WorldWideScience

Sample records for heard island transmissions

  1. Relative abundance and behavior of marine mammals exposed to transmissions from the Heard Island Feasibility Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, A E; Smultea, M; Würsig, B; DeMaster, D P; Palka, D

    1994-10-01

    The Heard Island Feasibility Test source transmitted a hum at 209-220 dB re: 1 microPa at 175-m depth, centered on 57 Hz with a maximum bandwidth of 30 Hz for 1 h of every 3. Experienced marine mammal observers conducted line-transect surveys and monitored marine mammal behavior visually and acoustically in a 70 x 70 km square centered on the transmission site. Thirty-nine groups of cetaceans and 19 of pinnipeds were sighted from both vessels before the start of transmissions. Thirty-nine groups of cetaceans and 23 of pinnipeds were sighted during transmissions. Blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (B. physalus), and sperm (Physeter macrocephalus) whales were sighted during the base line period; blue, sperm, and possibly sei (B. borealis) whales were sighted during the transmission period. More schools of hourglass dolphins (Lagenorhynchus cruciger) were sighted during transmissions, but fewer groups of pilot whales (Globicephala melas), southern bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon planifrons), and minke whales (B. acutorostrata). The density of all cetaceans was 0.0157 groups/km2 before the transmissions and 0.0166 groups/km2 during. Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) were seen, but not in sufficient numbers to estimate abundance. One blue whale tracked before, during and after a transmission changed respiration and reorientation rates, but did not avoid the source detectably. Sperm whales and pilot whales were heard in 23% of 1181 min of baseline acoustic surveys; but in none of 1939 min during the transmission period. Both species were heard within 48 h after the end of the test.

  2. Lichens of sub-Antarctic Heard Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Øvstedal, D.O.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A tota1 of 71 lichen species in 42 genera are listed for the island. Three species are described as new: “Arctomia” latispora Øvstedal, Fellhaneropsis subantarctica Øvstedal and Stereocaulon heardii Øvstedal. More than half of the species are restricted to the southern cold zone (Antarctica and

  3. Moss-inhabiting diatom communities from Heard Island, sub-Antarctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeVijver, B.; Beyens, L.; Vincke, S.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we list 192 diatom taxa, collected from bryophyte samples from Heard Island (52degrees05'S, 73degrees30'E). The Heard Island diatom flora shows a marked similarity to those of the Crozet and Kerguelen archipelagos, and is quite dissimilar to the moss-dwelling diatom flora of Macquarie

  4. Mixing on the Heard Island Plateau during HEOBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, R.

    2016-12-01

    On the plateau near Heard and McDonald Islands, the water column was nearly always well mixed. Typically, temperature differences between the surface and the bottom, 100-200 m, were less than 0.2oC and often less that 0.1oC. Surface stratification developed through insolation and deep primarily through a combination of upwelling from canyons and over the edge of the plateau and tidal advection. This stratification was primarily removed by a combination of wind and tidal mixing. Persistent winds of 30 knots mixed the upper 20-50 m. Strong wind events, 40-60 knots, mixed the water column to 100-200 m depth, which over the plateau, was often the entire water column. Benthic tidal friction mixed the bottom 30-50 m. Although the water column was unstratified at the two plume sites intensively investigated, tidal velocities were baroclinic, probably due to topographic controls. Tidal advection changed the bottom temperatures by 0.5oC within 8 hours, more than doubling the prior stratification. Wind mixing quickly homogenized the water column, resulting in the surface often showing the deeper upwelling and advective events. Although acoustic plumes with bubbles were observed in the water column, there was no evidence of geothermal vents or geothermal influence on temperatures. Mixing by bubbles rising in the water column was indistinguishable from the wind and tidal mixing, although the strongest upward vertical velocities were observed at the sites of these acoustic/bubble plumes.

  5. Submarine geology and geomorphology of active Sub-Antarctic volcanoes: Heard and McDonald Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Fox, J. M.; Carey, R.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Martin, T.; Cooke, F.

    2016-12-01

    Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) are World Heritage listed sub-Antarctic active volcanic islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. Built atop the Kerguelen Plateau by Neogene-Quaternary volcanism, HIMI represent subaerial exposures of the second largest submarine Large Igneous Province globally. Onshore, processes influencing island evolution include glaciers, weathering, volcanism, vertical tectonics and mass-wasting (Duncan et al. 2016). Waters surrounding HIMI are largely uncharted, due to their remote location. Hence, the extent to which these same processes shape the submarine environment around HIMI has not been investigated. In early 2016, we conducted marine geophysical and geologic surveys around HIMI aboard RV Investigator (IN2016_V01). Results show that volcanic and sedimentary features prominently trend east-west, likely a result of erosion by the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current and tidal currents. However, spatial patterns of submarine volcanism and sediment distribution differ substantially between the islands. >70 sea knolls surround McDonald Island suggesting substantial submarine volcanism. Geophysical data reveals hard volcanic seafloor around McDonald Island, whereas Heard Island is characterised by sedimentary sequences tens of meters or more thick and iceberg scours - indicative of glacial processes. Differences in submarine geomorphology are likely due to the active glaciation of Heard Island and differing rock types (Heard: alkali basalt, McDonald: phonolite), and dominant products (clastics vs. lava). Variations may also reflect different magmatic plumbing systems beneath the two active volcanoes (Heard produces larger volumes of more focused lava, whilst McDonald extrudes smaller volumes of more evolved lavas from multiple vents across the edifice). Using geophysical data, corroborated with new and existing geologic data, we present the first geomorphic map revealing the processes that shape the submarine environment around HIMI.

  6. Microbial communities of aquatic environments on Heard Island characterized by pyrotag sequencing and environmental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michelle A.; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2017-03-01

    Heard Island in the Southern Ocean is a biological hotspot that is suffering the effects of climate change. Significant glacier retreat has generated proglacial lagoons, some of which are open to the ocean. We used pyrotag sequencing of SSU rRNA genes and environmental data to characterize microorganisms from two pools adjacent to animal breeding areas, two glacial lagoons and Atlas Cove (marine site). The more abundant taxa included Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, ciliates and picoflagellates (e.g. Micromonas), and relatively few Archaea. Seal Pool, which is rich in organic matter, was characterized by a heterotrophic degradative community, while the less eutrophic Atlas Pool had more eucaryotic primary producers. Brown Lagoon, with the lowest nutrient levels, had Eucarya and Bacteria predicted to be oligotrophs, possess small cell sizes, and have the ability to metabolize organic matter. The marine influence on Winston Lagoon was evident by its salinity and the abundance of marine-like Gammaproteobacteria, while also lacking typical marine eucaryotes indicating the system was still functioning as a distinct niche. This is the first microbiology study of Heard Island and revealed that communities are distinct at each location and heavily influenced by local environmental factors.

  7. Volcanism, Iron, and Phytoplankton in the Heard and McDonald Islands Region, Southern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Trull, T. W.; Heobi in2016 v01 Shipboard Party, T.

    2016-12-01

    Phytoplankton supply approximately half of the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere, and iron supply limits the growth of phytoplankton in the anemic Southern Ocean. Situated entirely within the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean are Australia's only active subaerial volcanoes, Heard and McDonald islands (HIMI) on the central Kerguelen Plateau, a large igneous province. Widespread fields of submarine volcanoes, some of which may be active, extend for distances of up to several hundred kilometers from the islands. The predominantly eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current sweeps across the central Kerguelen Plateau, and extensive blooms of phytoplankton are observed on the Plateau down-current of HIMI. The goal of RV Investigator voyage IN2016_V01, conducted in January/February 2016, is to test the hypothesis that hydrothermal fluids, which cool active submarine volcanoes in the HIMI region, ascend from the seafloor and fertilise surface waters with iron, thereby enhancing biological productivity beginning with phytoplankton. Significant initial shipboard results include: Documentation, for the first time, of the role of active HIMI and nearby submarine volcanoes in supplying iron to the Southern Ocean. Nearshore waters had elevated dissolved iron levels. Although biomass was not correspondingly elevated, fluorescence induction data indicated highly productive resident phytoplankton. Discovery of >200 acoustic plumes emanating from the seafloor and ascending up to tens of meters into the water column near HIMI. Deep tow camera footage shows bubbles rising from the seafloor in an acoustic plume field north of Heard Island. Mapping 1,000 km2 of uncharted seafloor around HIMI. Submarine volcanic edifices punctuate the adjacent seafloor, and yielded iron-rich rocks similar to those found on HIMI, respectively. Acoustic plumes emanating from some of these features suggest active seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  8. The effects of body size and climate on post-weaning survival of elephant seals at Heard Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Clive R; New, Leslie; Fairley, E.J.; Hindell, M.A.; Burton, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    The population size of southern elephant seals in the southern Indian and Pacific Oceans decreased precipitously between the 1950s and 1990s. To investigate the reasons behind this, we studied the population of southern elephant seals at Heard Island between 1949 and 1954, using data collected by the early Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions. Seals were marked and measured (lengths) as weaned pups, and resighted at Heard and Marion islands and in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica in subsequent years. Bayesian state-space mark-recapture models were used to determine post-weaning survival. Yearling survival was consistently lower (ϕy: 0.28–0.40) than sub-adult survival (ϕs: 0.79–0.83). We found evidence for constant sub-adult survival and time-dependent resight probabilities. Weaning length was an important determinate of yearling survival, with the probability of survival increasing with individual length. There was some suggestion that the Southern Annular Mode influenced yearling survival but this evidence was not strong. Nonetheless, our results provide further support showing that size at independence affects yearling survival. Given the known sensitivity of southern elephant seal populations to survival early in life, it is possible that the decline in population size at Heard Island between the 1950s and 1990s like that at Macquarie Island was due to low yearling survival mediated through maternal ability to produce large pups and the dominant environmental conditions mothers experience during pregnancy.

  9. Heard Island and McDonald Islands Acoustic Plumes: Split-beam Echo sounder and Deep Tow Camera Observations of Gas Seeps on the Central Kerguelen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Spain, E. A.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Fox, J. M.; Bowie, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Heard and McDonald islands (HIMI) are two active volcanic edifices on the Central Kerguelen Plateau. Scientists aboard the Heard Earth-Ocean-Biosphere Interactions voyage in early 2016 explored how this volcanic activity manifests itself near HIMI. Using Simrad EK60 split-beam echo sounder and deep tow camera data from RV Investigator, we recorded the distribution of seafloor emissions, providing the first direct evidence of seabed discharge around HIMI, mapping >244 acoustic plume signals. Northeast of Heard, three distinct plume clusters are associated with bubbles (towed camera) and the largest directly overlies a sub-seafloor opaque zone (sub-bottom profiler) with >140 zones observed within 6.5 km. Large temperature anomalies did not characterize any of the acoustic plumes where temperature data were recorded. We therefore suggest that these plumes are cold methane seeps. Acoustic properties - mean volume backscattering and target strength - and morphology - height, width, depth to surface - of plumes around McDonald resembled those northeast of Heard, also suggesting gas bubbles. We observed no bubbles on extremely limited towed camera data around McDonald; however, visibility was poor. The acoustic response of the plumes at different frequencies (120 kHz vs. 18 kHz), a technique used to classify water column scatterers, differed between HIMI, suggestiing dissimilar target size (bubble radii) distributions. Environmental context and temporal characteristics of the plumes differed between HIMI. Heard plumes were concentrated on flat, sediment rich plains, whereas around McDonald plumes emanated from sea knolls and mounds with hard volcanic seafloor. The Heard plumes were consistent temporally, while the McDonald plumes varied temporally possibly related to tides or subsurface processes. Our data and analyses suggest that HIMI acoustic plumes were likely caused by gas bubbles; however, the bubbles may originate from two or more distinct processes.

  10. Late summer distribution and stoichiometry of dissolved N, Si and P in the Southern Ocean near Heard and McDonald Islands on the Kerguelen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Z.; Bowie, A. R.; Blain, S.; Holmes, T.; Rayner, M.; Sherrin, K.; Tonnard, M.; Trull, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Kerguelen plateau in the Southern Indian Ocean is a naturally iron-fertilised region surrounded by iron-limited, High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll waters. The Heard Earth Ocean Biosphere Interaction (HEOBI) project sampled waters south of the Polar Front in the vicinity of Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) in January and February 2016. Fe fertilised waters over the plateau generally exhibited high phytoplankton biomass and photosynthetic competency (as in previous studies and satellite observations), but interestingly, phytoplankton biomass was low near HIMI, though photosynthetic competency was high. In plateau waters away from HIMI, silicic acid (Si) concentrations were strongly depleted in surface waters, averaging 3 μM, while nitrate concentrations were close to 25 μM. Relative to the remnant winter water, this represents an average seasonal drawdown of 32 μM Si and only 8 μM nitrate. Though absolute drawdown was lower at an HNLC reference site south of Heard Island, the drawdown ratio was similarly high (∆Si: ∆N 4-5). The average N:P drawdown ratio was 12, typical for a diatom-dominated system (Weber and Deutsch 2010). N:P drawdown was positively correlated with Si drawdown, perhaps indicative of an impact of Fe on both seasonal Si drawdown and diatom N:P uptake (Price 2005). In the well-mixed, shallow waters (McDonald Islands, despite the apparent lack of nutrient drawdown or biomass accumulation. Mixed layers deeper than the euphotic zone are one mechanism that retains these remineralization signatures and near the islands, tidal mixing also contributes.

  11. Numerical simulation and measurements of acoustic transmissions from Heard Island to the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Saran, A.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Simulated acoustic propagation showed a gradual deepening of the ray paths from the southern ocean towards tropics. Also the axis of the sound channel deepens from 150 m to 1600 m. Sudden jumps were noticed in the acoustic ray paths in the vicinity...

  12. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  13. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  14. Dengue transmission in the small-island setting: investigations from the Caribbean island of Grenada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Macpherson, Calum N

    2009-01-01

    The Caribbean region has experienced a major surge in dengue activity in recent decades. Yet, for many, and especially the smaller islands, the true extent and general epidemiology of dengue transmission remains unclear because of inadequate systems of surveillance and reporting. We established...... benign dengue fever. A shift in serotype activity and modal age was evident during the noted transition, with the more densely populated south end of the island presenting the focus of transmission....

  15. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Phlebotomidae) of Lanzarote Island (Canary Islands, Spain): Ecological survey and evaluation of the risk of Leishmania transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas-Márquez, Francisco; Díaz-Sáez, Victoriano; Morillas-Mancilla, María Jesús; Corpas-López, Victoriano; Merino-Espinosa, Gemma; Gijón-Robles, Patricia; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina

    2017-04-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies are natural vectors of Leishmania spp. and their expansion throughout has been evidenced in the last few years due to the global warming and changes in human behavior, worsening leishmaniasis problem. However, phlebotomine sandflies have been captured in small numbers on the Canary Islands, particularly on the island of Lanzarote, where only one limited survey was carried out almost thirty years ago. The proximity of this island to Morocco, in addition to the high number of tourists, sometimes accompanied by their dogs, from leishmaniasis endemic regions, highlights the importance of studying the sandfly fauna on this island in order to determine the transmission risk of leishmaniasis Thirty-eight sampling sites spread across the island were studied, and ecological features were gathered to identify the ecological traits associated to the presence of sandflies. Only 85 sandfly specimens were captured (1.18/m2) with the following species distribution: Sergentomyia minuta (0.15 specimens/m2), which was reported for the first time on this island, and S. fallax (1.03/m2). Sandfly captured were achieved in only 7 out of 38 stations. No specimen of the Phlebotomus genus was captured and given that none of the species captured has been demonstrated vectors of human pathogenic Leishmania and considering that they were captured in low frequency and density, it can be concluded that the current leishmaniasis transmission risk is null. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U. S. Virgin Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Olis, D.; Gevorgian, V.; Warren, A.; Butt, R.; Lilienthal, P.; Glassmire, J.

    2011-09-01

    This report focuses on the economic and technical feasibility of integrating renewable energy technologies into the U.S. Virgin Islands transmission and distribution systems. The report includes three main areas of analysis: 1) the economics of deploying utility-scale renewable energy technologies on St. Thomas/St. John and St. Croix; 2) potential sites for installing roof- and ground-mount PV systems and wind turbines and the impact renewable generation will have on the electrical subtransmission and distribution infrastructure, and 3) the feasibility of a 100- to 200-megawatt power interconnection of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA), and British Virgin Islands (BVI) grids via a submarine cable system.

  17. Silica-stabilized gold island films for transmission localized surface plasmon sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruach-Nir, Irit; Bendikov, Tatyana A; Doron-Mor, Ilanit; Barkay, Zahava; Vaskevich, Alexander; Rubinstein, Israel

    2007-01-10

    Ultrathin gold films prepared by evaporation of sub-percolation layers (typically up to 10 nm nominal thickness) onto transparent substrates form arrays of well-defined metal islands. Such films display a characteristic surface plasmon (SP) absorption band, conveniently measured by transmission spectroscopy. The SP band intensity and position are sensitive to the film morphology (island shape and inter-island separation) and the effective dielectric constant of the surrounding medium. The latter has been exploited for chemical and biological sensing in the transmission localized surface plasmon resonance (T-LSPR) mode. A major concern in the development of T-LSPR sensors based on Au island films is instability, manifested as change in the SP absorbance following immersion in organic solvents and aqueous solutions. The latter may present a problem in the use of Au island-based transducers for biological sensing, usually carried out in aqueous media. Here, we describe a facile method for stabilizing Au island films while maintaining a high sensitivity of the SP absorbance to analyte binding. Stabilization is achieved by coating the Au islands with an ultrathin silica layer, ca. 1.5 nm thick, deposited by a sol-gel procedure on an intermediate mercaptosilane monolayer. The silica coating is prepared using a modified literature procedure, where a change in the reaction conditions from room temperature to 90 degrees C shortened the deposition time from days to hours. The system was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, ellipsometry, XPS, HRSEM, AFM, and cyclic voltammetry. The ultrathin silica coating stabilizes the optical properties of the Au island films toward immersion in water, phosphate buffer saline (PBS), and various organic solvents, thus providing proper conditions where the optical response is sensitive only to changes in the effective dielectric constant of the immediate environment. The silica layer is thin enough to afford high T-LSPR sensitivity, while

  18. Islanding the power grid on the transmission level: less connections for more security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Damiano, Alfonso; Scala, Antonio; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2016-10-01

    Islanding is known as a management procedure of the power system that is implemented at the distribution level to preserve sensible loads from outages and to guarantee the continuity in electricity supply, when a high amount of distributed generation occurs. In this paper we study islanding on the level of the transmission grid and shall show that it is a suitable measure to enhance energy security and grid resilience. We consider the German and Italian transmission grids. We remove links either randomly to mimic random failure events, or according to a topological characteristic, their so-called betweenness centrality, to mimic an intentional attack and test whether the resulting fragments are self-sustainable. We test this option via the tool of optimized DC power flow equations. When transmission lines are removed according to their betweenness centrality, the resulting islands have a higher chance of being dynamically self-sustainable than for a random removal. Less connections may even increase the grid’s stability. These facts should be taken into account in the design of future power grids.

  19. Spatially disaggregated disease transmission risk: land cover, land use and risk of dengue transmission on the island of Oahu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Bennett, Shannon N; Kapan, Durrell D

    2011-02-01

    Vector-borne diseases persist in transmission systems that usually comprise heterogeneously distributed vectors and hosts leading to a highly heterogeneous case distribution. In this study, we build on principles of classical mathematical epidemiology to investigate spatial heterogeneity of disease risk for vector-borne diseases. Land cover delineates habitat suitability for vectors, and land use determines the spatial distribution of humans. We focus on the risk of exposure for dengue transmission on the Hawaiian island of Oahu, where the vector Aedes albopictus is well established and areas of dense human population exist. In Hawai'i, dengue virus is generally absent, but occasionally flares up when introduced. It is therefore relevant to investigate risk, but difficult to do based on disease incidence data. Based on publicly available data (land cover, land use, census data, surveillance mosquito trapping), we map the spatial distribution of vectors and human hosts and finally overlay them to produce a vector-to-host ratio map. The resulting high-resolution maps indicate a high spatial variability in vector-to-host ratio suggesting that risk of exposure is spatially heterogeneous and varies according to land cover and land use. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Speaking up, being heard: registered nurses' perceptions of workplace communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon, Maryanne

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore nurses' perceptions of their own ability to speak up and be heard in the workplace. Nurses are central to patient care and patient safety in hospitals. Their ability to speak up and be heard greatly impacts their own work satisfaction, team work as well as patient safety. The present study utilized a qualitative approach, consisting of focus group interviews of 33 registered nurses (RNs), in staff or management positions from a variety of healthcare settings in California, USA. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Findings were organized into three categories: influences on speaking up, transmission and reception of a message and outcomes or results. The present study supported the importance of the manager in setting the culture of open communication. It is anticipated that findings from the present study may increase understandings of nurse views of communication within healthcare settings. The study highlights the importance of nurse managers in creating the communication culture that will allow nurses to speak up and be heard. These open communication cultures lead to better patient care, increased safety and better staff satisfaction. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Lymphatic filariasis transmission on Mafia Islands, Tanzania: Evidence from xenomonitoring in mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derua, Yahya A; Rumisha, Susan F; Batengana, Bernard M; Max, Demetrius A; Stanley, Grades; Kisinza, William N; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2017-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a chronic nematode infection transmitted by mosquitoes and in sub-Saharan Africa it is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. The disease was targeted for global elimination by 2020 using repeated community-wide mass drug administration (MDA) distributed in endemic areas. However, recently, there has been a growing recognition of the potential role of including vector control as a supplement to MDA to achieve elimination goal. This study was carried out to determine mosquito abundance and transmission of bancroftian filariasis on Mafia Islands in Tanzania as a prerequisite for a search for appropriate vector control methods to complement the ongoing MDA campaign. Mosquitoes were collected indoor and outdoor using Centre for Disease Control (CDC) light and gravid traps, respectively. Collected mosquitoes were identified based on their differential morphological features and Anopheles gambiae complex and An. funestus group were further identified to their respective sibling species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Filarial mosquito vectors were then examined for infection with Wuchereria bancrofti by microscopy and PCR technique. Overall, a total of 35,534 filarial mosquito vectors were collected, of which Anopheles gambiae complex, An. funestus group and Culex quinquefasciatus Say accounted for 1.3, 0.5 and 98.2%, respectively. Based on PCR identification, An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s) and An. funestus s.s sibling species accounted for 88.3% and 99.1% of the identified members of the An. gambiae complex and An. funestus group, respectively. A total of 7,936 mosquitoes were examined for infection with W. bancrofti by microscopy. The infection and infectivity rates were 0.25% and 0.08%, respectively. Using pool screen PCR technique, analysis of 324 mosquito pools (each with 25 mosquitoes) resulted to an estimated infection rate of 1.7%. The study has shown that Cx. quinquefasciatus is the dominant mosquito on Mafia Islands. By using mosquito

  2. The drug sensitivity and transmission dynamics of human malaria on Nias Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryauff, D J; Leksana, B; Masbar, S; Wiady, I; Sismadi, P; Susanti, A I; Nagesha, H S; Syafruddin; Atmosoedjono, S; Bangs, M J; Baird, J K

    2002-07-01

    Nias Island, off the north-western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, was one of the first locations in which chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria was reported. This resistance is of particular concern because its ancient megalithic culture and the outstanding surfing conditions make the island a popular tourist destination. International travel to and from the island could rapidly spread chloroquine-resistant strains of P. vivax across the planet. The threat posed by such strains, locally and internationally, has led to the routine and periodic re-assessment of the efficacy of antimalarial drugs and transmission potential on the island. Active case detection identified malaria in 124 (17%) of 710 local residents whereas passive case detection, at the central health clinic, confirmed malaria in 77 (44%) of 173 cases of presumed 'clinical malaria'. Informed consenting volunteers who had malarial parasitaemias were treated, according to the Indonesian Ministry of Health's recommendations, with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) on day 0 (for P. falciparum) or with chloroquine (CQ) on days 0, 1 and 2 (for P. vivax). Each volunteer was then monitored for clinical and parasite response until day 28. Recurrent parasitaemia by day 28 treatment was seen in 29 (83%) of the 35 P. falciparum cases given SP (14, 11 and four cases showing RI, RII and RIII resistance, respectively). Recurrent parasitaemia was also observed, between day 11 and day 21, in six (21%) of the 28 P. vivax cases given CQ. Although the results of quantitative analysis confirmed only low prevalences of CQ-resistant P. vivax malaria, the prevalence of SP resistance among the P. falciparum cases was among the highest seen in Indonesia. When the parasites present in the volunteers with P. falciparum infections were genotyped, mutations associated with pyrimethamine resistance were found at high frequency in the dhfr gene but there was no evidence of selection for sulfadoxine resistance in the dhps gene

  3. Evidence for Suppression of Onchocerciasis Transmission in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis or "river blindness" is a chronic parasitic neglected tropical disease which is endemic both in mainland and insular Equatorial Guinea. We aim to estimate the current epidemiological situation of onchocerciasis in Bioko Island after vector elimination in 2005 and more than sixteen years of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI by using molecular and serological approaches for onchocerciasis diagnosis. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Bioko Island from mid-January to mid-February 2014. A total of 544 study participants were recruited. A complete dermatological examination was performed and three skin snips were performed in every participant for parasitological and molecular assessments. Blood spots were also taken for determination of Ov16 IgG4 antibodies trough an "in-house" ELISA assay. Overall, we found 15 out of 522 individuals suffering any onchocerciasis specific cutaneous lesions and 16 out of 528 (3.0% with onchocercal nodules in the skin. Nodules were significantly associated with age, being more common in subjects older than 10 years than in younger people (3.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.029. Regarding the onchocerciasis laboratory assessment, no positive parasitological test for microfilaria detection was found in the skin snips. The calculated seroprevalence through IgG4 serology was 7.9%. No children less than 10 years old were found to be positive for this test. Only one case was positive for Onchocerca volvulus (O. volvulus after skin PCR. The present study points out that the on-going mass ivermectin treatment has been effective in reducing the prevalence of onchocerciasis and corroborates the interruption of transmission in Bioko Island. To our knowledge, this is the first time that accurate information through molecular and serological techniques is generated to estimate the onchocerciasis prevalence in this zone. Sustained support from the national program and appropriate communication

  4. Small islands adrift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  5. HTS Transmission Cable System for installation in the Long Island Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Frank [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States); Durand, Fabien [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States); Maguire, James [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Department of Energy (DOE) Award DE-FC26-07NT43240 was issued on October 1, 2007. Referred to as LIPA2, the principal objectives of the project were to develop key components required to deploy and demonstrate second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) cables in a 600 meter (2000 feet) underground segment of a 138kV three-phase transmission circuit of the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) power grid. A previous effort under DOE Award DE-FC36-03GO13032 (referred to as LIPA1) resulted in installation (and subsequent successful operation) of first-generation (1G) HTS cables at the LIPA site. As with LIPA1, American Superconductor (AMSC) led the effort for LIPA2 and was responsible for overall management of the project and producing sufficient 2G wire to fabricate the required cable. Nexans' tasks included design/manufacture/installation of the cable, joint (splice), cable terminations and field repairable cryostat; while work by Air Liquide involved engineering and installation support for the refrigeration system modifications.

  6. The drug sensitivity and transmission dynamics of human malaria on Nias Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Syafruddin

    2002-01-01

    Nias Island, off the north-western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, was one of the first locations in which chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria was reported. This resistance is of particular concern because its ancient megalithic culture and the outstanding surfing conditions make the island a popular tourist destination. International travel to and from the island could rapidly spread chloroquine-resistant strains of P. vivax across the planet. The threat posed by such strains, locall...

  7. Long-Term Ground-Water Levels and Transmissivity in the Blackstone River Basin, Northern Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jack R.; Church, Peter E.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water provides about 7.7 million gallons per day, or 28 percent of total water use in the Rhode Island part of the Blackstone River Basin. Primary aquifers in the basin are stratified glacial deposits, composed mostly of sand and gravel along valley bottoms. The ground-water and surface-water system in the Blackstone River Basin is under stress due to population growth, out-of-basin water transfers, industrialization, and changing land-use patterns. Streamflow periodically drops below the Aquatic Base Flow standard, and ground-water withdrawals add to stress on aquatic habitat during low-flow periods. Existing hydrogeologic data were reviewed to examine historical water-level trends and to generate contour maps of water-table altitudes and transmissivity of the sand and gravel aquifer in the Blackstone River Basin in Rhode Island. On the basis of data from four long-term observation wells, water levels appear to have risen slightly in the study area during the past 55 years. Analysis of available data indicates that increased rainfall during the same period is a likely contributor to the water-level rise. Spatial patterns of transmissivity are shown over larger areas and have been refined on the basis of more detailed data coverage as compared to previous mapping studies.

  8. Natural transmission of dengue virus serotype 3 by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) during an outbreak in Havelock Island: Entomological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A N; Sugunan, A P; Anwesh, Maile; Muruganandam, N; Kartik, C; Vijayachari, P

    2016-04-01

    From May to June 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) illness occurred in the Havelock Island, South Andaman. Entomological investigations were undertaken during the peak of the outbreak, from 26th May-4th June, to identify the primary vector(s) involved in the transmission so that appropriate public health measures could be implemented. Adult mosquitoes were collected by BG-Sentinel traps in houses and neighborhoods of clinically ill patients. Water holding containers were inspected for the presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Adult mosquitoes were analyzed by RT-PCR for the presence of nucleic acids of DENV and CHIKV. A total of 498 mosquitoes were collected and processed in 27 pools. The species composition comprised of 58.3% Aedes albopictus, 7.5% Aedes aegypti and 4.2% Aedes edwardsi and 3.1% constituted others. Two A. albopictus pools were found to be positive for DENV RNA. Sequencing of the RT PCR 511 base pair amplicon positive samples showed homology with DENV-3, suggesting that serotype-3 was responsible for the outbreak and A. albopictus was the primary vector responsible. This was supported by high container (10.1%), premise (25.4%) and Breteau (27.9) indices, with miscellaneous receptacles (2.4%), tree holes (1.2%) and discarded tires (1.2%) registering relatively higher container indices. This is the first report of detection of DENV in A. albopictus from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Is it too cold for Leptospira interrrogans transmission on the Faroese Islands?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Moestrup; Magnussen, Eydfinn

    2016-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans is a bacterium that can infect most mammal species. Brown rats are considered to be one of the most important reservoirs of Leptospira because they frequently are infected and live in close proximity to humans. Past studies of prevalence of Leptospira in brown rats indicate...... that temperature - both high and low - may negatively affect the prevalence rate in rats, so that Leptospira is rare or even absent at temperatures below 7-8 °C. Here we investigated the prevalence of infection in brown rats on the Faroese Islands (mean temperature of 6.5 °C) and did not find any infected animals...... in a sample of 95 animals. We propose that prevalence rates of Leptospira are very low in rural brown rats in the cooler Scandinavian regions, even though urban/sewer rats might be highly infected in the same regions....

