf children with cochlear implants are as delayed in ToM development as children with autism and their deaf peers with hearing aids or late sign language highlights the likely significance of peer interaction and early fluent communication with peers and family, whether in sign or in speech, in order to optimally facilitate the growth of social cognition and language.
Full Text Available Since the 1970s, outcome studies for children with hearing loss expanded from focusing on assessing auditory awareness and speech perception skills to evaluating language and speech development. Since the early 2000s, the multi-center large scale research systematically studied outcomes in the areas of auditory awareness, speech-perception, language development, speech development, educational achievements, cognitive development, and psychosocial development. These studies advocated the establishment of baseline and regular follow-up evaluations with a comprehensive framework centered on language development. Recent research interests also include understanding the vast differences in outcomes for children with hearing loss, understanding the relationships between neurocognitive development and language acquisition in children with hearing loss, and using outcome studies to guide evidence-based clinical practice. After the establishment of standardized Mandarin language assessments, outcomes research in Mainland China has the potential to expand beyond auditory awareness and speech perception studies.
Rafaela Fava de Quevedo
Full Text Available This experience report describes a group phenomenon, based upon a case study of a group of hearing mothers of deaf children. The weekly group, in operation for over three years, provides support for families with deaf children. At first, observations were made in the group for a subsequent analysis of the data and act on interventions. Categories containing the main features that emerged in the group were created in order to discuss the content found. The categories addressed by mothers included: independence/autonomy of the child; adolescence and sexuality; discovery of deafness and reorganization of family dynamics; and matters beyond the group goal. As for the categories related to the group process there are: resistance; containing function of the coordinator; transfer; interventions in the group field. The results lead to understanding the group as a facilitator and as a necessary support for the participants. Before that, interventions were carried out to expand the space for reflection offered by the group, which provides adaptations to the different situations experienced by the participants.
de Castro, Alessandra Maia; de Oliveira, Fabiana Sodré; de Paiva Novaes, Myrian Stella; Araújo Ferreira, Danielly Cunha
This study compared the parental acceptance of pediatric behavior guidance techniques (BGT). Forty parents of children without disabilities (Group A) and another 40 parents of children with disabilities (Group B) were selected. Each BGT was explained by a single examiner and it was presented together with a photograph album. After that parents evaluated the acceptance in: totally unacceptable, somewhat acceptable, acceptable, and totally acceptable. Results indicated that in Group A, the BGT based on communicative guidance was accepted by most participants. In Group B, just one mother considered totally unacceptable the voice control method and other two, tell-show-do. For both groups, the general anesthesia was the less accepted BGT. There was statistically significant difference in acceptance for protective stabilization with a restrictive device in Group B. Children's parents with and without disabilities accepted behavioral guidance techniques, but basic techniques showed higher rates of acceptance than advanced techniques. ©2013 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Memisevic, Haris; Sinanovic, Osman
The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of epilepsy in children with intellectual disability. An additional goal was to determine if there were statistical differences in the occurrence of epilepsy related to the sex, level and etiology of intellectual disability of children. The sample consisted of 167 children with intellectual…
Hidalgo, Céline; Falk, Simone; Schön, Daniele
This study investigates temporal adaptation in speech interaction in children with normal hearing and in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and/or hearing aids (HAs). We also address the question of whether musical rhythmic training can improve these skills in children with hearing loss (HL). Children named pictures presented on the screen in alternation with a virtual partner. Alternation rate (fast or slow) and the temporal predictability (match vs mismatch of stress occurrences) were manipulated. One group of children with normal hearing (NH) and one with HL were tested. The latter group was tested twice: once after 30 min of speech therapy and once after 30 min of musical rhythmic training. Both groups of children (NH and with HL) can adjust their speech production to the rate of alternation of the virtual partner. Moreover, while children with normal hearing benefit from the temporal regularity of stress occurrences, children with HL become sensitive to this manipulation only after rhythmic training. Rhythmic training may help children with HL to structure the temporal flow of their verbal interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research conducted since the early 1900s has consistently identified differences between deaf and hearing children on performance of a wide variety of motor tasks, most notably balance. Our study was performed to test static and dynamic balance skills in congenital severe to profound hearing impaired children in comparison with normal age-matched children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 severe to profound hearing impaired and 40 normal children with age 6 to 10 years old. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency 2, balance subset with 9 parts was used for evaluation of balance skills.Results: Hearing-impaired children showed 16.7 to 100% fail results in 7 parts of the balance subset. In normal children fail result was revealed just in 3 parts of the balance subset from 2.5 to 57.5%, and differences between two groups were significant (p<0.0001. There was a significant difference between two groups in two static balance skills of standing on one leg on a line and standing on one leg on a balance beam with eyes closed (p<0.0001.conclusion: It seems that development of static balance skills are longer than dynamic ones. Because severe to profound hearing-impaired children showed more weakness than normal children in both static and dynamic balance abilities, functional tests of balance proficiency can help to identify balance disorders in these children.
Netten, Anouk P; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Korver, Anna M H; Konings, Saskia; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Dekker, Friedo W; Frijns, Johan H M
Permanent childhood hearing impairment often results in speech and language problems that are already apparent in early childhood. Past studies show a clear link between language skills and the child's social-emotional functioning. The aim of this study was to examine the level of language and communication skills after the introduction of early identification services and their relation with social functioning and behavioral problems in deaf and hard of hearing children. Nationwide cross-sectional observation of a cohort of 85 early identified deaf and hard of hearing preschool children (aged 30-66 months). Parents reported on their child's communicative abilities (MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory III), social functioning and appearance of behavioral problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Receptive and expressive language skills were measured using the Reynell Developmental Language Scale and the Schlichting Expressive Language Test, derived from the child's medical records. Language and communicative abilities of early identified deaf and hard of hearing children are not on a par with hearing peers. Compared to normative scores from hearing children, parents of deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower social functioning and more behavioral problems. Higher communicative abilities were related to better social functioning and less behavioral problems. No relation was found between the degree of hearing loss, age at amplification, uni- or bilateral amplification, mode of communication and social functioning and behavioral problems. These results suggest that improving the communicative abilities of deaf and hard of hearing children could improve their social-emotional functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vidranski, Tihomir; Farkaš, Daria
Hearing impairment is a major limitation in communication, and it can obstruct psychological development, development of social skills and motor development. Hearing impairment is the third most common contemporary chronic health condition, and it has become a public health problem. The effectiveness of problem solving in everyday life and in emergency situations depends greatly on the amount and quality of the motor programs. Therefore, it is evident that the normal motor development in persons with hearing impairment is essential for everyday life. The aim of this research is to analyze the available information pertaining to motor skills of hearing impaired children both with and without a cochlear implant (CI) and to analyze possibilities of influencing their motor skills. The relevant studies on motor skills of hearing impaired children both with and without CI were obtained by an extensive computer search of various databases using special keywords and extraction with respect to certain criteria, resulting in 22 studies. The overall results of this systematic review indicate that the children with hearing impairment exhibit suboptimal levels of motor skills especially balance. Very few studies compared children with hearing impairment with CI units and without CI units and the results of those studies are quite contradictory. Numerous studies have confirmed that the regular and appropriate physical exercise can improve motor skills of children with hearing impairment, especially balance. The fact that the development of motor skills is crucial for the child's interaction with the outside world, action, perception and acquisition of academic skills and other skills necessary for life shows the importance of motor skills development for children with hearing impairment.
Cureton, Adam; Silvers, Anita
Prevailing philosophies about parental and other caregiver responsibilities toward children tend to be protectionist, grounded in informed benevolence in a way that countenances rather than circumvents intrusive paternalism. And among the kinds of children an adult might be called upon to parent or otherwise care for, children with disabilities figure among those for whom the strongest and snuggest shielding is supposed be deployed. In this article, we examine whether this equation of securing well-being with sheltering by protective parents and other care-givers should unreflectively be adopted for disabled children. We also consider why healthcare providers might reasonably be reluctant to yield to this principle, even if parents instinctively suppose that protectionism is the parenting policy that best serves their disabled child's interest. We contend that caregivers owe children with disabilities at least as much, and possibly more, respect for self-governance than other children need. In spite of disabled children's vulnerability and even in view of it, we argue that they should be accorded not only welfare rights to well-being but at least a modified version of liberty rights as well. Healthcare providers are especially favorably positioned to facilitate the latter response. The main components of respectful caregiving can come into conflict with one another, but we present some priorities that advise against adopting a protectionist account of parenting rights, or at least against accepting protectionist views that focus parenting narrowly on shaping ideas about the child's welfare. In sum, caring for a disabled child, we argue, involves more than creating conditions that will afford her contentment and comfort over the course of life.
Gissel, S.; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll; Juul, S.
Since previous studies have shown reduced hearing ability in children and adolescents at school start, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hearing ability in Danish children at the time of start and end of school. Children starting school in 1977, 1987, and 1997 from four minor municipalities...... in North Jutland County, Denmark were evaluated for hearing ability by a review of 1,605 school health records. We found a higher prevalence of impaired hearing ability in children who started school 1987 and 1997 compared to those who started school 1977. Reduced hearing was typically at high frequencies....... At the end of school, hearing ability of the year group 1977 was just as poor as for the year group 1987. Whether reduced hearing can influence the learning abilities of these children should be evaluated by further studies including information on the exposure to noise....
Sayin, Kubra; Ilik, Senay
This study aimed to determine whether dietary patterns and feeding problems differ among children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and typically developing children (TDC) in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 220 (112 children with ID and 108 TDC) 7-12 aged children in Konya, Turkey. We assessed usual dietary intakes by a…
Crowe, Kathryn; McKinnon, David H.; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y. C.
Understanding the relationship between children's cultural and linguistic diversity and child, caregiver, and environmental characteristics is important to ensure appropriate educational expectations and provisions. As part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, children's caregivers and educators completed…
Ghadim, Nafiseh Alaghehband; Jomhari, Nazean; Alias, Norlidah; Rashid, Syar Meeze Mohd; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd
An interview with parents of children with hearing impairment was carried out in the initial study since the coordinated effort of parents and children is essential in the education of children. Considering that this interview was appropriate for collecting qualitative-oriented data, it has been chosen as the knowledge elicitation method. In most…
Halliday, Lorna F.; Tuomainen, Outi; Rosen, Stuart
Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine language development and factors related to language impairments in children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL). Method: Ninety children, aged 8-16 years (46 children with MMHL; 44 aged-matched controls), were administered a battery of standardized language assessments, including…
Marshall, C. R.; Jones, A.; Fastelli, A.; Atkinson, J.; Botting, N.; Morgan, G.
Background: Deafness has an adverse impact on children's ability to acquire spoken languages. Signed languages offer a more accessible input for deaf children, but because the vast majority are born to hearing parents who do not sign, their early exposure to sign language is limited. Deaf children as a whole are therefore at high risk of language…
Describes a British outdoor program in which 11- and 12-year-old students were placed in mixed groups containing several ethnic groups and hearing and deaf children. Includes children's comments on outdoor activities, their relationships with other children, and communication problems and their resolution. An adjacent page illustrates 12 British…
Raya Trenas, Antonio Félix; Pino Osuna, M. José; Herruzo Cabrera, Javier; Ruiz Olivares, Rosario
In order to explain the worst levels of adaptation showed by children with disabilities in relation to non disabled children, this paper aims to carry out a review of the most important advances achieved in recent decades in the study of parenting styles and parenting practices in relation to academic competence and behavior problems of children with and without disabilities. For this, we have carried out an analysis of the main works that show this relationship in the population,...