  10. Transmission Dynamics of Zika Virus in Island Populations: A Modelling Analysis of the 2013-14 French Polynesia Outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Kucharski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Between October 2013 and April 2014, more than 30,000 cases of Zika virus (ZIKV disease were estimated to have attended healthcare facilities in French Polynesia. ZIKV has also been reported in Africa and Asia, and in 2015 the virus spread to South America and the Caribbean. Infection with ZIKV has been associated with neurological complications including Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS and microcephaly, which led the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2015. To better understand the transmission dynamics of ZIKV, we used a mathematical model to examine the 2013-14 outbreak on the six major archipelagos of French Polynesia. Our median estimates for the basic reproduction number ranged from 2.6-4.8, with an estimated 11.5% (95% CI: 7.32-17.9% of total infections reported. As a result, we estimated that 94% (95% CI: 91-97% of the total population of the six archipelagos were infected during the outbreak. Based on the demography of French Polynesia, our results imply that if ZIKV infection provides complete protection against future infection, it would take 12-20 years before there are a sufficient number of susceptible individuals for ZIKV to re-emerge, which is on the same timescale as the circulation of dengue virus serotypes in the region. Our analysis suggests that ZIKV may exhibit similar dynamics to dengue virus in island populations, with transmission characterized by large, sporadic outbreaks with a high proportion of asymptomatic or unreported cases.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in humans on Prince Edward Island, Canada: evidence of zoonotic transmission from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu-Amoako, E; Greenwood, S J; Dixon, B R; Sweet, L; Ang, L; Barkema, H W; McClure, J T

    2012-09-01

    To determine the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, 658 human faecal specimens were screened that were submitted to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital diagnostic laboratory. Overall, 143 (22%) samples were Cryptosporidium positive, while three (0.5%) were positive for Giardia. Successful genotyping of 25 Cryptosporidium isolates by sequence analysis of the HSP70 gene revealed that 28 and 72% were C. hominis and C. parvum, respectively. Cryptosporidium isolates from humans and previously genotyped C. parvum from beef cattle were subtyped by sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Subtyping identified three subtypes belonging to the family IIa. All three subtypes IIaA16G2RI (55%), IIaA16G3RI (22%) and IIaA15G2RI (22%) were found in the animal isolates, while two of the subtypes found in the animals, IIaA16G2RI (80%) and IIaA15G2RI (20%), were also identified in the human isolates. Cryptosporidium infection in humans peaked in April-June. Molecular epidemiological analysis of the human data showed a C. parvum peak in the spring and a relatively smaller peak for C. hominis in July-September. The majority (57%) of human Cryptosporidium isolates were found in children between 5 and 10 years of age. All three Giardia isolates were identified as G. duodenalis assemblage A. The overall Cryptosporidium prevalence in our human samples was high relative to other studies, but because the samples were submitted to a hospital diagnostic laboratory, the results may not be representative of the general population. Further, the presence of the same zoonotic C. parvum subtypes in cattle and human isolates implies that transmission is largely zoonotic and cattle may be a source of sporadic human infections on PEI. The presence of Giardia in people on PEI is rare, and the assemblage A found in humans might originate from humans, livestock or other domestic or wild animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Failure to demonstrate experimental vertical transmission of the epidemic strain of Chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus from La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vazeille

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus was responsible for transmission in the first outbreak of chikungunya (CHIK on La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean, in 2005-2006. The magnitude of the outbreak on this island, which had been free of arboviral diseases for over 30 years, as well as the efficiency of Ae. albopictus as the main vector, raises questions about the maintenance of the CHIK virus (CHIKV through vertical transmission mechanisms. Few specimens collected from the field as larvae were found to be infected. In this study, Ae. albopictus originating from La Réunion were orally infected with a blood-meal containing 10(8 pfu/mL of the CHIKV epidemic strain (CHIKV 06.21. Eggs from the first and second gonotrophic cycles were collected and raised to the adult stage. The infectious status of the progeny was checked (i by immunofluorescence on head squashes of individual mosquitoes to detect the presence of viral particles or (ii by quantitative RT-PCR on mosquito pools to detect viral RNA. We analysed a total of 1,675 specimens from the first gonotrophic cycle and 1,709 from the second gonotrophic cycle without detecting any viral particles or viral RNA. These laboratory results are compared to field records.

  13. Cortical Signatures of Heard and Imagined Speech Envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Deng,  Ramesh  Srinivasan  &  Michael  D’Zmura   Department  of   Cognitive  Sciences,  University  of  California  at...California at Irvine,Department of Cognitive Sciences,SSPA 3151,Irvine,CA,92697-5100 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING...information  concerning  the  responses  to  the  envelopes  of  heard   auditory  stimuli  ( Dolphin  and  Mountain

  14. Fossilization of nanobes studied by transmission electron microscopy and constraints related to their population - recent and late quaternary reefbanks (San Salvador Island, the Bahamas; Heron Island, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladil, J.; Gemperle, A.; Carew, J. L.; Bosak, P.; Slavik, L.; Pruner, P.; Charvatova, K.; Mylroie, J. E.; Jell, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    SEM analyses of rocks from Blow Hole Cave and The Gulf sections (San Salvador Island, Bahamas) found that ca 90-95% of peloids (and minor parts of other particles and cements) are substantially rebuilt into tiny corpuscles of ovoid, rotund cylindrical or slightly bent shapes (50-80 × 60-120 nm). About 20-30% of them form short and branched chains. These fabrics resemble `accumulations of ant eggs', have 40-60% fine porosity, correspond to better morpho-definitions of nanobes (cons. by R.L. Folk, 2002), and put a new light on micritization processes. The rocks strongly rebuilt by nanobes negatively correlate with magnetic susceptibility, but slightly contribute to NGR (uranium, gamma-ray spectrometry). In spite of strongly negative correlation to magnetic horizons, the nanobes are also present there, but to a lesser extent. The suspensions with nanobes (extracted by pump from the pores of rocks preserved in glutaraldehyde) exhibit a variety of preservation stages - from amorphous organics to completely fossilized corpuscles (studied by TEM). Early stages of fossilization are characterized by a gradually increasing amount of very fine crystalline inclusions, which are triangular to tetragonal in shape, and 3-15 nm long (mean size ˜ 6 nm). The TEM diffractograms provided data about face-centered cubic structures of B1 type (NaCl-like), with strongest 2nd and 3rd reflections on 0.240 and 0.170 nm and mean lattice parameter of 0.4813 nm. The substance was clearly identified as CaO. The difference to 0.4802 nm (ICDD data for pure CaO) is explained by effects of impurities Sr (+) > Fe, Mn (-). The number of CaO inclusions fluctuates from a few to 5 × 104 / μ {m3}. The CaO nucleation is possible in natural necrotic high-pH low-Eh organic coagulates; but presence of glutaraldehyde can facilitate the process. Other fossilization stages show unstable amorphous to crystalline calcium carbonate, homogeneous aragonite and calcite, and calcite replacing aragonite along sharp

  15. LHC? Of course we’ve heard of the LHC!

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Well, more or less. After its first outing in Meyrin (see last Bulletin issue), our street poll hits the streets of Divonne-les-Bains and the corridors of the University of Geneva. While many have heard of the LHC, the raison d’être of this "scientific whatsit" often remains a mystery.On first questioning, the "man-in-the-street" always pleads ignorance. "Lausanne Hockey Club?" The acronym LHC is not yet imprinted on people’s minds. "Erm, Left-Handed thingamajig?" But as soon as we mention the word "CERN", the accelerator pops straight into people’s minds. Variously referred to as "the circle" or "the ring", it makes you wonder whether people would have been so aware of the LHC if it had been shaped like a square. Size is another thing people remember: "It’s the world’s biggest. Up to now…" As for its purpose, well that’s another kettle of fish. &...

  16. 800 Fellows at CERN: Make your voice heard!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    The financial and social conditions of the CERN personnel are determined in agreement between the CERN Management and the Staff Association (SA), the statutory body representing the personnel. The Staff Association is mandated to serve and defend the economic, social, professional and moral interests of its members and the entire CERN personnel. Fellows are members of the personnel employed by CERN (MPE), and should be listened to and heard during discussions that concern their financial and social conditions and, more widely, their working and employment conditions. The Staff Association wants to hear from you! At the end of 2017, 50 delegates were elected to the Staff Council, including four fellows. These delegates are your spokespersons within the Staff Association and, as such, they represent you in relations with the Management and the Member States. How can you make a difference? In 2015, during the latest five-yearly review, the aim of which was to review the financial and social conditions of the mem...

  17. The epidemiology and transmissibility of Zika virus in Girardot and San Andres island, Colombia, September 2015 to January 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, DP; Dean, NE; Yang, Y; Kenah, E; Quintero, J; Tomasi, S; Ramirez, EL; Kelly, Y; Castro, C; Carrasquilla, G; Halloran, ME; Longini, IM

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) was first detected in Colombia in September 2015. As of April 2016, Colombia had reported over 65,000 cases of Zika virus disease (ZVD). We analysed daily surveillance data of ZVD cases reported to the health authorities of San Andres and Girardot, Colombia, between September 2015 and January 2016. ZVD was laboratory-confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the serum of acute cases within five days of symptom onset. We use daily incidence data to estimate the basic reproductive number (R0) in each population. We identified 928 and 1,936 reported ZVD cases from San Andres and Girardot, respectively. The overall attack rate for reported ZVD was 12.13 cases per 1,000 residents of San Andres and 18.43 cases per 1,000 residents of Girardot. Attack rates were significantly higher in females in both municipalities (p < 0.001). Cases occurred in all age groups with highest rates in 20 to 49 year-olds. The estimated R0 for the Zika outbreak was 1.41 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15–1.74) in San Andres and 4.61 (95% CI: 4.11–5.16) in Girardot. Transmission of ZIKV is ongoing in the Americas. The estimated R0 from Colombia supports the observed rapid spread. PMID:27452806

  18. Two-and 3-Year-Olds Know What Others Have and Have Not Heard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Henrike; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have established that even infants can determine what others know based on previous visual experience. In the current study, we investigated whether 2-and 3-year-olds know what others know based on previous auditory experience. A child and an adult heard the sound of one object together, but only the child heard the sound of another…

  19. A new species of Numbakullidae Guţu & Heard, 2002 (Tanaidacea, Peracarida, Crustacea from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stępień

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Numbakulla Guţu & Heard, 2002 (Tanaidacea is described from Heron Island (southern Great Barrier Reef, Queensland collected during the Census of Coral Reefs Ecosystem (CReefs program. The new species is the third member of the family and can be recognized by the combination of characters as: length/width ratio of the body, which is 6:7, pereonite 4 longer than the rest, the presence of eyes, a blunt rostrum, antenna article 2 elongated, cheliped carpus with row of inner setae, pereopod 6 carpus with spines, pleopod endopod with denticles.

  20. Predictors of having heard about human papillomavirus vaccination: Critical aspects for cervical cancer prevention among Colombian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bermedo-Carrasco

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Almost three quarters of the Colombian women had not heard about HPV vaccination, with variations by socio-demographic characteristics. Women in disadvantaged groups were less likely to have heard about HPV vaccination.

  1. The Right to Be Heard in Composite Administrative Procedures: Lost in Between Protection?

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Joana

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine and question the rule developed by the judiciary according to which, in composite EU administrative procedures, the right to be heard must in the first place be ensured in the relationships between the affected person and the competent national administrative authority. Ensuring the possibility to be heard at the national level might be logically coherent with the institutional principles of EU law, namely with the principles of procedural autonomy and of ...

  2. Neural representation of the self-heard biosonar click in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, James J; Mulsow, Jason; Houser, Dorian S; Schlundt, Carolyn E

    2017-05-01

    The neural representation of the dolphin broadband biosonar click was investigated by measuring auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to "self-heard" clicks masked with noise bursts having various high-pass cutoff frequencies. Narrowband ABRs were obtained by sequentially subtracting responses obtained with noise having lower high-pass cutoff frequencies from those obtained with noise having higher cutoff frequencies. For comparison to the biosonar data, ABRs were also measured in a passive listening experiment, where external clicks and masking noise were presented to the dolphins and narrowband ABRs were again derived using the subtractive high-pass noise technique. The results showed little change in the peak latencies of the ABR to the self-heard click from 28 to 113 kHz; i.e., the high-frequency neural responses to the self-heard click were delayed relative to those of an external, spectrally "pink" click. The neural representation of the self-heard click is thus highly synchronous across the echolocation frequencies and does not strongly resemble that of a frequency modulated downsweep (i.e., decreasing-frequency chirp). Longer ABR latencies at higher frequencies are hypothesized to arise from spectral differences between self-heard clicks and external clicks, forward masking from previously emitted biosonar clicks, or neural inhibition accompanying the emission of clicks.

  3. Sound quality of supersonic aircraft noise as heard indoors and its impact on annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomoni, Clothilde

    Supersonic flight over inhabited territories of the United States has been banned by the Federal Aviation Association since 1973. While research has been conducted to determine the effects of sonic booms on the general population when heard outdoors, little work has been done on people's perception of sonic booms as heard indoors. A technique to simulate indoor sounds from an outdoor sound has been developed. Using this, subjective tests have been done to determine the best way to use this simulation (i.e. whether diotic or dichotic sounds should be used) and to determine which indoor room characteristics, if any, have an effect on the population's perception of annoyance when hearing sonic booms indoors. Two annoyance models based on sound metrics proposed by Marshall and Davies have also been explored, and it was observed that while these two models were proposed for outdoor sounds, they are also quite accurate in predicting annoyance to sonic booms when heard indoors.

  4. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  5. Elasticity and melodic reformulations in music by oral transmission in Western Mediterranean area: music for flaüta and drum in Eivissa and Formentera Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escandell i Guasch, Jaume

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on instrumental music of oral transmission in the islands of Eivissa and Formentera. In particular, are explained two aspects of the structural behaviour detected in liturgical repertoire for the set of flaüta and drum. The first one of these aspects consists of the development of a musical discourse from the constant reformulation of two melodic models clearly delimited by the used degrees –in relation to all the gamma of sounds that the instrument produces– and for the ending notes. The second one refers to the elasticity that characterizes the studied pieces, which do not have a prefixed extension, but have mechanisms based on a variable times repetition of determinate segments. This fact enables more widespread or more reduced versions of the same pieces[es] El presente artículo aborda la música instrumental de transmisión oral de las islas de Eivissa y Formentera. Concretamente, se explican dos aspectos del comportamiento estructural detectados en el repertorio litúrgico para flaüta y tambor. El primero de ellos consiste en el desarrollo de un discurso musical a partir de la reformulación constante de dos modelos melódicos delimitados claramente por los grados utilizados –en relación con toda la gama de sonidos que produce la flaüta– y por las notas de terminación. El segundo se refiere a la elasticidad que caracteriza las piezas estudiadas. Éstas no tienen una extensión prefijada, sino que cuentan con mecanismos basados en la repetición –un número variable de veces- de segmentos determinados, lo que permite desarrollar versiones más extensas o más reducidas de una misma pieza. [ct] L’article se centra en la música instrumental de transmissió oral a les les illes d’Eivissa i Formentera. En concret, s’expliquen dos aspectes del comportament estructural detectats en el repertori litúrgic per al conjunt de flaüta i tambor. El primer de dits aspectes consisteix en el desenvolupament d

  6. “We have heard it together”: a qualitative analysis of couple HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “We have heard it together”: a qualitative analysis of couple HIV testing and counselling recruitment in Malawi's Option B+ programme. Nora E. Rosenberg, Rebecca Gross, Tiwonge Mtande, Suzanne Maman, Carol E. Golin, Friday Saidi, Olivia Manthalu, Irving Hoffman, Mina C. Hosseinipour, William C. Miller ...

  7. The power to dismiss and the right to be heard under the common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result, it would seem, is that some workers are without rights to procedural fairness from employers in the exercise of the power to dismiss. Given that employment is a critical source of income and livelihood, the paper argues that there is the need to secure the right to be heard in an employment contractual relationship ...

  8. Seen and Heard: Children's Rights in Early Childhood Education. Early Childhood Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ellen Lynn; Rudkin, Jennifer Kofkin

    2011-01-01

    Using examples from a Reggio-inspired school with children from ages 6 weeks to 6 years, the authors emphasize the importance of children's rights and our responsibility as adults to hear their voices. "Seen and Heard" summarizes research and theory pertaining to young children's rights in the United States, and offers strategies educators can use…

  9. National transmission grid study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  10. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  11. Modeling Study for Tangier Island Jetties, Tangier Island, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    transmission caused by structures are approximated in this class of wave models. 1.5.3 Task 3. Modeling channel hydrodynamics The Tangier Island boat ...the Tangier Island Boat Canal 2.1 Purpose A numerical modeling study investigated waves and hydrodynamics in and adjacent to the western portion of...fishing fleet, the U.S. Army Engineer District, Norfolk (CENAO) maintains the Tangier Island boat canal. CENAO is considering the construction of

  12. Intelligibilities of 1-octave rectangular bands spanning the speech spectrum when heard separately and paired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Richard M.; Bashford, James A.; Lenz, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need, both for speech theory and for many practical applications, to know the intelligibilities of individual passbands that span the speech spectrum when they are heard singly and in combination. While indirect procedures have been employed for estimating passband intelligibilities (e.g., the Speech Intelligibility Index), direct measurements have been blocked by the confounding contributions from transition band slopes that accompany filtering. A recent study has reported that slopes of several thousand dBA/octave produced by high-order finite impulse response filtering were required to produce the effectively rectangular bands necessary to eliminate appreciable contributions from transition bands [Warren et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 1292–1295 (2004)]. Using such essentially vertical slopes, the present study employed sentences, and reports the intelligibilities of their six 1-octave contiguous passbands having center frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz when heard alone, and for each of their 15 possible pairings. PMID:16334905

  13. High Rates of Asymptomatic, Sub-microscopic Plasmodium vivax Infection and Disappearing Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in an Area of Low Transmission in Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltmann, Andreea; Darcy, Andrew W; Harris, Ivor; Koepfli, Cristian; Lodo, John; Vahi, Ventis; Piziki, David; Shanks, G Dennis; Barry, Alyssa E; Whittaker, Maxine; Kazura, James W; Mueller, Ivo

    2015-05-01

    Solomon Islands is intensifying national efforts to achieve malaria elimination. A long history of indoor spraying with residual insecticides, combined recently with distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets and artemether-lumefantrine therapy, has been implemented in Solomon Islands. The impact of these interventions on local endemicity of Plasmodium spp. is unknown. In 2012, a cross-sectional survey of 3501 residents of all ages was conducted in Ngella, Central Islands Province, Solomon Islands. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae was assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and light microscopy (LM). Presence of gametocytes was determined by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). By qPCR, 468 Plasmodium spp. infections were detected (prevalence = 13.4%; 463 P. vivax, five mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax, no P. ovale or P. malariae) versus 130 by LM (prevalence = 3.7%; 126 P. vivax, three P. falciparum and one P. falciparum/P. vivax). The prevalence of P. vivax infection varied significantly among villages (range 3.0-38.5%, p<0.001) and across age groups (5.3-25.9%, p<0.001). Of 468 P. vivax infections, 72.9% were sub-microscopic, 84.5% afebrile and 60.0% were both sub-microscopic and afebrile. Local residency, low education level of the household head and living in a household with at least one other P. vivax infected individual increased the risk of P. vivax infection. Overall, 23.5% of P. vivax infections had concurrent gametocytaemia. Of all P. vivax positive samples, 29.2% were polyclonal by MS16 and msp1F3 genotyping. All five P. falciparum infections were detected in residents of the same village, carried the same msp2 allele and four were positive for P. falciparum gametocytes. P. vivax infection remains endemic in Ngella, with the majority of cases afebrile and below the detection limit of LM. P. falciparum has nearly disappeared, but the risk of re-introductions and outbreaks due to travel to nearby islands

  14. Whistleblowing Need not Occur if Internal Voices Are Heard: From Deaf Effect to Hearer Courage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Sonja R.; Doyle, Kerrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Whistleblowing by health professionals is an infrequent and extraordinary event and need not occur if internal voices are heard. Mannion and Davies’ editorial on "Cultures of Silence and Cultures of Voice: The Role of Whistleblowing in Healthcare Organisations" asks the question whether whistleblowing ameliorates or exacerbates the ‘deaf effect’ prevalent in healthcare organisations. This commentary argues that the focus should remain on internal processes and hearer courage . PMID:26673652

  15. Be seen and heard being clean: A novel patient-centered approach to hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Lynda Z; Pinkham, Ashley M; Noble, James T

    2016-07-01

    A quasiexperimental pre- and posttest design was used to evaluate hand hygiene (HH) rates on a medical-surgical unit. Data were collected by asking patients if they had seen or heard staff members cleaning their hands. Sixty-five percent of patients reported seeing or hearing staff perform HH preintervention and 93% reported observations postintervention (P awareness of personal HH behavior. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictors of having heard about human papillomavirus vaccination: Critical aspects for cervical cancer prevention among Colombian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermedo-Carrasco, Silvia; Feng, Cindy Xin; Peña-Sánchez, Juan Nicolás; Lepnurm, Rein

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether the probability of having heard about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination differs by socio-demographic characteristics among Colombian women; and whether the effect of predictors of having heard about HPV vaccination varies by educational levels and rural/urban area of residence. Data of 53,521 women aged 13-49 years were drawn from the 2010 Colombian National Demographic and Health Survey. Women were asked about aspects of their health and their socio-demographic characteristics. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with having heard about HPV vaccination. Educational level and rural/urban area of residence of the women were tested as modifier effects of predictors. 26.8% of the women had heard about HPV vaccination. The odds of having heard about HPV vaccination were lower among women: in low wealth quintiles, without health insurance, with subsidized health insurance, and those who had children (p<0.001). Although women in older age groups and with better education had higher probabilities of having heard about HPV vaccination, differences in these probabilities by age group were more evident among educated women compared to non-educated ones. Probability gaps between non-educated and highly educated women were wider in the Eastern region. Living in rural areas decreased the probability of having heard about HPV vaccination, although narrower rural/urban gaps were observed in the Atlantic and Amazon-Orinoquía regions. Almost three quarters of the Colombian women had not heard about HPV vaccination, with variations by socio-demographic characteristics. Women in disadvantaged groups were less likely to have heard about HPV vaccination. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Hawaii Geothermal Project annotated bibliography: Biological resources of the geothermal subzones, the transmission corridors and the Puna District, Island of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.E.; Burgett, J.M. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, HI (United States). Pacific Islands Office

    1993-10-01

    Task 1 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project Interagency Agreement between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge National Laboratory (DOE) includes an annotated bibliography of published and unpublished documents that cover biological issues related to the lowland rain forest in Puna, adjacent areas, transmission corridors, and in the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP). The 51 documents reviewed in this report cover the main body of biological information for these projects. The full table of contents and bibliography for each document is included along with two copies (as requested in the Interagency Agreement) of the biological sections of each document. The documents are reviewed in five main categories: (1) geothermal subzones (29 documents); (2) transmission cable routes (8 documents); (3) commercial satellite launching facility (Spaceport; 1 document); (4) manganese nodule processing facility (2 documents); (5) water resource development (1 document); and (6) ecosystem stability and introduced species (11 documents).

  18. Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  19. Moving to music: Effects of heard and imagined musical cues on movement-related brain activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Schaefer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Music is commonly used to facilitate or support movement, and increasingly used in movement rehabilitation. Additionally, there is some evidence to suggest that music imagery, which is reported to lead to brain signatures similar to music perception, may also assist movement. However, it is not yet known whether either imagined or musical cueing changes the way in which the motor system of the human brain is activated during simple movements. Here, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI was used to compare neural activity during wrist flexions performed to either heard or imagined music with self-pacing of the same movement without any cueing. Focusing specifically on the motor network of the brain, analyses were performed within a mask of BA4, BA6, the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate and pallidum, the motor nuclei of the thalamus and the whole cerebellum. Results revealed that moving to music compared with self-paced movement resulted in significantly increased activation in left cerebellum VI. Moving to imagined music led to significantly more activation in pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA and right globus pallidus, relative to self-paced movement. When the music and imagery cueing conditions were contrasted directly, movements in the music condition showed significantly more activity in left hemisphere cerebellum VII and right hemisphere and vermis of cerebellum IX, while the imagery condition revealed more significant activity in pre-SMA. These results suggest that cueing movement with actual or imagined music impacts upon engagement of motor network regions during the movement, and suggest that heard and imagined cues can modulate movement in subtly different ways. These results may have implications for the applicability of auditory cueing in movement rehabilitation for different patient populations.

  20. Moving to Music: Effects of Heard and Imagined Musical Cues on Movement-Related Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rebecca S.; Morcom, Alexa M.; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Music is commonly used to facilitate or support movement, and increasingly used in movement rehabilitation. Additionally, there is some evidence to suggest that music imagery, which is reported to lead to brain signatures similar to music perception, may also assist movement. However, it is not yet known whether either imagined or musical cueing changes the way in which the motor system of the human brain is activated during simple movements. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural activity during wrist flexions performed to either heard or imagined music with self-pacing of the same movement without any cueing. Focusing specifically on the motor network of the brain, analyses were performed within a mask of BA4, BA6, the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate, and pallidum), the motor nuclei of the thalamus, and the whole cerebellum. Results revealed that moving to music compared with self-paced movement resulted in significantly increased activation in left cerebellum VI. Moving to imagined music led to significantly more activation in pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and right globus pallidus, relative to self-paced movement. When the music and imagery cueing conditions were contrasted directly, movements in the music condition showed significantly more activity in left hemisphere cerebellum VII and right hemisphere and vermis of cerebellum IX, while the imagery condition revealed more significant activity in pre-SMA. These results suggest that cueing movement with actual or imagined music impacts upon engagement of motor network regions during the movement, and suggest that heard and imagined cues can modulate movement in subtly different ways. These results may have implications for the applicability of auditory cueing in movement rehabilitation for different patient populations. PMID:25309407

  1. Moving to music: effects of heard and imagined musical cues on movement-related brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rebecca S; Morcom, Alexa M; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Music is commonly used to facilitate or support movement, and increasingly used in movement rehabilitation. Additionally, there is some evidence to suggest that music imagery, which is reported to lead to brain signatures similar to music perception, may also assist movement. However, it is not yet known whether either imagined or musical cueing changes the way in which the motor system of the human brain is activated during simple movements. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural activity during wrist flexions performed to either heard or imagined music with self-pacing of the same movement without any cueing. Focusing specifically on the motor network of the brain, analyses were performed within a mask of BA4, BA6, the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate, and pallidum), the motor nuclei of the thalamus, and the whole cerebellum. Results revealed that moving to music compared with self-paced movement resulted in significantly increased activation in left cerebellum VI. Moving to imagined music led to significantly more activation in pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and right globus pallidus, relative to self-paced movement. When the music and imagery cueing conditions were contrasted directly, movements in the music condition showed significantly more activity in left hemisphere cerebellum VII and right hemisphere and vermis of cerebellum IX, while the imagery condition revealed more significant activity in pre-SMA. These results suggest that cueing movement with actual or imagined music impacts upon engagement of motor network regions during the movement, and suggest that heard and imagined cues can modulate movement in subtly different ways. These results may have implications for the applicability of auditory cueing in movement rehabilitation for different patient populations.

  2. A large proportion of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections with low and sub-microscopic parasite densities in the low transmission setting of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: challenges for malaria diagnostics in an elimination setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Ivor

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries are scaling up malaria interventions towards elimination. This transition changes demands on malaria diagnostics from diagnosing ill patients to detecting parasites in all carriers including asymptomatic infections and infections with low parasite densities. Detection methods suitable to local malaria epidemiology must be selected prior to transitioning a malaria control programme to elimination. A baseline malaria survey conducted in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands in late 2008, as the first step in a provincial malaria elimination programme, provided malaria epidemiology data and an opportunity to assess how well different diagnostic methods performed in this setting. Methods During the survey, 9,491 blood samples were collected and examined by microscopy for Plasmodium species and density, with a subset also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs. The performances of these diagnostic methods were compared. Results A total of 256 samples were positive by microscopy, giving a point prevalence of 2.7%. The species distribution was 17.5% Plasmodium falciparum and 82.4% Plasmodium vivax. In this low transmission setting, only 17.8% of the P. falciparum and 2.9% of P. vivax infected subjects were febrile (≥38°C at the time of the survey. A significant proportion of infections detected by microscopy, 40% and 65.6% for P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively, had parasite density below 100/μL. There was an age correlation for the proportion of parasite density below 100/μL for P. vivax infections, but not for P. falciparum infections. PCR detected substantially more infections than microscopy (point prevalence of 8.71%, indicating a large number of subjects had sub-microscopic parasitemia. The concordance between PCR and microscopy in detecting single species was greater for P. vivax (135/162 compared to P. falciparum (36/118. The malaria RDT detected the 12 microscopy and

  3. Laboratory Headphone Studies of Human Response to Low-Amplitude Sonic Booms and Rattle Heard Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubeau, Alexandra; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Klos, Jacob; Rathsam, Jonathan; Gavin, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Human response to sonic booms heard indoors is affected by the generation of contact-induced rattle noise. The annoyance caused by sonic boom-induced rattle noise was studied in a series of psychoacoustics tests. Stimuli were divided into three categories and presented in three different studies: isolated rattles at the same calculated Perceived Level (PL), sonic booms combined with rattles with the mixed sound at a single PL, and sonic booms combined with rattles with the mixed sound at three different PL. Subjects listened to sounds over headphones and were asked to report their annoyance. Annoyance to different rattles was shown to vary significantly according to rattle object size. In addition, the combination of low-amplitude sonic booms and rattles can be more annoying than the sonic boom alone. Correlations and regression analyses for the combined sonic boom and rattle sounds identified the Moore and Glasberg Stationary Loudness (MGSL) metric as a primary predictor of annoyance for the tested sounds. Multiple linear regression models were developed to describe annoyance to the tested sounds, and simplifications for applicability to a wider range of sounds are presented.

  4. Attentional demands influence vocal compensations to pitch errors heard in auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumber, Anupreet K; Scheerer, Nichole E; Jones, Jeffery A

    2014-01-01

    Auditory feedback is required to maintain fluent speech. At present, it is unclear how attention modulates auditory feedback processing during ongoing speech. In this event-related potential (ERP) study, participants vocalized/a/, while they heard their vocal pitch suddenly shifted downward a ½ semitone in both single and dual-task conditions. During the single-task condition participants passively viewed a visual stream for cues to start and stop vocalizing. In the dual-task condition, participants vocalized while they identified target stimuli in a visual stream of letters. The presentation rate of the visual stimuli was manipulated in the dual-task condition in order to produce a low, intermediate, and high attentional load. Visual target identification accuracy was lowest in the high attentional load condition, indicating that attentional load was successfully manipulated. Results further showed that participants who were exposed to the single-task condition, prior to the dual-task condition, produced larger vocal compensations during the single-task condition. Thus, when participants' attention was divided, less attention was available for the monitoring of their auditory feedback, resulting in smaller compensatory vocal responses. However, P1-N1-P2 ERP responses were not affected by divided attention, suggesting that the effect of attentional load was not on the auditory processing of pitch altered feedback, but instead it interfered with the integration of auditory and motor information, or motor control itself.

  5. Together we are heard: effectiveness of daily 'language' groups in a community preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Telêri; Downie, Jill

    2004-06-01

    Strong oral language skills are a prerequisite for successful literacy and there is a strong interdependence between oral language acquisition and emergent literacy development. Ramifications of this are that children with language impairments are at great risk for difficulties in learning to read and write, with problems often persisting throughout the school years into adulthood. The Together we are heard program involved improving each child's oral language skills through group sessions facilitated by a speech pathologist on a daily basis at preschool. The aim of the present research was to determine the effectiveness of the program to identify the best way to assist children to develop appropriate language skills. The study showed that the children improved significantly in all four levels of the Preschool Language Assessment Inventory (PLAI). Importantly, the program was effective for both genders and there was no difference in the success of Indigenous children when compared to their European counterparts. There is a strong recommendation for further research and to expand such programs, particularly in areas that target children from impoverished and deprived environmental backgrounds.

  6. Pacific Island Polygons, Pacific Islands, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Islands for the United States. The Islands layer contains all islands within a NAVSTREETS coverage area. An island is represented as a polygonal feature. The...

  7. Have You Heard of Schistosomiasis? Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Nampula Province, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassi, Christian; Kajungu, Dan; Martin, Sandrine; Arroz, Jorge; Tallant, Jamie; Zegers de Beyl, Celine; Counihan, Helen; Newell, James N; Phillips, Anna; Whitton, Jane; Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Graham, Kirstie

    2016-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease which affects almost 300 million people worldwide each year. It is highly endemic in Mozambique. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis relies mainly on mass drug administration (MDA), as well as adoption of basic sanitation practices. Individual and community perceptions of schistosomiasis are likely to have a significant effect on prevention and control efforts. In order to establish a baseline to evaluate a community engagement intervention with a focus on schistosomiasis, a survey to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to the disease was conducted. A representative cross-sectional household survey was carried out in four districts of Nampula province, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted in a total of 791 households, using a structured questionnaire. While awareness of schistosomiasis was high (91%), correct knowledge of how it is acquired (18%), transmitted (26%) and prevented (13%) was low among those who had heard of the disease. Misconceptions, such as the belief that schistosomiasis is transmitted through sexual contact (27%), were common. Only about a third of those who were aware of the disease stated that they practiced a protective behaviour and only a minority of those (39%) reported an effective behaviour. Despite several rounds of MDA for schistosomiasis in the recent past, only a small minority of households with children reported that at least one of them had received a drug to treat the disease (9%). Poor knowledge of the causes of schistosomiasis and how to prevent it, coupled with persisting misconceptions, continue to pose barriers to effective disease prevention and control. To achieve high levels of uptake of MDA and adoption of protective behaviours, it will be essential to engage individuals and communities, improving their understanding of the causes and symptoms of schistosomiasis, recommended prevention mechanisms and the rationale behind MDA.

  8. Hidden student voice: A curriculum of a middle school science class heard through currere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Kathleen Schwartz

    Students have their own lenses through which they view school science and the students' views are often left out of educational conversations which directly affect the students themselves. Pinar's (2004) definition of curriculum as a 'complicated conversation' implies that the class' voice is important, as important as the teacher's voice, to the classroom conversation. If the class' voice is vital to classroom conversations, then the class, consisting of all its students, must be allowed to both speak and be heard. Through a qualitative case study, whereby the case is defined as a particular middle school science class, this research attempts to hear the 'complicated conversation' of this middle school science class, using currere as a framework. Currere suggests that one's personal relationship to the world, including one's memories, hopes, and dreams, should be the crux of education, rather than education being primarily the study of facts, concepts, and needs determined by an 'other'. Focus group interviews were used to access the class' currere: the class' lived experiences of science, future dreams of science, and present experiences of science, which was synthesized into a new understanding of the present which offered the class the opportunity to be fully educated. The interview data was enriched through long-term observation in this middle school science classroom. Analysis of the data collected suggests that a middle school science class has rich science stories which may provide insights into ways to engage more students in science. Also, listening to the voice of a science class may provide insight into discussions about science education and understandings into the decline in student interest in science during secondary school. Implications from this research suggest that school science may be more engaging for this middle school class if it offers inquiry-based activities and allows opportunities for student-led research. In addition, specialized

  9. Ya Heard Me? Rhoticity in Post-Katrina New Orleans English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoux Casey, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Sociolinguistic research has documented the change to rhoticity by white speakers in the American South, and the increase in rhoticity in New York City and New England. However, there has been scant investigation of rhoticity in New Orleans, Louisiana, which, as a linguistic island in the Gulf...... South argued to have strong historical ties to New York City, presents a particularly interesting site for investigation. The city’s varieties of English have historically been nonrhotic, and this study investigates whether New Orleans remains marginal to the now-rhotic white South and whether it shares...

  10. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    older to younger land masses, and syndromes including loss of dispersability and secondary woodiness in herbaceous plant lineages. Further developments in Earth system science, molecular biology, and trait data for islands hold continued promise for unlocking many of the unresolved questions...

  11. Transmission eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  12. TEM EDS analysis of epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sears

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium nanostructures, or islands, show promise as nanoantennas. The elemental composition and internal structure of indium islands grown on gallium arsenide are explored using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. Several sizes of islands are examined, with larger islands exhibiting high (>94% average indium purity and smaller islands containing inhomogeneous gallium and arsenic contamination. These results enable more accurate predictions of indium nanoantenna behavior as a function of growth parameters.

  13. Data transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tugal, Dogan A; Tugal, Osman

    1989-01-01

    This updated second edition provides working answers to today's critical questions about designing and managing all types of data transmission systems and features a new chapter on local area networks (LANs...

  14. Island Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Heinz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2010-2011, the Vancouver Island Transgender Needs Assessment, a community-based, applied research project, sought to identify the health and social needs of trans people on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. An advisory board consisting of trans-identified community members and trans-service providers guided this descriptive analysis. A total of 54 individuals identifying as transgender participated in a survey modeled after the TransPULSE Ontario instrument. Of the participants, 43% identified on the transmasculine spectrum, 39% on the transfeminine spectrum, and 18% as transgender/genderqueer only. Participants were surveyed in regard to education, employment, and income; housing; health care needs and services; suicidality; violence; life satisfaction and attitudes toward self; posttransition experiences; and community belonging. They reported health care, social support, and public education/acceptance as top needs. The article concludes with a specific needs profile and a community-generated set of recommendations stressing the need for an island-based information and resourcing center.

  15. The Quarantine Protection of Sub-Antarctic Australia: Two Islands, Two Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Potter

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Antarctic Heard Island and Macquarie Island are among Australia’s offshore properties susceptible to colonization by species introduced by humans. While both islands share World Heritage status and are IUCN Category Ia Protected Areas (Strict Nature Reserves, different quarantine protection regimes are in operation. Macquarie Island’s biosecurity appears to be less catered for while the means and likelihood of introductions are greater. The administrative, political, practical and geographical contexts within which quarantine management planning takes place variously impact on the level of quarantine protection provided to both islands. These and other remote sites of high conservation value are unlikely to receive heightened protection until the issues associated with such management contexts receive greater attention.

  16. 75 FR 4362 - Green Island Power Authority; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ...) a 34.5-kilovolt (kV) underground transmission cable; and (6) appurtenant facilities. Green Island... Energy Regulatory Commission Green Island Power Authority; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental... License. b. Project No.: 13-023. c. Date Filed: March 2, 2009. d. Applicant: Green Island Power Authority...

  17. HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ...

  18. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  19. Consequences of the Violation by Administrative Authorities of the Right to be heard under EU Law: the Case M.G. and N.R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijkersloot, Ton

    The ECJ’s judgment of 10 September 2013 in Case C-383/13 M.G. and N.R. sheds new light on the possible consequences of a violation of the EU right to be heard by administrative authorities of the Member States. The Court predicates that room should be left to national law but in essence provides a

  20. Genomic island excisions in Bordetella petrii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levillain Erwan

    2009-07-01

    the bacterial population within about 100 consecutive generations. Furthermore, we show that GI3 is self transmissible and by conjugation can be transferred to B. bronchiseptica thus proving it to be an active integrative and conjugative element Conclusion The results show that phenotypic variation of B. petrii is correlated with the presence of genomic islands. Tandem integration of related islands may contribute to island evolution by the acquisition of genes originally belonging to the bacterial core genome. In conclusion, B. petrii appears to be the first member of the genus in which horizontal gene transfer events have massively shaped its genome structure.

  1. Scene & Heard : 'Singing' praises

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Ameerikas edukalt linastunud dokumentaalfilmi "Laulev revolutsioon" ("The Singing Revolution") autorid James ja Maureen Tusty pälvivad president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt Maarjamaa Risti IV klassi ordeni

  2. PSTT... Have You Heard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Kathy Schofield explains how the Primary Science Teaching Trust (PSTT) came into being and how it continues to enhance science for primary teachers and children. The Primary Science Teaching Trust provides financial assistance to help improve the learning and teaching of science in the U.K. The Trust was established in April 1997 as an independent…

  3. Have You Heard?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-12

    Pre-teens, adolescents, and college freshmen who live in dorms are at an increased risk for meningococcal disease. This podcast discusses routine vaccination recommendations for 11-18 year olds.  Created: 8/12/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/12/2009.

  4. Classifying Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  5. Transcending Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Trittin, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Extant research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication primarily relies on a transmission model of communication that treats organizations and communication as distinct phenomena. This approach has been criticized for neglecting the formative role of communication...... in the emergence of organizations. This paper seeks to propose to reconceptualize CSR communication by drawing on the “communication constitutes organizations” (CCO) perspective. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper that explores the implications of switching from an instrumental...... to a constitutive notion of communication. Findings – The study brings forth four main findings: from the CCO view, organizations are constituted by several, partly dissonant, and potentially contradictory communicative practices. From that viewpoint, the potential impact of CSR communication becomes a matter...

  6. Marion Island and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    yellow-nosed albatross Thalassarche carteri breed at. Marion Island. Of the remaining species, the lesser or black-faced sheathbill Chionis minor breeds at both islands, but is not strictly a seabird. It is one of two sheathbills that to- gether constitute the family Chionidae. Sheathbills for- age within seabird, especially penguin, ...

  7. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  8. Cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation changes induced by inner and heard speech: a study combining functional near-infrared spectroscopy and capnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholkmann, Felix; Klein, Sabine D.; Gerber, Ursina; Wolf, Martin; Wolf, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inner and heard speech on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation in the anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and to test whether potential effects were caused by alterations in the arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2). Twenty-nine healthy adult volunteers performed six different tasks of inner and heard speech according to a randomized crossover design. During the tasks, we generally found a decrease in PaCO (only for inner speech), tissue oxygen saturation (StO), oxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb]), total hemoglobin ([tHb]) concentration and an increase in deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([HHb]). Furthermore, we found significant relations between changes in [OHb], [HHb], [tHb], or StO and the participants' age, the baseline PETCO2, or certain speech tasks. We conclude that changes in breathing during the tasks led to lower PaCO (hypocapnia) for inner speech. During heard speech, no significant changes in PaCO occurred, but the decreases in StO, [OHb], and [tHb] suggest that changes in PaCO were also involved here. Different verse types (hexameter and alliteration) led to different changes in [tHb], implying different brain activations. In conclusion, StO, [OHb], [HHb], and [tHb] are affected by interplay of both PaCO reactivity and functional brain activity.

  9. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  10. Oral Transmission: A Marriage of Music, Language, Tradition, and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E. Patterson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of misunderstandings about ancient oral transmission that negatively affect the way musicians view music history but also the process of how music was and currently is conceived, recorded, and shared. A common misconception is that oral transmission of music is an ancient practice that occurred before written notation of music was developed. However, I seek to prove that there is a false dichotomy between oral transmission and written notation and I focus on the changing definition and importance of oral tradition. Firstly, I discuss the misconceptions of ancient oral transmission. Secondly, I examine the continuing development of research and definitions of oral transmission—which is changing our concept of ancient as well contemporary oral traditions. Thirdly, I demonstrate how these traditions are still relevant in present, late modern times. Thoughout this discussion I examine and engage with the pivotal specialists and research that has developed our view of oral tradition through time. To better understand these scholars’ commentary as well as my own, it is important to note the combined concepts of oral and aural tradition. Oral culture refers to what is spoken and sung, and aural culture refers to what is heard and comprehended. Both are necessary for effective transmission to occur, and oral and aural methods are almost always simultaneously present in most societies. When aural culture is discussed here, it refers to the combination of both elements and is closely related to aural tradition. The most notable terms to differentiate are oral transmission and oral tradition. Typically oral transmission refers to the basic action of passing information, in this case music, through oral and aural means. Oral tradition, however, is the more general concept that synthesizes oral transmission, tradition, and culture. Despite misconceptions that music was primitive before composers started documenting it, oral

  11. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  12. Treatment of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis during pregnancy and risk of perinatal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casau, Nathalie C; Hewins, Mary Ellen; Zaleznik, Dori F

    2002-01-01

    A pregnant woman from Nantucket Island, MA was diagnosed with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis at 34 weeks gestation. We describe the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas involved and discuss the risks of perinatal transmission.

  13. Do we all agree what "good health care" looks like? Views from those who are "seldom heard" in health research, policy and service improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sara; Hislop, Jenny; Ziebland, Sue

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to ask whether there are shared ideas about what good health care looks like that apply across different populations and conditions. Do priorities among "seldom heard" groups differ from mainstream views and, if so, how might we understand these differences? Focus groups were recruited with the help of our study patient representatives. Participants discussed and prioritized a set of eight "core components" of good care. We recorded and transcribed the data for thematic analysis. We recruited people who are seldom heard in health and policy research for separate focus group discussions (one each with illegal drug users, Irish Travellers, migrant workers, young men and learning disabled people). We also ran a reference group of educated, older adults and an online group with people with long-term conditions. There were few differences in what participants thought was important in health care but considerable differences in their expectations that they might personally receive good care. Differences related to participants' previous experiences. The drug users group reported particularly poor experiences and low expectations of good care. Differences in what is regarded as an entitlement or privilege in health care underline the persistence of structural and relational differences in how services are experienced. While we can be reassured that core aspects of care are similarly prioritized across different patient groups, including those who are seldom heard, a more intractable challenge remains: how to provide equitable health care for marginalized groups in an unequal society. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  15. Back to Treasure Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  16. A review and synthesis of the first 20 years of PET and fMRI studies of heard speech, spoken language and reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Cathy J.

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy of language has been investigated with PET or fMRI for more than 20 years. Here I attempt to provide an overview of the brain areas associated with heard speech, speech production and reading. The conclusions of many hundreds of studies were considered, grouped according to the type of processing, and reported in the order that they were published. Many findings have been replicated time and time again leading to some consistent and undisputable conclusions. These are summarised in an anatomical model that indicates the location of the language areas and the most consistent functions that have been assigned to them. The implications for cognitive models of language processing are also considered. In particular, a distinction can be made between processes that are localized to specific structures (e.g. sensory and motor processing) and processes where specialisation arises in the distributed pattern of activation over many different areas that each participate in multiple functions. For example, phonological processing of heard speech is supported by the functional integration of auditory processing and articulation; and orthographic processing is supported by the functional integration of visual processing, articulation and semantics. Future studies will undoubtedly be able to improve the spatial precision with which functional regions can be dissociated but the greatest challenge will be to understand how different brain regions interact with one another in their attempts to comprehend and produce language. PMID:22584224

  17. Aspectos da transmissão focal de malária na Ilha de São Luis, Maranhão Aspects of the focal transmission of malaria in the Island of São Luis, Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Rafael da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de caracterizar um foco de transmissão de malária em Guarapiranga, município de São José de Ribamar, MA. A unidade de estudo foi o grupo familiar, aplicando-se questionário sobre identificação, situação econômica, hábitos dos moradores e características dos domicílios. Foram visitadas 54 famílias, totalizando 207 habitantes, sendo 113 do sexo masculino e 95, do feminino. 95 pessoas tinham de 5 a 24 anos. Agricultura e pesca são a base da economia local, com 64,8% das famílias auferindo renda mensal menor que um salário mínimo. A maioria das casas é construída de taipa, coberta de palha, tem piso de chão batido e não tem instalações sanitárias. Em relação à entrada de mosquitos, 62,2% são parcialmente protegidas. A água para consumo provém de cacimbas ou poços rasos em 78,8%, e o lixo é deixado a céu aberto em 53,7% dos domicílios. Foram registrados 106 casos de malária por Plasmodium vivax. O provável transmissor foi o Anopheles (N aquasalis e o tratamento com cloroquina associado à primaquina teve bons resultados.The aim of the study was to typify a malaria focus in Guarapiranga, in the district of São José de Ribamar, MA. A questionnaire regarding identification, economic situation, habits of the residents and characteristic of the residences was applied to each family. Fifty four families were visited and 207 inhabitants were interviewed (113 men and 95 women; 95 individuals were aged between 5 and 24 years old. Agriculture and fishing are the basis of the local economy; 64.8% of the families earn less than one living wage. The majority of the residences are constructed of mud walls, straw roofs, a beaten earth floor, with no basic sanitation. 62.2% of the residences are partially protected against the entry of mosquitoes. Water for domestic use comes from natural waterholes in 78.8% of the residences. Rubbish is left in the open air in 53.7% of the residences

  18. Marion Island and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    . Surveys were undertaken from 19 November to 13 December 1997 and from 18 to 31 December 2001. At Marion Island, eggs are laid between 23 October and 19 December, with 70% laid from 2 to 14 November (Williams 1980). The area.

  19. Vector-borne diseases on Fire Island, New York (Fire Island National Seashore Science Synthesis Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses eleven tick-borne and five mosquito-borne pathogens that are known to occur at FIlS, or could potentially occur. The potential for future occurrence, and ecological factors that influence occurrence, are assessed for each disease. Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease on Fire Island. The Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is endemic in local tick and wildlife populations. Public education, personal precautions against tick bite, and prompt treatment of early-stage infections can help manage the risk of Lyme disease on Fire Island. The pathogens that cause Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis and Tularemia have been isolated from ticks or wildlife on Fire Island, and conditions suggest that other tickborne diseases (including Babesiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis) might also occur, but these are far less common than Lyme disease, if present. West Nile Virus (WNV) is the primary mosquito- borne human pathogen that is known to occur on Fire Island. Ecological conditions and recent epizootiological events suggest that WNV occurs in foci that can shift from year to year. Therefore, a surveillance program with appropriate responses to increasing epizootic activity can help manage the risk of WNV transmission on Fire Island.

  20. Power transmission project: progress through fiscal year 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-27

    One year's work on the development of helium-cooled niobium-tin superconducting cables for 550 kV or higher power transmission lines is summarized. Information is included on: conductor research involving the fabrication, materials testing, and performance testing of Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes; design, materials testing and performance testing of cable insulation; mechanical and cryogenic engineering of transmission line components and of test facilities; and accumulated data on the design and testing of existing helium-cooled transmission lines in the Pennsylvania, study, Philadelphia Electric study, and LILCO (Long Island) study. (LCL)

  1. The Frequency Control in the islanded Micro Grid by using STATCOM Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustufa Bhutto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When the distribution system is disconnected from the transmission system, the islanded portion of the network comprising DG (Distributed Generation units forms a MG (Micro Grid. It is essential either to shut down the DG units or ensure the stable and the controlled operation of the islanded MG. The frequency and the voltage of the islanded MG vary when it is isolated from the main transmission grid. The voltage and the frequency of the islanded MG can be controlled to the permissible limits by providing the required amount of the active and reactive power by the local available sources in the MG. The main focus of this paper is about the control of the network frequency in the islanded MG by employing PI controllers based STATCOM (Static Compensator and BESS-STATCOM (Battery Energy Storage System Equipped devices. The study is done by using DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0

  2. EARTH ISLAND PROJECT NEWS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

      The section features Earth Island's Dolphin Safe tuna . label (asking readers to look for tuna cans without the Dolphin Safe label and alert us so we can have the cans removed from store shelves...

  3. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  4. A noção de projeto na educação: o "método de projeto" de William Heard Kilpatrick

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Ana Cláudia Caldas de Arruda

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho, realizado a partir de problemas circunscritos às ciências sociais da educação, tem como objeto de estudo a noção de projeto, sua relação com a modernidade e introdução no contexto educacional, com base no método de projeto , elaborado em 1918 por William Heard Kilpatrick. A escolha por esta concepção justifica-se na medida em que o método de projeto contribui para o entendimento dos nexos estabelecidos entre a psicologia e a educação, bem como possibilita analisar a entrada ...

  5. Chronic as salvation: Teaching journalism is taught to listen and tell clearly what is heard after checking that it is true

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Armada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching journalism is to teach listen and tell clearly what is heard after checking that it is true. After receiving all the opinions, and stupidly believing that all are equally valuable, we finish misleading the sense of reality. This is why the press has lost much credit, because many readers or former readers have come to the conclusion that everybody lies, that all newspapers twist reality so that it looks like their worldview, because, as ironically says a friend who tries not to lose entirely his faith in journalism: "reality is overrated". Because we mix facts and opinions, because we weaken the facts so that they say what we want them to say, and ultimately we do not know where reality ends and where fiction begins, where we practice the intellectual and moral decency or misrepresenting what we know to harm others and protect us.

  6. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing... Island. DATES: This rule will be effective and enforced from 7:50 p.m. until 8:30 p.m. on October 5, 2013...

  7. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  8. Ordering of germanium islands in the Si1-xGex/Si system pre-structured by misfit dislocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Vesterlund; Shiryaev, Sergey Y.; Jensen, Flemming

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the ordering of germanium islands on a relaxed uniform Si0.84Ge0.16 buffer layer by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A pronounced ordering with the islands situated along dislocation slip band lines was observed. The resemblance of this ordering...

  9. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  10. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  11. Recent Transmission of Tuberculosis - United States, 2011-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M Yuen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that may result from recent transmission or from an infection acquired many years in the past; there is no diagnostic test to distinguish the two causes. Cases resulting from recent transmission are particularly concerning from a public health standpoint. To describe recent tuberculosis transmission in the United States, we used a field-validated plausible source-case method to estimate cases likely resulting from recent transmission during January 2011-September 2014. We classified cases as resulting from either limited or extensive recent transmission based on transmission cluster size. We used logistic regression to analyze patient characteristics associated with recent transmission. Of 26,586 genotyped cases, 14% were attributable to recent transmission, 39% of which were attributable to extensive recent transmission. The burden of cases attributed to recent transmission was geographically heterogeneous and poorly predicted by tuberculosis incidence. Extensive recent transmission was positively associated with American Indian/Alaska Native (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 3.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9-4.4, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (aPR = 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.5, and black (aPR = 3.0, 95% CI 2.6-3.5 race, and homelessness (aPR = 2.3, 95% CI 2.0-2.5. Extensive recent transmission was negatively associated with foreign birth (aPR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.2-0.2. Tuberculosis control efforts should prioritize reducing transmission among higher-risk populations.

  12. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  13. Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathema, Barun; Andrews, Jason R; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W; Behr, Marcel; Glynn, Judith R; Rustomjee, Roxana; Silk, Benjamin J; Wood, Robin

    2017-11-03

    Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection event. Although we cannot identify with certainty the timing and location of tuberculosis transmission for individuals, approaches for estimating the individual probability of recent transmission and for estimating the fraction of tuberculosis cases due to recent transmission in populations have been developed. Data used to estimate the probable burden of recent transmission include tuberculosis case notifications in young children and trends in tuberculin skin test and interferon γ-release assays. More recently, M. tuberculosis whole-genome sequencing has been used to estimate population levels of recent transmission, identify the distribution of specific strains within communities, and decipher chains of transmission among culture-positive tuberculosis cases. The factors that drive the transmission of tuberculosis in communities depend on the burden of prevalent tuberculosis; the ways in which individuals live, work, and interact (eg, congregate settings); and the capacity of healthcare and public health systems to identify and effectively treat individuals with infectious forms of tuberculosis. Here we provide an overview of these factors, describe tools for measurement of ongoing transmission, and highlight knowledge gaps that must be addressed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. Overview on transmission issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, F.

    2002-07-01

    A personal perspective of transmission issues in Alberta's deregulated electric power industry was presented. The deregulation of power transmission differs from power production and retailing because of its inherent monopolistic characteristics which include large economies of scale, huge capital intensity and special purpose equipment. Public policy makers recognized initially that open transmission access should be provided to all on the same basis, but the organizational form of transmission has become complicated. Transmission issues pose risks for private sector investment and long lead-times are needed to resolve issues such as congestion management, ancillary services, property rights, and loss factors. The author claims that power transmission should serve as a facilitating factor in the development of competitive markets. The paper explained the problems that Alberta is facing with the convergence of relativity, erosion of spare capacity, de-coupling decisions, imperfect substitutes, merchant transmission, and market footprints. Transmission issues now occupy more time than policy makers had originally expected. The Transmission Administrator's approach is to reduce lead times, develop clear commercial rules and show maximum flexibility within its role.

  15. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, PSEG Long Island LLC (PSEG LI), Long Island Electric...

  16. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  17. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  18. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-15

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  19. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  20. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  1. Case note: CJEU (C-129/13, C-130/13: Kamino; Datema Hellmann: Infringement of the right to be heard. Legal consequences of non-observance of the rights of the defence)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmann, E.

    2014-01-01

    A person’s right to be heard before the adoption of any decision liable to adversely affect his interests is infringed, even though he can express his views during a subsequent administrative objection stage, if national legislation does not allow the addressees of such a procedure to obtain

  2. Two Project Methods: Preliminary Observations on the Similarities and Differences between William Heard Kilpatrick's Project Method and John Dewey's Problem-Solving Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutinen, Ari

    2013-01-01

    The project method became a famous teaching method when William Heard Kilpatrick published his article "Project Method" in 1918. The key idea in Kilpatrick's project method is to try to explain how pupils learn things when they work in projects toward different common objects. The same idea of pupils learning by work or action in an…

  3. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  4. Data Transmission Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  5. Cultural Transmission of Civicness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the intergeneration transmission of civicness by studying second generation immigrants in 29 European countries with ancestry in 83 nations. There is significant transmission of civicness both on the mother’s and the father’s side. The estimates are quantitatively significant...

  6. Cultural Transmission of Civicness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    This paper estimates the intergeneration transmission of civicness by studying second generation immigrants in 29 European countries with ancestry in 83 nations. There is significant transmission of civicness both on the mother’s and the father’s side. The estimates are quantitatively significant...

  7. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  8. Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Vianne

    2003-01-01

    This article profiles the educational system of Prince Edward Island and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. (Contains references.) (CR)

  9. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...

  10. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  11. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  13. Transmission Problem in Thermoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Rivera JaimeE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that the energy to the thermoelastic transmission problem decays exponentially as time goes to infinity. We also prove the existence, uniqueness, and regularity of the solution to the system.

  14. Automatic transmission vehicle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, M

    1973-04-07

    Four drivers sustained severe injuries when run down by their own automatic cars while adjusting the carburettor or throttle linkages. The transmission had been left in the "Drive" position and the engine was idling. This accident is easily avoidable.

  15. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  16. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  17. Pregnancy & perinatal transmission update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, R

    1998-09-01

    According to a June 1998 report from UNAIDS, the majority of children infected with HIV acquired it from their mothers during or near birth. One way to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV is to increase prevention efforts for women. Other ways to prevent perinatal transmission include using AZT treatment, avoiding breastfeeding, and choosing a C-section delivery instead of a vaginal delivery. One important study, called the Thai study, promoted a shorter course of AZT therapy that was less expensive, more accessible, and still prevented transmission in many cases. Several reasons are cited for why some women continue breastfeeding, despite the increased risk of transmitting HIV to their babies. An important factor in preventing perinatal transmission is the overall health of the mother, and her ability to maintain her health and treatment regimen while caring for a newborn.