Reesman, Jennifer H; Day, Lori A; Szymanski, Christen A; Hughes-Wheatland, Roxanne; Witkin, Gregory A; Kalback, Shawn R; Brice, Patrick J
Intellectual assessment of children who are deaf or hard of hearing presents unique challenges to the clinician charged with attempting to obtain an accurate representation of the child's skills. Selection of appropriate intellectual assessment instruments requires a working knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the measure and what changes in standardized administration might be necessary to accommodate for the needs of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. In the case of some available instruments, there is limited guidance and objective research available examining the performance of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. This review summarizes available information on widely used and most recent editions of intellectual assessment measures with special attention to guidance on accommodations, score interpretation, subtest selection and other test-specific considerations when assessing children who are deaf or hard of hearing. There is much opportunity for further inquiry in the field of intellectual assessment as it applies to children who are deaf or hard of hearing, as many measures have not been closely scrutinized for their appropriate use with this population. Clinicians must recognize inherent difficulties with intellectual assessment measures with children who are deaf or hard of hearing and issues in providing for an accessible and accurate administration of test items. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Thaís Giudice Schultz
Full Text Available Objective: This article describes an experience report that aimed to present perceptions on the care of children with disabilities in the Family Health Strategy (FHS, showing its limits and potentials based on the experience of participation in the program ‘PET-Saúde’. Method: Data were collected from field notes which recorded the monitoring of the care process offered to children with disabilities by the FHS teams. The study was conducted in a health facility in the city of Rio de Janeiro for one year. Results: Content analysis results listed the two main themes that composed the issues of concern for child care in this experience: the coordination of health care and the family and community orientation as the core for child care in the FHS. Conclusion: Despite the weakness in compliance with these categories, which are principles and fundamentals of the FHS, this is a privileged space with regard to care practices for children with disabilities.
Teodiano Freire Bastos
Full Text Available Severe disabled children have little chance of environmental and social exploration and discovery, and due to this lack of interaction and independency, it may lead to an idea that they are unable to do anything by themselves. Trying to help these children on this situation, educational robotics can offer and aid, once it can give them a certain degree of independency in exploration of environment. The system developed in this work allows the child to transmit the commands to a robot. Sensors placed on the child’s body can obtain information from head movement or muscle signals to command the robot to carry out tasks. With the use of this system, the disabled children get a better cognitive development and social interaction, balancing in a certain way, the negative effects of their disabilities.
Pittman, A L; Lewis, D E; Hoover, B M; Stelmachowicz, P G
This study examined rapid word-learning in 5- to 14-year-old children with normal and impaired hearing. The effects of age and receptive vocabulary were examined as well as those of high-frequency amplification. Novel words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz (typical of current amplification devices) and at 9 kHz. It was hypothesized that (1) the children with normal hearing would learn more words than the children with hearing loss, (2) word-learning would increase with age and receptive vocabulary for both groups, and (3) both groups would benefit from a broader frequency bandwidth. Sixty children with normal hearing and 37 children with moderate sensorineural hearing losses participated in this study. Each child viewed a 4-minute animated slideshow containing 8 nonsense words created using the 24 English consonant phonemes (3 consonants per word). Each word was repeated 3 times. Half of the 8 words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz and half were filtered at 9 kHz. After viewing the story twice, each child was asked to identify the words from among pictures in the slide show. Before testing, a measure of current receptive vocabulary was obtained using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III). The PPVT-III scores of the hearing-impaired children were consistently poorer than those of the normal-hearing children across the age range tested. A similar pattern of results was observed for word-learning in that the performance of the hearing-impaired children was significantly poorer than that of the normal-hearing children. Further analysis of the PPVT and word-learning scores suggested that although word-learning was reduced in the hearing-impaired children, their performance was consistent with their receptive vocabularies. Additionally, no correlation was found between overall performance and the age of identification, age of amplification, or years of amplification in the children with hearing loss. Results also revealed a small increase in performance for both
Preminger, Jill E; Montano, Joseph J; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe third-party disability experienced by adult-children as a result of hearing impairment (HI) in a parent. DESIGN: Using semi-structured interviews, participants were asked to describe the impact of a parent's HI on their relationship and communication...... factors of family relationships, communication situations, and the parent's personality, adult-children considered their coping strategies and feelings that arose as a result of the HI. Coping strategies included putting forth effort in communication, yelling as an ineffective communication strategy......, and providing support to the parent with HI. The described feelings included frustration, uncertainty, and loss surrounding their communication and relationship with their parent with HI. These feelings arose as a result of implementing coping strategies, plus these feelings drove the employment of coping...
Holmes, Emma; Kitterick, Padraig T; Summerfield, A Quentin
Restoring normal hearing requires knowledge of how peripheral and central auditory processes are affected by hearing loss. Previous research has focussed primarily on peripheral changes following sensorineural hearing loss, whereas consequences for central auditory processing have received less attention. We examined the ability of hearing-impaired children to direct auditory attention to a voice of interest (based on the talker's spatial location or gender) in the presence of a common form of background noise: the voices of competing talkers (i.e. during multi-talker, or "Cocktail Party" listening). We measured brain activity using electro-encephalography (EEG) when children prepared to direct attention to the spatial location or gender of an upcoming target talker who spoke in a mixture of three talkers. Compared to normally-hearing children, hearing-impaired children showed significantly less evidence of preparatory brain activity when required to direct spatial attention. This finding is consistent with the idea that hearing-impaired children have a reduced ability to prepare spatial attention for an upcoming talker. Moreover, preparatory brain activity was not restored when hearing-impaired children listened with their acoustic hearing aids. An implication of these findings is that steps to improve auditory attention alongside acoustic hearing aids may be required to improve the ability of hearing-impaired children to understand speech in the presence of competing talkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article reviews 68 hearings and cases concerned with disputes regarding individualized education programs (IEPs) for students with disabilities. It concludes that IEP goals must be matched to evaluation data, team members must be qualified to develop programs, and the methodology selected must be able to assist the students in achieving…
Full Text Available Objectives: Auditory perception or hearing ability is critical for children in acquisition of language and speech hence hearing loss has different effects on individuals’ linguistic perception, and also on their functions. It seems that deaf people suffer from language and speech impairments such as in perception of complex linguistic constructions. This research was aimed to study the perception of complex syntactic constructions in children with hearing-impairment. Methods: The study design was case-control. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, twenty children with severe to profound hearing impairment, aged 8-12 years and twenty normal-hearing children, aged 6-7 years were selected in a simple random sampling from exceptional schools for deaf people and from normal kindergartens and schools for normal cases. The perception of sentences was tested by using a researcher-made task called sentence-picture matching task. At first the content validity was determined and then the reliability was confirmed with Cronbach Alpha Test. Data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Independent Samples T-Test and Mann-Whitney U Test using SPSS. Results: Perception of the group with hearing-impairment was significantly lower than the normal control group. The hearing-impaired children failed to perceive complex syntactic structures. Linguistic function of the group with hearing-impairment on perception of sentences with simple word order was better than on complex sentences. Discussion: If rich linguistic inputs are not available for children during the critical period of the first language acquisition, the syntactic skill, especially in complex syntactic constructions, will not normally develop. In order to establish a foundation for a healthy perfect development of syntax, at the early years of life, children should be exposed to a natural language.
Fu, Mingfu; Wang, Liyan; Zhang, Mengchao; Yang, Ying; Sun, Xibin
a) To examine the effects of sensorineural hearing loss on the discriminability of linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli at the cortical level, and b) to examine whether the cortical responses differ based on the chronological age at intervention, the degree of hearing loss, or the acoustic stimulation mode in children with severe and profound hearing loss. Mismatch negativity (MMN) responses were collected from 43 children with severe and profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, and 20 children with normal hearing (age: 3-6 years). In the non-verbal stimulation condition, pure tones with frequencies of 1 kHz and 1.1 kHz were used as the standard and the deviant respectively. In the verbal stimulation condition, the Chinese mandarin tokens/ba2/and/ba4/were used as the standard and the deviant respectively. Latency and amplitude of the MMN responses were collected and analyzed. Overall, children with hearing loss showed longer latencies and lower amplitudes of the MMN responses to both non-verbal and verbal stimulations. The latency of the verbal/ba2/-/ba4/pair was longer than that of the nonverbal 1 kHz-1.1 kHz pair in both groups of children. Children with hearing loss, especially those who received intervention after 2 years of age, showed substantial weakness in the neural responses to lexical tones and pure tones. Thus, the chronological age when the children receive hearing intervention may have an impact on the effectiveness of discriminating between verbal and non-verbal signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rissatto, Mara Renata; Novaes, Beatriz Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Caiuby
during the fitting of hearing aids in children it is important, besides using a verification protocol, to have a validation process. to describe and discuss the use of a protocol for the fitting and the verification of hearing aids in children, as well as the impact of the adjustment of the acoustic characteristics in speech perception tasks. ten children aging from three to eleven years were enrolled in this study. All children presented bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, were users of hearing aids and were followed at a public hearing health care service in Bahia. The children were submitted to the following procedures: pure tone air and bone conduction thresholds; real-ear coupler difference (RECD); verification with real-ear measurement equipment: coupler gain/output and insertion gain and to speech perception tasks: 'The Six-Sound Test' (Ling, 2006) and the 'Word Associations for Syllable Perception' (WASP - Koch, 1999). The programmed electro acoustic characteristics of the hearing aids were compared to the electro acoustic characteristics prescribed by the DSL [i/o] v4.1 software. The speech perception tasks were reapplied on three occasions: straight after the modification of the electro acoustic characteristics, after 30 days and 60 days. for more than 50% of the tested children, the programmed electro acoustic characteristics of the hearing aids did not correspond to that suggested by the DSL [i/o] software. Adequate prescription was verified in 70% of the investigated sample; this was also confirmed by the results in the speech perception tasks (p=0.000). This data confirmed that the mean percentage of correct answers increased after the modification of the electro acoustic characteristics. the use of a protocol that verifies and validates the fitting of hearing aids in children is necessary.
Mirandola, Chiara; Losito, Nunzia; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare
Research has shown that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less prone to evince associative illusions of memory as a result of impairments in their ability to engage in semantic processing. However, it is unclear whether this observation is true for scripted life events, especially if they include emotional content, or across a broad spectrum of learning disabilities. The present study addressed these issues by assessing recognition memory for script-like information in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), children with dyslexia, and typically developing children (N=51). Participants viewed photographs about 8 common events (e.g., family dinner), and embedded in each episode was either a negative or a neutral consequence of an unseen action. Children's memory was then tested on a yes/no recognition task that included old and new photographs. Results showed that the three groups performed similarly in recognizing target photographs, but exhibited differences in memory errors. Compared to other groups, children with NLD were more likely to falsely recognize photographs that depicted an unseen cause of an emotional seen event and associated more "Remember" responses to these errors. Children with dyslexia were equally likely to falsely recognize both unseen causes of seen photographs and photographs generally consistent with the script, whereas the other participant groups were more likely to falsely recognize unseen causes rather than script-consistent distractors. Results are interpreted in terms of mechanisms underlying false memories' formation in different clinical populations of children with LD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the interaction of children with special needs and horses, which attempts to demonstrate the effects of hipoterapy in helping children with disabilities. The research was conducted on a group of 20 children with disabilities who participated in this type of therapy for 8 months (January-August 2015 in LeorinÅ£ Leisure Center and Riding Therapy, which owns 6 horses. This study was conducted by a psychologist pre- and post-evaluation and there were followed skills and cognitive function, motor skills, spatial-temporal orientation skills, sensory-perceptual organization, examining language and personality of children. In the first stage an initial assessment of children was made representing the starting point to see to what extent children are, what special needs they have and what gaps need to be recovered or what skills and qualities may be based in therapy. After 3 months of hippotherapy, in April 2015, there was made intermediar evaluation of beneficiaries to see if the intended results were achieved and where to optimise the therapy. The final evaluation was conducted in August 2015, after four months from the intermediar evaluation. Applying hippotherapy for children with various disabilities, it was found that children moving better, move better, speak more easily, communicate and become more careful. Besides outcomes of hippotherapy and results are measurable and easily to observe such as satisfaction to participate in hippotherapy sessions and gettingÂ into contact with the horses.
Studer-Eichenberger, Esther; Studer-Eichenberger, Felix; Koenig, Thomas
The objectives of the present study were to investigate temporal/spectral sound-feature processing in preschool children (4 to 7 years old) with peripheral hearing loss compared with age-matched controls. The results verified the presence of statistical learning, which was diminished in children with hearing impairments (HIs), and elucidated possible perceptual mediators of speech production. Perception and production of the syllables /ba/, /da/, /ta/, and /na/ were recorded in 13 children with normal hearing and 13 children with HI. Perception was assessed physiologically through event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded by EEG in a multifeature mismatch negativity paradigm and behaviorally through a discrimination task. Temporal and spectral features of the ERPs during speech perception were analyzed, and speech production was quantitatively evaluated using speech motor maximum performance tasks. Proximal to stimulus onset, children with HI displayed a difference in map topography, indicating diminished statistical learning. In later ERP components, children with HI exhibited reduced amplitudes in the N2 and early parts of the late disciminative negativity components specifically, which are associated with temporal and spectral control mechanisms. Abnormalities of speech perception were only subtly reflected in speech production, as the lone difference found in speech production studies was a mild delay in regulating speech intensity. In addition to previously reported deficits of sound-feature discriminations, the present study results reflect diminished statistical learning in children with HI, which plays an early and important, but so far neglected, role in phonological processing. Furthermore, the lack of corresponding behavioral abnormalities in speech production implies that impaired perceptual capacities do not necessarily translate into productive deficits.