  18. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  19. Watching Handball Transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    The current article presents a qualitative study of Danish television viewer’s reception of Danish handball transmissions. The overall aim of the study has been to contribute to a more nuanced understanding of televised sport as a specific kind of television entertainment. The analysis shows that...... is embedded in quite diverse patterns regarding additional media use. This points to gendered differences regarding how the entertaining experience is basically received and the qualities sought and pursued in the transmissions....

  20. Superconducting metamaterial transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxinol, Francisco; Wang, Haozhi; Plourde, B. L. T.

    2014-03-01

    Left-handed metamaterials are artificial composite structures with unusual properties. Such systems have a wide range of potential applications in photonics. We are developing transmission lines composed of superconducting metamaterials using thin-film lumped circuit elements. Such structures allow for the possibility of generating novel transmission spectra with a high density of modes in some frequency ranges and stop-bands in others. We discuss possible couplings of these lines to superconducting qubits in circuit QED architectures.

  1. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  2. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  3. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    1998). At Marion. Island, mean surface air temperature increased by 1.2°C between 1969 and 1999 and annual precipitation de- creased after the mid 1960s (Smith 2002). Mean sea surface temperature (SST) increased by 1.4°C between. 1949 and 2002 (Mélice et al. in press). At the same time, there was growing concern ...

  4. Wireless data signal transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver.......The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver....

  5. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    OpenAIRE

    Boyoung eKim; Grant eGoodall

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during ch...

  6. The Intertidal Biota of Volcanic Yankich Island (Middle Kuril Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Kussakin, Oleg G.; Kostina, Elena E.

    1996-01-01

    A description of the intertidal biota of volcanic Yankich Island (Ushishir Islands, Kuril Islands) is given. The species composition and vertical distribution pattern of the intertidal communities at various localities are described in relation to environmental factors, such as nature of the substrate, surf conditions and volcanic vent water. The macrobenthos is poor in the areas directly influenced by high temperature (20-40°C) and high sulphur content. There are no marked changes in the int...

  7. Leptospira Species in Feral Cats and Black Rats from Western Australia and Christmas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, David; Adams, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp. on Christmas Island and to compare this with two different climatic regions of Western Australia (one island and one mainland). Kidney samples were collected from black rats (n = 68) and feral cats (n = 59) from Christmas Island, as well as feral cats from Dirk Hartog Island (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (n = 59). Molecular (PCR) screening detected pathogenic leptospires in 42.4% (95% confidence interval 29.6-55.9) of cats and 2.9% (0.4-10.2) of rats from Christmas Island. Sequencing of cat- and rat-positive samples from Christmas Island showed 100% similarity for Leptospira interrogans. Pathogenic leptospires were not detected in cats from Dirk Hartog Island or southwest Western Australia. These findings were consistent with previous reports of higher Leptospira spp. prevalence in tropical regions compared with arid and temperate regions. Despite the abundance of black rats on Christmas Island, feral cats appear to be the more important reservoir species for the persistence of pathogenic L. interrogans on the island. This research highlights the importance of disease surveillance and feral animal management to effectively control potential disease transmission.

  8. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  9. Leprosy on Reunion Island, 2005-2013: Situation and Perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Camuset

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reunion Island is a French overseas territory located in the south-western of Indian Ocean, 700 km east of Madagascar. Leprosy first arrived on Reunion Island in the early 1700s with the African slaves and immigration from Madagascar. The disease was endemic until 1980 but improvement of health care and life conditions of inhabitants in the island have allowed a strong decrease in new cases of leprosy. However, the reintroduction of the disease by migrants from endemic neighbouring countries like Comoros and Madagascar is a real and continuing risk. This observational study was then conducted to measure the number of new cases detected annually on Reunion Island between 2005 and 2013, and to describe the clinical features of these patients.Data were collected over two distinct periods. Incident cases between 2005 and 2010 come from a retrospective study conducted in 2010 by the regional Office of French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (CIRE of Indian Ocean, when no surveillance system exist. Cases between 2011 and 2013 come from a prospective collection of all new cases, following the implementation of systematic notification of all new cases. All patient data were anonymized. Among the 25 new cases, 12 are Reunion Island residents who never lived outside Reunion Island, and hence are considered to be confirmed autochthonous patients. Registered prevalence in 2014 was 0.05 /10 000 habitants, less than the WHO's eradication goal (1/10 000.Leprosy is no longer a major public health problem on Reunion Island, as its low prevalence rate indicates. However, the risk of recrudescence of the disease and of renewed autochthonous transmission remains real. In this context, active case detection must be pursued through the active declaration and rapid treatment of all new cases.

  10. Controlled Operation of the Islanded Portion of the International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE) Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak, Claus Leth; Ali, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    is established by a VF controller. The voltage and the frequency of the islanded MG deviate when disconnected from the transmission grid and these deviations are caused by the load-generation imbalance. The voltage and the frequency of the islanded MG can be restored to the permissible limits if the desired......In islanding, a portion of the power network, comprised of the loads and distributed generation (DG) units, is isolated from the rest of the power grid and forms a micro grid (MG). In this condition, it becomes essential for the islanded MG to operate in a stable and controlled manner by providing...... ancillary services. When the MG is cut off from the main grid, the islanding must be detected by the DG units. In this condition it is essential that one of the controllers should be switched to the voltage-frequency (VF) control mode. In islanding, the network loses it slack reference and this reference...

  11. Whistleblowing Need not Occur if Internal Voices Are Heard: From Deaf Effect to Hearer Courage: Comment on "Cultures of Silence and Cultures of Voice: The Role of Whistleblowing in Healthcare Organisations".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Sonja R; Doyle, Kerrie E

    2015-09-29

    Whistleblowing by health professionals is an infrequent and extraordinary event and need not occur if internal voices are heard. Mannion and Davies' editorial on "Cultures of Silence and Cultures of Voice: The Role of Whistleblowing in Healthcare Organisations" asks the question whether whistleblowing ameliorates or exacerbates the 'deaf effect' prevalent in healthcare organisations. This commentary argues that the focus should remain on internal processes and hearer courage . © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  12. Whistleblowing Need not Occur if Internal Voices Are Heard: From Deaf Effect to Hearer Courage; Comment on “Cultures of Silence and Cultures of Voice: The Role of Whistleblowing in Healthcare Organisations”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja R. Cleary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whistleblowing by health professionals is an infrequent and extraordinary event and need not occur if internal voices are heard. Mannion and Davies’ editorial on “Cultures of Silence and Cultures of Voice: The Role of Whistleblowing in Healthcare Organisations” asks the question whether whistleblowing ameliorates or exacerbates the ‘deaf effect’ prevalent in healthcare organisations. This commentary argues that the focus should remain on internal processes and hearer courage.

  13. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.

  14. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  15. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A

    2010-06-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments.We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.

  16. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

  17. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  18. Probabilistic transmission system planning

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    "The book is composed of 12 chapters and three appendices, and can be divided into four parts. The first part includes Chapters 2 to 7, which discuss the concepts, models, methods and data in probabilistic transmission planning. The second part, Chapters 8 to 11, addresses four essential issues in probabilistic transmission planning applications using actual utility systems as examples. Chapter 12, as the third part, focuses on a special issue, i.e. how to deal with uncertainty of data in probabilistic transmission planning. The fourth part consists of three appendices, which provide the basic knowledge in mathematics for probabilistic planning. Please refer to the attached table of contents which is given in a very detailed manner"--

  19. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Mekibib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  20. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-05-23

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  1. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  2. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  3. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  4. Transmission positron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyama, Masao [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan)]. E-mail: doyama@ntu.ac.jp; Kogure, Yoshiaki [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Inoue, Miyoshi [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Kurihara, Toshikazu [Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator, Research Organization (KEK), Ohno 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yoshiie, Toshimasa [Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University, Noda, Kumatori, Osaka 590-0451 (Japan); Oshima, Ryuichiro [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Matsuya, Miyuki [Electron Optics Laboratory (JEOL) Ltd., Musashino 3-1-2, Akishima 196-0021 (Japan)

    2006-02-28

    Immediate and near-future plans for transmission positron microscopes being built at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, are described. The characteristic feature of this project is remolding a commercial electron microscope to a positron microscope. A point source of electrons kept at a negative high voltage is changed to a point source of positrons kept at a high positive voltage. Positional resolution of transmission microscopes should be theoretically the same as electron microscopes. Positron microscopes utilizing trapping of positrons have always positional ambiguity due to the diffusion of positrons.

  5. Transmission grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve

  6. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  7. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics...... and influential factors impact on the development of the singleisland or multi-island smart energy system are different. This paper presents the influential factors of the island smart energy system development by the literature analysis. Meanwhile, taking Philippines as a case study to investigate...... the differences between the single-island and multi-island smart energy system, and examine the integration challenges of the multi-island smart energy system in the Philippines. The integration challenges of the national energy system with island smart energy development are discussed with suggestions....

  8. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  9. 'You give us rangoli, we give you talk': using an art-based activity to elicit data from a seldom heard group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redwood Sabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exclusion from health research of groups most affected by poor health is an issue not only of poor science, but also of ethics and social justice. Even if exclusion is inadvertent and unplanned, policy makers will be uninformed by the data and experiences of these groups. The effect on the allocation of resources is likely to be an exacerbation of health inequalities. Discussion We subject to critical analysis the notion that certain groups, by virtue of sharing a particular identity, are inaccessible to researchers - a phenomenon often problematically referred to as 'hard to reach'. We use the term 'seldom heard' to move the emphasis from a perceived innate characteristic of these groups to a consideration of the methods we choose as researchers. Drawing on a study exploring the intersections of faith, culture, health and food, we describe a process of recruitment, data collection and analysis in which we sought to overcome barriers to participation. As we were interested in the voices of South Asian women, many of whom are largely invisible in public life, we adopted an approach to data collection which was culturally in tune with the women's lives and values. A collaborative activity mirroring food preparation provided a focus for talk and created an environment conducive to data collection. We discuss the importance of what we term 'shoe leather research' which involves visiting the local area, meeting potential gatekeepers, and attending public events in order to develop our profile as researchers in the community. We examine issues of ethics, data quality, management and analysis which were raised by our choice of method. Summary In order to work towards a more theoretical understanding of how material, social and cultural factors are connected and influence each other in ways that have effects on health, researchers must attend to the quality of the data they collect to generate finely grained and contextually

  10. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  11. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  12. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the

  13. 4. CRIMINALISING HIV TRANSMISSION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    are no well-founded evidences that criminalization of. HIV transmission ... A combination of effective evidence-based approaches should be adopted ... the globe. In doing so literature on various laws and issues surrounding the discussion topics were reviewed. Based. Medical Journal of Zambia, Vol. 41, No. 3: 121 - 1126 ...

  14. Intergenerational Transmission of Volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I investigate the strength of intergenerational transmission of volunteering for non-profit associations in The Netherlands. Data from the Family Survey of the Dutch Population 2000 reveal that there are significant relations between current volunteering and parental volunteering in

  15. Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathema, Barun; Andrews, Jason R.; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Behr, Marcel; Glynn, Judith R.; Rustomjee, Roxana; Silk, Benjamin J.; Wood, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection

  16. Intergenerational Transmission of Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Horan, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a perfect empathy model of cultural transmission to capture the evolution of preferences in a population. Unlike existing imperfect empathy models, focusing on stable interior equilibria, we demonstrate that a corner outcome will eventuate. However, which corner outcome emerges is

  17. Design of transmission shafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Formula considers flexure fatigue characteristics of shaft material under combined cyclic bending and static torsion stress. Formula permits selecting shaft sizes that meet common loading conditions without adding on excessive shaft material. Formula is applicable to design of rotary power or torque transmission shafting external to machine elements.

  18. Automatic transmission line monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, W. E.; Richards, L. O.

    1971-01-01

    Monitor improves complex network reliability in computer data links and command transmission lines. System evaluates circuit performance against preselected criteria, identifies and stores data indicating out-of-tolerance conditions, conducts closed loop testing, and provides for operation under command of digital computer that determines restoration priorities.

  19. 4. CRIMINALISING HIV TRANSMISSION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Objective: This paper attempts to summarise the global state with regard to the criminalisation of Human. Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission. Method: A comprehensive analysis of both global and. Zambianpublications, legislation and case laws was conducted. Results: Proponents of criminalisation of ...

  20. Typologi of Island City in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Alvaryan; Benita, Tania

    2017-07-01

    As an archipelagic country, Indonesia consist of thousands of island. Some of them are big enough to contain growth and become the center of settlement and activity in Indonesia. However, growth and habitation are not only mushrooming in main island. Several small island also experience growth and become densely population places and simply become a city within island. This study aims to identify island city in Indonesia and creating the typology of the island city. This study is using exploratory approach and heavily rely on statistical figure of every single autonomous region as data sources. Eventually, this study found twelve (12) island cities in Indonesia, and three distinctive typology of island cities.

  1. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patiño, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert James; Borges, Paulo A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  2. Reconnection of the islanded portion of the CIGRE low voltage distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutto, G.M.; Bak, Claus Leth; Somro, Duur M.

    2016-01-01

    is less as compared to that of the grid connected system. The islanded portion of the distribution network can be reconnected to the transmission grid if the voltage magnitudes, voltage phase angles and the frequencies of the two systems are synchronized. The main objective of this paper is to facilitate...

  3. Epidemiology of leprosy on five isolated islands in the Flores Sea, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Mirjam I.; Hatta, Mochammad; Kwenang, Agnes; Klatser, Paul R.; Oskam, Linda

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a population-based survey on five small islands in South Sulawesi Province (Indonesia) to collect baseline data previous to a chemoprophylactic intervention study aiming at interrupting the transmission of Mycobacterium leprae . Here we describe the present leprosy epidemiology on these

  4. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-22

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.

  5. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  6. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over......Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... where the botanical survey was exhaustive. As no animals and humans are found on the nunataks, this change in diversity over a period of just 42 years must relate to environmental changes probably being climate-driven. This suggests that even the flora of fairly small and isolated ice-free areas reacts...

  7. Bringing High Rate, Low Latency Data From Unimak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.; Mencin, D.; Gallaher, W.; Smith, S.; Bohnenstiehl, K.; Borsa, A.; Enders, M.; Coyle, B.; Paskievitch, J.; Read, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, completed the installation of a fourteen GPS stations, eight tiltmeters, one webcam, and one digital broadband seismometer on Unimak Island, Alaska in August, 2008. PBO collaborated with the USGS, who provided engineering support for this project. Combined with the USGS operated seismic network, the Unimak Island network is a state of the art scientific network. The primary data communications goal of the project was to design and implement a robust data communications network capable of downloading 15-sec daily GPS files and to test the streaming of 1- Hz GPS data at a select set of GPS stations on Unimak Island. As part of the permitting agreement with the landowner, PBO co-located the GPS stations with existing USGS seismic stations. The high-speed radio link deployed allowed the USGS to test the feasibility of broadband seismometer installations on Unimak Island. This collaboration with the USGS was another successful joint operation between PBO and the USGS. The technical and logistical challenges involved in the project as well as some preliminary results of the data communications system will be presented. These challenges include complicated logistics, bad weather, complex network geometries with multiple radio repeaters, long distance RF transmission over water, hardware bandwidth limitations, power limitations, space limitations, as well as working in bear country on an incredibly remote and active volcano.

  8. Small passenger car transmission test; Ford C4 transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1979 Ford C4 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Ford C4 transmission.

  9. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  10. Data transmission networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexovich, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A task order was written by the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) project engineers to investigate data compression techniques that could be applied to the HHVT system, and both existing and planned downlink/uplink capabilities of the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The following tasks were included: (1) Investigate signal channel availability and determine both the maximum possible data rate and the average data rate; (2) Identify time blocks for HHVT video transmission assuming time sharing and interruptions in the communication links; (3) Determine the bit error rates to be expected; and (4) Define the transmit and receive interfaces. A summary chart of the data transmission capabilities for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the Space Shuttle, Space Station Freedom, Spacelab, and USLab are also presented.

  11. Drill string transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  12. Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corves, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The first Workshop on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications -- MeTrApp-2011 was organized by the Mechatronics Department at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty, “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania, under the patronage of the IFToMM Technical Committees Linkages and Mechanical Controls and Micromachines. The workshop brought together researchers and students who work in disciplines associated with mechanisms science and offered a great opportunity for scientists from all over the world to present their achievements, exchange innovative ideas and create solid international links, setting the trend for future developments in this important and creative field. The topics treated in this volume are mechanisms and machine design, mechanical transmissions, mechatronic and biomechanic applications, computational and experimental methods, history of mechanism and machine science and teaching methods.

  13. Regional transmission subsystem planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  15. PIPS: pathogenicity island prediction software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomar C Soares

    Full Text Available The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1 deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2 insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS. In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands.

  16. Groundwater vulnerability on small islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.

  17. [Mumps vaccine virus transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.

  18. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the object and, connected to the detector, a device for processing the detected electrons so as to form an object image, wherein a beam splitter is provided for dividing the electron beam from the electron...

  19. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  20. Hydrostatic continuously variable transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.; Saito, M.; Matsuto, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Sakakibara, K.; Yakigaya, N.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-05-09

    A hydrostatic continuously variable transmission is described, comprising: a swashplate type hydraulic pump having a pump swashplate and annularly arranged pump plungers whose suction and discharge strokes are provided by the pump swashplate; a swashplate type hydraulic motor having a motor swashplate and annularly arranged motor plungers whose expansion and shrinkage strokes are provided by the motor swashplate; and a hydraulic closed circuit formed between the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor. The transmission has at least one of a relationship that a middle point of a discharge region of the hydraulic pump is angularly delayed at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic pump relative to a tilting axis of the pump swashplate and a relationship that a middle point of an expansion region of the hydraulic motor is angularly advanced at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic motor relative to a tilting axis of the motor swashplate, wherein the transmission has at least one of a relationship that a suction region of the hydraulic pump is set at an angle larger than that of the discharge region thereof and a relationship that a shrinkage region of the hydraulic motor is set at an angle larger than that of the expansion region of the motor.

  1. Observation of partial relaxation mechanisms via anisotropic strain relief on epitaxial islands using semiconductor nanomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Barbara L. T.; Marçal, Lucas A. B.; Ribeiro Andrade, Rodrigo; Dornellas Pinto, Luciana; Rodrigues, Wagner N.; Lustoza Souza, Patrícia; Pamplona Pires, Mauricio; Wagner Nunes, Ricardo; Malachias, Angelo

    2017-07-01

    In this work we attempt to directly observe anisotropic partial relaxation of epitaxial InAs islands using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron x-ray diffraction on a 15 nm thick InAs:GaAs nanomembrane. We show that under such conditions TEM provides improved real-space statistics, allowing the observation of partial relaxation processes that were not previously detected by other techniques or by usual TEM cross section images. Besides the fully coherent and fully relaxed islands that are known to exist above previously established critical thickness, we prove the existence of partially relaxed islands, where incomplete 60° half-loop misfit dislocations lead to a lattice relaxation along one of the directions, keeping a strained lattice in the perpendicular direction. Although individual defects cannot be directly observed, their implications to the resulting island registry are identified and discussed within the frame of half-loops propagations.

  2. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Euichi Hirose; Budhi Hascaryo Iskandar; Yusli Wardiatno

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2...

  3. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  4. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    the differences between the single-island and multi-island smart energy system, and examine the integration challenges of the multi-island smart energy system in the Philippines. The integration challenges of the national energy system with island smart energy development are discussed with suggestions....

  5. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island ...the coastal problem involves circulation around islands , which has been less studied over the years. Island circulation is distinguished from...processes include boundary currents, eddies shed in the island’s wake, and island coastally trapped waves. This project aims to improve the understanding

  6. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...

  7. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...

  8. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...

  9. [Relationships between island characteristics and arthropod diversity in Thousand-Island Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li-jun; Xu, Zhi-hong; Lu, Jian-bo; Zhao, Gai; Zhang, Qun

    2009-09-01

    In April, May, August, and October 2006, grid-based sampling method was adopted to investigate the diversity and abundance of arthropods on 50 islands in the Thousand-island Lake, with the effects of island area, island altitude, island shape, inter-island distance, and island-mainland distance on arthropod species richness analyzed. With the increase of island area, the richness of total arthropod species and that of the arthropod species with high- and low- dispersal ability all increased, and the relationships between island area and arthropod species richness corresponded to the classical island biogeography model. The island area, island altitude, and island shape had comprehensive effects on the arthropod species richness, while inter-island distance and island-mainland distance had less effects. The richness of total arthropod species had a significant positive correlation with island altitude and island shape, that of the arthropod species with high- dispersal ability was significantly positively correlated with island area and island altitude, while no significant relationship was observed between the richness of arthropod species with low-dispersal ability and the island characteristics.

  10. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone.... This rule is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and...

  11. Guest editorial introduction: Understanding island cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehoj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Island studies research has traditionally focused on relatively rural, peripheral, and isolated communities, yet island cities (strongly urbanized small islands or archipelagos or major population centres of large islands or archipelagos also represent an important research area. Island spatiality has a host of historical and continuing effects on urban development, influencing urban densification and agglomeration, zonal differentiation, and neighbourhood formation in cities both big and small. This special section of Island Studies Journal includes papers on the island cities and urban archipelagos of Peel (Isle of Man, British Isles, Nuuk (Greenland, Palma de Majorca (Spain, Belize City (Belize, and Mumbai (India. The Island Cities and Urban Archipelagos research network seeks to help enrich wider island studies scholarship and contribute to introducing the island dimension to urban studies.

  12. White-tailed deer ecology and management on Fire Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    Deer populations have grown dramatically on Fire Island National Seashore (FIlS) since 1983. Trend data reveal a dichotomy in deer dynamics. In the eastern half of the island, deer density appears to have stabilized between 25-35 deer/km2. In the western half of the island, deer densities are 3-4 times as high in residential communities. Concomitant with that increase has been a general decline in physical stature of some animals, visible impacts on island vegetation, especially in the Sunken Forest, and a perceived increase in the frequency of human and deer interactions. Intensive research on FIlS has shown that deer occupy relatively predictable home ranges throughout the year, but can and do move up and down the island. Impacts of deer on vegetation are most dramatic in the Sunken Forest. Most obvious are the effects of browsing on the herb layer of the Sunken Forest. The least obvious, but perhaps more significant impact is the stark lack of regeneration of canopy tree species since about 1970, which coincides with the initiation of the deer population irruption. A number of herbs and shrubs have been greatly reduced in the understory, and their propagules from the soil. Deer do not readily transmit the bacterium that causes Lyme disease to other organisms, but deer are important hosts for adult ticks which underscores their importance in the transmission pathway of the disease to humans. Deer on FIlS, while occasionally docile, are still wild animals and should be treated as such. Some animals are relatively unafraid of humans due to the absence of predation and a lack of harassment. This in turn has contributed to a longstanding tradition of feeding deer by many residents and visitors, particularly in western portions of the island. Feeding affects both the behavior and population dynamics of deer inhabiting Fire Island. Recent efforts to reduce deer feeding by visitors and residents have been very effective. Ongoing experiments with Porcine Zona Pellucida

  13. Nuclear power: renaissance or relapse? Global climate change and long-term Three Mile Island activists' narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Marci R; Angelique, Holly

    2010-06-01

    Community narratives are increasingly important as people move towards an ecologically sustainable society. Global climate change is a multi-faceted problem with multiple stakeholders. The voices of affected communities must be heard as we make decisions of global significance. We document the narratives of long-term anti-nuclear activists near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant who speak out in the dawn of a nuclear renaissance/relapse. While nuclear power is marketed as a "green" solution to global warming, their narratives reveal three areas for consideration; (1) significant problems with nuclear technology, (2) lessons "not" learned from the TMI disaster, and (3) hopes for a sustainable future. Nuclear waste, untrustworthy officials and economic issues were among the problems cited. Deceptive shaping of public opinion, nuclear illiteracy, and an aging anti-nuclear movement were reasons cited for the lessons not learned. However, many remain optimistic and envision increased participation to create an ecologically-balanced world.

  14. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    and recreational purposes include groupers (Cephalapholis argus), porgy (Monotaxis grandoculis), and jacks (Carangidae). Sharks are abundant...Possibly Extinct on Wake Island Swiftlet, Guam; Yayaguak (Collecalia bartschi) Endangered Crow, Mariana; Aga (Corvus kubaryi) Endangered

  15. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  16. Cat Island NWR Biological Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A summary report describing the discussion and recommendations resulting from a multidisciplinary review of the biological program at Cat Island NWR.

  17. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal announcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...

  18. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  19. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  20. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  1. Sediment Management Options for Galveston Island, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. The shoreline along the...approximately 235°. The island is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico , the Galveston Entrance Channel to the northeast, West Bay to the northwest, and San...plants on both ends of the island are the best strategies to widen the beaches of Galveston Island, improve tourism , and better protect the island

  2. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-...

  3. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  4. Transmission of compressed video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, H. L.

    1990-09-01

    An overview of video coding is presented. The aim is not to give a technical summary of possible coding techniques, but to address subjects related to video compression in general and to the transmission of compressed video in more detail. Bit rate reduction is in general possible by removing redundant information; removing information the eye does not use anyway; and reducing the quality of the video. The codecs which are used for reducing the bit rate, can be divided into two groups: Constant Bit rate Codecs (CBC's), which keep the bit rate constant, but vary the video quality; and Variable Bit rate Codecs (VBC's), which keep the video quality constant by varying the bit rate. VBC's can be in general reach a higher video quality than CBC's using less bandwidth, but need a transmission system that allows the bandwidth of a connection to fluctuate in time. The current and the next generation of the PSTN does not allow this; ATM might. There are several factors which influence the quality of video: the bit error rate of the transmission channel, slip rate, packet loss rate/packet insertion rate, end-to-end delay, phase shift between voice and video, and bit rate. Based on the bit rate of the coded video, the following classification of coded video can be made: High Definition Television (HDTV); Broadcast Quality Television (BQTV); video conferencing; and video telephony. The properties of these classes are given. The video conferencing and video telephony equipment available now and in the next few years can be divided into three categories: conforming to 1984 CCITT standard for video conferencing; conforming to 1988 CCITT standard; and conforming to no standard.

  5. Research and Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present situation provides a challenge for us to reconsider the necessary link between science and pedagogy, between research and the transmission of knowledge. The Ministry of National education has just inaugurated a broad consultation of teachers on every level with a view to modernising and giving coherence to the programs of secondary education. Armand Frémont will head the group of experts responsible for history and geography. Is this a coincidence? The changeover in the jury for t...

  6. Assessment of Overlap of Phylogenetic Transmission Clusters and Communities in Simple Sexual Contact Networks: Applications to HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villandre, Luc; Stephens, David A; Labbe, Aurelie; Günthard, Huldrych F; Kouyos, Roger; Stadler, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Transmission patterns of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) could relate to the structure of the underlying sexual contact network, whose features are therefore of interest to clinicians. Conventionally, we represent sexual contacts in a population with a graph, that can reveal the existence of communities. Phylogenetic methods help infer the history of an epidemic and incidentally, may help detecting communities. In particular, phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) have revealed the existence of large transmission clusters, possibly resulting from within-community transmissions. Past studies have explored the association between contact networks and phylogenies, including transmission clusters, producing conflicting conclusions about whether network features significantly affect observed transmission history. As far as we know however, none of them thoroughly investigated the role of communities, defined with respect to the network graph, in the observation of clusters. The present study investigates, through simulations, community detection from phylogenies. We simulate a large number of epidemics over both unweighted and weighted, undirected random interconnected-islands networks, with islands corresponding to communities. We use weighting to modulate distance between islands. We translate each epidemic into a phylogeny, that lets us partition our samples of infected subjects into transmission clusters, based on several common definitions from the literature. We measure similarity between subjects' island membership indices and transmission cluster membership indices with the adjusted Rand index. Analyses reveal modest mean correspondence between communities in graphs and phylogenetic transmission clusters. We conclude that common methods often have limited success in detecting contact network communities from phylogenies. The rarely-fulfilled requirement that network communities correspond to clades in the phylogeny

  7. Assessment of Overlap of Phylogenetic Transmission Clusters and Communities in Simple Sexual Contact Networks: Applications to HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Villandre

    Full Text Available Transmission patterns of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs could relate to the structure of the underlying sexual contact network, whose features are therefore of interest to clinicians. Conventionally, we represent sexual contacts in a population with a graph, that can reveal the existence of communities. Phylogenetic methods help infer the history of an epidemic and incidentally, may help detecting communities. In particular, phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM have revealed the existence of large transmission clusters, possibly resulting from within-community transmissions. Past studies have explored the association between contact networks and phylogenies, including transmission clusters, producing conflicting conclusions about whether network features significantly affect observed transmission history. As far as we know however, none of them thoroughly investigated the role of communities, defined with respect to the network graph, in the observation of clusters.The present study investigates, through simulations, community detection from phylogenies. We simulate a large number of epidemics over both unweighted and weighted, undirected random interconnected-islands networks, with islands corresponding to communities. We use weighting to modulate distance between islands. We translate each epidemic into a phylogeny, that lets us partition our samples of infected subjects into transmission clusters, based on several common definitions from the literature. We measure similarity between subjects' island membership indices and transmission cluster membership indices with the adjusted Rand index.Analyses reveal modest mean correspondence between communities in graphs and phylogenetic transmission clusters. We conclude that common methods often have limited success in detecting contact network communities from phylogenies. The rarely-fulfilled requirement that network communities correspond to clades

  8. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...

  9. Broadband transmission EPR spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred R Hagen

    Full Text Available EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9-10 GHz range. Most (biomolecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin - nuclear spin interactions and electron spin - electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8-2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed.

  10. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  11. Species-Specific Transmission of Novel Picornaviruses in Lemurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Efrem S.; Deem, Sharon L.; Porton, Ingrid J.; Cao, Song

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The roles of host genetics versus exposure and contact frequency in driving cross-species transmission remain the subject of debate. Here, we used a multitaxon lemur collection at the Saint Louis Zoo in the United States as a model to gain insight into viral transmission in a setting of high interspecies contact. Lemurs are a diverse and understudied group of primates that are highly endangered. The speciation of lemurs, which are endemic to the island of Madagascar, occurred in geographic isolation apart from that of continental African primates. Although evidence of endogenized viruses in lemur genomes exists, no exogenous viruses of lemurs have been described to date. Here we identified two novel picornaviruses in fecal specimens of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). We found that the viruses were transmitted in a species-specific manner (lesavirus 1 was detected only in ring-tailed lemurs, while lesavirus 2 was detected only in black-and-white ruffed lemurs). Longitudinal sampling over a 1-year interval demonstrated ongoing infection in the collection. This was supported by evidence of viral clearance in some animals and new infections in previously uninfected animals, including a set of newly born triplets that acquired the infection. While the two virus strains were found to be cocirculating in a mixed-species exhibit of ring-tailed lemurs, black-and-white ruffed lemurs, and black lemurs, there was no evidence of cross-species transmission. This suggests that despite high-intensity contact, host species barriers can prevent cross-species transmissions of these viruses. IMPORTANCE Up to 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans today are the result of zoonotic transmission. However, a challenge in understanding transmission dynamics has been the limited models of cross-species transmission. Zoos provide a unique opportunity to explore parameters defining viral transmission. We demonstrated that

  12. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  13. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  14. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  15. Fiber optic data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, Steven T.

    1987-01-01

    The Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center is currently developing a fiber optic data bus transmission and reception system that could eventually replace copper cable connections in airplanes. The original form of the system will transmit information from an encoder to a transponder via a fiber optic cable. An altimeter and an altitude display are connected to a fiber optic transmitter by copper cable. The transmitter converts the altimetry data from nine bit parallel to serial form and send these data through a fiber optic cable to a receiver. The receiver converts the data using a cable similar to that used between the altimeter and display. The transmitting and receiving ends also include a display readout. After completion and ground testing of the data bus, the system will be tested in an airborne environment.

  16. Stress transmission in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge on stress transmission in real soils loaded with agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol (clay content 20 %) continuously cropped with small grain cereals......). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil in each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near...... the soil-tyre interface were measured in separate tests by 17 stress transducers across the width of the tyres. The results showed that the inflation pressure controlled the level of maximum stresses at 0.3 m depth, while the wheel load was correlated to the measured stresses at 0.9 m depth. This supports...

  17. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  18. Broadband Transmission EPR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9–10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin – nuclear spin interactions and electron spin – electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8–2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed. PMID:23555819

  19. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euichi Hirose

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia. Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

  20. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

  1. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Alaid and Nizki Islands, Near Island Group, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic foxes, introduced to Alaid and Nizki islands in 1911, 1920 and 1935, were removed from the two islands in 1975 and 1976 by means of shooting and trapping...

  2. Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and San Juan Islands Wilderness Stewardship Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Protection Island and San Juan Islands NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines...

  3. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  4. Bird and mammal abundance at Nizki Island with notes on observations at Alaid Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To document migratory bird use and response following elimination of introduced Arctic foxes from an island in the western Aleutian Islands. Fox elimination from an...

  5. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report...

  6. Showcasing bioscience in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spero, Denice

    2013-02-01

    There are a number of well-recognized bioscience companies located in the greater Providence area. They represent a significant and growing source of jobs and future revenue, which promises to play a role in the revitalization and expansion of Rhode Island's economy. In an effort to support these companies and to showcase their research, the Rhode Island Medical Journal is highlighting five of these innovative enterprises in this issue. The companies selected are members of the Rhode Island BioScience Leaders organization, and their research spans a wide range of science, from biologics and informatics to innovative coatings for medical devices. They include ProThera Biologics, EpiVax, Tivorsan Pharmaceuticals, BioIntraface, and VeroScience.

  7. URBAN HEAT ISLAND AEROSPACE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Grishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Modern cities are characterized by special urban landscape and special urban climate. Urban heat island is a phenomenon closely associated with urban territories. There are many methods developed for studying urban heat island, they can be combined into two groups: imagery-based methods and physicomathematical methods. Using spatial imagery can provide revealing thermal anomalies evolution in time and space, spatial distribution of various thermal anomalies, differences in quantitative measures of various thermal anomalies. Despite the fact that imagery-based methods are seemed to be very widespread among scientists all over the world, still there are some problems with using spatial imagery. The best spatial resolution of accessible thermal imagery is 60 m (ETM+ sensor, and sometimes it is not enough for urban studies (many urban objects have smaller dimensions. The problem of urban heat island is rather serious in modern world, and it needs data of very good quality.

  8. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  9. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  10. The Big Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  11. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  12. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  13. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  14. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  15. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  16. Fire Island National Seashore : alternative transportation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    As part of its General Management Plan (GMP) process, Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) seeks to develop a long-term management model to protect Fire Islands resources, while facilitating a safe, rewarding, and relevant experience for the publi...

  17. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  18. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  19. Libraries in Rhode Island: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/rhodeisland.html Libraries in Rhode Island To use the sharing features ... Island Hospital / a Lifespan Partner Peters Health Sciences Library 593 Eddy Street Providence, RI 02903-4971 401- ...

  20. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke ... Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of ...

  1. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  2. An iron budget during the natural iron fertilisation experiment KEOPS (Kerguelen Islands, Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chever

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Total dissolvable iron (TDFe was measured in the water column above and in the surrounding of the Kerguelen Plateau (Indian sector of the Southern Ocean during the KErguelen Ocean Plateau compared Study (KEOPS cruise. TDFe concentrations ranged from 0.90 to 65.6 nmol L−1 above the plateau and from 0.34 to 2.23 nmol L−1 offshore of the plateau. Station C1 located south of the plateau, near Heard Island, exhibited very high values (329–770 nmol L−1. Apparent particulate iron (Feapp, calculated as the difference between the TDFe and the dissolved iron measured on board (DFe represented 95±5% of the TDFe above the plateau, suggesting that particles and refractory colloids largely dominated the iron pool. This paper presents a budget of DFe and Feapp above the plateau. Lateral advection of water that had been in contact with the continental shelf of Heard Island seems to be the predominant source of Feapp and DFe above the plateau, with a supply of 9.7±3.6×106 and 8.3±11.6×103 mol d−1, respectively. The residence times of 1.7 and 48 days estimated for Feapp and DFe respectively, indicate a rapid turnover in the surface water. A comparison between Feapp and total particulate iron (TPFe suggests that the total dissolved fraction is mainly constituted of small refractory colloids. This fraction does not seem to be a potential source of iron to the phytoplankton in our study. Finally, when taking into account the lateral supply of dissolved iron, the seasonal carbon sequestration efficiency was estimated at 154 000 mol C (mol Fe−1, which is 4-fold lower than the previously estimated value in this area but still 18-fold higher than the one estimated during the other study of a natural iron fertilisation experiment, CROZEX.

  3. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  4. 77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  5. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...

  6. Island Biogeography; ecology, evolution, and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    DJAMALI, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    The “Island Biogeography; ecology, evolution, and conservation” is an excellent textbook for the island biology. After a brief chapter “The natural laboratory paradigm”, in which the structure of the book is described, the second chapter gives a comprehensive description of the physical characteristics of the islands; their origin, formation, geological evolution, and natural physical disturbances. In chapter 3, the status of the global biodiversity distribution on the Earth’s islands is shor...

  7. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemann, S; Glockshuber, R

    1998-09-18

    Scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) belong to a group of lethal neurodegenerative disorders in mammals. Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal isoform (PrPSc) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the brain. The infectious agent, the 'prion,' is believed to be devoid of informational nucleic acid and to consist largely, if not entirely, of PrPSc. The PrP isoforms contain identical amino acid sequences yet differ in their overall secondary structure with the PrPSc isoform possessing a higher beta-sheet and lower alpha-helix content than PrPC. Elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of PrPC has provided important clues on the molecular basis of inherited human TSEs and on the species barrier phenomenon of TSEs. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of the conformational rearrangement of PrPC into PrPSc is still unknown, mainly due to the lack of detailed structural information on PrPSc. Within the framework of the 'protein only' hypothesis, two plausible models for the self-replication of prions have been suggested, the conformational model and the nucleation-dependent polymerization model.

  8. Thrips transmission of tospoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Jacobson, Alana L; Schneweis, Derek J; Whitfield, Anna E

    2015-12-01

    One hundred years ago, the disease tomato spotted wilt was first described in Australia. Since that time, knowledge of this disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips (insects in the order Thysanoptera) has revealed a complex relationship between the virus, vector, plant host, and environment. Numerous tospoviruses and thrips vectors have been described, revealing diversity in plant host range and geographical distributions. Advances in characterization of the tripartite interaction between the virus, vector, and plant host have provided insight into molecular and ecological relationships. Comparison to animal-infecting viruses in the family Bunyaviridae has enabled the identification of commonalities between tospoviruses and other bunyaviruses in transmission by arthropod vectors and molecular interactions with hosts. This review provides a special emphasis on TSWV and Frankliniella occidentalis, the model tospovirus-thrips pathosystem. However, other virus-vector combinations are also of importance and where possible, comparisons are made between different viruses and thrips vectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Control of schistosomiasis transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. de S. Dias

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the progress. The main objective of schistosomiasis control is to achieve reduction of disease due to schistosomiasis. We discussed the control measures like: health education, diagnosis and chemotherapy, safe water supplies, sanitation and snail control. We emphasized the need to give priority to school-age children and the importance of integrating the measures of control into locally available systems of health care. The control of schistosomiasis is directly related to the capacity of the preventive health services of an endemic country. The strategy of control requires long-term commitment from the international to the local level.

  10. Transmission diamond imaging detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, John, E-mail: smedley@bnl.gov; Pinelli, Don; Gaoweia, Mengjia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Muller, Erik; Ding, Wenxiang; Zhou, Tianyi [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bohon, Jen [Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Many modern synchrotron techniques are trending toward use of high flux beams and/or beams which require enhanced stability and precise understanding of beam position and intensity from the front end of the beamline all the way to the sample. For high flux beams, major challenges include heat load management in optics (including the vacuum windows) and a mechanism of real-time volumetric measurement of beam properties such as flux, position, and morphology. For beam stability in these environments, feedback from such measurements directly to control systems for optical elements or to sample positioning stages would be invaluable. To address these challenges, we are developing diamond-based instrumented vacuum windows with integrated volumetric x-ray intensity, beam profile and beam-position monitoring capabilities. A 50 µm thick single crystal diamond has been lithographically patterned to produce 60 µm pixels, creating a >1kilopixel free-standing transmission imaging detector. This device, coupled with a custom, FPGA-based readout, has been used to image both white and monochromatic x-ray beams and capture the last x-ray photons at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This technology will form the basis for the instrumented end-station window of the x-ray footprinting beamline (XFP) at NSLS-II.

  11. Genetic transmission of reading ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, Suzanne C.; Van Bergen, Elsje; Dolan, Conor; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Koenis, Marinka M.G.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2017-01-01

    Reading is the processing of written language. Family resemblance for reading (dis)ability might be due to transmission of a genetic liability or due to family environment, including cultural transmission from parents to offspring. Familial-risk studies exploring neurobehavioral precursors for

  12. Hendra virus ecology and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hume E

    2016-02-01

    Hendra virus causes acute and highly fatal infection in horses and humans. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, with age and species being risk factors for infection. Urine is the primary route of excretion in flying-foxes, with viral RNA more frequently detected in Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus than other species. Infection prevalence in flying-foxes can vary between and within years, with a winter peak of excretion occurring in some regions. Vertical transmission and recrudescing infection has been reported in flying-foxes, but horizontal transmission is evidently the primary mode of transmission. The most parsimonious mode of flying-fox to horse transmission is equine contact (oro-nasal, conjunctival) with infected flying-fox urine, either directly, or via urine-contaminated pasture or surfaces. Horse to horse transmission is inefficient, requiring direct contact with infected body fluids. Flying-fox to human transmission has not been recorded; all human cases have been associated with close and direct contact with infected horses. Canine cases (subclinical) have also been limited to equine case properties. Notwithstanding the recent availability of an effective vaccine for horses, a comprehensive understanding of Hendra virus ecology and transmission is essential to limit inter-species transmission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  14. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  15. A transmission line phase stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    To meet the phase stability requirements of certain experiments performed with the Deep Space Network, transmission lines carrying reference signals must be stabilized to reduce changes in their electrical length due to mechanical movement or changes in ambient temperature. A transmission line phase stabilizer being developed at JPL to perform this function is described.

  16. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  17. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1950-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31

  18. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  19. Unsupervised statistical identification of genomic islands using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop some statistical methods to determine these external genetic elements or genomic islands in genomes based on their differential oligonucleotide usage patterns compared to the rest of the genome. Genomic islands identified by these unsupervised statistical methods include integron and pathogenicity islands.

  20. 50 CFR 32.59 - Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rhode Island. 32.59 Section 32.59 Wildlife... § 32.59 Rhode Island. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing and are listed in alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. Block Island National Wildlife...

  1. The island-mainland species turnover relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Yoel E; Losos, Jonathan B; Algar, Adam C

    2012-10-07

    Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species turnover as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M-M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland-island (M-I) and island-island (I-I) species turnover with predictions of the M-M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M-M model should successfully predict M-I and I-I turnover, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M-I turnover and, to a lesser extent, I-I turnover were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland-island species turnover, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts.

  2. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  3. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  4. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted Whistle...

  5. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little...

  6. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  7. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  8. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  9. [Mentalization and attachment transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmann, Johann; Fritsch, Sophia; Lück, Monika; Stumpe, Anna; Taubner, Svenja; Vesterling, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study was investigating the predictive role of maternal mentalizing and general as well as depressive symptom burden for attachment security at the end of the first year on a sample of 44 mother-child-dyads from a low-risk community study. Maternal mentalizing was assessed in a multidimensional way as Reflective Functioning (off-line) and Mind-Mindedness (on-line). The design was longitudinal measuring maternal Mind-Mindedness from a videotaped mother-child-play-interaction at the age of three months. General and depressive symptom burden was assessed using the SCL-90-R when the children were nine months old. Maternal attachment and Reflective-Functioning, using the Adult-Attachment-Interview, as well as children's attachment behavior, using the Strange-Situation-Test, were investigated at the age of twelve months. Secure maternal attachment was associated with higher Reflective Functioning, higher frequency of Mind-Mindedness and lower general and depressive symptom burden. A moderation-analysis showed a statistical trend (p = .08) that the interaction of the frequency of mind-related comments, general symptom severity and maternal attachment has a predictive value for infantile attachment security. Results can be tentatively interpreted that mothers with insecure attachment who had a lower general symptom burden and who related to their three-months old babies with a high frequency of mind-related-comments were more likely to have securely attached children. Thus, results may serve as a groundwork for projects aiming to prevent the transmission of insecure attachment by strengthening maternal Mind-Mindedness and working on the reduction of maternal general symptom burden.

  10. Challenges, advances and perspectives in island biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A.V. Borges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Island biogeographical research is becoming more and more fashionable, with the continuous identification of new challenges that are critical for the advancement of science. In this contribution we identify biases and limitations associated with island biogeographical studies, and also describe recent advances and propose new perspectives. The main proposals include: 1 downscaling island biogeographical studies to local/plot scale; 2 investigating geographical patterns of intra-specific genetic variation to infer dispersal processes among and within islands; 3 using applied biogeographical research to respond to the current island biodiversity crisis; and 4 applying new computer-intensive methods such as artificial intelligence (AI approaches.

  11. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... by the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997, requires us to develop a CCP for each... libraries in northwestern Washington: Anacortes Public Library, Bellingham Public Library, Clinton Public Library, Coupeville Public Library, Evergreen State College Library, Island Public Library, Jefferson...

  12. Canadian Hepatitis C Look-Back Investigation to Detect Transmission from an Infected General Surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Dawar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In February 2007, a general surgeon in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, tested positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV. The surgeon’s infection onset date could not be determined; however, episodic hepatic enzyme elevations were first detected in November 2004 and again in February 2007. HCV transmission during surgery, alhough rare, has been documented. A phased look-back HCV screening program was conducted to detect HCV transmission from this surgeon to patients who underwent the highest-risk procedures in the three years before his positive test.

  13. The evolution of plant virus transmission pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frédéric M. Hamelin; Linda J.S. Allen; Holly R. Prendeville; M. Reza Hajimorad; Michael J. Jeger

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of plant virus transmission pathways is studied through transmission via seed, pollen, oravector. We address the questions: under what circumstances does vector transmission make pollen transmission redundant? Can evolution lead to the coexistence of multiple virus transmission pathways? We restrict the analysis to an annual plant population in which...

  14. Transmission-Line Metamaterials, Bianisotropy, and Transmission-Line Bianisotropy

    OpenAIRE

    Vehmas, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials are artificial composite materials which possess exotic and advantageous properties not attainable with natural materials. This thesis covers two notable classes of metamaterials: transmission-line metamaterials and bianisotropic media. While metamaterials are most commonly realized as bulk media consisting of small resonant inclusions, transmission-line structures offer an alternative, low-dispersion and low-loss way for realizing them. Bianisotropic media, on t...

  15. Midwest Transmission Workshop I Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Bryan

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The meeting was opened with a review of the purposes of the workshop: (1) Present and discuss key studies and assessments of transmission upgrades, additions and related issues for the upper Midwest, including work that addresses the full range of views on these topics; (2) Understand the various transmission issues in the upper Midwest and discuss options for addressing the issues; and (3) Identify the decision makers and entities that need to play an active role if transmission issues are to be resolved, and agree on next steps for engaging these individuals and organizations through education, outreach, and information dissemination.

  16. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  17. Inverter Anti-Islanding with Advanced Grid Support in Single- and Multi-Inverter Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy

    2016-08-16

    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1. In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2. The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness.

  18. On the form of species–area relationships in habitat islands and true islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Guilhaumon, François; Triantis, Kostas A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We undertook the largest comparative study to date of the form of the island species–area relationship (ISAR) using 207 habitat island datasets and 601 true island datasets. We also undertook analyses of (a) the factors influencing z- and c-values of the power (log–log) model and (b) how z...... and c vary between different island types. Location: Global. Methods: We used an information theoretic approach to compare the fit of 20 ISAR models to 207 habitat island datasets. Model performance was ranked according to pre-set criteria, including metrics of generality and efficiency. We also fitted......, and was the highest ranked model overall. In general, the more complex models performed badly. Average z-values were significantly lower for habitat island datasets than for true islands, and were higher for mountaintop and urban habitat islands than for other habitat island types. Average c-values were significantly...

  19. Fractional Transmission Line with Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aguilar, José Francisco; Dumitru, Baleanu

    2014-11-01

    In this manuscript, the fractional transmission line with losses is presented. The order of the Caputo derivative is considered as 0 Mittag-Leffler functions. The classic cases are recovered when β and γ are equal to 1.

  20. Transmission of Information: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, George R.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines the basic principles underlying the transmission of information, including analog and digital modulation, limitations to communications, configurations of communications networks, optical fiber cables, and earth satellites. Six references are cited. (FM)

  1. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  2. Transmission line model for nanoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin E. A.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Analytical expressions for resonant parametres and characteristics of typical barrier nanoelectronic structures have been received on the basis of the transmission line model. Characteristics illustrating the efficiency of such approach are presented in the article.

  3. Echinococcosis : disease, detection and transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craig, P.S.; Rogan, M T; Campos-Ponce, M

    2003-01-01

    Echinococcosis is one of the world's most geographically widespread parasitic zoonoses, with transmission occurring in tropical, temperate and arctic biomes. Most human infections are due to Echinococcus granulosus transmitted between domestic dogs and livestock, but this cosmopolitan species also

  4. 77 FR 60689 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and... respect to compliance obligations in Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and...

  5. Radio and line transmission 2

    CERN Document Server

    Roddy, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Radio and Line Transmission, Volume 2 gives a detailed treatment of the subject as well as an introduction to additional advanced subject matter. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins by explaining the radio wave propagation, signal frequencies, and bandwidth. Subsequent chapters describe the transmission lines and cables; the aerials; tuned and coupled circuits; bipolar transistor amplifiers; field-effect transistors and circuits; thermionic valve amplifiers; LC oscillators; the diode detectors and modulators; and the superheterodyne receiver. Other chapters explore noise and interfere

  6. Free-space power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

  7. Heartland Alliance for Regional Transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Nancy [Climate and Energy Project, Inc., Hutchinson, KS (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The Heartland Alliance for Regional Transmission (HART) will foster a candid, productive conversation among stakeholders that identifies challenges to and benefits from a massive build out of wind generation and transmission across the Southwest Power Pool. Based on the outcomes of those deliberations, HART will develop and deliver an ambitious, coordinated, peer-to-peer outreach effort that spans the SPP to improve market acceptance for wind.

  8. Electrically Isolating Transmission-Line Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed optoelectronic coupling circuit used to insert signal in transmission line and to isolate transmission line from ground of circuit in which signal originates. Made from commercially available components, reduces susceptibility to interference along transmission path.

  9. First record of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia fontinalis (Orchidaceae from Takeshima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Suetsugu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We found Gastrodia fontinalis T. P. Lin in a bamboo forest from Takeshima Island, which is the northernmost island of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. This species is apparently rare and was previously considered to be an endemic Taiwanese species. Because there are a few minor differences between the original description and our specimens collected in Takeshima Island, here we report Gastrodia fontinalis from Takeshima Island as the first record outside of Taiwan, with a description of the specimens from Takeshima Island.

  10. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  11. Morphotectonics of the Mascarene Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Scheidegger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the orientations (strikes/trends of joints, valleys, ridges and lineaments, i.e. of the (potentially morphotectonic features, of the Mascarene Islands (Reunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean. It turns out that a connection exists between these features on all islands. For the joints alone, the results for Mauritius as a whole agree closely with those for Rodrigues as a whole, and also partially with those of Reunion. Inasmuch as the trends of the valleys, ridges and lineaments are related to the trends (strikes of the joints, a common morphotectonic predesign seems to be present for all features studied. The morphotectonic orientations on the island also agree closely with the trends of fracture zones, ridges and trenches in the nearby ocean bottom; which has had a bearing on the theories of the origin of the Mascarene Islands. Generally, a hot-spot origin is preferred for Reunion, and may be for Mauritius as well, although differing opinions have also been voiced. The dynamics of a hot-spot is hard to reconcile with the close fit of the joint strikes in Réunion with the trends of the Madagascar and Rodrigues fracture zones. The closely agreeing joint maxima in Mauritius and Rodrigues í across the deep Mauritius trench í also agree with the trend of that trench and with the trend of the Rodrigues fracture zone. Thus, it would appear as most likely that the trends of joints and of fracture zones are all part of the same pattern and are due to the same cause: viz. to action of the neotectonic stress field.

  12. Island biology: looking towards the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald R; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2014-10-01

    Oceanic islands are renowned for the profound scientific insights that their fascinating biotas have provided to biologists during the past two centuries. Research presented at Island Biology 2014-an international conference, held in Honolulu, Hawaii (7-11 July 2014), which attracted 253 presenters and 430 participants from at least 35 countries(1)-demonstrated that islands are reclaiming a leading role in ecology and evolution, especially for synthetic studies at the intersections of macroecology, evolution, community ecology and applied ecology. New dynamics in island biology are stimulated by four major developments. We are experiencing the emergence of a truly global and comprehensive island research community incorporating previously neglected islands and taxa. Macroecology and big-data analyses yield a wealth of global-scale synthetic studies and detailed multi-island comparisons, while other modern research approaches such as genomics, phylogenetic and functional ecology, and palaeoecology, are also dispersing to islands. And, increasingly tight collaborations between basic research and conservation management make islands places where new conservation solutions for the twenty-first century are being tested. Islands are home to a disproportionate share of the world's rare (and extinct) species, and there is an urgent need to develop increasingly collaborative and innovative research to address their conservation requirements. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  14. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  15. A global analysis of island pyrogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.

  16. [High prevalence of specific language impairment in Robinson Crusoe Island. A possible founder effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Pía; de Barbieri, Zulema; Palomino, Hernán M; Palomino, Hernán

    2008-02-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) occurs in 2% to 8% of preschool children. Major and candidate genes are probably involved. Genetic drift is a cause for the presence of high frequencies of deleterious alíeles of a specific disease and the founder effect is one of its forms. Robinson Crusoe Island has 633 inhabitants and its actual population began with 8 families that repopulated the island at the end of XIXth century. To assess the frequency of specific language impairment among children living in Robinson Crusoe Island. All 66 children aged between 3 and 9 years living in the island, were studied. Parents were interviewed and in children, non verbal intelligence, audiometric parameters, comprehension and expression of oral language were assessed. Extended genealogies were also performed. Forty children had at least one parent that was descending of founder families. Among these, 35% had SLI. Eighth five percent of SLI affected children came from the same colonizer family. The prevalence of SLI in Robinson Crusoe Island is higher than that reported in mainland Chile and abroad. This high prevalence, associated to a high frequency of consanguinity, supports the influence of genetic mechanisms in SLI transmission, based on a founder effect.

  17. [Effects of islanding on plant species diversity in Thousand-island Lake region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Dung, Lizhong; Xu, Gaofu

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, the typical area of fragmentation in Thousand-island Lake region was selected to study the effects of islanding on plant species diversity after reservoir built. 26 quadrates were installed on 18 small, medium and large islands to investigate the species and number of trees and shrubs, with inland as the control One-way variance analysis (ANOVA) showed that the species richness of trees was significantly different (F = 13.055, P = 0.000) among all kinds of islands, which was significantly higher on large islands than on small and medium ones, but not significantly different from that on inland. The species richness of shrubs was not significantly different among all kinds of islands and inland. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the species richness of trees was significantly positively correlated with island area, while the correlation between specie richness of shrubs and island area was not significant. Shannon-Wiener Index (H) analysis suggested that the diversity of both trees and shrubs on large islands was the highest, followed by on inland, but the diversity of shrubs was larger on small than on medium islands. The analysis of Simpson index and Pielou index showed that the species evenness of trees was the highest, but the dominance was the lowest on medium and large islands, while the species evenness of shrubs was the highest on medium and small islands, but the dominance was the lowest on small islands.

  18. Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliu Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation. Results Three species of hymenolepidids were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis microstoma and Rodentolepis fraterna. Hymenolepis diminuta (in rats and R. microstoma (in mice showed a widespread distribution in the Archipelago, and R. fraterna was the least spread species, appearing only on five of the islands. The hymenolepidids found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La Graciosa were restricted to one area. The COI network of H. diminuta showed that the haplotypes from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the most distant with respect to the other islands, but clearly related among them. Conclusions Founder effects and biotic and abiotic factors could have played important role in the presence/absence of the hymenolepidid species in determined locations. The haplotypes from the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote seem to have shared an ancestral haplotype very distant from the most frequent one that was found in the rest of the islands. Two colonization events or a single event with subsequent isolation and reduced gene flow between western-central and eastern islands, have taken place in the Archipelago. The three tapeworms detected are zoonotic species, and their presence among rodents from this Archipelago suggests a potential health risk to human via environmental contamination in high risk areas. However, the relatively low prevalence of infestations detected and the focal distribution of some of these species on certain islands reduce

  19. Distribution and genetic variation of hymenolepidid cestodes in murid rodents on the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Canary Islands there are no previous data about tapeworms (Cestoda) of rodents. In order to identify the hymenolepidid species present in these hosts, a survey of 1,017 murine (349 Rattus rattus, 13 Rattus norvegicus and 655 Mus musculus domesticus) was carried out in the whole Archipelago. Molecular studies based on nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial COI loci were performed to confirm the identifications and to analyse the levels of genetic variation and differentiation. Results Three species of hymenolepidids were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis microstoma and Rodentolepis fraterna. Hymenolepis diminuta (in rats) and R. microstoma (in mice) showed a widespread distribution in the Archipelago, and R. fraterna was the least spread species, appearing only on five of the islands. The hymenolepidids found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La Graciosa were restricted to one area. The COI network of H. diminuta showed that the haplotypes from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the most distant with respect to the other islands, but clearly related among them. Conclusions Founder effects and biotic and abiotic factors could have played important role in the presence/absence of the hymenolepidid species in determined locations. The haplotypes from the eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) seem to have shared an ancestral haplotype very distant from the most frequent one that was found in the rest of the islands. Two colonization events or a single event with subsequent isolation and reduced gene flow between western-central and eastern islands, have taken place in the Archipelago. The three tapeworms detected are zoonotic species, and their presence among rodents from this Archipelago suggests a potential health risk to human via environmental contamination in high risk areas. However, the relatively low prevalence of infestations detected and the focal distribution of some of these species on certain islands reduce the general transmission

  20. Chikungunya virus transmission potential by local Aedes mosquitoes in the Americas and Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubis Vega-Rúa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, mainly transmitted in urban areas by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, constitutes a major public health problem. In late 2013, CHIKV emerged on Saint-Martin Island in the Caribbean and spread throughout the region reaching more than 40 countries. Thus far, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes have been implicated as the sole vector in the outbreaks, leading to the hypothesis that CHIKV spread could be limited only to regions where this mosquito species is dominant.We determined the ability of local populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from the Americas and Europe to transmit the CHIKV strain of the Asian genotype isolated from Saint-Martin Island (CHIKV_SM during the recent epidemic, and an East-Central-South African (ECSA genotype CHIKV strain isolated from La Réunion Island (CHIKV_LR as a well-characterized control virus. We also evaluated the effect of temperature on transmission of CHIKV_SM by European Ae. albopictus. We found that (i Aedes aegypti from Saint-Martin Island transmit CHIKV_SM and CHIKV_LR with similar efficiency, (ii Ae. aegypti from the Americas display similar transmission efficiency for CHIKV_SM, (iii American and European populations of the alternative vector species Ae. albopictus were as competent as Ae. aegypti populations with respect to transmission of CHIKV_SM and (iv exposure of European Ae. albopictus to low temperatures (20°C significantly reduced the transmission potential for CHIKV_SM.CHIKV strains belonging to the ECSA genotype could also have initiated local transmission in the new world. Additionally, the ongoing CHIKV outbreak in the Americas could potentially spread throughout Ae. aegypti- and Ae. albopictus-infested regions of the Americas with possible imported cases of CHIKV to Ae. albopictus-infested regions in Europe. Colder temperatures may decrease the local transmission of CHIKV_SM by European Ae. albopictus, potentially explaining the lack of autochthonous

  1. Island biogeography, the effects of taxonomic effort and the importance of island niche diversity to single-island endemic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Alan; Cavers, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography theory is fundamentally reliant on measuring the number of species per island and hence has taxonomy at its foundation. Yet as a metric used in tests of the theory, island species richness (S) has varied with time according to the level of taxonomic effort (a function of the rate of finding and describing species). Studies using a derivative of S, single-island endemic species richness (SIE S), may be prone to change in taxonomic effort. Decreases or increases in species numbers resulting from taxonomic revision or increased sampling are likely to have a large effect on values of SIE S, as they tend to be smaller than total S for the same island. Using simple biogeography models, we analysed estimates of SIE S in plants, land snails, beetles, and fungi from comprehensive data sets for eight island groups, produced species accumulation curves and applied Bayesian regression over five time periods. Explanatory power differed across taxa, but area and island age were not always the best explanatory variables, and niche diversity appeared to be important. Changing levels of SIE S over time had different effects on models with different taxa and between island archipelagos. The results indicated that the taxonomic effort that determines SIE S is important. However, as this cannot often be quantified, we suggest Bayesian approaches should be more useful than frequentist methods in evaluating SIE S in island biogeography theory. Fundamentally, the article highlights the importance of taxonomy to theoretical biogeography.