Aras, Ivana; Stevanović, Ranko; Vlahović, Sanja; Stevanović, Siniša; Kolarić, Branko; Kondić, Ljiljana
Hearing impairment and specific language disorder are two entities that seriously affect language acquisition in children and reduce their communication skills. These children require specific treatment and higher levels of care than healthy children. Their language abilities also strongly influence parent-child interactions. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the parents of hearing-impaired children and the parents of children with speech difficulties (specific language disorder). Our study subjects included 349 parents (182 mothers and 167 fathers) of preschool-aged children with receptive expressive language disorder and 131 parents (71 mothers and 60 fathers) of children with severe hearing impairment. A control group was composed of 146 parents (82 mothers and 64 fathers) of healthy children of the same age. HRQOL was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. For all groups of parents, the mothers had poorer scores compared with the fathers, but large differences were apparent depending on the child's impairment. In the control group, the scores of the mothers were significantly lower than the fathers' scores in only two (of eight) health domains. In contrast, the scores were lower in three domains for the mothers of speech-impaired children and in six domains for the mothers of hearing-impaired children, representing the greatest difference between the parents. When compared with the control group, both the mothers and fathers of speech-impaired children scored significantly worse in five health domains. Fathers of hearing-impaired children scored significantly worse than controls in three health domains. The lowest scores, indicating the poorest HRQOL, were observed for mothers of hearing-impaired children, who obtained significantly lower scores than the control mothers in all health domains except the emotional role. The parents of preschool-aged speech-and hearing-impaired children experience poorer HRQOL
Kermanshahi, Sima Mohammad Khan; Vanaki, Zohreh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Azadfalah, Parviz
This qualitative phenomenological study explores the lived experiences of perceived support by Iranian mothers who have children with learning disability. Twelve open interviews with six mothers of learning-disabled children (7-12 years of age) were audiotape-recorded with participants' consent. The interviews were transcribed and data were analyzed using Van Manen methodology. Two major themes emerged from 138 thematic sentences. The mothers'experiences could be interpreted as a sense of being in the light or being in the shade of support, with variations for different participants. The results indicate a need for more specialized and individually adjusted support for mothers in Iran.
Tian, Yanjing; Zhou, Huifang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Dong; Xu, Yi; Guo, Yuxi
To compare the effect of rehabilitation of prelingual deaf children who used a cochlear implant (CI) in one ear and a hearing aids in the opposite ear while the hearing level of the opposite ears are different. Hearing ability, language ability and learning ability was included in the content. The aim of this research is to investigate better style of rehabilitation, and to offer the best help to the prelingual deaf children. Accord ing to the hearing level of the ear opposite to the one wearing a cochlear implant and whether the opposite ear wear a hearing aid or not, 30 prelingual deaf children were divided into three groups, including cochlear implant with opposite severe hearing loss and hearing aid ear (CI+SHA), cochlear implant with opposite profound hearing loss and hearing aid ear (CI+PHA), cochlear implant only (CI). The effect of rehabilitation was assessed in six different times (3,6,9,12,15 and 18 months after the cochlear implants and hearing aids began to work). The longer time the rehabilitation spends, the better the hearing ability,language ability and the learning ability were. The hearing ability of CI+SHA was better than those of CI+PHA (Pdeaf children should take much more time on rehabilitation. The effect of rehabilitation for prelingual deaf children who used cochlear implant in one ear and hearing aid in the other depend on the residual hearing level of the other ear. If a prelingual deaf children still has any residual hearing level in the ear opposite to the cochlear implant ear, it is better for him/her to wear a hearing aid in the ear.
Pino, María J; Castillo, Rosa A; Raya, Antonio; Herruzo, Javier
To identify possible differences in the level of externalizing behavior problems among children with and without hearing impairment and determine whether any relationship exists between this type of problem and parenting practices. The Behavior Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate externalizing variables in a sample of 118 boys and girls divided into two matched groups: 59 with hearing disorders and 59 normal-hearing controls. Significant between-group differences were found in hyperactivity, behavioral problems, and externalizing problems, but not in aggression. Significant differences were also found in various aspects of parenting styles. A model for predicting externalizing behavior problems was constructed, achieving a predicted explained variance of 50%. Significant differences do exist between adaptation levels in children with and without hearing impairment. Parenting style also plays an important role.
María J. Pino
Full Text Available Objective: To identify possible differences in the level of externalizing behavior problems among children with and without hearing impairment and determine whether any relationship exists between this type of problem and parenting practices. Methods: The Behavior Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate externalizing variables in a sample of 118 boys and girls divided into two matched groups: 59 with hearing disorders and 59 normal-hearing controls. Results: Significant between-group differences were found in hyperactivity, behavioral problems, and externalizing problems, but not in aggression. Significant differences were also found in various aspects of parenting styles. A model for predicting externalizing behavior problems was constructed, achieving a predicted explained variance of 50%. Conclusion: Significant differences do exist between adaptation levels in children with and without hearing impairment. Parenting style also plays an important role.
Melissa Jane Polonenko
Full Text Available Bilateral hearing in early development protects auditory cortices from reorganizing to prefer the better ear. Yet, such protection could be disrupted by mismatched bilateral input in children with asymmetric hearing who require electric stimulation of the auditory nerve from a cochlear implant in their deaf ear and amplified acoustic sound from a hearing aid in their better ear (bimodal hearing. Cortical responses to bimodal stimulation were measured by electroencephalography in 34 bimodal users and 16 age-matched peers with normal hearing, and compared with the same measures previously reported for 28 age-matched bilateral implant users. Both auditory cortices increasingly favoured the better ear with delay to implanting the deaf ear; the time course mirrored that occurring with delay to bilateral implantation in unilateral implant users. Preference for the implanted ear tended to occur with ongoing implant use when hearing was poor in the non-implanted ear. Speech perception deteriorated with longer deprivation and poorer access to high-frequencies. Thus, cortical preference develops in children with asymmetric hearing but can be avoided by early provision of balanced bimodal stimulation. Although electric and acoustic stimulation differ, these inputs can work sympathetically when used bilaterally given sufficient hearing in the non-implanted ear.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the knowledge about the joy in children with mild intellectual disability. The premises relating to mental functioning of these children suggest that this knowledge is poorer and less complex than the knowledge of their peers in the intellectual norm. The study used the authoring tool to measure children’s knowledge of emotions including the joy. This tool takes into account the cognitive representation of the basic emotions available in three codes: image, verbal, semantic and interconnection between the codes - perception, symbolization and conceptualization which perform the functions of perception, expression and understanding. The study included children with the intellectual norm (N = 30 and children with mild intellectual disability (N = 30. The obtained results mainly indicate the differences in how the happiness is understood by particular groups, to the detriment of children with disability. The character of the results is largely determined by the level of organization of knowledge about the joy and accompanying mental operations. The results will be discussed, among others, in the context of the adjustment of the programs of lasting increase of happiness for people with intellectual disability.
In a qualitative study employing an exploratory design, the researcher explored the perceptions of communication choice and usage among 14 African American hearing parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Semistructured, in-depth thematic interviews were used with a modified grounded-theory approach in which themes were analyzed and coded. Four thematic challenges and opportunities related to communication choice and usage were found: (a) oral tradition-nommo, (b) sign and oral-diunital, (c) literacy, and (d) racial/ethnic cultural socialization. Afrocentric implications for deaf and hard of hearing children are explored based on research observations pertaining to the significance of the oral tradition in African American culture and the socialization of African American deaf and hard of hearing children in the context of African American hearing families.
Walker, Elizabeth A; Spratford, Meredith; Ambrose, Sophie E; Holte, Lenore; Oleson, Jacob
This study investigates clinical practice patterns and parent perception of intervention for children with mild hearing loss (HL). Ages at and delays between service delivery steps (first diagnostic evaluation, confirmation of HL, hearing aid [HA] fitting, entry into early intervention) were investigated for 113 children with mild HL. Comparisons were made to children with moderate-to-severe HL. Parents of children with mild HL reported reasons for delays and their perceptions of intervention and amplification for their children. Seventy-four percent of children with mild HL were identified through the newborn hearing screen; 26% were identified later due to passing or not receiving a newborn hearing screen. Ninety-four percent of children with mild HL were fit with HAs, albeit at significantly later ages than children with moderate-to-severe HL. Most parents indicated that their children benefited from HA use, but some parents expressed ambivalence toward the amount of benefit. Audiologists appear to be moving toward regularly providing amplification for children with mild HL. However, delays in HA fittings indicate that further educating professionals and parents about the benefits of early amplification and intervention is warranted to encourage timely fitting and consistent use of HAs.
Webb, Mi-Young; Lederberg, Amy R; Branum-Martin, Lee; McDonald Connor, Carol
Better understanding the mechanisms underlying developing literacy has promoted the development of more effective reading interventions for typically developing children. Such knowledge may facilitate effective instruction of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Hence, the current study examined the multivariate associations among phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, word reading, and vocabulary skills in DHH children who have auditory access to speech. One hundred and sixty-seven DHH children (M age = 60.43 months) were assessed with a battery of early literacy measures. Forty-six percent used at least 1 cochlear implant; 54% were fitted with hearing aids. About a fourth of the sample was acquiring both spoken English and sign. Scores on standardized tests of phonological awareness and vocabulary averaged at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean of the hearing norming sample. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that DHH children's early literacy skills were best characterized by a complex 3-factor model in which phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and vocabulary formed 3 separate, but highly correlated constructs, with letter-sound knowledge and word reading skills relating to both phonological awareness and alphabetic knowledge. This supports the hypothesis that early reading of DHH children with functional hearing is qualitatively similar to that of hearing children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Jung, Matthew E; Colletta, Miranda; Coalson, Rebecca; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Lieu, Judith E C
To identify functional network architecture differences in the brains of children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) using resting-state functional-connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI). Prospective observational study. Children (7 to 17 years of age) with severe to profound hearing loss in one ear, along with their normal hearing (NH) siblings, were recruited and imaged using rs-fcMRI. Eleven children had right UHL; nine had left UHL; and 13 had normal hearing. Forty-one brain regions of interest culled from established brain networks such as the default mode (DMN); cingulo-opercular (CON); and frontoparietal networks (FPN); as well as regions for language, phonological, and visual processing, were analyzed using regionwise correlations and conjunction analysis to determine differences in functional connectivity between the UHL and normal hearing children. When compared to the NH group, children with UHL showed increased connectivity patterns between multiple networks, such as between the CON and visual processing centers. However, there were decreased, as well as aberrant connectivity patterns with the coactivation of the DMN and FPN, a relationship that usually is negatively correlated. Children with UHL demonstrate multiple functional connectivity differences between brain networks involved with executive function, cognition, and language comprehension that may represent adaptive as well as maladaptive changes. These findings suggest that possible interventions or habilitation, beyond amplification, might be able to affect some children's requirement for additional help at school. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:2636-2645, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Foust, Terry; Eiserman, William; Shisler, Lenore; Geroso, Amy
Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology, used widely in newborn hearing screening programs and validated by professional organizations as a reliable and objective tool, is beginning to be recognized as superior to subjective methods when screening young children in a variety of settings. This study examines the efficacy of integrating OAE hearing screening into services routinely provided in health care settings. Three federally funded clinics serving low-income and uninsured people in a metropolitan area participated in the 10-month study. Subjects included 846 children (842 in the target population children did not pass the initial screening. Audiological evaluation was sought for children not passing a subsequent OAE screening. Of the 846 children screened, 814 (96%) ultimately passed the screening or audiological assessment and 29 (3%) exited the study. Three children (1 was 5) were identified with permanent hearing loss. The rate of identification of permanent hearing loss in this study is similar to findings from a study of OAE screening in early childhood educational settings. OAE screening holds the potential for being an effective method for helping to identify young children with permanent hearing loss in primary care settings.
Brand, E.F.J.M.; Das-Smaal, E.A.; Jong, de P.F.