  2. Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

    2013-01-01

    This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/).

  3. Control and Operation of Islanded Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar

    with more than one generator connected to the same system. An isochronous controller with feedback has been developed in this research study. It performs relatively well in both islanded and grid connected conditions. Hence, if there is more than one DG unit in the distribution system, employing isochronous...... of power supply provided that various issues with islanding are properly addressed. Some of the issues with islanding are state (islanded or grid connected) detection, control of voltage and frequency, load control and protection. In this dissertation, some of the major technical issues with islanding...... power shift). However, the active technique is used only when the passive technique cannot clearly discriminate between islanded and grid connected conditions. DG units perform the best if they are operated with droop control and power factor control when they are operating parallel to the grid...

  4. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  5. Progress report on field studies in the Aleutian Islands, Semidi Islands and Bering Sea, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work in the Aleutian Islands, Semidi Islands, and Bering Sea in support of work unit 953.10. Distribution and abundance of birds as seas (work...

  6. Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs for the next 15 years....

  7. Proposing New Wilderness Areas: Okefenokee, Pelican Islands, Island Bay, Cedar Keys, Passage Key, and Wichita Mountains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — President Transmittal on the proposal of wilderness additions that include Okefenokee, Pelican Islands, Island Bay, Cedar Keys, Passage Key, and Wichita Mountains.

  8. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  9. Introduced arctic fox eradication at Rat Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mechanical means similar to those employed on Amata Island during the summer of 1983 were used to attempt eradication of fox on Rat Island. These labor intensive...

  10. CRED 20m Gridded bathymetry of Necker Islands, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA. This netCDF includes multibeam bathymetry from...

  11. Reunion Island's Position in the southern African and the Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reunion Island is one of the islands in southeastern Africa. Like most other islands, it experienced colonisation and became part of the French colonial empire. What is interesting is that Reunion Island rather opted for continued dependency while other colonised territories opted for sovereignty; the island thus became

  12. The megazoobenthos of the Scotia Arc islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ramos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Megabenthic epifauna composition and distribution from the Scotia Arc islands based on data collected during the Antarctic summer of 1986-87 is presented. Samples were taken from bottom trawl catches at 345 stations (29 at Shag Rocks, 104 at South Georgia, 8 at the South Sandwich Islands, 93 at the South Orkney Islands, 46 at Elephant Island, and 65 at the South Shetland Islands, from 26 to 643 m depth. Among the most striking features of the faunistic composition of the area, pointed out by multivariate analysis, are the singularity of Shag Rocks, closer to the Magellan region, and of the volcanic South Sandwich Islands, as well as the similarity of South Georgia and the South Orkney Islands and that of the islands nearest to the Antarctic continent, especially Elephant Island and the South Shetlands Islands. This similarity is due to the higher frequency and abundance of the most characteristic taxa in the Antarctic epibenthos, such as sessile suspension feeders (sponges, calcareous bryozoans, pennatulids, crinoids, and motile fauna with a wide variety of trophic strategies (asteroids, holothurians, pycnogonids, large isopods and gammarids. These data confirm the fact that the long-lived suspension-feeder communities, demosponges and hexactinellids, characteristic of the Antarctic epibenthos stretch to the eastern shelf of South Georgia without reaching the north-west of this island, the South Sandwich Islands, and Shag Rocks. Some of the zones with rich communities of sessile filter-feeders, long-lived sponges or reef formations of calcareous bryozoans or serpulids should be proposed as Specially Protected Areas.

  13. Different shades of green on small islands

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Tiago; Sandra Dias Faria; João Luís Cogumbreiro; João Pedro Couto; Flávio Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Many small islands exist as tourism destinations worldwide. In the 1990s, the growth of environmental consciousness led some small islands to question their mass tourism offers and to refocus on more sustainable propositions. However, it remains unclear whether hospitality firms see these sustainability related efforts as drivers of success and whether tourists value this dimension when choosing or recommending a destination. This study chose a small island destination to address these questi...

  14. Concepts for Functional Restoration of Barrier Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    shrimp require tidal circulation and gradient in salinity within estuaries as a part of their juvenile growth cycle, which is promoted by the presence of...dynamically stable in that the barrier island is designed to allow morphologic evolution through time via migration and overwash, as long as the storm...island dimen- sions (width and elevation) required to maintain morphologic form and increase the potential for island recovery after a storm. For

  15. The evolution of birdsong on islands

    OpenAIRE

    Morinay, Jennifer; Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Doutrelant, Claire; Covas, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Islands are simplified, isolated ecosystems, providing an ideal set-up to study evolution. Among several traits that are expected to change on islands, an interesting but poorly understood example concerns signals used in animal communication. Islands are typified by reduced species diversity, increased population density, and reduced mate competition, all of which could affect communication signals. We used birdsong to investigate whether there are systematic changes in communication signals...

  16. Transmission ultrasonography. [time delay spectrometry for soft tissue transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, R. C.; Le Croissette, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of the application of an advanced signal-processing technique, called time delay spectrometry, in obtaining soft tissue transmission images by transmission ultrasonography, both in vivo and in vitro. The presented results include amplitude ultrasound pictures and phase ultrasound pictures obtained by this technique. While amplitude ultrasonographs of tissue are closely analogous to X-ray pictures in that differential absorption is imaged, phase ultrasonographs represent an entirely new source of information based on differential time of propagation. Thus, a new source of information is made available for detailed analysis.

  17. Sexual transmission of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Julie; Fidler, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 transmission occurs in a limited number of ways all of which are preventable. Overall, the risk of HIV-1 transmission following a single sexual exposure is low especially in comparison with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); with estimates of the average probability of male to female HIV-1 transmission only 0.0005-0.0026 per coital act. The risk of acquiring HIV-1 from a single contact varies enormously and is dependant upon the infectiousness of the HIV-1 positive individual and the susceptibility to HIV-1 of their sexual partner. An understanding of the determinants of HIV-1 transmission is important not only to assess the infection risk to an individual when exposed to the virus (e.g. to determine the provision of post exposure prophylaxis), but also to make accurate predictions on the potential spread of HIV-1 infection in a population and to direct appropriate targeted prevention strategies. In this review article we summarise the current literature on the major worldwide source of HIV-1 acquisition, sexual transmission. This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, Vol 85, issue 1, 2010. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Atlas transmission line breakdown analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, K E; Ballard, E O; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; McCuistian, B T; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility will use 24 radially converging, vertically oriented and tapered, oil insulated, triplate transmission lines between the Marx generators and the central load region. Among the requirements of the transmission lines are low inductance and high reliability. The inter-conductor gap is nominally 2 cm and the lines taper from a height of 1.75 m at the Marx end to 0.32 m at the output end. The aluminum conductors, held together by 20 insulating spacers, are assembled and inserted as a unit into radial oil-filled steel tanks. The negative, high-voltage, center conductor is 2.54-cm thick and the outer ground conductors are 1.59-cm thick. All 24 triplate transmission lines connect to a transition section at near 1 m radius that couples the transmission lines to a disk/conical solid- dielectric-insulated power flow channel transmission line terminating at the load. Peak operating voltage on the lines can be as high as 240 kV with an effective stress time of 0.8 mu s. Testing of small sections of the ...

  19. Island Fox Veterinary And Pathology Services On San Clemente Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    focal species for conservation by the U.S. Navy. The Island Fox Veterinary and Pathology Services project was designed to assist the Navy in island fox...the U.S. Navy. The Island Fox Veterinary and Pathology Services project was designed to assist the Navy in island fox conservation and management...microscopes, centrifuges, autoclave, blood analysis machines, a -80° F freezer and a computer (Figure 1). It also had storage for medical supplies

  20. Renewable technologies for generation systems in islands and their application to Cozumel Island, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Vizcaino, Javier; Sumper, Andreas; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni; Ramirez, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The electric generation systems on islands are based generally on fossil fuel. This fact and its supply make the electricity cost higher than in systems used in the continent. In this article, we present a review of the renewable energy generation systems on islands. To do it we analysed 77 islands from 45 different countries. This work will allow us to know how the implementation of renewable energy sources could help these islands in developing a renewable and sustainable energy sector, inc...

  1. The evolution of birdsong on islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinay, Jennifer; Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Doutrelant, Claire; Covas, Rita

    2013-12-01

    Islands are simplified, isolated ecosystems, providing an ideal set-up to study evolution. Among several traits that are expected to change on islands, an interesting but poorly understood example concerns signals used in animal communication. Islands are typified by reduced species diversity, increased population density, and reduced mate competition, all of which could affect communication signals. We used birdsong to investigate whether there are systematic changes in communication signals on islands, by undertaking a broad comparison based on pairs of closely related island-mainland species across the globe. We studied song traits related to complexity (number of different syllables, frequency bandwidth), to vocal performance (syllable delivery rate, song duration), and also three particular song elements (rattles, buzzes, and trills) generally implicated in aggressive communication. We also investigated whether song complexity was related to the number of similar sympatric species. We found that island species were less likely to produce broadband and likely aggressive song elements (rattles and buzzes). By contrast, various aspects of song complexity and performance did not differ between island and mainland species. Species with fewer same-family sympatric species used wider frequency bandwidths, as predicted by the character release hypothesis, both on continents and on islands. Our study supports the hypothesis of a reduction in aggressive behavior on islands and suggests that discrimination against closely related species is an important factor influencing birdsong evolution.

  2. Draft Supplement to the Environmental Statement Fiscal Year 1975 Proposed Program : Facility Location Evaluation for San Juan Island Service : Decatur Land Line and East Lopez Island Substation Study Area 74-7.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1974-03-08

    Proposed construction of a 1.7-mile 34.5-kV double-circuit transmission line crossing Decatur Island from east to west. The new line would replace 0.7 of a mile of an existing BPA 24.5-kV line and would then parallel and existing 24.5-kV line for a distance of 1.0 mile. The proposal also requires the construction of a new substation to be located on the eastern side of Lopez Island, Washington. The additional easement required for the proposed transmission line would remove about 1.1 acres of forestland from timber production diverting it to nonforest uses compatable with the transmission line right-of-way. Depending upon the actual site location the Lopez Island Substation could remove from 1 to 3.2 acres of forestland and 2 acres of pastureland from production. Disturbance of game in the immediate vicintiy of the transmission facilities will occur during construction, as will some soil erosion primarily during and immediately after construction, siltation in nearby streams, disturbance of nearby residents from noise and dust during construction, and some degradation of AM reception immediately adjacent to the right-of-way. 7 figs.

  3. Solid waste management on small islands: the case of Green Island, Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, M.C.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Municipalities of small islands have limited capacities for waste disposal. In the case of Green Island, Taiwan, continuing with business as usual would only allow the disposal of waste on the island for another 8 years. Three alternatives for solid waste management (SWM) are compared. The

  4. 78 FR 27877 - Safety Zone; McAloon Wedding Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; McAloon Wedding Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking SUMMARY: The... is planned on Lake Erie in the vicinity of Catawba Island, OH. This fireworks display will be...

  5. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee Island...

  6. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris Island...

  7. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island at...

  8. 76 FR 72369 - Safety Zone; Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks Display, Gulf of Mexico, Marco Island, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... No. USCG-2011-0968] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks Display, Gulf of Mexico, Marco Island, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... the vicinity of Marco Island Marriott Beach Resort in Marco Island, Florida during the Marco Island...

  9. Environmental management of mosquito-borne viruses in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gettman, Alan; Becker, Elisabeth; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) are both primarily bird viruses, which can be transmitted by several mosquito species. Differences in larval habitats, flight, and biting patterns of the primary vector species result in substantial differences in epidemiology, with WNV more common, primarily occurring in urban areas, and EEEV relatively rare, typically occurring near swamp habitats. The complex transmission ecology of these viruses complicates prediction of disease outbreaks. The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (DEM) and Department of Health (DoH) provide prevention assistance to towns and maintain a mosquito surveillance program to identify potential disease risk. Responses to potential outbreaks follow a protocol based on surveillance results, assessment of human risk, and technical consultation.

  10. Midwest Transmission Workshop III Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Bryan

    2003-03-12

    OAK-B135 On March 12-13, 2002, the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), in cooperation with regional stakeholders, held a two-day workshop: Planning for Electrical Transmission Needs in the Upper Midwest. The workshop was the outgrowth of an effort to develop a forum and process for consideration of transmission options that strives for equitable allocation of benefits and impacts among all affected parties. The goal of this workshop was to provide a catalyst for an enhanced, inclusive process for transmission planning with participation of and acceptance by all affected stakeholders. Participants in the meeting included representatives of state and regional regulatory agencies, utilities and power generators, the wind industry, environmental and landowner interests, and other interested parties (see Attachment A for a list of meeting participants).

  11. Clustering, climate and dengue transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junxiong, Pang; Yee-Sin, Leo

    2015-06-01

    Dengue is currently the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease, with an increasing burden over recent decades. Currently, neither a licensed vaccine nor an effective anti-viral therapy is available, and treatment largely remains supportive. Current vector control strategies to prevent and reduce dengue transmission are neither efficient nor sustainable as long-term interventions. Increased globalization and climate change have been reported to influence dengue transmission. In this article, we reviewed the non-climatic and climatic risk factors which facilitate dengue transmission. Sustainable and effective interventions to reduce the increasing threat from dengue would require the integration of these risk factors into current and future prevention strategies, including dengue vaccination, as well as the continuous support and commitment from the political and environmental stakeholders.

  12. Harmonics in transmission power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz

    Some time ago, Energinet.dk, the Transmission System Operator of the 150 kV and 400 kV transmission network in Denmark, had experienced operational malfunctions of some of the measuring and protection equipment. Also an overloading of a harmonic filter has been reported, and therefore, a need...... to perform more detailed harmonic studies emerged. Since the transmission network has a complex structure and its impedance varies with frequency in a nonlinear fashion, such harmonic study would require a detailed computer model of the network. Consequently, a PhD project proposal titled "Harmonics......, provided that background harmonic distortion, and the network configuration, are not changing during the measurement. It is shown that switching of a shunt linear power system component can result in variation of the harmonic levels that can be measured and used to verify the harmonic model of the network...

  13. The New Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B Resistance Gene erm(45) Is Located within a Genomic Island in Staphylococcus fleurettii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wipf, Juliette R K; Schwendener, Sybille; Nielsen, Jesper Boye

    2015-01-01

    Genome alignment of a macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB)-resistant Staphylococcus fleurettii strain with an MLSB-susceptible S. fleurettii strain revealed a novel 11,513-bp genomic island carrying the new erythromycin resistance methylase gene erm(45). This gene was shown to confe...... inducible MLSB resistance when cloned into Staphylococcus aureus. The erm(45)-containing island was integrated into the housekeeping gene guaA in S. fleurettii and was able to form a circular intermediate but was not transmissible to S. aureus....

  14. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  15. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  16. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  17. In or On? Island Words, Island Worlds: II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronstrom Owe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper examines uses and meanings of the orientational metaphors ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘out’ and ‘off’. In the discussed languages in North Western Europe there are general principles of metaphoric entailment and underlying image schemas that guide the choice of positional metaphor: islands you are normally ‘on’, and mainlands ‘in’. The second part of the paper examines cases where this use is debated or contested. The author finds that these contestations seem to be fuelled by the different relations between subject and object that positional metaphors entail. Expressions with ‘in’ highlight belonging and collective identity, enlarge objects by conceptualizing them as encompassing containers, and reduce subjects to a part of the object. Expressions with ‘on’ highlight individuality and agency, reduce the object, and enlarge the subject by placing it above the object. Such differing entailments of positional metaphors may influence how islands are positioned and understood.

  18. Food Prices Transmission In Rwanda: Econometric Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses the food prices transmission using econometric techniques where vector autoregressive models were formulated. Price transmission means the change of one price caused by the change of another price. Spatial price transmission is used in this study and price transmission is affected by different ...

  19. Intercultural Transmission and Intergenerational Transmission in Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauck, Bernhard

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of intergenerational transmission processes on the intercultural contact and ethnic identification of second generation adolescents from five migrant groups in Germany, distinguishing four possible outcomes of intercultural contact (integration, assimilation, segregation, and marginalization). Data from interviews with same-sex…

  20. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands: an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Utzurrum, Ruth B.; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Camp, Richard J.; Crampton, Lisa H.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the ‘Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and ‘Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994–1997 and again during 2007–2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i ‘Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased

  1. Trypanosomosis prevalence in cattle on Mafia Island (Tanzania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, B; Mbwambo, H; Msangi, A; Geysen, D; Vreysen, M

    2006-06-30

    During two consecutive surveys (February and August/Sept 2002), a total of 970 cattle from the cattle population of Mafia Island (United Republic of Tanzania) were blood-sampled. All blood samples were microscopically screened for the presence of trypanosomes and a portion of these were checked for antibodies with an Ab-ELISA and for the presence of trypanosomal DNA with PCR. Microscopic evidence of trypanosomes of the congolense group (sub-genus Nannomonas) was found in 0.8% of the animals (8/970) and in two cases the species identified was confirmed by PCR as Trypanosoma congolense savannah type. Non-pathogenic Trypanosoma theileri were detected in 3.2% (31/970) of the samples using the Dark Ground-Buffy Coat (DG-BC) technique. For survey 1 (S1), detection of antibodies (Ab-ELISA) against pathogenic trypanosomes indicated a seroprevalence of 14.2% (68/480). Of the samples, either DG positive or with a PCV lower then 25, examined by PCR, a total of 8.4% (5/59) (selected from 970 samples), were found positive for T. congolense. The low prevalence of pathogenic trypanosomes on Mafia Island is intriguing, especially in view of the omnipresence of the tsetse fly Glossina brevipalpis. Although the presence of detected trypanosomal antibodies does not necessarily indicate a current infection, the combination of serological/parasitological examinations and the results of the PCR do support this low prevalence of trypanosomosis in cattle. Despite the low prevalence, pathogenic trypanosomes are present on Mafia Island and possible reasons for this low infection rate, taking account of the relation between Glossina species present, transmission risk and trypanosomes found in cattle, are discussed also in view of a future appropriate intervention strategy.

  2. Companded single sideband satellite transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. J.; Guha, M. L.; Hedinger, R. A.; Hoover, M. L.

    Investigations have shown companded single sideband transmission (CSSB) of up to 7800 voice circuits per transponder on TELSTAR 3 to be technically feasible. Achievement of this capacity increases the transponder utilization of TELSTAR 3 more than four-fold with respect to current FDM-FM transmission. The major new factors that permit this enhanced capability are the employment of solid-state power amplifiers (SSPAs) aboard TELSTAR 3, the introduction of syllabic compandors to subjectively reduce the effect of increased link noise, and the recognition of the reality of reduced long-term average power per circuit on selected trunks. The analysis, experiments, and implementation supporting this capability are described.

  3. Microstructured Surfaces for Enhanced Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra; Bergmann, René; Kafka, Jan Robert

    2014-01-01

    appears to be one of the best choices, another good choice is volume averaging of refractive index. Manufacture-related issues are also discussed: for example, choice of bigger period is preferential as it gives better stability of the transmission curve if variations of pillar diameter and height occur......, the height needed to improve transmission for all geometries is given by λ/4√nSi where nSi is the refractive index of Si. Optimal size of microstructures is found through rigorous simulations. Different effective medium theories (EMTs) are compared whether they can predict this optimal size. Zero-order EMT...

  4. Topics in lightwave transmission systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tingye

    1991-01-01

    Topics in Lightwave Transmission Systems is a second volume of a treatise on optical fiber communications that is devoted to the science, engineering, and application of information transmission via optical fibers. The first volume, published in 1985, dealt exclusively with fiber fabrication. The present volume contains topics that pertain to subsystems and systems. The book contains five chapters and begins with discussions of transmitters and receivers, which are basic to systems now operating in the field. Subsequent chapters cover topics relating to coherent systems: frequency and phase m

  5. Equalization of data transmission cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes an equalization approach utilizing a simple RLC network which can obtain a maximum slope of -12dB/octave for reshaping the frequency characteristics of a data transmission cable, so that data may be generated and detected at the receiver. An experimental procedure for determining equalizer design specifications using distortion analysis is presented. It was found that for lengths of 16 PEV-L cable of up to 5 miles and data transmission rates of up to 1 Mbs, the equalization scheme proposed here is sufficient for generation of the data with acceptable error rates.

  6. Return transmission in HFC networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Matti

    1996-11-01

    The increased demand for high speed data transmission in hybrid-fiber-coax (HFC) networks is putting more pressure to return transmission technology. Most of the current HFC network architectures are optimized for analogue TV signals in the forward path. The assumption is that the same architecture may not be the optimum for return signals. Although the main use for return path is still low bitrate data like Pay-per-View ordering information, network operators are planning and trying the use of high speed cable modems and interactive digital setups. This presentation gives an overview of the alternative solutions used in the reverse path architecture of a modern HFC network.

  7. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Atmospheric Vortices near Guadalupe Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These MISR images from June 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 2569) demonstrate a turbulent atmospheric flow pattern known as the von Karman vortex street. This phenomenon is named after aerodynamicist Theodore von Karman, who theoretically derived the conditions under which it occurs. The alternating double row of vortices can form in the wake of an obstacle, in this instance the eastern Pacific island of Guadalupe. The rugged terrain of this volcanic Mexican island reaches a maximum elevation of 1.3 kilometers. The island is about 35 kilometers long and is located 260 kilometers west of Baja California.The vortex pattern is made visible by the marine stratocumulus clouds around Guadalupe Island. The upper image is a color view obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. North is toward the left. The orientation of the vortex street indicates that the wind direction is from lower left to upper right (northwest to southeast). The areas within the vortex centers tend to be clear because the rotating motions induce a vertical wind component that can break up the cloud deck.The lower view is a stereo picture generated from data acquired by MISR's fore- and aft-viewing 70-degree cameras. A 3-D effect is obtained by viewing the image with red/blue glasses and placing the red filter over your left eye. Note how the downwelling atmospheric motion (change in elevation from high to low) is accompanied by a clearing in the center of the first vortex. As the vortices propagate downstream, their rotational velocities weaken. As a consequence, the induced vertical motion and cloud-clearing effect weakens as well.Theodore von Karman was a Professor of Aeronautics at Caltech and Director of Caltech's Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory from 1930-1949. He was one of the principal founders of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by

  9. Quarantine protects Falkland Islands (Malvinas) cats from feline coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addie, Diane D; McDonald, Mike; Audhuy, Stéphane; Burr, Paul; Hollins, Jonathan; Kovacic, Rémi; Lutz, Hans; Luxton, Zoe; Mazar, Shlomit; Meli, Marina L

    2012-02-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Since 2002, when 20 cats on the Falkland Islands were found to be FCoV seronegative, only seronegative cats could be imported. Between 2005-2007, 95 pet and 10 feral cats tested negative by indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) analysis using two strains of type II FCoV, two transmissible gastroenteritis virus assays, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and rapid immunomigration test. Twenty-four samples (23%) showed non-specific fluorescence, mostly attributable to anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). The reason for ANA was unclear: reactive samples were negative for Erhlichia canis antibodies; seven were feline immunodeficiency virus positive, but 15 were negative. It was not possible to determine retrospectively whether the cats had autoimmune disease, hyperthyroidism treatment, or recent vaccination which may also cause ANA. The FCoV/ FIP-free status of the Falkland Islands cats should be maintained by FCoV testing incoming cats. However, ANA can complicate interpretation of IFA tests.

  10. St. Vincent Island White-Tailed Deer Monitoring Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The white tailed deer herd on St. Vincent Island represents an important part of the island's biotic community. To maintain the integrity of the island's deer...

  11. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  12. "Last mile" challenges to in situ volcanic data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Faria, B. V. E.; Trindade, J.; Cruz, G.; Chambel, A.; Silva, F. M.; Pereira, R. L.; Vazão, T.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists play a key role in volcanic risk management, but rely heavily on fast access to data acquired in the vicinity of an active volcano. Hazardous volcanoes are often located in remote areas were telecommunications infrastructure is fragile. Besides being exposed directly to the volcanic hazard, the infrastructure in such remote areas can also suffer from "last mile" limitations derived from lack of market demand for data transmission services. In this paper, we report on the findings of the FP7 MIAVITA project in the topic of volcanic data transmission. We draw on the contribution of partners from emergent or developing countries to identify the main bottlenecks and fragilities. We also present the results of an experiment conducted on Fogo Island, Cape Verde, to test the availability of VSAT services adequate for volcanic monitoring. We warn against the false sense of security resulting from increasingly ubiquitous connectivity, and point out the lack of reliability of many consumer-type services, particularly during emergencies when such services are likely to crash due to excess of demand from the public. Finally, we propose guidelines and recommend best practices for the design of volcanic monitoring networks in what concerns data transmission. In particular, we advise that the data transmission equipment close to the exposed area should be owned, operated and maintained by the volcanic monitoring institution. We exemplify with the set-up of the Fogo telemetric interface, which uses low-power licence-free radio modems to reach a robust point of entry into the public network at a suitable distance from the volcano.

  13. [Distribution and ecoepidemiology of the triatomine fauna (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Margarita Island, Bolívar, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo-Barraza, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés; Salazar, Diego; Mejía-Jaramillo, Ana María; Calle, Jaime; Triana, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Information concerning to triatomine diversity and some eco-epidemiologic aspects on Margarita Island has been recorded only from two of the five counties on the island. Knowledge about species habitat and their natural infection is essential to establish the risk for Chagas disease in endemic areas. The distribution of triatomine insect fauna and its infection with Trypanosoma cruzi was described in order to establish and to stratify the risk of Chagas disease transmission. Each of the 5 counties on Margarita Island were surveyed for triatomid insects inside and outside each dwelling. In the extradomicilary area, searches were conducted in the palms and bird nests located within forests and in pastures near domiciles. Infection with T. cruzi was determined amplifying by PCR the DNA extracted from triatomine feces. Five species of Reduviidae were recovered among the 1,154 triatomines captured in the 5 counties. Triatoma maculata and Rhodnius pallescens showed high infection rates within dwellings and as well as in the peridomestic areas in Mompós and Talaigua Nuevo. On the palm trees, only R. pallescens and Eratyrus cuspidatus were found infected, and only in San Fernando and Margarita. In Cicuco, only R. pallescens was infected. Presence of Triatoma dimidiata was also ascertained. Infected triatomines were present in houses and on palm trees in all counties on the island. These observations indicate a potential risk of Chagas across the entire island; furthermore the presence of T. dimidiata, a very efficient Chagas vector, emphasizes the need to establish its epidemiological status on the island.

  14. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

    2011-01-01

    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (events. However, our current state of knowledge of palaeotsunamis in PICs as opposed to their circum-Pacific counterparts is minimal at best. We briefly outline the limited extent of our current knowledge and propose an innovative methodology for future research in the Pacific. Each PIC represents a point source of information in the Pacific Ocean and this would allow their palaeotsunami records to be treated akin to palaeo-DART?? (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) buoys. Contemporaneous palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources could be identified by using the spatial distribution of island records throughout the Pacific Ocean in conjunction with robust event chronologies. This would be highly innovative and, more importantly, would help provide the building blocks necessary to achieve more meaningful disaster risk reduction for PICs. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Eruption reported in Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 29, an airplane pilot reported the start of an eruption on Mount Westdahl on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Islands (54.52°N, 164.65°W), according to the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Network. The pilot sighted an ash plume rising to more than 7 km altitude at 1705 local time ( = UT-11 hours). The main portion of the plume, at about 5 km altitude, extended 80-95 km east-northeast by 0930 the next morning.About noon, U.S. Coast Guard pilots observed a NE-SW fissure vent 5-8 km long, with at least one active lava flow traveling down the east flank. The area surrounding the vent was ash-covered, and increased runoff and possible mudflows were observed. Vigorous steam and ash emission was visible throughout the day from False Pass (90 km NE), which experienced a very fine dusting of ash. A strong sulfur odor at False Pass lasted into the night, and similar odors were reported by pilots up to several hundred kilometers inland. No ashfall has been reported in Cold Bay (145 km NE).

  16. Hydrogeology of the Hawaiian islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.; Cabrera, Maria del Carmen; Lambán, Luis Javier; Valverde, Margarida

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic-rock aquifers are the most extensive and productive aquifers in the Hawaiian Islands. These aquifers contain different types of groundwater systems depending on the geologic setting in which they occur. The most common groundwater systems include coastal freshwater-lens systems in the dike-free flanks of the volcanoes and dike-impounded systems within the dike-intruded areas of the volcanoes. In some areas, a thick (hundreds of meters) freshwater lens may develop because of the presence of a coastal confining unit, or caprock, that impedes the discharge of groundwater from the volcanic-rock aquifer, or because the permeability of the volcanic rocks forming the aquifer is low. In other areas with low groundwater-recharge rates and that lack a caprock, the freshwater lens may be thin or brackish water may exist immediately below the water table. Dike-impounded groundwater systems commonly have high water levels (hundreds of meters above sea level) and contribute to the base flow of streams where the water table intersects the stream. Recent numerical modeling studies have enhanced the conceptual understanding of groundwater systems in the Hawaiian Islands.

  17. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands' (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  18. Geology of the Hawaiian islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Harold T.

    1946-01-01

    A brief summary of the geography, climate, and geomorphology is given. Streams develop slowly after the extinction of a volcano because of the high permeability of the rock. Once established they cut rapidly because of the steep slopes and fractured condition of the rock. Stream erosion varies enormously on different slopes of the same mountain due to the great differences in rainfall and to other causes. Six reasons are given for the development of amphitheater-headed valleys. Marine erosion has formed cliffs as much as 1,000 feet high on the leeward side and 3,000 feet high on the windward side of some of the domes. The islands have undergone a complex series of emergences and submergences leaving marine fossiliferous limestone up to 1,070 feet above sea level and valleys drowned more than 1,200 feet. Twelve terrace levels are recognized. Some are definitely eustatic.A synopsis is given of the present knowledge of the geology of each volcanic mountain, as well as a table of the rock units, and geologic maps of all major islands. The volcanoes pass through four major phases between birth and extinction and are built around one minor and two major rift zones. The volcanoes began their history above sea level in the Tertiary. Most of them became dormant either before or during the early Quaternary. Activity was renewed in the late Quaternary. Mauna Kea was glaciated in the late Pleistocene. The character of each islet in the archipelago is tabulated.

  19. Downlink Transmission of Short Packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    the principles of frame design and show the impact of the new design in scenarios that feature short data packets, which are central to various 5G and Internet of Things applications. We~treat framing for downlink transmission in an AWGN broadcast channel with $K$ users, where the sizes of the messages...

  20. Transmission function of pneumatic suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Turenko, A.; Bogomolov, V.; Klimenko, V.; Shilov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The transmission function of pneumatic suspension at assumption, that walls of pneumatic elastic element is absolute not stretched; the rubber buffers of compression and of retreat are absent; description of shock absorber is linear and symmetric; the processes of compression and expansion of air are adiabatic; motion of the oscillating system carry out without separation of wheel from a road is received.

  1. The transmission of oak wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.N. Gibbs; D.W. French

    1980-01-01

    Provides an up-to-date review of factors affecting the transmission of oak wilt, Ceratocystis fagacearum. Discusses the history and severity of the disease, the saprophytic existence of the fungus in the dying tree, seasonal susceptibility of trees to infection, overland and underground spread, the role of animals and insects as vectors or tree wounders, and the...

  2. To render time sensible: transmissibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Emerling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review-essay of Keith Moxey’s Visual Time: The Image in History (2013 addresses recent theoretical work on images, historiography, and temporality. It does so by critiquing preexisting methodological issues such as linear chronology, ekphrasis, and contemporaneity. In addition to reviewing how Moxey deals with the problematic of temporality in art historical practice, this review-essay develops its own methodological approach through the concept of transmissibility. Transmissibility is a theoretical methodology for how to approach the relation between temporality and artworks that draws on the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. Transmissibility stems from a desire to arrive at an art history capable of articulating the complex epistemic and aesthetic power of an artwork. In other words, an artwork as a material, expressive reality, a conjunction of content and expression, statement and visibility, sensible and intelligible. It remains to us as art historians to think a philosophy of history wherein artworks embody transmissibility (survival, anachronism, memory, becoming: the full complexity of temporality.

  3. Andrew shortens lifetime of Louisiana Barrier Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    Because the Isles Dernieres, a series of four barrier islands off the coast of Louisiana, have one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the world, geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have been monitoring erosion activity over the last several years, said Jeff Williams of the USGS in Reston, Va. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the state on August 26, caused severe erosional damage to these islands that has shortened their lifetimes.Before Andrew struck, geologists projected that Raccoon Island would disappear below sea level by the year 2001 and that Whiskey Island would disappear by 2016. Now, due to the severe erosion from Hurricane Andrew, the scientists claim that the islands may disappear before the turn of the century, and the other islands in the Dernieres chain are expected to follow suit within 2 decades. Raccoon, Whiskey, Trinity, and East islands make up the Isles Dernieres, which existed as one island, known as the Isle Derniere, before an 1856 hurricane and subsequent erosion.

  4. Pre-Deployment Handbook: Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Guadalcanal Island. Guadalcanal Island. 208 The Battle of Guadalcanal became one of the most important, and bloody campaigns, fought in the Pacific...sit in one chamber ) of 50 members, elected for four-year terms. However, Parliament may be dissolved by majority vote of its members before the

  5. The water landscapes of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Gini; Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Island environments, particularly small archipelagos such as the Canary Islands, are more visible subject to the vagaries of change wrought by ecological and climate dynamics, shifting social conditions and economic impacts subject to global markets, than is witnessed on continental worlds....

  6. Historical sites at the Prince Edward islands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, J

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available This report gives the results of a workshop held on historical sites at the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward islands, southern Indian Ocean. All known visits and sojourns on the Prince Edward islands up to 1948 are tabulated. All known historical sites...

  7. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  8. African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Turks and Caicos Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  9. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  10. Distribution of Grimmia Hedw. on Mediterranean islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    On the six largest Mediterranean islands: Corsica, Crete, Cyprus, Mallorca, Sardinia and Sicily, the moss genus Grimmia (Grimmiaceae, Musci) is represented by 29 species. Many of these are newly recorded. The importance of the islands for bryophyte conservation is stressed. -Author

  11. Governance of ecosystem services on small islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Nico; Reinhard, Stijn; Bets, van L.K.J.; Kuhlman, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Natural ecosystems provide an attractive focus for tourism on small islands. However, at the same time tourism and other human actions can be detrimental to these ecosystems especially because governance of the ecosystem may be difficult due to the limited resilience of small island ecosystems.

  12. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  13. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards...

  14. Long Island Sound Curricular Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Diana, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Long Island Sound is an estuary of national significance and provides important economic, recreational, and aesthetic value to the citizens of Connecticut and New York. Investigations have been conducted regarding living marine resources and nutrient loading. However, Long Island Sound is often overlooked as an educational resource. This guide is…

  15. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  16. (Aves: Passerines: Pycnonotidae) from Rodrigues Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Hypsipetes bulbuls (Pycnonotidae) occur on Madagascar and oceanic islands throughout the Indian Ocean, as well as continental Asia. Endemic species are found on the Mascarene Islands of Mauritius and Réunion, but the genus was purportedly never reported from Rodrigues, the smallest and most isolated of the ...

  17. The shots heard 'round the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, E

    2000-07-28

    The massacre at Columbine High School last year unleashed a torrent of fresh concern over the threat that violence poses to society. It also energized a government research effort to understand and prevent violence. Ironically, this flurry of activity comes at a time when youth violence, as reflected in crime statistics, is in decline.

  18. Family Writing: Voices in Print, Voices Heard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weih, Timothy G.; Shaffer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    What can family members learn about each other from writing together? What sense of community can develop between family members and across families as they write together? What areas of culture and community can be realized as families write together? These are the questions that fostered this current inquiry into a family writing project. Four…

  19. Have You Heard of GERD? (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En ... an impedance-probe study . In this study, a thin, flexible tube is inserted into the esophagus through ...

  20. Scientists must listen to be heard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkoff, Jeff

    My experience as an AGU Congressional Fellow began in earnest when I was told “Legislation is a bit like sausage—Once you find out how it's really made, you feel completely different about it.” Being a vegetarian, I knew then that I was in for an interesting year.The sausage analogy was cited during a 2-week orientation to Capitol Hill that was planned by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). I was one of 25 AAAS Congressional Science Fellows, each sponsored by different scientific society. Though our backgrounds varied widely, two shared feelings quickly brought us together: an interest in the interface between science and policy and a desire to steer our career paths toward that interface.

  1. Fighting to be heard: contested diagnoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trundle, C.; Singh, I.; Bröer, C.; Goldstein Jutel, A.; Dew, K.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores how diagnoses can become sites of contest, rather than of agreement. Conflict can arise when illness refuses to yield the level of proof that epidemiology, clinical medicine, and toxicology require, or its existence is doubted within mainstream medicine. Other forms of contest

  2. DCS Hydrology Submission for Heard County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. Open Communication: Having your Voice Heard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication is the use of language to exchange information to one another. African slaves used to embark on communication by means of using common symbols and speech, telling stories, singing spirituals, writing poems. As time revolved, blacks valued education. Education and the ability to read write and effectively would give them the skill or trade they needed to overcome obstacles, to be competitive with society and to become successful. The nature of communication would evolve productively towards social and economic freedom. Keywords: Communication, language, ideology, dialog

  4. Open Communication: Having Your Voice Heard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Communication is the use of language to exchange information to one another. African slaves used to embark on communication by means of using common symbols and speech, telling stories, singing spirituals, writing poems. As time revolved, blacks valued education. Education and the ability to read write and effectively would give them the skill or…

  5. Berry ripening: recently heard through the grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nathalie; Guan, Le; Dai, Zhan Wu; Wu, Ben-Hong; Lauvergeat, Virginie; Gomès, Eric; Li, Shao-Hua; Godoy, Francisca; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Delrot, Serge

    2014-08-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a non-climacteric fruit species used as table fruit, dried raisins, and for vinification (wines) and distillation (liquors). In recent years, our knowledge of the molecular basis of ripening regulation has improved. Water status, light conditions, and temperature may hasten, delay, or enhance ripening. Hormones seem to play a central role, as their concentrations change prior to and during ripening and in response to several environmental cues. The review summarizes recent data related to the molecular and hormonal control of grape berry development and ripening, with special emphasis on secondary metabolism and its response to the environment, and pinpoints some experimental limitations. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René

    2006-01-01

    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in above...... sea level, as determined by airborne laser scanning. High-quality geodetic GPS measurements determine the position of a small cairn erected on the island to 79 degrees 20'34.48" N, 15 degrees 46'31.23" W. Minor parts of the island are ice free, with small hills of gravel. Late Holocene shells...... of marine bivalves have been found and were presumably brought up by ice floe push. Shell fragments of southern extralimital marine invertebrates point to the presence of pre-Holocene deposits. Three species of moss are the only land plants that have been found on the island....

  7. Analysis of hybrid systems for La Graciosa Island (Canary Islands)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, L.; Gomez, A. [Departament of Process Engineering Industrial Enviromental Section, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Campus Universitario of Tafira 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Leon, V. [Red Electrica de Espana, Polygono de la Majuelos 38108 San Cristobal de La Laguna (Spain); Nuez, I. [Departament of Electronic and Automatic Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Campus Universitario of Tafira 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The main objectives of the study are the integration of the renewable energies, the study of the production of the hydrogen and the utilization in areas where have a high potential of renewable origin sources and a low capacity of drinkable water and energy power. In this work, it has been done the study of the actual energy necessity of the island and it is posed a series of solutions to its energy system. It is analyzed three cases. In the first step, it is exposed an isolated system with renewable energies and hydrogen as energy storage; in the second step, it is studied a system with renewable energies, hydrogen and an electricity-generating group as support; and in the third step, it is analyzed a case with renewable energy and connexion to the network (in this case, it would already not be an isolated system). (authors)

  8. Establishing an early warning alert and response network following the Solomon Islands tsunami in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilve, Augustine; Nogareda, Francisco; Joshua, Cynthia; Ross, Lester; Betcha, Christopher; Durski, Kara; Fleischl, Juliet; Nilles, Eric

    2014-11-01

    On 6 February 2013, an 8.0 magnitude earthquake generated a tsunami that struck the Santa Cruz Islands, Solomon Islands, killing 10 people and displacing over 4700. A post-disaster assessment of the risk of epidemic disease transmission recommended the implementation of an early warning alert and response network (EWARN) to rapidly detect, assess and respond to potential outbreaks in the aftermath of the tsunami. Almost 40% of the Santa Cruz Islands' population were displaced by the disaster, and living in cramped temporary camps with poor or absent sanitation facilities and insufficient access to clean water. There was no early warning disease surveillance system. By 25 February, an EWARN was operational in five health facilities that served 90% of the displaced population. Eight priority diseases or syndromes were reported weekly; unexpected health events were reported immediately. Between 25 February and 19 May, 1177 target diseases or syndrome cases were reported. Seven alerts were investigated. No sustained transmission or epidemics were identified. Reporting compliance was 85%. The EWARN was then transitioned to the routine four-syndrome early warning disease surveillance system. It was necessary to conduct a detailed assessment to evaluate the risk and potential impact of serious infectious disease outbreaks, to assess whether and how enhanced early warning disease surveillance should be implemented. Local capacities and available resources should be considered in planning EWARN implementation. An EWARN can be an opportunity to establish or strengthen early warning disease surveillance capabilities.

  9. What are the Spratly Islands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Charles S.; Vijayan, V. R.

    2010-10-01

    Seismic records, combined with dredged samples and a core, indicate that the Spratly Islands of the Dangerous Ground Province are constructed of presently active carbonate build-ups, known to extend back continuously at least to the Pleistocene and presumed to have initiated in the Miocene, most likely upon the crests of sea-floor cuestas that trend north-east-south-west parallel to the sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies of the contiguous abyssal plain of the southern part of the South China Sea. The cuestas range from spectacular to subdued, constructed of Triassic and Cretaceous strata and no older rocks have been identified from dredges. The cuesta axes plunge towards the south-west away from the islands, suggesting that the reefs began colonising their more elevated parts, but the timing is uncertain. The highest seismically recorded cuesta crest is in 440 m of water and the islands and reefs are generally closely surrounded by water deeper than 1500 m. Since the so-called Mid-Miocene Unconformity (MMU), the region has been undergoing post-rift thermal subsidence. However, the nearby seismic lines show no evidence of drowned carbonate reefs. It is suggested that the coral-algal reefs colonised the crests of the most elevated cuestas that have maintained stability as shown by the 165 m core of one reef indicating periodic exposure with caliche horizons. Deepening water has protected the build-ups from extinction by post-rift draping strata in contrast to the Central Luconia Province, and the build-ups have been able to keep up with regional thermal subsidence. The dredged Mesozoic strata indicate that the Dangerous Ground is not exotic and should be interpreted as an integral part of the pre-rift Sundaland continent that included South China, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, western Sarawak and possibly part of Sabah. Igneous and metamorphic samples have been dredged. Although individual spot K/Ar dates cannot be accepted at face value, such rocks can also be

  10. Controlled Operation of the Islanded Portion of the International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghullam Mustafa Bhutto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In islanding, a portion of the power network, comprised of the loads and distributed generation (DG units, is isolated from the rest of the power grid and forms a micro grid (MG. In this condition, it becomes essential for the islanded MG to operate in a stable and controlled manner by providing ancillary services. When the MG is cut off from the main grid, the islanding must be detected by the DG units. In this condition it is essential that one of the controllers should be switched to the voltage-frequency (VF control mode. In islanding, the network loses it slack reference and this reference is established by a VF controller. The voltage and the frequency of the islanded MG deviate when disconnected from the transmission grid and these deviations are caused by the load-generation imbalance. The voltage and the frequency of the islanded MG can be restored to the permissible limits if the desired/exceeded amount of active and reactive power is injected/absorbed by the locally available sources in islanded MG. This paper proposes a control strategy which can compensate the voltage and the frequency deviations in the islanded portion of the International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE low voltage distribution network by using advanced power electronics devices such as STATCOMs for Photovoltaic (PV Units and Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS STATCOMs (for battery units. The selection of the VF controller for the most suitable DG unit of this test network is also presented in this paper, and the effectiveness of the controllers is verified by presenting simulation results using DIgSILENT (DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen, Germany power factory software version 15.0.

  11. The Kattegat Island of Anholt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels

    2015-01-01

    on the history of groundwater recharge and drainage, and the development of the salt-fresh groundwater interface under a sand island. The fact that the center of Anholt was covered by the sea 6,000 years ago, and consequently the freshwater lens, over 100 m below sea level, did not exist means that the present......Fluctuations in sea level influence the condition of many coastal groundwater aquifers. A rise in sea level can result in seawater intrusion in areas where the groundwater level is near the present sea level, and it may take a long time for the boundary between salt and fresh groundwater to reach...... equilibrium between the saltwater and freshwater lens has been established in less than 6,000 years. These results can be used to give guidelines for the future administration of the groundwater resources on Anholt, but hopefully they can also help us understand the dynamics of more complicated coastal...

  12. Urban 'Dry Island' in Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokoshchenko, Mikhail A.

    2017-04-01

    The urban 'dry island' (UDI) phenomenon over Moscow city has been studied and analyzed for the period since the end of the 19th century till recent years using the data of the ground meteorological network. It concludes into less values of relative humidity in a city in the comparison with surrounding rural zone. The reason of this phenomenon is, firstly, limited areas of forest zones and less number of other water vapor sources inside a city and, besides, indirect influence of the urban heat island (UHI), i.e. higher air temperature T inside a city. Mean-annual water vapor pressure E doesn't demonstrate systematic changes in Moscow during the last 146 years. The linear regression coefficient K of its course is equal to only 0.0015 [hPa/year], thus since 1870 the average water content in the ground air layer above Moscow increased on average only a little: by 0.2 hPa; such a small difference seems to be negligible and statistically non-significant. Unlike this parameter mean-annual relative humidity F demonstrates quick and systematic (steady in time) fall with the average rate of K = -0.06 [%/year] during the last 146 years; in other words, it decreased from 81 % in 1870s to nearly 72 % in recent years. Inside the city it is the result of general T increase due to both global warming and, besides, intensification of Moscow UHI. Long-term changes of the F spatial field in Moscow city have been studied in details for separate periods since 1890s till recent years. As a result the urban 'dry island' is found as a real physical phenomenon which is closely connected with UHI; the absolute value of its intensity as well as for the UHI is increasing in time: from -4 % at the end of the 19th century to -8 ÷-9 % now. During last two decades UDI as well as UHI became much stronger in Moscow than before. For instance, on average of five years from 2010 to 2014 the F value at 'Balchug' station at the city centre (close to Moscow Kremlin) is the lowest among all other

  13. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11854 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11854 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Transmission optical coherence tomography sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, A. K.; van der Horst, J.; Bijster, J. G.; Kalkman, J.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate that Fourier-domain transmission OCT is a versatile tool to measure optical material properties of turbid media. We develop an analytical expression for the transmission OCT signal. Based on this analysis we determine the group refractive index, group velocity dispersion, absorption coefficient, and scattering coefficient. The optical dispersion is accurately measured for glasses, liquids, and water/glucose mixtures. The optical attenuation is measured in the spatial domain and compared to Mie calculations combined with concentration dependent scattering effects. In the wave vector domain the spectral dependence of the optical attenuation is measured and compared to literature values. The developed technique can be used for optical sensing of attenuation and dispersion.

  15. Cultural transmission of social essentialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Tworek, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    Social essentialism entails the belief that certain social categories (e.g., gender, race) mark fundamentally distinct kinds of people. Essentialist beliefs have pernicious consequences, supporting social stereotyping and contributing to prejudice. How does social essentialism develop? In the studies reported here, we tested the hypothesis that generic language facilitates the cultural transmission of social essentialism. Two studies found that hearing generic language about a novel social category diverse for race, ethnicity, age, and sex led 4-y-olds and adults to develop essentialist beliefs about that social category. A third study documented that experimentally inducing parents to hold essentialist beliefs about a novel social category led them to produce more generic language when discussing the category with their children. Thus, generic language facilitates the transmission of essentialist beliefs about social categories from parents to children. PMID:22869722

  16. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  17. Unpacking the great transmission debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Kathryn

    2010-12-01

    The debate about the wisdom of sending interstellar transmissions is well-known to those involved in SETI, and frustrating for many. Its tendency towards intractability is a result of multiple factors, including: different models of the scientist's role as citizen and/or leader; disparate ideas about society's readiness to cope with frontier science; variable political substrates, particularly ideas concerning individual freedom and state control; competing ideologies of globalization; and the perceived relative risks and benefits of contact. (Variations in the latter, i.e. assessments of the risks and benefits of contact, derive partly from different thinking styles, including tolerance for risk, and partly from inferences based upon episodes of biological and cultural contact on Earth.) Unpacking the debate into its components may be of use to those debating policy about SETI transmissions, or at the very least, help keep in focus what, precisely, the perennial arguments are really about.

  18. Signal Transmission on Power Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1997-01-01

    coupled transmission line circuits like power line circuits, is based on finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the matrix ZY, where Z and Y are the impedance- and admittance matrices for the coupled lines in W/m and S/m. In this paper a flow-graph representation of the relations beween voltage......- and current-vectors is presented for a general coupled line circuit. This flow-graph can be used to find any transfer function on a multiple coupled lossy transmission line circuit. In some cases, however, it is difficult to find the eigenvalues correctly. A correct analysis can thus not be made......In the analysis of power-line networks over a large frequency span, the time-domain method used in programs like EMTP (Electromagnetic Time domain Program) can not be used. A more rigorous analysis method must be employed. The correct analysis method (assuming TEM-mode propagation) for multiple...

  19. [Climatic changes and transmissible diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat-Roze, J M

    1998-01-01

    Transmissible disease geography can be defined as the study of the spatial expression of pathogenic processes. The three main elements implicated in this study are environmental conditions affecting biophysical dynamics, political, economic, social, and cultural events, and evolution of pathogenic agents under the influence of the first two factors. A number of pathogenic areas or regions can be delimited in function of different combinations of these factors. These territories are subject to rapid change and variation. Meteorological changes and cycles are contributing factors. However the underlying mechanisms appear to be increasingly affected by human activity. Several disturbing signs have been attributed to man including desertification, drought, and global warming, but the cause-and-effect relationship is unsure. Much research is in progress but resulting data remains contradictory except insofar as to confirm the complexity of atmospheric phenomena. The natural geography of transmissible diseases is affected by these variations but it is mainly the expression of the dialogue between man and nature.

  20. A Unique Pattern of HCV Genotype Distribution on Hainan Island in China Revealed by Evolutionary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Xiong, Lu; Wang, Fuli; Xu, Xiaozhen; Wang, Jiao; Lin, Feng; Li, Chunhua; Lu, Ling; Zhou, Yuanping

    2016-01-01

    Different genotypes of HCV may differ in both disease progression and response to antiviral therapies. Hainan Island has been inhabited by the "Li" aboriginal minority for centuries. We aimed to provide a better understanding of HCV infection on Hainan Island, so that the information would help improve strategies for HCV prevention and control on the island and in the wider country. Using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing, we determined HCV sequences from 100 patients living on Hainan Island. Phylogenetic analysis classified these sequences into six subtypes: 6a (n=35), 1b (n=31), 3b (n=16), 2a (n=8), 3a (n=6), and 1a (n=4). By including reference sequences reported from elsewhere in China, phylogeographic trees were reconstructed to indicate their migration patterns. While the predominant 6a isolates were estimated to have origins in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, the increase in 3b strains must have resulted from IDU network transmission from the southwest. A Bayesian Skyline Plot for subtype 1a, which is rare in China, showed a rapid population growth since 1998. Although slowed in rate around 2005, this growth continued to the present. Not found for any other HCV lineage. Overall, a delayed growth pattern may indicate the unique history of 1a dissemination in China and its recently increasing prevalence, despite measures taken to improve HCV prevention. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Canine Leishmania infantum infection: an imported case in UK after staying in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandrieux, J R S; Sacchini, F; Harms, G; Globokar, M; Balzer, H-J; Pantchev, Nikola

    2017-11-21

    Leishmaniosis is reported in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands, but the Canary Islands are deemed free. In the present communication, we report a clinical leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum in a dog that was presumptively infected during its stay on Tenerife. The result of Leishmania serology (whole-cell based ELISA with L. infantum antigen) was high positive (test score of 82.2 at a cut-off value of 12.0). This result was further confirmed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for Leishmania spp. on a blood sample. A medium load of parasites was detected (48 parasites/ml blood). L. infantum was identified by RFLP analysis of the ITS-1 PCR product. Confirmation that leishmaniosis is endemic to the Canary Islands would further require study on local dogs with no travel history as well as reassessment on frequency and distribution of Phlebotomus spp. as well as Leishmania spp. detection in the sand fly vector. However, this case strongly suggests that L. infantum is present on the Canary Islands. Although transmission seems to be still exceptional, preventive measures in dogs travelling to the Canaries should be considered.

  2. A Unique Pattern of HCV Genotype Distribution on Hainan Island in China Revealed by Evolutionary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Different genotypes of HCV may differ in both disease progression and response to antiviral therapies. Hainan Island has been inhabited by the “Li” aboriginal minority for centuries. We aimed to provide a better understanding of HCV infection on Hainan Island, so that the information would help improve strategies for HCV prevention and control on the island and in the wider country. Methods: Using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing, we determined HCV sequences from 100 patients living on Hainan Island. Results: Phylogenetic analysis classified these sequences into six subtypes: 6a (n=35, 1b (n=31, 3b (n=16, 2a (n=8, 3a (n=6, and 1a (n=4. By including reference sequences reported from elsewhere in China, phylogeographic trees were reconstructed to indicate their migration patterns. While the predominant 6a isolates were estimated to have origins in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, the increase in 3b strains must have resulted from IDU network transmission from the southwest. A Bayesian Skyline Plot for subtype 1a, which is rare in China, showed a rapid population growth since 1998. Although slowed in rate around 2005, this growth continued to the present. Not found for any other HCV lineage. Conclusions: Overall, a delayed growth pattern may indicate the unique history of 1a dissemination in China and its recently increasing prevalence, despite measures taken to improve HCV prevention.

  3. Engineering electronic properties of graphene by coupling with Si-rich, two-dimensional islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Yi, Jaeseok; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Sang Jun; Doh, Yong-Joo; Jeong, Hu Young; Lee, Zonghoon; Paik, Ungyu; Rogers, John A; Park, Won Il

    2013-01-22

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies demonstrated that breaking of the sublattice symmetry in graphene produces an energy gap at the former Dirac point. We describe the synthesis of graphene sheets decorated with ultrathin, Si-rich two-dimensional (2D) islands (i.e., Gr:Si sheets), in which the electronic property of graphene is modulated by coupling with the Si-islands. Analyses based on transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electron and optical spectroscopies confirmed that Si-islands with thicknesses of ~2 to 4 nm and a lateral size of several tens of nm were bonded to graphene via van der Waals interactions. Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on Gr:Si sheets exhibited enhanced transconductance and maximum-to-minimum current level compared to bare-graphene FETs, and their magnitudes gradually increased with increasing coverage of Si layers on the graphene. The temperature dependent current-voltage measurements of the Gr:Si sheet showed approximately a 2-fold increase in the resistance by decreasing the temperature from 250 to 10 K, which confirmed the opening of the substantial bandgap (~2.5-3.2 meV) in graphene by coupling with Si islands.

  4. The role of the Picasso phone system in distance consultation for remote Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, V M

    2000-09-01

    The U.S. affiliated Pacific Island nations spend an average of over 10% of total health budget on off-island referral care to tertiary centers. Tripler Army Regional Medical Center (TAMC) has been the major provider of this service for many years. Prior to 1995 communication to consultants at TAMC was by long distance telephone, fax and regular mail. Connecting to a specialist sometimes took hours and clearly a better communication link was needed. The AT&T Picasso phone, an instrument the size of a small briefcase was developed to reliably transmit still images over the regular phone. Freeze-frame images captured at the sending end by a cam recorder were transmitted to a remote receiver unit, where they were displayed and stored. A typical medical consultation involved about three images, with each transmission over the 28.8 Kbps modem taking about one minute. A separate consultation form submitted by fax to TAMC was attached to the transferred images. Four Picasso phones were used to test their usefulness in linking isolated Pacific islands to a metropolitan medical center. For the first time ever, coloured patient images, data, X-rays etc were transmitted with a faxed written medical report. The Picasso phone was the spark of the Telemedicine development in the US affiliated Pacific islands.

  5. Investigation of horizontal gene transfer of pathogenicity islands in Escherichia coli using next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerer, Maxim; Fischer, Wolfgang; Schubert, Sören

    2017-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) contributes to the evolution of bacteria. All extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) harbour pathogenicity islands (PAIs), however relatively little is known about the acquisition of these PAIs. Due to these islands, ExPEC have properties to colonize and invade its hosts efficiently. Even though these PAIs are known to be acquired by HGT, only very few PAIs do carry mobilization and transfer genes required for the transmission by HGT. In this study, we apply for the first time next-generation sequencing (NGS) and in silico analyses in combination with in vitro experiments to decipher the mechanisms of PAI acquisition in ExPEC. For this, we investigated three neighbouring E. coli PAIs, namely the high-pathogenicity island (HPI), the pks and the serU island. As these PAIs contain no mobilization and transfer genes, they are immobile and dependent on transfer vehicles. By whole genome sequencing of the entire E. coli reference (ECOR) collection and by applying a phylogenetic approach we could unambiguously demonstrate that these PAIs are transmitted not only vertically, but also horizontally. Furthermore, we could prove in silico that distinct groups of PAIs were transferred "en bloc" in conjunction with the neighbouring chromosomal backbone. We traced this PAI transfer in vitro using an F' plasmid. Different lengths of transferred DNA were exactly detectable in the sequenced transconjugants indicating NGS as a powerful tool for determination of PAI transfer.