Subtypes of children with attentional problems were investigated using cluster analysis. Subjects were 9-year-old-elementary school children (N = 443). The test battery administered to these children comprised a comprehensive set of common attention tests, covering different aspects of attentional
Choi, Nari; Ostendorf, Raymond
Parents' perception of disabilities and special education services can impact the way they interact with professionals providing services for their children with disabilities. In addition, the cultural background of parents plays an important role in their perception of disabilities, as well as how they communicate with professionals. Thus, it is…
Barton, GR; Fortnum, HM; Stacey, PC; Summerfield, AQ
Objectives: This article addresses two questions. First, are there differences in the economic costs incurred by families of hearing-impaired children depending on whether or not children have cochlear implants? Second, are these differences important when assessed from the perspective of society? Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, parents of a representative sample of hearing-impaired children provided data about annual resources used by the family because of their child’s hearing impairm...
Zupan, Barbra; Sussman, Joan E.
Experiment 1 examined modality preferences in children and adults with normal hearing to combined auditory-visual stimuli. Experiment 2 compared modality preferences in children using cochlear implants participating in an auditory emphasized therapy approach to the children with normal hearing from Experiment 1. A second objective in both…
Bahatheg, Raja Omar
This research tries to investigate the technical contribution on improving the social interaction of hearing-impaired children from low income families in Saudi Arabia. It compares the social interaction skills of hearing-impaired children who do and do not have access to iPads. To achieve the goals of the study; seventeen children aged five years…
Myck-Wayne, Janice; Robinson, Suzanne; Henson, Erica
The research on young children with a dual diagnosis of hearing loss and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is meager and scattered. Pockets of research on this population of children suggest that it is difficult to make the diagnosis of ASD in children with hearing loss. A case study design was used to examine the diagnostic process for young…
Misurelli, Sara M.
The ability to analyze an "auditory scene"---that is, to selectively attend to a target source while simultaneously segregating and ignoring distracting information---is one of the most important and complex skills utilized by normal hearing (NH) adults. The NH adult auditory system and brain work rather well to segregate auditory sources in adverse environments. However, for some children and individuals with hearing loss, selectively attending to one source in noisy environments can be extremely challenging. In a normal auditory system, information arriving at each ear is integrated, and thus these binaural cues aid in speech understanding in noise. A growing number of individuals who are deaf now receive cochlear implants (CIs), which supply hearing through electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. In particular, bilateral cochlear implants (BICIs) are now becoming more prevalent, especially in children. However, because CI sound processing lacks both fine structure cues and coordination between stimulation at the two ears, binaural cues may either be absent or inconsistent. For children with NH and with BiCIs, this difficulty in segregating sources is of particular concern because their learning and development commonly occurs within the context of complex auditory environments. This dissertation intends to explore and understand the ability of children with NH and with BiCIs to function in everyday noisy environments. The goals of this work are to (1) Investigate source segregation abilities in children with NH and with BiCIs; (2) Examine the effect of target-interferer similarity and the benefits of source segregation for children with NH and with BiCIs; (3) Investigate measures of executive function that may predict performance in complex and realistic auditory tasks of source segregation for listeners with NH; and (4) Examine source segregation abilities in NH listeners, from school-age to adults.
Hansson, K; Forsberg, J; Löfqvist, A; Mäki-Torkko, E; Sahlén, B
Working memory is considered to influence a range of linguistic skills, i.e. vocabulary acquisition, sentence comprehension and reading. Several studies have pointed to limitations of working memory in children with specific language impairment. Few studies, however, have explored the role of working memory for language deficits in children with hearing impairment. The first aim was to compare children with mild-to-moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment and children with normal language development, aged 9-12 years, for language and working memory. The special focus was on the role of working memory in learning new words for primary school age children. The assessment of working memory included tests of phonological short-term memory and complex working memory. Novel word learning was assessed according to the methods of. In addition, a range of language tests was used to assess language comprehension, output phonology and reading. Children with hearing impairment performed significantly better than children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment on tasks assessing novel word learning, complex working memory, sentence comprehension and reading accuracy. No significant correlation was found between phonological short-term memory and novel word learning in any group. The best predictor of novel word learning in children with specific language impairment and in children with hearing impairment was complex working memory. Furthermore, there was a close relationship between complex working memory and language in children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment but not in children with hearing impairment. Complex working memory seems to play a significant role in vocabulary acquisition in primary school age children. The interpretation is that the results support theories suggesting a weakened influence of phonological short-term memory on novel word
Cowden, Peter A.
Humans experience social anxiety to different degrees and in different areas. In school settings, this can be a barrier to learning. The school is a social place and to experience anxiety around peers can be challenging, especially if the student also has a learning disability. Social anxiety problems are often associated with learning…
Bruce, Susan; Muhammad, Zayyad
This article presents a review of the literature on object permanence with an emphasis on research on children with severe disabilities. Object permanence is the realisation that objects continue to exist in time and place even when they are no longer visible. This understanding is achieved across Stages IV-VI of Piaget's Sensorimotor Period.…
Kao, B; Romero-Bosch, L; Plante, W; Lobato, D
This qualitative study explored the experiences of Latino siblings of children with developmental disabilities. Parents and typically developing siblings from 15 Latino families with a child with a developmental disability participated in separate interviews. Using consensual qualitative research methodology, domains reflecting siblings' relationships, emotional experiences and communication about the disability were identified. The child's need for caregiving was a prominent topic in the sibling and parent narratives. Parents reported concerns about siblings' experience of differential treatment, whereas siblings reported concerns about restricted social activities because of their brother/sister. Including multiple informants revealed commonalities and differences in parents' and siblings' perspectives on the impact of a child's disability. The importance of considering sibling adaptation in sociocultural context is discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lee, Kyunghee; Calkins, Andrea; Shin, Tae Seob
Objective: Using the Head Start Impact Study data, this study examines Head Start's impacts on social-emotional outcomes for children with disabilities. Method: Among 4,442 children, 570 children were reported to have disabilities. Ordinary least squares regression was used to determine whether the number of disabilities, having an individualized…
Gissel, S.; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll; Juul, S.
Since previous studies have shown reduced hearing ability in children and adolescents at school start, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hearing ability in Danish children at the time of start and end of school. Children starting school in 1977, 1987, and 1997 from four minor municipalities....... At the end of school, hearing ability of the year group 1977 was just as poor as for the year group 1987. Whether reduced hearing can influence the learning abilities of these children should be evaluated by further studies including information on the exposure to noise....
Gilani, Sapideh; Roditi, Rachel; Bhattacharyya, Neil
To determine whether parent-perceived hearing problems are associated with grade repetition among children in the United States. Retrospective cohort analysis of a contemporary national database. The National Survey of Children's Health 2011 to 2012 was analyzed. Hearing loss, as perceived and reported by parents, was categorized as: no hearing problem, history of a hearing problem, or current hearing problem. Children never repeating a grade versus repeating one or more grades (kindergarten-high school) were identified. Univariate statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyzed the association of hearing problems with grade repetition. Patients with mental retardation, autism, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were excluded from the analysis. After adjusting for race, sex, and poverty level, odds ratios for grade repetition were computed. Among 66.1 million (average age, 8.3 years, 49.0% male) children, 97.3% never had a hearing problem, 1.7% had a history of a hearing problem, and 1.0% had a current hearing problem. Overall, 7.1% repeated a grade. Grade repetition was reported in 6.9% of children without a hearing problem versus 9.4% with a history of a hearing problem and 19.3% with a current hearing problem (P hearing problem demonstrated an odds ratio of 1.9 (95% confidence interval 0.82-4.13) for grade repetition, whereas a current hearing problem demonstrated an odds ratio of 3.0 (1.90-4.80). Parents' perception of children's hearing problems is strongly associated with grade repetition. This trend is noticed in elementary school more than in high school. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:741-745, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Raising children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) may cause parenting stress, especially when the child with BMID has psychosocial problems. To improve support, it is important to have a better understanding of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce problems in raising such children and of the problems these parents are dealing with. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the effectiveness of the parenting support program Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP). F...
Full Text Available The present study examined 154 children with mild intellectual disability (MID attending special schools with regard to their reports of loneliness. Semi-structured interviews revealed that more than half of the students with MID reported feelings of loneliness. They tend to have as friends children from their neighborhood, friends of their siblings, children of their parents’ friends and from their school. Lonely children with MID tend to attribute their isolation to interpersonal deficits, lack of contact with peers and physical appearance, while one fourth cannot justify why they do not have any friends. Children with MID report that they withdraw from social interactions, engage in solitary activities and actively look for friends to cope with their feelings of loneliness and rejection, while very few resort to physical or verbal aggression. Moreover, boys and children living in smaller towns reported less feelings of loneliness than girls and children living in the capital.
Marilene Bortolotti Boraschi
Full Text Available This article focuses on the role and learning of reading and wrinting to human development as a social practice, considering the necessary condition to reading and writing as an exercise in citizenship. Aims to reflect on the occurrence of reading-writing processes and literacy in children with intellectual disabilities. The study was conducted by means of literature, and are based on a qualitative research. The reflections made throughout the investigation brought some considerations on intellectual disability, charactering it. Allowed some notes on the processes of reading-writing and literacy. As the survey results, some thoughts were about the possible occurrence of the processes of reading-writing and literacy in intellectually disabled children, discussing how these processes can take place through pedagogical practices in classrooms common regular education, contributing to the appropriation of the world literate and active participation by such child in society.
To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and word length effects). Neither the intellectual disabilities nor MA groups showed evidence for memory coding strategies. However, children in these groups with MAs above 6 years showed significant visual similarity and word length effects, broadly consistent with an intermediate stage of dual visual and verbal coding. These results suggest that developmental progressions in memory coding strategies are independent of intellectual disabilities status and consistent with MA.
Solovyev, Aisen V; Dzhemileva, Lilya U; Posukh, Olga L; Barashkov, Nikolay A; Bady-Khoo, Marita S; Lobov, Semen L; Popova, Natalya Yu; Romanov, Georgii P; Sazonov, Nikolay N; Bondar, Alexander A; Morozov, Igor V; Tomsky, Mikhail I; Fedorova, Sardana A; Khusnutdinova, Elza K
Hereditary hearing impairment (HI) caused by recessive GJB2 mutations is a frequent sensory disorder. The results of the molecular-based studies of HI are widely used in various genetic test systems. However, the ethical aspects are less described than the genetic aspects. The concerns expressed by individuals from groups with genetic risks must be included in the counseling of patients and their families. For evaluation of subjective opinions of hearing parents about the presumed causes of HI of their children, we analyze the cohort of parents having children with confirmed hereditary HI caused by biallelic recessive GJB2 mutations (in a homozygous or a compound heterozygous state). This study included 70 deaf children with HI due to mutations in the GJB2 gene and 91 questionnaires about the presumed causes of their deafness filled by their parents. Most of the parents at 78% (CI 68.4-85.4%) attributed their children's HI to "non-hereditary" causes and 22% (CI 14.7-31.6%) to "hereditary" causes (p < 0.05). Therefore, the prior opinions of the parents did not correspond to positive GJB2 genetic testing results. The subjective opinions of parents are probably partly based on family history, since respondents with deaf relatives in their pedigree more likely supposed hereditary causes for HI in their children than the respondents without deaf relatives (p < 0.001).
Watkin, Peter; McCann, Donna; Law, Catherine; Mullee, Mark; Petrou, Stavros; Stevenson, Jim; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho Ming; Kennedy, Colin
The goal was to examine the relationships between management after confirmation, family participation, and speech and language outcomes in the same group of children with permanent childhood hearing impairment. Speech, oral language, and nonverbal abilities, expressed as z scores and adjusted in a regression model, and Family Participation Rating Scale scores were assessed at a mean age of 7.9 years for 120 children with bilateral permanent childhood hearing impairment from a 1992-1997 United Kingdom birth cohort. Ages at institution of management and hearing aid fitting were obtained retrospectively from case notes. Compared with children managed later (> 9 months), those managed early (early did not have significantly higher scores for these outcomes. Family Participation Rating Scale scores showed significant positive correlations with language and speech intelligibility scores only for those with confirmation after 9 months and were highest for those with late confirmed, severe/profound, permanent childhood hearing impairment. Early management of permanent childhood hearing impairment results in improved language. Family participation is also an important factor in cases that are confirmed late, especially for children with severe or profound permanent childhood hearing impairment.
Full Text Available Objectives: A large number of congenitally deaf children are born annually. If not treated, this will have destructive effects on their language and speech development, educational achievements and future occupation. In this study it has been tried to determine the level of language skills in children with Cochlear Implants (CI in comparison with Normal Hearing (NH age-mates. Methods: Test of Language Development was administered to 30 pre-lingual, severe-to-profound CI children between the ages of 5 to 8. The obtained scores were compared to a Persian database from scores of normally hearing children with the same age range. Results: Results indicated that in spite of great advancements in different areas of language after hearing gain, CI children still lag behind their hearing age-mates in almost all aspects of language skills. Discussion: Based on the results, it is suggested that children with average or above average cognitive skills who use CI have the potential to produce and understand language comparable to their normally hearing peers.
Wimmer, Eva; Rothweiler, Monika; Penke, Martina
For children with sensorineural hearing loss the ability to understand wh-questions might be particularly challenging because they often have only restricted access to spoken language input during optimal periods of language acquisition. In previous research it has been suggested that this restricted input during critical stages in language acquisition might lead to syntactic deficits that persist into adolescence. In this study we want to pursue this issue by investigating the comprehension of wh-questions in German children with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. We report results of a who-question comprehension task in a group of 21 3- to 4-year-old German hard-of-hearing children compared to a group of age-matched children with normal hearing. The group data and individual performance patterns suggest that the syntactic comprehension difficulties observed in some, but not all, of the children with hearing loss reflect a delay in the acquisition of who-question comprehension rather than a persistent syntactic deficit. Follow-up data elicited from a subgroup of children confirm this supposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Montag, Jessica L.; Jones, Michael N.; Smith, Linda B.
Young children learn language from the speech they hear. Previous work suggests that the statistical diversity of words and of linguistic contexts is associated with better language outcomes. One potential source of lexical diversity is the text of picture books that caregivers read aloud to children. Many parents begin reading to their children shortly after birth, so this is potentially an important source of linguistic input for many children. We constructed a corpus of 100 children’s pict...
Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.
Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…
Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie
Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…
Margalit, Malka; Zak, Itai
One hundred learning disabled (LD) and 118 nondisabled children (six-13 years old) participated in the study which demonstrated significantly higher anxiety and lower self-concept in the first group. The differences emphasized the self-dissatisfaction of the LD group and their pawning related anxiety. (Author/CL)
To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and…
Full Text Available Pragmatic competence means the use of language in social context. Persons with intellectual disability experience numerous problems in this aspect of communication, but they are relatively pragmatically skilled in well-known situations, in which they are not subjected to significant cognitive and social requirements. The aim of this paper is to determine the level of pragmatic abilities of children and youth with mild intellectual disability and to perceive its relation to chronological age, speech comprehension, speech production, the level of intellectual functioning, gender and bilingualism of the participants. The level of pragmatic competence was tested in the sample of 120 children with mild intellectual disability, aged between 8 and 16, by using the Test of pragmatic language competence. The Clinical scales of Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological battery for children were also used. The results obtained in this research suggest that general level of achievement of children with mild intellectual disability in this domain of development is far below the expectations based on their chronological age. Significant progress appears between 12 and 14 years of age, but there are also two critical periods in their development. Important relations of pragmatic skills with speech comprehension, speech production, chronological age and intellectual level were established.
Favazza, Paddy C.
Offers suggestions to kindergarten teachers for creating a more accepting environment in their classrooms for children with disabilities. Three key influences in attitude formation are discussed--indirect experiences, direct experiences, and the child's primary social group--and ideas for examining these influences and adapting them are suggested.…
Favazza, Paddy C.; LaRoe, Joyce; Phillipsen, Leslie; Kumar, Poonam
The "Inventory of Disability Representation" was administered to 92 teachers representing kindergarten, community child care, or preschool settings. Low scores across settings indicated that classrooms typically do not have materials that represent or depict children with diverse abilities. Reasons cited by teachers are noted as are benefits…
Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Jongmans, M. J.; Van der Molen, M. W.
Background: Previous research into working memory of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has established clear deficits. The current study examined working memory in children with mild ID (IQ 55-85) within the framework of the Baddeley model, fractionating working memory into a central executive and two slave systems, the phonological…
Weinberg, Lois A.
Interviews and review of case files investigated reasons for the common failure to meet the educational needs of abused and neglected children with disabilities in foster care. Agency dysfunctions which negatively affected appropriate educational provisions were identified in such categories as eligibility, timeline violation, inappropriate…
Intervention studies show that if children with disabilities play motion-controlled TV and computer games for training purposes their motivation increases and their training becomes more intensive, but why this happens has not been explained. This article addresses this question with the help of ethnographic material from a public project in…
Sullivan, Patricia M.; Knutson, John F.
Descriptive information was analyzed for maltreated and nonmaltreated runaways from hospital (N=39,352, 255 runaways) and school (N=40,211, 562 runaways) populations. Children and youth with disabilities (especially those with behavior disorders, mental retardation, and communication disorders) were at increased risk to become runaways in both…
Raising children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) may cause parenting stress, especially when the child with BMID has psychosocial problems. To improve support, it is important to have a better understanding of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce problems in raising
Depositario-Cabacar, Dewi Frances T.; Zelleke, Tesfaye-Getaneh
Children with developmental disabilities are at increased risk for epilepsy with a prevalence rate higher than the general population. Some of the more common developmental disorders in childhood and the features of epilepsy in these conditions are discussed. Specifically, autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and attention deficit and…
Brown, Jason D.; Moraes, Sabrina; Mayhew, Janet
We examined the service needs of foster families with children who have disabilities. Foster parents in a large Canadian city were asked "What services or supports would be helpful to you?" The responses to this question were edited for clarity and to eliminate redundancies, and sorted into piles of like statements by a group of 15…
Mao, Yitao; Zhang, Mengchao; Nutter, Heather; Zhang, Yijing; Zhou, Qixin; Liu, Qiaoyun; Wu, Weijing; Xie, Dinghua; Xu, Li
The purpose of the present study was to investigate vocal singing performance of hearing-impaired children with cochlear implants (CI) and hearing aids (HA) as well as to evaluate the relationship between demographic factors of those hearing-impaired children and their singing ability. Thirty-seven prelingually-deafened children with CIs and 31 prelingually-deafened children with HAs, and 37 normal-hearing (NH) children participated in the study. The fundamental frequencies (F0) of each note in the recorded songs were extracted and the duration of each sung note was measured. Five metrics were used to evaluate the pitch-related and rhythm-based aspects of singing accuracy. Children with CIs and HAs showed significantly poorer performance in either the pitch-based assessments or the rhythm-based measure than the NH children. No significant differences were seen between the CI and HA groups in all of these measures except for the mean deviation of the pitch intervals. For both hearing-impaired groups, length of device use was significantly correlated with singing accuracy. There is a marked deficit in vocal singing ability either in pitch or rhythm accuracy in a majority of prelingually-deafened children who have received CIs or fitted with HAs. Although an increased length of device use might facilitate singing performance to some extent, the chance for the hearing-impaired children fitted with either HAs or CIs to reach high proficiency in singing is quite slim. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lü, Jingrong; Huang, Zhiwu; Ma, Yan; Li, Yun; Mei, Ling; Yao, Guoyin; Wang, Yu; Shen, Xiaoming; Wu, Hao
This study aimed to compare the diagnosis and ages of intervention for cases of delayed-onset hearing loss identified sporadically or via a preschool hearing screening program. Retrospective study with the comparative analysis of two groups of children. Cases identified from screening were selected from 34 321 preschool children who underwent screening for delayed-onset hearing loss between October 2009 and May 2011. Sporadic cases of delayed-onset hearing loss were selected from pediatric clinical records. Cases from the first group were excluded from the latter to avoid duplication. Two groups were given the same questionnaire to record risk indicators, diagnosis, and age at intervention. The average age of 26 children at the time of diagnosis in the screening group (52.81 ± 13.23 months) was significantly earlier than in the 33 cases identified in the sporadic group (62.03 ± 12.86 months; p children with bilateral moderate to severe hearing loss in the screening group (50.40 ± 10.76 months) was also earlier than in the sporadic group (62.73 ± 13.77 months; p hearing screening for preschool children with no significant symptoms of delayed-onset hearing loss.
Kenney, Mary Kay; Kogan, Michael D
The purpose of this study was to establish prevalences and sociodemographic characteristics associated with parent-reported speech and hearing difficulties among children with special health care needs (CSHCN); determine unmet needs for therapy, hearing aids, and communication devices; and examine the association between unmet needs and resources such as health insurance, early intervention/special education, and a medical home. Data were analyzed for 300,910 children without special health care needs and 40,723 CSHCN from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Prevalence, sociodemographic characteristics, and unmet needs for 7132 CSHCN with speech difficulties and 1982 CSHCN with hearing difficulties were assessed. Logistic regression was used to determine the associations between unmet needs for therapy or hearing/communication devices and resources for addressing needs for therapy, hearing, and communication aids. The parent-reported prevalence of speech difficulty among CSHCN in the general population was 2.9% and approximately 20% among all CSHCN, in contrast to the lower prevalence of hearing difficulty (0.7% and 5%, respectively). Relative unmet need was greatest for communication devices and least for hearing aids. The strongest association with reducing unmet needs was having a medical home, and the most significant aspect of medical home was having effective care coordination. Having a medical home is significantly associated with fewer unmet needs for therapy and hearing/communication devices among CSHCN with speech and hearing difficulties. Care coordination may constitute an important factor that allows the primary care provider to link with services that CSHCN with communication problems require. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available The study identifies some self-regulation strategies used by deaf children in order to make their speech more intelligible. To achieve self-control while speaking, the child with severe hearing loss needs not only a high level of intelligence, but also an effective lip-reading capability and a strong intrinsic motivation. This is the reason why there are many cases of children with a high level of intelligence, but with a mediocre lip-reading capability and others with a lower level of intelligence, but with a good lip-reading capability. These differences also depend on the degree of hearing loss. Among the self-regulation strategies used by the children that achieve an intelligible speech are: the cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies, the motivational strategies etc. These results are important while designing the therapeutic activities, and especially the speech intelligibility factor being crucial in the social integration of those children with hearing impairment.
Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary
Strengthening the connections between sign language and written language may improve reading skills in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether computerized sign language-based literacy training improves reading skills in DHH signing children who are learning to read. Further,…
Ritter, David R.
The Arthur Adaptation of the Leiter International Performance Scale, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Performance Section were administered to 31 children with mild to moderate hearing impairments. A comparison of test results indicated moderate convergent validity among the measures. (Author)
Hermans, D.; Wauters, L.N.; Willemsen, M.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Marschark, M.; Spencer, P.E.
Vocabulary knowledge is fundamental to communication, language learning, and acquiring knowledge of the world. Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children face considerable challenges in acquiring age-appropriate vocabulary knowledge. The enhancement of children's vocabulary knowledge is therefore one
Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Olsen, Jorn
Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be the most vulnerable if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated the association between cell phone use and hearing loss in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002.
Jones, Pete R.; Moore, David R.; Amitay, Sygal
Children's hearing deteriorates markedly in the presence of unpredictable noise. To explore why, 187 school-age children (4-11 years) and 15 adults performed a tone-in-noise detection task, in which the masking noise varied randomly between every presentation. Selective attention was evaluated by measuring the degree to which listeners were…
Chan, Yi-Chih; Yang, You-Jhen
This study aims to explore early reading comprehension in Chinese-speaking children with hearing loss (HL) by examining character recognition and linguistic comprehension. Twenty-five children with HL received three measures relevant to character reading: phonological awareness (PA), morphological awareness (MA), and character recognition; two…
Warner-Czyz, Andrea D.; Loy, Betty; Pourchot, Hannah; White, Trissan; Cokely, Elika
Nearly one third of school-age children report being bullied, primarily enduring teasing or rumors. Children with hearing loss (HL) are at increased risk of victimization due to being "different" from the general population. This project assesses effects of auditory status on bullying by comparing incidence and type of bullying in 87…
Full Text Available Early detection and appropriate intervention for children with hearing impairment is important for maximizing functioning and quality of life. The lack of ear and hearing services in low income countries is a significant challenge, however, evidence suggests that even where such services are available, and children are referred to them, uptake is low. The aim of this study was to assess uptake of and barriers to referrals to ear and hearing services for children in Thyolo District, Malawi.This was a mixed methods study. A survey was conducted with 170 caregivers of children who were referred for ear and hearing services during community-based screening camps to assess whether they had attended their referral and reasons for non-attendance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 caregivers of children who did not take up their referral to explore in-depth the reasons for non-uptake. In addition, 15 stakeholders were interviewed. Thematic analysis of the interview data was conducted and emerging trends were analysed.Referral uptake was very low with only 5 out of 150 (3% children attending. Seven main interacting themes for non-uptake of referral were identified in the semi-structured interviews: location of the hospital, lack of transport, other indirect costs of seeking care, fear and uncertainty about the referral hospital, procedural problems within the camps, awareness and understanding of hearing loss, and lack of visibility and availability of services.This study has highlighted a range of interacting challenges faced by families in accessing ear and hearing services in this setting. Understanding these context specific barriers to non-uptake of ear and hearing services is important for designing appropriate interventions to increase uptake.
Full Text Available Background: Estimation of the age of hearing loss diagnosis in every society is recommended to be compared with standard criteria to establish common dirth in management and rehabilitation. This study was conducted in order to determine the age of hearing loss diagnosis with respect to common criteria in Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing children in Tehran.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 445 children in stages 2, 6 and 10 of Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing participated. the research was performed by means of the three-stages questionaires that children filled with help of their parents.Results: The mean age of detection of hearing loss in both acquired and congenital hearing loss in children was 3.5 year-old. while the age in which hearing loss was doubted was 1.8 year-old. In another word the mean age of hearing loss detection decreased as the hearing loss increases(in moderate- profound hearing loss(P<0.01. Conclusion: among the refrence sources for refering children with hearing loss the least refering was related to physicians. Adversly the mean age of doubting and detection of hearing loss increased in children with family history of hearing loss.(P<0.01. Meanwhile no relationship was detected between the age of diagnosis of hearing loss and the number of deaf members in the family(P<0.02.
Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Olsen, Jorn
Background Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be the most vulnerable if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated the association between cell phone use and hearing loss in children. Methods The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. Detailed interviews were conducted during gestation, and when the children were 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years of age. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, marginal structural models (MSM) with inverse-probability weighting, and doubly-robust estimation (DRE) to relate hearing loss at age 18 months to cell phone use at age seven years, and to investigate cell phone use reported at age seven in relation to hearing loss at age seven. Results Our analyses included data from 52,680 children. We observed weak associations between cell phone use and hearing loss at age seven, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from the traditional logistic regression, MSM, and DRE models being 1.21 [0.99–1.46], 1.23 [1.01–1.49], and 1.22 [1.00–1.49], respectively. Conclusions Our findings could have been affected by various biases and are not sufficient to conclude that cell phone exposures have an effect on hearing. This is the first large-scale epidemiologic study to investigate this potentially important association among children, and replication of these findings is needed. PMID:23574412
Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Olsen, Jorn
Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be the most vulnerable if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated the association between cell phone use and hearing loss in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. Detailed interviews were conducted during gestation, and when the children were 6 months, 18 months and 7 years of age. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, marginal structural models (MSM) with inverse-probability weighting, and doubly robust estimation (DRE) to relate hearing loss at age 18 months to cell phone use at age 7 years, and to investigate cell phone use reported at age 7 in relation to hearing loss at age 7. Our analyses included data from 52 680 children. We observed weak associations between cell phone use and hearing loss at age 7, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from the traditional logistic regression, MSM and DRE models being 1.21 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99, 1.46], 1.23 [95% CI 1.01, 1.49] and 1.22 [95% CI 1.00, 1.49], respectively. Our findings could have been affected by various biases and are not sufficient to conclude that cell phone exposures have an effect on hearing. This is the first large-scale epidemiologic study to investigate this potentially important association among children, and replication of these findings is needed. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.
Using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999), the researchers compared strengths and weaknesses in phonological processing skills in three groups: 21 children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), 29 children with dyslexia, and 30 age-matched controls. The MSNH group showed…
Johnson, Samantha; Strauss, Victoria; Gilmore, Camilla; Jaekel, Julia; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter
Children born extremely preterm are at high risk for intellectual disability, learning disabilities, executive dysfunction and special educational needs, but little is understood about the comorbidity of intellectual and learning disabilities in this population. This study explored comorbidity in intellectual disability (ID) and learning disabilities (LD) in children born extremely preterm (EP; disabilities. LD were associated with a 3 times increased risk for SEN. However, EP children with ID alone had poorer neuropsychological abilities and curriculum-based attainment than children with no disabilities, yet there was no increase in SEN provision among this group. EP children are at high risk for comorbid intellectual and learning disabilities. Education professionals should be aware of the complex nature of EP children's difficulties and the need for multi-domain assessments to guide intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharyanne; McKinnon, David H.; Ching, Teresa
Children who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) grow up in environments influenced by their parents' attitudes, which may facilitate or impede these children's development and participation (World Health Organization, 2007). The attitudes of 152 Australian parents of DHH children ages 3 years 7 months to 9 years 5 months (M = 6 years 5 months)…
Emerson, Eric; Giallo, Rebecca
(1) to estimate the extent of differences in wellbeing between siblings of children with disabilities or long-term health conditions and siblings of 'typically developing' children in a nationally representative cohort of Australian children (the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children); (2) to determine whether any between-group differences in wellbeing may be potentially attributable to between-group differences in exposure to socio-economic disadvantage. The results of our analyses were consistent with the existing literature in indicating that, in unadjusted comparisons, the siblings of children with long-term health conditions or disabilities: (1) had lower wellbeing than their peers on some, but not all, indicators of wellbeing; and (2) that where differences did exist the effect sizes were small. Our results add to the existing literature in: (1) indicating that adjusting for between-group differences in exposure to low SEP and associated adversities eliminated the statistical significance of unadjusted comparisons in the majority of instances; and (2) failing to find any evidence of deterioration over time in the wellbeing of siblings with long-term health conditions or disabilities over a two-year period from age 4/5 to age 6/7. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper presents research paradigms which study factors that allow influencing the language development of children with mild intellectual disabilities to the greatest extent possible. Special attention is dedicated to the development of the reception competence with the use of reception didactics methods based on a relatively frequent use of less demanding non-language semiotic functions. The core of the paper presents results of an experimental case study (on a sample of five children with a mild intellectual disability over a one school year period, through which the reception competence in these children was developed with a systematic use of an adapted communication model of literary education as an experimental factor. The results have confirmed the initially set hypothesis about reception progress.
Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois
We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N=351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about social exclusion of children with disabilities. Children also reported on their level of sympathy towards children with disabilities and their contact intensity with children with disabilities. Overall, children condemned disability-based exclusion, attributed few positive emotions to excluder targets, and expressed high sympathy for children with disabilities, independent of age and educational setting. However, younger children from inclusive classrooms exhibited more moral judgments and moral emotions than younger children from noninclusive classrooms. Moreover, children who expressed high sympathy towards children with disabilities were more likely to report frequent contact with children with disabilities. The findings extend existing research on social exclusion by examining disability-based exclusion and are discussed with respect to developmental research on social and moral judgments and emotions following children's inclusion and exclusion decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kesser, Bradley W; Krook, Kaelyn; Gray, Lincoln C
This study evaluates the effect of unilateral conductive hearing loss secondary to aural atresia on elementary school children's academic performance. Case control survey and review of audiometric data. One hundred thirty-two surveys were mailed to families of children with aural atresia, and 48 surveys were sent to families of children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) to identify rates of grade retention, use of any resource, and behavioral problems. Audiometric data of the cohort were tabulated. Of the 40 atresia patients, none repeated a grade, but 65% needed some resources: 12.5% currently use a hearing aid, 32.5% use(d) a frequency-modulated system in school, 47.5% had an Individualized Education Plan, and 45% utilized speech therapy. Compared to the unilateral SNHL group and a cohort of children with unilateral SNHL in an earlier study, children with unilateral atresia were less likely to repeat a grade. Children in both unilateral atresia and SNHL groups were more likely to utilize some resource in the academic setting compared to the unilateral SNHL children in the prior study. Unilateral conductive hearing loss due to aural atresia has an impact on academic performance in children, although not as profound when compared to children with unilateral SNHL. The majority of these children with unilateral atresia utilize resources in the school setting. Parents, educators, and health care professionals should be aware of the impact of unilateral conductive hearing loss and offer appropriate habilitative services. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Jenni, Oskar G; Fintelmann, Sylvia; Caflisch, Jon; Latal, Beatrice; Rousson, Valentin; Chaouch, Aziz
Longitudinal studies that have examined cognitive performance in children with intellectual disability more than twice over the course of their development are scarce. We assessed population and individual stability of cognitive performance in a clinical sample of children with borderline to mild non-syndromic intellectual disability. Thirty-six children (28 males, eight females; age range 3-19y) with borderline to mild intellectual disability (Full-scale IQ [FSIQ] 50-85) of unknown origin were examined in a retrospective clinical case series using linear mixed models including at least three assessments with standardized intelligence tests. Average cognitive performance remained remarkably stable over time (high population stability, drop of only 0.38 IQ points per year, standard error=0.39, p=0.325) whereas individual stability was at best moderate (intraclass correlation of 0.58), indicating that about 60% of the residual variation in FSIQ scores can be attributed to between-child variability. Neither sex nor socio-economic status had a statistically significant impact on FSIQ. Although intellectual disability during childhood is a relatively stable phenomenon, individual stability of IQ is only moderate, likely to be caused by test-to-test reliability (e.g. level of child's cooperation, motivation, and attention). Therefore, clinical decisions and predictions should not rely on single IQ assessments, but should also consider adaptive functioning and previous developmental history. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.
Zupan, Barbra; Sussman, Joan E
Experiment 1 examined modality preferences in children and adults with normal hearing to combined auditory-visual stimuli. Experiment 2 compared modality preferences in children using cochlear implants participating in an auditory emphasized therapy approach to the children with normal hearing from Experiment 1. A second objective in both experiments was to evaluate the role of familiarity in these preferences. Participants were exposed to randomized blocks of photographs and sounds of ten familiar and ten unfamiliar animals in auditory-only, visual-only and auditory-visual trials. Results indicated an overall auditory preference in children, regardless of hearing status, and a visual preference in adults. Familiarity only affected modality preferences in adults who showed a strong visual preference to unfamiliar stimuli only. The similar degree of auditory responses in children with hearing loss to those from children with normal hearing is an original finding and lends support to an auditory emphasis for habilitation. Readers will be able to (1) Describe the pattern of modality preferences reported in young children without hearing loss; (2) Recognize that differences in communication mode may affect modality preferences in young children with hearing loss; and (3) Understand the role of familiarity in modality preferences in children with and without hearing loss.
Jiang, Yingying; Chen, Jingqi; Yu, Buyi; Jin, Yichen
This study aims to examine the rate and risk factors for physical violence (PV) by parents against hearing loss children in Beijing, China. Cross-sectional study was carried out among 86 couples of parents of hearing loss children from two special education schools in Beijing. Parents' self-reporting questionnaires were used to collect information about parental PV behaviors during the past 12 months, definition of child abuse, attitudes towards the use of corporal punishment to discipline children, parents' childhood experience of PV victimization, and demographic characteristics. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The rates of minor PV and severe PV reported by parents were 44.8% and 15.7%, respectively. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that the risk factors of PV were: lower educational attainment, favorable or tolerant attitudes towards the use of corporal punishment to discipline children, parents' experiences of PV victimization in childhood, and younger children. PV by parents against hearing loss children was common in Beijing. It is urgent to develop prevention programs to improve parents' parenting skills and protect children with hearing loss from PV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dedhia, Kavita; Chi, David H
1. To report our experience in children with sudden-onset sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). 2. To describe the etiology and management of children with SSNHL. Retrospective review of 20 children with SSNHL, from 2000 to 2013 at a tertiary pediatric facility. Patients had the following inclusion criteria: history of normal hearing, hearing loss occurring in less than 3 days, and audiogram documentation. The average age of patients presenting with SSNHL is 11 years 3 months (22months-18years). Only 6 (30%) children presented prior to 2 weeks. Tinnitus (55%) was the most common associated symptoms followed by otalgia (25%), and vertigo (20%). Eight patients had bilateral hearing loss, 6 only right and 6 only left. Hearing loss severity ranged from profound (45%) being most common to mild. Etiology was unknown (30%), viral (25%), anatomic abnormality (25%), Meniere's disease (5%), autoimmune (5%), perilymphatic fistula (5%), and suppurative labyrinthitis (5%). Eight patients had initial treatment with oral steroids of which 50% had improvement on audiograms. Two patients underwent intratympanic injections, both showed improvement. Of the 12 patients with no treatment, only 1 had improved hearing. The true incidence of pediatric SSNHL is not well established in our literature. Unique aspects of pediatric SSNHL are delayed presentation and higher percent of anatomic findings. In our study 70% presented more than 2 weeks after experiencing symptoms. Anatomic abnormalities are in 40% of patients. Hearing improvement occurred in 50% of children treated with oral steroids. Intratympanic steroid treatment is another option but may have practical limitation in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Baca, Rosalinda L; Sedey, Allison L
The objective of this investigation was to describe the language growth of children with severe or profound hearing loss with cochlear implants versus those children with the same degree of hearing loss using hearing aids. A prospective longitudinal observation and analysis. University of Colorado Department of Speech Language and Hearing Sciences. There were 87 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss from 48 to 87 months of age. All children received early intervention services through the Colorado Home Intervention Program. Most children received intervention services from a certified auditory-verbal therapist or an auditory-oral therapist and weekly sign language instruction from an instructor who was deaf or hard of hearing and native or fluent in American Sign Language. The Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd Edition, and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test, 3rd Edition, were the assessment tools for children 4 to 7 years of age. The expressive language subscale of the Minnesota Child Development was used in the infant/toddler period (birth to 36 mo). Average language estimates at 84 months of age were nearly identical to the normative sample for receptive language and 7 months delayed for expressive vocabulary. Children demonstrated a mean rate of growth from 4 years through 7 years on these 2 assessments that was equivalent to their normal-hearing peers. As a group, children with hearing aids deviated more from the age equivalent trajectory on the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd Edition, and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test, 3rd Edition, than children with cochlear implants. When a subset of children were divided into performance categories, we found that children with cochlear implants were more likely to be "gap closers" and less likely to be "gap openers," whereas the reverse was true for the children with hearing aids for both measures. Children who are educated through oral-aural combined with
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Crawford, Leah; Ni, Andy; Durieux-Smith, Andrée
Early intervention through hearing aids (HAs) and cochlear implants (CIs) aims to reduce the negative effects of childhood hearing loss and to promote optimal communication development over time. The primary goal of this study was to examine the communication outcomes of children with CIs and children with HAs at age 4 to 5 yrs and to consider their spoken language skills relative to a group of typically developing hearing peers. In this multicenter observational study, communication results were obtained for a total of 88 children at age 4 to 5 yrs. Participants were recruited from three clinical programs in two cities in the province of Ontario, Canada. This study was undertaken shortly after the introduction of a new provincial population screening initiative and included both children who were screened and not screened for hearing loss. The study sample comprised 51 children with sensorineural hearing loss and 37 children with normal hearing. Of the 51 children with hearing loss, 26 used CIs and 25 used HAs. The degree of hearing loss ranged from mild to profound. All children were enrolled in rehabilitation programs focused on oral language development. Children's language skills were assessed with an extensive battery of child- and parent-administered speech and language measures. Assessment of language skills showed no significant differences between the children with severe to profound hearing loss using CIs and children with varying degrees of hearing loss using HAs. However, children with HAs showed better articulation skills. Overall, both groups of children obtained scores on communication measures that were lower than their hearing peers. The number of children with hearing loss who obtained spoken speech-language scores within 1 SD of normative populations ranged from 65 to 86% depending on the test measure. Children with average hearing loss of 70 dB HL or better generally obtained scores on all measures in line with those of age-matched norms while
Wolter, Nikolaus E; Cushing, Sharon L; Vilchez-Madrigal, Luis D; James, Adrian L; Campos, Jennifer; Papsin, Blake C; Gordon, Karen A
To determine if children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (UHL) demonstrate impaired balance compared with their normal hearing (NH) peers. Prospective, case-control study. Balance was assessed in14 UHL and 14 NH children using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test-2 (BOT-2) and time to fall (TTF) in an immersive, virtual-reality laboratory. Postural control was quantified by center of pressure (COP) using force plates. The effect of vision on balance was assessed by comparing scores and COP characteristics on BOT-2 tasks performed with eyes open and closed. Balance ability as measured by the BOT-2 score was significantly worse in children with UHL compared with NH children (p = 0.004). TTF was shorter in children with UHL compared with NH children in the most difficult tasks when visual and somatosensory inputs were limited (p children with UHL when visual input was removed while performing moderately difficult tasks (i.e., standing on one foot) (p = 0.02). In this pilot study, children with UHL show poorer balance skills than NH children. Significant differences in TTF between the two groups were only seen in the most difficult tasks and therefore may be missed on routine clinical assessment. Children with UHL appear to rely more on vision for maintaining postural control than their NH peers. These findings may point to deficits not only in the hearing but also the vestibular portion of the inner ear.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the aesthetics of movement in people with vision defects. This knowledge will provide tools to improve the methodology of study in the area of assessment of movement aesthetics in people with disabilities. In order to establish its level a test was used which measured its selected elements such as precision, rhythm, harmony, fluidity and speed. The aesthetics of movement was assessed using exercise tests which were to represent the components of aesthetics of movement. Individual tests were carried out on blind and partially sighted children aged 6 to 15 years and on a group of healthy children of the same age. Using the test tasks a general indicator of movement aesthetics in blind children was obtained. The participants of the study were 145 children from four School and Education Centres for Blind Children in Poland and the control group consisted of 310 children from a primary school in Poznań. The studies confirmed a lower level of movement aesthetics in children with vision defects, but the diﬀerences in groups between the partially sighted children and children with correct vision were definitely smaller. A higher level of aesthetics of movement characterised children from older groups irrespective of their sex. The best developed property in blind and partially sighted children was precision.
This study described the first language (L1) and second language (L2) skills of a group of Spanish deaf/hard of hearing (DHH) children who were bilingual. Participants included parents of 51 DHH children from Spain. Parents completed an electronic survey that included questions on background, details on child's hearing loss, and bilingual status and L2 exposure. Parents also completed the Student Oral Language Observation Matrix, a rating scale that describes language skills. DHH bilingual children demonstrated L1 skills that were stronger than their monolingual DHH peers. Bilingual children demonstrated a wide range of L2 proficiency, and most were exposed to an L2 through parents and/or schooling. The majority of parents reported that their children demonstrated L2 skills that were either better than or at the level they had expected. These results correspond with earlier studies that indicate the DHH children are capable of becoming bilingual. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.
A. V. Pashkov
Full Text Available Diagnosis of hearing level in small children with conductive hearing loss associated with congenital craniofacial abnormalities, particularly with agenesis of external ear and external auditory meatus is a pressing issue. Conventional methods of assessing hearing in the first years of life, i. e. registration of brainstem auditory evoked responses to acoustic stimuli in the event of air conduction, does not give an indication of the auditory analyzer’s condition due to potential conductive hearing loss in these patients. This study was aimed at assessing potential of diagnosing the auditory analyzer’s function with registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs to acoustic stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator. The study involved 17 children aged 3–10 years with normal hearing. We compared parameters of registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (peak V depending on the type of stimulus transmission (air/bone in children with normal hearing. The data on thresholds of the BAERs registered to acoustic stimuli in the event of air and bone conduction obtained in this study are comparable; hearing thresholds in the event of acoustic stimulation by means of a bone vibrator correlates with the results of the BAERs registered to the stimuli transmitted by means of air conduction earphones (r = 0.9. High correlation of thresholds of BAERs to the stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator with thresholds of BAERs registered when air conduction earphones were used helps to assess auditory analyzer’s condition in patients with any form of conductive hearing loss.
Full Text Available Objective: Language acquisition was assumed to proceed normally in children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL since they have one functioning ear. However, children with UHL score poorly on speech-language tests and have higher rates of educational problems compared to normal hearing (NH peers. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is an imaging modality used to measure microstructural integrity of brain white matter. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate differences in fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in hearing- and non-hearing-related structures in the brain between children with UHL and their NH siblings. Study Design: Prospective observational cohortSetting: Academic medical center.Subjects and Methods: 61 children were recruited, tested and imaged. 29 children with severe-to-profound UHL were compared to 20 siblings with NH using IQ and oral language testing, and MRI with DTI. 12 children had inadequate MRI data. Parents provided demographic data and indicated whether children had a need for an individualized educational program (IEP or speech therapy (ST. DTI parameters were measured in auditory and non-auditory regions of interest (ROIs. Between-group comparisons were evaluated with non-parametric tests. Results: Lower FA of left lateral lemniscus was observed for children with UHL compared to their NH siblings, as well as trends towards differences in other auditory and nonauditory regions. Correlation analyses showed associations between several DTI parameters and outcomes in children with UHL. Regression analyses revealed relationships between educational outcome variables and several DTI parameters, which may provide clinically useful information for guidance of speech therapy. Discussion/Conclusion: White matter microstructural patterns in several brain regions are preserved despite unilateral rather than bilateral auditory input which contrasts with findings in patients with bilateral hearing loss.
Nelson, Siri; Andersen, Ronny; Anderssen, Sven-Harald
The Directorate of Health recommends hearing screening of all neonates with the aid of otoacoustic emissions (OAE). The goal is to achieve initiation of treatment before the child is six months old. Congenital hearing loss occurs in 1-3 per 1,000 newborns, and the purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence in a large Norwegian dataset. During the period 1 January 2000-31 December 2009, all children who were born in Østfold county, 29,485 neonates in total, were offered hearing screening with the aid of otoacoustic emissions. Those children in whom no emissions were detected were referred to the hearing centre. The dataset also includes children born during the same period who had normal emissions during their neonatal period, but later were diagnosed with hearing loss. The follow-up period of these children lasted until 31 December 2013. Altogether 568 children were referred to the hearing centre after screening. Of these, 73 children underwent brainstem response audiometry under anaesthesia, and 31 (0.11%) were diagnosed with hearing loss through absence of emissions at birth. Eleven (35%) of these received their diagnosis before the age of six months. The median age of diagnosis decreased from 13 (7-74) to 6 (3-23) months, while their number increased from nine to 22 from 2000-04 to 2005-09. Hearing loss after normal otoacoustic emissions at the neonatal stage was diagnosed in ten children (0.03%) and the median age of diagnosis among these was 36 (18-86) months. After the introduction of automated auditory brainstem response audiometry (AABR) during sleep, the use of auditory brainstem response audiometry (ABR) under narcosis fell by half. The prevalence of hearing loss is equal to other Norwegian and international figures. The age of diagnosis decreased during the period. Otoacoustic emissions appear to be an effective screening method in paediatric wards. The use of automated auditory brainstem response audiometry reduces the need for testing under
Miller, Elizabeth M; Lederberg, Amy R; Easterbrooks, Susan R
The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and rhyme discrimination in the context of a multifaceted emergent literacy intervention. Instruction occurred in settings where teachers used simultaneous communication or spoken language only. A multiple-baseline across skills design documented a functional relation between instruction and skill acquisition for those children who did not have the skills at baseline with one exception; one child did not meet criteria for syllable segmentation. These results were confirmed by changes on phonological awareness tests that were administered at the beginning and end of the school year. We found that DHH children who varied in primary communication mode, chronological age, and language ability all benefited from explicit instruction in phonological awareness.
Rahne, Torsten; Seiwerth, Ingmar; Götze, Gerrit; Heider, Cornelia; Radetzki, Florian; Herzog, Michael; Plontke, Stefan K
In patients with conductive hearing loss caused by middle ear disorders or atresia of the ear canal, a Bonebridge implantation can improve hearing by providing vibratory input to the temporal bone. The expected results are improved puretone thresholds and speech recognition. In the European Union, approval of the Bonebridge implantation was recently extended to children. We evaluated the functional outcome of a Bonebridge implantation for eight adults and three children. We found significant improvement in the puretone thresholds, with improvement in the air-bone gap. Speech recognition after surgery was significantly higher than in the best-aided situation before surgery. The Bonebridge significantly improved speech recognition in noisy environments and sound localization. In situations relevant to daily life, hearing deficits were nearly completely restored with the Bonebridge implantation in both adults and children.
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Hamel, Candyce; Stevens, Adrienne; Pratt, Misty; Moher, David; Doucet, Suzanne P; Neuss, Deirdre; Bernstein, Anita; Na, Eunjung
Permanent hearing loss affects 1 to 3 per 1000 children and interferes with typical communication development. Early detection through newborn hearing screening and hearing technology provide most children with the option of spoken language acquisition. However, no consensus exists on optimal interventions for spoken language development. To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of early sign and oral language intervention compared with oral language intervention only for children with permanent hearing loss. An a priori protocol was developed. Electronic databases (eg, Medline, Embase, CINAHL) from 1995 to June 2013 and gray literature sources were searched. Studies in English and French were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were measures of auditory, vocabulary, language, and speech production skills. All data collection and risk of bias assessments were completed and then verified by a second person. Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to judge the strength of evidence. Eleven cohort studies met inclusion criteria, of which 8 included only children with severe to profound hearing loss with cochlear implants. Language development was the most frequently reported outcome. Other reported outcomes included speech and speech perception. Several measures and metrics were reported across studies, and descriptions of interventions were sometimes unclear. Very limited, and hence insufficient, high-quality evidence exists to determine whether sign language in combination with oral language is more effective than oral language therapy alone. More research is needed to supplement the evidence base. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Merugumala, Sri Vamshi; Pothula, Vijay; Cooper, Max
In low income countries, deaf children are identified late due to the absence of a universal screening. Hearing impairment is a common yet neglected disability in India that leads to loss of speech and language. This qualitative study explored barriers to accessing appropriate hearing services in one city in southern India. To identify the barriers in timely management of deafness, 25 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were examined using Applied Thematic Analysis. Seventeen mothers of deaf children, primarily from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and eight staff members at a charitable hearing centre in Hyderabad. Barriers to accessing hearing services included failure to recognise deafness, the dominant role of elders in household decisions, belief that deafness would resolve, reassurance from a child's overall good health, lack of funds and transportation barriers to reach the centre particularly from rural areas. Parents frequently learned about services through word of mouth. The challenges to accessing appropriate services for deafness operate prior to presentation and include educational, cultural, navigational and financial barriers especially for those of lower socioeconomic status and residents of rural areas. The findings highlighted the need to raise awareness and implement wider screening programmes for early interventions.
Ledford, Jennifer R.; Wolery, Mark
Imitation is a primary means through which children learn new skills. Most children learn to imitate without being taught but some children with disabilities fail to develop or use imitation in the absence of direct instruction. The importance of teaching imitation to children with disabilities has been acknowledged, with studies appearing as…
Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne
The purpose of this study was to systematically review the factors affecting the language, speech intelligibility, speech production, and lexical tone development of children with hearing loss who use spoken languages other than English. Relevant studies of children with hearing loss published between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed with reference to…
Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.
Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…
Grandpierre, Viviane; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Na, Eunjung; Mendonca, Oreen
Following the establishment of newborn hearing screening programs, age of identification and length of time before receiving interventions has been reduced for children, including those with milder degrees of hearing loss who were previously not identified until school age. This population of early-identified children requires new support programs…
Robertson, Lyn; Dow, Gina Annunziato; Hainzinger, Sarah Lynn
In two analyses, transcripts from 21 children (ages 3-6) reading and retelling stories with a parent over a six-week period were studied. Ten children with moderate-to-profound hearing loss used assistive technology and the Auditory-Verbal approach for language learning; 11 had typical hearing. In Analysis 1, no significant difference between…
Asad, Areej Nimer; Hand, Linda; Fairgray, Liz; Purdy, Suzanne Carolyn
The primary objectives of this research were to establish whether dynamic assessment could be implemented in children with hearing loss with a range of language abilities and to obtain pilot data to support the use of dynamic assessment for determining narrative language learning difficulties in children with hearing loss. Participants were three…
This study examined the discourse skills of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children by comparing their oral and written narratives produced for the wordless picture book, "Frog, Where Are You?" (Mayer, 1969), with those of school-age-matched hearing peers. The written stories produced by 42 Italian 7- to 15-year-old children with…
Over the years deaf and hard-of-hearing children have been reported as having difficulty with time conception and, in particular, the proper arrangement of events in a logical, temporal order. The research examined whether deaf and hard-of-hearing children perceive a temporal sequence differently under different representational modes. We compared…
Ramirez, Marizen; Fillmore, Erin; Chen, Alex; Peek-Asa, Corinne
The aim of this study was to compare rates, nature, and mechanisms of school injuries in children with and without disabilities. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with repeated measures of 269 919 children with and without disabilities who were enrolled in 35 adapted schools from a large urban school district. Reports of injuries sustained from 1994 to 1998 were collected by the district's insurance division, and disability was assessed using special education guidelines determined by the California Department of Education. A generalized estimating equations model was used to estimate rate ratios, accounting for the repeated, nested nature of the data. Children with disabilities had more than double the rate of injury reported than children without disabilities (incidence density ratio [IDR] 2.3, 95% CI, 2.2-2.5). Almost one third of these injuries were due to fights, roughhousing, and assaults. Among all disabled children, those with orthopedic disabilities had the highest risk, with rates over 5 times that of children without disabilities (IDR 5.4, 95% CI, 4.4-6.6). Children with cognitive disabilities had comparatively lower rates of injury than children with physical disabilities. For children with disabilities, physical impairment may play a greater role than cognitive impairment in managing risk for injury at school. Individual education programs (IEP), developed for children in special education, could be tailored to include injury prevention strategies. Copyright 2010 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gilboa, Yafit; Fuchs, Reut
We aim to examine the pattern of participation of children with intellectual developmental disabilities (IDD) or global developmental delay (GDD) in comparison with typically developing preschoolers. In addition, to identify environmental and personal factors associated with their participation, 20 children with mild to moderate GDD or IDD, and 24 age- and gender-matched controls, aged 3 to 6 years, were assessed using the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation and the Environmental Restriction Questionnaire. Significant differences were found between the groups, both for general scales of participation and for each activity area. For the IDD/GDD group, participation was significantly negatively correlated with environmental restrictions at home. For the control group, participation was correlated with demographic variables. Typically developing children participate at a higher frequency and in a more diverse range of activities compared with children with IDD/GDD. Associations between participation and contextual factors varied depending on the child's health condition.
Full Text Available School failure is one of the more complex, more difficult and unfortunately frequent problem that modern school meets. Many factors can cause school failure, such as: child development characteristics, family and school-originated factors. The purpose of the research is analysis of the specific learning problems in students with a mild intellectual disability. For our research we used ACADIA test, which contains 13 subtests for assessing the overall individual functioning. The research involved 144 students. We divided the sample into two groups, children with intellectual disability (our target group and control group. We found that generally all students with the intellectual disability have special learning problems. According to individual subtests analysis we concluded that the ability for visual association is best developed among these students while on the subtest for auditory memory they achieved worse results. With the analysis of the control group we found that 13.75% of the students have special learning problems.
Full Text Available Prerequisites for the development of the concept of health-forming technologies in the process of adaptive physical education of school-age children with hearing impairment Prerequisites for the development of the concept of health-forming technologies in the process of adaptive physical education of school-age children with hearing impairment National University of Physical Education and Sports of Ukraine, Kyiv. Actuality. The leading position of the contemporary issues of health-forming activity of children and youth presented in the form of a methodological basis for the formation of a positive motivation for a healthy lifestyle of the younger generation, especially with specific disabilities in the state of health, separates the central component of this process from the humanistic approach, the essence of which is creating a favorable situation for the readiness of the present youth to perceive and adequately respond to the educational activities of the school and social environment that are implemented in the process of their physical education. Objectives of the study: determination of priority directions of optimization of the process of physical education of students with hearing impairments, selection of rational means and methods that fully satisfy the specific needs of this contingent based on the study of their interests not only during physical education, but also correctional activities, self-organized motor activity Research results. The data obtained during the study showed that most children with hearing impairments understood the problems of their own health and had a desire to carry out activities aimed at improving their level, defining for themselves as the main criterion the physical state of their organism. The results of the questionnaire survey of 236 schoolchildren aged 13 to 19 years with different established hearing disorders supplemented the systematization of preconditions and scientifically substantiated the
Floyd, Frank J.; Purcell, Susan E.; Richardson, Shana S.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.
We examined sibling relationships for children and adolescents with intellectual disability and assessed implications for their social functioning. Targets (total N = 212) had either intellectual disability, a chronic illness/physical disability, or no disability. Nontarget siblings reported on relationship quality, sibling interactions were…
Fagan, Mary K; Pisoni, David B
This study investigated receptive vocabulary delay in deaf children with cochlear implants. Participants were 23 children with profound hearing loss, ages 6-14 years, who received a cochlear implant between ages 1.4 and 6 years. Duration of cochlear implant use ranged from 3.7 to 11.8 years. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition (PPVT-III) data were analyzed first by examining children's errors for evidence of difficulty in specific lexical content areas, and second by calculating standard scores with reference to hearing age (HA) (i.e., chronological age [CA]--age at implantation) rather than CA. Participants showed evidence of vocabulary understanding across all PPVT-III content categories with no strong evidence of disproportionate numbers of errors in any specific content area despite below-average mean standard scores. However, whereas mean standard scores were below the test mean established for hearing children when based on CA, they were within the average range for hearing children when calculated based on HA. Thus, children's vocabulary knowledge was commensurate with years of cochlear implant experience, providing support for the role of spoken language experience in vocabulary acquisition.
Phelan, E; Pal, R; Henderson, L; Green, K M J; Bruce, I A
Although, the association between Down syndrome (DS) and conductive hearing loss is well recognized, the fact that a small proportion of these children may have a severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss that could benefit from cochlear implantation (CI) is less well understood. The management of significant co-morbidities in children with DS can delay initial diagnosis of hearing impairment and assessment of suitability for CI can likewise be challenging, due to difficulties conditioning to behavioural hearing tests. We performed a retrospective case note review of three children with DS referred to the Manchester Cochlear Implant Programme. Three illustrative cases are described including CI in a 4 years old. Using conventional outcome measurement instruments, the outcome could be considered to be suboptimal with a Categories of Auditory Performance score of 4 at 6 months post-op and at last follow up. In part, this is likely to reflect the delay in implantation, but the role of cognitive impairment must be considered. The cases described emphasize the importance of comprehensive radiological and audiological assessment in children with DS being considered for CI. The influence of cognitive impairment upon outcome of CI must be taken into account, but should not be considered a contra-indication to implantation in children with DS. Benefit that might be considered limited when quantified using existing general outcome measurement instruments, may have a significant impact upon psychosocial development and quality of life in children with significant cognitive impairment, or other additional needs.
Papaioannou, Christina; Evaggelinou, Christina
The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a specific Disability Camp Program (DCP) in the attitudes of children without disabilities toward the inclusion of children with disabilities in a summer sport and leisure activity camp. Three hundred eighty-seven campers without disabilities participated in the study and were divided into…
Corbin, Nicole E; Buss, Emily; Leibold, Lori J
The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine the effect of an acute simulated unilateral hearing loss on children's spatial release from masking in two-talker speech and speech-shaped noise, and (2) to develop a procedure to be used in future studies that will assess spatial release from masking in children who have permanent unilateral hearing loss. There were three main predictions. First, spatial release from masking was expected to be larger in two-talker speech than in speech-shaped noise. Second, simulated unilateral hearing loss was expected to worsen performance in all listening conditions, but particularly in the spatially separated two-talker speech masker. Third, spatial release from masking was expected to be smaller for children than for adults in the two-talker masker. Participants were 12 children (8.7 to 10.9 years) and 11 adults (18.5 to 30.4 years) with normal bilateral hearing. Thresholds for 50%-correct recognition of Bamford-Kowal-Bench sentences were measured adaptively in continuous two-talker speech or speech-shaped noise. Target sentences were always presented from a loudspeaker at 0° azimuth. The masker stimulus was either co-located with the target or spatially separated to +90° or -90° azimuth. Spatial release from masking was quantified as the difference between thresholds obtained when the target and masker were co-located and thresholds obtained when the masker was presented from +90° or -90° azimuth. Testing was completed both with and without a moderate simulated unilateral hearing loss, created with a foam earplug and supra-aural earmuff. A repeated-measures design was used to compare performance between children and adults, and performance in the no-plug and simulated-unilateral-hearing-loss conditions. All listeners benefited from spatial separation of target and masker stimuli on the azimuth plane in the no-plug listening conditions; this benefit was larger in two-talker speech than in speech-shaped noise. In the