  6. Reef fishes have higher parasite richness at unfished Palmyra Atoll compared to fished Kiritimati Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2008-01-01

    We compared parasite communities at two coral atolls in the Line Islands chain of the central Pacific (Kiritimati Island and Palmyra Atoll). Palmyra Atoll is relatively pristine while Kiritimati Island is heavily fished. At each island, we sampled five fish species for helminth and arthropod endoparasites: Chromis margaritifer, Plectroglyphidodon dickii,Paracirrhites arcatus, Acanthurus nigricans, and Lutjanus bohar. The surveys found monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans, and copepods. Parasite richness was higher at Palmyra compared to Kiritimati for all five fish species. Fishes from Palmyra also tended to have more parasites species per host, higher parasite prevalence, and higher parasite abundance than did fishes from Kiritimati. The lower parasitism at Kiritimati may result from a simplified food web due to over fishing. Low biodiversity could impair parasite transmission by reducing the availability of hosts required by parasites with complex life cycles. Most notably, the lower abundances of larval shark tapeworms at Kiritimati presumably reflect the fact that fishing has greatly depleted sharks there in comparison to Palmyra.

  7. Transmission and distribution electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bayliss, Colin

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice encountered in the installation and design of transmission and distribution systems for electrical power has been updated and revised to provide the project engineer with all the latest, relevant information to design and specify the correct system for a particular application.Thoroughly updated and revised to include latest developmentsLearn from and Author with extensive experience in managing international projectsFind out the reasoning and implicatons behind the different specifications and methods

  8. ac transmission line field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, F.R.; Misakian, M.

    1977-11-01

    The concern in recent years over the environmental effects of electric and magnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines has also focused attention on the accuracy of measurements of these fields. Electric field meters are discussed in terms of theory of operation, parameters affecting performance, meter performance under field and laboratory conditions, and calibration procedures. The performance and calibration of magnetic field meters is described. (LCL)

  9. Monetary Transmission Mechanisms in Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Maino; Balázs Horváth

    2006-01-01

    We explore monetary policy transmission by estimating VAR impulse response functions to illustrate the Belarusian economy's response to unexpected changes in policy and exogenous variables. We find a significant exchange rate pass-through to prices, and interest rate policy following, rather than leading, financial market developments. Our estimated monetary policy reaction function shows the central bank striking a balance between real exchange rate stability and containing inflation. We dis...

  10. Volume Transmission and Pain Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto C. Castañeda-Hernàndez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Volume transmission (VT is the diffusion through the brain extracellular fluid of neurotransmitters released at points that may be remote from the target cells with the resulting activation of extrasynaptic receptors. VT appears to play multiple roles in the brain in normal and abnormal activity, brain plasticity and drug actions. The relevance of VT to pain perception has been explored in this review.

  11. Engineering resistance to virus transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, John Peter; Groen, SC; Wamonje, Francis; Murphy, Alexandra Marie

    2017-01-01

    Engineering plants for resistance to virus transmission by invertebrate vectors has lagged behind other forms of plant protection. Vectors typically transmit more than one virus. Thus, vector resistance could provide a wider range of protection than defenses directed solely against one virus or virus group. We discuss current knowledge of vector-host-virus interactions, the roles of viral gene products in host and vector manipulation, and the effects of semiochemicals on host-vector interact...

  12. Vector salivation and parasite transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. C. Ribeiro

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains substances that counteract the host's hemostatic and inflammatory reactions, allowing the arthropod to locate blood and keep it flowing during the blood meal. Parasites may manipulate this system in order to achieve increased transmission, both to vertebrate and to invertebrate hosts. Additionally, salivary pharmacological substances may locally immunosupress the delivery site, allowing initial colonization of the vertebrate host by the parasite.

  13. Automatic radio-transmission monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    System continuously monitors radio transmissions stored in memory. If spectrum deviates beyond present limits, alarm is tripped and spectrum is transferred to long-term storage for later analysis. Monitor can be useful in ensuring proper power level and spectral quality and in finding cause of failure. It might also be used to monitor radio-frequency interference or power levels of citizen's-band transmitters.

  14. Bufferless transmission in complex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Cunlai; Cui, Wei; Wu, Jiexin; Yang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Complex bufferless networks such as on-chip networks and optical burst switching networks haven't been paid enough attention in network science. In complex bufferless networks, the store and forward mechanism is not applicable, since the network nodes are not allowed to buffer data packets. In this paper, we study the data transmission process in complex bufferless networks from the perspective of network science. Specifically, we use the Price model to generate the underlying network topolog...

  15. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-28

    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  16. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’Brien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  17. ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION; VERTICAL TRANSMISSION AND FOETAL CONGENITAL ANOMALIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Aziz-un-Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to flaviviridae family that includes Dengue, West Nile, and Yellow Fever among others. Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 in Zika forest of Uganda. It is a vector borne disease, which has been sporadically reported mostly from Africa, Pacific islands and Southeast Asia since its discovery. ZIKV infection presents as a mild illness with symptoms lasting for several days to a week after the bite of an infected mosquito. Majority of the patients have low grade fever, rash, headaches, joints pain, myalgia, and flu like symptoms. Pregnant women are more vulnerable to ZIKV infection and serious congenital anomalies can occur in foetus through trans-placental transmission. The gestation at which infection is acquired is important. Zika virus infection acquired in early pregnancy poses greater risk. There is no evidence so far about transmission through breast milk. Foetal microcephaly, Gillian Barre syndrome and other neurological and autoimmune syndromes have been reported in areas where Zika outbreaks have occurred. As infection is usually very mild no specific treatment is required. Pregnant women may be advised to take rest, get plenty of fluids. For fever and pain they can take antipyretics like paracetamol. So far no specific drugs or vaccines are available against Zika Virus Infection so prevention is the mainstay against this diseases. As ZIKV infection is a vector borne disease, prevention can be a multi-pronged strategy. These entail vector control interventions, personal protection, environmental sanitation and health education among others.

  18. Automatic Transmission Of Liquid Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedh Mhatre

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Nitrogen is one of the major substance used as a chiller in industry such as Ice cream factory Milk Diary Storage of blood sample Blood Bank etc. It helps to maintain the required product at a lower temperature for preservation purpose. We cannot fully utilise the LN2 so practically if we are using 3.75 litre LN2 for a single day then around 12 of LN2 450 ml is wasted due to vaporisation. A pressure relief valve is provided to create a pressure difference. If there is no pressure difference between the cylinder carrying LN2 and its surrounding it will results in damage of container as well as wastage of LN2.Transmission of LN2 from TA55 to BA3 is carried manually .So care must be taken for the transmission of LN2 in order to avoid its wastage. With the help of this project concept the transmission of LN2 will be carried automatically so as to reduce the wastage of LN2 in case of manual operation.

  19. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chassin, Forrest S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hauer, Matthew L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability.

  20. Voice Transmission Over JP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Šarić

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Voice transmission over JP networks (Voice over InternetProtocol represents one of the ways in which voice and datanetworks are integrated. The future development is based onthe explosion of the Internet as the means of communication,with the openness of standards and the readiness of the equipmentmanufacturers to accept such standard and to unify it.The service providers find interest in introducing new servicesthat are not based only on voice transmission, but voice becomesonly one of the applications that are realised over the JPnetworks. Voice transmission over the JP technology is at themoment not at the level of the existing quality of services, butthe coming solutions in the near future will enable Vo!P as thestandard operative solution. The advantages are reflected in theincrease of income keeping the current users and attracting newones, investments into infrastructure will maximize the opportunitiesfor packet service development, strengthen customers'loyalty and reduce operative expenditures, the services will bewidespread - long-distance international services or nationalservices of calling cards can be located at almost any European,African, or Central-Eastern count1y and directed to almost100 percent of the population. With the advantages of lowinitial costs of the new POPs (Points of Presence, the serviceproviders can suddenly expand their presence to many countriesor destinations.

  1. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  2. [Biodemographical study in the Island of Pascua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, B; Campusano, C; Figueroa, H

    1993-06-01

    The aim of this study was to know the degree of miscegenation in the Easter Island population. One hundred two weddings carried out between 1987 and 1991 were recorded and the proportion of marriages between islanders and immigrants was analyzed. Also, ABO and Rh blood groups of all deliveries occurred between 1988 and 1991 were compiled. There was a particular tendency of islanders to marry with immigrants and the proportion of miscegenation was 75.5%. Additionally a decline in the frequency of A blood group is observed, comparing results from studies performed since 1932 up to date.

  3. Eleuthera Island, Bahamas seen from STS-66

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The striking views provided by the Bahama Islands lend insights into the important problems of limestone (CaCO3) production and transport. This photograph includes the southern part of Eleuthera Island in the northern Bahamas. The hook-shaped island encloses a relatively shallow platform (light blue) which is surrounded by deep water (dark blue). The feathery pattern along the western edge of Eleuthera's platform are sand bars and sand channels created by tidal currents sweeping on and off the platform. The channels serve to funnel large amounts of CaCO3 off the platform and into the deeper water.

  4. Isotopic investigation of an Australian island environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groecke, D.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences; Bocherens, H. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)

    1996-12-31

    Collagen has been extracted from fossil bones of mega-fauna herbivores from Kangaroo Island, South Australia (Australia). Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of collagen have provided an insight into the palaeo-ecology of these late Pleistocene herbivores. In comparison with continental fossil localities in South Australia, the island herbivores have elevated nitrogen isotopic abundances. Carbon isotopic abundances suggest that browsing species had a mixed diet of grasses and leaves on the island, in contrast to the specimens from mainland Australia. Possible causes regarding elevated nitrogen isotope abundances and dietary shifts in this palaeo-ecology are discussed. (authors). 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Gas transmission through microporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Tacibaht

    2008-10-01

    An ideal protective clothing material should be a good barrier against harmful gases or vapor while allowing moisture vapor and air passage through the material. In the study and design of barrier materials, one of the critical issues is to balance these requirements, which may sometimes be mutually exclusive. Therefore it is critical to understand the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the attack mechanisms as well as the barrier materials and the transport phenomena in such systems. In this study, air and gas transmission through barrier systems consisting of porous membranes was investigated experimentally and a molecular-level probabilistic model was constructed to evaluate the effect of various parameters on the gas flow. The effect of membrane parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, thickness as well as gas parameters such as molecule diameters were examined at single layer as well as multiple layers. To understand the gas behavior for harmful chemicals and to ensure safety during experimental studies, mimics of such gases were obtained which were comparable to the actual gases in shape, molecular weight and other chemical properties. Air, ammonia and several mimic gases of harmful chemical agents were studied. Beta-pinene was used as a mimic of sarin and prenol was used as a mimic of nitrogen mustard. Gas transmission experiments were conducted on polyester, nylon and polypropylene membranes each of which had different porosity and pore size distributions. Experiments were done at different pressure values and a comparison was made between permeability testing machines based on volumetric and manometric principles as to their ability to accommodate high permeability membranes. Physical and chemical adsorption of such gases on porous membranes was also investigated after the addition of active elements on the membrane surfaces which can interact with the gas molecules. An experimental setup was developed to measure concentration changes

  6. FBSAB RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  7. FBSAD Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  8. 76 FR 66229 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Transmission Planning Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, DOE. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: Transmission Planning... planning process. The table includes a footnote regarding planned or controlled interruption of electric...

  9. Data transmission is faster with ternary coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bruins, T

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a ternary data transmission system for an effective rate of up to 6 megabits per second over a 1-mile line of ordinary twisted- pair cable. The methods are discussed of implementing a ternary data transmission system. (0 refs).

  10. Twisted shield-pair transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, W. N.; Waddy, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    Lightweight cable forms balanced transmission line and replaces costlier coaxial cables for multiplex-signal transmission. Cable is fabricated with carefully-controlled electrical characteristics and functions without tuning networks at frequencies up to 10 MHz.

  11. Coding for Single-Line Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    Digital transmission code combines data and clock signals into single waveform. MADCODE needs four standard integrated circuits in generator and converter plus five small discrete components. MADCODE allows simple coding and decoding for transmission of digital signals over single line.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF LONG TRANSMISSION AND DIS SESSMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    and maintenance practices. Secondly .... ASSESSMENT OF LONG-RUN MARGINAL COSTING OF TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION EXPANSION .... summarized in Table 4. Table 2: Data for LRMC of Transmission System Expansion [10]. Year. Demand. MW. Demand. Growth. (MW). Line. Reinforcement. $ ('000).

  13. transfusion transmissible viral infections among potential blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Key words: Transfusion Transmissible Infections, HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Blood Donors,. University College Hospital (UCH), ELISA. INTRODUCTION. The most common diseases transmitted in blood transfusions are viral infections. Transfusion- transmissible infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus ...

  14. A Policy Switching Approach to Consolidating Load Shedding and Islanding Protection Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, Rich; Fern, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there have been many improvements in the reliability of critical infrastructure systems. Despite these improvements, the power systems industry has seen relatively small advances in this regard. For instance, power quality deficiencies, a high number of localized contingencies, and large cascading outages are still too widespread. Though progress has been made in improving generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure, remedial action schemes (RAS) remain non-standardized and are often not uniformly implemented across different utilities, ISOs, and RTOs. Traditionally, load shedding and islanding have been successful protection measures in restraining propagation of contingencies and large cascading outages. This paper proposes a novel, algorithmic approach to selecting RAS policies to optimize the operation of the power network during and after a contingency. Specifically, we use policy-switching to consolidate traditional load shedding and islanding schemes. In order to model and...

  15. Equine infectious anemia on Marajo Island at the mouth of the Amazon river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayra F.Q.R. Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Equine infectious anemia (EIA is a transmissible and incurable disease caused by a lentivirus, the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV. There are no reports in the literature of this infection in Equidae on Marajo Island. The objective of this study was to diagnose the disease in the municipalities of Cachoeira do Arari, Salvaterra, Santa Cruz do Arari and Soure, on Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil. For serological survey samples were collected from 294 horses, over 5-month-old, males and females of puruca and marajoara breeds and from some half-breeds, which were tested by immunodiffusion in Agar gel (AGID. A prevalence of 46.26% (136/294 positive cases was found. EIA is considered endemic in the municipalities studied, due to the ecology of the region with a high numbered population of bloodsucking insect vectors and the absence of official measures for the control of the disease.

  16. Epilithic macrolichen vegetation of the Argentine Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, N.J.M.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Francke, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    The population trend over the last decade for subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis) on Amsterdam and St. Paul islands and on Possession Island (Crozet Archipelago) and Antarctic fur seals (A. gazella) on Possession Island are analysed. At Amsterdam Island, based on pup counts, the

  17. The effects of island ontogeny on species diversity and phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente, Luis M.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Phillimore, Albert B.

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of island biogeography is to understand how island communities are assembled over time. However, we know little about the influence of variable area and ecological opportunity on island biotas over geological time-scales. Islands have limited life spans, and it has been posited that

  18. Adaptive radiation of island plants: Evidence from Aeonium (Crassulaceae) of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Olesen, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of diverse and species-rich plant lineages on oceanic islands is most often associated with adaptive radiation. Here we discuss the possible adaptive significance of some of the most prominent traits in island plants, including woodiness, monocarpy and sexual dimorphisms. Indirect...... discussion of the mechanisms governing radiations on islands. Most examples are from the Hawaiian and Canarian floras, and in particular from studies on the morphological, ecological and molecular diversification of the genus Aeonium, the largest plant radiation of the Canarian Islands....... evidence that such traits have been acquired through convergent evolution on islands comes from molecular phylogenies; however, direct evidence of their selective value rarely is obtained. The importance of hybridization in the evolution of island plants is also considered as part of a more general...

  19. Studying Islands: On Whose Terms? Some Epistemological and Methodological Challenges to the Pursuit of Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of nissology, or island studies, calls for a re-centering of focus from mainland to island, away from the discourse of conquest of mainlanders, giving voice and platform for the expression of island narratives. Yet, studying islands ‘on their own terms’, in spite of its predilection for “authenticity”, is fraught with epistemological and methodological difficulties. The insider/outsider distinction does not work all that well when it comes to islands, where hybridity is the norm. This paper seeks to extend this debate, grappling especially with the contributions of Grant McCall and Peter Hay to the sparse literature. Five dilemmas related to indigenous island geographies are presented and discussed, in a semi-autobiographical style.

  20. Environmental and Behavioural Determinants of Leptospirosis Transmission: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachui, Mwanajaa Abdalla; Crump, Lisa; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Zinsstag, Jakob; Hattendorf, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, which is of global medical and veterinary importance, and also a re-emerging infectious disease. The main tracks of transmission are known; however, the relative importance of each of the components and the respective environmental risk factors are unclear. We aimed to assess and specify quantitative evidence of environmental risks of leptospirosis transmission. Methods/findings A database of pre-selected studies, with publication dates from 1970 until 2008, was provided by an expert group. The database has been updated until 2015 using a text mining algorithm. Study selection was based on stringent quality criteria. A descriptive data analysis was performed to calculate the medians of the log transformed odds ratios. From a selection of 2723 unique publications containing information on leptospirosis, 428 papers dealing with risk factors were identified. Of these, 53 fulfilled the quality criteria, allowing us to identify trends in different geo-climatic regions. Water associated exposures were, with few exceptions, associated with an increased leptospirosis risk. In resource poor countries, floods and rainfall were of particular importance, whereas recreational water activities were more relevant in developed countries. Rodents were associated with increased leptospirosis risk, but the variation among studies was high, which might be partly explained by differences in exposure definition. Livestock contact was commonly associated with increased risk; however, several studies found no association. The median odds ratios associated with dog and cat contacts were close to unity. Sanitation and behavioural risk factors were almost always strongly associated with leptospirosis, although their impact was rarely investigated in Europe or North America. Conclusion This review confirms the complex environmental transmission pathways of leptospirosis, as previously established. Although, floods

  1. Environmental and Behavioural Determinants of Leptospirosis Transmission: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwanajaa Abdalla Mwachui

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, which is of global medical and veterinary importance, and also a re-emerging infectious disease. The main tracks of transmission are known; however, the relative importance of each of the components and the respective environmental risk factors are unclear. We aimed to assess and specify quantitative evidence of environmental risks of leptospirosis transmission.A database of pre-selected studies, with publication dates from 1970 until 2008, was provided by an expert group. The database has been updated until 2015 using a text mining algorithm. Study selection was based on stringent quality criteria. A descriptive data analysis was performed to calculate the medians of the log transformed odds ratios. From a selection of 2723 unique publications containing information on leptospirosis, 428 papers dealing with risk factors were identified. Of these, 53 fulfilled the quality criteria, allowing us to identify trends in different geo-climatic regions. Water associated exposures were, with few exceptions, associated with an increased leptospirosis risk. In resource poor countries, floods and rainfall were of particular importance, whereas recreational water activities were more relevant in developed countries. Rodents were associated with increased leptospirosis risk, but the variation among studies was high, which might be partly explained by differences in exposure definition. Livestock contact was commonly associated with increased risk; however, several studies found no association. The median odds ratios associated with dog and cat contacts were close to unity. Sanitation and behavioural risk factors were almost always strongly associated with leptospirosis, although their impact was rarely investigated in Europe or North America.This review confirms the complex environmental transmission pathways of leptospirosis, as previously established. Although, floods appeared to be among the

  2. Environmental and Behavioural Determinants of Leptospirosis Transmission: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachui, Mwanajaa Abdalla; Crump, Lisa; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Zinsstag, Jakob; Hattendorf, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, which is of global medical and veterinary importance, and also a re-emerging infectious disease. The main tracks of transmission are known; however, the relative importance of each of the components and the respective environmental risk factors are unclear. We aimed to assess and specify quantitative evidence of environmental risks of leptospirosis transmission. A database of pre-selected studies, with publication dates from 1970 until 2008, was provided by an expert group. The database has been updated until 2015 using a text mining algorithm. Study selection was based on stringent quality criteria. A descriptive data analysis was performed to calculate the medians of the log transformed odds ratios. From a selection of 2723 unique publications containing information on leptospirosis, 428 papers dealing with risk factors were identified. Of these, 53 fulfilled the quality criteria, allowing us to identify trends in different geo-climatic regions. Water associated exposures were, with few exceptions, associated with an increased leptospirosis risk. In resource poor countries, floods and rainfall were of particular importance, whereas recreational water activities were more relevant in developed countries. Rodents were associated with increased leptospirosis risk, but the variation among studies was high, which might be partly explained by differences in exposure definition. Livestock contact was commonly associated with increased risk; however, several studies found no association. The median odds ratios associated with dog and cat contacts were close to unity. Sanitation and behavioural risk factors were almost always strongly associated with leptospirosis, although their impact was rarely investigated in Europe or North America. This review confirms the complex environmental transmission pathways of leptospirosis, as previously established. Although, floods appeared to be among the most important

  3. Oceanic island biogeography: Nomothetic science of the anecdotal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Meiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Islands get more than their fair share of attention from biogeographers, macroecologists and evolutionary biologists. Adding to this existing bias, I claim that oceanic islands, especially oceanic island archipelagos (and among them, especially the Hawaii, the Canaries, Azores and, of course, the Galapagos attract much more scientific attention than the insights they offer or warrant. This focus on oceanic islands ignores other island types that may be better heuristic tools for studies of general ecological, biogeographic and evolutionary dynamics. The evolutionary and ecological dynamics of landbridge and continental islands are often as fast, dramatic, interesting and insightful, and merit more attention from island biogeographers. 

  4. 78 FR 30804 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Transmission Planning Reliability Standards AGENCY... Organization.\\1\\ Proposed Transmission Planning (TPL) Reliability Standard TPL-001-2 includes a provision that... vague and unenforceable. \\1\\ Transmission Planning Reliability Standards, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...

  5. INTERNATIONAL WHEAT PRICE TRANSMISSION AND CAP REFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson,Stanley R.; Bohl, Martin T.

    1999-01-01

    We illustrate how CAP policy reforms influence the transmission of world prices to domestic markets. Monthly wheat price data in Germany are used to obtain price transmission elasticities. Correctly accounting for structural breaks and the time series properties of the data yield transmission elasticities that differ dramatically among policy regimes.

  6. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941, the Commission announced its determination that transmission lines which are not primary lines transmitting power...

  7. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  8. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy

  9. Topics in Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy

  10. A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu and assessment of potential impacts to waterbirds from the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K.; Woodside, D.; Bruegmann, M. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, HI (United States). Pacific Islands Office

    1994-08-01

    A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu was conducted during August and September 1993 to identify potential waterbird habitats within the general area of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor and to assess the potential impacts to endangered waterbird of installing and operating a high voltage transmission line from the Island of Hawaii to the islands of Oahu and Maui. Annual waterbird survey information and other literature containing information on specific wetland sites were summarized. Literature describing impacts of overhead transmission lines on birds was used to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed project on endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. On Oahu, five wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within 2.5 miles of the proposed transmission line corridor. On Maui, three wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within the general area of the proposed transmission line corridor. Several of the wetlands identified on Oahu and Maui also supported resident wading birds and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. Endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory birds may collide with the proposed transmission lines wires. The frequency and numbers of bird collisions is expected to be greater on Oahu than on Maui because more wetland habitat exists and greater numbers of birds occur in the project area on Oahu. In addition, the endangered Hawaiian goose and the endangered Hawaiian petrel may be impacted by the proposed segment of the Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission line on Maui.

  11. Assessing vulnerability to climate change and socioeconomic stressors in the Reef Islands group, Solomon Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the vulnerability to climatic and socioeconomic stresses in the Reef Islands, Solomon Islands, an atoll island group in the Southwest Pacific. Climate change and the associated sea-level rise are often seen as the most pressing challenges to atoll communities, yet this study...... infrastructure, economic marginalization and weak governance of Solomon Islands. Findings suggest that some of these non-climatic stresses are currently – and in the short term – more important determinants of local vulnerability than climate change and sea-level rise. Certainly, these stresses are likely...

  12. A new species of iguana Brachylophus Cuvier 1829 (Sauria: Iguania: Iguanidae) from Gau Island, Fiji Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N; Niukula, Jone; Watling, Dick; Harlow, Peter S

    2017-06-06

    The south Pacific iguanas (Brachylophus) currently have three recognized living species in Fiji.  Recent surveys have uncovered more specific variation (morphological and genetic) within the genus and have better defined the geographic ranges of the named species.  One of these recent discoveries is a strikingly different iguana from all other island populations in Fiji which is restricted to Gau Island of the Lomaiviti Province.  Gau is the fifth largest island in Fiji and maintains excellent upland forests in the higher elevations.  We describe this population from Gau Island as a new species, Brachylophus gau sp. nov., in recognition of its type locality.

  13. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mui, Ming [Long Island Power Authority, Uniondale, NY (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  14. 78 FR 14185 - Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... in Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, Alaska with planned towed transit into Captains Bay, Unalaska Island...

  15. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Sea Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has subtidal temperature data taken at permanent monitoring sites. Since 1993,...

  16. One-Dimensional Czedli-Type Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Eszter K.; Mader, Attila; Tepavcevic, Andreja

    2011-01-01

    The notion of an island has surfaced in recent algebra and coding theory research. Discrete versions provide interesting combinatorial problems. This paper presents the one-dimensional case with finitely many heights, a topic convenient for student research.

  17. Urban Heat Island Effect Actions - Neighborhood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisville Metro Government — The urban heat island effect — defined as the difference in temperature between the core of Louisville and its suburbs — contributes to heat-related illnesses and...

  18. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Howland Island, Baker Island, Jarvis Island National Wildlife Refuges; Units of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monuments

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan documents and prioritizes inventory and monitoring surveys and research currently conducted, and proposed to be conducted, at the Howland Island, Baker...

  19. Migrants on offshore islands of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwan Siddiqui

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Riverbank erosion and the consequent formation of new islands in the Bay of Bengal cause frequent changes in the shape and size of the delta, forcing the inhabitants to migrate frequently.

  20. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Hawaii Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Hawaii Island. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  1. US Virgin Islands Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for US Virgin Islands. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  2. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Midway Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Midway Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  3. Recent unrest at Canary Islands' Teide Volcano?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Troll, Valentin R; Pérez, Francisco J; Badiola, Eduardo Rodríguez; Machín, Alex Hansen; Paris, Raphael; Guillou, Hervé; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    ... that the volcanic unrest might culminate in renewed eruptive activity. Such was the situation for Teide volcano, located on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, when a mild seismic swarm during April...

  4. Nunivak Island caribou reindeer report 1929

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In July 1925 the Biological Survey established a crossbreeding experiment with reindeer and caribou on Nunivak Island by castrating the male reindeer and turning ten...

  5. Cat Island NWR Recreational Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A natural resource management plan describing the regulations and decision processes for sport hunting at Cat Island NWR. This plan has been replaced by a more...

  6. Long Island Sound Surficial Sediment Data (LISSEDDATA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Many scientific questions and policy issues related to sediments in Long Island Sound require data of historical, regional and interdisciplinary scope. Existent data...

  7. Marine investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    to navigators through the ages. Recent discoveries made during marine archaeological exploration and excavations in the Lakshadweep have revealed evidences of early settlement and shipwrecks. The findings suggest that the islands had been inhabited much before...

  8. Gridded bathymetry of Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (10m) of Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii, USA. The data include multibeam bathymetry from the EM120, EM122, EM710, EM1020, and EM1002 multibeam sonar...

  9. Natural History of St. Vincent Island, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study proposal aiming to ascertain, list and describe the woody flora and vertebrate fauna of St. Vincent Island, and to describe the terrestrial and fresh water...

  10. Butterfly Survey on Pinckney Island NWR (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Butterfly (adult Lepidoptera) survey conducted monthly (May-Nov 2001) at nine locations within Pinckney Island NWR. These nine locations include Ibis Pond, Woodstork...

  11. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Howland Island 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites at Howland Island in the...

  12. The Faroe Islands: Options for Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ackren

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The Faroe Islands are currently at a crossroads in their constitutional status. Discussions concerning changes in the current constitutional status are ongoing and several analyses about possible trajectories of future development are being proposed. Argued in a context of Faroese nationalism, this article tries to assess these trajectories in the future jurisdictional and political development of the Faroe Islands in terms of three possible scenarios: independence or full sovereignty (as is Iceland; a freely associated statehood (as are Niue and the Cook Islands in relation to New Zealand; or a confederation, probably involving changes at both the central level of the Danish state and the European Union level. This article argues that the most likely future development is that of a state in free association with Denmark. Meanwhile, island politics can change very quickly and the traditional cleavages in Faroese politics are liable to changing degrees of public support.

  13. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  14. Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project Nekton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project (PIERP) is a large scale 1,800 acres restoration project located in mid Chesapeake Bay. Fishery collections are...

  15. Rhode Island Piping Plover Restoration Project 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Piping Plover on Rhode Island discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors, recovery objectives and...

  16. Cross Island Evaluation and Management Plan 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study is to provide Hurricane Island Outward Bound School with a document that to be used for internal planning purposes. In addition, it could...

  17. Vegetation of Long Island, Adams County, Illinois

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the spring and early summer of 1994 most of Long Island, part of the Mark Twain NWR, was walked, and six east/west transects established. During July each...

  18. Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virtual Library provides access to web based climate variability and climate change information and tools relevant to the Pacific Islands including case studies,...

  19. EAARL Topography-Fire Island National Seaashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first return elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model or DEM) of Fire Island National Seashore was produced from remotely-sensed,...

  20. EAARL Topography-Padre Island National Seashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Padre Island National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced...