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Sample records for healthy thai women

  1. Effects of Muay Thai training frequency on body composition and physical fitness in healthy untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Rapkiewicz, Jeniffer A; Nunes, João P; Mayhew, Jerry L; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Garcez Nabuco, Hellen C; Fávero, Maria T; Franchini, Emerson; Amarante do Nascimento, Matheus

    2017-11-07

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of different frequencies of Muay Thai training on body composition, and physical fitness in healthy untrained women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: G2X (n = 9) performed Muay Thai twice a week, while G3X (n = 11) performed the same program three times a week, both for 13 weeks. Anthropometric dimensions, fat-free mass, fat mass, resting metabolic rate, VO2 max, upper-body and abdominal muscle endurance, explosive leg power, agility, flexibility, and dietary intake were measured at pre and post-training. Training intensity was estimated every training session by rating of perceived exertion with a Borg 10- point scale. Both groups significantly improved in all measured physical fitness variables, without any significant changes in body composition. G2X was not significantly different from G3X on any variable. Average relative changes for all performance variables in G2X and G3X were 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively. Thirteen-weeks of Muay Thai practice can improve physical fitness in women, regardless of weekly frequency (two or three times a week). This suggests that instructors and coaches can structure a Muay Thai training program based on a twice or three-times per week protocol in order to promote positive changes in several important outcomes related to health for healthy untrained women. Moreover, practitioners are able to choose their training frequency preference, since both frequencies provided similar adaptations.

  2. Thai SF-36 health survey: tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, reliability and validity in healthy men and women.

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    Lim, Lynette L-Y; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2008-07-18

    Since its translation to Thai in 2000, the SF-36 Health Survey has been used extensively in many different clinical settings in Thailand. Its popularity has increased despite the absence of published evidence that the translated instrument satisfies scoring assumptions, the psychometric properties required for valid interpretation of the SF-36 summated ratings scales. The purpose of this paper was to examine these properties and to report on the reliability and validity of the Thai SF-36 in a non-clinical general population. 1345 distance-education university students who live in all areas of Thailand completed a questionnaire comprising the Thai SF-36 (Version 1). Median age was 31 years. Psychometric tests recommended by the International Quality of Life Assessment Project were used. Data quality was satisfactory: questionnaire completion rate was high (97.5%) and missing data rates were low (Vitality scale correlated better with the Mental Health scale than with itself, possibly because a healthy mental state is central to the concept of vitality in Thailand. The summated ratings method can be used for scoring the Thai SF-36. The instrument was found to be reliable and valid for use in a general non-clinical population. Version 2 of the SF-36 could improve ceiling and floor effects in the role functioning scales. Further work is warranted to refine items that measure the concepts of social functioning, vitality and mental health to improve the reliability and discriminant validity of these scales.

  3. Thai SF-36 health survey: tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, reliability and validity in healthy men and women

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    Sleigh Adrian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its translation to Thai in 2000, the SF-36 Health Survey has been used extensively in many different clinical settings in Thailand. Its popularity has increased despite the absence of published evidence that the translated instrument satisfies scoring assumptions, the psychometric properties required for valid interpretation of the SF-36 summated ratings scales. The purpose of this paper was to examine these properties and to report on the reliability and validity of the Thai SF-36 in a non-clinical general population. Methods 1345 distance-education university students who live in all areas of Thailand completed a questionnaire comprising the Thai SF-36 (Version 1. Median age was 31 years. Psychometric tests recommended by the International Quality of Life Assessment Project were used. Results Data quality was satisfactory: questionnaire completion rate was high (97.5% and missing data rates were low ( Conclusion The summated ratings method can be used for scoring the Thai SF-36. The instrument was found to be reliable and valid for use in a general non-clinical population. Version 2 of the SF-36 could improve ceiling and floor effects in the role functioning scales. Further work is warranted to refine items that measure the concepts of social functioning, vitality and mental health to improve the reliability and discriminant validity of these scales.

  4. The fluidity of Thai women's gendered and sexual subjectivities.

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    Thaweesit, Suchada

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographic study of gender and sexuality as factors within contemporary Thai factory women's subjectivities. Competing discourses of what it means to be a woman in contemporary Thai society make women's self-presentations fluid and incoherent. Data from participant-observation and open-ended interviews suggest that the fluidity and inconsistency of women's self-presentations reflect both their negative experiences and oppression within the Thai patriarchal system, and women's strength and resistance to the normative discourses that oppress them. By naming or reinterpreting experiences and desires in their own terms, Thai factory women can redraw elements of their own lives.

  5. Lessons Learnt of Thai Women Environmental Leaders

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    Sittipong Dilokwanich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, Thai women have learned how to extent their roles from a care taker of children and a household to natural resources and environmental protection and management in local and inter-regional communities. Due to the application of National Economic and Social Development Plans, rapid resource exploitation has brought in natural resource and environmental degradation all over the country threatening communal security. For this reason, there have been a number of emerging environmental leaders who want to correct directions of national development, especially Thai woman environmental leaders who are taking a successful role of environmental guardian in their communities. This research attempts to explore why they took leadership role in environment, how they work so successful as an environmental guardian, and what their next move is. During early 2013 till mid-2014, there are 28 Thai woman leaders who received the award of Thai Environmental Conservation Mother from the Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahidol University between 2004 and 2012. They were in-depth interviewed and collected data were preceded by content analysis. Their lessons learnt show that most leaders saved their communities' environment and natural resources from the intervention of new development activities. Most of them had their parents as a good role model in environmental management who provide knowledge of morals and environmental ethics as a good basic of leadership while some shared their husband's responsibility in the same matter. Significantly, teamwork is their working style with the assistance of public participation to hold teamwork and collaboration of the community. Almost all leaders had systematic working with talents of patience, gentleness and sensitivity. The working network also broadens their new information and knowledge between practitioners. In the same time, more than half of the leaders can prepare their

  6. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

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    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Biochemical Parameters in Healthy Thai Subjects.

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    Ongsara, Sara; Boonpol, Sakulrat; Prompalad, Nussaree; Jeenduang, Nutjaree

    2017-09-01

    Although, the effect of Ramadan fasting on the risks for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has been reported in several studies, the results were inconsistent. In addition, the effect of Ramadan fasting on biochemical parameters in Thai subjects has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometry, blood pressure, Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), lipid profiles, and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. A total of 65 healthy subjects (21 men and 44 women) aged between 19-24 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometry, blood pressure, FBG, Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C), and body composition were measured before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. There were no changes in anthropometry, blood pressure, lipid profiles and body composition in both genders before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. Nevertheless, FBG levels were significantly increased after one month of Ramadan compared with baseline (5.09±0.50 versus 4.83±0.38 mmol/L, p=0.016, respectively) in women. The Ramadan fasting did not affect the lipid, anthropometric and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. However, the increased FBG levels after one month of Ramadan were observed in women. To improve the favourable biochemical parameters after Ramadan fasting, the lifestyle modifications such as, increased intake of healthy diets and increased physical activity should be recommended.

  8. Waiting for the right time: how and why young Thai women manage to avoid heterosexual intercourse.

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    Supametaporn, Pinhatai; Stern, Phyllis Noerager; Rodcumdee, Branom; Chaiyawat, Waraporn

    2010-08-01

    Nineteen young Thai women were purposively selected from networks of nongovernmental organizations involving children and youths in Bangkok. Our grounded theory findings indicated that these young women used the basic social process they called "waiting for the right time" in order to maintain heterosexual abstinence. Waiting for the right time involved one overarching condition, honoring parental love, and included three overlapping properties: learning rules, planning life path, and ways of preserving virginity. The findings provide information that may lead to the development of culturally competent interventions for middle-class Thai youths to remain healthy and avoid pregnancy.

  9. Lived Experience of Thai Women with Alcohol Addiction.

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    Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree; Eriksson, Henrik; Kijsomporn, Jureerat; Östlund, Gunnel

    2017-12-01

    This study explored the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1) feeling inferior and worthless (2) feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3) fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4) feeling superior and powerful. Through these different aspects of Thai women's lived experiences, the following essence was synthesized. The essence of the lived experience of alcohol addiction among the studied Thai women was ambivalence between feeling inferior and worthless and feeling superior and powerful when acting as a man. Drinking alcohol lessened life's difficulties and fears; for example, of violence, bodily demolition, premature death and marginalization from family and society. Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Lived Experience of Thai Women with Alcohol Addiction

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    Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul, Ph.D., RN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Purpose: This study explored the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. Methods: Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. Result: The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1 feeling inferior and worthless (2 feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3 fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4 feeling superior and powerful. Through these different aspects of Thai women's lived experiences, the following essence was synthesized. The essence of the lived experience of alcohol addiction among the studied Thai women was ambivalence between feeling inferior and worthless and feeling superior and powerful when acting as a man. Drinking alcohol lessened life's difficulties and fears; for example, of violence, bodily demolition, premature death and marginalization from family and society. Conclusion: Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking. Keywords: alcoholism, alcohol drinking, gender identity, violence

  11. Street and State Discrimination: Thai Transgender Women in Europe

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    Pravattiyagul, Jutathorn

    2018-01-01

    The large number of Thai transgender women (Kathoey) in Thailand and their visible roles in society often lead casual visitors to believe that Thailand is open and accepting of LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) culture. Hence, it is common to hear Thailand described as gender tolerant and

  12. Effects of Dao De Xin Xi Exercise on Balance and Quality of Life in Thai Elderly Women

    OpenAIRE

    Intarakamhang, Patrawut; Chintanaprawasee, Pantipa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week Dao De Xin Xi exercise, modified short forms of Tai Chi, on balance and quality of life in Thai elderly population. Quasi-Experimental research, pretest-posttest one group design was done at Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Phramongkutklao Hospital. Thai healthy elderly women over the age of 60, requiring regular Dao De Xin Xi exercise were recruited from either patients or workers in the hospital. A 60-minut...

  13. Development of the Thai healthy aging model: A grounded theory study.

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    Thiamwong, Ladda; McManus, Michael S; Suwanno, Jom

    2013-06-01

    To develop a model of healthy aging from the perspective of Thais, a grounded theory approach, including in-depth interviews and focus groups, was used. A purposive sample of 39 community-dwelling adults aged 40-85 years old was interviewed. The Thai healthy aging model composed of three themes: normality, nature, and dharma. In Thai, they are called tham-ma-da, tham-ma-chat, and tham-ma, or "Thai 3Ts". The theme of normality encompasses subthemes of staying physically active by being involved in plenty of physical activities, and being mentally active with creative and thoughtful hobbies and work. The theme of nature encompasses subthemes of living simply and being careful with money. The theme of dharma encompasses subthemes of enjoyment through helping family and participating in community activities, staying away from stress and worries by talking openly and honestly with someone, making merit, and helping other people without expecting anything in return. A greater understanding of healthy aging is a benefit for older adults and healthcare providers in an intervention-design process. Research can contribute valuable information to shape policy for healthy aging as well. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Thai migrant women in the Netherlands : cross-cultural marriages and families

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    Suksomboon, Panitee

    2009-01-01

    This thesis has focused on the cross-cultural marriage of Thai migrant women in the Netherlands and the ups-and-downs of their everyday life of creating and maintaining their relationships with their Dutch husband, Dutch in-laws, Thai relatives and friends in the Netherlands as well as family and

  15. Modified relaxation technique for treating hypertension in Thai postmenopausal women

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    Saensak S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suprawita Saensak,1,2 Teraporn Vutyavanich,3 Woraluk Somboonporn,4 Manit Srisurapanont5 1Academic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, Thailand; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University,Thailand; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Aim: To examine the effectiveness of a modified relaxation (MR technique in reducing blood pressure levels in Thai postmenopausal women with mild hypertension, compared with a control group who received health education. Methods: This is a 16-week, randomized, parallel, open-label, controlled trial in a menopausal clinic in a tertiary health care center in Northeastern Thailand. The intervention group received a 60-minute session of MR training and were encouraged to practice 15–20 minutes a day, at least 5 days a week. The control group received lifestyle education, including diet and exercise. The primary and secondary outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP. Results: Of 432 participants, 215 and 217 were randomly allocated to the MR and control groups, respectively. Of those, 167 participants in the MR group and 175 participants in the control group completed the study. The SBP was significantly more reduced in the MR group, with a mean of 2.1 mmHg (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between groups on the changed DBP. Conclusion: The MR technique may be effective in lowering SBP in Thai postmenopausal women visiting a menopause clinic. Its efficacy may be observed as soon as 4 weeks after start of treatment. Long-term and combined relaxation therapy and antihypertensive agents are warranted in a large cohort of this population. This trial is registered in clinicaltrials.gov (number

  16. Intimate partner violence and poor mental health among Thai women residing in Sweden.

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    Fernbrant, Cecilia; Emmelin, Maria; Essén, Birgitta; Östergren, Per-Olof; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The current aim is to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Thai women residing in Sweden and its association with mental health. We also investigate the potential influence of social isolation and social capital regarding the association between IPV and mental health outcome. A public health questionnaire in Thai was distributed by post to the entire population of Thai women, aged 18-64, residing in two regions in Sweden since 2006. Items included aspects related to IPV (physical/sexual/emotional), sociodemographic background, physical health, mental health (GHQ-12), social isolation, and social capital (i.e. social trust/participation). The response rate was 62.3% (n=804). Prevalence of lifetime reported IPV was 22.1%, with 20.5% by a previous partner and 6.7% by a current partner. Previous IPV exposure was significantly related to current IPV exposure, and all IPV exposure measures were significantly related to poor mental health. However, Thai women experiencing IPV by a current partner were more at risk for poor mental health than Thai women with previous or without any experience of IPV. Also, among all women exposed to IPV, those with trust in others and without exposure to social isolation seemed to have partial protection against the adverse mental health consequences associated with IPV. Most Thai women had never been exposed to IPV, and after migrating to Sweden, women had lower IPV exposure than in Thailand. However, the increased risk for poor mental health among those Thai women exposed to IPV suggests the need for supportive measures and targeted interventions to prevent further injuries and adverse health consequences. Although poor mental health in Thai women represents an obstacle for integration, the potential resilience indicated in the group with high social trust and without exposure to social isolation suggests that such aspects be included in the program designed to facilitate integration.

  17. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture--A phenomenographic study based on older persons' lived experiences.

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    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people.

  18. Healthy Lifestyle: Women's Health

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    ... maintain a healthy weight. Try brisk walking, jogging, biking, swimming or water aerobics. If you're a ... as dancing and gardening, also can improve your health. Whatever you choose, take time to warm up ...

  19. Healthy Eating for Women

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    ... and beverages, such as some yogurts and juices. Foods and Beverages to Limit To keep weight in check at ... helps with weight control, muscle strength and stress management. Reviewed April 2018 Tags Food Health Nutrition Wellness Dietary Guidelines and MyPlate Healthy ...

  20. A clinical study of transdermal contraceptive patch in Thai adolescence women.

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    Piyasirisilp, Rachatapon; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2008-02-01

    To study cycle control, compliance and safety of a transdermal contraceptive patch in adolescent Thai women. Fifty-eight healthy women were assigned to receive 3 cycles of contraceptive patch (ethinyl estradiol 20 microg and norelgestromin 150 microg/day). All participants aged 16-20 years were invited to participate from the family planning clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Data were collected on adverse effects, perceived advantages and disadvantages, body weight, blood pressure, patch detachments and compliance. Data were analyzed using mean, percentage and student's t-test. The participants' average age was 19.4 years, height 158.8 cm, weight 51.8 kg, BMI 20.8 Kg/m2. The most location of patch application was the abdomen and the most adverse event was breast tenderness (31.0%) followed by application site reaction, nausea vomiting and headache respectively. The breast symptom was mild in severity. The participants reported decrease in dysmenorrhea and shorter duration of bleeding. There were no significant changes in body weight and blood pressure. The improvement of their facial acne was reported. There were no pregnancies during use and the adhesion of the contraceptive patch is excellent. Partial patch detachment was reported in only 6.9%. No completed patch detachment was found. The present study found an overall positive impression of a new transdermal contraceptive patch. The good compliance and few side effects were demonstrated. The adhesive patch contraceptive was excellent.

  1. Early Detection of Breast Cancer and Barrier to Screening Programmes amongst Thai Migrant Women in Australia: A Qualitative Study

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    Suwankhong, Dusanee; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2018-04-27

    Background: Breast cancer screening programme is seen as the best practice to detect breast cancer early. However, there are circumstances that can prevent immigrant women from attending screening programmes. Little is known about Thai migrants and the barriers to their seeking breast cancer screening when living in a new homeland. This paper aimed to discuss the barriers to attending screening services among Thai migrant women living in Australia. Methods: This study adopted qualitative approach. Semi-structured in-depth interviewing and drawing methods were employed as data collection technique with 25 Thai migrant women who had not experienced breast cancer and were living in Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Thematic analysis method was employed to analyse the data. Results: Basing on the Health Belief Model, most Thai migrant women did not perceive that they were at risk of breast cancer. Despite seeing a breast cancer screening programme as important, the women rarely paid attention to breast cancer screening and used the mammography services provided by the Australian health care system. The barriers included the location of the services, unfamiliar patterns of health care provision, and language difficulties. Conclusions: There are many barriers that that they encountered in Australia that prevent Thai migrant women living in Melbourne Australia to pay attention to mammographic screening service provided by Australia health system. Our findings suggest that health services and interventions need to be designed more sensitive to the needs and socio-cultural context of migrant women in general and Thai migrant women in particular. Creative Commons Attribution License

  2. Establishment of new complete blood count reference values for healthy Thai adults.

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    Wongkrajang, P; Chinswangwatanakul, W; Mokkhamakkun, C; Chuangsuwanich, N; Wesarachkitti, B; Thaowto, B; Laiwejpithaya, S; Komkhum, O

    2018-04-28

    Laboratory reference ranges are essential for diagnostic orientation and treatment decision. As complete blood count parameters are influenced by various factors, including gender, geographic origin, and ethnic origin, it is important to establish specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. This study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Blood samples were taken from healthy adults aged 18-60 years that attended a health check-up program at our hospital during February 2015 to July 2015. Hematologic and routine chemistry analysis were performed. Participants were determined to be healthy based on medical history and routine medical examinations. Serum vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, and hemoglobin typing were also analyzed to exclude the possible presence of anemia. A statistically significant difference was observed between males and females for Hb level, hematocrit level, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, percentage neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, and absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, basophil, and platelet counts. Accordingly, gender-specific reference intervals were established for all complete blood count parameters in healthy Thai adult population. The reference value ranges established in this study reflect significant differences between genders. It is possible that these reference ranges may be generalizable to adults living in Thailand. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of establishing specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Breaking the Global Production Chain: Thai women's struggles for economic rights and justice

    OpenAIRE

    Junya Lek Yimprasert

    2006-01-01

    Junya Lek Yimprasert, founder of the Thai Labor Campaign, reviews workers’ rights in the context of today's fast moving global production chain. She asks women concerned with economic justice to look beyond just dialogue and build global solidarity based on worker's dignity, rights, hearts and lives. It is not short-term charity that is needed but solidarity that paves the way for self-determination, freedom of association and a share in the huge profits that are built on the exploitation of ...

  4. Age at menopause and menopause-related symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai women.

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    Boonyanurak, Pongrak; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Wilawan, Kittisak; Lueanyod, Aksorn; Thongpaeng, Parawee; Chatvong, Duangjai; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Saeloo, Siriporn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith

    2012-07-01

    There are limited data for age at menopause (AM) and menopause-related symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Asian women. We investigated AM and menopause-related symptoms in HIV-infected Thai women. HIV-infected Thai women 40 years or older who did not receive any hormone therapy in the 8-week period preceding the study were enrolled. Participants completed the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life survey for their symptoms in the past 30 days. Menopause was defined as having the last menstrual period more than 1 year ago. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with menopause. Two hundred sixty-eight HIV-infected women were enrolled; their median age was 44.6 (41.8-48.7) years, and the ratio of their Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical classifications (A:B:C) was 53%:34%:13%; 95% were using highly active antiretroviral therapy. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) CD4 count was 575 (437-758) cells/μL, and 93% had HIV-RNA of less than 1.7log10 copies/mL. Among the 55 women who had reached menopause, the mean (SD) AM was 47.3 (5.1) years. The mean (SD) AM in our study was earlier than the previous report of 49.5 (3.6) years in non-HIV-infected Thai women (difference, -2.2 y; 95% CI, -3.2 to -1.2, P menopause were Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical classification B or C (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-3.03, P = 0.04), and no sexual act in the past month (hazard ratio, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.5-16.0, P = 0.01). No associations of later age of menarche, parity, marital status, educational level, income, body mass index, CD4 count, and HIV-RNA with menopause were found. AM in HIV-infected Thai women was 47.3 years, which is significantly earlier than the findings of a previous AM report on non-HIV-infected women. Postmenopausal HIV-infected women had more vasomotor and sexual symptoms. More studies are needed to investigate the cause and appropriate interventions for

  5. Breast Cancer Treatment: Experiences of Changes and Social Stigma Among Thai Women in Southern Thailand.

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    Suwankhong, Dusanee; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2016-01-01

    Women with breast cancer receive different forms of treatment. Although treatment can save the lives of women, they can result in adverse physical, psychological, and social effects that can impact the women's quality of life. The objective of this study was to describe the experiences of breast cancer treatment among Thai women in southern Thailand. This study used qualitative methods (in-depth interviewing and drawings) with 20 Thai women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis methods. Three themes emerged: (a) being a breast cancer patient: visible signs and adverse effects of therapy, (b) experiencing emotional chaos, and (c) experiencing social dysfunction. The women had to deal with physical body changes, emotional burden, treatment-related social stigma, and being marginalized within their own social context. Women experienced changes including social stigma after receiving breast cancer treatments. They had to manage stigma and difficulties themselves without sufficient professional support. It is important for nurses to understand such experiences so that they may support appropriate coping strategies suited to each woman. Community health nurses need to view each woman with breast cancer as a unique person and appreciate how to provide appropriate care and support based on each woman's experience with her illness and treatment.

  6. 'The family is only one part …': understanding the role of family in young Thai women's sexual decision making.

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    Bangpan, Mukdarut; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand young Thai women's perspectives about family influences on their sexual decisions with the goal of informing the future development of HIV programmes and interventions for young Thai women in urban areas. Eight focus groups were conducted with 40 young single women aged 18-25 years, recruited through a peer network of key informants from four sites across Bangkok: universities, government offices, slums and garment factories. Predetermined topics relating to family, sexual decisions and HIV were discussed with 4-5 participants in each group. Qualitative thematic and framework-analysis techniques were used to explore participants' narratives. Findings suggest that young Thai women's sexual decisions are complex and take place under a wide range of personal, familial and social influences. Parents were perceived as a barrier to parent-child communication about sex and HIV. Young women regarded mothers as more supportive and receptive than fathers when discussing sensitive topics. Young Thai women described a tension between having a strong sense of self and modern sexual norms versus traditionally conservative relational orientations. Future HIV interventions could benefit by developing strategies to consider barriers to parent-child communication, strengthening family relationships and addressing the coexistence of conflicting sexual norms in the Thai context.

  7. Further steps towards healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    In many areas of the world, lack of money, time, and education compels women to perform their household duties and neglect their health care regardless of how sick they are. In response to this situation, the World Health Organization created a "Healthy Women Counselling Guide" (HWCG) package consisting of 1) a document that describes background research conducted in Nigeria, Kenya, and Sierra Leone; 2) a document that chronicles the development of radio and illustration materials; 3) sample audiocassette tapes from the three country teams; 4) two illustrated booklets and a calendar supporting the radio tapes; and 5) a user's guide. The pretested materials in the HWCG were designed with community input for rural women. The sample tape from Kenya focuses on malaria and that from Nigeria on vesicovaginal fistula. The Nigerian team also produced a booklet on adolescent childbirth. The Sierra Leone team prepared a calendar illustrated with information about a variety of ways to obtain good health. A further HWCG series is being developed in India on alcohol abuse. The HWCG package was developed for policy-makers, nongovernmental organizations, and other individuals and agencies concerned with improving women's health. Additional HWCC activities will involve wider dissemination of the material that has been developed, exchanges among teams to determine cross-cultural applicability and adaptability of the material, and studies of the impact of the HWCG process.

  8. First sexual experience and current sexual behaviour among older Thai men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2009-09-01

    The focus of most studies of sexual behaviour has been on younger adults and adolescents, because they are perceived as having higher levels of sexual activity than older persons, and a consequently higher risk of HIV infection. Much less attention has been paid to the sexual behaviour of men and women in their forties and fifties. Using a life course framework, the objective of the present study is to examine AIDS knowledge, HIV testing and sexual risk behaviours among Thai men and women aged 40-59 years. The study also examines the influence of initial sexual experiences on later sexual behaviour. Data for the study are from the 2006 Thai National Survey of Sexual Behaviour, a national probability sample of 6048 individuals. Older Thai men and women were well informed about methods of HIV transmission, but many were unaware of antiretroviral (ARV) medications. Older adults were also less accepting of HIV positive persons than were younger adults. Fewer than half of the older adults had undergone HIV testing, with testing associated with medical checkups or undertaken before operations. Reported condom use was very low with regular partners, moderate with casual partners, and high with sex workers. While the age at first sex has not changed markedly, the type of partner has changed over time. Fewer men have their first sex with a commercial partner. In general, first sex with someone with strong ties to the respondent was related to lower levels of risk behaviour in late adulthood. Areas of concern for AIDS prevention programs include condom use with casual partners and paid partners, knowledge of ARV, and attitudes towards persons living with AIDS.

  9. Musculoskeletal disorders among Thai women in construction-related work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanklang, Suda; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Silpasuwan, Pimpan; Mungarndee, Suriyaphun S

    2014-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder symptoms and its risk factors among women rebar workers. A simple random sampling method was used and data were collected by face-to-face interview and ergonomic assessment from February to March 2011. A total of 272 women rebar workers with at least 6 months' job experience participated in this study. The findings revealed that 57.7% of workers reported musculoskeletal disorder symptoms with low back and shoulders as the most common body parts affected (46.0%). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated 2 variables that are significantly associated with musculoskeletal disorders: prolonged working hours (adjusted odds ratio = 7.63; 95% confidence interval = 2.06-28.31) and awkward posture (adjusted odds ratio = 43.79; 95% confidence interval = 17.09-112.20). The high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among women rebar workers suggests that an appropriate ergonomic workstation design and ergonomic training for women rebar workers are necessary.

  10. Financial Literacy: Thai Middle Class Women Do Not Lag Behind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Grohmann (Antonia); O. Hübler (Olaf); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy); L. Menkhoff (Lukas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis research studies the stylized fact of a “gender gap” in that women tend to have lower financial literacy than men. Our data which samples middle-class people from Bangkok does not show a gender gap. This result is not explained by men’s low financial literacy, nor by women’s high

  11. Effect of fat mass and lean mass on bone mineral density in postmenopausal and perimenopausal Thai women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namwongprom S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirianong Namwongprom,1 Sattaya Rojanasthien,2 Ampica Mangklabruks,3 Supasil Soontrapa,4 Chanpen Wongboontan,5 Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul61Clinical Epidemiology Program and Department of Radiology, 2Department of Orthopaedics, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 4Department of Orthopaedics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 5Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal and perimenopausal Thai women.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1579 healthy Thai women aged 40–90 years. Total body, lumbar spine, total femur, and femoral neck BMD and body composition were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. To evaluate the associations between fat mass and lean mass and various measures of BMD, multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the regression coefficients for fat mass and lean mass, first in separate equations and then with both fat mass and lean mass in the same equation.Results: Among the study population, 1448 subjects (91.7% were postmenopausal and 131 (8.3% were perimenopausal. In postmenopausal women, after controlling for age, height, and duration of menopause, both fat mass and lean mass were positively correlated with BMD when they were analyzed independently of each other. When included in the same equation, both fat mass and lean mass continued to show a positive effect, but lean mass had a significantly greater impact on BMD than fat mass at all regions except for total body. Lean mass but not fat mass had a positive effect on BMD at all skeletal sites except the lumbar spine, after controlling for age and height in perimenopausal

  12. An Investigation of Women Engineers in Non-Traditional Occupations in the Thai Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuanthip Kaewsri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade, the public and the private sectors have carried out research aimed at attracting women engineers to the construction industry and retaining them. However, studies on women engineers working in other types of construction-related businesses apart from contractor companies such as consultancies, developers, etc., have not been many. This paper aims to examine the experiences of women engineers in non-traditional careers and the implications for their turnover. A literature search on women’s careers in construction was performed in conjunction with semi-structured interviews with a sampling of 141 individuals. Results from three viewpoints, viz those of professional men and women engineers in contractor companies, and women engineers in non-contractor companies, were found to differ in many respects, including their opinions about career advancement, career path and the difficulties involved. It was also found that women engineers in contractor companies were much more affected by problems such as sexual harassment, work-life conflicts and equal opportunity than women engineers in non-contractor companies. Turnover rates of women engineers and their reasons for leaving were examined. Women engineers, particularly those in contractor companies, had to confront more barriers in non-traditional careers than their male counterparts.  Nonetheless, working in non-contractor companies provides a viable alternative for women engineers who want to have successful careers in the Thai construction industry.

  13. ThinPrep Pap-smear and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in reproductive-aged Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugpao, S; Koonlertkit, S; Ruengkrist, T; Lamlertkittikul, S; Pinjaroen, S; Limtrakul, A; Werawatakul, Y; Sinchai, W

    2009-06-01

    To estimate the incidence of abnormal cervical cytology by ThinPrep Pap-tests and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in young adult reproductive-aged Thai women. A total of 1254 women distributed in all regions of Thailand were monitored from 2002 through 2004. Women were screened for abnormal cervical cytology using the ThinPrep method every 6 months. Interpretation of cervical cytology was based on the Bethesda system, version 2001. Women who had the ThinPrep Pap results as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse underwent colposcopic examination. The ThinPrep and all cervical tissue samples obtained from diagnostic or therapeutic procedures were analyzed and reviewed by Covance Central Laboratory Service, Inc., Indianapolis, USA. The cumulative incidence of abnormal ThinPrep Pap-tests was as follows: 15.3 per 100 woman years (WY) (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.3, 18.9) at 6 months; 12.3 per 100 WY (95% CI 10.3, 14.6) at 12 months; and 11.6 per 100 WY (95% CI 10.0, 13.5) at 18 months. Of 1448.6 woman years of follow up, the incidence of CIN1 was 4.1 per 100 WY (95% CI 3.2, 5.3); CIN2 0.8 per 100 WY (95% CI 0.4, 1.4); and CIN3 0.6 per 100 WY (95% CI 0.3, 1.2). The incidence of abnormal ThinPrep Pap-test and CIN in young adult Thai women had been reported. No comparable data is available.

  14. Bioequivalence study of a generic Risperidone (Iperdal® in healthy Thai male volunteers

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    Werawath Mahatthanatrakul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the rate and extent of absorption of a generic risperidone (Iperdal® with a reference formulation (Risperdal® when given orally. The study was an open label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence,single dose cross-over design with a 2 weeks washout period in 16 healthy Thai male volunteers. Single oral dose of two 2-mg tablets of risperidone were administered and serial blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and at0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, 24 and 48 hours post dose. Risperidone plasma concentrations were assayed using a validated High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC-UV method modified from Avenosoet al. (2000. Pharamcokinetic parameters i.e. Cmax, AUC0à48 and Tmax were analyzed by noncompartment analysis. Variations of the data were analyzed by “Two Way Analysis of Variance” (ANOVA. Statistics were tested as stated in USP 28 guidelinefor bioequivalence study. The maximum concentration (Cmax, ng/ml of risperidone for the innovator and the generic product were 31.11±17.24 (range 5.64-56.78 and 32.58±19.77 (range 5.29-84.56 ng/ml, respectively. The area under theplasma concentration-time curve (AUC0®48 of the innovator and the generic product were 160.64±152.89 (range 18.57- 550.32 and 144.03±127.37 (range 16.27-456.0 ng.hr/ml, respectively. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax of theinnovator and the generic product were 0.97±0.41(range 0.5-2 and 1.02±0.32 (range 0.5-1.5 hr, respectively. The 90% confidence interval of the ratio of the ln-transformed of Cmax and AUC0à48 of both preparations were 89.39-112.99% and80.02-107.28% respectively which were within the acceptance range of 80.00-125.00%. Therefore, it can be concluded that both preparations used in this study are bioequivalent in terms of both the rate and extent of absorption.

  15. Breast cancer diagnosis: biographical disruption, emotional experiences and strategic management in Thai women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Suwankhong, Dusanee

    2015-09-01

    In this article we draw on Bury's theory of biographical disruption to discuss the meanings of, and emotional experiences related to, being diagnosed with breast cancer among southern Thai women. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviewing and drawing methods, were used to collect data from 20 women with breast cancer. The women perceived breast cancer to be a rhok raai; an evil or dread disease. They believed that breast cancer would lead to death. The disruption in their biography occurred when they detected abnormalities indicating breast cancer. The women's narratives revealed their chaotic lives upon this diagnosis and the news precipitated in them shock, fear, anxiety and loss of hope. Although they experienced chaos and disruption, the women cultivated strategies that helped them cope with their experiences by accepting their fate and adhering to Buddhist beliefs and practices. Through their narratives of biographical disruption, the women in our study offer healthcare providers knowledge that could lead to an appreciation of their needs and concerns. This knowledge is crucial for health professionals who wish to provide emotional support to women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer in Thailand and elsewhere. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  16. Human papilloma virus prevalence, genotype distribution, and pattern of infection in Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthipintawong, Cheepsumon; Siriaunkgul, Sumalee; Tungsinmunkong, Kobkul; Pientong, Chamsai; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Karalak, Anant; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan; Vinyuvat, Songkhun; Triratanachat, Surang; Khunamornpong, Surapan; Chongsuwanich, Tuenjai

    2011-01-01

    The pattern of infection in cervical lesions with respect to HPV subtype has not been systematically studied in Thai women. The aim here was to determine HPV prevalence, genotype, and infection pattern in cervical lesions and to estimate the potential efficacy of an HPV prophylactic vaccine. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue blocks of 410 Thai patients from 8 institutes in 4 regions of Thailand (northern, southern, north-eastern, and central) were studied. The samples included 169 low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 121 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), and 120 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). HPV-DNA was amplified by PCR using consensus primers GP5+ and GP6+. The HPV genotype was then determined by reverse linear blot assay that included 37 HPV-specific 5'-amino-linked oligonucleotide probes. Patterns of infection were classified as single infection (one HPV type), double infection (two HPV types), and multiple infection (three or more HPV types). The mean age of the subjects was 42 years. The prevalence of HPV infection was 88.8%. The highest HPV prevalence was found in the southern region (97.1%) and the lowest in the central region (78.6%). HPV-DNA was detected in 84.6% of LSILs, 90.1% of HSILs, and 93.3% of SCCs. A total of 20 HPV genotypes were identified. The five most common high risk HPV were HPV16 (83.2%), HPV18 (59.3%), HPV58 (9.3%), HPV52 (4.1%), and HPV45 (3.8%). In double and multiple infection patterns, the most common genotypes were HPV16/18 (27.8%) and HPV11/16/18 (54.9%). HPV6 was found only in LSIL and never in combination with other subtypes. HPV11 was most common in LSIL. There is no difference of HPV type distribution in women from 4 regions of Thailand with prominent HPV16 and HPV18 in all cases. The bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines have the potential to prevent 48.6 % and 74.5% of cervical cancers in Thai women. The potential of cancer prevention would rise to 87.6% if other frequent HR

  17. Clinical Parameters following Multiple Oral Dose Administration of a Standardized Andrographis paniculata Capsule in Healthy Thai Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyo, Tawit; Pholphana, Nanthanit; Ungtrakul, Teerapat; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Panomvana, Duangchit; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Pongpun, Wanwisa; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2017-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata has been widely used in Scandinavian and Asian counties for the treatment of the common cold, fever, and noninfectious diarrhea. The present study was carried out to investigate the physiological effects of short-term multiple dose administration of a standardized A. paniculata capsule used for treatment of the common cold and uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections, including blood pressure, electrocardiogram, blood chemistry, hematological profiles, urinalysis, and blood coagulation in healthy Thai subjects. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females) received 12 capsules per day orally of 4.2 g of a standardized A. paniculata crude powder (4 capsules of 1.4 g of A. paniculata , 3 times per day, 8 h intervals) for 3 consecutive days. The results showed that all of the measured clinical parameters were found to be within normal ranges for a healthy person. However, modulation of some parameters was observed after the third day of treatment, for example, inductions of white blood cells and absolute neutrophil count in the blood, a reduction of plasma alkaline phosphatase, and an induction of urine pH. A rapid and transient reduction in blood pressure was observed at 30 min after capsule administration, resulting in a significant reduction of mean systolic blood pressure. There were no serious adverse events observed in the subjects during the treatment period. In conclusion, this study suggests that multiple oral dosing of A. paniculata at the normal therapeutic dose for the common cold and uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections modulates various clinical parameters within normal ranges for a healthy person. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women with malaria on the Thai-Burmese border

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    Moo Yoe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological changes associated with malaria in pregnancy are not well documented, and have focused predominantly on anaemia. Examined here is thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax in a low transmission area on the north-western border of Thailand. Methods In this observational study we reviewed the platelet counts from routine complete blood count (CBC in a cohort of healthy and malaria infected Karen pregnant women attending weekly antenatal clinics. A platelet count of 75,000/μL was the threshold at 2 standard deviations below the mean for healthy pregnant women used to indicate thrombocytopenia. Differences in platelet counts in non-pregnant and pregnant women were compared after matching for age, symptoms, malaria species and parasitaemia. Results In total 974 pregnant women had 1,558 CBC measurements between February 2004 and September 2006. The median platelet counts (/μL were significantly lower in patients with an episode of falciparum 134,000 [11,000–690,000] (N = 694 or vivax malaria 184,000 [23,000–891,000] (N = 523 compared to healthy pregnant women 256,000 [64,000–781,000] (N = 255, P Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax caused a 34% (95% CI 24–47 and 22% (95% CI 8–36 reduction in platelet count, respectively. Pregnant compared to non pregnant women were at higher risk OR = 2.27 (95%CI 1.16–4.4 P = 0.017, for thrombocytopaenia. Platelets counts were higher in first compared with subsequent malaria infections within the same pregnancy. Malaria associated thrombocytopaenia had a median [range] time for recovery of 7 234567891011121314 days which did not differ by antimalarial treatment (P = 0.86, or species (P = 0.63 and was not associated with active bleeding. Conclusion Pregnant women become more thrombocytopenic than non-pregnant women with acute uncomplicated malaria. Uncomplicated malaria associated thrombocytopaenia is seldom severe. Prompt

  19. Healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health among Thai-born women in Sweden: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerman, Eva; Essén, Birgitta; Westerling, Ragnar; Larsson, Elin

    2017-02-01

    Thailand is one of the most common countries of origin among immigrants in Sweden and Thai immigrants comprise the immigrant group most frequently diagnosed with HIV. Little is known about their healthcare-seeking behaviour and views on HIV prevention. This study explored Thai women's healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health and their views on HIV prevention. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with Thai-born women in the Stockholm area. Three themes were identified: (1) poor access to healthcare in Sweden, preferring to seek care in Thailand; (2) partners playing a key role in women's access to healthcare; (3) no perceived risk of HIV, but a positive attitude towards prevention. Despite expressing sexual and reproductive healthcare needs, most women had not sought this type of care, except for the cervical cancer screening programme to which they had been invited. Identified barriers for poor access to healthcare were lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and language difficulties. To achieve 'healthcare on equal terms', programmes and interventions must meet Thai women's healthcare needs and consider what factors influence their care-seeking behaviour. Integrating HIV prevention and contraceptive counselling into the cervical screening programme might be one way to improve access.

  20. The Usefulness of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) for Detection of Glucose Intolerance in Thai Women of Reproductive Age with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwananuruk, Thanyarat; Rattanachaiyanont, Manee; Leerasiri, Pichai; Indhavivadhana, Suchada; Techatraisak, Kitirat; Angsuwathana, Surasak; Tanmahasamut, Prasong; Dangrat, Chongdee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To study the cut-off point of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) as a screening test for detection of glucose intolerance in Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. Subject. Two hundred and fifty Thai PCOS women who attended the Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit, during May 2007 to January 2009. Materials and Methods. The paitents were interviewed and examined for weight, height, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Venous blood samples were drawn twice, one at 12-hour fasting and the other at 2 hours after glucose loading. Results. The prevalence of glucose intolerance in Thai PCOS women was 20.0%. The mean of HOMA-IR was 3.53  ±  7.7. Area under an ROC curve for HOMA-IR for detecting glucose intolerance was 0.82. Using the cut-off value of HOMA-IR >2.0, there was sensitivity at 84.0%, specificity at 61.0%, positive predictive value at 35.0%, negative predictive value at 93.8%, and accuracy at 65.6%. Conclusion. HOMA-IR >2.0 was used for screening test for glucose intolerance in Thai PCOS women. If the result was positive, a specific test should be done to prove the diagnosis.

  1. The Usefulness of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR for Detection of Glucose Intolerance in Thai Women of Reproductive Age with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyarat Wongwananuruk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study the cut-off point of Homeostatic Measurement Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR as a screening test for detection of glucose intolerance in Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. Subject. Two hundred and fifty Thai PCOS women who attended the Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit, during May 2007 to January 2009. Materials and Methods. The paitents were interviewed and examined for weight, height, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Venous blood samples were drawn twice, one at 12-hour fasting and the other at 2 hours after glucose loading. Results. The prevalence of glucose intolerance in Thai PCOS women was 20.0%. The mean of HOMA-IR was 3.53  ±  7.7. Area under an ROC curve for HOMA-IR for detecting glucose intolerance was 0.82. Using the cut-off value of HOMA-IR >2.0, there was sensitivity at 84.0%, specificity at 61.0%, positive predictive value at 35.0%, negative predictive value at 93.8%, and accuracy at 65.6%. Conclusion. HOMA-IR >2.0 was used for screening test for glucose intolerance in Thai PCOS women. If the result was positive, a specific test should be done to prove the diagnosis.

  2. Comparative study of dihydroartemisinin and artesunate safety in healthy Thai volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongpatanakul, S; Chatsiricharoenkul, S; Khuhapinant, A; Atipas, S; Kaewkungwal, J

    2009-09-01

    As part of new drug development initiatives in Thailand, a new tablet formulation of dihydroartemisinin (DHA, an antimalarial drug) has been developed. Our previous bioequivalence study indicated that the new and reference DHA formulations were well tolerated; however, a significant decrease in hemoglobin was detected after a single 200-mg oral dose. To explore further, a clinical study with an emphasis on hematological parameters was conducted. A single-center, randomized, single-blind, cross-over clinical study was conducted in 18 healthy volunteers with a dosage of 300 mg daily for 2 days. Artesunate was used as a comparator. Adverse events were monitored and laboratory parameters on study Days 0, 2, 5, and 7 post drug administrations were analyzed. Eighteen volunteers completed both rounds of the study. Both drugs were well tolerated. All adverse events were mild. Significant decrease in hemoglobin compared to baseline was detected for both drugs 7 days after administration (DHA: 0.48 g/dl, p = 0.007; artesunate 0.38 g/dl, p = 0.001). Transient bone marrow suppression was evidenced by reduction of reticulocytes with a lowest number on study Day 5 (artesunate 75% reduction in reticulocyte count; DHA 47%, p < 0.001 for both drugs compared to baseline). The present study confirmed our previous finding on significant decrease in hemoglobin. Artesunate appeared to have more negative effects on the numbers of reticulocytes and white blood cells than DHA. Systemic laboratory and toxicity profiles presented in this study may be used as a framework for future clinical studies of artemisinin and its derivatives.

  3. Should we use the shorter Thai-version quality of life and symptoms questionnaires in women with overactive bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavejchevin, Suvit; Liao, Limin; Lu, Shing-Hwa; Choo, Myung-Soo; Rabbani, Khalid Javed; Havanond, Piyalamporn

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test: (i) the validation and reliability of the Thai versions of overactive bladder (OAB) questionnaires (the 8-item and 3-item Overactive Bladder Symptoms Score questionnaires [OAB-v8 and OAB-v3, respectively] and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire [OAB-q]); and (ii) the correlation of the OAB-v8, OAB-v3, and the single-question Quality of Life Questionnaire (1-QoL) to the OAB-q in Thai women with OAB. During January to March 2011, 36 Thai women with OAB attending a urogynecology clinic at Chulalongkorn Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand were recruited. All questionnaires were given as a psychometric test twice, 2 weeks apart. Cronbach's alpha of the OAB-v8 was higher (and above 0.7) than OAB-v3 at both week 0 and week 2. The intraclass correlations (ricc ) were 0.64, 0.85, and 0.97 for the OABV8, OAB-v3, and OAB-q, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) of OAB-v3 and OAB-q at weeks 0 and 2 (0.40 and 0.49) were lower than those for OAB-v8 and OAB-q at weeks 0 and 2 (0.62 and 0.62). All questions on the OAB-v3 had a lower weighted kappa than OAB-v8. There was no statistically significant difference in the OAB-q score in each level of 1-QoL score at week 0 (P = 0.12) and at week 2 (P = 0.29). The reliability of the OAB-v3 is poorer than that of the OAB-v8. The OAB-v3 is poorer correlated to the OAB-q than to the OAB-v8. A short questionnaire, such as the OAB-v3 and the 1-QoL, has poor reliability and is poorly correlated to the OAB-q and is not recommended as a replacement for the standard questionnaires, such as the OAB-q and the OAB-v8. The OAB-v3 should only be used in large screening populations where there are time limits. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Bioequivalence of generic lamotrigine 100-mg tablets in healthy Thai male volunteers: a randomized, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichaiya, Arunee; Longchoopol, Chaowanee; Oo-Puthinan, Sarawut; Sayasathid, Jarun; Sripalakit, Pattana; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2008-10-01

    Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug which has been used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. A search of the literature did not find previously published bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic evaluations of lamotrigine in healthy Thai male volunteers. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters between 2 brands of lamotrigine in healthy Thai male volunteers. A randomized, single-dose, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study design with a 2-week washout period was conducted in healthy Thai males. Subjects were randomized to receive either the test or reference formulation in the first period. All subjects were required to be nonsmokers and without a history of alcohol or drug abuse. Plasma samples were collected over a 120-hour period after 100-mg lamotrigine administration in each period. A validated high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet method was used to analyze lamotrigine concentration in plasma. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. Bioequivalence between the test and reference products, as defined by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is determined when the ratio for the 90% CIs of the difference in the means of the log-transformed AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), and C(max) of the 2 products are within 0.80 and 1.25. Adverse events were determined by measuring vital signs after dosing. Subjects were also asked if they suffered from undesirable effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache. This bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy Thai males (mean [SD] age, 20.5 [1.3] years; range, 19-24 years; weight, 62.5 [7.4] kg; height, 172.8 [6.9] cm; body mass index, 20.9 [2.0] kg/m(2)). The mean (SD) C(max) and T(max) of the test formulation of lamotrigine were 1.7 (0.3) microg/mL and 1.2 (0.9) hours, respectively. The mean (SD) C(max) and T(max) of the reference formulation of lamotrigine were 1.7 (0.3) microg/mL and 1.4 (1.0) hours, respectively. The mean

  5. Job strain and psychological distress among employed pregnant Thai women: role of social support and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L

    2014-08-01

    Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed.

  6. Post-coital genital injury in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang

    2015-01-01

    , a single study of adolescent women, and none regarding post-menopausal women. Larger lesions requiring treatment are described casuistically. The purpose of this article is to provide a short, easy-to-read review of the literature regarding the prevalence and nature of female genital injury following......Female genital injury following penile sexual intercourse in healthy women is a matter of importance and debate in many parts of society. However, the literature on the subject is sparse. There are a few studies regarding minor injury that does not require treatment in adult, pre-menopausal women...... consensual sexual intercourse in otherwise healthy women. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  7. Refugee and Migrant Women's Views of Antenatal Ultrasound on the Thai Burmese Border: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwin, May Myo; Ladda Kajeechewa, Honey Moon; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Lwin, Khin Maung; Jones, Caroline; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Background Antenatal ultrasound suits developing countries by virtue of its versatility, relatively low cost and safety, but little is known about women’s or local provider’s perspectives of this upcoming technology in such settings. This study was undertaken to better understand how routine obstetric ultrasound is experienced in a displaced Burmese population and identify barriers to its acceptance by local patients and providers. Methodology/Principal Findings Qualitative (30 observations, 19 interviews, seven focus group discussions) and quantitative methods (questionnaire survey with 644 pregnant women) were used to provide a comprehensive understanding along four major themes: safety, emotions, information and communication, and unintended consequences of antenatal ultrasound in refugee and migrant clinics on the Thai Burmese border. One of the main concerns expressed by women was the danger of childbirth which they mainly attributed to fetal malposition. Both providers and patients recognized ultrasound as a technology improving the safety of pregnancy and delivery. A minority of patients experienced transitory shyness or anxiety before the ultrasound, but reported that these feelings could be ameliorated with improved patient information and staff communication. Unintended consequences of overuse and gender selective abortions in this population were not common. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study are being used to improve local practice and allow development of explanatory materials for this population with low literacy. We strongly encourage facilities introducing new technology in resource poor settings to assess acceptability through similar inquiry. PMID:22514615

  8. Complex Interactions between soil-transmitted helminths and malaria in pregnant women on the Thai-Burmese border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machteld Boel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Deworming is recommended by the WHO in girls and pregnant and lactating women to reduce anaemia in areas where hookworm and anaemia are common. There is conflicting evidence on the harm and the benefits of intestinal geohelminth infections on the incidence and severity of malaria, and consequently on the risks and benefits of deworming in malaria affected populations. We examined the association between geohelminths and malaria in pregnancy on the Thai-Burmese border.Routine antenatal care (ANC included active detection of malaria (weekly blood smear and anaemia (second weekly haematocrit and systematic reporting of birth outcomes. In 1996 stool samples were collected in cross sectional surveys from women attending the ANCs. This was repeated in 2007 when malaria incidence had reduced considerably. The relationship between geohelminth infection and the progress and outcome of pregnancy was assessed.Stool sample examination (339 in 1996, 490 in 2007 detected a high prevalence of geohelminths 70% (578/829, including hookworm (42.8% (355, A. lumbricoides (34.4% (285 and T.trichuria (31.4% (250 alone or in combination. A lower proportion of women (829 had mild (21.8% (181 or severe (0.2% (2 anaemia, or malaria 22.4% (186 (P.vivax monoinfection 53.3% (101/186. A. lumbricoides infection was associated with a significantly decreased risk of malaria (any species (AOR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.23-0.84 and P.vivax malaria (AOR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11-0.79 whereas hookworm infection was associated with an increased risk of malaria (any species (AOR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.06-2.60 and anaemia (AOR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.18-4.93. Hookworm was also associated with low birth weight (AOR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.02-3.23.A. lumbricoides and hookworm appear to have contrary associations with malaria in pregnancy.

  9. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of abnormal cervical cytology among HIV-infected Thai women: a 5.5-year retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common AIDS-related malignancies in Thailand. To prevent cervical cancer, The US Public Health Service and The Infectious Disease Society of America have recommended that all HIV-infected women should obtain 2 Pap smears 6 months apart after the initial HIV diagnosis and, if results of both are normal, should undergo annual cytological screening. However, there has been no evidence in supporting whether this guideline is appropriate in all settings - especially in areas where HIV-infected women are living in resource-constrained condition. Methods To determine the appropriate interval of Pap smear screenings for HIV-infected Thai women and risk factors for subsequent abnormal cervical cytology, we assessed the prevalence, cumulative incidence and associated factors of cervical cell abnormalities (atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance or higher grades, ASCUS+) among this group of patients. Results The prevalence of ASCUS+ was 15.4% at the first visit, and the cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ gradually increased to 37% in the first 3.5 years of follow-up appointments (first 7 times), and tended to plateau in the last 2 years. For multivariate correlation analysis, women with a CD4 count ASCUS+ (P = 0.043). There were no associations of subsequent ASCUS+ with age, pregnancy, contraceptive method, highly active anti-retroviral treatment, assumed duration of infection, or the CD4 count nadir level. Conclusion There are high prevalence and cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ in HIV-infected Thai women. With a high lost-to-follow-up rate, an appropriate interval of Pap smear screening cannot be concluded from the present study. Nevertheless, the HIV-infected Thai women may require more than two normal semi-annual Pap smears before shifting to routinely annual cytologic screening. PMID:21211065

  10. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of abnormal cervical cytology among HIV-infected Thai women: a 5.5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamkhantho Manopchai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common AIDS-related malignancies in Thailand. To prevent cervical cancer, The US Public Health Service and The Infectious Disease Society of America have recommended that all HIV-infected women should obtain 2 Pap smears 6 months apart after the initial HIV diagnosis and, if results of both are normal, should undergo annual cytological screening. However, there has been no evidence in supporting whether this guideline is appropriate in all settings - especially in areas where HIV-infected women are living in resource-constrained condition. Methods To determine the appropriate interval of Pap smear screenings for HIV-infected Thai women and risk factors for subsequent abnormal cervical cytology, we assessed the prevalence, cumulative incidence and associated factors of cervical cell abnormalities (atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance or higher grades, ASCUS+ among this group of patients. Results The prevalence of ASCUS+ was 15.4% at the first visit, and the cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ gradually increased to 37% in the first 3.5 years of follow-up appointments (first 7 times, and tended to plateau in the last 2 years. For multivariate correlation analysis, women with a CD4 count P = 0.043. There were no associations of subsequent ASCUS+ with age, pregnancy, contraceptive method, highly active anti-retroviral treatment, assumed duration of infection, or the CD4 count nadir level. Conclusion There are high prevalence and cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ in HIV-infected Thai women. With a high lost-to-follow-up rate, an appropriate interval of Pap smear screening cannot be concluded from the present study. Nevertheless, the HIV-infected Thai women may require more than two normal semi-annual Pap smears before shifting to routinely annual cytologic screening.

  11. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  12. Women's attitudes towards a pre-conception healthy lifestyle programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, K L; LeBlanc, E S; Vesco, K K; Stevens, V J

    2015-04-01

    Nearly half of US women begin pregnancy overweight or obese and more than half of overweight or obese pregnant women experience excessive gestational weight gain. Recent lifestyle intervention programmes have helped women avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but helping women lose weight before pregnancy may be a more effective way to improve pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed women's attitudes towards pre-conception diet and weight management interventions. An anonymous survey was conducted in patients waiting in a health maintenance organization's obstetrics and primary care waiting rooms. It focused on attitudes towards participating in a pre-conception, lifestyle change programme. Eighty percent of the 126 women surveyed were pregnant or considering pregnancy within 5 years. Of the 126 respondents, 60 (48%) were overweight or obese. Of these, 96% rated healthy diet and healthy weight before pregnancy as very important or important and 77% favoured a healthy lifestyle programme (diet, weight management and physical activity) before becoming pregnant. Likewise, overweight or obese women reported being likely or highly likely to participate in specific intervention programme aspects such as keeping phone appointments (77%), using a programme website (70%) and keeping food and exercise records (63%). Survey results show that women in this population believe that adopting a healthy lifestyle and losing weight are important before pregnancy and that they are enthusiastic about programmes that will help them achieve those goals in preparation for pregnancy. © 2015 World Obesity.

  13. Conceptions of Healthy Aging Held by Relatives of Older Persons in Isan-Thai Culture: A Phenomenographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpun Manasatchakun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, family nurses are expected to provide support for older persons and their family members to promote healthy aging. Family bonds are strong, and relatives are expected to take care of their older family members. However, there is limited research on how older persons’ family members perceive healthy aging. This study aimed to describe the conceptions of healthy aging held by the children and grandchildren of older persons in northeast Thailand. In a phenomenographic study, 14 interviews were performed to qualitatively analyze different conceptions of healthy aging. Four descriptive categories emerged: being independent, not being afflicted by diseases or illnesses, being a giver and a receiver, and being wise. The conceptions of healthy aging entail both autonomy and interdependence. The relative’s perspective needs to be considered when policies relating to healthy aging are implemented in the community and when family nurses provide support to families to promote healthy aging.

  14. Conceptions of Healthy Aging Held by Relatives of Older Persons in Isan-Thai Culture: A Phenomenographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2018-01-01

    In Thailand, family nurses are expected to provide support for older persons and their family members to promote healthy aging. Family bonds are strong, and relatives are expected to take care of their older family members. However, there is limited research on how older persons' family members perceive healthy aging. This study aimed to describe the conceptions of healthy aging held by the children and grandchildren of older persons in northeast Thailand. In a phenomenographic study, 14 interviews were performed to qualitatively analyze different conceptions of healthy aging. Four descriptive categories emerged: being independent, not being afflicted by diseases or illnesses, being a giver and a receiver, and being wise. The conceptions of healthy aging entail both autonomy and interdependence. The relative's perspective needs to be considered when policies relating to healthy aging are implemented in the community and when family nurses provide support to families to promote healthy aging.

  15. Comparison of bone densitometry methods in healthy and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Dinkel, E.; Genant, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    To compare methods of noninvasive measurement of bone mineral content, 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were studied. The methods included mono- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiographic studies were performed and the spinal fracture index calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and moderate correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were moderate in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method were not predictive of measurements obtained by another method for individual patients. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture was provided by QCT and the weakest by SPA. There was good correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results. Osteoporotic women and younger healthy women can be distinguished by the measurement of spinal trabecular bone density using QCT, and this method is more sensitive than the measurement of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT. (orig.) [de

  16. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Amy L; Carrara, Verena I; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Lee, Sue J; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-09-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during pregnancy. A retrospective cohort analysis of migrant and refugee pregnant women attending antenatal clinics along the Thai-Myanmar border (July 1997 to November 2006) was conducted to examine the adverse effects of areca nut use routinely recorded on enrolment. Of 7685 women, 2284 (29.7%) never used areca or smoked (cheroots), 2484 (32.3%) only used areca, 438 (5.7%) only smoked cheroots and 2479 (32.3%) used both areca and cheroots. Pieces of ripe areca nut in a leaf with lime, without tobacco, were used particularly among older multigravid women. Adverse pregnancy effects were not observed in areca nut users compared with non-users. Smoking, but not areca nut use, had a dose-related effect on miscarriage. Areca nut use in conjunction with smoking reduced the adverse effects of smoking on birth weight, further supporting a lack of effect of areca nut. Areca (betel) nut-related adverse pregnancy outcomes were not observed in this population, whereas smoking was clearly harmful. Differences from previous reports may result from the amount or types of areca nut, or quid content, consumed between countries. Smoking, but not areca nut, reduction is likely to improve pregnancy outcomes on the Thai-Myanmar border.

  17. Foreigners’ wives: Cross-cultural marriage of rural Thai women in Isan, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantaya Pomsema

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was twofold: 1 To study the background of cross-cultural marriage in Isan, Thailand; 2 To study cross-cultural marriage rituals of Isan women, Thailand. The study was carried out from February 2012 to February 2014 and was conducted in Khon Kaen, Udon Thani, and Nong Khai provinces. The research sample was composed of 80 individuals. The data collection tools were survey, interviews, observations and focus-group discussions. Results found that the main reason for Isan women marrying foreign men was poverty. They not only wanted to raise family income, but also reciprocate their parents for raising them. As for the foreign men, all had been married before. Some had divorced their former wives, some sons or daughters and some had health problems. Most foreign men were impressed by the good care provided by Isan women, who also had no debt burden. Prior to their marriage with foreign men, most Isan women in the research sample used to work in restaurants in Bangkok, Phuket or other tourist areas. The study found that most weddings followed Isan traditions. The parents, seniors, and relatives participating in the wedding ceremony were seen as witnesses. The bride’s parents received a dowry in cash. Most newly wedded Isan women went to live abroad with their husbands. Their children from previous marriages often went to live with their grandparents. Although many couples have successful marriages, some may experience problems later on. Further study should concern these problems.

  18. Single Thai women's interpersonal communication and mass media reception on AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Y; Schunck, M

    1997-04-01

    This research examines young unmarried women's ways of talking about AIDS, AIDS prevention, and its relationship to mass media AIDS messages in Thailand. Data were derived from a survey conducted in four districts of Kanchanaburi province. Three hundred ninety-seven unmarried women were extracted from the approximately 1,800 original subjects for this analysis. Respondents were asked about the subjects and extent of their conversations about AIDS, the choice of discussion partners, considerations of social appropriateness in talking about the disease, as well as their risk perception. Important findings were that (a) women tend to talk about AIDS primarily with friends and siblings, (b) their reception level of mass media messages is related to the number of topics discussed and frequency of talks by the subjects, and (c) socioeconomic status and age are related to the variety and frequency of talking about AIDS. Implications for AIDS education are discussed.

  19. Prevalence and predicting factors for anxiety in thai women with abnormal cervical cytology undergoing colposcopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerachotechueantaveechai, Tanut; Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Wongpakaran, Nahathai

    2015-01-01

    To compare prevalence of anxiety in women with abnormal cervical cytology (Pap) undergoing colposcopy to that of women attending the outpatient clinic for check-up and to examine predicting factors. In this cross-sectional analytical study, 100 women with abnormal cervical cytology (abnormal Pap group) and 100 women who attended our outpatient clinic for check-up (control group) were recruited from June 2013 to January 2014. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was employed to determine anxiety in the participants with the score of ≥ 11 suggestive of clinically significant anxiety. The prevalence of anxiety and the mean HADS scores for anxiety were compared between the groups. For those with abnormal Pap, association between clinical factors and anxiety was assessed. A p-value of abnormal Pap group and 50.0 years in the control group (p=0.01). The proportion of participants who had more than one sexual partner was higher in the abnormal Pap group, 39.2% vs. 24.7% (p=0.03) and the prevalence of anxiety was significantly higher 14/100 (14.0%) vs. 3/100 (3.0%) (p abnormal Pap group, 6.6 vs. 4.8 (P abnormal Pap group, no definite association between clinical factors and anxiety was demonstrated. The prevalence of anxiety in women with abnormal Pap awaiting colposcopy was significantly higher than that of normal controls. Special attention including thorough counselling, with use of information leaflets and psychological support, should be directed to these women.

  20. Ratio of ovarian stroma and total ovarian area by ultrasound in prediction of hyperandrogenemia in reproductive-aged Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerasiri, Pichai; Wongwananuruk, Thanyarat; Rattanachaiyanont, Manee; Indhavivadhana, Suchada; Techatraisak, Kitirat; Angsuwathana, Surasak

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the performance of ovarian stromal area to total ovarian area (S/A) ratio for the prediction of biochemical hyperandrogenism in Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A cross-sectional study was performed in 222 reproductive-aged Thai women with PCOS attending the Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit (GEU), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital from May 2007 to January 2009. The patients were interviewed for medical history and examined for anthropometry and clinical hyperandrogenism. Venous blood samples were obtained for androgen profiles. An ovarian ultrasonogram was obtained via transvaginal or transrectal ultrasonography. The prevalences of clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism were 48.6% and 81.1%, respectively. The S/A ratio at a cut-off point of 0.33 had modest predictability for hyperandrogenism, namely, 0.537 area under the receiver-operator curve, 36.6% sensitivity, 72.1% specificity, 83.8% positive predictive value (PPV) and 20.9% negative predictive value (NPV). The combination of clinical hyperandrogenism and S/A ratio improved the predictability for biochemical hyperandrogenism, with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 72.1%, 58.1%, 87.8% and 33.3%, respectively. The S/A ratio alone is not a good predictor for biochemical hyperandrogenism in Thai PCOS women attending GEU for menstrual dysfunction. The combination of S/A ratio and clinical hyperandrogenism has better performance than the S/A ratio alone to predict biochemical hyperandrogenism. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Health Locus of Control in Indonesian Women with Breast Cancer: a Comparison with Healthy Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iskandarsyah, A.; de Klerk, C.; Suardi, D.R.; Sadarjoen, S.S.; Passchier, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Indonesian women with breast cancer havea higher external health locus of control (HLC) than healthy women, and to explore the association between HLC and symptoms of anxiety and depression. In this study, 120 consecutive women with breast cancer were

  2. Impact of dietary vitamin A interventions on total body stores in Thai lactating women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasanwisut, E.; West, K.P.

    1997-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is increasingly being recognized as a public health problem among pregnant and lactating women in developing countries. This proposed study will be a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of consuming provitamin A-rich foods in one prepared, on-site meal per weekday for 3 months on total body vitamin A stores and other aspects of vitamin A status in marginally nourished lactating women in rural Northeast Thailand. Approximately 400 lactating women, 2-18 months post-partum, will be screened in the population for marginal vitamin A status by a tier of indicators beginning from low intake or history of night blindness or impaired dark adaptability followed by low serum retinol. Assuming a prevalence of low serum retinol of ∼20%, 90 women will be identified and recruited, matched by serum retinol and month post-partum and randomized in a block fashion into three groups to receive daily cooked (fat-added) meal and snack with (1) dark green leafy and yellow/orange vegetables and fruits, (2) beta-carotene- enriched rice chips and (3) non-enriched rice chips. Groups 1 and 2 will receive ∼3.6 mg of beta-carotene per day. Prior to and following the intervention hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated by isotopic dilution techniques and other indicators of vitamin A status. In addition, serum C-reactive protein and maternal anthropometry will be measured. Food consumption data based on 24-hour recall for 3 randomized days will be collected every 2 weeks to assess routine intakes of vitamin A, fat and other nutrients. Morbidity will be monitored on a weekly basis throughout the study. Between-group comparisons will provide a basis for (1) estimating the adequacy of local diets to improve or maintain total body stores of vitamin A in women during lactation and (2) assessing the validity and responsiveness of widely used measures of vitamin A status in this high-risk group

  3. Reaching Perinatal Women Online: The Healthy You, Healthy Baby Website and App

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Hearn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overwhelming evidence reveals the close link between unwarranted weight gain among childbearing women and childhood adiposity. Yet current barriers limit the capacity of perinatal health care providers (PHCPs to offer healthy lifestyle counselling. In response, today’s Internet savvy women are turning to online resources to access health information, with the potential of revolutionising health services by enabling PHCPs to guide women to appropriate online resources. This paper presents the findings of a project designed to develop an online resource to promote healthy lifestyles during the perinatal period. The methodology involved focus groups and interviews with perinatal women and PHCPs to determine what online information was needed, in what form, and how best it should be presented. The outcome was the development of the Healthy You, Healthy Baby website and smartphone app. This clinically-endorsed, interactive online resource provides perinatal women with a personalised tool to track their weight, diet, physical activity, emotional wellbeing, and sleep patterns based on the developmental stage of their child with links to quality-assured information. One year since the launch of the online resource, data indicates it provides a low-cost intervention delivered across most geographic and socioeconomic strata without additional demands on health service staff.

  4. in_focus - Healthy Lives for Vulnerable Women and Children ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 oct. 2017 ... Tremendous challenges remain to ensure that the most vulnerable populations, including women, children, and adolescents, are able to enjoy the healthy lives and well-being promised in the Sustainable Development Goals. Much of their poor health is caused by poverty, gender, lack of education, and ...

  5. A comparative study of bone mineral density between premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism and healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonya-Ussadorn, Trirat; Punkaew, Boondharika; Sriassawaamorn, Narongchai

    2010-11-01

    To compare bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (L1-L4), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) analyzed by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism and in healthy premenopausal women. Cross-sectional study included 49 premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism and 49 healthy premenopausal women. Age, weight and body mass index (BMI) were comparable in both groups. All subjects had a BMD measurement by DXA in the region of L1-L4, TH and FN and the unpaired t-test was used to analyze. The mean BMD of premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism at L1-L4, TH and FN was 0.928, 0.838 and 0.774 g/cm2, which were lower than those of healthy premenopausal women; 0.991, 0.917 and 0.832 g/cm2 respectively (p-value is less than 0.05). Time interval that had elapsed for active hyperthyroidism was not associated with the decrease of BMD at L1-L4, TH and FN in hyperthyroid women. The BMD of L1-L4, TH and FN in premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism were significantly lower than those of healthy premenopausal women. Therefore, overt hyperthyroidism could be associated with bone loss and may be a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. However, time interval of active hyperthyroidism was not related to the decrease of BMD in hyperthyroid women.

  6. 25-Hydoxyvitamin D. levels among healthy Saudi Arabian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat-Ali, M.; Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen H.; Al-Turki, HaifaA.; Al-Mulhim, Fathma A.; Al-Ali, Amein K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess the serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)among healthy Saudi Arabian women living in the eastern province. Across-sectional randomized study was conducted between February 1st 2008 andMay 31st at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of SaudiArabia in 200 Saudi women between 25-35 years (group 1) and women of >=50years (group 2). Clinical examination, laboratory tests, a complete bloodpicture, serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathromone, andthe serum levels of 25 OHD levels were carried out. Data on life style,dietary and demographic questionnaires were collected. Vitamin D was definedas deficient with serum level =50 years. This study indicates that hypovitaminosis D is commonin young and postmenopausal women. Efforts are required augment andencouraged women for adequate exposure to sunlight and increased intake offortified vitamin D products to maintain skeletal health. (author)

  7. Come On! Using intervention mapping to help healthy pregnant women achieve healthy weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2017-06-01

    Gaining too much or too little weight in pregnancy (according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines) negatively affects both mother and child, but many women find it difficult to manage their gestational weight gain (GWG). Here we describe the use of the intervention mapping protocol to design 'Come On!', an intervention to promote adequate GWG among healthy pregnant women. We used the six steps of intervention mapping: (i) needs assessment; (ii) formulation of change objectives; (iii) selection of theory-based methods and practical strategies; (iv) development of the intervention programme; (v) development of an adoption and implementation plan; and (vi) development of an evaluation plan. A consortium of users and related professionals guided the process of development. As a result of the needs assessment, two goals for the intervention were formulated: (i) helping healthy pregnant women to stay within the IOM guidelines for GWG; and (ii) getting midwives to adequately support the efforts of healthy pregnant women to gain weight within the IOM guidelines. To reach these goals, change objectives and determinants influencing the change objectives were formulated. Theories used were the Transtheoretical Model, Social Cognitive Theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Practical strategies to use the theories were the foundation for the development of 'Come On!', a comprehensive programme that included a tailored Internet programme for pregnant women, training for midwives, an information card for midwives, and a scheduled discussion between the midwife and the pregnant woman during pregnancy. The programme was pre-tested and evaluated in an effect study.

  8. Fast-track services for all? The preferences of Chinese-, Korean-, and Thai-speaking women attending a sexual health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Knight, Vickie; Read, Phillip J; McNulty, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Sydney Sexual Health Centre (SSHC) Xpress clinic has significantly reduced the length of stay and waiting time for clients at SSHC but is currently only available to clients who can read and understand a high level of English. This reduces access for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) clients. This study sought to determine the acceptability of 4 proposed components of an express clinic model among CALD clients: computer-assisted self-interview (CASI), self-collection of swabs/urine specimens, not having a physical examination, and consultation with a health promotion officer rather than with a clinician. Differences in acceptability based on language group, new or return client status, sex worker status, clinic visited status, and age were analyzed. A cross-sectional, anonymous questionnaire was offered to all female Chinese, Thai, and Korean clients attending SSHC between March and November 2012. Multivariate regression and Pearson χ statistical analyses were conducted using STATA 12 software. A total of 366 questionnaires were returned from 149 Thai, 145 Chinese, and 72 Korean participants. After multivariate analysis, the only predictor of willingness to use an express model of service provision was language group: overall, 67% Thai (odds ratio, 3.74: confidence interval [CI], 2.03-6.89; P Korean (odds ratio, 3.58; CI, 1.77-7.25, P Korean (8.5%) (P Korean (40.9%) were happier with self-swabbing than Chinese women (23.9%, P Korean (11.1%; P < 0.001). This research shows that the components of an express model used at SSHC are not favorable to our CALD client base. Despite a CALD express clinic having the potential to reduce waiting times, most clients did not favor reduced waiting time over being physically examined or using a CASI.

  9. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. We included 13,818 women from the Nurses' Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984-1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984-1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Systemic Gene Expression among Healthy Women and Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mittal, Anuradha; Pachter, Lior; Nelson, J Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy induces drastic biological changes systemically, and has a beneficial effect on some autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, specific systemic changes that occur as a result of pregnancy have not been thoroughly examined in healthy women or women wit...

  11. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.

    2009-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA...... in the control group (P women and greater serum insulin concentrations in the highest waist circumference tertile. Future research is needed to confirm the insulin desensitizing...

  12. Testosterone and sexual desire in healthy women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M

    2012-12-01

    Sexual desire is typically higher in men than in women, with testosterone (T) thought to account for this difference as well as within-sex variation in desire in both women and men. However, few studies have incorporated both hormonal and social or psychological factors in studies of sexual desire. The present study addressed how three psychological domains (sexual-relational, stress-mood, body-embodiment) were related to links between T and sexual desire in healthy adults and whether dyadic and solitary desire showed associations with T. Participants (n = 196) were recruited as part of the Partnering, Physiology, and Health study, which had 105 men and 91 women who completed questionnaires and provided saliva for cortisol and T assays. T was positively linked to solitary desire in women, with masturbation frequency influencing this link. In contrast, T was negatively correlated with dyadic desire in women, but only when cortisol and perceived social stress were controlled. Replicating past findings, no significant correlations between T and desire in men were apparent, but these analyses showed that the null association remained even when psychological and confound variables were controlled. Men showed higher desire than women, but masturbation frequency rather than T influenced this difference. Results were discussed in terms of challenges to assumptions of clear links between T and desire, gendered approaches to T, and the unitarity of desire.

  13. Safety and immunogenicity of a combined Tetanus, Diphtheria, recombinant acellular Pertussis vaccine (TdaP) in healthy Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Wijagkanalan, Wassana; Chinwangso, Pailinrut; Petre, Jean; Hong Thai, Pham; Chauhan, Mukesh; Viviani, Simonetta

    2017-01-02

    An acellular Pertussis (aP) vaccine containing recombinant genetically detoxified Pertussis Toxin (PTgen), Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA) and Pertactin (PRN) has been developed by BioNet-Asia (BioNet). We present here the results of the first clinical study of this recombinant aP vaccine formulated alone or in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (TdaP). A phase I/II, observer-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted at Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand in healthy adult volunteers aged 18-35 y. The eligible volunteers were randomized to receive one dose of either BioNet's aP or Tetanus toxoid-reduced Diphtheria toxoid-acellular Pertussis (TdaP) vaccine, or the Tdap Adacel® vaccine in a 1:1:1 ratio. Safety follow-up was performed for one month. Immunogenicity was assessed at baseline, at 7 and 28 d after vaccination. Anti-PT, anti-FHA, anti-PRN, anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria IgG antibodies were assessed by ELISA. Anti-PT neutralizing antibodies were assessed also by CHO cell assay. A total of 60 subjects (20 per each vaccine group) were enrolled and included in the safety analysis. Safety laboratory parameters, incidence of local and systemic post-immunization reactions during 7 d after vaccination and incidence of adverse events during one month after vaccination were similar in the 3 vaccine groups. One month after vaccination, seroresponse rates of anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-PRN IgG antibodies exceeded 78% in all vaccine groups. The anti-PT IgG, anti-FHA IgG, and anti-PT neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) were significantly higher following immunization with BioNet's aP and BioNet's TdaP than Adacel® (Pdiphtheria GMTs at one month after immunization were comparable in all vaccine groups. All subjects had seroprotective titers of anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibodies at baseline. In this first clinical study, PTgen-based BioNet's aP and TdaP vaccines showed a similar tolerability and safety profile to Adacel

  14. Dysmenorrhoea is associated with central changes in otherwise healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Katy; Warnaby, Catherine; Stagg, Charlotte J; Moore, Jane; Kennedy, Stephen; Tracey, Irene

    2011-09-01

    Patients with chronic pain conditions demonstrate altered central processing of experimental noxious stimuli, dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and reduced quality of life. Dysmenorrhoea is not considered a chronic pain condition, but is associated with enhanced behavioural responses to experimental noxious stimuli. We used behavioural measures, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and serum steroid hormone levels to investigate the response to experimental thermal stimuli in otherwise healthy women, with and without dysmenorrhoea. Women with dysmenorrhoea reported increased pain to noxious stimulation of the arm and abdomen throughout the menstrual cycle; no menstrual cycle effect was observed in either group. During menstruation, deactivation of brain regions in response to noxious stimulation was observed in control women but not in women with dysmenorrhoea. Without background pain (ie, in nonmenstrual phases), activity in the entorhinal cortex appeared to mediate the increased responses in women with dysmenorrhoea. Mean cortisol was significantly lower in women with dysmenorrhoea and was negatively correlated with the duration of the symptom. Additionally, women with dysmenorrhoea reported significantly lower physical but not mental quality of life. Thus, many features of chronic pain conditions are also seen in women with dysmenorrhoea: specifically a reduction in quality of life, suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and alterations in the central processing of experimental noxious stimuli. These alterations persist when there is no background pain and occur in response to stimuli at a site distant from that of the clinical pain. These findings indicate the potential importance of early and adequate treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain in Thai pregnant women as risks for low birth weight and macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongcharoen, Tippawan; Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Wecharak, Purisa; Sangket, Natnaree; Winichagoon, Pattanee

    2016-12-01

    Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) have been reported to be associated with pregnancy outcomes. Due to the nutrition transition in Thailand, the double burden of malnutrition is increasing and this may have negative consequences on birth outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with the risks of low birth weight and macrosomia. We performed a secondary analysis of data obtained from an iodine supplementation trial in mildly iodine-deficient Thai pregnant women. Pre-pregnancy BMI was classified using the WHO classification. GWG was categorized using the IOM recommendation. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed. Among 378 pregnant women, the prevalence of pre-pregnancy underweight (BMI=25 kg/m2) were 17.2% and 14.3%, respectively. Normal weight women had the highest median GWG [15.0 (12.0, 19.0) kg] when compared to overweight women [13.2 (9.0, 16.3) kg]. Forty-one percent of women had excessive GWG, while 23% of women gained weight inadequately. Women with a high pre-pregnancy BMI had a 7-fold higher risk of having a macrosomic infant. Women who had excessive GWG were 8 times more likely to deliver a newborn with macrosomia. Both high pre-pregnancy maternal weight and excessive weight gain during pregnancy increase risk of infant macrosomia. Therefore, maintaining normal body weight before and throughout pregnancy should be recommended in order to reduce the risk of excessive infant birth weight and its associated complications.

  16. Barriers to adopting a healthy lifestyle: insight from postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Katrina M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postpartum weight retention can contribute to obesity. There may be unique barriers to weight loss in this period. Findings Cases are presented for three postpartum women who declined to participate in a postpartum weight loss intervention. Despite their desire to engage in healthier behaviors, or partake in an intervention uniquely designed to promote healthy lifestyles for postpartum women, some find it too difficult to make such commitments. Barriers women face in adopting a healthier lifestyle in this period include 1 time availability; 2 prioritizing other competing life responsibilities above their own health; 3 support from family members, friends, and/or co-workers; and 4 lack of flexibility in the intervention structure. These illustrations describe their perspectives in the context of life balance, perceived health, and support, and reflect the multi-dimensional nature of their lives during the life cycle change of the postpartum period. Conclusion Postpartum women face difficult and complex challenges to prioritizing their health and their weight management.

  17. Group B streptococcal carriage, serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibilities in pregnant women at the time of delivery in a refugee population on the Thai-Myanmar border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Claudia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group B Streptococcus (GBS is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis in the developed world. Little is known about its epidemiology in the developing world, where the majority of deaths from neonatal infections occur. Maternal carriage of GBS is a prerequisite for the development of early onset GBS neonatal sepsis but there is a paucity of carriage data published from the developing world, in particular South East Asia. Methods We undertook a cross sectional study over a 13 month period in a remote South East Asian setting on the Thai-Myanmar border. During labour, 549 mothers had a combined vaginal rectal swab taken for GBS culture. All swabs underwent both conventional culture as well as PCR for GBS detection. Cultured GBS isolates were serotyped by latex agglutination, those that were negative or had a weak positive reaction and those that were PCR positive but culture negative were additionally tested using multiplex PCR based on the detection of GBS capsular polysaccharide genes. Results The GBS carriage rate was 12.0% (95% CI: 9.4-15.0, with 8.6% positive by both culture and PCR and an additional 3.5% positive by PCR alone. Serotypes, Ia, Ib, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII were identified, with II the predominant serotype. All GBS isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ceftriaxone and vancomycin and 43/47 (91.5% were susceptible to erythromycin and clindamycin. Conclusions GBS carriage is not uncommon in pregnant women living on the Thai-Myanmar border with a large range of serotypes represented.

  18. Andrographis paniculata: Dissolution investigation and pharmacokinetic studies of four major active diterpenoids after multiple oral dose administration in healthy Thai volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholphana, Nanthanit; Panomvana, Duangchit; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Suriyo, Tawit; Puranajoti, Porranee; Ungtrakul, Teerapat; Pongpun, Wanwisa; Thaeopattha, Saichit; Songvut, Phanit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-12-24

    Andrographis paniculata is included in 'The National List of Essential Herbal Drugs A.D. 1999' of Thailand as an herbal drug for the treatment of common cold symptoms and non-infectious diarrhea. The therapeutic activities of A. paniculata are attributed to four major active diterpenoids: andrographolide (1), 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (2), neoandrographolide (3), and 14-deoxyandrographolide (4). However, the pharmacokinetic studies in humans of this plant were performed after a single oral dose administration and reported the parameters related to be of only 1. This study aims to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of four major active diterpenoids after multiple oral dose administration of A. paniculata capsules in healthy volunteers. The dissolution testing of these four diterpenoids was also performed. The dissolution testing of four major active diterpenoids was conducted in pH 1.2, pH 4.5, and pH 6.8 for 10-100min. The pharmacokinetic study of these active diterpenoids was designed as an open-label, multiple oral dose administration of A. paniculata capsules in 20 healthy Thai volunteers at 1:1 ratio of female and male. Each volunteer was given four A. paniculata capsules each time which contained 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the quantities of 32.64, 5.40, 3.60, and 3.84mg, respectively, three times a day for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, after the first dose of the day was administered, blood samples were collected at the predefined time points. The validated LC-MS/MS method was used to simultaneously determine the concentrations of these diterpenoids in the human plasma samples. The pharmacokinetic parameters of each active diterpenoid were determined. All four major active diterpenoids have been completely dissolved in the simulated pH of gastrointestinal tract within 60min of dissolution. The dissolution profiles were found to be highest in pH 6.8 and lowest in pH 1.2, especially for 3. In the pharmacokinetic study, although 1 was

  19. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Bowles, Erin J. Aiello; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27-0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 μg/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: →Urine cadmium, usual

  20. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  1. Ageing and healthy sexuality among women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Payne, Caitlin; Caldas, Stephanie; Beard, John R; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-11-01

    Populations around the world are rapidly ageing and effective treatment for HIV means women living with HIV (WLHIV) can live longer, healthier lives. HIV testing and screening programmes and safer sex initiatives often exclude older sexually active WLHIV. Systematically reviewing the literature to inform World Health Organization guidelines on the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of WLHIV, identified four studies examining healthy sexuality among older WLHIV. In Uganda, WLHIV reported lower rates of sexual activity and rated sex as less important than men. In the United States, HIV stigma, disclosure, and body image concerns, among other issues, were described as inhibiting relationship formation and safer sexual practices. Sexual activity declined similarly over time for all women, including for WLHIV who reported more protected sex, while a significant minority of WLHIV reported unprotected sex. A single intervention, the "ROADMAP" intervention, demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge and decreases in HIV stigma and high risk sexual behaviour. WLHIV face ageist discrimination and other barriers to remaining sexually active and maintaining healthy sexual relationships, including challenges procuring condoms and seeking advice on safe sex practices, reduced ability to negotiate safer sex, physical and social changes associated with menopause, and sexual health challenges due to disability and comorbidities. Normative guidance does not adequately address the SRHR of older WLHIV, and while this systematic review highlights the paucity of data, it also calls for additional research and attention to this important area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of parity on healthy promotion lifestyle behavior in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazik, Hakan; Nazik, Evşen; Özdemir, Funda; Gül, Şule; Tezel, Ayfer; Narin, Raziye

    2015-01-01

    Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors are not only for the prevention of a disease or discomfort, but are also behaviors that aim to improve the individual's general health and well-being. Nurses have an important position in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviors in women. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parity on health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in women. This descriptive and cross-sectional survey was performed in Adana, Turkey. This study was conducted with 352 women. The questionnaire consisted of two parts; the first part consisted of questions that assessed the socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics, and the second part employed the "Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale" (HPLP). Data analysis included percentage, arithmetic average, and ANOVA tests. The results revealed that 24.1% of the women had no parity, 13.6% had one parity, 30.7% had two parities, 14.6% had three parities, and 17% had four and above parities. The mean total HPLP was 126.66±18.12 (interpersonal support subscale, 24.46±4.02; nutrition subscale, 21.59±3.92; self-actualization subscale, 24.42±4.30; stress management subscale, 18.73±3.81; health responsibility subscale, 21.75±4.31; and exercise subscale, 15.71±4.22). The health behavior of women was moderate. A statistically significant correlation was found between the number of parities and the Health Responsibility, Nutrition, Interpersonal Support, which is the subscale of the HPLP Scale.

  3. Oral contraceptives modulate the muscle metaboreflex in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Hanna R; Sears, Jasmin; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; McCulloch, Cara L; McCracken, Laura A; Brown, Courtney V; Sheel, A William; Dominelli, Paolo B

    2018-05-01

    There are known sex differences in blood pressure regulation. The differences are related to ovarian hormones that influence β-adrenergic receptors and the transduction of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Oral contraceptives (OC) modulate the ovarian hormonal profile in women and therefore may alter the cardiovascular response. We questioned if OC would alter the absolute pressor response to static exercise and influence the day-to-day variability of the response. Healthy men (n = 11) and women (n = 19) completed a familiarization day and 2 experimental testing days. Women were divided into those taking (W-OC, n = 10) and not taking (W-NC, n = 9) OC. Each experimental testing day involved isometric handgripping exercise, at 30% of maximal force, followed by circulatory occlusion to isolate the metaboreflex. Experimental days in men were 7-14 days apart. The first experimental testing in W-OC occurred 2-7 days after the start of the active phase of their OC. Women not taking OC were tested during the early and late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as determined by commercial ovulation monitor. The increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during exercise was significantly lower in W-NC (95 ± 4 mm Hg) compared with men (114 ± 4 mm Hg) and W-OC (111 ± 3 mm Hg) (P < 0.05), with the differences preserved during circulatory occlusion. The rise in MAP was significantly correlated between the 2 testing days in men (r = 0.72, P < 0.01) and W-OC (r = 0.77, P < 0.05), but not in W-NC (r = 0.17, P = 0.67), indicating greater day-to-day variation in W-NC. In conclusion, OC modulate the exercise pressor response in women and minimize day-to-day variability in the exercise metaboreflex.

  4. The performance of obesity screening tools among young Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpawattana, Panita; Kengkijkosol, Thepkhachi; Assantachai, Prasert; Krairit, Orapitchaya; Pimporm, Jiraporn

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is a worldwide medical condition that leads to physical and psychological impairment. Specific ethnicity, gender and age group are related to different performances of anthropometric indices to predict obesity. The objectives of this study were to estimate the performance of the anthropometric indices for detecting obesity based on percentage of body fat (PBF), to study the correlation among those indices, and to determine the optimal cut-off point of the indices among young Thai adults. This is a cross-sectional study of healthy urban subjects in Khon Kaen, Thailand who were aged 20-39 years. Baseline characteristics and anthropometric measures were collected. PBF was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Demographic data and anthropometric variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the performance of anthropometric measures as predictors of obesity. One-hundred men and 100 women were recruited for this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) were significantly correlated to PBF. BMI demonstrated the best performance according to the area under the ROC curves in both sexes at cut-off points of 22.5 in women or 25 kg/m(2) in men. WC and WSR showed better performance than WHR to detect obesity. In conclusion, anthropometric indices in young Thai adults were correlated well with PBF to predict obesity as shown in prior reports. Different cut-off points of these indices to define obesity in young Thai adults are recommended. The global cut-off points of WSR in women regardless of ethnicity are supported.

  5. Predictors of Immunosuppressive Regulatory T Lymphocytes in Healthy Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampras, S. S.; Nesline, M.; Davis, W.; Moysich, K. B.; Wallace, P. K.; Odunsi, K.; Furlani, N.

    2012-01-01

    Immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity, self-tolerance, transplantation tolerance, and attenuation of allergic response. Higher proportion of Treg cells has been observed in peripheral blood of cancer cases compared to controls. Little is known about potential epidemiological predictors of Treg cell levels in healthy individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 75 healthy women, between 20 and 80 years of age, who participated in the Data Bank and Bio Repository (DBBR) program at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI), Buffalo, NY, USA. Peripheral blood levels of CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + Treg cells were measured using flow cytometric analysis. A range of risk factors was evaluated using Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and linear regression. Age, smoking, medications for treatment of osteoporosis, postmenopausal status, body mass index (BMI), and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were found to be significant positive predictors of Treg cell levels in peripheral blood (π≤0.05 ). Higher education, exercise, age at first birth, oral contraceptives, and use of Ibuprofen were found be significant (π<0.05) negative predictors of Treg levels. Thus, various epidemiological risk factors might explain interindividual variation in immune response to pathological conditions, including cancer.

  6. Healthy lifestyle and decreasing risk of heart failure in women: the Women's Health Initiative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Golareh; Loucks, Eric B; Tinker, Lesley F; Waring, Molly E; Michaud, Dominique S; Foraker, Randi E; Li, Wenjun; Martin, Lisa W; Greenland, Philip; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-10-28

    The impact of a healthy lifestyle on risk of heart failure (HF) is not well known. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of a combination of lifestyle factors on incident HF and to further investigate whether weighting each lifestyle factor has additional impact. Participants were 84,537 post-menopausal women from the WHI (Women's Health Initiative) observational study, free of self-reported HF at baseline. A healthy lifestyle score (HL score) was created wherein women received 1 point for each healthy criterion met: high-scoring Alternative Healthy Eating Index, physically active, healthy body mass index, and currently not smoking. A weighted score (wHL score) was also created in which each lifestyle factor was weighted according to its independent magnitude of effect on HF. The incidence of hospitalized HF was determined by trained adjudicators using standardized methodology. There were 1,826 HF cases over a mean follow-up of 11 years. HL score was strongly associated with risk of HF (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.49 [95% CI: 0.38 to 0.62], 0.36 [95% CI: 0.28 to 0.46], 0.24 [95% CI: 0.19 to 0.31], and 0.23 [95% CI: 0.17 to 0.30] for HL score of 1, 2, 3, and 4 vs. 0, respectively). The HL score and wHL score were similarly associated with HF risk (HR: 0.46 [95% CI: 0.41 to 0.52] for HL score; HR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.42 to 0.55] for wHL score, comparing the highest tertile to the lowest). The HL score was also strongly associated with HF risk among women without antecedent coronary heart disease, diabetes, or hypertension. An increasingly healthy lifestyle was associated with decreasing HF risk among post-menopausal women, even in the absence of antecedent coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Weighting the lifestyle factors had minimal impact. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vascular compliance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneyyirci-Delale, Ozgul; Winer, Nathaniel; Oklander, Vita; Joulak, Ibrahim; Dalloul, Nezar; Nacharaju, Vijaya; Dham, Shefali; von Gizycki, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age, has been associated with the cardiometabolic syndrome and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Large (C1) and small (C2) vessel compliance and fasting lipids were measured in 45 healthy women and 36 women with PCOS. There were no differences in vacular compliance (C1, C2) between the 2 groups. Systolic blood pressure (116.8 vs 124.3 mm Hg; P=.01), mean arterial pressure (82.5 vs 87 mm Hg; P=.03), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (98.1 vs 119 mg/dL; P=.001) were significantly higher in the PCOS group. This difference was not significant after adjusting for age and body mass index. High-density lipoprotein levels in subjects with PCOS were significantly lower than in healthy women (60.2 vs 48.9 mg/dL, P=.02) even after adjusting for age and body mass index. The study indicates that obesity and low high-density lipoprotein are the major contributing factors to cardiovascular changes in PCOS.

  8. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Aekplakorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women, particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA. Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.

  9. Thin healthy women have a similar low bone mass to women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, D; Rodríguez, M; García Alemán, J; García-Almeida, J M; Picón, M J; Fernández-Aranda, F; Tinahones, F J

    2009-09-01

    An association between anorexia nerviosa (AN) and low bone mass has been demonstrated. Bone loss associated with AN involves hormonal and nutritional impairments, though their exact contribution is not clearly established. We compared bone mass in AN patients with women of similar weight with no criteria for AN, and a third group of healthy, normal-weight, age-matched women. The study included forty-eight patients with AN, twenty-two healthy eumenorrhoeic women with low weight (LW group; BMI 18.5 kg/m2 (control group), all of similar age. We measured lean body mass, percentage fat mass, total bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density in lumbar spine (BMD LS) and in total (tBMD). We measured anthropometric parameters, leptin and growth hormone. The control group had greater tBMD and BMD LS than the other groups, with no differences between the AN and LW groups. No differences were found in tBMD, BMD LS and total BMC between the restrictive (n 25) and binge-purge type (n 23) in AN patients. In AN, minimum weight (P = 0.002) and percentage fat mass (P = 0.02) explained BMD LS variation (r2 0.48) and minimum weight (r2 0.42; P = 0.002) for tBMD in stepwise regression analyses. In the LW group, BMI explained BMD LS (r2 0.72; P = 0.01) and tBMD (r2 0.57; P = 0.04). We concluded that patients with AN had similar BMD to healthy thin women. Anthropometric parameters could contribute more significantly than oestrogen deficiency in the achievement of peak bone mass in AN patients.

  10. 'She met her (boy)friend online': Negotiating gender identity and sexuality among young Thai women in online space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Ojanen, Timo T; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Iamsilpa, Rachawadee; Topananan, Soifa; Cholratana, Mudjalin; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the experiences of women 15-24 years old living in one suburban district in Bangkok. Its objectives are to analyse processes of building and negotiating social identity and femininity in online spaces by young women; the ways in which young women express their sexuality using online technologies; connections between the 'online' and 'offline' worlds in terms of emotions as well as social and sexual networks; and traditional values regarding female sexuality reproduced through online media and how young women negotiate and resist these. Content and narrative analyses were conducted using qualitative data from 9 focus-group discussions and 14 narrative interviews. Findings indicated that the online media serve as tools that help young women develop and express their gender identities. Mobile phones and the Internet facilitate communication in order to express love, responsibility, intimacy and sexual desires. Discourse on women's chastity, which puts pressure on women to maintain their virginity, still influences online and mobile contents, messages and images among young women. However, women also exerted agency in negotiating and expressing their sexuality, both online and offline.

  11. To tell or not to tell: disclosure to children and family amongst Thai women living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Haritavorn, Niphattra

    2016-03-01

    HIV disclosure is a complex phenomenon. The choice of disclosure or non-disclosure is a reflection of how each HIV-positive person experiences and deals with HIV/AIDS in their everyday life. In this study, we qualitatively explore the experiences of disclosing HIV status to family members and children among HIV-positive women living in Thailand. Due to fear of stigma and discrimination, the women decided to tell only a few people, usually their significant others including parents and children. Although most women received good support from their family members, some were rejected and discriminated against by their family members. This stems from lack of knowledge about HIV/AIDS among family members. Women found disclosure to their children a difficult decision to make. Only some women told their children about their HIV status. They wished to protect their children from emotional burden. This protection also appeared in their attempts to prepare their children for dealing with HIV/AIDS. Support from family members played a major role in the lives of HIV-positive women. Although disclosure has been promoted as a means of ending stigma and discrimination, our data suggested that disclosure may not be positive for some women. This has implications for health promotion in HIV health care. Healthcare providers need to appreciate the ramifications of promoting disclosure to HIV-positive women who are mothers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Perceptions of gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality in Thai women following diagnosis and treatment for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcharoen, Sureeporn; Suwan, Kobkaew; Jirojwong, Sansnee

    2005-05-10

    To describe patients' and their partners' perceptions of gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality before diagnosis of and after treatment for cervical cancer. Descriptive. Southern Thailand. 97 women with cervical cancer who received cancer treatment, including radiotherapy, and their partners. Structured interview methods were used to gather information relating to gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality. Gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality. Fifty-two percent of the women (n = 50) were diagnosed with stage II cervical cancer. The percentage of women who undertook various activities specific to gender roles before their diagnoses was higher than the percentage who undertook the same activities after treatment. An increased percentage of partners undertook the women's gender-role-specific activities after the women received cancer treatment compared with the percentage who did so before diagnosis. Little change in gender power relationships was reported. A high percentage of the couples reported changes in various aspects of their sexuality after cancer treatment compared with before diagnosis. Gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality changed for women with cervical cancer and their partners after the women completed cancer treatment. Open discussions among women with cervical cancer, their partners, and oncology nurses are necessary to identify culturally sensitive and appropriate solutions.

  13. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels throughout pregnancy: a longitudinal study in healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Agudelo-Zapata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide there is a high prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD deficiency and has been associated with adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Objective: This is a nested, case–control study in a longitudinal cohort to compare the serum 25OHD levels and other biomarkers throughout pregnancy in a group of 20 preeclamptic women and 61 healthy pregnant women. An additional group of 29 healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Results: Mean 25OHD levels in non-pregnant women were 31.9 ng/mL and 34.9 ng/mL during follicular and luteal phase, respectively (P < 0.01. Mean serum 25OHD levels in healthy pregnant women were 26.5, 30.1 and 31.9 ng/mL, at first, second and third trimester, respectively (P < 0.001. The first trimester levels of 25OHD were lower than those of healthy non-pregnant women (P < 0.001, showing a significant recovery at third trimester. In the group of healthy pregnant women, the 25OHD levels were 25.7 ng/mL and 27.2 ng/mL at 3 and 6 months postpartum, respectively; both values were lower than those observed in the non-pregnant women (P < 0.001. In preeclamptic women, 25OHD serum levels were similar to those of healthy pregnant women; nevertheless, they remained almost unchanged throughout pregnancy. Conclusion: There were no significant differences between healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women in terms of 25OHD levels throughout the pregnancy. Serum 25OHD levels in non-pregnant women were higher during luteal phase compared with follicular phase. The 25OHD levels of non-pregnant women tended to be higher than those of pregnant women.

  14. Associations of physical activity and inactivity with body tissue composition among healthy Polish women and women after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, U; Demuth, A; Skrzypczak, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between physical activity and body composition among healthy women and women who have had mastectomy. This is in order to establish whether physical activity of women after breast cancer treatment improves composition and distribution of body mass components to a degree which will allow to achieve the body composition of healthy women. Research material consists of anthropometric measurements (body height, weight) of women and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition (using Akern - BIA 101 composition analyzer). Intensity of activity was assessed using the Physical Activity International Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 76 healthy women (active 44.74%, inactive 55.26%) and 70 females after mastectomy (54.29% and 45.71%, respectively). Mean chronological age of women after mastectomy was 53.40 years, SD=7.55, and of the healthy ones 52.38 years SD=11.01). A significant difference in body composition was noted among active and inactive women after mastectomy; namely the active females had lower weight (by approximately 12 kg), body mass index (BMI), level of fat mass (by approximately 8%) and (by approximately 5%) total body water. The active healthy women had 6% less fat mass, almost 4% more body water and 6% more fat free mass. Programmed physical activity undertaken by women after mastectomy is recommended and produces good results in the form of reduction of excessive body fat tissue. Through physical activity these women are able to achieve the same level of fat mass as healthy women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Systemic Gene Expression among Healthy Women and Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Mittal

    Full Text Available Pregnancy induces drastic biological changes systemically, and has a beneficial effect on some autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, specific systemic changes that occur as a result of pregnancy have not been thoroughly examined in healthy women or women with RA. The goal of this study was to identify genes with expression patterns associated with pregnancy, compared to pre-pregnancy as baseline and determine whether those associations are modified by presence of RA.In our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq dataset from 5 healthy women and 20 women with RA, normalized expression levels of 4,710 genes were significantly associated with pregnancy status (pre-pregnancy, first, second and third trimesters over time, irrespective of presence of RA (False Discovery Rate (FDR-adjusted p value<0.05. These genes were enriched in pathways spanning multiple systems, as would be expected during pregnancy. A subset of these genes (n = 256 showed greater than two-fold change in expression during pregnancy compared to baseline levels, with distinct temporal trends through pregnancy. Another 98 genes involved in various biological processes including immune regulation exhibited expression patterns that were differentially associated with pregnancy in the presence or absence of RA.Our findings support the hypothesis that the maternal immune system plays an active role during pregnancy, and also provide insight into other systemic changes that occur in the maternal transcriptome during pregnancy compared to the pre-pregnancy state. Only a small proportion of genes modulated by pregnancy were influenced by presence of RA in our data.

  16. Muscle function of the pelvic floor in healthy, puerperal women with pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Pardiñas, M A; Torres-Lacomba, M; Navarro-Brazález, B

    2017-05-01

    To understand the function of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) at different ages in healthy women and in puerperal women with pelvic floor dysfunctions (PFD) and to ascertain whether there are differences among them. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2016 and included 177 women, 70 of whom had no symptoms of PFD, 53 primiparous mothers in late postpartum and 54 with PFD. The function of the PFM was measured through vaginal palpation (quality of the contraction); manometry (force); dynamometer (tone, strength, and response to stretching), and surface electromyography (neuromuscular activity and resistance). The healthy women showed superior values for PFM tone, maximum strength, neuromuscular activity and resistance than the puerperal mothers and the women with PFD (P.05). The muscle function of the healthy women did not vary significantly with age, except in the case of tone, which was lower in the women older than 46 years (P=.004). Age and births decrease the baseline tone of the PFM in healthy women. Therefore, lower strength, resistance and neuromuscular activity appear to be the main difference between the PFM of women with PFD and the PFM of healthy women. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on glucose kinetics in healthy women & women with premenstrual symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena K. Nandimath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the blood glucose levels during the two phases of the menstrual cycle between healthy women and patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS.Methods: From January of 2012 to the August of 2013, a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among staff of tertiary care hospital.Inclusion Criteria: 1100 women aged 18 to 45 years, 2 Regular Menstrual cycle.Exclusion Criteria: 1 Menopause 2 Patient on Oral Contraceptive pills.After approval from IEC and informed consent from the 100 enrolled subjects with either the most severe symptoms of PMS or healthy controls. 2ml of venous blood was collected on fasting condition during the follicular phase (5-11 days of  menstrual cycleand the luteal phase of the cycle (19-28 days menstrual cycle and analyzed the serum concentrations of glucose by using the glucose oxidase method.Results: The statistical analysis was done using student's paired T test. P value less than 0.0001was taken as significant.No significant differences between the demographic data of the control and PMS groups were observed. The mean concentrations of glucose were significantly different during the follicular and luteal phases.

  18. Comparison of the Screening Tests for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus between "One-Step" and "Two-Step" Methods among Thai Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luewan, Suchaya; Bootchaingam, Phenphan; Tongsong, Theera

    2018-01-01

    To compare the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes of GDM between those screened by the "one-step" (75 gm GTT) and "two-step" (100 gm GTT) methods. A prospective study was conducted on singleton pregnancies at low or average risk of GDM. All were screened between 24 and 28 weeks, using the one-step or two-step method based on patients' preference. The primary outcome was prevalence of GDM, and secondary outcomes included birthweight, gestational age, rates of preterm birth, small/large-for-gestational age, low Apgar scores, cesarean section, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. A total of 648 women were screened: 278 in the one-step group and 370 in the two-step group. The prevalence of GDM was significantly higher in the one-step group; 32.0% versus 10.3%. Baseline characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in both groups were comparable. However, mean birthweight was significantly higher among pregnancies with GDM diagnosed by the two-step approach (3204 ± 555 versus 3009 ± 666 g; p =0.022). Likewise, the rate of large-for-date tended to be higher in the two-step group, but was not significant. The one-step approach is associated with very high prevalence of GDM among Thai population, without clear evidence of better outcomes. Thus, this approach may not be appropriate for screening in a busy antenatal care clinic like our setting or other centers in developing countries.

  19. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  20. Complex Interactions between Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Malaria in Pregnant Women on the Thai-Burmese Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boel, M.; Carrara, V.I.; Rijken, M.; Proux, S.; Nacher, M.; Pimanpanarak, M.; Paw, M.K.; Moo, O.; Gay, H.; Bailey, W.; Singhasivanon, P.; White, N.J.; Nosten, F.; McGready, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Deworming is recommended by the WHO in girls and pregnant and lactating women to reduce anaemia in areas where hookworm and anaemia are common. There is conflicting evidence on the harm and the benefits of intestinal geohelminth infections on the incidence and severity of malaria, and

  1. Cut-off value of body fat in association with metabolic syndrome in Thai peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintvihok, W; Chaikittisilpa, S; Panyakamlerd, K; Jaisamrarn, U; Taechakraichana, N

    2013-06-01

    Pathophysiologic changes during the menopause transition may contribute to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Body fat composition, particularly visceral fat, is highly associated with increased insulin resistance, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism and high blood pressure. We purposefully wished to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat composition, including visceral fat, in order to predict MetS and to assess the prevalence of MetS in peri- and postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a population-based, prospective cohort at the Menopause and Gynecology clinics, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Body fat percentage and visceral fat rating were measured by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer (Tanita SC 330). MetS was diagnosed using the Harmonizing criteria of A Joint Interim Statement of IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 2009. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat, visceral fat, waist circumference and body mass index to identify peri- and postmenopausal women at risk of MetS. Ninety-two perimenopausal and 446 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited for the analyses. The optimal cut-off values for body fat percentage, visceral fat rating, waist circumference and body mass index for identifying women at risk of MetS were 34%, 7, 88 cm and 24 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of MetS in this study was 27.9%. The optimal cut-off values to predict MetS of body fat percentage, visceral fat and waist circumference were established. Using the Harmonizing 2009 criteria, we found that approximately one out of four peri- and postmenopausal women in this study had MetS.

  2. A gender-based approach to developing a healthy lifestyle and healthy weight intervention for diverse Utah women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Sara E; Digre, Kathleen B; Ralls, Brenda; Mukundente, Valentine; Davis, France A; Rickard, Sylvia; Tavake-Pasi, Fahina; Napia, Eru Ed; Aiono, Heather; Chirpich, Meghan; Stark, Louisa A; Sunada, Grant; Keen, Kassy; Johnston, Leanne; Frost, Caren J; Varner, Michael W; Alder, Stephen C

    2015-08-01

    Utah women from some cultural minority groups have higher overweight/obesity rates than the overall population. We utilized a gender-based mixed methods approach to learn about the underlying social, cultural and gender issues that contribute to the increased obesity risk among these women and to inform intervention development. A literature review and analysis of Utah's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data informed the development of a focus group guide. Focus groups were conducted with five groups of women: African immigrants from Burundi and Rwanda, African Americans, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Hispanics/Latinas, and Pacific Islanders. Six common themes emerged: (1) health is multidimensional and interventions must address health in this manner; (2) limited resources and time influence health behaviors; (3) norms about healthy weight vary, with certain communities showing more preference to heavier women; (4) women and men have important but different influences on healthy lifestyle practices within households; (5) women have an influential role on the health of families; and (6) opportunities exist within each group to improve health. Seeking insights from these five groups of women helped to identify common and distinct cultural and gender themes related to obesity, which can be used to help elucidate core obesity determinants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Is the perception of time pressure a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity among women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Nicky; McNaughton, Sarah A; Hunter, Wendy; Hume, Clare; Crawford, David

    2009-07-01

    To describe the proportion of women reporting time is a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity, the characteristics of these women and the perceived causes of time pressure, and to examine associations between perceptions of time as a barrier and consumption of fruit, vegetables and fast food, and physical activity. A cross-sectional survey of food intake, physical activity and perceived causes of time pressure. A randomly selected community sample. A sample of 1580 women self-reported their food intake and their perceptions of the causes of time pressure in relation to healthy eating. An additional 1521 women self-reported their leisure-time physical activity and their perceptions of the causes of time pressure in relation to physical activity. Time pressure was reported as a barrier to healthy eating by 41% of the women and as a barrier to physical activity by 73%. Those who reported time pressure as a barrier to healthy eating were significantly less likely to meet fruit, vegetable and physical activity recommendations, and more likely to eat fast food more frequently. Women reporting time pressure as a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity are less likely to meet recommendations than are women who do not see time pressure as a barrier. Further research is required to understand the perception of time pressure issues among women and devise strategies to improve women's food and physical activity behaviours.

  4. Thai Automatic Speech Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suebvisai, Sinaporn; Charoenpornsawat, Paisarn; Black, Alan; Woszczyna, Monika; Schultz, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    .... We focus on the discussion of the rapid deployment of ASR for Thai under limited time and data resources, including rapid data collection issues, acoustic model bootstrap, and automatic generation of pronunciations...

  5. Prevalence of uterine diseases in healthy women with hysteroscopy as part of routine gynecological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Paredes Palma

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Hysteroscopy showed a high prevalence of detecting uterine pathologies that were never previously described in a population of healthy women in a common sample of patients attending the outpatient Hospital Pemex Picacho.

  6. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...

  7. Sleep, Hormones, and Circadian Rhythms throughout the Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Women and Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Shechter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship exists between the sleep-wake cycle and hormone secretion, which, in women, is further modulated by the menstrual cycle. This interaction can influence sleep across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD, who experience specific alterations of circadian rhythms during their symptomatic luteal phase along with sleep disturbances during this time. This review will address the variation of sleep at different menstrual phases in healthy and PMDD women, as well as changes in circadian rhythms, with an emphasis on their relationship with female sex hormones. It will conclude with a brief discussion on nonpharmacological treatments of PMDD which use chronotherapeutic methods to realign circadian rhythms as a means of improving sleep and mood in these women.

  8. Sleep, Hormones, and Circadian Rhythms throughout the Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Women and Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari; Boivin, Diane B

    2010-01-01

    A relationship exists between the sleep-wake cycle and hormone secretion, which, in women, is further modulated by the menstrual cycle. This interaction can influence sleep across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), who experience specific alterations of circadian rhythms during their symptomatic luteal phase along with sleep disturbances during this time. This review will address the variation of sleep at different menstrual phases in healthy and PMDD women, as well as changes in circadian rhythms, with an emphasis on their relationship with female sex hormones. It will conclude with a brief discussion on nonpharmacological treatments of PMDD which use chronotherapeutic methods to realign circadian rhythms as a means of improving sleep and mood in these women.

  9. Nitrogen balance of healthy Dutch women before and during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojtahedi, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Boekholt, H.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies including longitudinal nitrogen balance studies could provide insight into protein metabolism in pregnancy. Objective: Our aim was to determine the development of nitrogen balance during pregnancy compared with nitrogen balance before pregnancy in women consuming

  10. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in metabolically healthy obese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) have been limited to postmenopausal white women. We sought to determine whether PA and SB differ between MHO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO), in young black and white women....

  11. Dietary factors associated with plasma high molecular weight and total adiponectin levels in apparently healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Melistas, Labros; Fappa, Evaggelia; Vidra, Nikoletta; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate associations between dietary factors and high molecular weight (HMW) as well as total adiponectin in a sample of apparently healthy adult Mediterranean women. DESIGN AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty women were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and body

  12. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  13. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in healthy women with and without established osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Spencer, E M; Christiansen, C

    1995-01-01

    .05) was seen in the nandrolone decanoate-treated group. The same tendency was seen for hormone replacement therapy, although it was not significant. In conclusion, the serum level of IGF-I is high in young women, when peak bone mass is attained, and low in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis.......We measured serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) by radioimmunoassay in 107 healthy women aged 28-78 years and in 116 women with established osteoporosis. The women with established osteoporosis were randomized to a 1-year double-blind, placebo...

  14. Growth hormone secretory in healthy aged women and men of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This perturbation may be involved in aggravations of numerous abnormalities. In 64 healthy elderly, we determined the concentrations of GH in both sexes and its correlation with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the descriptive data, BMI, electrolytic assessment and some biochemical parameters. Collected data suggest ...

  15. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway.

  16. Comparing Sexual Function and Quality of Life in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Shafti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disorders that is associated with different metabolic, reproductive and psychological consequences. The main aim of this study was to compare the sexual function and quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women.Materials and methods: This is a causal-comparative study in which 129 women with polycystic ovary syndrome were qualified as the research group. The control group consisted of 125 healthy women. The sampling method was convenient and was done using Rotterdam criteria. Women of both research and control groups responded to the FSFI and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using MANOVA.Results: According to findings, all of quality of life subscales except environment domain were significantly lower in research group than healthy group (p < 0.01, but none of sexual function subscales were significantly different between two groups (p > 0.05.Conclusion: Women with PCOS in term of some quality of life parameters have lower performance than healthy women. Therefore, it seems to be essential to increase awareness about symptoms and psychological consequences and referring process in order to take advantage of the advisory services. 

  17. The Thai evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the fluctuations of the Thai economy of the country's petroleum industry and the outlook for the future are discussed. Thailand witnessed enormous economic growth during the 1980s and the first part of the 1990s, but events since 1997 have caused it to stutter. However, the petroleum industry remains buoyant with measures to stimulate gas and oil production and moves to privatise and deregulate energy markets. Key statistics for Thailand, historical demand trends for petroleum, the impact of the 1997 Asian economic crisis, regulation of the Thai oil market, crude and condensate production levels, refinery capacity, new entrants to the refinery sector, the Thai refinery expansion programme, the product trade balance, the challenges of fuel reformulation and demand scenarios are considered

  18. The Thai evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2001-08-01

    The effects of the fluctuations of the Thai economy of the country's petroleum industry and the outlook for the future are discussed. Thailand witnessed enormous economic growth during the 1980s and the first part of the 1990s, but events since 1997 have caused it to stutter. However, the petroleum industry remains buoyant with measures to stimulate gas and oil production and moves to privatise and deregulate energy markets. Key statistics for Thailand, historical demand trends for petroleum, the impact of the 1997 Asian economic crisis, regulation of the Thai oil market, crude and condensate production levels, refinery capacity, new entrants to the refinery sector, the Thai refinery expansion programme, the product trade balance, the challenges of fuel reformulation and demand scenarios are considered.

  19. Come On! Using intervention mapping to help healthy pregnant women achieve healthy weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astrid Merkx; Marlein Ausems; Raymond de Vries; Marianne Nieuwenhuijze

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Gaining too much or too little weight in pregnancy (according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines) negatively affects both mother and child, but many women find it difficult to manage their gestational weight gain (GWG). Here we describe the use of the intervention mapping protocol

  20. [IMPORTANCE OF SHEAR WAVE ELASTOGRAPHY OF LIVERS IN PRACTICALLY HEALTHY PREGNANT WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyeva, E; Salahova, S; Bayramov, N

    2017-01-01

    Pulse-wave elastography (SWE) that is one of the mostly used methods in the recent years holds important place in assessment of liver fibrosis. However there is no exact information on the results of liver elastography in healthy pregnant women in the world literature. The aim of the study was to investigate theSWE parameters of liver elastography in practically healthy pregnant women. The subject of the research was 50 practically healthy pregnant women within 18-45 years old (mean age 27.7±0.7). The pregnant women with genital and extragenital diseases were not included to the research. The research work was executed in the II Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Azerbaijan Medical University. SWE of liver in pregnant women was conducted in the I Department of Surgical Diseases of Azerbaijan Medical University through Supersonic Aixplorer Multi Wave device presented by the Scientific Development Foundation under the President of the Azerbaijan Republic. The obtained tissue hardness indicators are assessed under METAVIR scale. The results of the research showed that the measures of liver in practically healthy pregnant women are normal, edges flat, its echogenicity mainly normal, echostructure of its parenchyma homogenous, hardness was F0-F1 (normal) under METAVIR scale, fibrosis not observed. The obtained results were processed by variational (power average, percentile distribution) and correlation (ρ-Spearman) analyzes using the statistical package SPSS-20. A statistical study of the distribution of liver density in healthy women showed that the average density was 4,43±0,01 with 95% confidence interval (4,23 - 4,63). The histogram of distribution of liver density in practically healthy women belongs to the family of normal distributions with coefficients of variation coefficient (16.3%), asymmetry (-0.861±0.337) and excess (-0.068±0.662). Correlation analysis in healthy women did not reveal a reliable relationship between age and liver density (ρ=0

  1. Vitamin D status in healthy postmenopausal Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Niafar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: There are few epidemiologic studies on vitamin D status of postmenopausal women in the Middle East countries. This study aimed to investigate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in  ostmenopausal women living in the north-west of Iran.
    • METHODS: Using the records of the local household registry, 300 cases were enrolled by simple random sampling. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined by fully automated chemiluminescent  mmunoassay. In addition, the study included survey questions regarding age, body weight and height, use of supplements and skin protection agents and clinical and reproductive histories.
    • RESULT: Our cases had the mean age of 63.41 ± 4.64 years with menopause duration of 16.79 ± 6.15 years. Median and interquartile 25-75 range of vitamin D were 14.20 ng/ml and 7-37.2 ng/ml  espectively. We found hypovitaminosis D [25(OH D < 10 ng/ml] in 38.3% of our cases. Serum 25(OH D concentrations were not  ignificantly correlated with age or BMI.
    • CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that 25(OH D levels in postmenopausal women of north-west Iran are low. Studies to elucidate and assess the dietary intake of vitamin D in elderly women of this region can be of further benefit.
    • KEYWORDS: Vitamin D Deficiency, Dietary Supplement, Postmenopausal Period, Middle East, Iran.

  2. The effect of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdis Vakili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Central adiposity and metabolic syndrome are quite common among postmenopausal women. Dietary diversity and healthy food choices have essential role in health and also in prevention of obesity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial in which 100 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited and assigned to two groups (50 each in the intervention and control groups. Food frequency consumption was measured using a questionnaire. A total of 16 text messages including information about modification of food selection (healthy choices, benefits, methods, etc., were sent to participants in the intervention group during 4 months follow-up (1/week. The Chi-square and independent t-test used for data analysis. Ninety-two women completed the study. Results: The consumption of Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.001. More women in the intervention group consumed fish after intervention (P = 0.02. The consumption of green leafy vegetables showed a nonsignificant increase in the intervention group. Conclusion: Using mobile phone short messaging system can improve the healthy food choices regarding Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables and fish among postmenopausal women.

  3. Mortality in women treated with assisted reproductive technology treatment - addressing the healthy patient effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassard, Ditte; Schmidt, Lone; Pinborg, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have reported reduced mortality among women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, possibly related to selection of healthy women into ART treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of relevant selection factors on the association between ART...... treatment and mortality and explore effect modification by parity. Women treated with ART in fertility clinics in Denmark during 1994-2009 (n = 42,897) were age-matched with untreated women from the background population (n = 204,514) and followed until ultimo 2010. With adjustment for relevant confounders...

  4. Comparison of total and compartmental gastric emptying and antral motility between healthy men and women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, R.; Van den Maegdenbergh, V.; Roo, M. de; Mortelmans, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, UZ KU Leuven (Belgium); Peeters, M.; Geypens, B.; Rutgeerts, P. [Department of Gastroenterology, UZ KU Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    There is increasing evidence of gender-related differences in gastric emptying. The purpose of this study was first, to confirm the difference in gastric emptying for both solid and liquid test meals between healthy men and women, and secondly, to investigate the origin of this difference by studying regional gastric emptying and antral motility. A standard gastric emptying test with additional compartmental (proximal and distal) evaluation and dynamic imaging of the antrum was performed in 20 healthy women studied during the first 10 days of the menstrual cycle, and in 31 healthy age-matched men. In concordance with previous reports, women had a longer half-emptying time for solids as compared to men (86.2{+-}5.1 vs 52.2{+-}2.9 min, P<0.05). In our observations this seemed to be related to a significantly prolonged lag phase and a significant decrease in terminal slope. Dynamical antral scintigraphy did not show a significant difference. The distribution of the test meal within the stomach (proximal vs distal) showed more early proximal retention in women as compared to men. The terminal slope of the distal somach was significantly lower in women. We did not observe a significant difference in gastric emptying of the liquid test meal between men and women. Gastric emptying of solids is significantly slower in healthy women as compared to men. These findings emphasise the importance of using different normal values for clinical and research purposes in gastric emptying scintigraphy in men and women. The difference could not be explained by antral motility alone. Increased proximal retention and a lower terminal emptying rate in women are observations to be further investigated. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 36 refs.

  5. Self-perception of women after mastectomy as an ego defence mechanism. Comparison with a group of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mącik, Dorota; Ziółkowska, Patrycja; Kowalska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of changes in self-perception in post-mastectomy patients and its comparison with self-perception of healthy women. The subjects of this study were 50 women. The main group was post-mastectomy patients involved in the meetings of the Amazons Club (25 women). The reference group consisted of 25 healthy women. The method used in the study was the ACL (Adjective Check List) test, identifying 37 dimensions of self-image. Oncological patients completed a test twice (for current and pre-cancer self-image), and healthy women once - for current self. Both groups were selected similarly in respect of education level for the purpose of ensuring a similar level of insight. Retrospective self-image and the current one in the Amazon women group were highly convergent. Existing differences include a reduced need for achievement and dominance, and a lower level of self-confidence. However, the comparison of current self-images in both groups showed a large discrepancy of the results. The Amazon women assess themselves in a much more negative way. Also, their self-image is self-contradictory in certain characteristics. Mastectomy is a difficult experience requiring one to re-adapt and to accept oneself thereafter. The way of thinking about oneself is a defence mechanism helping to cope. The work with patients programmes must, therefore, focus on identifying their emotions and thoughts, especially on those they do not want to accept because of the perceived pressure from the environment to effectively and quickly deal with this difficult situation. The increasing acceptance of personal limitations may help the affected women to adjust psychologically faster and easier.

  6. Healthy lifestyle in the primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomistek, Andrea K; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Eliassen, A Heather; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B

    2015-01-06

    Overall mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States have declined in recent decades, but the rate has plateaued among younger women. The potential for further reductions in mortality rates among young women through changes in lifestyle is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of CHD cases and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among young women that might be attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle. A prospective analysis was conducted among 88,940 women ages 27 to 44 years at baseline in the Nurses' Health Study II who were followed from 1991 to 2011. Lifestyle factors were updated repeatedly by questionnaire. A healthy lifestyle was defined as not smoking, a normal body mass index, physical activity ≥ 2.5 h/week, television viewing ≤ 7 h/week, diet in the top 40% of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, and 0.1 to 14.9 g/day of alcohol. To estimate the proportion of CHD and clinical CVD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia) that could be attributed to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle, we calculated the population-attributable risk percent. During 20 years of follow-up, we documented 456 incident CHD cases. In multivariable-adjusted models, nonsmoking, a healthy body mass index, exercise, and a healthy diet were independently and significantly associated with lower CHD risk. Compared with women with no healthy lifestyle factors, the hazard ratio for CHD for women with 6 lifestyle factors was 0.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.22). Approximately 73% (95% confidence interval: 39% to 89%) of CHD cases were attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Similarly, 46% (95% confidence interval: 43% to 49%) of clinical CVD risk factor cases were attributable to a poor lifestyle. Primordial prevention through maintenance of a healthy lifestyle among young women may substantially lower the burden of CVD. Copyright © 2015 American College

  7. [Analysis of diversity of vaginal microbiota in healthy Chinese women by using DNA-fingerprinting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bing-bing; Liao, Qin-ping

    2012-04-18

    To analyze the diversity of healthy women's vaginal dominant flora in different physiological states with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), to establish the basis for the future study of lower genital tract infections, and to provide a theoretical basis for the development of vaginal probiotics adapted to Chinese females. Women who underwent routine gynecologic examinations in Peking University First Hospital from October 2009 to January 2010 were enrolled, including 30 at reproductive age and 30 at post menopause age. Vaginal samples were collected and then total bacterial DNA was extracted. Universal bacterial primers were used to amplify the V3 region of 16S rDNA gene. PCR products were analyzed by denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Featured bands on DGGE were recovered, cloned and sequenced. Alignment with known sequence was made by using Blast on GenBank to identify bacterial strains so as to analyze the diversity of healthy women's vaginal dominant flora in different physiological states. (1) Vaginal flora in healthy Chinese women at their reproductive age were relatively simple, Lactobacillus were the dominant bacteria. Common bacteria included: Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners,and Lactobacillus gasseri. While L. iners were the dominant vaginal bacteria that could not be recognized by traditional method. (2) Vaginal bacteria in the women at post menopause age were more complex than in those at reproductive age. Common bacteria included: Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus crispatus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus gallolyticus, Veillonella sp., Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus anginosus, Prevotella sp., Anaerococcus lactolyticus and Bacteroides fragilis. Based on the DGGE analysis, the most common vaginal bacteria in Chinese healthy women at reproductive age are Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners,and Lactobacillus gasseri. the most common vaginal bacteria in healthy post

  8. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  9. The effect of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Mahdis; Abedi, Parvin; Afshari, Poorandokht; Kaboli, Nayereh Esmael

    2015-01-01

    Central adiposity and metabolic syndrome are quite common among postmenopausal women. Dietary diversity and healthy food choices have essential role in health and also in prevention of obesity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women. This was a randomized controlled trial in which 100 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited and assigned to two groups (50 each in the intervention and control groups). Food frequency consumption was measured using a questionnaire. A total of 16 text messages including information about modification of food selection (healthy choices, benefits, methods, etc.,) were sent to participants in the intervention group during 4 months follow-up (1/week). The Chi-square and independent t-test used for data analysis. Ninety-two women completed the study. The consumption of Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P mobile phone short messaging system can improve the healthy food choices regarding Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables and fish among postmenopausal women.

  10. Candy or apple? How self-control resources and motives impact dietary healthiness in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Strohbach, Stefanie; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2011-06-01

    People can choose between a virtually endless array of food items rising the question, which factors determine healthy or unhealthy food choice. The present study examines the impact of two contrasting motives for food choice (affect regulation and body weight control) and self-regulatory competences on healthy eating within a sample of women (N=761). The data show that a relative lack of self-regulatory resources combined with a high tendency to regulate negative affect through comfort eating was associated with an unfavorable dietary pattern. Accordingly, a healthy dietary pattern requires not only self-regulatory capacities but also a facilitating motive structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Emelie; Edholm, Peter; Ponsot, Elodie; Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta; Hellmén, Erik; Nilsson, Andreas; Engfeldt, Peter; Cederholm, Tommy; Risérus, Ulf; Kadi, Fawzi

    2015-10-15

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 ± 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. A cross-sectional examination of growth indicators from Thai adolescent girls: evidence of obesity among Thai youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Lisa R; Ruchiwit, Manyat; Pakapong, Yothaka

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined growth data from adolescent girls in Southeast Asia and almost none have been carried out in Thailand. Thus this study examines growth data from Thai adolescent girls. Cross-sectional growth data from a sample of Thai girls were compared to reference data from healthy well-nourished girls. It is hypothesized that the reference girls will be taller and heavier than the Thai girls; however, the growth indicators will also indicate that obesity is present among Thai girls. Anthropometric and age at menarche data were collected from a sample of 319 adolescent girls ages 11-17 years living in suburban Thailand. Thai girls are heavier than the reference girls at ages 11-13 years yet are shorter and lighter than the reference girls at ages 14-17 years. The data also reveal that 18.4% of the girls are overweight or obese as classified by the CDC BMI-for-age percentile growth curves. The findings suggest the presence of overweight and obesity among this adolescent Thai population. These data may reflect the impact of the improved economic situation of Thailand as well as the impact of body image concerns among these young girls.

  13. Comparison of seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient of young Japanese, Polish and Thai women in relation to seasonal change in their percent body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the viewpoint of human physiological adaptability, we previously investigated seasonal variation in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates from the intestine after breakfast in Japanese, Polish and Thai participants. In this investigation we found that there were significant seasonal variations in the amount of unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates in Japanese and Polish participants, while we could not find significant seasonal variation in Thai participants. These facts prompted us to examine seasonal variations in the respiratory quotient after an overnight fast (an indicator of the ratio of carbohydrate and fat oxidized after the last meal with female university students living in Osaka (Japan, Poznan (Poland and Chiang Mai (Thailand. Methods We enrolled 30, 33 and 32 paid participants in Japan, Poland and Thailand, respectively, and measurements were taken over the course of one full year. Fasting respiratory quotient was measured with the participants in their postabsorptive state (after 12 hours or more fasting before respiratory quotient measurement. Respiratory quotient measurements were carried out by means of indirect calorimetry using the mixing chamber method. The percent body fat was measured using an electric bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. Food intake of the participants in Osaka and Poznan were carried out by the Food Frequency Questionnaire method. Results There were different seasonal variations in the fasting respiratory quotient values in the three different populations; with a significant seasonal variation in the fasting respiratory quotient values in Japanese participants, while those in Polish and Thai participants were non-significant. We found that there were significant seasonal changes in the percent body fat in the three populations but we could not find any significant correlation between the fasting respiratory quotient values and the percent body fat. Conclusions There were

  14. Sex Hormones and Healthy Psychological Aging in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Navarro-Pardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides their key role in reproduction, estrogens have effects in several organs in the body, as confirmed by the identification of estrogen receptors (ER in multiple tissues. Experimental evidence has shown that estrogens have significant impacts on the central nervous system (CNS, and a key question is to what extent the fall in estrogen levels in the blood that occurs with increasing age, particularly around and following the menopause, has an impact on the cognitive function and psychological health of women, specifically regarding mood. This review will consider direct effects of menopausal changes in estrogens on the brain, including cognitive function and mood. Secondary pathways whereby health factors affected by changes in estrogens may interact with CNS functions, such as cardiovascular factors, will be reviewed as well insofar as they also have an impact on cognitive function. Finally, because decline in estrogens may induce changes in the CNS, there is interest in clarifying whether hormone therapy may offer a beneficial balance and the impact of hormone therapy on cognition will also be considered.

  15. Healthy lifestyle and leukocyte telomere length in U.S. women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sun

    Full Text Available Whether a healthy lifestyle may be associated with longer telomere length is largely unknown.To examine healthy lifestyle practices, which are primary prevention measures against major age-related chronic diseases, in relation to leukocyte telomere length.Cross-sectional analysis in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS.The population consisted of 5,862 women who participated in multiple prospective case-control studies within the NHS cohort. Z scores of leukocyte telomere length were derived within each case-control study. Based on prior work, we defined low-risk or healthy categories for five major modifiable factors assessed in 1988 or 1990: non-current smoking, maintaining a healthy body weight (body mass index in 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2, engaging in regular moderate or vigorous physical activities (≥150 minutes/week, drinking alcohol in moderation (1 drink/week to <2 drinks/day, and eating a healthy diet (Alternate Healthy Eating Index score in top 50%. We calculated difference (% of the z scores contrasting low-risk groups with reference groups to evaluate the association of interest.Although none of the individual low-risk factors was significantly associated with larger leukocyte telomere length z scores, we observed a significant, positive relationship between the number of low-risk factors and the z scores. In comparison with women who had zero low-risk factors (1.9% of the total population and were, therefore, considered the least healthy group, the leukocyte telomere length z scores were 16.4%, 22.1%, 28.7%, 22.6%, and 31.2% (P for trend = 0.015 higher for women who had 1 to 5 low-risk factors, respectively.Adherence to a healthy lifestyle, defined by major modifiable risk factors, was associated with longer telomere length in leukocytes.

  16. Costs of a healthy diet: analysis from the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, J; Upmeier, H; Calvert, C; Greenwood, D

    1999-12-01

    To investigate the direct and indirect cost differences associated with eating a 'healthy' or 'unhealthy' diet. Analysis of data from a baseline postal questionnaire for the UK Women's Cohort Study, including a detailed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), supplemented by a telephone interview on a sub-sample. The first 15,191 women who responded to the questionnaire, aged 35-69 years with similar numbers of meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians. A healthy diet indicator (hdi), with values from 0 (lowest) to 8 (highest) was developed based on the WHO dietary recommendations. Direct monetary cost of the diet was calculated using prices from the 1995 National Food Survey and the Tesco home shopping catalogue. Women in the healthy diet group were almost four times as likely to be vegetarian and have a higher educational level. For direct costs, the difference between the most extreme hdi groups was 1.48 day-1 (equivalent to 540 year-1), with fruit and vegetable expenditure being the main items making a healthy diet more expensive. Forty-nine per cent of the food budget was spent on fruit and vegetables in hdi group 8 compared to 29% in hdi group 0. Interestingly, 52% of those questioned in both extreme hdi groups did not think that it was difficult to eat healthily. To achieve a particularly healthy diet independent predictive factors were spending more money, being a vegetarian, having a higher energy intake, having a lower body mass index (BMI) and being older.

  17. Healthy food consumption in young women: The influence of others’ eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  18. Healthy food consumption in young women : The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with clitorally induced orgasm in healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Kortekaas, Rudie; Kuipers, Rutger; Nieuwenburg, Arie; Pruim, Jan; Reinders, A. A. T. Simone; Holstege, Gert

    2006-01-01

    There is a severe lack of knowledge regarding the brain regions involved in human sexual performance in general, and female orgasm in particular. We used [(15)O]-H(2)O positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 healthy women during a nonsexual resting state,

  20. Safety, tolerability, and systemic absorption of dapivirine vaginal microbicide gel in healthy, HIV-negative women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nel, Annalene M.; Coplan, Paul; van de Wijgert, Janneke H.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; von Mollendorf, Claire; Geubbels, Eveline; Vyankandondera, Joseph; Rees, Helen V.; Masenga, Gileard; Kiwelu, Ireen; Moyes, Jocelyn; Smythe, Shanique C.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the local and systemic safety of dapivirine vaginal gel vs. placebo gel as well as the systemic absorption of dapivirine in healthy, HIV-negative women. Two prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I/II studies were conducted at five research centers, four in Africa

  1. Barium versus Nonbarium Stimuli: Differences in Taste Intensity, Chemesthesis, and Swallowing Behavior in Healthy Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Ahmed; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the impact of barium on the perceived taste intensity of 7 different liquid tastant stimuli and the modulatory effect that these differences in perceived taste intensity have on swallowing behaviors. Method: Participants were 80 healthy women, stratified by age group (60) and genetic taste status…

  2. The Microbiome, Intestinal Function, and Arginine Metabolism of Healthy Indian Women Are Different from Those of American and Jamaican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Christina C; Cope, Julia L; Hsu, Jean W; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Karnes, Jeffrey M; Luna, Ruth A; Hollister, Emily B; Thame, Minerva M; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-09

    Indian women have slower arginine flux during pregnancy compared with American and Jamaican women. Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that becomes essential during periods of rapid lean tissue deposition. It is synthesized only from citrulline, a nondietary amino acid produced mainly in the gut. The gut is therefore a key site of arginine and citrulline metabolism, and gut microbiota may affect their metabolism. The objective of this study was to identify differences in the gut microbiota of nonpregnant American, Indian, and Jamaican women and characterize the relations between the gut microbiota, gut function, and citrulline and arginine metabolism. Thirty healthy American, Indian, and Jamaican women (n = 10/group), aged 28.3 ± 0.8 y, were infused intravenously with [guanidino- 15 N 2 ]arginine, [5,5- 2 H 2 ]citrulline, and [ 15 N 2 ]ornithine and given oral [U- 13 C 6 ]arginine in the fasting and postprandial states. Fecal bacterial communities were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In the fasting state, Indian women had lower citrulline flux than did American and Jamaican women [7.0 ± 0.4 compared with 9.1 ± 0.4 and 8.9 ± 0.2 μmol ⋅ kg fat-free mass (FFM) -1  ⋅ h -1 , P = 0.01] and greater enteral arginine conversion to ornithine than did American women (1.4 ± 0.11 compared with 1.0 ± 0.08 μmol ⋅ kg FFM -1  ⋅ h -1 , P = 0.04). They also had lower mannitol excretion than American and Jamaican women (154 ± 37.1 compared with 372 ± 51.8 and 410 ± 39.6 mg/6 h, P Indian women had increased mean relative abundances of Prevotella (42%) compared to American and Jamaican women (7% and Indian women. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Pilates for Better Sex: Changes in Sexual Functioning in Healthy Turkish Women After Pilates Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halis, Fikret; Yildirim, Pelin; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Cecen, Kursat; Gokce, Ahmet

    2016-05-18

    Although a large number of studies report the impact of daily exercise on many aspects of women's health, none of them address the relationship between Pilates exercise and sexual function prospectively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Pilates exercise on sexual function in healthy young women using a validated questionnaire. In total, 34 premenopausal healthy Turkish women aged between 20 and 50 years who had regular menstrual cycles and sexual relationships were included in the study. Women were asked to complete Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed before and after 12 weeks of Pilates exercise. Primary endpoints were changes in total and individual domain scores on the FSFI and BDI. After the 12-week Pilates intervention, BDI scores were decreased and all domains of the FSFI were significantly improved with mean ± SD total FSFI scores increasing from 25.9 ± 7.4 to 32.2 ± 3.6 (p Pilates program. Our findings suggest that Pilates may improve sexual function in healthy women. However, further studies with a larger sample size are needed in this field.

  4. Environmental, Behavioral, and Cultural Factors That Influence Healthy Eating in Rural Women of Childbearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mabry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing recognition of the role nutrition plays in the health of current and future generations, many women struggle to eat healthy. We used the PhotoVoice method to engage 10 rural women in identifying perceived barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in their homes and community. They took 354 photographs, selected and wrote captions for 62 images, and explored influential factors through group conversation. Using field notes and participant-generated captions, the research team categorized images into factors at the individual, relational, community/organizational, and societal levels of a socioecological model. Barriers included limited time, exposure to marketing, and the high cost of food. Facilitators included preparing food in advance and support from non-partners; opportunities to hunt, forage, and garden were also facilitators, which may be amplified in this rural environment. Nutritional interventions for rural women of childbearing age should be multi-component and focus on removing barriers at multiple socioecological levels.

  5. English Borrowing in Thai as Reflected in Thai Journalistic Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapper, James

    A study investigated patterns of English loan words in various domains of journalistic discourse in Thai print media, to gain insight into economic, political, and social relationships of the languages and the role of English as a global language. Thai was chosen because Thailand was not subject to colonialism by Europeans and because some…

  6. Healthy lifestyle status, antihypertensive treatment and the risk of heart failure among Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Antikainen, Riitta; Mähönen, Markku; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Hu, Gang

    2013-11-01

    To compare the association between antihypertensive drug treatment and heart failure (HF) risk with the association between engaging in a healthy lifestyle and HF risk. We prospectively investigated the single and joint associations of lifestyle factors and awareness, treatment, blood pressure control status with HF risk among 38 075 Finns, who were 25-74 years old and free of HF at baseline. During a median follow-up of 14.1 years, 638 men and 445 women developed HF. Engaging in a healthy lifestyle was associated with an decreased risk of HF. Compared with normotensive people, hypertensive patients with and without antihypertensive treatment had a higher risk of HF. Hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs but did not engage in a healthy lifestyle had a significantly higher risk of HF [HR 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.21] than hypertensive patients who did not use antihypertensive drugs but engaged in a healthy lifestyle. In addition, compared with hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs and engaged in a healthy lifestyle, hypertensive patients who did not use antihypertensive drug or engage in a healthy lifestyle had a significantly higher risk of HF (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.24-1.95). The present study demonstrates that HF risk was lower in hypertensive patients who engaged in a healthy lifestyle but higher in hypertensive people using antihypertensive drug treatment.

  7. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008

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    Marília Regina Nepomuceno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual’s current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years and 2003-2008 (19.4 years. However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008.

  8. Commonly used reference values underestimate oxygen uptake in healthy, 50-year-old Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genberg, M; Andrén, B; Lind, L; Hedenström, H; Malinovschi, A

    2018-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard among clinical exercise tests. It combines a conventional stress test with measurement of oxygen uptake (V O 2 ) and CO 2 production. No validated Swedish reference values exist, and reference values in women are generally understudied. Moreover, the importance of achieved respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and the significance of breathing reserve (BR) at peak exercise in healthy individuals are poorly understood. We compared V O 2 at maximal load (peakV O 2 ) and anaerobic threshold (V O 2@ AT ) in healthy Swedish individuals with commonly used reference values, taking gender into account. Further, we analysed maximal workload and peakV O 2 with regard to peak RER and BR. In all, 181 healthy, 50-year-old individuals (91 women) performed CPET. PeakV O 2 was best predicted using Jones et al. (100·5%), while SHIP reference values underestimated peakV O 2 most: 112·5%. Furthermore, underestimation of peakV O 2 in women was found for all studied reference values (P 1·1 (2 328·7 versus 2 176·7 ml min -1 , P = 0·11). Lower BR (≤30%) related to significantly higher peakV O 2 (Pvalues underestimated oxygen uptake in women. No evidence for demanding RER > 1·1 in healthy individuals was found. A lowered BR is probably a normal response to higher workloads in healthy individuals. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head analysis in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Munire Erman; Taskin, Omur; Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Yusuf

    2004-12-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head topographic analysis in normally menstruating, healthy women. The study included single eyes selected randomly from each of 52 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination. Optic nerve head topographic analyses were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II (HRT II, software version 1.6). The analyses were repeated three times during the menstrual cycle: in the follicular phase (days 7-10 of the cycle), at ovulation, and in the late luteal phase (days 1-3 before menstrual bleeding). Serum oestradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone levels were measured at each menstrual phase. Fourteen subjects were excluded from the study. The mean age of the subjects (n = 38) was 25.6 +/- 3.7 years (range 21-34 years). Blood oestradiol levels were significantly lower in the late luteal phase (35.8 pg/ml) (p cup : disc ratio, cup : disc area ratio and the cup area were significantly higher during the luteal phase (p menstrual cycle in healthy women significantly alter neuroretinal rim area and cup variables of the optic nerve head. These findings should be taken into consideration in the clinical follow-up of young women with glaucoma.

  10. Excess abdominal adiposity remains correlated with altered lipid concentrations in healthy older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, L; Katz, L D; Nadel, E R

    1999-04-01

    To determine associations between overall adiposity, absolute and relative abdominal adiposity, and lipid concentrations in healthy older women. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data. Subjects were 21 healthy, untrained older women (71 +/- 1 y) entering a randomized, controlled aerobic training program. Overall adiposity was assessed by anthropometry and the body mass index (BMI=kg/m2). Absolute and relative abdominal adiposity was determined by computed tomography (CT) and circumference measures. Fasting serum lipid concentrations of total-, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (C) and triglycerides (TGs) were determined by standard enzymatic procedures. Compared to the measures of overall adiposity, we observed much stronger correlations between measures more specific to absolute or relative abdominal adiposity and lipid concentrations. Visceral fat area was the strongest correlate of HDL-C (r = -0.75; P HDL-C ratio (r = 0.86; P correlated with TGs (r = 0.54; P HDL-C (r= -0.69; P HDL-C ratio (r = 0.75; P adiposity remains an important correlate of lipid metabolism, even in healthy older women of normal weight. Thus, overall obesity is not a necessary condition for the correlation between excess abdominal fat and metabolic risk among postmenopausal women.

  11. Impact of fasting on food craving, mood and consumption in bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Researchers have found that dietary restraint increases food cravings and may contribute to loss of control over eating. Negative mood states often precede food cravings and binge eating. In the present study, we tested the influence of a prolonged food deprivation period over emotional states and food cravings. Twenty-one bulimia nervosa participants and 20 healthy women participants were asked to refrain from any eating for 20 hours and reported, at baseline, after 6 hours and at the end of the fasting period, their mood and craving states. Food consumption was also measured. Fasting increased food cravings in both groups but increased negative mood in healthy women only. Bulimia nervosa participants reported improved mood following food deprivation. Whereas Bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants ate moderate and similar amounts of food following the 20-hour fasting period, food cravings were significantly associated with the number of calories ingested. These findings are congruent with self-regulation theories that predict that prolonged fasting may reduce negative emotions in women with bulimia nervosa. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. Synergism between abdominal and pelvic floor muscles in healthy women: a systematic review of observational studies

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    Lia Ferla

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The training of the pelvic floor muscles is widely used for treating pelvic floor dysfunctions, like urinary incontinence. During the training, abdominal contractions are avoided; however several studies support the use of the synergy between these muscle groups. Objective: Carrying out a systematic review of studies that seek to identify the presence of synergy between the muscles of the abdomen and the pelvic floor and its functionality in women without pelvic floor dysfunction. Methodology: To conduct the review, we have followed the recommendations proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration for systematic reviews. The literature search included the databases SCIELO, PEDro, MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL and EMBASE, and manual research, the starting date of the databases until August 2013. We included cross observational studies with healthy women who were assessed to find the presence of synergy between the abdominal muscles and the pelvic floor. Results: We included 10 articles and they all showed the existence of synergy between the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles in healthy women in the supine, sitting and standing positions. Conclusion: Thus, we can conclude that there is synergy between the muscles of the abdomen and the pelvic floor in healthy women. Better understanding the behavior of these muscles and synergy may favor the development of strategies for the prevention and treatment of disorders of the female pelvic floor muscles.

  13. Barriers to healthy eating among Norwegian-Pakistani women participating in a culturally adapted intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råberg Kjøllesdal, Marte K; Telle Hjellset, Victoria; Bjørge, Benedikte; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2010-11-01

    To explore barriers to healthy dietary changes experienced by Pakistani immigrant women participating in a culturally adapted intervention, and whether these barriers were associated with intentions to change dietary behaviours. Participants were randomly assigned to control and intervention group. The 7-month intervention consisted of six educational group sessions on diet and physical activity, based on knowledge about Pakistani lifestyle and focusing on blood glucose control. Data on barriers for and intentions to healthy dietary changes were collected through an interview with help of a questionnaire. The article is based on data from follow-up assessments in the intervention group, comprising 82 women, aged 28-62 years, without a history of type 2 diabetes. The most important barriers to healthy dietary changes were preferences of children and other family members and perceived expectations during social gatherings. The perceived pressure from other family members was especially strong when the women were trying to change to more vegetables, lentils, and fish and to use less oil in food preparation. The barriers were inversely related to intentions to change. The women encountered various types of barriers when trying to change to healthier food habits, the most prominent being those related to the social dimensions of food consumption, as well as to awareness of the amount of oil used for cooking.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence in healthy pregnant Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Gisele; Soler, Zaida A S G; Cordeiro, José Antônio; Amaro, João Luiz; Moore, Katherine N

    2010-10-01

    Physiological and anatomical changes of pregnancy are risk factors for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence (UI) in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in pregnant Brazilian women who enrolled in the primary health-care system in Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Brazil. Face-to-face interview and completion of two-part questionnaire were administered and done which evaluated the presence of LUTS pre- and during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by logistic regression. Five hundred pregnant women were enrolled ranging from first to third trimester. LUTS present in 63.8% in these women; the main associated risk factors were multiparity and prepregnancy LUTS as well as smoking, constipation, and daily coffee intake. The prevalence of UI during pregnancy is high, highlighting the presence of the risk factors associated with UI during pregnancy.

  15. The effect of menopause on carotid artery remodeling, insulin sensitivity, and plasma adiponectin in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Kozàkovà, Michaela; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which menopause may influence the systemic subclinical atherosclerosis are unexplained. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between early menopause, established cardiovascular (c-v) risk factors, metabolic parameters (insulin...... secretion and sensitivity, plasma adiponectin), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy women. METHODS: In 74 menopausal women (mean age = 51 +/- 3 years, mean duration of menopause = 2.9 +/- 1.2 years) and in 74 nonmenopausal women comparable for age and body mass index (BMI), common carotid...... by mathematical modeling. RESULTS: CCA diameter (5.55 +/- 0.46 vs. 5.21+/- 0.51 mm, P menopausal women, whereas CCA IMT/diameter ratio and IMT in other carotid...

  16. Impact of menstrual cycle phase on endocrine effects of partial sleep restriction in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, Amanda; Wright, Lisa; Perrot, Tara; Rusak, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    There is extensive evidence that sleep restriction alters endocrine function in healthy young men, increasing afternoon cortisol levels and modifying levels of other hormones that regulate metabolism. Recent studies have confirmed these effects in young women, but have not investigated whether menstrual cycle phase influences these responses. The effects on cortisol levels of limiting sleep to 3h for one night were assessed in two groups of women at different points in their menstrual cycles: mid-follicular and mid-luteal. Eighteen healthy, young women, not taking oral contraceptives (age: 21.8±0.53; BMI: 22.5±0.58 [mean±SEM]), were studied. Baseline sleep durations, eating habits and menstrual cycles were monitored. Salivary samples were collected at six times of day (08:00, 08:30, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00) during two consecutive days: first after a 10h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline) and then after a night with a 3h sleep opportunity (Post-sleep restriction). All were awakened at the same time of day. Women in the follicular phase showed a significant decrease (p=0.004) in their cortisol awakening responses (CAR) after sleep restriction and a sustained elevation in afternoon/evening cortisol levels (p=0.008), as has been reported for men. Women in the luteal phase showed neither a depressed CAR, nor an increase in afternoon/evening cortisol levels. Secondary analyses examined the impact of sleep restriction on self-reported hunger and mood. Menstrual cycle phase dramatically altered the cortisol responses of healthy, young women to a single night of sleep restriction, implicating effects of spontaneous changes in endocrine status on adrenal responses to sleep loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Concentration of free amino acids in human milk of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Katharina; Bancher-Todesca, Dagmar; Graf, Thorsten; Garo, Fritz; Roth, Erich; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Worda, Christof

    2013-02-01

    It is generally agreed that breastfeeding has a positive effect on the metabolic situation in diabetic mothers. However, negative long-term effects are described for breastfed offspring of diabetic women. It is unknown if the composition of free amino acids (FAAs) in breastmilk of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) differs from that in milk of healthy women. We studied the amount of FAAs in breastmilk of women with GDM and women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Human milk samples of 68 women (21 GDM and 47 NGT) were analyzed. Contents of FAAs in milk samples, obtained within the first 4 days after delivery (colostrum) and 6 weeks later (mature milk), were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Total amounts of FAAs in colostrum and in mature milk were compared between the groups. The impact of maternal age, body mass index (BMI), gestational age at birth, birth weight, and diagnosis of GDM on the total amount of FAAs was evaluated. Overall, the total amount of FAAs increased significantly from colostrum to mature milk in both groups (pmilk (1,560 μmol/L vs. 1,730 μmol/L and 2,440 μmol/L vs. 2,723 μmol/L, respectively). No significant influence on the total amount of FAAs at both measurements of maternal age, BMI, gestational age at birth, birth weight, and diagnosis of GDM could be observed by regression analyses. The content of FAAs of human milk does not significantly differ between women with GDM and women with NGT.

  18. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Strizzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can substantially alter many areas of a person’s life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL, Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI, Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI, and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS. Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p<0.001, FSFI subscales of desire (p<0.05, arousal (p<0.05, lubrication (p<0.05, orgasm (p<0.05, and satisfaction (p<0.05, and the ISS (p<0.001 than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs.

  19. Effects of multidimensional pelvic floor muscle training in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talasz, Helena; Kalchschmid, Elisabeth; Kofler, Markus; Lechleitner, Monika

    2012-03-01

    Cross-sectional and interventional study to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in healthy young nulliparous women and to determine the effects of a 3-month PFM training program with emphasis on co-contraction of PFM and anterolateral abdominal muscles and on correctly performed coughing patterns. PFM function was assessed by digital vaginal palpation in 40 volunteers and graded according to the 6-point Oxford grading scale. The PFM training program was comprised theoretical instruction, as well as verbal feedback during hands-on instruction and repeated training sessions focussing on strengthening PFM and anterolateral abdominal muscle co-contraction during forced expiration and coughing. At baseline, 30 women (75%) were able to perform normal PFM contractions at rest (Oxford scale score ≥ 3); only 4 of them (10%) presented additional involuntary PFM contractions before and during coughing. The remaining 10 women (25%) were unable to perform voluntary or involuntary PFM contractions. Mean Oxford scale score in the whole group was 3.3 ± 1.7. After completing the PFM training program, 29 women (72.5%) performed cough-related PFM contractions and group mean Oxford scale score increased significantly to 4.2 ± 1.0. The study shows that PFM dysfunction may be detected even in healthy young women. Multidimensional training, however, may significantly improve PFM function.

  20. Rape and Mental Health Outcomes Among Women: Examining the Moderating Effects of "Healthy" Fear Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Ryan; Wright, Emily M; Peterson, Johanna C

    2016-07-03

    This study examined the mediating and moderating impact of fear of victimization on the relationships between forcible and vicarious rape on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among college women. Forcible and vicarious rape positively affected PTSD and depression symptomology, but fear did not mediate these relationships. Fear moderated the impact of forcible rape on PTSD, but was not a moderator for depression. Findings suggest that there may be "healthy" levels of fear in the aftermath of victimization where having too little fear may leave women unnecessarily vulnerable to victimization, while having too much fear may lead to social isolation and withdrawal. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Serum Leptin Concentrations during the Menstrual Cycle in Iranian Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Einollahi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, a circulating 16-kd polypeptide consisting of 167 amino acids, appears to be involved in the body weight homeostasis. Moreover leptin plays an important role for the reproductive system, early embryogenesis, and fat metabolism during pregnancy and puberty. Significant correlations have been found between leptin and sexual hormones, which is a cytokine and has hormonal properties. The aim of this study was to determine serum leptin levels during the menstrual cycle, and the association between serum leptin and reproductive hormones in young, healthy Iranian women. 42 healthy women volunteered for the study. They all had regular menstrual cycles, with cycle length varying between 26 and 32 days. None of them used oral contraceptives. All were of normal weight, with body mass index ( BMI

  2. Exploring women's beliefs and perceptions about healthy eating blogs: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette-Maheux, Véronique; Provencher, Veronique; Lapointe, Annie; Dugrenier, Marilyn; Dumas, Audrée-Anne; Pluye, Pierre; Straus, Sharon; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Desroches, Sophie

    2015-04-08

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death (63%) worldwide. A key behavioral risk factor is unhealthy eating. New strategies must be identified and evaluated to improve dietary habits. Social media, such as blogs, represent a unique opportunity for improving knowledge translation in health care through interactive communication between health consumers and health professionals. Despite the proliferation of food and lifestyle blogs, no research has been devoted to understanding potential blog readers' perceptions of healthy eating blogs written by dietitians. To identify women's salient beliefs and perceptions regarding the use of healthy eating blogs written by dietitians promoting the improvement of their dietary habits. We conducted a qualitative study with female Internet users living in the Quebec City, QC, area with suboptimal dietary habits. First, the women explored 4 existing healthy eating blogs written in French by qualified dietitians. At a focus group 2-4 weeks later, they were asked to discuss their experience and perceptions. Focus group participants were grouped by age (18-34, 35-54, and 55-75 years) and by their use of social media (users/nonusers). Using a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, participants were asked to identify salient beliefs underlying their attitudes (advantages/disadvantages), subjective norms (what people important to them would think), and perceptions of control (facilitators/barriers) regarding the use of a healthy eating blog written by a dietitian to improve dietary habits. Discussion groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, coded, and a deductive content analysis was performed independently by 2 individuals using the NVivo software (version 10). All participants (N=33) were Caucasian women aged between 22 to 73 year. Main advantages perceived of using healthy eating blogs written by a dietitian were that they provided useful recipe ideas, improved lifestyle, were a credible source of

  3. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edholm, Peter; Strandberg, Emelie; Kadi, Fawzi

    2017-07-01

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants ( n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength

  4. [Microbiota of urine and vagina of healthy postmenopausal women (a pilot study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naboka, Yu L; Rymashevsky, A N; Kogan, M I; Gudima, I A; Borovleva, O A; Jalagonia, K T; Zarutskiy, S A

    2016-02-01

    Studying microbiota of different urogenital tract habitats in healthy postmenopausal women is of practical importance in deciding on the appropriateness of correction of dysbiotic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the vaginal and urine microbiota of healthy postmenopausal women. The study included 20 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 59,0+/-2,1 years). Duration of menopause in all subjects was more than 8 years. Bacteriological testing of urine and vaginal specimen was carried out on the extended media (15) for cultivating facultative anaerobic bacteria (FAB) and nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria (NAB) and included PCR of midstream morning urine. Among FAB in the urine and vagina dominated coagulase-negative staphylococci and NAB. Bacterial patterns of studied habitats turned out to be similar in many respects. In the urine Megasphaera spp., Veillonella spp., Prevotella spp., Mobiluncus spp., Fusobacterium spp. were found, whereas in the vagina these microorganisms were not present. Cluster analysis revealed no significant differences in the concentration of the same microorganisms isolated from the urine and vagina. When comparing the frequency of microorganism detection in urine by bacteriological method and by PCR, bacterial patterns were identical in 56% of cases.

  5. Wii Balance Board: Reliability and Clinical Use in Assessment of Balance in Healthy Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Ferreira, Arthur Sá; Puell, Vivian Neiva; Lattari, Eduardo; Machado, Sérgio; Otero Vaghetti, César Augusto; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Force plate is considered gold standard tool to assess body balance. However the Wii Balance Board (WBB) platform is a trustworthy equipment to assess stabilometric components in young people. Thus, we aim to examine the reliability of measures of center of pressure with WBB in healthy elderly women. Twenty one healthy and physically active women were enrolled in the study (age: 64 ± 7 years; body mass index: 29 ± 5 kg/m2. The WBB was used to assess the center of pressure measures in the individuals. Pressure was linearly applied to different points to test the platform precision. Three assessments were performed, with two of them being held on the same day at a 5- to 10-minute interval, and the third one was performed 48 h later. A linear regression analysis was used to find out linearity, while the intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess reliability. The platform precision was adequate (R2 = 0.997, P = 0.01). Center of pressure measures showed an excellent reliability (all intraclass correlation coefficient values were > 0.90; p < 0.01). The WBB is a precise and reliable tool of body stability quantitative measure in healthy active elderly women and its use should be encouraged in clinical settings.

  6. Flexibility of Knee Joint Muscles in Women with Knee Osteoarthritis and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abolahrari Shirazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases in synovial joints. Due to high loading forces during weight-bearing activities, the knee joint is prone to degenerative processes. This study aimed to compare the flexibility of muscles around the knee joint in patients with knee osteoarthritis with those of healthy individuals. Methods: Twenty-three women with bilateral knee osteoarthritis and 23 healthy women matched with the patient group for age, height and weight participated in this study. Flexibility of the quadriceps, hamstring, iliotibial band, adductor and gastrocnemius muscles was evaluated with a goniometric device. Pain intensity was assessed with a visual analogue scale. The data were analyzed with independent t-tests to compare the two groups, and Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to correlate muscle flexibility and pain intensity. Results: significant lower flexibility of the bilateral quadriceps muscles was found in patients compared to healthy women (P<0.05. No significant differences were detected between groups regarding other muscles. Quadriceps flexibility correlated significantly with pain intensity in patients (P<0.001. Conclusion: In patients with osteoarthritis, quadriceps flexibility may be decreased although other muscles may remain unaffected. Quadriceps stretching is thus a potentially important component of treatment, which may influence pain reduction in these patients.

  7. Social support attenuates the harmful effects of stress in healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Elizabeth R; Smith, Bruce W

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that social support buffers the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. The study was conducted in the Southwest United States and data were collected from 2006 to 2010. Participants were 52 healthy adult women who completed a baseline questionnaire and a 21-day daily diary. Social support was assessed in the baseline questionnaire and perceived stress and physical symptoms were assessed in the daily diary. Multilevel analyses were used to predict both same day and next day physical symptoms from baseline social support and daily perceived stress. The hypotheses were supported when predicting both same and next day physical symptoms. For the same day, perceived stress and the social support × perceived stress interaction were both related to physical symptoms. For the next day, the social support × perceived stress interaction but not perceived stress was related to physical symptoms when controlling for previous day physical symptoms. The interactions were such that women higher in social support had smaller increases in same and next day physical symptoms on days of higher perceived stress than women lower in social support. Social support may buffer the effects of daily perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. Future research should investigate what aspects and in what contexts social support may reduce the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms and examine how social support may affect the development of long-term health problems through increases in daily physical symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pain pressure threshold algometry of the abdominal wall in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.L.S. Montenegro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of pain pressure threshold algometry at various points of the abdominal wall of healthy women. Twenty-one healthy women in menacme with a mean age of 28 ± 5.4 years (range: 19-39 years were included. All volunteers had regular menstrual cycles (27-33 days and were right-handed and, to the best of our knowledge, none were taking medications at the time of testing. Women with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety or other mood disturbances were excluded. Women with previous abdominal surgery, any pain condition or any evidence of inflammation, hypertension, smoking, alcoholism, or inflammatory disease were also excluded. Pain perception thresholds were assessed with a pressure algometer with digital traction and compression and a measuring capacity for 5 kg. All points were localized by palpation and marked with a felt-tipped pen and each individual was evaluated over a period of 2 days in two consecutive sessions, each session consisting of a set of 14 point measurements repeated twice by two examiners in random sequence. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean pain threshold obtained by the two examiners on 2 diferent days (examiner A: P = 1.00; examiner B: P = 0.75; Wilcoxon matched pairs test. There was excellent/good agreement between examiners for all days and all points. Our results have established baseline values to which future researchers will be able to refer. They show that pressure algometry is a reliable measure for pain perception in the abdominal wall of healthy women.

  9. Pain pressure threshold algometry of the abdominal wall in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, M L L S; Braz, C A; Mateus-Vasconcelos, E L; Rosa-e-Silva, J C; Candido-dos-Reis, F J; Nogueira, A A; Poli-Neto, O B

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of pain pressure threshold algometry at various points of the abdominal wall of healthy women. Twenty-one healthy women in menacme with a mean age of 28 ± 5.4 years (range: 19-39 years) were included. All volunteers had regular menstrual cycles (27-33 days) and were right-handed and, to the best of our knowledge, none were taking medications at the time of testing. Women with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety or other mood disturbances were excluded. Women with previous abdominal surgery, any pain condition or any evidence of inflammation, hypertension, smoking, alcoholism, or inflammatory disease were also excluded. Pain perception thresholds were assessed with a pressure algometer with digital traction and compression and a measuring capacity for 5 kg. All points were localized by palpation and marked with a felt-tipped pen and each individual was evaluated over a period of 2 days in two consecutive sessions, each session consisting of a set of 14 point measurements repeated twice by two examiners in random sequence. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean pain threshold obtained by the two examiners on 2 different days (examiner A: P = 1.00; examiner B: P = 0.75; Wilcoxon matched pairs test). There was excellent/good agreement between examiners for all days and all points. Our results have established baseline values to which future researchers will be able to refer. They show that pressure algometry is a reliable measure for pain perception in the abdominal wall of healthy women.

  10. Dietary fat intake, circulating and membrane fatty acid composition of healthy Norwegian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Y; Blois, A; Geppert, J; Khalil, F; Ghebremeskel, K; Holmsen, H

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to assess the dietary fat intake and blood fatty acid status of healthy Norwegian men and women living in Bergen whose habitual diet is known to be high in long-chain omega-3 fat. Healthy men (n = 41) and women (n = 40) aged 20-50 years who were regular blood donors completed 7-day food diaries and their nutrient intake was analysed by Norwegian food database software, kbs, version 4.9 (kostberegningssystem; University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway). Blood samples were obtained before blood donation and assessed for the fatty acid composition of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol esters, phosphatidylcholine, and red cell phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. There was no difference in dietary fat intake between men and women. Total and saturated fat intakes exceeded the upper limits of the recommendations of the National Nutrition Council of Norway. Although polyunsaturated fat intake was close to the lower limit of the recommended level, the intake varied greatly among individuals, partly as a result of the use of supplementary fish oil. Moreover, the proportional fatty acid composition of plasma and red cell lipids was similar between men and women. Enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid in red cell phosphatidylethanolamine was found in fish oil users. The results of the present study provide a snapshot of the current nutritional status of healthy Norwegian adults. Moreover, the detailed blood fatty acid composition of men and women whose habitual diet constitutes high long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fat as well as saturated fat could be used as reference value for population studies. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Outcome of deliveries in healthy but obese women: obesity and delivery outcome

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    Kaplan-Sturk Rebecka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity among fertile women is a global problem. 25% of pregnant Swedish women are overweight at admission to the antenatal clinic and 12% of them are considered as obese. Previous studies have shown an increased risk of delivery complications with an elevated maternal BMI. The aim of this study was to evaluate delivery outcomes in relation to maternal BMI on admission to the antenatal clinic. A healthy group of 787 women with full-term pregnancies and spontaneous onset of labor were included in the study. Delivery outcome was assessed in relation to maternal BMI when attending the antenatal clinic. Results The results indicated that in deliveries where the maternal BMI was >30 a high frequency of abnormal CTG trace during the last 30 minutes of labor was shown. A blood sample for evaluation of risk of fetal hypoxia was performed in only eight percent of these deliveries. A spontaneous vaginal delivery without intervention was noted in 85.7%, and 12% of neonates were delivered with an adverse fetal outcome compared to 2.8% in the group with a maternal BMI Conclusion These results indicate an increased risk at delivery for healthy, but obese women in labor. Furthermore, the delivery management may not always be optimal in these deliveries.

  12. Clinical Validation of Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring in Healthy Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Kelsey; Wright, Stephen P; Kingdom, John C P; Parker, John D

    2017-11-01

    Non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring has the potential to be a valuable clinical tool for the screening and management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The objective of this study was to validate the clinical utility of the non-invasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM) system in pregnant women. Twenty healthy pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy at 22 to 26 weeks' gestation were enrolled in this study. Measures of heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output were obtained through NICOM and compared with Doppler echocardiography. NICOM significantly overestimated measures of both stroke volume and cardiac output compared with Doppler echocardiography (95 ± 4 vs. 73 ± 4 mL, P gold standard for the measurement of cardiac output in the setting of pregnancy. However, once normal values have been established, NICOM has the potential to be a useful clinical tool for monitoring maternal hemodynamics in pregnant women. Further investigation regarding the validity of NICOM is required in larger populations of healthy and hypertensive pregnant women to determine whether this device is appropriate for maternal hemodynamic assessment during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of soy milk and isoflavone supplements on cognitive performance in healthy, postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, L R; Ryan Borchers, T A; Robison, L M; Wiediger, M; Park, J S; Chew, B P; McGuire, M K; Sclar, D A; Skaer, T L; Beerman, K A

    2007-01-01

    The decline in estrogen concentrations in women after menopause can contribute to health related changes including impairments in cognition, especially memory. Because of the health concerns related to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alternative approaches to treat menopausal symptoms, such as nutritional supplements and/or diet containing isoflavones, are of interest. This study investigated whether soy isoflavones (soy milk and supplement) could improve cognitive functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women. PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTION AND DESIGN: A total of 79 postmenopausal women, 48-65 years of age, completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which they were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: cow's milk and a placebo supplement (control); soy milk and placebo supplement (soy milk, 72 mg isoflavones/day); or cow's milk and isoflavone supplement (isoflavone supplement, 70 mg isoflavones/day). Cognitive functioning was assessed using various cognitive tasks before the intervention (baseline) and after the intervention (test). In contrast to predictions, soy isoflavones did not improve selective attention (Stroop task), visual long-term memory (pattern recognition), short-term visuospatial memory (Benton Visual Retention Test), or visuo-spatial working memory (color match task). Also, the soy milk group showed a decline in verbal working memory (Digit Ordering Task) compared to the soy supplement and control groups. Soy isoflavones consumed as a food or supplement over a 16-week period did not improve or appreciably affect cognitive functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women.

  14. Effects of lactation on bone mineral content in healthy postpartum women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayslip, C.C.; Klein, T.A.; Wray, H.L.; Duncan, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    Bone mineral contents were estimated by dual photon absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and single photon absorptiometry of the mid- and distal radius in 19 healthy women on their second postpartum day and at 6 months postpartum. All bone mineral measurements were performed by one technician, and the single and dual photon absorptiometry results were read by one observer. Daily oral calcium intakes were estimated from dietary histories obtained by a dietitian. Twelve women who breast-fed exclusively throughout the first 6 months postpartum were compared with seven formula-feeding women who did not breast-feed or who breast-fed for less than 3 months postpartum. No differences were found in age, parity, height, weight, or daily calcium intake between the breast- and formula-feeding women. Breast-feeding women had a significant decrease (averaging 6.5%) in bone mineral of the lumbar spine at 6 months postpartum as compared with 2 days postpartum (1.14 +/- 0.03 versus 1.22 +/- 0.03 g/cm2, mean +/- SEM; P less than .001), whereas no significant change occurred in the formula-feeding women at 6 months (1.24 +/- 0.03 versus 1.26 +/- 0.04 g/cm2). At 6 months postpartum, the breast-feeding women had a significantly lower mean bone mineral content of the lumbar spine than did formula-feeding women (P less than .05). No significant changes were noted in bone mineral content of the mid- or distal radius in either group of women during the period of evaluation. We conclude that during the first 6 months postpartum, breast-feeding is associated with bone mineral loss from the lumbar spine, but not from the mid- or distal radius

  15. Seasonal changes in vitamin D status and bone turnover in healthy Irish postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, T.R.; McCarthy, D.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effect of season on biochemical markers of bone turnover in 51-to 75-year-old Irish women and to investigate whether such changes are related to vitamin D status. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Setting: Cork, Ireland (52 degrees N). Subjects: 76 apparently...... healthy, free-living postmenopausal women (aged 51-75 years), not taking any medication and free from any condition likely to affect vitamin D status or calcium/bone metabolism. Results: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] showed a clear seasonal variation with significantly higher (p ... during late summer than late winter. Both urinary pyridinoline (Ur-Pyr) (p women into those with S-25(OH)D levels...

  16. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...... status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1–2 cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair...... washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. Results: No statistically significant difference (p = 0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean...

  17. Changes in body composition in apparently healthy urban Indian women up to 3 years postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajale, Neha A; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2015-01-01

    Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP) and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR) and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR) has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i) compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii) effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years) randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A), 88 with 1-2 years (Group-B) and 84 with 3-4-year-old-children (Group-C) were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB), by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX) were collected. Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5[10] kg) than at 1-year (3.0[7] kg) (median [IQR]). Android fat % (central obesity) increased (P 0.1). Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women.

  18. Bone mineral density in healthy Syrian women measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

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    Bakir Mohamed Adel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of bone mineral density (BMD using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA technique is considered as a standard technique for diagnosing osteopenia and osteoporosis and evaluating the severity of such diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated the necessity to establish an ethnic-specific reference data for Bone mineral density measurements. Such data are lacking for the Syrian population. The objectives of this study are (1 to establish BMD reference values in a group of healthy Syrian women using DXA technique, (2 to compare with values from other populations, (3 to study the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Syrian women using the manufacturer reference values. A total of 951 healthy Syrian women aged 20-79 years participated in this study. Weight, height, and BMI have been determined. BMD measurements were performed using Lunar Prodigy Advance System (GE. The data were compared with those from other populations. The results have demonstrated the expected decline in BMD with age after peaking at 30-39 years old group. The peak values of the lumbar spine and femur neck were 1.16 (0.12, and 0.95 (0.13 g/cm2, respectively. The results of the Syrian women were compared with those from other populations and the differences were presented. Osteopenia was diagnosed in 35.80% and 60.31% and osteoporosis in 6.23% and 2.72% in lumbar spine and femur neck, respectively, of women 50-59 years of age. These ratios increased to 36.84%, 68.42% and 23.68%, 13.10%, respectively, in the age group more than 59 years. BMD values of the Syrian women were determined for the first time. The results demonstrate the importance of establishing population-specific reference range for BMD values for an accurate assessment of Osteoporosis. High prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was demonstrated in Syrian using the manufacturer reference values.

  19. The Association between Obesity and Cognitive Function in Otherwise Healthy Premenopausal Arab Women

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    Abdulaziz Farooq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between obesity and cognitive function in healthy premenopausal women. Methods. From a cohort of 220 women, 98 were randomly selected that provided complete data. Body composition was examined by dual-energy X-ray scan. All participants completed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB to assess cognitive performance in three domains: attention, memory, and planning executive function. The Reaction Time (RTI test was used to assess motor and mental response speeds; the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC test was used to assess planning executive function. For memory assessment, the Delayed Match to Sample (DMS, Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM, and Spatial Span (SSP tests were used to assess forced choice recognition memory, visual pattern recognition memory, and working memory capacity, respectively. Results. 36 (36.7% were morbidly obese, 22 (22.4% obese, and 23 (23.5% overweight. Performance on RTI and SOC planning ability were not associated with body mass index (BMI. DMS mean time to correct response, when stimulus is visible or immediately hidden (0 ms delay, was higher by 785 ± 302 ms (milliseconds (p=0.011 and 587 ± 259 ms (p=0.026 in morbidly obese women compared to normal weight women. Memory span length was significantly lower in overweight (5.5 ± 1.3, p=0.008 and obese women (5.6 ± 1.6, p=0.007 compared to normal weight (6.7 ± 0.9. DEXA-assessed body fat (% showed similar associations as BMI, and latency to correct response on DMS and PRM was positively correlated with percentage of body fat, but not with VO2 max. Conclusion. In otherwise healthy premenopausal women, obesity did not impact accuracy on cognitive tasks related to attention, memory, or planning executive function, but morbid obesity was associated with higher latency to correct response on memory-specific tasks and lower memory span length.

  20. The Association between Obesity and Cognitive Function in Otherwise Healthy Premenopausal Arab Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Abdulaziz; Gibson, Ann-Marie; J Reilly, John; Gaoua, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    To examine the association between obesity and cognitive function in healthy premenopausal women. From a cohort of 220 women, 98 were randomly selected that provided complete data. Body composition was examined by dual-energy X-ray scan. All participants completed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to assess cognitive performance in three domains: attention, memory, and planning executive function. The Reaction Time (RTI) test was used to assess motor and mental response speeds; the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) test was used to assess planning executive function. For memory assessment, the Delayed Match to Sample (DMS), Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM), and Spatial Span (SSP) tests were used to assess forced choice recognition memory, visual pattern recognition memory, and working memory capacity, respectively. 36 (36.7%) were morbidly obese, 22 (22.4%) obese, and 23 (23.5%) overweight. Performance on RTI and SOC planning ability were not associated with body mass index (BMI). DMS mean time to correct response, when stimulus is visible or immediately hidden (0 ms delay), was higher by 785 ± 302 ms (milliseconds) ( p =0.011) and 587 ± 259 ms ( p =0.026) in morbidly obese women compared to normal weight women. Memory span length was significantly lower in overweight (5.5 ± 1.3, p =0.008) and obese women (5.6 ± 1.6, p =0.007) compared to normal weight (6.7 ± 0.9). DEXA-assessed body fat (%) showed similar associations as BMI, and latency to correct response on DMS and PRM was positively correlated with percentage of body fat, but not with VO 2 max. In otherwise healthy premenopausal women, obesity did not impact accuracy on cognitive tasks related to attention, memory, or planning executive function, but morbid obesity was associated with higher latency to correct response on memory-specific tasks and lower memory span length.

  1. An elaboration of Thai vocal instructors in Thai university classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantana Khochprasert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents a qualitative investigation on the study of instructive methods of Thai traditional singing instructors in higher education in Thailand. The information was collected in the form of document analysis and interviews with Thai traditional music instructors from several universities across Thailand. The results of the analysis of Thai traditional singing instruction methods in higher education in Thailand revealed that there are 11 universities that offer Thai traditional singing instruction. The instruction is a part of curricula under four different governing bodies and four classifications of curriculum. The sets of practicum repertoires in every university were found to be almost identical. It was found that the instructors used several techniques. Some techniques were similar while some were different. All the techniques were transmitted orally. In order to successfully produce graduates of the desired standard, singing must be correctly taught from the basics, whether theory, pronunciation or rhyming. At the same time, creativity should also be encouraged

  2. Optimising women's diets. An examination of factors that promote healthy eating and reduce the likelihood of unhealthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Thornton, Lukar; Crawford, David

    2012-08-01

    The majority of nutrition promotion research that has examined the determinants of unhealthy or healthy dietary behaviours has focused on factors that promote consumption of these foods, rather than factors that may both promote healthy eating and buffer or protect consumption of unhealthy foods. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that both promote healthy eating and also reduce the likelihood of eating unhealthily amongst women. A community sample of 1013 Australian women participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey that assessed factors associated with diet and obesity. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between a range of individual, social and environmental factors and aspects of both healthy and unhealthy eating, whilst controlling for key covariates. Results indicated that women with high self efficacy for healthy eating, taste preferences for fruit and vegetables, family support for healthy eating and the absence of perceived barriers to healthy eating (time and cost) were more likely to consume components of a healthy diet and less likely to consume components of a unhealthy diet. Optimal benefits in overall diet quality amongst women may be achieved by targeting factors associated with both healthy and unhealthy eating in nutrition promotion efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Insulin response to oral glucose in healthy, lean young women and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Ganie, Mohammed Ashraf; Praveen, Edavan Pulikkanath; Gupta, Nandita; Lal Khurana, Madan; Seith, Ashu; Dwivedi, Sadanand N; Kumar, Guresh; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2008-11-01

    Insulin resistance and consequent hyperinsulinemia are common among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ethnicity and dietary habits affect insulin levels. There is little published information from India on insulin levels in PCOS patients. Thus the present study aimed to determine the insulin response to oral glucose in women with PCOS and healthy women. In a case-control study design, women with PCOS and lean healthy women without a family history of diabetes mellitus underwent oral glucose tolerance testing. Samples were collected at 0, 1 and 2 h after glucose ingestion. Two hundred and eighty-five women with PCOS and 27 lean healthy young women were enrolled into the study. The mean age of controls was 22.8 +/- 4.5 years (range 15-32 years) and their mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.7 +/- 2.6 kg/m(2). Mean blood glucose at 0, 1 and 2 h was 88.2 +/- 7.2, 115.5 +/- 25.5 and 91.8 +/- 20.5 mg/dl, respectively. Corresponding plasma insulin levels were 5.8 +/- 1.1, 32.7 +/- 26.5 and 14.6 +/- 9.6 mIU/l. Peak insulin levels were seen at 1 h and these came down to less than 40% of the peak value by 2 h. Glucose/insulin ratio at 0, 1 and 2 h was 15.6 +/- 3.1, 7.0 +/- 3.1 and 11.4 +/- 7.0. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was 1.2 +/- 0.2. The age of the PCOS women ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 23.4 +/- 6.2 years) and their BMI ranged from 16.4 to 50.4 kg/m(2) (mean 27.7 +/- 6.3 kg/m(2)). One hundred and seventy-six (62%) PCOS patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 39 (14%) had impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 49 (17%) had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 21 (7%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin response was higher in women with PCOS. Peak insulin was observed at 1 h. The difference between 1-h and 2-h post-glucose insulin decreased with worsening glucose tolerance. Both plasma insulin and BMI showed a rising trend from NGT to IFG to IGT. There was no further increase in either insulin or BMI from IGT to T2DM

  4. Difference in Needs for Physical Activity Among Healthy Women, Women with Physical Limitations and Korean Immigrant Women

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    Myoung-Ae Choe, RN, PhD

    2007-06-01

    Conclusion: Three groups of women had different needs for physical activity, and their needs for physical activity were influenced by multiple factors reflecting their daily lives in immigration transition and health/illness transition.

  5. Comparing the effects of two Swedish massage techniques on the vital signs and anxiety of healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Gholami-Motlagh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Massage therapy caused a decrease in systolic BP, pulse, and respiratory rate. It can be concluded that massage therapy was useful for decreasing the vital signs associated with anxiety in healthy women.

  6. Effects of hydrocortisone on false memory recognition in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesenberg, Moritz; Weber, Juliane; Schaeuffele, Carmen; Fleischer, Juliane; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Roepke, Stefan; Moritz, Steffen; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-12-01

    Most of the studies focusing on the effect of stress on false memories by using psychosocial and physiological stressors yielded diverse results. In the present study, we systematically tested the effect of exogenous hydrocortisone using a false memory paradigm. In this placebo-controlled study, 37 healthy men and 38 healthy women (mean age 24.59 years) received either 10 mg of hydrocortisone or placebo 75 min before using the false memory, that is, Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM), paradigm. We used emotionally charged and neutral DRM-based word lists to look for false recognition rates in comparison to true recognition rates. Overall, we expected an increase in false memory after hydrocortisone compared to placebo. No differences between the cortisol and the placebo group were revealed for false and for true recognition performance. In general, false recognition rates were lower compared to true recognition rates. Furthermore, we found a valence effect (neutral, positive, negative, disgust word stimuli), indicating higher rates of true and false recognition for emotional compared to neutral words. We further found an interaction effect between sex and recognition. Post hoc t tests showed that for true recognition women showed a significantly better memory performance than men, independent of treatment. This study does not support the hypothesis that cortisol decreases the ability to distinguish between old versus novel words in young healthy individuals. However, sex and emotional valence of word stimuli appear to be important moderators. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Endothelial function in highly endurance-trained and sedentary, healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Ingvild T; Hoven, Heidi; Hetland, Eva V; Rognmo, Oivind; Slørdahl, Stig A

    2005-05-01

    Endothelial function is reduced by age, chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension or type 2 diabetes, and it is shown that aerobic exercise may reverse this trend. The effect of a high aerobic training status on endothelial function in young, healthy subjects is however less clear. The present study was designed to determine whether endothelial function is improved in highly endurance-trained young women compared to sedentary, healthy controls. Brachial artery diameter was measured in 16 endurance-trained (age: 23.7 +/- 2.5 years, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 60.6 +/- 4.5 ml/kg per min) and 14 sedentary females (age: 23.7 +/- 2.1 years, VO2max: 40.5 +/- 5.6 ml/kg per min) at rest, during flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and after sublingual glycerol trinitrate administration, using high-resolution ultrasound. FMD did not differ between the endurance-trained and the sedentary females (14.8% vs 16.4%, p = NS), despite a substantial difference in VO2max of 50% (p endurance-trained group possessed however, a 9% larger resting brachial artery diameter when adjusted for body surface area. The results of the present study suggest that endothelial function is well preserved in young, healthy women, and that a high aerobic training status due to long term aerobic training does not improve the dilating capacity any further.

  8. Comparison of prevalence of periodontal disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ehsan Rahiminejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, affecting 4-18% of them. Previous studies also showed that periodontal diseases are associated with different components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the association between PCOS and periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 196 women (98 with PCOS and 98 healthy controls were enrolled. PCOS diagnosis was confirmed by history, clinical signs, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and ultrasound studies. Both cases and controls were examined by the same periodontist. Periodontal parameters including bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth, clinical attachment loss (CAL, plaque index, and tooth loss were investigated in all participants. Pregnant women, smokers, individuals with a history of malignancy or osteoporosis, and those taking prophylactic antibiotics for dental procedures or receiving periodontal treatment during the 6-month period before examination were excluded. Data were analyzed using t-test, Chi-square test, and linear regression. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: CAL and sites with BOP were significantly higher in women with PCOS (P < 0.05. However, no significant difference was observed in the tooth loss rate between PCOS and non-PCOS participants (P = 0.384. Conclusion: The prevalence of periodontal disease seems to be higher in women with PCOS. This may be related to the role of chronic systemic inflammation in the pathophysiology of both PCOS and periodontal diseases.

  9. Caesarean section on maternal request: risks and benefits in healthy nulliparous women and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Leanne S; von Dadelszen, Peter; Christilaw, Jan; Janssen, Patricia A; Lisonkova, Sarka; Marquette, Gerald P; Liston, Robert M

    2009-09-01

    To determine the risks and benefits of an elective Caesarean section (CS) at term in healthy nulliparous women. We conducted a population-based cohort study of deliveries between 1994 and 2002. Using bivariate and multivariable techniques, we compared maternal and neonatal outcomes in healthy nulliparous women who had undergone elective pre-labour CS (using breech presentation as a surrogate) with those in women who had undergone spontaneous labour with anticipated vaginal delivery (SL) at full term. There were 1046 deliveries in the pre-labour CS group and 38 021 in the SL group. Life-threatening maternal morbidity was similar in each group. Life-threatening neonatal morbidity was decreased in the CS group (RR 0.34; 99% CI 0.12 to 0.97). Subgroup analysis of the SL group by mode of delivery demonstrated the increased neonatal risk was associated with operative vaginal delivery and intrapartum CS but not spontaneous vaginal delivery. An elective pre-labour Caesarean section in a nulliparous woman at full term decreased the risk of life-threatening neonatal morbidity compared with spontaneous labour with anticipated vaginal delivery. However, the 63% of women with spontaneous labour who achieved a spontaneous vaginal delivery would not have benefited from delivery by Caesarean section. Further research is needed to better identify women with an increased likelihood of an operative vaginal or intrapartum Caesarean section, as this may assist maternity caregivers in decision-making about childbirth. Further research is also needed to determine if these findings can be confirmed in a prospective study.

  10. Validity and interobserver agreement of lower extremity local tissue water measurements in healthy women using tissue dielectric constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads R; Birkballe, Susanne; Nørregaard, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurement may become an important tool in the clinical evaluation of chronic lower extremity swelling in women; however, several factors are known to influence TDC measurements, and comparative data on healthy lower extremities are few.......Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurement may become an important tool in the clinical evaluation of chronic lower extremity swelling in women; however, several factors are known to influence TDC measurements, and comparative data on healthy lower extremities are few....

  11. A qualitative study of Thai HIV-positive young men who have sex with men and transgender women demonstrates the need for eHealth interventions to optimize the HIV care continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Tarandeep; Nitpolprasert, Chattiya; Kerr, Stephen J; Muessig, Kathryn E; Promthong, Sangusa; Chomchey, Nitiya; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Chaiyahong, Prachya; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2017-07-01

    In Thailand, young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and transgender women (TG) are disproportionately affected by HIV and have suboptimal care continuum outcomes. Although Thai YMSM and young TG are early adopters of emerging technologies and have high Internet and technology access and utilization, the potential of technology has not been harnessed to optimize the HIV treatment cascade. We interviewed 18 behaviorally HIV-infected YMSM and young TG regarding care challenges, identified how eHealth could address care needs, and elicited preferences for eHealth interventions. Participants reported struggling with individual and societal-level stigma which negatively impacted linkage to and retention in care, and antiretroviral therapy adherence. YMSM and young TG described inadequate in-person support services and heavily relied on random online resources to fill information and support gaps, but sometimes viewed them as untrustworthy or inconsistent. Participants universally endorsed the development of eHealth resources and proposed how they could ameliorate individual-level fears over stigma and improve public perceptions about HIV. Personalized and integrated eHealth interventions with interactive, user-driven structures, credible content, rewards for engagement, real-time counseling and reminder support could help overcome barriers YMSM and young TG face in traditional HIV healthcare systems and have the potential to improve care outcomes.

  12. The effects of prospective mate quality on investments in healthy body weight among single women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew C; Cronin, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines how a single female's investment in healthy body weight is affected by the quality of single males in her marriage market. A principle concern in estimation is the presence of market-level unobserved heterogeneity that may be correlated with changes in single male quality, measured as earning potential. To address this concern, we employ a differencing strategy that normalizes the exercise behaviors of single women to those of their married counterparts. Our main results suggest that when potential mate quality in a marriage market decreases, single black women invest less in healthy body weight. For example, we find that a 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of low quality single black males leads to a 5-10% decrease in vigorous exercise taken by single black females. Results for single white women are qualitatively similar, but not consistent across specifications. These results highlight the relationship between male and female human capital acquisition that is driven by participation in the marriage market. Our results suggest that programs designed to improve the economic prospects of single males may yield positive externalities in the form of improved health behaviors, such as more exercise, particularly for single black females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Corticotropin-releasing hormone induces depression-like changes of sleep electroencephalogram in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüssler, P; Kluge, M; Gamringer, W; Wetter, T C; Yassouridis, A; Uhr, M; Rupprecht, R; Steiger, A

    2016-12-01

    We reported previously that repetitive intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) around sleep onset prompt depression-like changes in certain sleep and endocrine activity parameters (e.g. decrease of slow-wave sleep during the second half of the night, blunted growth hormone peak, elevated cortisol concentration during the first half of the night). Furthermore a sexual dimorphism of the sleep-endocrine effects of the hormones growth hormone-releasing hormone and ghrelin was observed. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated the effect of pulsatile administration of 4×50μg CRH on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal cortisol and GH concentration in young healthy women. After CRH compared to placebo, intermittent wakefulness increased during the total night and the sleep efficiency index decreased. During the first third of the night, REM sleep and stage 2 sleep increased and sleep stage 3 decreased. Cortisol concentration was elevated throughout the night and during the first and second third of the night. GH secretion remained unchanged. Our data suggest that after CRH some sleep and endocrine activity parameters show also depression-like changes in healthy women. These changes are more distinct in women than in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum Leptin Concentrations during the Menstrual Cycle in Iranian Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Einollahi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nLeptin, a circulating 16-kd polypeptide consisting of 167 amino acids, appears to be involved in the body weight homeostasis. Moreover leptin plays an important role for the reproductive system, early embryogenesis, and fat metabolism during pregnancy and puberty. Significant correlations have been found between leptin and sexual hormones, which is a cytokine and has hormonal properties. The aim of this study was to determine serum leptin levels during the menstrual cycle, and the association between serum leptin and reproductive hormones in young, healthy Iranian women. 42 healthy women volunteered for the study. They all had regular menstrual cycles, with cycle length varying between 26 and 32 days. None of them used oral contraceptives. All were of normal weight, with body mass index ( BMI < 25 Kg/m2. Fasting blood samples were collected during the follicular phase, mid cycle and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. FSH and LH were measured with coated tube immunoradiometric assay. Estrogen and progesterone were measured using antibody -coated tubes. Serum Leptin concentration were measured by Leptin (sandwich ELISA. In menstruating women, serum leptin increased from 13.15+/-1.60 ng/ml in the early follicular phase to 16.57+/-1.68 ng/ml (P<0.01 at the luteal phase. Serum leptin concentration negatively correlated with LH and progesterone (P<0.05. Mean serum leptin levels correlated with body mass index (BMI (r =0.78, P<0.001.

  15. [Healthy habits and osteoporosis prevention in perimenopausal women from rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, M Reyes; Almazán Ortega, Raquel; Martínez Portela, José M; Alves Pérez, M Teresa; Segura-Iglesias, M Carmen; Pérez-Fernández, Román

    2014-01-01

    The probability of developing osteoporosis decreases with an adequate supply of vitamin D, a balanced diet, and increased physical activity. In this study, we evaluated whether an educational intervention improves osteoporosis-related behavior in perimenopausal women from rural areas. A randomized experimental evaluation was performed of an educational intervention. The variables were physical activity, calcium intake and sun exposure in women from rural areas aged 45-54 years (n=216) at time 0 and 12 months after the educational intervention. In the control group (n=106), the information was sent by surface mail (month 0). In the intervention group (n=110), two interactive workshops were given (month 0). The topic of the workshops and the information sent by surface mail was healthy habits for osteoporosis prevention. After 12 months, the intervention group, but not the control group, had increased their physical activity (p=0.006), sun exposure (p=0.029), and calcium intake (53% to 64%). A simple educational intervention in perimenopausal women from rural areas improved healthy habits for osteoporosis prevention. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. DO INTERVENTION STRATEGIES OF WOMEN HEALTHY HEART PROJECT (WHHP IMPACT ON DIFFERENTLY ON WORKING AND HOUSEWIVES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possible difference of the impact of Women Healthy Heart Project on lifestyle, as well as physical/biochemical parameters of working women and housewives.    METHODS: This was a community-based intervention study conducted over 5 years (2002-2007 in the counties of Isfahan and Najafabad (intervention areas and Arak (control. Pre-study situation analysis of women was followed by 5 years of wide-ranging interventions (educational/environmental conducted by various organizations using different methodologies. The interventions were aimed at modifying/improving lifestyle by increasing physical activity, encouraging healthy eating, and tobacco use cessation. The organizations involved in performing the interventions included the local radio and television authority, health/treatment centers, the Red Crescent Society, Municipalities, the Relief Committee, the Center for Retirees’ Welfare, and the Literacy Campaign Organization. After 5 years, final phase same as first phase was planed. The subjects studied in all phases` the pre- and post-intervention phases consisted of 10586 women aged above 18 years. Demographic data, obesity index, smoking, physical activity and eating habit were assessed before and after the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 using Student’s t-test, chi-square test, the general linear model of ANOVA, and logistic regression.    RESULTS: We studied 10586 women (6105 and 4481 women, pre- and post-intervention, respectively. Mean age of working women was 34.14 ± 10.09 and 34.08 ± 9.35 years before and after the study, respectively. Mean age of housewives before and after the study was 40.05 ± 14.61 and 40.36 ± 15.32 years, respectively. Interventions conducted during 5 years improved eating habits and decreased tobacco use in working women and housewives. In every phase of the study, there was a significant age difference between housewives and working women

  17. [Investigation of the situation of vaginal microflora in healthy women population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fang; Zhang, Ning; Di, Wen; Liao, Qin-ping; Wang, Wen; Zhao, Xiao-ming; Sun, Yun; Liu, Zhao-hui

    2009-01-01

    To assess the distribution of vaginal microflora in healthy women and investigate their cognition of lower reproductive tract infection-related knowledge as well as personal hygiene habits and character of behavior in seeking medical treatment. Total of 1660 healthy women who had physical check-ups at the Medical Center of Renji Hospital were selected and received gynecologic examination, as well as routine examination, pH examination and bacterial culture of the vaginal discharge. In addition, 860 of them were randomly selected for questionnaire survey, in which reproductive tract infection -related knowledge and personal hygiene habits as well as behavior in seeking medical treatment were involved. Among the 1660 censused women, vaginal average pH was 4. 16 +/- 0.21. The positive rate of Candida in vaginal discharge routine examination was 3.86% (64/1660), which was lower than that in aerobes culture 7.71% (128/1660). Candida albicans was the most populous species 78.9% (101/128), followed by 7.8% (10/128) and 7.0% (9/128) for the Candida glabrata and Candida krusei respectively. The most populous species of vaginal microflora were hemolytic streptococcus A (63.80%, 1059/1660), Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.28%, 237/1660), and Enterococcus faecalis (D) group (11.44%, 190/1660). The questionnaire survey showed that 88.4% (760/860) of 860 women took active treatment when feeling unwell, 92.1% (792/860) of them had good hygiene practices, and only 21.2% (182/860) had the habit of vaginal douching. In addition, 50.0% (430/860) of them had the desire to obtain reproductive health knowledge through out-patient consultation. Vulvovaginal Candida disease ranks the first in all types of vaginitis, among which, Candida albicans is the most populous species followed by the Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. Hemolytic streptococcus A and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most common species of vaginal microflora in healthy women. The censused women have high awareness of

  18. Evaluation of 'Just4Mums' - A community based healthy eating and physical activity course for obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Ellinor K; Atkinson, Lou; French, David P

    2014-07-01

    Current NICE guidelines state that women in England need to be supported regarding eating healthily and being physically active during pregnancy. In response to these guidelines, the Just4Mums service was developed - a free six week community-based course for obese (BMI⩾30) pregnant women. The service encouraged a healthy weight gain in pregnancy through the provision of information on healthy eating and opportunities to be physically active. The aim of this evaluation was to provide preliminary evidence on efficacy. Participants' were assessed at the beginning and end of the course, in terms of healthy eating and physical activity (PA) behaviour, mental well-being, and mediating variables (i.e. intentions, self-efficacy and attitudes towards healthy eating and PA). Thirty-four out of 60 women (57%) women completed the course. There were few differences between those women who completed and did not complete the course. After attending the service, the intention-to-treat analysis showed an improvement in healthy eating (higher intake of fruit and vegetables, lower intake of fast food), no change in PA, reduction in sedentary behaviour and an improvement in mental well-being. Participants also increased their attitude, intention and self-efficacy towards engaging in PA and intention to eat fruit and vegetables. These findings suggest that women who completed the Just4Mums service improved their health behaviours. More research is needed to identify why so many women dropped out of the service. Copyright © 2014.

  19. Thai research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramrattana, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established in 1962, as a reactor center, by the virtue of the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, under operational policy and authority of the Thai Atomic Energy for Peace Commission (TAEPC); and under administration of Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy. It owns and operates the only Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1). The TRR-1/M1 is a mixed reactor system constituting of the old MTR type swimming pool, irradiation facilities and cooling system; and TRIGA Mark III core and control instrumentation. The general performance of TRR-1/M1 is summarized in Table I. The safe operation of TRR-1/M1 is regulated by Reactor Safety Committee (RSC), established under TAEPC, and Health Physics Group of OAEP. The RCS has responsibility and duty to review of and make recommendations on Reactor Standing Orders, Reactor Operation Procedures, Reactor Core Loading and Requests for Reactor Experiments. In addition,there also exist of Emergency Procedures which is administered by OAEP. The Reactor Operation Procedures constitute of reactor operating procedures, system operating procedures and reactor maintenance procedures. At the level of reactor routine operating procedures, there is a set of Specifications on Safety and Operation Limits and Code of Practice from which reactor shift supervisor and operators must follow in order to assure the safe operation of TRR-1/M1. Table II is the summary of such specifications. The OAEP is now upgrading certain major components of the TRR-1/M1 such as the cooling system, the ventilation system and monitoring equipment to ensure their adequately safe and reliable performance under normal and emergency conditions. Furthermore, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing assistance in areas of operation and maintenance and safety analysis. (author)

  20. Azuki Bean Juice Lowers Serum Triglyceride Concentrations in Healthy Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Araki, Risa; Kawamura, Mito; Kondo, Naoko; Kigawa, Mieko; Kawai, Yukari; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Koichi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2008-01-01

    Effects of azuki bean juice supplementation, prescribed according to a Kanpo medicine regimen, on serum lipid concentrations were studied. Healthy young Japanese women were recruited and were randomly assigned to one of the three groups using a parallel-group design. Control (n = 10), azuki (n = 11) and Concentrated azuki (CA) (n = 12) juice groups consumed 150 g daily of the isocaloric assigned juice for one menstrual cycle with their usual diet. Triglyceride concentrations were decreased in...

  1. D-Tagatose increases butyrate production by the colonic microbiota in healthy men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Venema, Koen; Vermunt, Susanne H.F.; Brink, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    D-Tagatose is partly absorbed in the stomach and small intestine. Most of it is fermented by the large intestinal microbiota. The effect of D-tagatose on the composition of the microbiota and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) was studied in vivo and in vitro. Gastrointestinal (GI) complaints were also studied. The in vivo study was performed according to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, five-way cross-over design in healthy subjects (12 men and 18 women). All subjec...

  2. Social Demography of Transitional Dietary Patterns in Thailand: Prospective Evidence from the Thai Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Papier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, a health-risk transition with changes in diet and lifestyle in low and middle-income countries (LMICs led to an emergence of chronic diseases. These trends in Southeast Asian LMICs are not well studied. Here, we report on transitional dietary patterns and their socio-demographic predictors in Thai adults. Dietary data in 2015 were from a random sub-sample (N = 1075 of 42,785 Thai Cohort Study (TCS members who completed all three TCS surveys (2005, 2009, 2013. Principle Component Analysis identified dietary patterns and multivariable linear regression assessed associations (Beta estimates (ß and confidence intervals (CIs between socio-demographic factors and dietary intake pattern scores. Four dietary patterns emerged: Healthy Transitional, Fatty Western, Highly Processed, and Traditional. In women, higher income (≥30,001 Baht/month vs. ≤10,000 and managerial work (vs. office assistant was associated with lower scores for Traditional (ß = −0.67, 95% CI −1.15, −0.19 and Fatty Western diets (ß = −0.60, 95% CI −1.14, −0.05, respectively. University education associated with lower Highly Processed (ß = −0.57, 95% CI −0.98, −0.17 and higher Traditional diet scores (ß = 0.42, 95% CI 0.03, 0.81. In men and women, urban residence associated with higher Fatty Western and lower Traditional diets. Local policy makers should promote healthy diets, particularly in urban residents, in men, and in low-SEP adults.

  3. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naritsara Saenghong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women.

  4. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

    2012-01-01

    The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

  5. Sex hormone manipulation slows reaction time and increases labile mood in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, D. S.; Fisher, P M; Budtz-Jørgensen, E.

    2016-01-01

    : In a randomized controlled double-blinded trial, 61 healthy women (mean age 24.3±4.9 years) were tested with measures of affective verbal memory, reaction time, mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding at baseline and at follow-up after receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) or placebo...... intervention. Women also reported daily mood profiles during intervention. We tested direct effects of intervention and indirect effects through changes in serotonin transporter binding on verbal affective memory, simple reaction time and self-reported measures of mental distress, and further effects of Gn......RHa on daily mood. RESULTS: GnRHa induced an increase in simple reaction time (p=0.03) and more pronounced fluctuations in daily self-reported mood in a manner dependent on baseline mood (p=0.003). Verbal affective memory recall, overall self-perceived mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding were...

  6. Repeatability of junctional zone measurements using three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in healthy, fertile women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Kjærgaard; Glavind, Julie; Madsen, Lene Duch

    2016-01-01

    -observer repeatability was evaluated according to the Bland-Altman method and expressed as coefficient of repeatability (CoR). Results: Using 3D-TVS we visualised a thin and regular JZ in most women. The posterior uterine wall had the largest median (interquartile range; iqr) value of JZmax (5.2 (iqr 3.8-6.5)mm. Ten out....... Correlations between measurements were poor in the narrow range of JZ thickness. Conclusions: The JZ has an indistinct outline by 3D-TVS resulting in an error of JZ measurement within a broad range of ±2-4 mm, but reduced by average measurements. The thickness of JZ varied within a narrow range of this healthy......, fertile population and reliability measurements of JZ thickness has to be evaluated in women with a wider range of JZ thickness....

  7. Effects of sleep restriction on adiponectin levels in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Norah S; Banks, Siobhan; Arroyo, Sylmarie; Dinges, David F

    2010-12-02

    Population studies have consistently found that shorter sleep durations are associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease, particularly among women. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived, anti-inflammatory hormone that is related to cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that sleep restriction would reduce adiponectin levels in healthy young adults. 74 healthy adults (57% men, 63% African American, mean age 29.9years) completed 2 nights of baseline sleep at 10h time in bed (TIB) per night followed by 5 nights of sleep restricted to 4h TIB per night. An additional 8 participants were randomized to a control group that received 10h TIB per night throughout the study. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured following the second night of baseline sleep and the fifth night of sleep restriction or control sleep. Sleep restriction resulted in a decrease in plasma adiponectin levels among Caucasian women (Z=-2.19, p=0.028), but an increase among African American women (Z=-2.73, p=0.006). No significant effects of sleep restriction on adiponectin levels were found among men. A 2×2 between-group analysis of covariance on adiponectin change scores controlling for BMI confirmed significant interactions between sleep restriction and race/ethnicity [F(1,66)=13.73, prestriction, race/ethnicity and sex [F(1,66)=4.27, p=0.043)]. Inflammatory responses to sleep loss appear to be moderated by sex and race/ethnicity; observed decreases in adiponectin following sleep restriction may be one avenue by which reduced sleep duration promotes cardiovascular risk in Caucasian women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Comparison between the Effects of Aerobic Dance Training on Mini-Trampoline and Hard Wooden Surface on Bone Resorption, Health-Related Physical Fitness, Balance, and Foot Plantar Pressure in Thai Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkeaw, Wittawat; Kritpet, Thanomwong; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2015-09-01

    To compare the effects of aerobic dance training on mini-trampoline and hard wooden surface on bone resorption, health-related physical fitness, balance, and foot plantar pressure in Thai working women. Sixty-three volunteered females aged 35-45 years old participated in the study and were divided into 3 groups: A) aerobic dance on mini-trampoline (21 females), B) aerobic dance on hard wooden surface (21 females), and C) control group (21 females). All subjects in the aerobic dance groups wore heart rate monitors during exercise. Aerobic dance worked out 3 times a week, 40 minutes a day for 12 weeks. The intensity was set at 60-80% of the maximum heart rate. The control group engaged in routine physical activity. The collected data were bone formation (N-terminal propeptine of procollagen type I: P1NP) bone resorption (Telopeptide cross linked: β-CrossLaps) health-related physical fitness, balance, and foot plantar pressure. The obtained data from pre- and post trainings were compared and analyzed by paired samples t-test and one way analysis of covariance. The significant difference was at 0.05 level. After the 12-week training, the biochemical bone markers of both mini-trampoline and hard wooden surface aerobic dance training subjects decreased in bone resorption (β-CrossLaps) but increased in boneformation (P1NP). Health-related physical fitness, balance, and foot plantar pressure were not only better when comparing to the pre-test result but also significantly different when comparing to the control group (p trampoline showed that leg muscular strength, balance and foot plantar pressure were significantly better than the aerobic dance on hard wooden surface (p trampoline and hard wooden surface had positive effects on biochemical bone markers. However, the aerobic dance on mini-trampoline had more leg muscular strength and balance including less foot plantar pressure. It is considered to be an appropriate exercise programs in working women.

  9. The Effects of Green Tea Extract on Working Memory in Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Fly, A D; Wang, Z; Klaunig, J E

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of green tea extract on working memory in healthy younger (21 - 29 y) and older (50 - 63 y) women. A single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used. A university laboratory. Twenty non-smoking Caucasian women were recruited in the younger (10) and older (10) age group. Subjects received 5.4 g green tea extract (at least 45% epigallocatechin-3-gallate) or placebo (cornstarch) within a 24-hour period. Working memory was measured by reading span and N-back task paradigm. Blood sample (20 mL) was collected and measured for plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) concentration. A 24-hour recall was conducted for each treatment period to ensure similar dietary patterns. Green tea extract significantly improved reading span performance in older women, indicated by higher absolute and partial scores of reading span. No significant changes were observed in the younger group. N-back latencies and accuracies were not significantly different after green tea treatment in either age group. Plasma concentration of MDA and TEAC were not different after green tea extract in either group. Acute supplementation of decaffeinated green tea extract may enhance working memory capacity of women between 50 to 63 years of age. This study provides preliminary evidence that consumption of green tea extract may enhance the cognitive performance in older adults and thus provide potential chemopreventive benefits in this group. The mechanism should be explored in future research.

  10. Depressive symptoms impact health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and quality of life in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Suzanne M; Penckofer, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). More than 15% of persons with CVD have depressive symptoms, which are twice as likely to occur in women. Depressive symptoms in women being screened for CVD have not been well studied. The relationships between depressive symptoms, health-promoting lifestyle behaviors, heart disease risk awareness, cardiac risk, and quality of life (QOL) in women were investigated. Whether the effect of depressive symptoms on QOL was mediated by cardiac risk and/or health-promoting lifestyle behaviors was also examined. The Wilson-Cleary Health-Related Quality of Life Model guided this descriptive study. A convenience sample of 125 women was recruited from cardiac health screening events. The study measurements were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; the Framingham risk score; the Ferrans-Powers Quality of Life Index Generic Version-III; the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II; and questions related to heart disease risk, awareness of heart disease risk, health history, and demographics. Body mass index, percentage of body fat, and lipid profile were also measured. More than one-third (34%) of the women reported significant depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not associated with cardiac risk or risk awareness but were inversely associated with health-promoting lifestyle behaviors (r = -0.37, P lifestyle behaviors (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.97; P lifestyle behaviors mediated the association between depressive symptoms and QOL. Depressive symptoms contribute significantly to health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and QOL for women. Early detection and treatment of depressive symptoms are important for participation in healthy lifestyle behaviors, which could result in improved QOL.

  11. Foveal and parafoveal retinal thickness in healthy pregnant women in their last trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Demir, Ersin Oba, Efe Can, Mahmut Odabasi, Semra Tiryaki, Erhan Ozdal, Hakan SensozEye Clinic, Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, TurkeyPurpose: The inspection of foveal and parafoveal thickness in healthy pregnant women in the last trimester.Materials and methods: This study included 40 healthy pregnant women in their last trimester (study group: 40 women, 80 eyes and 37 nonpregnant women (control group: 37 women, 74 eyes. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, slit lamp examination of anterior and posterior segments, and visual field examination with automated perimetry were performed in both groups. Foveal and parafoveal thickness in the four quadrants (upper, nasal, temporal, and inferior parafoveal and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer were measured by optical coherence tomography. There were no systemic or ocular problems in either group. Findings were analyzed with statistical software. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Mean foveal and parafoveal thicknesses in the study group were: foveal 236.12 ± 27.28 µm, upper quadrant 321.31 ± 12.28 µm, temporal quadrant 307.0 ± 12.05 µm, inferior quadrant 317.0 ± 10.58 µm, and nasal quadrant 313.62 ± 14.51 µm. Mean foveal and parafoveal thicknesses in the control group were: foveal 224.62 ± 21.19 µm, upper quadrant 311.62 ± 12.71 µm, temporal quadrant 296.87 ± 13.78 µm, inferior quadrant 305.43 ± 13.25 µm, and nasal quadrant 304.93 ± 13.44 µm. Mean retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses in the study and control group were 110 ± 12.4 µm and 108 ± 13.1 µm, respectively.Conclusion: Mean retinal thickness in pregnant women was higher than control group in all measurements. Statistically significant difference in thickness was only found in upper, temporal, and inferior parafoveal areas.Keywords: pregnancy, last trimester, foveal and parafoveal thickness, optical coherence tomography

  12. Engaging rural women in healthy lifestyle programs: insights from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozica, Samantha L; Harrison, Cheryce L; Teede, Helena J; Ng, Sze; Moran, Lisa J; Lombard, Catherine B

    2015-09-16

    The obesity epidemic is well established, particularly in rural settings. Programs promoting healthy lifestyles for rural women are urgently needed; however, participant engagement is challenging. In the context of a large randomized controlled trial targeting the prevention of weight gain in rural women, we explored successful recruitment strategies and aimed to understand participants' barriers, enablers and reasons for program participation. We recruited women (aged 18-55 years) from the general rural Australian population. A mixed-methods approach was applied to explore factors that influenced program participation, including quantitative questionnaires for all participants (n = 649) and qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted for a subgroup of participants (n = 45). Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 6 and 12 months post program commencement. We recruited 649 rural women through a community communication and partnering strategy, a program marketing campaign and mobilization of social networks. Program participants were diverse across education and income levels and were representative of the wider Australian regional population. Factors that influenced program engagement were divided into personal (perceived program benefits and program accessibility) and social (peer persuasion and support). Identified enablers included convenience of the program location, perceived program utility, such as weight management and optimization of lifestyle choices, as well as attending the program with peer support. Barriers to engagement, which are likely exacerbated in rural communities included lack of anonymity, self-consciousness and segregated social networks in rural settings. Participants reported that eliciting local support and maximizing publicity is fundamental to improving future program engagement. Multiple program promotion strategies including communication, marketing and partnering, as well as mobilization of social networks and peer

  13. [SNACK HIGH WHEY PROTEIN IMPROVES THE LEVEL OF SATIETY AND REDUCES APPETITE HEALTHY WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Nadia; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Mendoza, Laura; Urdaneta, Andrés; Artigas, Carlos; Reyna, Eduardo; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    the nutritional content and energy density of foods is related to greater control of appetite, satiety and reducing food intake. the randomized crossover study included 20 healthy women, aged 20 and 30 years with a BMI of 20 to 24.9 kg/m2 and who completed that included 3 day trial comparing 8 hours 130 kcal snacks consumed afternoon: yoghurt with added whey protein (PSL), biscuits and chocolate. Participants consumed a standardized menu; snack was consumed 3 hours after lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were evaluated during the afternoon until dinner voluntary intake ad libitum. They repeat the same snack 3 times. consumption of yogurt with PSL led to a further reduction of appetite in the afternoon in front of the snack of chocolate and biscuits (p snack, yogurt there was a significant reduction in caloric intake compared to other snacks (p snacks with less energy density and rich in protein (yogurt with PSL) improve the control of appetite, satiety and reduces food intake in healthy women later. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana M; Greene, Geoffrey W; Melanson, Kathleen J

    2008-07-01

    Although reducing eating rate is frequently advocated for control of food intake and thus body weight, empirical evidence is extremely limited and inconsistent. We sought to compare the impact of slow and quick eating rates on development of satiation in healthy women. In a randomized design, 30 healthy women (22.9+/-7.1 years; body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 22.1+/-2.9) were studied on two test visits to compare slow and quick eating rates. Satiation was examined as the main outcome, using the objective measure of energy intake during ad libitum meals. At designated times, subjects also rated perceived hunger, satiety, desire to eat, thirst and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Slow rates of ingestion led to significant decreases in energy intake (quick: 645.7+/-155.9 kcal; slow: 579.0+/-154.7 kcal; Pmeal completion under the quick condition, satiety was significantly lower than the slow condition (PIndex (quick: 0.1; slow: 0.2; Pmeal completion, pleasantness ratings tended to be higher under the slow condition (P=0.04; but not significant after Bonferroni adjustment). Ad libitum energy intake was lower when the meal was eaten slowly, and satiety was higher at meal completion. Although more study is needed, these data suggest that eating slowly may help to maximize satiation and reduce energy intake within meals.

  15. Changes in the Muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Mousavikhatir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods: Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR, timed get up and go (TGUG, single leg stance (SLS, and stairs walking (SW tests. Results: Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion: Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier.

  16. Blood plasma lipidomic signature of epicardial fat in healthy obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Max; Montoliu, Ivan; Qanadli, Salah D; Collino, Sebastiano; Rezzi, Serge; Kussmann, Martin; Giusti, Vittorio; Martin, François-Pierre J

    2015-01-01

    A lipidomic approach was employed in a clinically well-defined cohort of healthy obese women to explore blood lipidome phenotype ascribed to body fat deposition, with emphasis on epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). The present investigation delivered a lipidomics signature of epicardial adiposity under healthy clinical conditions using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 years, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2) ) not showing any metabolic disease traits. Lipidomics analysis of blood plasma was employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of mediastinal fat depots by computerized tomography. All cardiac fat depots correlated to indicators of hepatic dysfunctions (ALAT and ASAT), which describe physiological connections between hepatic and cardiac steatosis. Plasma lipidomics encompassed overall levels of lipid classes, fatty acid profiles, and individual lipid species. EAT and visceral fat associated with diacylglycerols (DAG), triglycerides, and distinct phospholipid and sphingolipid species. A pattern of DAG and phosphoglycerols was specific to EAT. Human blood plasma lipidomics appears to be a promising clinical and potentially diagnostic readout for patient stratification and monitoring. Association of blood lipidomics signature to regio-specific mediastinal and visceral adiposity under healthy clinical conditions may help provide more biological insights into obese patient stratification for cardiovascular disease risks. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  17. Dietary intake and physical performance in healthy elderly women: a 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Silvia; Ruggiero, Elena; Coin, Alessandra; Toffanello, Elena Debora; Perissinotto, Egle; Miotto, Fabrizia; Pintore, Giulia; Inelmen, Emine Meral; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    Aging is generally accompanied by changes in body composition, muscle mass and strength, leading to a decline in motor and functional performance. Physical activity and eating habits could be involved in modulating this paraphysiological deterioration. Aim of our study was to investigate changes in body composition, diet and physical performance in healthy, elderly females over a 3-year follow-up. 92 healthy elderly females (70.9±4.0 years) attending a twice-weekly mild fitness program were eligible for the study. They were assessed at baseline and again after 3 years in terms of clinical history, diet, body composition by DEXA, resting energy expenditure, handgrip strength, knee extensor isometric/isotonic strength, and functional performance measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After 3 years, women had a significant decline in muscle strength (∆ isotonic: -1.4±4.3 kg, ∆ isokinetic: -2.0±6.3 kg, ∆ handgrip: -3.2±5.0 kg; pmeter walking time (r: 0.34; p<0.01). With advancing age, physical performance declines even in healthy, fit females despite a spare of weight and body composition. This decline in physical activity could lead to a lower calorie intake, which would explain why there is no variation in body weight. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Theravada Buddhism and Thai Luxury Fashion Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ning (Mao); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory and Komin’s nine values cluster (Psychology of the Thai people), analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy (Han et al., 2010), integrates the Theory

  19. Lifestyle Behaviors in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camhi, Sarah M; Crouter, Scott E; Hayman, Laura L; Must, Aviva; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined dietary data or objective measures of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior among metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Thus, the purpose is to determine whether PA, sedentary behavior and/or diet differ between MHO and MUO in a sample of young women. Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19-35 years were classified by cardiometabolic risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, glucose and C-reactive protein, low high density lipoprotein, and insulin resistance (MUO ≥2; MHO, lifestyle behaviors were tested with linear regression (continuous data) or logistic regression (categorical data) after adjusting for age, race, BMI, smoking and accelerometer wear and/or total kilocalories, as appropriate. Women were 26.7±4.7 years, with a mean BMI of 31.1±3.7 kg/m2, and 61% were African American. Compared to MUO (n = 9), MHO (n = 37; 80%) spent less mins/day in sedentary behavior (difference: -58.1±25.5, p = 0.02), more mins/day in light PA (difference: 38.2±16.1, p = 0.02), and had higher daily METs (difference: 0.21±0.09, p = 0.03). MHO had higher fiber intakes (g/day of total fiber, soluble fiber, fruit/vegetable fiber, bean fiber) and daily servings of vegetables; but lower daily dairy servings, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and trans fats (g/day) compared to MUO. Compared to MUO, MHO young women demonstrate healthier lifestyle habits with less sedentary behavior, more time in light PA, and healthier dietary quality for fat type and fiber. Future studies are needed to replicate findings with larger samples that include men and women of diverse race/ethnic groups.

  20. Plasma progranulin and relaxin levels in PCOS women with normal BMI compared to control healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is the most commonly encountered endocrine gland disease affecting 5-10 present of women at their reproductive age. This syndrome is associated with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Progranulin and relaxin are adipokins that are related with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Due to limited data about progranulin and relaxin plasma levels´ in women with PCOS and normal BMI, this study was conducted. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional. During the study 39 women with PCOS and BMI< 25 on the basis of Rotterdam criteria were chosen as the patient group and 38 healthy women were selected as the control group. The concentration of progranulin and relaxin were measured by ELISA technique. Results: The difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin, and also some of the biochemical parameters in the patient group versus to the control group was not significant, but there was significant difference in the concentrations of VLDL, triglyceride (p=0.046, insulin (p=0.016, HOMA-IR (p=0.015, testosterone (p=0.01, and DHEAS (p=0.034 in the patients group compared to the control group. Conclusion: In this study, the difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin in the patient group compared to the control group was not significant. It could be inferred that lack of change in plasma level of progranulin and relaxin in women with PCOS is related to BMI<25 and FBS<110. Moreoverestosterones, insulin, DHEAS and HOMA-IR changes could be better predictors of PCOS and its associated diabetes.

  1. Influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cateno; Privitera, Maria Giovanna; Melilli, Barbara; Incognito, Tiziana; Marano, Maria Rosa; Leggio, Gian Marco; Roxas, Matilde Amico; Drago, Filippo

    2007-09-01

    Bacterial intestinal glucosidases exert an important role in isoflavone absorption. Insoluble dietary fibers such as inulin may stimulate the growth of these bacteria in the colon and, hence, stimulate the absorption of these substances in subjects who may need isoflavone supplementation. The objective was to assess the influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations after intake of soybean isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women. Twelve healthy postmenopausal women participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. They consumed 40 mg of a conjugated form of soybean isoflavones (6 mg daidzein and 18 mg genistein as free form) with or without 3.66 g inulin twice daily in two 21-d experimental phases. Blood samples were collected 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, and 24 h after intake of isoflavones with breakfast and dinner at the end of each 21-d experimental phase. Plasma concentrations of isoflavones were assessed by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. Plasma 24-h areas under the curve indicated that the intake of soybean isoflavones with inulin for 21 d was followed by higher plasma concentrations of daidzein and genistein (38% and 91%, respectively) compared with the formulation without inulin. Furthermore, the time for the maximum concentration of daidzein and genistein appeared to be lower after the 21-d intake of soybean isoflavones, with or without inulin. However, the time for the maximum concentration of daidzein and genistein after supplementation with the inulin-containing formulation on day 21 was not significantly different from that after supplementation with the formulation without inulin. Inulin may increase the apparent plasma concentrations of the soybean isoflavones daidzein and genistein in postmenopausal women. The higher plasma concentrations of the 2 isoflavones suggests that the absorption of each was facilitated by the presence of inulin.

  2. Development of a Healthy Lifestyle Mobile App for Overweight Pregnant Women: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Cheng, Ling Jie; Chi, Claudia; Tsai, Cammy; Ong, Kai Wen; Ho-Lim, Sarah Su Tin; Wang, Wei; Tan, Kian-Lee

    2018-04-23

    Mobile apps are becoming an increasingly ubiquitous platform for delivery of health behavior interventions among overweight and obese perinatal women. However, only a few methodological guidelines on integrating theory, evidence, and qualitative research for their designs are available. The aim of this study was to develop a theory-based, evidence-driven, and user-centered healthy lifestyle app targeting overweight and obese multiethnic pregnant women. This paper illustrates how intervention development may be enriched with theoretical basis, systematic review, and qualitative study. An individual face-to-face interview was performed to incorporate the user's involvement in the design. These interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Thematic analysis technique was used for emerging themes. Integrated concepts of social cognitive theory of self-regulation, self-regulation model, and strength model of self-control were selected as bases of the intervention. Evidence from our systematic review and meta-analysis provided the strongest evidence for the development of intervention. We invited 16 obese or overweight pregnant women to participate in a semistructured interview . The following key themes emerged: content, platform, interactivity, format, and functionality. Apps are a favorable technology platform for healthy diet advice, appropriate physical exercise, and weight management because they are user-friendly and convenient. The app used in this study contains culture-specific, pregnancy-related, and credible contents, including educational, professional and peer support, and self-monitoring domains. The design should include aesthetic appeal, visualized features, and interactive multimedia. A 3-step process integrating theoretical basis, evidence from systematic review, and research findings from target users can be considered a guide for future app development. ©Ying Lau, Ling Jie Cheng, Claudia Chi, Cammy Tsai, Kai Wen Ong, Sarah Su Tin Ho-Lim, Wei Wang

  3. Relationship between Inflammation markers, Coagulation Activation and Impaired Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Healthy Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.Et; Shousha, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance syndrome, and atherosclerosis are closely linked phenomena, often connected with a chronic low grade inflammatory state and pro thrombotic hypo fibrinolytic condition. This study investigated the relationship between impaired insulin sensitivity and selected markers of inflammation and thrombin generation in obese healthy women. The study included 36 healthy obese women (body mass index ≥ 30), with normal insulin sensitivity (NIS, n = 18) or impaired insulin sensitivity (IIS, n 18), and 10 non obese women (body mass index < 25).Impaired insulin sensitivity patients had significantly higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), transforming growth factor -β1(TGF-β1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), activated factor VII (VIIa), and prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) compared with either control subjects or normal insulin sensitivity patients. On the other hand, NIS patients had higher hs-CRP, TGF-β1, PAI-1, and factor VIIa, but not F1 + 2, levels than controls. Significant inverse correlations were observed between the insulin sensitivity index and TGF-β1, hs-CRP, PAI-1; factor VIIa, and F1 + 2 levels. Moreover, significant direct correlations were noted between TGF-β1 and CRP, PAI-1, factor VIIa, and F1 + 2 concentrations. Finally, multiple regressions revealed that TGF-β1 and the insulin sensitivity index were independently related to F1 + 2. These results document an in vivo relationship between insulin sensitivity and coagulation activation in obesity. Here we report that obesity is associated with higher TGF-β, PAI-1, prothrombin fragments 1 and 2 (F1 + 2), and activated factor VII (VIIa) plasma levels, and that insulin resistance exacerbates these alterations. The elevated TGF-β1 levels detected in the obese population may provide a biochemical link between insulin resistance and an increased risk for cardiovascular disease

  4. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Overdorf EdD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Depression and inactivity in the elderly are major health problems with significant ramifications for healthy aging. Research shows an inverse relationship between depression and physical activity levels. The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in healthy older women, first within the framework of exercise programs, and second via the impact of an intervention. Method: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, 65 women, all above the age of 60, participated. Measures of physical activity were gained by self-report using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire while the measure of depressive symptomatology was the Beck Depression Inventory. In the second, 11 women participated in a line dancing intervention, and their self-reported depressive symptomatology was measured prior to and just after the 6-week exercise intervention using the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, during the second experiment, pedometer data were gathered during the fourth week. Results and Conclusion: The data of the first study revealed a relationship between the total amount of physical activity and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory; that is, the more active a person is, the lower her self-reported depressive symptoms. Significant correlations were found between the Beck Depression Inventory and the reports of vigorous and moderate exercise levels, but not with walking. Participants who were part of an organized exercise group exercised significantly more than those who exercised on their own. In the second study, those who participated in a line dancing intervention had significantly lower Beck Depression Inventory scores post intervention. The implications of these findings for public health are discussed.

  5. Safety, tolerability, and systemic absorption of dapivirine vaginal microbicide gel in healthy, HIV-negative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Annalene M; Coplan, Paul; van de Wijgert, Janneke H; Kapiga, Saidi H; von Mollendorf, Claire; Geubbels, Eveline; Vyankandondera, Joseph; Rees, Helen V; Masenga, Gileard; Kiwelu, Ireen; Moyes, Jocelyn; Smythe, Shanique C

    2009-07-31

    To assess the local and systemic safety of dapivirine vaginal gel vs. placebo gel as well as the systemic absorption of dapivirine in healthy, HIV-negative women. Two prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I/II studies were conducted at five research centers, four in Africa and one in Belgium. A total of 119 women used dapivirine gel (concentrations of 0.001, 0.002, 0.005, or 0.02%), and 28 used placebo gel twice daily for 42 days. The primary endpoints were colposcopic findings, adverse events, Division of AIDS grade 3 or grade 4 laboratory values, and plasma levels of dapivirine. Safety data were similar for the dapivirine and placebo gels. None of the adverse events with incidence more than 5% occurred with greater frequency in the dapivirine than placebo groups. Similar percentages of placebo and dapivirine gel users had adverse events that were considered by the investigator to be related to study gel. A total of five serious adverse events occurred in the two studies, and none was assessed as related to study gel. Mean plasma concentrations of dapivirine were approximately dose proportional, and, within each dose group, mean concentrations were similar on days 7, 28, and 42. The maximum observed mean concentration was 474 pg/ml in the 0.02% gel group on day 28. Two weeks after the final application of study gel, mean concentrations decreased to 5 pg/ml or less. Twice daily administration of dapivirine vaginal gel for 42 days was safe and well tolerated with low systemic absorption in healthy, HIV-negative women suggesting that continued development is warranted.

  6. Evaluation of intra-individual test–re-test variability of uroflowmetry in healthy women and women suffering from stress, urge, and mixed urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunacek, Libor; Gärtner, Marcel; Krhut, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis: The objective was to evaluate the intra-individual variability of uroflowmetry (UFM) in healthy control subjects and women suffering from stress, urge, and mixed urinary incontinence. Methods: A total of 35 healthy controls (group A) and 105 women suffering from urinary...... incontinence were enrolled in the study. Thirty-five women suffered from stress urinary incontinence (group B), 35 women suffered from mixed urinary incontinence (group C), and 35 women with overactive bladder both dry and wet (group D). All participants were asked to perform UFM measurement three times......-individual difference in any of the recorded parameters was identified among the three UFM recordings in groups A, C, and D. The intra-individual variability of the following parameters reached statistical significance in patients suffering from stress urinary incontinence (group B): Qmax (p = 0.0016), Qave (p = 0...

  7. Effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in healthy women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianez, Luana Ramalho; Custódio, Fernanda Silva; Guidi, Renata Michelini; de Freitas, Jauru Nunes; Sant'Ana, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide therapy, better known as carboxytherapy, relates to percutaneous infusion of medical carbon dioxide with therapeutic approaches, and its use in the treatment of localized fat has demonstrated good results. Gynoid lipodystrophy, also known as cellulite, affects 80%-90% of women after puberty, especially in the buttocks and thighs. Its etiology is complex and involves multifactorial aspects. Its treatment and evaluation require the use of new technologies (more effective and low-cost approaches). The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in the areas of buttocks and posterior thigh. Ten women, 29±6.1 years, were selected and all of them received eight treatment sessions, with an interval of 7 days between sessions. Standardized digital photographs were used to assess the severity of cellulite, and panoramic images were collected by ultrasound diagnosis. The evaluations were performed before the first treatment (baseline) and 7 days after the last treatment session of carboxytherapy. After the treatment, there was a significant reduction (P=0.0025) of the cellulite from degree III to degree II, and this improvement had correlation with the improvement in the organization of the fibrous lines and the disposal of adipose tissue lines of the treated regions observed through the panoramic ultrasound images diagnosis. Carboxytherapy is an effective technique of treatment of cellulite in the buttocks region and posterior thighs of healthy women.

  8. Effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in healthy women: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianez, Luana Ramalho; Custódio, Fernanda Silva; Guidi, Renata Michelini; de Freitas, Jauru Nunes; Sant’Ana, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Background Carbon dioxide therapy, better known as carboxytherapy, relates to percutaneous infusion of medical carbon dioxide with therapeutic approaches, and its use in the treatment of localized fat has demonstrated good results. Gynoid lipodystrophy, also known as cellulite, affects 80%–90% of women after puberty, especially in the buttocks and thighs. Its etiology is complex and involves multifactorial aspects. Its treatment and evaluation require the use of new technologies (more effective and low-cost approaches). The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in the areas of buttocks and posterior thigh. Patients and methods Ten women, 29±6.1 years, were selected and all of them received eight treatment sessions, with an interval of 7 days between sessions. Standardized digital photographs were used to assess the severity of cellulite, and panoramic images were collected by ultrasound diagnosis. The evaluations were performed before the first treatment (baseline) and 7 days after the last treatment session of carboxytherapy. Results After the treatment, there was a significant reduction (P=0.0025) of the cellulite from degree III to degree II, and this improvement had correlation with the improvement in the organization of the fibrous lines and the disposal of adipose tissue lines of the treated regions observed through the panoramic ultrasound images diagnosis. Conclusion Carboxytherapy is an effective technique of treatment of cellulite in the buttocks region and posterior thighs of healthy women. PMID:27578994

  9. A safety and pharmacokinetic trial assessing delivery of dapivirine from a vaginal ring in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Annalene; Haazen, Wouter; Nuttall, Jeremy; Romano, Joseph; Rosenberg, Zeda; van Niekerk, Neliëtte

    2014-06-19

    Women-initiated HIV-prevention products are urgently needed. To address this need, a trial was conducted to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of a silicone elastomer matrix vaginal ring containing 25 mg of the antiretroviral drug dapivirine when used continuously for 28 consecutive days. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 16 healthy, HIV-negative women, 18-40 years of age, who were randomized 1:1 to use either the active or matching placebo ring for 28 days. Participants were followed during and for 28 days after ring use for safety and pharmacokinetic evaluations. The dapivirine vaginal ring was safe and well tolerated with no differences in safety endpoints between the active and placebo ring. The concentration-time plots of dapivirine in vaginal fluid were indicative of a sustained release of dapivirine over the 28 days of use. Dapivirine vaginal fluid concentrations were highest near the ring, followed by the cervix and introïtus (mean Cmax of 80, 67 and 31 μg/g, respectively). Vaginal fluid concentrations of dapivirine on the day of ring removal (day 28) at all three collection sites exceeded by more than 3900-fold the IC99 for dapivirine in a tissue explant infection model. Plasma dapivirine concentrations were low (dapivirine vaginal ring has a safety and pharmacokinetic profile that supports its use as a sustained-release topical microbicide for HIV-1 prevention in women.

  10. Oral contraceptives positively affect mood in healthy PMS-free women: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, Danielle A; de Kloet, E Ronald; de Rover, Mischa; Van der Does, Willem

    2017-12-01

    Menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptives (OC) use influence mood and cognition and these effects may be moderated by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) genotype. The effect of menstrual cycle phase on mood may be increased if participants know that this is the focus of study. We assessed aspects associated with reproductive depression such as mood, interpersonal sensitivity, affect lability and depressive cognitions in MR-genotyped OC-users and naturally cycling (NC) women in a carefully masked design. A homogenous sample of healthy, PMS-free, pre-menopausal MR-genotyped women (n=92) completed online questionnaires eight times during two consecutive cycles. The masking of the research question was successful. OC-users did not differ significantly from NC women in positive and negative affect at the time of assessment, personality characteristics (e.g. neuroticism) or mental and physical health. Both groups reported more shifts in anger in the first cycle week (pemotional blunting effect, which is in line with previous reports on affect-stabilizing effects of OC. Limitations were loss of cases due to irregularities in the menstrual cycle length and possible confounding by the 'survivor effect', since almost all OC-users took OC for more than a year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antithrombin activity, platelet count, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value determined immediately before vaginal delivery among healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Mamoru; Yamada, Takashi; Yamada, Takahiro; Koyama, Takahiro; Akaishi, Rina; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Takeda, Masamitsu; Nishida, Ryutaro; Araki, Naoto; Minakami, Hisanori

    2012-08-01

    To determine the normal reference values for antithrombin (AT) activity, platelet count (Plt), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), and hematocrit value (Ht) immediately before vaginal delivery among healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancies and to determine association of these blood parameters with fetal growth. A complete blood count was performed and the AT activity was examined in 300 consecutive women admitted to hospital at > or = gestational week 36 for labor pains and/or the rupture of fetal membranes. All the women were normotensive and had singleton pregnancies, and none of the women had proteinuria, a weekly weight gain > or = 0.5 kg, or other specific complications upon admission. All the women attempted a vaginal delivery. The medians (5th-95th percentile) were 90% (71-110%) for AT activity, 234x10(9)/L (150-337x10(9)/L) for Plt, 11.0 g/dL (9.5-12.8 g/dL) for Hb, and 34.0% (30.4-38.6%) for Ht. Women with an Hb value of > or = the median (11.0 g/dL) gave birth to significantly smaller infants than their counterparts. A considerable number of healthy women exhibit a reduced AT activity and/or platelet count immediately before delivery. Hemoconcentration evidenced by a raised Hb value adversely effects on infant growth. Our data may be helpful when considering the normal ranges of these blood parameters for healthy parturient women.

  12. Thai gas expansion plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2001-01-01

    Demand for natural gas in Thailand is increasing significantly as the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand and the independent private power producers (IPPs) switch from oil to gas to fire their power stations in line with Government policy to reduce oil imports and use more gas from the Gulf of Thailand. The Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT) has the sole right to buy and sell natural gas and other petroleum products in Thailand. According to PTT, the surge in demand for natural gas in the first half of 2001 was matched by a fall in demand for refined oil products. The PTT has received Government approval to convert to a limited company ready for listing on the Thai Stock Exchange. This is expected to further increase gas consumption. Details of gas sales to power generation and other industrial sectors by PTT and Unocal, Thailand's largest producer, are given. PTT operations include work to extend its gas pipeline transmission system. A number of new pipeline schemes are planned, including one across southern Thailand to transfer offshore gas from the Joint Development Area gas field owned by Thailand and Malaysia. This has encountered protests over the proposed plant and pipeline route

  13. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chue, Amy L.; Carrara, Verena I.; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Lee, Sue J.; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during

  14. Expression of the epidermal growth factor system in eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis differs from that in endometrium from healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system comprises four receptors, HER1-4, and several ligands, and is cyclically expressed in endometrium from healthy fertile women. Our aim is to identify differences in expression of the EGF system between endometriotic and normal endometrium. METHODS......: We previously examined the EGF system in endometrial samples from healthy women (n = 14). Here we examine samples from endometrium (n = 23), endometriomas (n = 10) and peritoneal endometriosis (n = 9) from women with endometriosis (n = 23). mRNA expression of receptors and ligands from the EGF system...... was analyzed by real-time PCR, and proteins were localized by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Endometrial mRNA for HER1-3 was high compared with our previous findings in healthy endometrium, whereas HER4 and the ligands were unchanged. Endometriomas show lower expression of HER1-3 and no HER4 expression...

  15. Nutritional status among women with pre-eclampsia and healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women in a Latin American country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura; Garcia, Ronald; Ruiz, Silvia; Dehghan, Mahshid; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2012-03-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has been proposed that, among other risk factors, the nutritional status of women can lead to the endothelial dysfunction that characterizes this entity. The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional status of women with PE with healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women. A multicenter case-control study was carried out. Between September 2006 and July 2009, 201 women with PE were compared with 201 pregnant, and 201 non-pregnant aged-matched women without cardiovascular or endocrine diseases. A clinical history and physical examination was performed. Fasting blood samples were drawn to measure serum glucose and lipid profile. The nutritional status of participants was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The average age of women was 26.6 ± 7.2 years. Compared to healthy pregnant controls, women with PE had a higher body mass index, higher fasting blood glucose levels, higher triglycerides, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Women with PE had a higher intake of carbohydrates, energy intake and cereal compared to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant controls. A conditional logistic regression demonstrated that carbohydrate and sodium intake are associated with PE development. Diets of women with PE were characterized by higher energy and carbohydrate intake compared to normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. This suggests that higher carbohydrate and sodium intake increases the risk of PE among women in Colombia. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Preconception Screening for Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Thrombophilia and Hyperhomocysteinemia Risk in Healthy Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Yu. Glotova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency characteristics of the gene polymorphisms (FVL G1691A, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTRR A66G associated with thrombophilia, hyperhomocysteinemia risk and different perinatal or pregnancy complications were studied. This examination was conducted among 130 planned-pregnancy healthy young women aged between 19 and 29 years. A gene mutation analysis was performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR. Factor V Leiden (FVL G1691A and prothrombin gene (FII G20210A mutations were not identified in the women surveyed. The frequency of the occurrence of the heterozygous FVL 1691G/A genotype associated with the risk of thrombosis during pregnancy was very low in these women (0.8%. The frequency of the MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 1298C/С mutant genotype was 11.5%, MTHFR 677T/Т – 5.4%, and MTRR (methionine synthase reductase 66G/G – 31.5%. A combination of the MTHFR 677TT/1298CC and MTHFR 677TТ/MTRR 66GG mutant genotypes, which significantly increased the risk of pregnancy loss and neural tube defects, were found to occur in 0.8% of the cases.We concluded that selective thrombophilia screening (FVL G1691A and FII G20210A based on prior personal and/or family history of venous thromboembolism was more cost-effective than a universal preconception screening in all planning pregnancy women. However, in order to decrease the risk of congenital anomalies and pregnancy complications associated with folate dependent homocysteine metabolism, preconception care should include folate supplementation

  17. Water intake reverses dehydration associated impaired executive function in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachenfeld, Nina S; Leone, Cheryl A; Mitchell, Ellen S; Freese, Eric; Harkness, Laura

    2018-03-01

    Healthy women do not always consume Recommended Daily Levels of fluid intake ad libitum. We hypothesized that 1) women lose≥1.0% BW during daily activities, 2) that mild body water loss impairs memory and executive function, 3) water intake to recommended daily levels will improve cognitive function. We tested 12 women (26±5yr, 22.5±2.6kg/m 2 BMI). Session 1 was a control (CON) session, during which subjects monitored their food and fluid intake (diary) and activity (Fitbit®). The next two sessions were applied in balanced order: dehydration (DEH) session, where subjects minimized drinking, and a euhydration (EUH) session, where subjects drank Recommended Daily Levels of fluid for their age and sex, or 2500ml/24h. We compared emotion, sensory perception and cognition with computer based visual analog tests and computer based cognitive tasks (Cogstate) at 5PM, i.e. baseline (BL) on the evening prior to the session, and at 7AM, 12PM, and 5PM during the session. Urine specific gravity (USG) was similar at BL across conditions (CON 1.013±0.002, DEH 1.015±0.002, EUH 1.014±0.002) and increased with dehydration (CON 1.011±0.003, DEH 1.021±0.002, EUH 1.010±0.002, Pwater challenges did not impact Detection, Identification, One-Card Learning, but EUH improved visual and working memory (Groton Maze Learning Test) errors: CON 40.1±11.1, DEH 40.5±10.1, EUH 33.9±10.9, Pwater to the European Food Safety Authority and Institute of Medicine requirements of 2.5l/day for adult women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-11C]vorozole PET in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegon, Anat; Alexoff, David L; Kim, Sung Won; Logan, Jean; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S

    2015-04-01

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with (11)C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aimed to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathologic situations can be studied. (11)C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected intravenously in 13 men and 20 women (age range, 23-67 y). PET data were acquired over a 90-min period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2 per day separated by 2-6 wk, including brain and torso or pelvis scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned after pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. Time-activity curves were obtained, and standardized uptake values (SUV) were calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone, and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole-body radiation exposures were calculated using OLINDA software. Liver uptake was higher than uptake in any other organ but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs were higher in men than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than SUVs in any other organ (ranging from 0.48 ± 0.05 in lungs to 1.5 ± 0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08 ± 0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than in any other organ. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs in young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, whereas aging and cigarette smoking reduced (11)C-vorozole uptake. PET with (11)C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiologic changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the human body. Baseline levels

  19. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-C-11]vorozole PET in healthy men and women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Sung Won; Logan, Jean; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with (11)C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aims to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathological situations can be studied. Methods: (11)C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected I.V in 13 men and 20 women (age range 23 to 67). PET data were acquired over a 90 minute period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2/day separated by 2-6 weeks, including brain and torso or pelvis scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned following pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole.Time activity curves were obtained and standard uptake values (SUV) calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole body radiation exposures were calculated using Olinda software. Results: Liver uptake was higher than all other organs, but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs in men were higher than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than all other organs (ranging from 0.48±0.05 in lungs to 1.5±0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08±0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than all other organs. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs In young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, while aging and cigarette smoking reduced (11)C-vorozole uptake. Conclusions: PET with (11)C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiological changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the human body. Baseline levels in

  20. Prostasin and matriptase (ST14) in placenta from preeclamptic and healthy pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen-Møller, Britta; Jørgensen, Jan S; Hansen, Mie R

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is characterized by disturbed placentation, hypertension, proteinuria, and suppression of plasma renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone. Regulated activity of tissue serine proteases, prostasin, and matriptase is necessary for normal placental development in mice. Prostasin...... activates the renal epithelial sodium channel. We hypothesized that preeclampsia is associated with low prostasin expression in placenta and spillover of prostasin into urine across the defect glomerular barrier. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 20 healthy pregnant women and 20 patients suspected...... of preeclampsia were included. Plasma and urine was obtained before delivery, and placental biopsies were taken immediately after delivery (mean gestational age: control 39 and preeclampsia 38 weeks). RESULTS: Patients with preeclampsia displayed lower levels of aldosterone in plasma and in spot urine normalized...

  1. Smoking decreases the level of circulating CD34+ progenitor cells in young healthy women - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Gert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased levels of circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have been associated with risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis in young women. The aim of this pilot study was to assess in healthy premenopausal women without other risk factors for cardiovascular disease the influence of nicotine abuse on the number of circulating progenitor cells in relation to endothelial function. Methods The number of endothelial progenitor cells, measured as colony-forming units in a cell-culture assay (EPC-CFU and the number of circulating CD34 + and CD34 + /CD133 + cells, measured by flow cytometry, was estimated in 32 women at the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle. In addition, flow-mediated dilation (FMD was assessed as a marker for vascular function. In a subgroup of these women (n = 20, progenitor cells were also investigated at the mid-follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Results Compared to non-smokers, the abundance of circulating CD34 + cells was significantly lower in smoking women in the menstrual, mid-luteal, and mid-follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. The number of CD34 + progenitor cells was revealed to have significant positive correlation with FMD in young healthy women, whereas CD34 + /CD133 + progenitor cells and EPC-CFU showed no significant correlation. Conclusion The number of CD34 + progenitor cells positively correlates with FMD in young healthy women and is decreased by smoking.

  2. Is there any difference between preeclamptic and healthy pregnant women regarding the presence of periopathogenic bacteria in the placenta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Mostajeran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality with unclear cause. It is believed that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory infectious condition which commonly involves humans. Recently, chronic infection was linked to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis shares some histopathologic features with uteroplacental atherosis of preeclamptic women. This study was aimed to investigate the presence of periopathogenic bacteria in the placental tissue of preeclamptic women, and compare it with women with normal pregnancy. Methods: Samples were obtained from 23 placentas of preeclamptic women and from 23 age-matched healthy pregnant women. Qualitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the presence of five periopathogenic bacteria. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the relative frequency of women with different types of periopathogenic bacterial infection of the placenta. In addition, there was no significant difference in the number of women with any type of infection of the placenta (regardless of the type of periopathogenic bacteria [14 (61% mothers with placental infection in the case group vs. 18 (78% mothers in the control group, P value = 0.16]. Conclusions: This study did not show any significant difference between preeclamptic women and healthy women with normal pregnancy regarding the periopathogenic bacterial profile of the placenta.

  3. What does a breast feel like? A qualitative study among healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Anouk J M; Tuinder, Stefania M H; Heuts, Esther M; van der Hulst, René R W J; Slatman, Jenny

    2018-06-01

    Restoring the body as normal as possible increases quality of life. Aesthetically, almost perfect breast reconstructions can be created. However, these reconstructed breasts have almost no sensation. Our hypothesis is that if we succeed in restoring sensation, this will increase quality of life. So far, little is written about the phenomenon of breast sensation, which makes it difficult to evaluate whether the quality of life increases after restored sensation. Therefore, the primary goal of this study is to determine what the importance and meaning is of breast sensation among healthy women. A qualitative, descriptive phenomenological study was performed in an academic hospital between October 2016 and March 2017. A total of 10 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted in healthy women who did not undergo prior breast surgery. The sample size was based upon 'saturation'. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed according to phenomenology keeping in mind the research question 'what is the importance and meaning of sensation of the breast?' Seven interrelated themes on how sensation of the breast is experienced were found: the absent breast (1), the present breast (2), the well-functioning breast (2a), the feminine breast (2b), the sensual breast (2c), the alien breast (2d), the safe breast (2d). The seven interrelated themes can form the basis to develop a quantitative research tool to evaluate quality of life after innervated breast reconstruction and can be implemented in counselling before breast reconstructive surgery in the form of shared treatment decisions.

  4. Age-related changes assessed by peripheral QCT in healthy Italian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, G.; Serio, A. de; Cammisa, M.; Fusilli, S.; Scillitani, A.; Chiodini, I.; Torlontano, M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal cross-sectional pattern of radial bone loss associated with aging in healthy women and to generate a normative database using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism or receiving any drugs affecting bone mineralization were excluded. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and the total bone density of the ultradistal radius at the nondominant forearm was measured using the Norland-Stratec XCT-960 pQCT scanner in 386 healthy pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal females aged 15-81 years. The long-term in vivo precision error was 1.6% CV (coefficient of variation) for trabecular and 0.8% CV for total BMD measurements. The highest value of trabecular and total BMD measured was observed at the age group 15-39 years. Beyond these ages both trabecular and total BMD showed a linear decline with aging, decreasing by an overall slope of -1.28 and -0.55 mg/cm 3 per year for total and trabecular BMD measurements, respectively. The test of parallelism between the regression slopes of the peri- and postmenopausal women showed a statistically significant difference for total BMD measurement (p=0.003). Measurement of total and trabecular BMD was not influenced by weight, height or body mass index, but it was correlated with natural logarithm of years since menopause. We conclude that pQCT of the ultradistal radius is a precise method for measuring the true volumetric BMD and for detecting age-related bone loss in the trabecular and total bone of female subjects encompassing the adult age range and menopausal status. (orig.)

  5. Age-related changes assessed by peripheral QCT in healthy Italian women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G.; Serio, A. de; Cammisa, M. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Fusilli, S. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Clinical Pathology; Scillitani, A.; Chiodini, I.; Torlontano, M. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Division of Endocrinology

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal cross-sectional pattern of radial bone loss associated with aging in healthy women and to generate a normative database using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism or receiving any drugs affecting bone mineralization were excluded. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and the total bone density of the ultradistal radius at the nondominant forearm was measured using the Norland-Stratec XCT-960 pQCT scanner in 386 healthy pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal females aged 15-81 years. The long-term in vivo precision error was 1.6% CV (coefficient of variation) for trabecular and 0.8% CV for total BMD measurements. The highest value of trabecular and total BMD measured was observed at the age group 15-39 years. Beyond these ages both trabecular and total BMD showed a linear decline with aging, decreasing by an overall slope of -1.28 and -0.55 mg/cm{sup 3} per year for total and trabecular BMD measurements, respectively. The test of parallelism between the regression slopes of the peri- and postmenopausal women showed a statistically significant difference for total BMD measurement (p=0.003). Measurement of total and trabecular BMD was not influenced by weight, height or body mass index, but it was correlated with natural logarithm of years since menopause. We conclude that pQCT of the ultradistal radius is a precise method for measuring the true volumetric BMD and for detecting age-related bone loss in the trabecular and total bone of female subjects encompassing the adult age range and menopausal status. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of the Levels of LH and FSH, TSH, Prolactin, Progesterone and Estradiol Hormones between Iranian Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Hashemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS with the prevalence of 5 to 7% among Iranian women is a leading cause of infertility and endocrine disorder. Metabolic disorders such as increased levels of LH and FSH hormones in these patients was common and influences health of women with PCOS in long-term. Treatment of female infertility and other complications in many cases need to regulate hormones and receive exogenous hormone, and then the effect of female hormones on the disease is very important. In this study, levels of Luteinizing hormone (LH and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and other female hormones among Iranian women with PCOS and infertility and healthy people were measured in this regard and values were compared. The result of this study showed that LH and progesterone hormone levels were significantly different in this syndrome than healthy women.

  7. Healthy food consumption in young women. The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stel, Mariëlle; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M

    2015-07-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together with a confederate who appeared normal weight or overweight and consumed either 3 or 10 cucumber slices. In Study 2, a confederate who appeared underweight, normal weight, or overweight consumed no or 4 cucumber slices. The number of cucumber slices eaten by participants was registered. Results showed that participants' healthy eating behavior was influenced by the confederate's eating behavior when the confederate was underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Participants ate more cucumber slices when the confederate ate a higher amount of cucumber slices compared with a lower (or no) amount of cucumber slices (Studies 1 and 2). The food intake effect was stronger for the underweight compared with the overweight model (Study 2). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Is not Related to Beta-Amyloid Deposition: Data from the Women's Healthy Ageing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E; Szoeke, C; Dennerstein, L; Campbell, S; Clifton, P

    2018-01-01

    Research has indicated the neuroprotective potential of the Mediterranean diet. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has shown preventative potential for Alzheimer's disease incidence and prevalence, yet few studies have investigated the impact of Mediterranean diet adherence on the hallmark protein; beta-amyloid. To investigate the association between Mediterranean diet adherence and beta-amyloid deposition in a cohort of healthy older Australian women. This study was a cross-sectional investigation of participants from the longitudinal, epidemiologically sourced Women's Healthy Ageing Project which is a follow-up of the Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project. Assessments were conducted at the Centre for Medical Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. F-18 Florbetaben positron emission tomography scanning was conducted at the Austin Centre for PET in Victoria, Australia. One hundred and eleven Women's Healthy Ageing Project participants were included in the study. Mediterranean diet adherence scores for all participants were calculated from the administration of a validated food frequency questionnaire constructed by the Cancer Council of Victoria. Beta-amyloid deposition was measured using positron emission tomography standardised uptake value ratios. Gamma regression analysis displayed no association between Mediterranean diet adherence and beta-amyloid deposition. This result was consistent across APOE-ε4 +/- cohorts and with the inclusion of covariates such as age, education, body mass index and cognition. This study found no association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and beta-amyloid deposition in a cohort of healthy Australian women.

  9. Comparison of Personality Trait, Negative Experienced Emotions and Coping Styles Between Healthy Women and Those Suffering From Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hamzeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the importance of cancer as one of the main causes of mortality in the world and the role of various factors, including psychological ones in its onset. In this study we compared some of these factors such as personality traits, negative experienced emotions and coping styles in healthy women and those with cancer. Methods: In this study, 83 women with cancer(referred to Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran in a one- month period and 85 healthy subjects(selected by using available sampling method and matched with the first group. Then Personality inventory of Eysenck and inventory type D(DS14 and Folkman and Lazarus coping styles on were studied in both groups. Data analysis was performed by T Hoteling test and multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA. Results: Two groups of women(cancer- healthy were significantly different for personality trait of extraversion, negative emotion experiences and emotional-oriented coping and problem-oriented coping. Conclusion: Women with cancer compared to healthy women experienced more negative emotions and had lower score in extraversion and used more emotion-oriented coping styles and less problem-oriented styles

  10. Reflection of Confucianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism on gender relations and gender specific occupation in Thai society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, M; Weber, K E

    1994-01-01

    It is posited that present-day Thai society is the product of different settlement patterns among Chinese Confucian followers and those ascribing to matrilocal practices. Chinese settled in urban areas and maintained Confucian dogma that barred women from high ranking positions and dictated a women's role of subservience to men. Matrilocal systems proliferated in rural areas. The village kinship system was egalitarian, until a class-state society was instituted and patriarchal systems dominated. At that time, women's status was reduced. Massive Chinese immigration occurred during the mid-19th century until World War II. Some Indians also migrated during this time period. The dominant use of the Thai language forced the Chinese to assimilate into Thai culture. Thai Buddhist practices were open and similar enough to Confucian ideology that religious assimilation also occurred. A small group of Chinese immigrants retained their ties to Chinese customs. The pattern of foreigners' involvement in the Thai economy was promoted by official policy. In the last several decades Thai policy shifted to an increasingly Thai-influenced economy. Other influences on gender patterns and Thai culture were the Hinduism of Indians who settled in Central Siam, the Mon aristocracy, and Brahmin cults. After the Khmers took over control of this region, the Indian caste system and the Hindu belief in Manu were integrated into Khmer culture. Women were considered the weaker and inferior sex and dependent upon men. The kings of Siam followed Brahmin rituals after the 15th century. Buddhism and the "sangha" became the central Thai religious institution. Even today Buddhist monks are given 3 months time off with pay for time spent as a monk, while maternity leave for women is limited to 45 days. The status of women is traced during the Sukothai period (1250-1350), the Ayudhaya period (1350-1767), and the Ratanakosin period (since 1782). Present occupational patterns reflect women's dominance in

  11. Visceral perceptions and gastric myoelectrical activity in healthy women and in patients with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, K L; Bingaman, S; Tan, L; Stern, R M

    1998-02-01

    Bulimia nervosa remains a common eating disorder in young women. Little is known about upper gastrointestinal symptoms or gastric motility in patients with bulimia nervosa. The aim of this study was to measure gastric myoelectrical activity and hunger/satiety and stomach emptiness/fullness before and after a non-nutrient water load and solid-phase gastric emptying in hospitalized patients with bulimia nervosa (n = 12) and in healthy women (n = 13). Gastric myoelectrical activity was measured by means of cutaneous electrodes; visual analogue scales were used to measure perceptions of hunger/satiety and stomach emptiness/fullness. Before and after a standard water load the bulimia patients reported significantly greater stomach fullness and satiety compared with control subjects (P scrambled eggs showed the lag phase was shortened in the bulimic patients (16 +/- 4 min vs 31 +/- 4 min in controls, P < 0.01), but the percentage of meal emptied at 2 h was similar to control values. bulimia patients had exaggerated perceptions of stomach fullness and satiety in response to water; and abnormal gastric myoelectrical activity and accelerated lag phase of gastric emptying were objective stomach abnormalities detected in hospitalized patients with bulimia nervosa.

  12. Nightshift work job exposure matrices and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among healthy Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Bu-Tian; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Yang, Gong; Yu, Kai; Xue, Shou-Zheng; Li, Hong-Lan; Liao, Linda M; Blair, Aaron; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Wei; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2012-11-01

    Six-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) is a primary urinary metabolite of melatonin. We examined the association between aMT6s levels and shift work estimated by a job exposure matrix (JEM) among healthy participants of the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Creatinine-adjusted aMT6s levels were measured in the urine samples of 300 women and related to JEM shift work categories. Adjusted geometric means of aMT6s levels from urine samples collected before 08:00 hours were lower among persons holding nighttime shift work jobs. The adjusted aMT6s levels (ng/mg creatinine) were 8.36 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 4.47-15.6], 6.37 (95% CI 3.53-11.5), 6.20 (95% CI 3.33-11.5), 3.81 (95% CI 2.02-7.19), and 3.70 (95% CI 1.92-7.11) from the lowest (never held a shift work job) to the highest (current job likely involved all-night shift work) shift work JEM scores (P=0.05). Our results indicate that nightshift work JEM scores were significantly and inversely associated with aMT6s levels in early morning spot urine samples collected between 07:00-08:00 hours.

  13. Technology-supported dietary and lifestyle interventions in healthy pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, O A; McCarthy, M; Gibney, E R; McAuliffe, F M

    2014-07-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. However, the actuality of delivering effective lifestyle interventions in clinical practice is hampered by a high demand for resources. The use of technology to assist lifestyle interventions needs to be explored as a valid method of reducing strain on resources, and enhancing the effectiveness and population reach of interventions. The aim was to systematically review the literature on the use of technology-supported lifestyle interventions for healthy pregnant women and their impact on maternal outcomes. Online databases and registries were searched in March 2013. Primary outcomes of selected English language studies were fasting maternal glucose, incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal gestational weight gain. Secondary outcomes were intervention uptake and acceptance, and dietary or physical activity modification. Studies whose subjects were diagnosed with GDM prior to intervention were excluded. The minimal number of eligible studies and varying outcomes precluded formal meta-analysis of the data. Initially, 203 articles were identified and screened. Seven articles, including five randomised controlled trials, met inclusion criteria for the current review. Results demonstrate several potential benefits associated with technology-supported interventions in pregnancy, despite minimal search results. Although communication technology holds potential as a safe therapeutic tool for the support of lifestyle interventions in pregnancy, there is a paucity of data on its effectiveness. Further RCTs examining the effectiveness of communication technology are required, particularly among those most likely to benefit from lifestyle interventions, such as overweight and obese pregnant women.

  14. Preconception and early pregnancy maternal haemodynamic changes in healthy women in relation to pregnancy viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, F L; Collins, A; McEniery, C M; Bennett, P R; Wilkinson, I B; Lees, C C

    2017-05-01

    Are there differences in preconception cardiovascular function between women who have a viable pregnancy and those who have a first trimester miscarriage? Preconception cardiovascular function of central haemodynamics and arterial function are similar between women who have a viable pregnancy and those who have a first trimester miscarriage. Miscarriages have been associated with increased long-term cardiovascular disease risk, and arterial and cardiovascular dysfunction has been hypothesised as the common link. It is not known if these risks are present prior to pregnancy or are a reflection of poor arterial and haemodynamic adaptation to pregnancy. This prospective longitudinal preconception cohort study was conducted over 18 months. In total, 367 participants were recruited pre-pregnancy, from which 197 pregnancies were recorded; 39 of these pregnancies ended in first trimester miscarriage. Complete longitudinal data were available for 172 pregnancies (140 viable pregnancies, 32 first trimester miscarriages) from pre-pregnancy to 6 weeks gestation. This was a single site study based at a maternity hospital in London. Healthy women were recruited prior to natural conception and followed up once they became pregnant. All underwent haemodynamic [cardiac output (CO), peripheral vascular resistance (PVR)] and arterial function [aortic augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)] testing prior to pregnancy and at 6 weeks gestation, using non-invasive devices (gas re-breathing method, Innocor® and an occilometric device, Vicorder®). Cross-sectional measurements at pre-pregnancy and 6 weeks gestation and a longitudinal analysis of changes were compared between women who had a subsequent viable pregnancy, and those who had a subsequent first trimester miscarriage. There were no differences between women destined to have a healthy ongoing pregnancy compared to those who miscarried, in terms of baseline cardiovascular function, assessed by CO, PVR, PWV or AIx

  15. Dengue infection during pregnancy and transplacental antibody transfer in Thai mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perret, Cecilia; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Pengsaa, Krisana; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Hutajaroen, Pornsom; Bunn, James E. G.; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to estimate dengue seroprevalence in a population of Thai pregnant women, Living in a highly endemic area and placental transfer of dengue antibodies. Methods. A cross-sectional seroprevalence study of 245 pregnant women at delivery. Results. Dengue HAI

  16. Lifestyle Behaviors in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Camhi

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined dietary data or objective measures of physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior among metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO. Thus, the purpose is to determine whether PA, sedentary behavior and/or diet differ between MHO and MUO in a sample of young women.Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 African American and Caucasian women 19-35 years were classified by cardiometabolic risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, glucose and C-reactive protein, low high density lipoprotein, and insulin resistance (MUO ≥2; MHO, <2. Time (mins/day in light, moderate, vigorous PA, and sedentary behavior were estimated using an accelerometer (≥3 days; ≥8 hrs wear time. Questionnaires were used to quantify sitting time, TV/computer use and usual daily activity. The Block Food Frequency Questionnaire assessed dietary food intake. Differences between MHO and MUO for lifestyle behaviors were tested with linear regression (continuous data or logistic regression (categorical data after adjusting for age, race, BMI, smoking and accelerometer wear and/or total kilocalories, as appropriate.Women were 26.7±4.7 years, with a mean BMI of 31.1±3.7 kg/m2, and 61% were African American. Compared to MUO (n = 9, MHO (n = 37; 80% spent less mins/day in sedentary behavior (difference: -58.1±25.5, p = 0.02, more mins/day in light PA (difference: 38.2±16.1, p = 0.02, and had higher daily METs (difference: 0.21±0.09, p = 0.03. MHO had higher fiber intakes (g/day of total fiber, soluble fiber, fruit/vegetable fiber, bean fiber and daily servings of vegetables; but lower daily dairy servings, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and trans fats (g/day compared to MUO.Compared to MUO, MHO young women demonstrate healthier lifestyle habits with less sedentary behavior, more time in light PA, and healthier dietary quality for fat type and fiber. Future studies are needed

  17. Serum IGF-1 concentrations change with soy and seaweed supplements in healthy postmenopausal American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Irhimeh, Mohammad R; Druker, Susan; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R; Savarese, Todd M; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone important for growth and development. However, high-circulating serum concentrations in adults are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Nutritional status and specific foods influence serum IGF-1 concentrations. Breast cancer incidence is typically low in Asian countries where soy is commonly consumed. Paradoxically, soy supplement trials in American women have reported significant increases in IGF-1. Seaweed also is consumed regularly in Asian countries where breast cancer risk is low. We investigated the possibility that seaweed could modify soy-associated increases in IGF-1 in American women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 58 yr) participated in this 14-wk double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Participants consumed 5 g/day placebo or seaweed (Alaria esculenta) in capsules for 7 wk. During the 7th wk, a high-soy protein isolate powder was added (2 mg/kg body weight aglycone equivalent isoflavones). Overnight fasting blood samples were collected after each intervention period. Soy significantly increased serum IGF-1 concentrations compared to the placebo (21.2 nmol/L for soy vs. 16.9 nmol/L for placebo; P = 0.0001). The combination of seaweed and soy significantly reduced this increase by about 40% (21.2 nmol/L for soy alone vs. 19.4 nmol/L; P = 0.01). Concurrent seaweed and soy consumption may be important in modifying the effect of soy on IGF-1 serum concentrations.

  18. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, dietary composition, and lifestyle among Swedish women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Eriksson, Ulf; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Olsen, Anja; Skeie, Guri; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies examining diet scores in relation to health outcomes are gaining ground. Thus, control for dietary factors not part of the score, and lifestyle associated with adherence, is required to allow for a causal interpretation of studies on diet scores and health outcomes. Objective The study objective is to describe and investigate dietary composition, micronutrient density, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations across groups defined by their level of adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (HNFI). The paper examines both dietary components included in the HNFI as well as dietary components, which are not part of the HNFI, to get a broad picture of the diet. Design The study is cross-sectional and conducted in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort. We included 45,277 women, aged 29–49 years at baseline (1991–1992). The HNFI was defined by six items: wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, cabbages, root vegetables and fish/shellfish, using data from a food frequency questionnaire. Proportions, means and standard deviations were calculated in the entire cohort and by adherence groups. Results Women scoring high on the HNFI had a higher energy intake, compared to low adherers. They had a higher intake of fiber and a higher micronutrient density (components of the HNFI), but also a higher intake of items not included in the HNFI: red/processed meats, sweets, and potatoes. They were on average more physically active and less likely to smoke. Conclusions Adherence to the HNFI was associated with a generally healthier lifestyle and a high intake of health-beneficial components. However, it was also associated with a higher energy intake and a higher intake of foods without proven health benefits. Therefore, future studies on the HNFI and health outcomes should take into account potential confounding of dietary and lifestyle factors associated with the HNFI. PMID:25773303

  19. Association between levels of vitamin D and inflammatory markers in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizieh F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fawaz Azizieh,1 Khulood O Alyahya,2 Raj Raghupathy3 1Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 2Science Department, College of Basic Education, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait Background: No one can deny that the biological importance of vitamin D is much beyond its classical role in bone metabolism. Several recent publications have highlighted its potential role in the functioning of the immune system. The overall objective of this study was to look into possible correlations between levels of vitamin D and inflammatory markers in sera of healthy adult women. These markers included proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, interferon [IFN]-γ, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13, as well as C-reactive protein (CRP as a general indicator of inflammation. Methods: Venous blood samples were collected from 118 healthy adult women and serum levels of vitamin D, CRP, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were measured. Results: There were no significant direct correlations between serum levels of vitamin D and any of the inflammatory markers measured. However, subjects with deficient levels of vitamin D and high CRP produced significantly higher levels of the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-8 as compared to subjects with low CRP levels with nondeficient and deficient levels of vitamin D. Further, the anti-inflammatory/proinflammatory ratios suggest a role of vitamin D in maintaining an anti-inflammatory environment at low levels of CRP, an association that is weaker at high CRP levels in subjects with subclinical inflammatory situations. Conclusion: These data point to a

  20. Prevalence and outcomes of breast milk expressing in women with healthy term infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Helene M; Forster, Della A; Amir, Lisa H; McLachlan, Helen L

    2013-11-19

    Expressing breast milk has become increasingly prevalent, particularly in some developed countries. Concurrently, breast pumps have evolved to be more sophisticated and aesthetically appealing, adapted for domestic use, and have become more readily available. In the past, expressed breast milk feeding was predominantly for those infants who were premature, small or unwell; however it has become increasingly common for healthy term infants. The aim of this paper is to systematically explore the literature related to breast milk expressing by women who have healthy term infants, including the prevalence of breast milk expressing, reported reasons for, methods of, and outcomes related to, expressing. Databases (Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, ProQuest Central, PsycINFO, PubMed and the Cochrane library) were searched using the keywords milk expression, breast milk expression, breast milk pumping, prevalence, outcomes, statistics and data, with no limit on year of publication. Reference lists of identified papers were also examined. A hand-search was conducted at the Australian Breastfeeding Association Lactation Resource Centre. Only English language papers were included. All papers about expressing breast milk for healthy term infants were considered for inclusion, with a focus on the prevalence, methods, reasons for and outcomes of breast milk expression. A total of twenty two papers were relevant to breast milk expression, but only seven papers reported the prevalence and/or outcomes of expressing amongst mothers of well term infants; all of the identified papers were published between 1999 and 2012. Many were descriptive rather than analytical and some were commentaries which included calls for more research, more dialogue and clearer definitions of breastfeeding. While some studies found an association between expressing and the success and duration of breastfeeding, others found the opposite. In some cases these inconsistencies were compounded by imprecise definitions of

  1. Prevalence and outcomes of breast milk expressing in women with healthy term infants: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Expressing breast milk has become increasingly prevalent, particularly in some developed countries. Concurrently, breast pumps have evolved to be more sophisticated and aesthetically appealing, adapted for domestic use, and have become more readily available. In the past, expressed breast milk feeding was predominantly for those infants who were premature, small or unwell; however it has become increasingly common for healthy term infants. The aim of this paper is to systematically explore the literature related to breast milk expressing by women who have healthy term infants, including the prevalence of breast milk expressing, reported reasons for, methods of, and outcomes related to, expressing. Methods Databases (Medline, CINAHL, JSTOR, ProQuest Central, PsycINFO, PubMed and the Cochrane library) were searched using the keywords milk expression, breast milk expression, breast milk pumping, prevalence, outcomes, statistics and data, with no limit on year of publication. Reference lists of identified papers were also examined. A hand-search was conducted at the Australian Breastfeeding Association Lactation Resource Centre. Only English language papers were included. All papers about expressing breast milk for healthy term infants were considered for inclusion, with a focus on the prevalence, methods, reasons for and outcomes of breast milk expression. Results A total of twenty two papers were relevant to breast milk expression, but only seven papers reported the prevalence and/or outcomes of expressing amongst mothers of well term infants; all of the identified papers were published between 1999 and 2012. Many were descriptive rather than analytical and some were commentaries which included calls for more research, more dialogue and clearer definitions of breastfeeding. While some studies found an association between expressing and the success and duration of breastfeeding, others found the opposite. In some cases these inconsistencies were compounded

  2. Ethnic differences in stratum corneum functions between Chinese and Thai infants residing in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Miyauchi, Yuki; Shima, Kyoko; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori; Palungwachira, Pakhawadee; Laohathai, Diane; Chanthothai, Jetchawa; Nararatwanchai, Thamthiwat

    2018-01-01

    Ethnic and racial differences in infant skin have not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to establish whether there are ethnic differences and similarities in the stratum corneum (SC) functions of Thai and Chinese infants. Healthy infants 6 to 24 months of age (N = 60; 30 Thai, 30 Chinese) who resided in Bangkok, Thailand, were enrolled. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and SC hydration (capacitance) on the thigh, buttock, and upper arm were measured. Ceramide content was determined in the SC on the upper arm. SC hydration was not remarkably different between the two ethnicities at any site measured, but TEWL was significantly higher in Chinese infants than in Thai infants at all sites. Hydration of the SC was not significantly correlated with age in either ethnicity. TEWL had significant but weak correlations with age on the thigh and upper arm in Thai infants. Ceramide content was significantly higher in Chinese SC than in Thai SC. No relationship between ceramide content and TEWL or hydration was observed in either ethnicity. The significant differences in TEWL and ceramide contents between Chinese and Thai infant skin could prove useful in designing skin care and diapering products that are best suited for each ethnicity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparative Study on the Vaginal Flora and Incidence of Asymptomatic Vaginosis among Healthy Women and in Women with Infertility Problems of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Geethavani; Singaravelu, Balamuru Ganvelu; Srikumar, R; Reddy, Sreenivasalu V; Kokan, Afraa

    2017-08-01

    The normal vaginal flora is highly complex, dominated by lactobacilli of doderlein that plays a vital role in maintaining the women's health and inhibits other pathogenic microorganisms. Fluctuation in local environment or exposure to any exogenous and endogenous sources changes the vaginal flora over a period of time. Disruption of the vaginal ecosystem changes the microflora of the healthy vagina, altering the pH and predisposing to lower reproductive tract infections. The change in the microflora of the female genital tract by pathogenic organisms may ascend from vagina to upper genital tract and may cause infertility. Although several studies demonstrate a higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in infertile population. The role of vaginal microbiome in infertility is not clear and need to be explored further. To compare the vaginal flora and analyse the incidence of asymptomatic vaginosis among healthy women and in women with infertility problems. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of six months at Sri Lakshmi Narayana Medical College and Hospital Puducherry, India. A total of 200 high vaginal swabs were collected from Group 1 which included 84 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles without any gynaecological disorder and from Group 2, 116 women with infertility problems attending fertility clinic within the age group of 18 to 45 years. All swabs were subjected to routine aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture. Saline wet mount was performed for the detection of clue cells and Trichomonas vaginalis , 10% KOH was performed for demonstration of budding yeast cells and pseudo hyphae, Gram's staining to determine the presence of yeast cells, leucocytes and bacterial morphotypes. The smear was also graded using Nugent scoring system. The vaginal flora of Group 1 was dominated by Lactobacillus (40, 27.8 %) followed by Micrococcus (22, 15.3 %), Enterococcus (16, 11.1%), Coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (12, 8.3%). Whereas in Group 2, the

  4. Comparing exercise responses to aerobic plus resistance training between postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy and healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Thais R S de; Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Viezel, Juliana; Rossi, Fabricio E; Aro, Bruna L; Trindade, Ana Carolina A C; Codogno, Jamile S; Freitas Junior, Ismael F

    2018-04-12

    The aim of this study was to explore whether postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy differ from healthy postmenopausal women in their response to the same aerobic + resistance training. The participants were separated into two groups: postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy for an average of 20 months (18 women) and healthy postmenopausal women (24 women). We assessed aerobic capacity (predicted maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and maximum running velocity test (Vmax)) through a walking test, upper and lower body muscle strength using an estimated one-repetition maximum test, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at three, six, and nine months, respectively. The exercise program was performed three times/week over nine months and consisted of 40 min of machine-based strength training (seated cable row, bench press, leg extension, leg press, and leg curl, as well as bridge, abdominal, and standard plank exercises) followed by 30 min of treadmill walking. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to compare the groups over time. Postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy and healthy postmenopausal women presented similar improvements in estimated lower body strength, predicted VO 2max and V max , and body fat mass. For maximal upper body strength, there was a significant group x time interaction after six months of training (p = 0.01). The healthy postmenopausal women presented a significant increase in upper body strength after six months, while postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy demonstrated an improvement only at nine months of training. The breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy presented increased lean mass while healthy postmenopausal women maintained values over time (Breast cancer: 33.7 ± 3.9(Pre) vs. 34.1

  5. A multicentre matched case control study of risk factors for Preeclampsia in healthy women in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadri Zeeshan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality world-wide. The risk for developing preeclampsia varies depending on the underlying mechanism. Because the disorder is heterogeneous, the pathogenesis can differ in women with various risk factors. Understanding these mechanisms of disease responsible for preeclampsia as well as risk assessment is still a major challenge. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, in healthy women in maternity hospitals of Karachi and Rawalpindi. Methods We conducted a hospital based matched case-control study to assess the factors associated with preeclampsia in Karachi and Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to December 2007. 131 hospital-reported cases of PE and 262 controls without history of preeclampsia were enrolled within 3 days of delivery. Cases and controls were matched on the hospital, day of delivery and parity. Potential risk factors for preeclampsia were ascertained during in-person postpartum interviews using a structured questionnaire and by medical record abstraction. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate matched odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. Results In multivariate analysis, women having a family history of hypertension (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI; 1.27-3.35, gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 6.57, 95% CI; 1.94 -22.25, pre-gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 7.36, 95% CI; 1.37-33.66 and mental stress during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI; 1.19-1.46, for each 5 unit increase in Perceived stress scale score were at increased risk of preeclampsia. However, high body mass index, maternal age, urinary tract infection, use of condoms prior to index pregnancy and sociodemographic factors were not associated with higher risk of having preeclampsia. Conclusions Development of preeclampsia was associated with gestational diabetes, pregestational diabetes, family

  6. Effect of mono-unsaturated fatty acids versus complex carbohydrates on high-density lipoproteins in healthy men and women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Katan, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of two strictly controlled diets, one rich in complex carbohydrates, the other rich in olive oil, on serum lipids were studied in healthy men and women. Serum cholesterol levels fell on average by 0?44 mmol/l in the carbohydrate group and 0?46 mmol/l in the olive oil group. HDL

  7. Elevated resting heart rate is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in healthy men and women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-04-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is known to be associated with reduced survival but inconsistencies remain, including lack of significance in most studies of healthy women, lack of independence from systolic blood pressure (SBP) in some, and the suggestion that RHR is merely functioning as a marker of physical inactivity or other comorbidities. We aimed to clarify these inconsistencies.

  8. Retrograde shear rate in formerly preeclamptic and healthy women before and after exercise training: relationship with endothelial function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.R.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Green, D.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Blood flow patterns in conduit arteries characterized by high levels of retrograde shear stress can be detrimental for vascular health. In this study we examined whether retrograde shear rate and endothelial function are related in healthy and formerly preeclamptic (PE) women and whether this

  9. Coronary heart disease risk factors in adult premenopausal white women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with a healthy female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Goldenberg, Naila; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Our specific aim was to determine whether coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients were independent of their higher body mass index (BMI) and centripetal obesity. In adult, premenopausal, white women, CHD risk factors were compared between 488 patients with well-defined PCOS and 351 healthy free-living population controls from the Princeton Follow-up Study (PFS). After excluding women with irregular menses (putative PCOS phenotypes), comparisons were also made between the 261 PFS women with a history of regular menses and the 488 women with PCOS. Fasting lipids, insulin, glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA insulin secretion, blood pressure, BMI, and waist circumference were measured. Compared with both the full cohort of 351 PFS women and the subgroup of 261 PFS women with regular menses, women with PCOS had higher BMI, waist circumference, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, insulin, glucose, and HOMA-IR (all Ps PCOS, compared with the 351 and 261 PFS women, had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P PCOS women with normal BMI (PCOS cannot be exclusively attributed to their preponderant centripetal obesity. Identification of women with clinical features of PCOS should alert the clinician to potentially increased risk for CHD and prompt CHD risk factor testing.

  10. Surviving in two worlds: social and structural violence of Thai female injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritavorn, Niphattra

    2014-01-01

    Thai females injecting drugs are ensnared in a web of problems arising from forms of prejudice that magnify their vulnerability. They are vulnerable, at risk, and exposed to a high degree of social suffering. This paper aims to elucidate how social production and structural violence combine to shape the lives of these women. Using a qualitative methodology, two focus groups with 5 key informants and in-depth interviews involving a total of 35 women injecting drugs were conducted in Bangkok. The findings reveal that the structural environment that directly impacts upon these women's lives becomes the reason for their suffering. The structural environment puts these women at risk of violence in numerous social settings in which these women engage as well as generating tension at a subjective level (i.e. the habitus) of these women. Thai female injecting drug users are trapped in a difficult tension between the demands for being Thai women seeking to exist in the masculine world of drug use but at the same time meeting Thai society's expectations of womanhood. Unequal gender relations are manifest in the everyday violence that women face in the drug community, culminating in the essential nature of women being questioned, undermined and threatened. Living in the drug community, women are subjected to violence and harassment, and gendered brutality by intimate partners. In conclusion, the social suffering that Thai female injecting drug users find themselves confronting is confined to dilemmas cause by tensions between drug use and the overriding gender habitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Women's Perceptions of Usefulness and Ease of Use of Four Healthy Eating Blog Characteristics: A Qualitative Study of 33 French-Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette-Maheux, Véronique; Dumas, Audrée-Anne; Provencher, Véronique; Lapointe, Annie; Dugrenier, Marilyn; Straus, Sharon; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Desroches, Sophie

    2017-10-26

    Healthy eating blogs are knowledge translation tools used by nutrition and dietetics practitioners for helping people improve their health behaviors and food choices. Our aim was to explore women's perceptions of the usefulness and ease of use of healthy eating blog (HEB) characteristics that might increase potential users' intention to use them as tools to improve their dietary habits. We conducted qualitative research using semi-structured individual interviews. Thirty-three women (mean age of 44 years; range=27 to 61 years) living in the Quebec City, Canada, metropolitan area were studied. Four existing HEBs, written by French-Canadian registered dietitians (RDs) whose main objective was the promotion of a healthy diet, were explored by women during individual interviews. A standardized open-ended interview questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model was used to identify women's perceptions about characteristics of type of blog content delivery, RD blogger's delivery of information, blog layout, and blog design. Women's perceptions toward the contribution of HEB characteristics to the usefulness and ease of use of those tools to improve their dietary habits were measured. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed through an inductive content analysis using NVivo software. The most useful characteristics of type of blog content delivery identified by women were recipes, hyperlinks, and references. Among characteristics of RD blogger's delivery of information, most women reported that interaction between blog readers and the RD blogger created a sense of proximity and of connection that was helpful for improving their dietary behaviors. Women's perceptions toward various characteristics of blog layout and design were also discussed. Incorporating specific characteristics when designing HEBs should be considered by RDs and future research to promote the use of those tools to support dietary behavior change efforts of

  12. Recruitment of healthy first-trimester pregnant women: lessons from the Chemicals, Health & Pregnancy study (CHirP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Glenys M; Teschke, Kay; Janssen, Patricia A

    2012-02-01

    To describe and evaluate recruitment techniques used to enroll 152 healthy pregnant women fewer than 15 weeks gestation into a prospective study of environmental chemical exposure during pregnancy. Posters, a website, online and print advertising, recruitment emails, media coverage, recruitment from clinic waiting rooms, networking within the pregnancy community and presenting a study booth at baby "trade shows" were used to advertise the study. Participants had to meet a strict set of eligibility criteria, and were asked to donate two-second-trimester blood samples, complete two questionnaires, have samples of air, dust, lint and tap water collected from their homes, and donate a cord blood sample at delivery. Over 17 months, 171 women enrolled (49% of initial contacts, and 99% of all eligible women) and 152 women completed the study (89% retention). Total recruitment costs were approximately $400 Cdn per final participant. Posters, study booth presentations and online advertising generated the most inquiries about the study. Word of mouth, referral from another study and direct email were the most cost-effective strategies. Not surprisingly, the recruited study population was less ethnically diverse, more affluent and more educated than the background population of pregnant women in Vancouver. A combination of passive and active recruitment techniques were successful for recruiting healthy women in roughly the first trimester of pregnancy (<15 weeks gestation). While a convenience sample of women is suitable for our study questions, additional strategies may be required to recruit a more representative pregnant population in future studies.

  13. DNA methylation age is elevated in breast tissue of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehl, Mary E; Henry, Jill E; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Ganz, Patricia A; Horvath, Steve

    2017-07-01

    Limited evidence suggests that female breast tissue ages faster than other parts of the body according to an epigenetic biomarker of aging known as the "epigenetic clock." However, it is unknown whether breast tissue samples from healthy women show a similar accelerated aging effect relative to other tissues, and what could drive this acceleration. The goal of this study is to validate our initial finding of advanced DNA methylation (DNAm) age in breast tissue, by directly comparing it to that of peripheral blood tissue from the same individuals, and to do a preliminary assessment of hormonal factors that could explain the difference. We utilized n = 80 breast and 80 matching blood tissue samples collected from 40 healthy female participants of the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center who donated these samples at two time points spaced at least a year apart. DNA methylation levels (Illumina 450K platform) were used to estimate the DNAm age. DNAm age was highly correlated with chronological age in both peripheral blood (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001) and breast tissues (r = 0.86, p < 0.0001). A measure of epigenetic age acceleration (age-adjusted DNAm Age) was substantially increased in breast relative to peripheral blood tissue (p = 1.6 × 10 -11 ). The difference between DNAm age of breast and blood decreased with advancing chronologic age (r = -0.53, p = 4.4 × 10 -4 ). Our data clearly demonstrate that female breast tissue has a higher epigenetic age than blood collected from the same subject. We also observe that the degree of elevation in breast diminishes with advancing age. Future larger studies will be needed to examine associations between epigenetic age acceleration and cumulative hormone exposure.

  14. Relationship between ultrasound estimated fetal gestational age and cerebellar appearance in healthy pregnant Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyekun, Ademola A; Orji, Michael O

    2015-01-01

    Fetal biometry by ultrasound provides reliable and important information about fetal growth and wellbeing. Evaluation of the fetal posterior fossa is useful in the assessment of neural tube-defects. Studies on normal ultrasound fetal cerebellar appearance and diameter across gestational age (GA) are scanty in the Nigerian medical literature. This study was carried out to study normal fetal cerebellar appearance and diameter at various GAs among healthy pregnant Nigerian Africans. This was a prospective study of 450 healthy singleton pregnant women between 13 and 42 weeks gestation. A curvilinear probe with a 3.5 MHz transducer of a SonoAce X6 (Medison Inc., Korea 2010) scanner was used to assess fetal transcerebellar diameter (TCD) and appearance. GA was also determined using fetal biometric parameters such as the biparietal diameter, femur length, and abdominal circumference. Fetal cerebellar appearance was correlated against GA. The cerebellar appearance was graded into: Grade I: 164 fetuses (36.4%), Grade II; 102 fetuses (22.7%) and Grade III: 184 fetuses (40.9%). Mean GA and TCD was 21 weeks and 21.2 mm for Grade I; 28 weeks and 32.6 mm for Grade II; and 35 weeks and 47.1 mm for Grade III. There was significance difference among the cerebellar grades at the GA groups and transverse cerebellar diameter (P < 0.000). There is a gradual and steady change in ultrasonographic appearance of the fetal cerebellar and diameter appearance with advancing gestation. The changes ranged from anechoic, "pair of eye glass" appearance at second trimester to relatively echogenic, "dumb-bell" appearance at early third trimester, and solid, "fan-shape" in late third trimester.

  15. Exploratory plasma proteomic analysis in a randomized crossover trial of aspirin among healthy men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    Full Text Available Long-term use of aspirin is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer and other cancers; however, the mechanism of chemopreventive effect of aspirin is not fully understood. Animal studies suggest that COX-2, NFκB signaling and Wnt/β-catenin pathways may play a role, but no clinical trials have systematically evaluated the biological response to aspirin in healthy humans. Using a high-density antibody array, we assessed the difference in plasma protein levels after 60 days of regular dose aspirin (325 mg/day compared to placebo in a randomized double-blinded crossover trial of 44 healthy non-smoking men and women, aged 21-45 years. The plasma proteome was analyzed on an antibody microarray with ~3,300 full-length antibodies, printed in triplicate. Moderated paired t-tests were performed on individual antibodies, and gene-set analyses were performed based on KEGG and GO pathways. Among the 3,000 antibodies analyzed, statistically significant differences in plasma protein levels were observed for nine antibodies after adjusting for false discoveries (FDR adjusted p-value<0.1. The most significant protein was succinate dehydrogenase subunit C (SDHC, a key enzyme complex of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. The other statistically significant proteins (NR2F1, MSI1, MYH1, FOXO1, KHDRBS3, NFKBIE, LYZ and IKZF1 are involved in multiple pathways, including DNA base-pair repair, inflammation and oncogenic pathways. None of the 258 KEGG and 1,139 GO pathways was found to be statistically significant after FDR adjustment. This study suggests several chemopreventive mechanisms of aspirin in humans, which have previously been reported to play a role in anti- or pro-carcinogenesis in cell systems; however, larger, confirmatory studies are needed.

  16. Pharmacokinetics, Dose Proportionality, and Bioavailability of Bazedoxifene in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeand, William

    2017-09-01

    Bazedoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has estrogen agonist effects on bone and lipid metabolism while having neutral or estrogen antagonist effects on the breast and endometrium. The present report describes findings from 3 Phase I clinical studies that evaluated the single-dose pharmacokinetics (study 1; n = 84), multiple-dose pharmacokinetics (study 2; n = 23), and absolute bioavailability (study 3; n = 18) of bazedoxifene. All 3 studies enrolled healthy postmenopausal women who were either naturally postmenopausal or had undergone bilateral oophorectomy at least 6 months before the start of the study. Study 1 showed that unconjugated and total (unconjugated and conjugated) bazedoxifene levels increased proportionally with ascending oral doses of bazedoxifene (through the dose range of 5-120 mg). Evaluation with or without food intake was conducted at the 10-mg dose, with no clinically relevant effect on pharmacokinetic parameters. Study 2 showed that bazedoxifene achieved steady state in 1 week and exhibited linear pharmacokinetics in doses of 5 to 40 mg with no unexpected accumulation over the dose range. In accordance with a linear pharmacokinetic profile, mean maximum plasma concentration values increased with increasing dose, with values of 1.6, 6.2, and 12.5 ng/mL for the 5-, 20-, and 40-mg doses, respectively. In study 3, tablet and capsule formulations of bazedoxifene formulations had an estimated oral bioavailability of ~6%. The clearance of bazedoxifene was 0.4 (0.1) L/h/kg based on intravenous administration. The oral formulations had comparable exposure profiles with respect to AUC and AUC0-t, and the 90% CIs for these values were within the bioequivalence limits of 80% to 125%. Bazedoxifene was safe and well tolerated in all 3 studies. These pharmacokinetic evaluations in healthy postmenopausal women found that bazedoxifene displayed linear pharmacokinetics with doses ranging from 5 to 40 mg, with no unexpected accumulation

  17. Babies Need Healthy Moms: an innovative postpartum screening and education class for women who had gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzitta, Marie A; Anderson, Michele; Egan, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy Babies Need Healthy Moms (HBNHM) is an innovative education program that combines the recommended 2-hour postpartum oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with diabetes prevention education for women who had gestational diabetes mellitus. During the class, the 2-hour OGTT is performed, and in the time between venipunctures, the women participate in group education focused on evidence-based diabetes prevention strategies that promote healthy family nutrition and lifestyle behavior, importance of preconception care for subsequent pregnancies, and the need for follow-up care for women who screen positive for abnormal glucose levels. The purpose of this article is to describe this model to encourage replication in other diabetes programs. The HBNHM program is a low-budget education program that provides postpartum OGTT screening for women who had gestational diabetes mellitus during their pregnancies while simultaneously offering education designed to improve future outcomes. For those women whose screening is positive for overt diabetes or prediabetes, the educational strategies are directed at encouraging follow-up care. For those patients who have normal screening results, the program is designed to help the patient prevent the future development of type 2 diabetes. Preconception counseling is included in an effort to improve outcomes in future pregnancies and provide patients with the tools needed to help enhance the health of their families.

  18. Serum antinuclear antibody in adult Thais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapinjumrune, Chanwit; Prucktrakul, Chalakorn; Sooktonglarng, Trakarn; Thongprasom, Kobkan

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the presence of antinuclear antibody (ANA) in older Thais compared with middle-age and younger participants. Antinuclear antibody represents the first step in the diagnostic testing for lupus erythematosus (LE) and other autoimmune diseases. Due to the lack of reference ANA levels in older, middle-age and younger Thais healthy participants, this study will be useful for determining the proper diagnostic and treatment criteria. There were 28 older (60-76 years), 17 middle-age (41-59 years) and 13 younger (24-40 years) participants in this study. Immunofluorescence was performed to analyse the ANA staining pattern and titre levels in the participants' blood samples. The presence of serum ANA was found in 18 of 28 cases (64.3%), four of 17 (23.5%) and one of 13 cases (7.7%) of the older, middle-age and younger participants, respectively. The difference in the number of serum ANA-positive participants between the older, middle-age and younger groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the ANA positive in older participants presented more than one staining pattern. The speckled pattern was the most commonly detected ANA staining pattern in the older group, being found in 12 cases followed by cytoplasmic pattern (10 cases), homogeneous pattern (nine cases) and nucleolar pattern (five cases). In the middle-age group, the speckled pattern was found in four cases, whereas one younger participant presented a nucleolar pattern. Serum ANA positive was significantly higher in the older group compared with the middle-age and younger groups. There were variations of the serum ANA staining patterns in the older group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Investigation on the average serum E2 level and menopausal age in healthy women in Wuhan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huilin; Lan Jian; Zhang Yangyang; Li Fei; Zhang Yuanji

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the average serum E 2 level and menopausal age of healthy women in Wuhan area and assess the appropriateness of hormone replacement therapy in these women. Methods: Serum E 2 levels were measured with RIA in 2020 healthy women (26-75 yr old) in Wuhan area. Results: (1) Serum E 2 levels reached peak in 31-35yr group, significantly dropped in 46-50yr group and reached menopausal level in 51-55 yr group. (2) The average menopausal age in Wuhan area was rather early-48.08yr. Conclusion: The average menopausal age in Wuhan area was 2.3yr earlier than the nationwide 1989 screening result, which should be a concern for the maternity health workers. (authors)

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with clitorally induced orgasm in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R; Kortekaas, Rudie; Kuipers, Rutger; Nieuwenburg, Arie; Pruim, Jan; Reinders, A A T Simone; Holstege, Gert

    2006-12-01

    There is a severe lack of knowledge regarding the brain regions involved in human sexual performance in general, and female orgasm in particular. We used [15O]-H2O positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 healthy women during a nonsexual resting state, clitorally induced orgasm, sexual clitoral stimulation (sexual arousal control) and imitation of orgasm (motor output control). Extracerebral markers of sexual performance and orgasm were rectal pressure variability (RPstd) and perceived level of sexual arousal (PSA). Sexual stimulation of the clitoris (compared to rest) significantly increased rCBF in the left secondary and right dorsal primary somatosensory cortex, providing the first account of neocortical processing of sexual clitoral information. In contrast, orgasm was mainly associated with profound rCBF decreases in the neocortex when compared with the control conditions (clitoral stimulation and imitation of orgasm), particularly in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal gyrus and anterior temporal pole. Significant positive correlations were found between RPstd and rCBF in the left deep cerebellar nuclei, and between PSA and rCBF in the ventral midbrain and right caudate nucleus. We propose that decreased blood flow in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex signifies behavioural disinhibition during orgasm in women, and that deactivation of the temporal lobe is directly related to high sexual arousal. In addition, the deep cerebellar nuclei may be involved in orgasm-specific muscle contractions while the involvement of the ventral midbrain and right caudate nucleus suggests a role for dopamine in female sexual arousal and orgasm.

  1. CO-occurring exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate alters thyroid function in healthy pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Megan K., E-mail: megan.horton@mssm.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Blount, Benjamin C.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wapner, Ronald [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Whyatt, Robin [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Gennings, Chris [Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Factor-Litvak, Pam [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Background: Adequate maternal thyroid function during pregnancy is necessary for normal fetal brain development, making pregnancy a critical window of vulnerability to thyroid disrupting insults. Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors, namely perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate, have been shown individually to competitively inhibit uptake of iodine by the thyroid. Several epidemiologic studies examined the association between these individual exposures and thyroid function. Few studies have examined the effect of this chemical mixture on thyroid function during pregnancy Objectives: We examined the cross sectional association between urinary perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate concentrations and thyroid function among healthy pregnant women living in New York City using weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression. Methods: We measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FreeT4) in blood samples; perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate and iodide in urine samples collected from 284 pregnant women at 12 (±2.8) weeks gestation. We examined associations between urinary analyte concentrations and TSH or FreeT4 using linear regression or WQS adjusting for gestational age, urinary iodide and creatinine. Results: Individual analyte concentrations in urine were significantly correlated (Spearman's r 0.4–0.5, p<0.001). Linear regression analyses did not suggest associations between individual concentrations and thyroid function. The WQS revealed a significant positive association between the weighted sum of urinary concentrations of the three analytes and increased TSH. Perchlorate had the largest weight in the index, indicating the largest contribution to the WQS. Conclusions: Co-exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate may alter maternal thyroid function, specifically TSH, during pregnancy. - Highlights: • Perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate and iodide measured in maternal urine. • Thyroid function (TSH and Free T4) measured in maternal blood

  2. Comparison of the immune microenvironment of the oral cavity and cervix in healthy women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry, Carole; Marks, Morgan A.; Gilman, Robert H.; Cabrerra, Lilia; Yori, Pablo; Kosek, Margaret; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite similar frequencies of exposure, the low prevalence of certain sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia, HPV and HIV-1 in the oral cavity relative to the cervix is poorly understood. This could be explained in part by differences in host immune microenvironments between these two anatomic sites. Objective We compared the concentration and correlation of 27 different immune markers in paired secretion specimens collected from the oral and cervical mucosa of healthy women. Methods Paired oral and cervical secretion specimens were collected from thirty-nine women. The concentration of twenty-seven different immune markers was estimated using a Luminex multiplex assay. Marker concentration was normalized to total protein present in the specimen. Median immune marker concentrations were compared across anatomic sites. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis was utilized to identify groups of markers that shared similar patterns of relative concentrations across anatomic sites. Results The oral cavity had significantly higher concentrations of eotaxin, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, PDGF-BB, TNF-α, (p < 0.01 for each) while the cervix had higher concentrations of proinflammatory markers such as FGF-basic, IL-1ra, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1β, VEGF (p < 0.01 for each). Hierarchical cluster analysis identified two groups of immune markers comprised of T-cell related immune markers with significantly higher concentrations in the oral cavity relative to the cervix, and a third cluster consisting of mostly inflammatory immune markers which were higher concentrations in the cervix. The oral cavity had a larger number of significant inter-marker correlations as compared to the cervix. Conclusions The oral cavity and cervix have significantly different immune marker profiles, which may in part explain the significantly lower burden of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia, HPV, and

  3. Deleterious effects of omitting breakfast on insulin sensitivity and fasting lipid profiles in healthy lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, Hamid R; Taylor, Moira A; Macdonald, Ian A

    2005-02-01

    Breakfast consumption is recommended, despite inconclusive evidence of health benefits. The study's aim was to ascertain whether eating breakfast (EB) or omitting breakfast (OB) affects energy intake, energy expenditure, and circulating insulin, glucose, and lipid concentrations in healthy women. In a randomized crossover trial, 10 women [x+/-SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 23.2+/-1.4] underwent two 14-d EB or OB interventions separated by a 2-wk interval. In the EB period, subjects consumed breakfast cereal with 2%-fat milk before 0800 and a chocolate-covered cookie between 1030 and 1100. In the OB period, subjects consumed the cookie between 1030 and 1100 and the cereal and milk between 1200 and 1330. Subjects then consumed 4 additional meals with content similar to usual at predetermined times later in the day and recorded food intake on 3 d during each period. Fasting and posttest meal glucose, lipid, and insulin concentrations and resting energy expenditure were measured before and after each period. Reported energy intake was significantly lower in the EB period (P=0.001), and resting energy expenditure did not differ significantly between the 2 periods. OB was associated with significantly higher fasting total and LDL cholesterol than was EB (3.14 and 3.43 mmol/L and 1.55 and 1.82 mmol/L, respectively; P=0.001). The area under the curve of insulin response to the test meal was significantly lower after EB than after OB (P<0.01). OB impairs fasting lipids and postprandial insulin sensitivity and could lead to weight gain if the observed higher energy intake was sustained.

  4. Strong Hearts, Healthy Communities: A Community-Based Randomized Trial for Rural Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Paul, Lynn; Folta, Sara C; Nelson, Miriam E; Strogatz, David; Graham, Meredith L; Diffenderfer, Anna; Eldridge, Galen; Parry, Stephen A

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a multilevel cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention program for rural women. This 6-month, community-based, randomized trial enrolled 194 sedentary rural women aged 40 or older with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 . Intervention participants attended 6 months of twice-weekly exercise, nutrition, and heart health classes (48 total) that included individual-, social-, and environment-level components. An education-only control program included didactic healthy lifestyle classes once a month (six total). The primary outcome measures were change in BMI and weight. Within-group and between-group multivariate analyses revealed that only intervention participants decreased BMI (-0.85 units; 95% CI: -1.32 to -0.39; P = 0.001) and weight (-2.24 kg; 95% CI: -3.49 to -0.99; P = 0.002). Compared with controls, intervention participants decreased BMI (difference: -0.71 units; 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.08; P = 0.03) and weight (1.85 kg; 95% CI: -3.55 to -0.16; P = 0.03) and improved C-reactive protein (difference: -1.15 mg/L; 95% CI: -2.16 to -0.15; P = 0.03) and Simple 7, a composite CVD risk score (difference: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.14 to 1.21; P = 0.01). Cholesterol decreased among controls but increased in the intervention group (-7.85 vs. 3.92 mg/dL; difference: 11.77; 95% CI: 0.57 to 22.96; P = 0.04). The multilevel intervention demonstrated modest but superior and meaningful improvements in BMI and other CVD risk factors compared with the control program. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  5. Dietary minerals, reproductive hormone levels and sporadic anovulation: associations in healthy women with regular menstrual cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keewan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Michels, Kara A; Schliep, Karen C; Plowden, Torie C; Chaljub, Ellen N; Mumford, Sunni L

    2018-04-20

    Although minerals are linked to several reproductive outcomes, it is unknown whether dietary minerals are associated with ovulatory function. We hypothesised that low intakes of minerals would be associated with an increased risk of anovulation. We investigated associations between dietary mineral intake and both reproductive hormones and anovulation in healthy women in the BioCycle Study, which prospectively followed up 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18-44 years who were not taking mineral supplements for two menstrual cycles. Intakes of ten selected minerals were assessed through 24-h dietary recalls at up to four times per cycle in each participant. Oestradiol, progesterone, luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex-hormone-binding globulin and testosterone were measured in serum up to eight times per cycle. We used weighted linear mixed models to evaluate associations between minerals and hormones and generalised linear models for risk of anovulation. Compared with Na intake ≥1500 mg, Na intake <1500 mg was associated with higher levels of FSH (21·3 %; 95 % CI 7·5, 36·9) and LH (36·8 %; 95 % CI 16·5, 60·5) and lower levels of progesterone (-36·9 %; 95 % CI -56·5, -8·5). Na intake <1500 mg (risk ratio (RR) 2·70; 95 % CI 1·00, 7·31) and Mn intake <1·8 mg (RR 2·00; 95 % CI 1·02, 3·94) were associated with an increased risk of anovulation, compared with higher intakes, respectively. Other measured dietary minerals were not associated with ovulatory function. As essential minerals are mostly obtained via diet, our results comparing insufficient levels with sufficient levels highlight the need for future research on dietary nutrients and their associations with ovulatory cycles.

  6. Influence of the visual environment on the postural stability in healthy older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke-Wavell, K; Perrett, L K; Howarth, P A; Haslam, R A

    2002-01-01

    A poor postural stability in older people is associated with an increased risk of falling. It is recognized that visual environment factors (such as poor lighting and repeating patterns on escalators) may contribute to falls, but little is known about the effects of the visual environment on postural stability in the elderly. To determine whether the postural stability of older women (using body sway as a measure) differed under five different visual environment conditions. Subjects were 33 healthy women aged 65-76 years. Body sway was measured using an electronic force platform which identified the location of their centre of gravity every 0.05 s. Maximal lateral sway and anteroposterior sway were determined and the sway velocity calculated over 1-min trial periods. Body sway was measured under each of the following conditions: (1) normal laboratory lighting (186 lx); (2) moderate lighting (10 lx); (3) dim lighting (1 lx); (4) eyes closed, and (5) repeating pattern projected onto a wall. Each measure of the postural stability was significantly poorer in condition 4 (eyes closed) than in all other conditions. Anteroposterior sway was greater in condition 3 than in conditions 1 and 2, whilst the sway velocity was greater in condition 3 than in condition 2. Lateral sway did not differ significantly between different lighting levels (conditions 1-3). A projected repeating pattern (condition 5) did not significantly influence the postural stability relative to condition 1. The substantially greater body sway with eyes closed than with eyes open confirms the importance of vision in maintaining the postural stability. At the lowest light level, the body sway was significantly increased as compared with the other light levels, but was still substantially smaller than on closing the eyes. A projected repeating pattern did not influence the postural stability. Dim lighting levels and removing visual input appear to be associated with a poorer postural stability in older

  7. Dietary seaweed modifies estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Hurley, Thomas G; Hebert, James R; Franke, Adrian A; Sepkovic, Daniel W; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2009-05-01

    Seaweed and soy foods are consumed daily in Japan, where breast cancer rates for postmenopausal women are significantly lower than in the West. Likely mechanisms include differences in diet, especially soy consumption, and estrogen metabolism. Fifteen healthy postmenopausal women participated in this double-blind trial of seaweed supplementation with soy challenge. Participants were randomized to 7 wk of either 5 g/d seaweed (Alaria) or placebo (maltodextrin). During wk 7, participants also consumed a daily soy protein isolate (2 mg isoflavones/kg body weight). After a 3-wk washout period, participants were crossed over to the alternate supplement schedule. There was an inverse correlation between seaweed dose (mg/kg body weight) and serum estradiol (E2) (seaweed-placebo = y = -2.29 x dose + 172.3; r = -0.70; P = 0.003), [corrected] which was linear across the range of weights. Soy supplementation increased urinary daidzein, glycitein, genistein, and O-desmethylangolensin (P = 0.0001) and decreased matairesinol and enterolactone (P seaweed plus soy (SeaSoy) increased urinary excretion of 2-hydroxyestrogen (2-OHE) (P = 0.0001) and the ratio of 2-OHE:16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alphaOHE(1)) (P = 0.01). For the 5 equol excretors, soy increased urinary equol excretion (P = 0.0001); the combination of SeaSoy further increased equol excretion by 58% (P = 0.0001). Equol producers also had a 315% increase in 2:16 ratio (P = 0.001) with SeaSoy. Seaweed favorably alters estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism and these changes likely include modulation of colonic bacteria.

  8. CO-occurring exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate alters thyroid function in healthy pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, Megan K.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Wapner, Ronald; Whyatt, Robin; Gennings, Chris; Factor-Litvak, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate maternal thyroid function during pregnancy is necessary for normal fetal brain development, making pregnancy a critical window of vulnerability to thyroid disrupting insults. Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors, namely perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate, have been shown individually to competitively inhibit uptake of iodine by the thyroid. Several epidemiologic studies examined the association between these individual exposures and thyroid function. Few studies have examined the effect of this chemical mixture on thyroid function during pregnancy Objectives: We examined the cross sectional association between urinary perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate concentrations and thyroid function among healthy pregnant women living in New York City using weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression. Methods: We measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FreeT4) in blood samples; perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate and iodide in urine samples collected from 284 pregnant women at 12 (±2.8) weeks gestation. We examined associations between urinary analyte concentrations and TSH or FreeT4 using linear regression or WQS adjusting for gestational age, urinary iodide and creatinine. Results: Individual analyte concentrations in urine were significantly correlated (Spearman's r 0.4–0.5, p<0.001). Linear regression analyses did not suggest associations between individual concentrations and thyroid function. The WQS revealed a significant positive association between the weighted sum of urinary concentrations of the three analytes and increased TSH. Perchlorate had the largest weight in the index, indicating the largest contribution to the WQS. Conclusions: Co-exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate may alter maternal thyroid function, specifically TSH, during pregnancy. - Highlights: • Perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate and iodide measured in maternal urine. • Thyroid function (TSH and Free T4) measured in maternal blood

  9. Comparison of anaerobic threshold determined by visual and mathematical methods in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Higa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Several methods are used to estimate anaerobic threshold (AT during exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare AT obtained by a graphic visual method for the estimate of ventilatory and metabolic variables (gold standard, to a bi-segmental linear regression mathematical model of Hinkley's algorithm applied to heart rate (HR and carbon dioxide output (VCO2 data. Thirteen young (24 ± 2.63 years old and 16 postmenopausal (57 ± 4.79 years old healthy and sedentary women were submitted to a continuous ergospirometric incremental test on an electromagnetic braking cycloergometer with 10 to 20 W/min increases until physical exhaustion. The ventilatory variables were recorded breath-to-breath and HR was obtained beat-to-beat over real time. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric Friedman test and Spearman correlation test with the level of significance set at 5%. Power output (W, HR (bpm, oxygen uptake (VO2; mL kg-1 min-1, VO2 (mL/min, VCO2 (mL/min, and minute ventilation (VE; L/min data observed at the AT level were similar for both methods and groups studied (P > 0.05. The VO2 (mL kg-1 min-1 data showed significant correlation (P < 0.05 between the gold standard method and the mathematical model when applied to HR (r s = 0.75 and VCO2 (r s = 0.78 data for the subjects as a whole (N = 29. The proposed mathematical method for the detection of changes in response patterns of VCO2 and HR was adequate and promising for AT detection in young and middle-aged women, representing a semi-automatic, non-invasive and objective AT measurement.

  10. Pharmacokinetic assessment of dapivirine vaginal microbicide gel in healthy, HIV-negative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Annalene M; Coplan, Paul; Smythe, Shanique C; McCord, Karen; Mitchnick, Mark; Kaptur, Paulina E; Romano, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetics of dapivirine in plasma and dapivirine concentrations in cervicovaginal fluids (CVF) and cervicovaginal tissues following vaginal administration of dapivirine microbicide gel in healthy, HIV-negative women for 10 days. A randomized, double-blind, phase I study was conducted at a single research center in South Africa. A total of 18 women used dapivirine gel (0.001%, 0.005%, or 0.02%) once daily on Days 1 and 10 and twice daily on Days 2-9. Pharmacokinetics of dapivirine were assessed in plasma on Days 1 and 10. Dapivirine concentrations were measured in CVF on Days 1 and 10 and in cervicovaginal tissues on Day 10. Safety was evaluated through laboratory tests (hematology, clinical chemistry, and urinalysis), physical examinations, and assessment of adverse events. Plasma concentrations of dapivirine increased over time with gel dose and were greater on Day 10 (C(max) 31 to 471 pg/ml) than Day 1 (C(max) 23 to 80 pg/ml). T(max) was 10-12 h on Day 1, and 9 h on Day 10. Concentrations in CVF generally increased with dose but were highly variable among participants. Mean peak values ranged from 4.6-8.3 × 10(6) pg/ml on Day 1 and from 2.3-20.7 × 10(6) pg/ml on Day 10 across dose groups. Dapivirine was detectable in all tissue biopsies on Day 10 at concentrations of 1.0-356 × 10(3) pg/mg. Dapivirine was widely distributed throughout the lower genital tract with low systemic absorption when administered in a vaginal gel formulation for 10 consecutive days. The gel was safe and well tolerated.

  11. Textiles of the Phu Thai of Laos

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh, Linda Susan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis documents the hand-woven textiles that the Phu Thai ethnic group living in Savannakhet Province, Laos, produce. The various stages of textile production and the uses of textiles in Phu Thai society, especially as identity markers, are also examined. Textiles of neighboring groups are also investigated to how knowledge of textile technology, types, and aesthetics are transferred between the Phu Thai and other ethnicities, specifically the Lao and Katang. The study's field research ...

  12. Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Thai Adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey

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    Walker S.C. Poston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES, behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary.

  13. Thai men's health and sexual attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkanand, Apichat; Permpongkosol, Sompol; Tantiwongse, Kavirach

    2011-07-01

    Men's health awareness, including the research and study of quality of life, sexual desires and risk factors, has increased worldwide. In Thailand, this advancement is made possible by cooperation, research and sponsorship from the local Thai community. This article aims to illustrate the sexual attitudes of Thai people, to determine the degree of erectile dysfunction (ED) and to investigate how to manage and cope with ED in a Thai community. We reviewed the relevant literature from Thai-based articles and surveys in regard to men's health, sexual attitudes, the prevalence of ED and common risk factors in the Thai community. The primary risk factor for ED in Thai men was age-related health decline and the presence of vascular disease. Most Thai men will seek consultation from their partner in regard to ED. The main presentation of metabolic disease in Thai patients was dyslipidemia. New selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are not available for premature ejaculation in Thai communities. The debate in regard to malpractice compensation is an issue that should be closely monitored. There is currently a shortage of home care for the elderly in Thailand. The insights provided by the articles helped recruit the study patients and in turn, helped us gain knowledge that can be translated into improved men's health care in Thailand.

  14. The effects of auditory stimulation with music on heart rate variability in healthy women

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    Adriano L. Roque

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There are no data in the literature with regard to the acute effects of different styles of music on the geometric indices of heart rate variability. In this study, we evaluated the acute effects of relaxant baroque and excitatory heavy metal music on the geometric indices of heart rate variability in women. METHODS: We conducted this study in 21 healthy women ranging in age from 18 to 35 years. We excluded persons with previous experience with musical instruments and persons who had an affinity for the song styles. We evaluated two groups: Group 1 (n = 21, who were exposed to relaxant classical baroque musical and excitatory heavy metal auditory stimulation; and Group 2 (n = 19, who were exposed to both styles of music and white noise auditory stimulation. Using earphones, the volunteers were exposed to baroque or heavy metal music for five minutes. After the first music exposure to baroque or heavy metal music, they remained at rest for five minutes; subsequently, they were re-exposed to the opposite music (70-80 dB. A different group of women were exposed to the same music styles plus white noise auditory stimulation (90 dB. The sequence of the songs was randomized for each individual. We analyzed the following indices: triangular index, triangular interpolation of RR intervals and Poincaré plot (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability, standard deviation of the long-term RR interval, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability and standard deviation of the long-term RR interval ratio, low frequency, high frequency, low frequency/high frequency ratio, standard deviation of all the normal RR intervals, root-mean square of differences between the adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms. Heart rate variability was recorded at rest for 10 minutes. RESULTS: The triangular index and the standard deviation of

  15. The effects of auditory stimulation with music on heart rate variability in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Adriano L; Valenti, Vitor E; Guida, Heraldo L; Campos, Mônica F; Knap, André; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Ferreira, Lucas L; Ferreira, Celso; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de

    2013-07-01

    There are no data in the literature with regard to the acute effects of different styles of music on the geometric indices of heart rate variability. In this study, we evaluated the acute effects of relaxant baroque and excitatory heavy metal music on the geometric indices of heart rate variability in women. We conducted this study in 21 healthy women ranging in age from 18 to 35 years. We excluded persons with previous experience with musical instruments and persons who had an affinity for the song styles. We evaluated two groups: Group 1 (n = 21), who were exposed to relaxant classical baroque musical and excitatory heavy metal auditory stimulation; and Group 2 (n = 19), who were exposed to both styles of music and white noise auditory stimulation. Using earphones, the volunteers were exposed to baroque or heavy metal music for five minutes. After the first music exposure to baroque or heavy metal music, they remained at rest for five minutes; subsequently, they were re-exposed to the opposite music (70-80 dB). A different group of women were exposed to the same music styles plus white noise auditory stimulation (90 dB). The sequence of the songs was randomized for each individual. We analyzed the following indices: triangular index, triangular interpolation of RR intervals and Poincaré plot (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability, standard deviation of the long-term RR interval, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-by-beat variability and standard deviation of the long-term RR interval ratio), low frequency, high frequency, low frequency/high frequency ratio, standard deviation of all the normal RR intervals, root-mean square of differences between the adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms. Heart rate variability was recorded at rest for 10 minutes. The triangular index and the standard deviation of the long-term RR interval indices were reduced

  16. Effectiveness of carboxytherapy in the treatment of cellulite in healthy women: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianez LR

    2016-08-01

    organization of the fibrous lines and the disposal of adipose tissue lines of the treated regions observed through the panoramic ultrasound images diagnosis.Conclusion: Carboxytherapy is an effective technique of treatment of cellulite in the buttocks region and posterior thighs of healthy women. Keywords: carbon dioxide, cellulite, localized fat, gynoid lipodystrophy, skin, panoramic ultrasound

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Ovaries of Healthy Women: Determination of Normal Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, E.A.M.; Jaeger, H.J.; Libera, H.; Lange, S.; Forsting, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To establish normal values for the volume and maximal diameter of ovaries and ovarian follicles and for the number of ovarian follicles in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based on menstrual cycle phase and age. Material and Methods: We performed MRI of the pelvis on 100 healthy women. Volume of the ovaries and largest ovarian follicles and the number of ovarian follicles were determined by menstrual cycle phase and age. Results: The mean volume of the ovaries significantly increased with age and reached its peak between 31 and 40 years, and subsequently decreased. The mean volume of the largest ovarian follicles also significantly increased with age to reach its peak at 41-50 years. The highest mean numbers of ovarian follicles were found at 20-40 years. When the volumes of ovaries and of the largest ovarian follicles, and the number of ovarian follicles were compared between the first and second phase of the menstrual cycle, no significant differences were found. Conclusion: The volume and maximal diameter of ovaries and ovarian follicles and the number of ovarian follicles differ significantly with age, but not between the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Knowledge of MRI-related normal values can be expected to aid the early identification of ovarian pathologies

  18. MR imaging of the uterus and cervix in healthy women: Determination of normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, Elke A.M.; Libera, Hanna; Lange, Silke; Forsting, Michael; Jaeger, Horst J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for the volume of the uterus and cervix in MRI based on age and the menstrual cycle phase. We performed MRI of the pelvis in 100 healthy women. For the uterus, they were further divided into two groups: one with myomas and/or adenomyosis and one without either. The volume of the uterus and cervix and thickness of the uterine wall layers were analysed by age and the menstrual cycle phase. The mean volume of the uterus in both groups and the cervix significantly increased with age to reach its peak at 41-50 years, and then dropped. Likewise, the thickness of the endometrium and the junctional zone, but not the myometrium, significantly increased until 41-50 years, and then decreased. When we compared the volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the uterine wall layers between the two phases of the menstrual cycle, we found no significant differences. The volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the endometrium and junctional zone differ significantly with age, but not between the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Knowledge of MRI-related normal values can be expected to aid the early identification of uterine pathologies. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 bioavailability in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Toshiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin K2 contributes to bone and cardiovascular health. Therefore, two vitamin K2 homologues, menaquinone-4 (MK-4 and menaquinone-7 (MK-7, have been used as nutrients by the food industry and as nutritional supplements to support bone and cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the bioavailability of nutritional MK-4. To investigate MK-4 and MK-7 bioavailability, nutritional doses were administered to healthy Japanese women. Findings Single dose administration of MK-4 (420 μg; 945 nmol or MK-7 (420 μg; 647 nmol was given in the morning together with standardized breakfast. MK-7 was well absorbed and reached maximal serum level at 6 h after intake and was detected up to 48 h after intake. MK-4 was not detectable in the serum of all subjects at any time point. Consecutive administration of MK-4 (60 μg; 135 nmol or MK-7 (60 μg; 92 nmol for 7 days demonstrated that MK-4 supplementation did not increase serum MK-4 levels. However, consecutive administration of MK-7 increased serum MK-7 levels significantly in all subjects. Conclusions We conclude that MK-4 present in food does not contribute to the vitamin K status as measured by serum vitamin K levels. MK-7, however significantly increases serum MK-7 levels and therefore may be of particular importance for extrahepatic tissues.

  20. An Analysis of Muscle Activities of Healthy Women during Pilates Exercises in a Prone Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Shim, Jemyung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Haroo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the activities of the back and hip muscles during Pilates exercises conducted in a prone position. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy women volunteers who had practiced at a Pilates center for more than three months. [Methods] The subjects performed three Pilates exercises. To examine muscle activity during the exercises, 8-channel surface electromyography (Noraxon USA, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ) was used. The surface electrodes were attached to the bilateral latissimus dorsi muscle, multifidus muscle, gluteus maximus, and semitendinous muscle. Three Pilates back exercises were compared: (1) double leg kick (DLK), (2) swimming (SW), and (3) leg beat (LB). Electrical muscle activation was normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to assess the differences in activation levels among the exercises. [Results] The activity of the multifidus muscle was significantly high for the SW (52.3±11.0, 50.9±9.8) and LB exercises(51.8±12.8, 48.3±13.9) and the activity of the semitendinosus muscle was higher for the LB exercise (49.2±8.7, 52.9±9.3) than for the DLK and SW exercises. [Conclusion] These results may provide basic material for when Pilates exercises are performed in a prone position and may be useful information on clinical Pilates for rehabilitation programs.

  1. Influence of an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone on insulin sensitivity of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnacci, Angelo; Piacenti, Ilaria; Zanin, Renata; Xholli, Anjeza; Tirelli, Alessandra

    2014-07-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) containing androgenic second and third generation progestins decrease insulin sensitivity (SI). In this study we investigated whether an oral contraceptive containing the anti-androgenic progestin drospirenone (DRSP) still alters SI. Lipid modifications were investigated as well. Eleven young healthy women were allocated to receive for 6 months ethinyl-estradiol (EE) 30μg plus DRSP (3mg). SI and glucose utilization independent of insulin (Sg) was investigated by the minimal model method. Lipid modifications were also analyzed. SI did not vary during EE/DRSP (from 3.72±2.62 to 3.29±2.93; p=0.73). Similarly, values of Sg did not vary (from 0.03±0.02 to 0.032±0.014; p=0.87). An increase was observed in HDL cholesterol (9.4±9.8mg/dl; p=0.05) and triglycerides (46.9±75.1mg/dl; p=0.046), with no modification in LDL cholesterol (-4.64±1.704mg/dl; p=0.6). EE/DRSP does not deteriorate SI. These results are reassuring for the long-term use of this association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of anaerobic threshold determined by visual and mathematical methods in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, M N; Silva, E; Neves, V F C; Catai, A M; Gallo, L; Silva de Sá, M F

    2007-04-01

    Several methods are used to estimate anaerobic threshold (AT) during exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare AT obtained by a graphic visual method for the estimate of ventilatory and metabolic variables (gold standard), to a bi-segmental linear regression mathematical model of Hinkley's algorithm applied to heart rate (HR) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) data. Thirteen young (24 +/- 2.63 years old) and 16 postmenopausal (57 +/- 4.79 years old) healthy and sedentary women were submitted to a continuous ergospirometric incremental test on an electromagnetic braking cycloergometer with 10 to 20 W/min increases until physical exhaustion. The ventilatory variables were recorded breath-to-breath and HR was obtained beat-to-beat over real time. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric Friedman test and Spearman correlation test with the level of significance set at 5%. Power output (W), HR (bpm), oxygen uptake (VO2; mL kg(-1) min(-1)), VO2 (mL/min), VCO2 (mL/min), and minute ventilation (VE; L/min) data observed at the AT level were similar for both methods and groups studied (P > 0.05). The VO2 (mL kg(-1) min(-1)) data showed significant correlation (P automatic, non-invasive and objective AT measurement.

  3. Socioeconomic status and number of children among Korean women: the Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseob; Sung, Joohon

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the birth rate is associated with socioeconomic status in the women of the Republic of Korea, where the birth rate is rapidly decreasing. This study included 732 females from the Healthy Twin Study, a family-twin cohort. The participants were classified into 3 socioeconomic groups according to their average income, education, and occupation. The association between socioeconomic status and number of children was assessed using gamma regression analysis with a generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for the age group, smoking/alcohol status, and family relationships. The group with the highest education level had significantly fewer children compared with the group with the lowest education level (p=0.004). However, no significant associations were found according to household income level. The non-manual labor group had significantly fewer children compared with those working as homemakers (p=0.008). This study aimed to explain the causal relationship between socioeconomic status and number of children. Associations between some socioeconomic status and number of children were found in Korea.

  4. A statistical method to calculate blood contamination in the measurement of salivary hormones in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Guilherme A; Patel, Jay P; Coote, Marg; Moreira, Jose C F; Gelain, Daniel P; Steiner, Meir; Frey, Benicio N

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that salivary concentrations of certain hormones correlate with their respective serum levels. However, most of these studies did not control for potential blood contamination in saliva. In the present study we developed a statistical method to test the amount of blood contamination that needs to be avoided in saliva samples for the following hormones: cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and oxytocin. Saliva and serum samples were collected from 38 healthy, medication-free women (mean age=33.8±7.3yr.; range=19-45). Serum and salivary hormonal levels and the amount of transferrin in saliva samples were determined using enzyme immunoassays. Salivary transferrin levels did not correlate with salivary cortisol or estradiol (up to 3mg/dl), but they were positively correlated with salivary testosterone, progesterone and oxytocin (phormones in order to determine the level of blood contamination that might affect specific hormonal salivary concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine for the assessment of renal dysfunction in healthy pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewska, A. K.; Ronin-Walknowska, E.; Plonka, T.; Borowiak, K. S.; Janus, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy is associated with adaptive alterations affecting almost all organs and systems of the female body and is also a time when pathologies appear which would otherwise remain asymptomatic for many years. 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1H -MRS) of urine, a modern diagnostic method, can disclose discrete changes in organ function. It seemed interesting to search for pregnancy-dependent renal pathology in healthy women and thus prognosticate progression to overt disease after pregnancy. Objectives. To determine whether physiological pregnancy is accompanied by alterations in renal structures detectable by 1H-MRS of urine and to assess the type and reversibility of alterations. Material and Methods. Eighty women were enrolled in two groups: a study group (B) consisting of 40 healthy pregnant women and a control group (K) of 40 healthy nulligravida women. Enrollment criteria included normal health status, unrevealing physical and gynecological examination, and normal results of laboratory tests (complete blood count, urea, creatinine, uric acid, urinalysis). MRS of urine and laboratory tests were done in group B during each trimester (B1, B2, and B3, i.e. the 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd trimesters, respectively) and six weeks after delivery (BP). In group K, the tests were done only once. The spectra were processed with MestReC software and then multidimensional statistical analysis using Unscrambler software was performed. The results were presented as the distribution of the variables in multidimensional space. Results. The patterns in multidimensional space revealed a clustering of points when comparing the first and third trimesters of pregnancy and comparing the third trimester and the healthy non-pregnant women. Also, a partial clustering of points comparing healthy non-pregnant and pregnant women after the puerperium was noticeable. Conclusions. Differences in 1H -MRS profiles of urine between healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women reflect

  6. Awareness, knowledge, healthy lifestyle behaviors, and their correlates to coronary heart disease among working women in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Hadassah Joann; Wu, Vivien Xi; He, Hong-Gu; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Wenru

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate awareness, knowledge, healthy lifestyle behaviors, and their correlates to coronary heart disease (CHD) among working women in Singapore. CHD is the leading cause of death for women globally, yet women are unaware of this or the associated risk factors that make them vulnerable to CHD. A cross-sectional descriptive study with a quota sample of 200 working women was conducted in Singapore. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires, including the Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire-2, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and a section on Awareness of CHD. Participants demonstrated suboptimal awareness of CHD being the leading cause of death among women and the risk factors associated with morbidity. Healthy lifestyle behaviors were found to be affected by age, ethnicity, marital status, income status, presence of chronic diseases, and working groups. Health care providers should systematically evaluate women at risk for CHD and provide both gender-sensitive and age-specific education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of the behavior of the mid-urethra in healthy and stress incontinent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Kirsi Marja; Kainulainen, Sakari; Aukee, Sinikka; Heinonen, Seppo; Nilsson, Carl Gustaf

    2010-03-01

    Support of the mid-urethra is thought to be an essential element of urinary continence in the female. Our aim was to image the behavior of the mid-urethra in healthy volunteers and in stress urinary incontinence (SUI) patients by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prospective study. Gynecology outpatient clinic association with Department of Radiology in University Hospital of Kuopio, Finland. Fifteen healthy volunteers and 40 SUI women underwent dynamic MRI at rest, during pelvic floor muscle contraction, coughing and voiding with a bladder volume of 200 ml. Our aim was to determine the precise location and movement of the mid-urethra during these activities. The co-ordinate location and movement of the mid-urethra. Continent volunteers can elevate their mid-urethra significantly higher than incontinent women. Moreover, the mid-urethra of incontinent women rotated significantly more dorsocaudally during straining and coughing than in continent women. Elevation of the mid-urethra was more marked in continent compared to urinary incontinent women on pelvic floor muscle contraction suggesting sufficient support of the urethra. Downward movement of the mid-urethra was more significant in stress incontinent women than in continent volunteers.

  8. Inner happiness among Thai elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rossarin Soottipong; Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Kittisuksathit, Sirinan; Thongthai, Varachai

    2008-09-01

    This study, based on data collected in 2005 from Chai Nat province, examines the level of happiness of the Thai elderly population and its relationship to various external and internal factors. It was found that mean happiness was slightly above a feeling of "neutral." According to multiple regression analyses, external factors including economic hardship, living arrangements, functional ability, perceived social environment, and consumerism significantly influence the level of happiness. The strongest predictor of happiness is, however, the internal factor-that is, a feeling of relative poverty when compared to their neighbors. Controlling for demographic and all external factors, the respondents who do not feel poor show the highest level of happiness compared to those who feel as poor as or poorer than their neighbors. This is self-interpreted as a feeling of contentment with what one has, which has been influenced by Thai culture, which is pervaded by Buddhism.

  9. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters.

  10. Daily stress, presleep arousal, and sleep in healthy young women: a daily life computerized sleep diary and actigraphy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzeler, Katja; Voellmin, Annette; Schäfer, Valérie; Meyer, Andrea H; Cajochen, Christian; Wilhelm, Frank H; Bader, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    Our study aimed to further elucidate the mediating role of presleep arousal in the relationship between daily stress and sleep by investigating subjective sleep quality and actigraphy-assessed sleep efficiency (SE) on both within- and between-participant levels in a sample of healthy young women. Multilevel modeling was applied on electronically assessed data comprising 14 consecutive nights in 145 healthy young women to assess the relationship between daily stress, presleep (somatic and cognitive) arousal, and sleep on both levels between participants and within participants across days. Higher levels of daily stress were consistently and significantly associated with higher levels of somatic and cognitive arousal. Somatic arousal mediated the relationship between daily stress and worsened subjective sleep quality on the between-participant level, while cognitive arousal mediated the relationship between daily stress and worsened subjective sleep quality on the within-participants level. Unexpectedly, healthy young women showed higher SE following days with above-average stress with somatic arousal mediating this relationship. Our data corroborate the role of presleep arousal mediating the relationship between daily stress and subjective sleep quality. Interestingly this effect was restricted to somatic arousal being relevant on interindividual levels and cognitive arousal on intraindividual levels. For young and healthy individuals who experience high stress and arousal, well-established cognitive-behavioral techniques could be useful to regulate arousal and prevent worse subjective sleep quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Cross Sectional Comparison of Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Factors for Lifestyle Health Behaviours and Weight Gain in Healthy and Overweight Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jersey, Susan J; Mallan, Kimberley; Callaway, Leonie; Daniels, Lynne A; Nicholson, Jan M

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Little is known about the antecedents to dietary and physical activity behaviours that can support healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) across different weight status groups in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to use constructs common to dominant health behaviour theories to determine if predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors for healthy eating, physical activity and weight gain differed between healthy and overweight pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women (n = 664) aged 29 ± 5 (mean ± SD) years were recruited at 16 ± 2 weeks gestation. Measures were self-reported pre-pregnancy weight, psychosocial constructs for healthy eating, physical activity and GWG and demographic data. Height was measured at 16 weeks. Psychosocial constructs were compared between women with pre-pregnancy weight status of healthy (BMI healthy eating and physical activity were not different between healthy (66 %) and overweight (34 %) women. Overweight women had lower self-efficacy for healthy eating, physical activity and GWG (p healthy eating (p = 0.002), and physical activity (p = 0.006). Conclusions for practice Both healthy and overweight women appear motivated to follow a healthy diet, exercise and avoid excess gestational weight during pregnancy. However many psychosocial factors associated with achieving these goals were different between healthy and overweight women. Health behaviour interventions tailored to overweight pregnant women should consider improving self-efficacy, providing support to overcome perceived barriers, validate positive changes made, and assist in managing negative expectations.

  12. No association between adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and cardiovascular disease amongst Swedish women: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, N; Sandin, S; Scragg, R; Löf, M; Skeie, G; Olsen, A; Adami, H-O; Weiderpass, E

    2015-11-01

    In several intervention trials, a healthy Nordic diet showed beneficial effects on markers of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the association between a healthy Nordic diet and clinical diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was first to examine the association between a healthy Nordic food index (wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish) and the incidence of overall cardiovascular disease (ischaemic heart disease, stroke, arrhythmia, thrombosis and hypertensive disease), and secondly to test for possible effect modification by smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption and age. We conducted an analysis of data from the prospective Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 43 310 women who completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1991-1992, and followed up until 31 December 2012 through Swedish registries. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 8383 women developed cardiovascular disease. We found no association between the healthy Nordic food index and overall cardiovascular disease risk or any of the subgroups investigated. There was a statistically significant interaction with smoking status (P = 0.02), with a beneficial effect only amongst former smokers (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99 per 1-point increment). The present results do not support an association between a healthy Nordic food index and risk of cardiovascular disease in Swedish women. There was also no effect modification by alcohol intake, BMI or age. Our finding of an interaction with smoking status requires reproduction. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  13. Thai petrochemical boom on track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Thailand continues to mark progress on the ambitious expansion of its petrochemical industry. Among recent developments: The outlook for Thailand's troubled worldscale aromatics project has improved with a major cut in its estimated cost. In addition, the project apparently has drawn the interest of other companies seeking a possible equity stake. Amoco Chemical Co., which lost a tender to build a worldscale purified terephathalic acid (PTA) complex in Thailand to Taiwan's Tuntex Co., is reviving its bid with a proposal similar to its earlier one. Amoco contends there will be enough demand to warrant a second PTA plant in Thailand. Tuntex is negotiating with several business groups to take part in its $333 million, 350,000 ton/year PTA project in Thailand. Tuntex is soliciting interest from a number of Thai companies, including Bangkok Bank and the Saha Union industrial conglomerate to acquire portions of the 51% interest in the project earmarked for Thai shareholders. The firm also is negotiating with a number of Japanese companies with whom it has long trade ties, including Mitsui and Co. and Marubeni Corp. to acquire part of the 49% foreign shareholding in the project. Thai Olefins Co. (TOC) marked further progress with feedstock contracts and financing arrangements for its proposed $720 million olefins plant, part of Thailand's second worldscale petrochemical complex (NPC II). Indian industrial giant Birla proposed a $20 million ethylene glycol (EG) project in Thailand

  14. Weight gain in healthy pregnant women in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI, diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2015-07-01

    to explore gestational weight gain in healthy women in relation to pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index, diet and physical activity. a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 455 healthy pregnant women of all gestational ages receiving antenatal care from an independent midwife in the Netherlands. Weight gain was assessed using the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and classified as below, within, or above the guidelines. A multinomial regression analysis was performed with weight gain classifications as the dependent variable (within IOM-guidelines as reference). Independent variables were pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index, diet (broken down into consumption of vegetables, fruit and fish) and physical activity (motivation to engage in physical activity, pre-pregnancy physical activity and decline in physical activity during pregnancy). Covariates were age, gestational age, parity, ethnicity, family income, education, perceived sleep deprivation, satisfaction with pre-pregnancy weight, estimated prepregnancy body mass index, smoking, having a weight gain goal and having received weight gain advice from the midwife. forty-two per cent of the women surveyed gained weight within the guidelines. Fourteen per cent of the women gained weight below the guidelines and 44 per cent gained weight above the guidelines. Weight gain within the guidelines, compared to both above and below the guidelines, was not associated with pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index nor with diet. A decline in physical activity was associated with weight gain above the guidelines (OR 0.54, 95 per cent CI 0.33-0.89). Weight gain below the guidelines was seen more often in women who perceived a greater sleep deprivation (OR 1.20, 95 per cent CI 1.02-1.41). Weight gain above the guidelines was seen less often in Caucasian women in comparison to non-Caucasian women (OR 0.22, 95 per cent CI 0.08-0.56) and with women who did not stop smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.49, 95 per cent CI 0.25-0.95). a decline in

  15. The healthy Nordic diet predicts muscle strength 10 years later in old women, but not old men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Rantanen, Taina; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Eriksson, Johan G

    2017-07-01

    a number of nutrients have been found to be associated with better muscle strength and mass; however, the role of the whole diet on muscle strength and mass remains still unknown. to examine whether the healthy Nordic diet predicts muscle strength, and mass 10 years later among men and women. about 1,072 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-44. Diet was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire during 2001-04. The Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits, vegetables, cereals, ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids, low-fat milk, fish, red meat, total fat and alcohol. Higher scores indicated better adherence to the healthy Nordic diet. Hand grip strength, leg strength (knee extension) and muscle mass were measured during the follow-up, between 2011 and 2013. in women, each 1-unit increase in the NDS was related to 1.83 N greater leg strength (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-3.51; P = 0.034), and 1.44 N greater hand grip strength (95% CI: 0.04-2.84; P = 0.044). Women in the highest quartile of the NDS had on average 20.0 N greater knee extension results, and 14.2 N greater hand grip results than those in the lowest quartile. No such associations were observed among men. The NDS was not significantly related to muscle mass either in men or women. adherence to the healthy Nordic diet seems to protect from weaker muscle strength in old women. Therefore, the healthy Nordic diet may help to prevent disability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Comparative characteristics of psychophysiological features skilled basketball players-women with hearing and skilled basketball players healthy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the psychophysiological features of skilled basketball players with normal hearing and impaired hearing aid. The study involved two women's basketball team to 12 people each. The study used a complex computer psychodiagnosis. The complex includes 20 psychophysiological and 18 personal psychological tests. The indicators of the time simple and complex reaction and average tapping test healthy skilled basketball players and basketball players are hearing impaired. There was a significant higher rates of visual-motor speed and reaction-tapping test in basketball players with hearing compared to healthy athletes. This is explained by compensatory mechanisms that occur in connection with the violation of the audition.

  17. Comparative characteristics of psychophysiological features skilled basketball players-women with hearing and skilled basketball players healthy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the psychophysiological features of skilled basketball players with normal hearing and impaired hearing aid. The study involved two women's basketball team to 12 people each. The study used a complex computer psychodiagnosis. The complex includes 20 psychophysiological and 18 personal psychological tests. The indicators of the time simple and complex reaction and average tapping test healthy skilled basketball players and basketball players are hearing impaired. There was a significant higher rates of visual-motor speed and reaction-tapping test in basketball players with hearing compared to healthy athletes. This is explained by compensatory mechanisms that occur in connection with the violation of the audition.

  18. Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora

    2010-01-01

    Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…

  19. Low concentration of circulating antimüllerian hormone is not predictive of reduced fecundability in young healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper; Vestergaard, Sonja; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: General community. PATIENT(S): A total of 186 couples who intended to discontinue contraception to become pregnant were followed...... compared with women with low or medium AMH levels, and they had higher levels of LH (geometric mean: 8.4 vs. 5.3 IU/L) and LH:FSH ratio (2.4 vs. 1.8). After exclusion of women with irregular cycles, women with high AMH still had reduced fecundability (FR 0.48; 95% CI 0.27-0.85) and elevated LH:FSH ratio (2...

  20. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina R W; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D

    2016-01-01

    compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. DESIGN: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program...... that was tailored to metabolic changes of the menstrual cycle (Menstralean) or to undergo simple energy restriction (control). RESULTS: Thirty-one women (19 Menstralean and 12 control women) completed the study [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 32.0 ± 5.2]. Both groups lost weight during the study....... CONCLUSION: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  1. Creating a Culturally Appropriate Web-Based Behavioral Intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native Women in Southern California: The Healthy Women Healthy Native Nation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…

  2. Efficacy of Escitalopram for Hot Flashes in Healthy Menopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Caan, Bette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Carpenter, Janet S.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Larson, Joseph C.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Reed, Susan; Newton, Katherine M.; Sherman, Sheryl; Sammel, Mary D.; La Croix, Andrea Z.

    2011-01-01

    Context Concerns for the risks of hormone therapy have resulted in its decline and a demand for non-hormonal treatments with demonstrated efficacy for hot flashes. Objective Determine the efficacy and tolerability of 10–20 mg/day escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in alleviating the frequency, severity and bother of menopausal hot flashes. Design, Setting and Patients Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial for 8 weeks in a sample stratified by race (African American n=95; white n=102) and conducted at 4 MsFlash network sites between July 2009 and June 2010. Of 205 women randomized, 194 (95%) completed week 8 (intervention endpoint), and 183 completed post-treatment follow-up. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were the frequency and severity of hot flashes assessed by prospective daily diaries. Secondary outcomes were hot flash "bother" recorded on daily diaries and clinical improvement (hot flash frequency >=50% decrease from baseline). Results Hot flash frequency was 9.78/day (SD 5.60) at baseline. At week 8, reduction in hot flash frequency was greater in the escitalopram group versus placebo (−4.60, SD 4.28 and −3.20, SD 4.76, respectively, P=0.004). Fifty-five percent of the escitalopram group (versus 36% of the placebo group) reported >=50% decreases in hot flash frequency (P=0.009). Differences in decreases in the severity and bother of hot flashes were significant (P=0.003 and P=0.013, respectively), paralleling the decreases in hot flash frequency. Three weeks after treatment ended, hot flash frequency increased in the escitalopram group to the level of the placebo group, which remained stable in the follow-up interval (P=0.020). Overall discontinuation due to side effects was 4% (7 drug, 2 placebo). Conclusion Escitalopram 10–20 mg/day provides non-hormonal off-label treatment for menopausal hot flashes that is effective and well-tolerated in healthy women. PMID:21245182

  3. Excretion of moxidectin into breast milk and pharmacokinetics in healthy lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth-Bradley, Joan M; Parks, Virginia; Chalon, Stephan; Gourley, Ian; Matschke, Kyle; Gossart, Sophie; Bryson, Philip; Fleckenstein, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    Moxidectin, registered worldwide as a veterinary antiparasitic agent, is currently under development for humans for the treatment of onchocerciasis in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in healthy lactating women, including the excretion into breast milk. Twelve women, ages 23 to 38 years, weighing 54 to 79 kg, all more than 5 months postpartum, were enrolled, following their plan to wean their infants and provision of informed consent. A single 8-mg, open-label dose was administered orally after consumption of a standard breakfast. Complete milk collection was done for approximately 28 days, and plasma samples were collected for 90 days. Moxidectin concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, with a validated range of 0.08 to 120 ng/ml. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic methods were used to find the following results: peak concentration in plasma (C(max)), 87 ± 25 ng/ml; time to C(max) (t(max)), 4.18 ± 1.59 h; terminal-phase elimination half-life (t(1/2)), 832 ± 321 h; total area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), 4,046 ± 1,796 ng · h/ml; apparent oral dose clearance (CL/F), 2.35 ± 1.07 l/h; ratio of CL/F to the terminal-phase disposition rate constant, λ(z) (Vλ(z)/F), 2,526 ± 772 liters; percentage of maternal dose excreted in milk, 0.701 ± 0.299%; absolute amount excreted in milk, 0.056 ± 0.024 mg; relative infant dose, 8.73 ± 3.17% of maternal dose assuming complete absorption; clearance in milk (CL(milk)), 0.016 ± 0.009 liter/h. Nine of 12 subjects reported adverse events, all of which were considered treatment emergent but not drug related and were mostly reported during the long outpatient period 8 to 90 days after dose administration. The most frequently reported adverse events were headache and nausea (n = 4), oropharyngeal pain (n = 2), rhinitis, viral pharyngitis, and viral upper

  4. Dim light melatonin onset in alcohol-dependent men and women compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Deirdre A; Hairston, Ilana S; Arnedt, J Todd; Hoffmann, Robert F; Armitage, Roseanne; Brower, Kirk J

    2012-02-01

    Sleep disturbances in alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals may persist despite abstinence from alcohol and can influence the course of the disorder. Although the mechanisms of sleep disturbances of AD are not well understood and some evidence suggests dysregulation of circadian rhythms, dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) has not previously been assessed in AD versus healthy control (HC) individuals in a sample that varied by sex and race. The authors assessed 52 AD participants (mean ± SD age: 36.0 ± 11.0 yrs of age, 10 women) who were 3-12 wks since their last drink (abstinence: 57.9 ± 19.3 d) and 19 age- and sex-matched HCs (34.4 ± 10.6 yrs, 5 women). Following a 23:00-06:00 h at-home sleep schedule for at least 5 d and screening/baseline nights in the sleep laboratory, participants underwent a 3-h extension of wakefulness (02:00 h bedtime) during which salivary melatonin samples were collected every 30 min beginning at 19:30 h. The time of DLMO was the primary measure of circadian physiology and was assessed with two commonly used methodologies. There was a slower rate of rise and lower maximal amplitude of the melatonin rhythm in the AD group. DLMO varied by the method used to derive it. Using 3 pg/mL as threshold, no significant differences were found between the AD and HC groups. Using 2 standard deviations above the mean of the first three samples, the DLMO in AD occurred significantly later, 21:02 ± 00:41 h, than in HC, 20:44 ± 00:21 h (t = -2.4, p = .02). Although melatonin in the AD group appears to have a slower rate of rise, using well-established criteria to assess the salivary DLMO did not reveal differences between AD and HC participants. Only when capturing melatonin when it is already rising was DLMO found to be significantly delayed by a mean 18 min in AD participants. Future circadian analyses on alcoholics should account for these methodological caveats.

  5. Lifestyle predictors of oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity in healthy women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Amjad A; Zhang, Yali; Zhao, Hua; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify demographic and modifiable lifestyle factors that may be related to endogenous oxidant and antioxidant activity measured in blood specimens from putatively healthy women recruited at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, NY, USA). Total glutathione (TGSH), catalase (CAT), CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in 124 healthy women, and associations with epidemiological factors were tested using general linear models. There were significant differences in oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities according to lifestyle factors, after adjusting for duration of blood storage and season of blood draw. Compared to women who consumed ≤2.8 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, those consuming >5.3 servings had on average 31 % lower MPO activity (p-trend = 0.02), as a marker of oxidative stress, 16 % higher antioxidant GPx activity (p-trend = 0.08), and 9 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.05). Obese women (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30) in contrast showed 17 % lower antioxidant GPx activity, 44 % higher MPO activity (p-trend = 0.03), and 10 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.03) compared to women with normal BMI lifestyle factors and, therefore, may be potentially modifiable, with implications for risk reduction of chronic conditions related to oxidative stress.

  6. The effects of carbonated water upon gastric and cardiac activities and fullness in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakisaka, Shiori; Nagai, Hajime; Mura, Emi; Matsumoto, Takehiro; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2012-01-01

    Although previous reports suggested that carbonated water drinking was effective against gastrointestinal symptoms, there is little information about the effects of carbonated water on gastric and appetite sensation. We therefore investigated the effect of carbonated water on short-term fullness with respect to gastric and cardiac responses in 19 healthy young women. Each subject was tested on three separate days at approximately 9 a.m. after an overnight fast. Gastric motility, evaluated by electrogastrography (EGG) and heart rate (HR), was measured for 20 min in the fasting state and 40 min after ingestion of water. Preloads consisted of an equivalent amount (250 mL) of water (W) or carbonated water (CW) and no drinking (blank). Fullness scores were measured using visual analog scales. To determine gastric motility, we assessed the component of bradygastria (1-2 cycles/min [cpm]), normogastria (2-4 cpm), tachygastria (4-9 cpm), and dominant frequency of the EGG power spectrum. After ingestion of CW, significant increases in fullness scores were observed compared with W. All postprandial EGG powers were significantly greater than preprandial, but no group difference was found. However, a dominant frequency tended to shift toward a lower band after ingestion of W. A significantly higher HR was found following consumption of CW as opposed to W. Multiple regression analysis revealed that increased HR was a significant variable contributing to the variances in fullness after ingestion of CW at 40 min. Our data suggest that CW may induce a short-term, but significant, satiating effect through enhanced postprandial gastric and cardiac activities due possibly to the increased sympathetic activity and/or withdrawal of parasympathetic activity.

  7. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  8. Comparison of bone mineral density in young patients with breast cancer and healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Kolahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Almost 1 in 8 women will have breast cancer during their lifetime. Several risk factors were identified; however, 70% of females with breast cancer have no risk factors. Many risk factors are associated with sex steroid hormones. Some studies have been focused on identification of the indices of cumulative exposures to estrogen during the patients’ life. One of these indicators is bone mineral density (BMD. Our aim was the comparison of BMD in young patients with and without breast cancer, and finding a relationship between breast cancer and bone density. METHODS: In this case-control study, 120 people were enrolled; 40 patients with breast cancer and 80 normal healthy persons as control group. Measurement of BMD was performed in both groups and compared. RESULTS: Both groups were matched in age, weight, age at menarche, age at first marriage and first pregnancy, number of pregnancies over 32 weeks and lactation period, and taking supplemental calcium and vitamin D. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of estrogen intake, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast masses (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, P ≤ 0.01, respectively. A significant difference was found between BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and t-scores of lumbar spine of the two groups; they were higher in the control group (P = 0.08, P ≤ 0.01, P = 0.06, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that bone mineral density of young patients with breast cancer is not higher than normal similar age females; thus, BMD is not directly a risk factor for breast cancer.

  9. Effects of exogenous testosterone on the ventral striatal BOLD response during reward anticipation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Erno J; Bos, Peter A; Ossewaarde, Lindsey; Ramsey, Nick F; Fernández, Guillén; van Honk, Jack

    2010-08-01

    Correlational evidence in humans shows that levels of the androgen hormone testosterone are positively related to reinforcement sensitivity and competitive drive. Structurally similar anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are moreover widely abused, and animal studies show that rodents self-administer testosterone. These observations suggest that testosterone exerts activational effects on mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways involved in incentive processing and reinforcement regulation. However, there are no data on humans supporting this hypothesis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the effects of testosterone administration on neural activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic pathway. In a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover design, 12 healthy women received a single sublingual administration of .5 mg of testosterone. During MRI scanning, participants performed a monetary incentive delay task, which is known to elicit robust activation of the ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Results show a positive main effect of testosterone on the differential response in the ventral striatum to cues signaling potential reward versus nonreward. Notably, this effect interacted with levels self-reported intrinsic appetitive motivation: individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation exhibited larger testosterone-induced increases but had smaller differential responses after placebo. Thus, the present study lends support to the hypothesis that testosterone affects activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system but suggests that such effects may be specific to individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation. By showing a potential mechanism underlying central reinforcement of androgen use, the present findings may moreover have implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of AAS dependency. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Circulating Spexin Levels Negatively Correlate With Age, BMI, Fasting Glucose, and Triglycerides in Healthy Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Ling; Zhong, Linda L D; Lam, Wai Ching; Fan, Bao-Min; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2018-05-01

    Spexin is a newly identified neuropeptide that is involved in satiety control, glucose, and lipids metabolism. It has also been related to human diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether spexin changes with age or not is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between circulating spexin levels and age and to study their interaction effects on body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, and -lipids. This is a cross-sectional study, including 68 healthy adult women whose ages are in a wide range (minimum: 23; median: 38.5; maximum: 64). The serum spexin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, and creatinine were measured by routine biochemical test. Shapiro-Wilk's test, Spearman and Pearson correlation analyses, χ 2 test, and two-way analysis of variance were used to interpret the data. Serum spexin levels are significantly correlated with age (Spearman r = -0.277, P = 0.022), BMI (Spearman r = -0.445, P glucose (Spearman r = -0.302, P = 0.014), and TG (Spearman r = -0.324, P = 0.008). Spexin levels independently predict the risk of high BMI and high fasting glucose. No interaction effects of spexin and age on BMI and fasting glucose were found. Circulating spexin levels decrease with age, suggesting a possible role of this peptide in aging-related functions and disorders. Further investigations are needed to expand the clinical significance of this finding.

  11. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, S; Malik, M H; Lovell, M E

    2001-10-01

    To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo. One to one interviews using a standard questionnaire on injuries incurred during training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing were conducted at various gyms and competitions in the United Kingdom and a Muay Thai gala in Holland. A total of 152 people were questioned, 132 men and 20 women. There were 19 beginners, 82 amateurs, and 51 professionals. Injuries to the lower extremities were the most common in all groups. Head injuries were the second most common in professionals and amateurs. Trunk injuries were the next most common in beginners. The difference in injury distribution among the three groups was significant (pinjury in the three groups. Fractures were the second most common in professionals, and in amateurs and beginners it was sprains and strains (pinjury rates were: beginners, 13.5/1000 participants; amateurs, 2.43/1000 participants; professionals, 2.79/1000 participants. For beginners, 7% of injuries resulted in seven or more days off training; for amateurs and professionals, these values were 4% and 5.8% respectively. The results are similar to those found for karate and taekwondo with regard to injury distribution, type, and rate. The percentage of injuries resulting in time off training is less.

  12. Theravada buddhism and thai luxury fashion consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael); N. Mao (Ning)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede's cultural dimension theory and Komin's nine values cluster, analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy, integrates the Theory of Cultural Capital, and expounds the features

  13. Enhancing Life Purpose amongst Thai Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthip, Karnsunaphat; McSherry, Wilfred; Petchruschatachart, Usanee; Piriyakoontorn, Siriwan; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2017-01-01

    This article describes experiences that enhanced life purpose in 21 Thai adolescents living in Southern Thailand. Thailand is undergoing rapid change from technology, a globalizing economy, and shifting social norms. A phenomenological analysis of in-depth interviews and stories to better understand how Thai youth themselves experience and…

  14. U.S. Media and Thai Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprayoon, Boonchan; Hill, L. Brooks

    A study investigated the effects of U.S. mass media on three dimensions of Thai society: lifestyles, social problems, and value conflict. A total of 100 two-part questionnaires were distributed to Thai students at southwestern public universities in the United States. Forty males and 28 females, whose lengths of stay in the United States varied…

  15. Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun; Hatthakit, Urai

    2014-01-01

    Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes. The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. EIGHT STEPS OF SCALE DEVELOPMENT WERE FOLLOWED: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test-retest reliability were confirmed. The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a screening tool to assess active aging levels among older

  16. Factors associated with a low adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern in healthy Spanish women before pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Fernández, Julia Gómez; Prieto, Carmen Amezcua; Moreno, Juan Mozas; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Jiménez-Moleón, José J

    2014-03-01

    To analyse the factors associated with the level of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern in healthy Spanish women before pregnancy. A prospective series of 1175 women. An FFQ validated in Spanish populations served to collect dietary data. The Mediterranean Diet Adherence Index was used to assess the level of adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern. Polytomic regression was performed to identify the associated factors. Catchment area of Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Andalusia, Spain. The women were invited to participate in the study at the 20th-22nd gestational week. The selection criteria were: Spanish nationality, 18 years of age or older, singleton pregnancy and absence of health problems that required modifying the diet or physical activity. An inverse relationship was found between women's age and level of adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern, with a clear dose-response association: a younger age entailed worse adherence (P smoking and sedentary lifestyle had a positive relationship with low adherence, giving OR = 5·36 (95 % 1·91, 15·07) for women who smoked >20 cigarettes/d and OR = 2·07 (95 % CI 1·34, 3·17) for sedentary women. Higher age, higher educational level, and higher social class of the women were associated with a higher level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (P smoking and lack of exercise were associated with low adherence to a Mediterranean diet.

  17. The effects of increased dietary protein yogurt snack in the afternoon on appetite control and eating initiation in healthy women

    OpenAIRE

    Ortinau, Laura C; Culp, Julie M; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Leidy, Heather J

    2013-01-01

    Background A large portion of daily intake comes from snacking. One of the increasingly common, healthier snacks includes Greek-style yogurt, which is typically higher in protein than regular yogurt. This study evaluated whether a 160?kcal higher-protein (HP) Greek-style yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and delays subsequent eating compared to an isocaloric normal protein (NP) regular yogurt in healthy women. This study also identified the factors that predict the onset of eat...

  18. Emotion Reactivity Is Increased 4-6 Weeks Postpartum in Healthy Women: A Longitudinal fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Gingnell

    Full Text Available Marked endocrine alterations occur after delivery. Most women cope well with these changes, but the postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of depressive episodes. Previous studies of emotion processing have focused on maternal-infant bonding or postpartum depression (PPD, and longitudinal studies of the neural correlates of emotion processing throughout the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. In this study, 13 women, without signs of post partum depression, underwent fMRI with an emotional face matching task and completed the MADRS-S, STAI-S, and EPDS within 48 h (early postpartum and 4-6 weeks after delivery (late postpartum. Also, data from a previous study including 15 naturally cycling controls assessed in the luteal and follicular phase of the menstrual cycle was used. Women had lower reactivity in insula, middle frontal gyrus (MFG, and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG in the early as compared to the late postpartum assessment. Insular reactivity was positively correlated with anxiety in the early postpartum period and with depressive symptoms late postpartum. Reactivity in insula and IFG were greater in postpartum women than in non-pregnant control subjects. Brain reactivity was not correlated with serum estradiol or progesterone levels. Increased reactivity in the insula, IFG, and MFG may reflect normal postpartum adaptation, but correlation with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety in these otherwise healthy postpartum women, may also suggest that these changes place susceptible women at increased risk of PPD. These findings contribute to our understanding of the neurobiological aspects of the postpartum period, which might shed light on the mechanisms underlying affective puerperal disorders, such as PPD.

  19. The Effects of Four-Week Multivitamin Supplementation on Mood in Healthy Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Macpherson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Nutritional deficiencies have been associated with cognitive decline and mood disturbances. Vitamin intake can influence mood and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that multivitamin supplements are capable of reducing mild symptoms of mood dysfunction. However, few studies have focussed on healthy older women. Methods. This study investigated the effects of four weeks’ multivitamin supplementation on mood in 76 healthy women aged 50–75 years. Mood was assessed before and after intervention in the laboratory using measures of current mood and retrospective experiences of mood over the past week or longer. Mobile phones were used to assess changes in real-time mood ratings, twice weekly in the home. Results. There were no multivitamin-related benefits identified for measures of current mood or reflections of recent mood when measured in the laboratory. In-home assessments, where mood was rated several hours after dose, revealed multivitamin supplementation improved ratings of stress, with a trend to reduce mental fatigue. Conclusions. Over four weeks, subtle changes to stress produced by multivitamin supplementation in healthy older women may not be detected when only pre- and posttreatment mood is captured. In-home mobile phone-based assessments may be more sensitive to the effects of nutritional interventions compared to traditional in-laboratory assessments.

  20. Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Inui, Taichi; Kergoat, Sophie; Kelley, Michael; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2016-05-15

    Afternoon snacking contributes significantly to total energy intake. Strategies to enhance the satiety value of lunch and reduce afternoon snacking are of interest for body weight management. To assess whether between-meal gum chewing would enhance the satiety response to a fixed lunch meal; and assess the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) as a potential mediator of the response in non-obese healthy weight and obese women. Fifty unrestrained obese (n=25) and non-obese healthy weight (n=25) women participated in a two-arm cross-over study assessing multiple (15min per hour×3h) gum chewing (GUM) occurrences or no gum (Control) on subjective ratings of satiety, subsequent sweet and salty snack intake, CCK and general metabolic responses. GUM compared to Control resulted in significant suppression of hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption (pwomen (p=0.05) and Oreo cookie intake in healthy weight women (p=0.03) 3h after lunch. Metabolic responses and CCK did not differ between experimental conditions. Chewing gum intermittently post-lunch enhances perceptions of satiety and may have important implications in reducing afternoon high carbohydrate-snack intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Combined impact of healthy lifestyle factors on risk of atrial fibrillation: Prospective study in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Drca, Nikola; Jensen-Urstad, Mats; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-01-15

    The combined impact of multiple lifestyle factors on risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains unclear. We investigated the joint association of four modifiable lifestyle factors on incidence of AF in a prospective study of men and women. The study cohort comprised 39 300 men in the Cohort of Swedish Men and 33 090 women in the Swedish Mammography Cohort who were 45-83 years of age and free from atrial fibrillation at baseline. Healthy lifestyle was defined as body mass index healthy lifestyle factors, the multivariable relative risks (95% confidence interval) of AF were 0.83 (0.65-1.07) for one, 0.74 (0.58-0.94) for two, 0.62 (0.49-0.79) for three, and 0.50 (0.39-0.64) for four healthy lifestyle factors (P for trend healthy lifestyle factors combined were associated with a halving of the risk of AF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. What is the cost of a healthy diet? Using diet data from the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michelle A; Hulme, Claire; Clarke, Graham P; Edwards, Kimberley L; Cade, Janet E

    2014-11-01

    A healthy diet is important to promote health and well-being while preventing chronic disease. However, the monetary cost of consuming such a diet can be a perceived barrier. This study will investigate the cost of consuming a range of dietary patterns. A cross-sectional analysis, where cost of diet was assigned to dietary intakes recorded using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. A mean daily diet cost was calculated for seven data-driven dietary patterns. These dietary patterns were given a healthiness score according to how well they comply with the UK Department of Health's Eatwell Plate guidelines. This study involved ∼35 000 women recruited in the 1990s into the UK Women's Cohort Study. A significant positive association was observed between diet cost and healthiness of the diet (p for trend >0.001). The healthiest dietary pattern was double the price of the least healthy, £6.63/day and £3.29/day, respectively. Dietary diversity, described by the patterns, was also shown to be associated with increased cost. Those with higher education and a professional or managerial occupation were more likely to consume a healthier diet. A healthy diet is more expensive to the consumer than a less healthy one. In order to promote health through diet and reduce potential inequalities in health, it seems sensible that healthier food choices should be made more accessible to all. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Genital responsiveness in healthy women with and without sexual arousal disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Ellen; van Driel, Esther M.; van Lunsen, Rik H. W.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Most pharmacological treatments that are currently being developed for women with sexual arousal disorder are aimed at remedying a vasculogenic deficit. AIM: This study investigated whether pre- and postmenopausal women with sexual arousal disorder are less genitally responsive to

  4. Married Thai Working Mothers: Coping with Initial Part-Time Doctoral Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinnam, Thanit

    2011-01-01

    Advanced educational attainment can "grow" a career. But acquiring a doctoral qualification adds study to existing work and family responsibilities, especially for women. This phenomenological research explores the experiences of eight Thai working mothers enrolled in the initial stage of part-time doctoral programs in Thailand. A…

  5. Validation of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test in a healthy Spanish sample and women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Iratxe; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2018-04-11

    The aim of this study was to build a Spanish version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) including limited time of response and an integrated glossary, and to test its validity. A total of 433 university students (121 men and 350 women) and 38 anorexic women completed the RMET and other related measures of empathy and alexithymia. The results of the Parallel Analysis suggested a unidimensional structure for 19 items, which was verified through a Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Similarly to other research, this factor had a low reliability (α = .56, ρ = .59); however, regarding validity, the total score of the instrument showed positive correlations with empathy and negatives with alexithymia. Furthermore, healthy females were superior to males in RMET, and to anorexic women; but no significant differences appeared between healthy men and the anorexic group. This study confirms the validity of the test and permits a relatively short and inexpensive means of administration in large samples of adults. Besides, it suggests the necessity of assessing and treating the theory of mind in anorexic women.

  6. The possible absence of a healthy-worker effect: a cross-sectional survey among educated Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikitani, Mariko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Tsurugano, Shinobu; Yano, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Despite being highly educated in comparison with women in other member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Japanese women are expected to assume traditional gender roles, and many dedicate themselves to full-time housewifery. Women working outside the home do so under poor conditions, and their health may not be better than that of housewives. This study compared the self-rated health status and health behaviours of housewives and working women in Japan. Cross-sectional survey. A national university in Tokyo with 9864 alumnae. A total 1344 women who graduated since 1985 and completed questionnaires in an anonymous mail-based survey. Health anxiety and satisfaction, receipt of health check-ups, eating breakfast, smoking, and sleep problems according to job status and family demands: housewives (n=247) and working women with (n=624) and without (n=436) family demands. ORs were used for risk assessment, with housewives as a reference. After adjustment for satisfaction with present employment status and other confounding factors, working women were more likely than housewives to feel health anxiety (with family demands, OR: 1.68, 95% CI1.10 to 2.57; without family demands, OR: 3.57, 95% CI 2.19 to 4.50) and health dissatisfaction (without family demands, OR: 3.50, 95% CI 2.35 to 5.21); they were also more likely than housewives to eat an insufficient breakfast (with family demands, OR: 1.91, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.00; without family demands, OR: 4.02, 95% CI 2.47 to 6.57) and to have sleep problems (ORs: 2.08 to 4.03). No healthy-worker effect was found among Japanese women. Housewives, at least those who are well educated, appear to have better health status and health-related behaviours than do working women with the same level of education.

  7. Hormone replacement therapy dependent changes in breast cancer-related gene expression in breast tissue of healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieuwerts, Anieta M; De Napoli, Giuseppina; van Galen, Anne; Kloosterboer, Helenius J; de Weerd, Vanja; Zhang, Hong; Martens, John W M; Foekens, John A; De Geyter, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Risk assessment of future breast cancer risk through exposure to sex steroids currently relies on clinical scorings such as mammographic density. Knowledge about the gene expression patterns in existing breast cancer tumors may be used to identify risk factors in the breast tissue of women still free of cancer. The differential effects of estradiol, estradiol together with gestagens, or tibolone on breast cancer-related gene expression in normal breast tissue samples taken from postmenopausal women may be used to identify gene expression profiles associated with a higher breast cancer risk. Breast tissue samples were taken from 33 healthy postmenopausal women both before and after a six month treatment with either 2mg micronized estradiol [E2], 2mg micronized estradiol and 1mg norethisterone acetate [E2+NETA], 2.5mg tibolone [T] or [no HRT]. Except for [E2], which was only given to women after hysterectomy, the allocation to each of the three groups was randomized. The expression of 102 mRNAs and 46 microRNAs putatively involved in breast cancer was prospectively determined in the biopsies of 6 women receiving [no HRT], 5 women receiving [E2], 5 women receiving [E2+NETA], and 6 receiving [T]. Using epithelial and endothelial markers genes, non-representative biopsies from 11 women were eliminated. Treatment of postmenopausal women with [E2+NETA] resulted in the highest number of differentially (pbreast tissue with a change in the expression of genes putatively involved in breast cancer. Our data suggest that normal mammary cells triggered by [E2+NETA] adjust for steroidogenic up-regulation through down-regulation of the estrogen-receptor pathway. This feasibility study provides the basis for whole genome analyses to identify novel markers involved in increased breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Formulation of Thai herbal Namprik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijroongrojana, K.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Namprik is a typical Thai food containing various herbs. The diversity of Namprik depends on herb composition and content, cooking method, and flavor. The objective of this study was to develop a fine, driedand granular Namprik formula for eating with rice. The ingredients included many commonly found Thai herbs. The recipe of lemon grass Namprik produced by Satree Ban-Tung group, Khaokram district, AmphurMueang, Krabi province, Thailand, was reformulated. Mixture design was applied to optimize the amounts of black pepper (10-33%, garlic (10-66.67% and shallot (10-66.67%. Contour plot of hedonic scores andthe predictive regression models were calculated. Results showed that optimal formula should have 23.33% black pepper, 66.67% garlic and 10% shallot. Optimum levels of additional mixed herbs consisting of 5-25%kaffir lime leaves and 75-95% holy basil in the formula, using the mixture design, were also investigated. The results of sensory evaluation using 9-point hedonic scale showed no significant differences in appearance,taste and overall liking (p>0.05. However, the formula containing 4.2% kaffir lime leaves and 15.8% holy basil obtained the highest average score for aroma (p<0.05. Various amounts of dried African chili (7, 5,3% were added to determine an acceptable hot and spicy flavor, using just-about-right scale. The results revealed that the formula containing 7, 5 and 3% dried African chili were defined as just-about-right by 22, 32 and 42% of the panelists, respectively. The final product was given average hedonic scores of aroma, taste,spicy and overall liking ranging from like moderately to like very much. Appearance scores were in the range of like slightly to like moderately. This study indicated that a more nutrition and healthier Namprik containing some Thai herbs can be produced.

  9. Termination of dobutamine infusion causes transient rebound left heart diastolic dysfunction in healthy elderly women but not in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtarovski, Kiril A; Iversen, Kasper K; Lønborg, Jacob T

    2013-01-01

    Men and women are known to react differently to stress. Thus, stress cardiomyopathy almost solely strikes women. Stress cardiomyopathy is suggested to relate to sex differences in catecholamine reaction. Left heart function during dobutamine stress is well described, but sex-specific inotropic...... and lusitropic response to abrupt termination of dobutamine stress is not. We aimed to investigate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) and atrial (LA) function during and after dobutamine stress. We enrolled 20 healthy elderly subjects (60-70 yr, 10 females) and measured their LV and LA volumes throughout......, and conduit volumes. Sex differences were not observed at rest or during dobutamine stress. Compared with prestress values, at T15 a rebound decrease in LV peak filling rate was observed in women (-22 ± 3%, P...

  10. Reference intervals and variation for urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol in healthy men and women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, A H; Christensen, J M

    2001-01-01

    Reference intervals for urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol in 120 healthy individuals performing their routine work were established according to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory...... Medicine (IFCC) for use in the risk assessment of exposure to occupational stress. Reference intervals were established for three different times of the day: in morning samples (05.45-07.15) the limit of detection (LOD) was 2.10 micromol epinephrine/mol creatinine (82 women) and 2.86 micromol epinephrine....../mol creatinine (37 men), and the reference interval was 3.6-29.1 micromol norepinephrine/mol creatinine and 2.3-52.8 micromol cortisol/mol creatinine (119 women and men); in afternoon samples (15.30-18.30) the reference interval was 0.64-10.8 micromol epinephrine/mol creatinine (82 women), 1.20-11.2 micromol...

  11. Prostasin and its regulatory proteins in human placentas from pregnant women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen-Møller, Britta; Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Vogel, Lotte Katrine

    2015-01-01

    for normal placental development in mice. Prostasin is regulated by aldosterone in the kidney and may activate the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Preeclampsia is characterized by disturbed placentation, suppression of aldosterone and avid renal sodium retention with hypertension. It was hypothesized...... that preeclampsia is associated with low prostasin expression in placenta and spillover of prostasin into urine across the defect glomerular barrier. METHODS: This hypothesis was addressed in a cross-sectional design with 20 healthy pregnant women and 20 women with new onset of preeclampsia (hypertension and 1......+ for protein on urine dipstick). Blood and urine samples were obtained in relation to delivery and placental biopsies were taken immediately after delivery (control = 39 and preeclampsia 40 weeks). RESULTS: Women with preeclampsia displayed lower levels of aldosterone in plasma (p=0.0475) and in spot urine...

  12. "Judging a body by its cover": young Lebanese-Canadian women's discursive constructions of the "healthy" body and "health" practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Rizk, Zeina; Rail, Geneviève

    2014-02-01

    Our interest stems from the dramatic increase in the number of obesity studies, which expose Canadian women to a huge amount of information that links health to weight. Using feminist poststructuralist and postcolonial lenses, this paper investigates young Lebanese-Canadian women's constructions of the body and "health" practices within the context of the dominant obesity discourse. Participant-centered conversations were held with 20 young Christian Lebanese-Canadian women. A thematic analysis was first conducted and was followed by a poststructuralist discourse analysis to further our understanding of how the participants construct themselves as subjects within various discourses surrounding health, obesity, and the body. Our findings reveal that most participants conflate the "healthy" body and the "ideal" body, both of which they ultimately portray as thin. The young women construct the "healthy"/"ideal" body as a solely individual responsibility, thus reinforcing the idea of "docile bodies." The majority of participants report their frequent involvement in disciplinary practices such as rigorous physical activity and dietary restrictions, and a few young women mention the use of other extreme forms of bodily monitoring such as detoxes, dieting pills, and compulsive exercise. We discuss the language employed by participants to construct their multiple and shifting subjectivities. For instance, many of these Lebanese-Canadian women use the term "us" to dissociate themselves from Lebanese women ("them"), whom they portray as overly focused on thinness and beauty and engaged in physical activity and other bodily practices for "superficial" purposes. The participants also use the "us/them" trope to distance themselves from "Canadian" women (read: white Euro-Canadian women), whom they portray as very physically active for purposes beyond the improvement of the physical appearance of the body. We discuss the impacts of the young Christian Lebanese-Canadian women

  13. Thua nao: Thai fermented soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.

  14. Effect of short-term food restriction on iron metabolism, relative well-being and depression symptoms in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciak, Rafal W

    2014-01-01

    The idea that iron deficiency anemia can be recognized in depressive patients has been around for a few years, as well as negative association between ferritin levels and depression. Iron deficiency anemia, associated with low iron intake, has been observed in women using restriction diets, for example in vegetarians or anorexics. There are no data on the influence of the short-term food restrictions, observed for example in slimming women, on iron management and its connection with behavior expressed via changes in the subject's emotional state. This study describes the effect of one- and two-day food restrictions (every 8 days for a period of 48 days) on selected iron management parameters in the serum and blood of 46 healthy volunteer women (23 in each group), aged 25.5 ± 3.0 years, in association with the subjects' self-described emotional status and depression symptoms. The association between iron parameters and depression was also analyzed. Results show that short-term (2 days) fasting significantly decreases iron concentrations in serum and hair, as well as levels of ferritin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, and total iron binding capacity, but the short-term fasting did not influence the other iron management parameters. Each model of food restrictions also increased negative feelings towards depression. A significant negative correlation between serum ferritin levels and depression was found in women who starved for 2 days. The study shows that, through an impact on mineral levels, even short-term food restrictions, as observed in many slimming women and girls, can be a reason for iron deficiency and also can alter the emotional status of healthy women. Maybe depression symptoms in anorexia or other eating disorders patients can be associated with iron deficiencies.

  15. Habitual aerobic exercise does not protect against micro- or macrovascular endothelial dysfunction in healthy estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Strahler, Talia R; Vorwald, Victoria M; Pierce, Gary L; Seals, Douglas R

    2017-01-01

    Aging causes micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction, as assessed by endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD), which can be prevented and reversed by habitual aerobic exercise (AE) in men. However, in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, whole forearm microvascular EDD has not been studied, and a beneficial effect of AE on macrovascular EDD has not been consistently shown. We assessed forearm blood flow in response to brachial artery infusions of acetylcholine (FBF ACh ), a measure of whole forearm microvascular EDD, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of macrovascular EDD, in 12 premenopausal sedentary women (Pre-S; 24 ± 1 yr; V̇o 2max = 37.5 ± 1.6 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ), 25 estrogen-deficient postmenopausal sedentary women (Post-S; 62 ± 1 yr; V̇o 2max = 24.7 ± 0.9 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ), and 16 estrogen-deficient postmenopausal AE-trained women (Post-AE; 59 ± 1 yr; V̇o 2max = 40.4 ± 1.4 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ). FBF ACh was lower in Post-S and Post-AE compared with Pre-S women (135 ± 9 and 116 ± 17 vs. 193 ± 21 AUC, respectively, both P stress. This is the first study to demonstrate that habitual aerobic exercise may not protect against age/menopause-related whole forearm microvascular endothelial dysfunction in healthy nonobese estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, consistent with recent findings regarding macrovascular endothelial function. This is in contrast to what is observed in healthy middle-aged and older aerobic exercise-trained men. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Single oral dose pharmacokinetics of decursin and decursinol angelate in healthy adult men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN root has promising anti-cancer and other bioactivities in rodent models. It is currently believed that the pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D and decursinol angelate (DA contribute to these activities. We and others have documented that D and DA were rapidly converted to decursinol (DOH in rodents. However, our in vitro metabolism studies suggested that D and DA might be metabolized differently in humans. To test this hypothesis and address a key question for human translatability of animal model studies of D and DA or AGN extract, we conducted a single oral dose human pharmacokinetic study of D and DA delivered through an AGN-based dietary supplement Cogni.Q (purchased from Quality of Life Labs, Purchase, NY in twenty healthy subjects, i.e., 10 men and 10 women, each consuming 119 mg D and 77 mg DA from 4 vegicaps. Analyses of plasma samples using UHPLC-MS/MS showed mean time to peak concentration (Tmax of 2.1, 2.4 and 3.3 h and mean peak concentration (Cmax of 5.3, 48.1 and 2,480 nmol/L for D, DA and DOH, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 for D and DA was similar (17.4 and 19.3 h and each was much longer than that of DOH (7.4 h. The mean area under the curve (AUC0-48h for D, DA and DOH was estimated as 37, 335 and 27,579 h∙nmol/L, respectively. Gender-wise, men absorbed the parent compounds faster and took shorter time to reach DOH peak concentration. The human data supported an extensive conversion of D and DA to DOH, even though they metabolized DA slightly slower than rodents. Therefore, the data generated in rodent models concerning anti-cancer efficacy, safety, tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic biomarkers will likely be relevant for human translation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02114957.

  17. The use of a sensitive equilibrium dialysis method for the measurement of free testosterone levels in healthy, cycling women and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Hikim, I; Arver, S; Beall, G; Shen, R; Guerrero, M; Sattler, F; Shikuma, C; Nelson, J C; Landgren, B M; Mazer, N A; Bhasin, S

    1998-04-01

    Measurements of total and free testosterone levels in women have lacked precision and accuracy because of limited assay sensitivity. The paucity of normative data on total and free testosterone levels in healthy women has confounded interpretation of androgen levels in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other disease states. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop sensitive assays for the measurement of the low total and free testosterone levels in women to define the range for these hormones during the normal menstrual cycle and assess the total and free testosterone levels in HIV-infected women. By using a larger volume of serum, increasing the incubation time, and reducing the antibody concentration, the sensitivity of the total testosterone assay was increased to 0.008 nmol/L, and that of the free testosterone assay was increased to 2 pmol/L. The mean percent free testosterone was 1.0 +/- 0.1% of the total testosterone. Serum total and free testosterone levels in the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, but both demonstrated a modest preovulatory increase, 3 days before the LH peak. Serum total [0.50 +/- 0.32 (14.60 +/- 9.22) vs. 1.2 +/- 0.7 nmol/L (34.3 +/- 21.0 ng/dL); P copy number. Serum FSH, but not LH, levels were significantly higher in HIV-infected women than in controls. Using assays with sufficient sensitivity, we defined the range for total and free testosterone levels during the normal menstrual cycle. Serum total and free testosterone levels are lower in HIV-infected women and correlate inversely with plasma HIV ribonucleic acid levels. The hypothesis that androgen deficiency contributes to wasting in HIV-infected women remains to be tested.

  18. Serum AMH levels in healthy women from BRCA1/2 mutated families: are they reduced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Derks-Smeets, Inge A P; Bos, Anna M E; Oosterwijk, Jan C; van Golde, Ron J; de Die-Smulders, Christine E; van der Kolk, Lizet E; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A G; Velthuizen, Maria E; Hoek, Annemieke; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Laven, Joop S E; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Broekmans, Frank J M

    2016-11-01

    Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have a compromised ovarian reserve compared to proven non-carriers, based on serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels? BRCA1/2 mutation carriers do not show a lower serum AMH level in comparison to proven non-carriers, after adjustment for potential confounders. It has been suggested that the BRCA genes play a role in the process of ovarian reserve depletion, although previous studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the association between serum AMH levels and BRCA mutation status. Hence, it is yet unclear whether BRCA1/2 mutation carriers may indeed be at risk of a reduced reproductive lifespan. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was performed between January 2012 and February 2015 in 255 women. We needed to include 120 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 120 proven non-carriers to demonstrate a difference in AMH levels of 0.40 µg/l (SD ± 0.12 µg/l, two-sided alpha-error 0.05, power 80%). Healthy women aged 18-45 years who were referred to the Clinical Genetics Department and applied for predictive BRCA1/2 testing because of a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were asked to participate. A cross-sectional assessment was performed by measuring serum AMH levels and filling out a questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for age, current smoking and current hormonal contraceptive use were performed on log-transformed serum AMH levels. Out of 823 potentially eligible women, 421 (51.2%) were willing to participate, and of those, 166 (39%) did not meet our inclusion criteria. Two hundred and fifty-five women were available for analyses; 124 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 131 proven non-carriers. The median [range] AMH level in carriers was 1.90 µg/l [0.11-19.00] compared to 1.80 µg/l [0.11-10.00] in non-carriers (P = 0.34). Adjusted linear regression analysis revealed no reduction in AMH level in the carriers (relative change = 0.98 (95%CI, 0.77-1.22); P = 0.76). Participants

  19. Age differences in treatment decision making for breast cancer in a sample of healthy women: the effects of body image and risk framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanek, Kathleen M; McCaul, Kevin D; Sandgren, Ann K

    2005-07-01

    To examine the effects of age, body image, and risk framing on treatment decision making for breast cancer using a healthy population. An experimental 2 (younger women, older women) X 2 (survival, mortality frame) between-groups design. Midwestern university. Two groups of healthy women: 56 women ages 18-24 from undergraduate psychology courses and 60 women ages 35-60 from the university community. Healthy women imagined that they had been diagnosed with breast cancer and received information regarding lumpectomy versus mastectomy and recurrence rates. Participants indicated whether they would choose lumpectomy or mastectomy and why. Age, framing condition, treatment choice, body image, and reasons for treatment decision. The difference in treatment selection between younger and older women was mediated by concern for appearance. No main effect for risk framing was found; however, older women were somewhat less likely to select lumpectomy when given a mortality frame. Age, mediated by body image, influences treatment selection of lumpectomy versus mastectomy. Framing has no direct effect on treatment decisions, but younger and older women may be affected by risk information differently. Nurses should provide women who recently have been diagnosed with breast cancer with age-appropriate information regarding treatment alternatives to ensure women's active participation in the decision-making process. Women who have different levels of investment in body image also may have different concerns about treatment, and healthcare professionals should be alert to and empathetic of such concerns.

  20. What’s Normal? Immune Profiling of Human Milk from Healthy Women Living in Different Geographical and Socioeconomic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lorena; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; García-Carral, Cristina; Manzano, Susana; McGuire, Michelle K.; Meehan, Courtney L.; McGuire, Mark A.; Williams, Janet E.; Foster, James; Sellen, Daniel W.; Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth W.; Kamundia, Egidioh W.; Mbugua, Samwel; Moore, Sophie E.; Kvist, Linda J.; Otoo, Gloria E.; Lackey, Kimberly A.; Flores, Katherine; Pareja, Rossina G.; Bode, Lars; Rodríguez, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk provides a very wide range of nutrients and bioactive components, including immune factors, human milk oligosaccharides, and a commensal microbiota. These factors are essential for interconnected processes including immunity programming and the development of a normal infant gastrointestinal microbiome. Newborn immune protection mostly relies on maternal immune factors provided through milk. However, studies dealing with an in-depth profiling of the different immune compounds present in human milk and with the assessment of their natural variation in healthy women from different populations are scarce. In this context, the objective of this work was the detection and quantification of a wide array of immune compounds, including innate immunity factors (IL1β, IL6, IL12, INFγ, TNFα), acquired immunity factors (IL2, IL4, IL10, IL13, IL17), chemokines (IL8, Groα, MCP1, MIP1β), growth factors [IL5, IL7, epidermal growth factor (EGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, TGFβ2], and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), in milk produced by healthy women of different ethnicities living in different geographic, dietary, socioeconomic, and environmental settings. Among the analyzed factors, IgA, IgG, IgM, EGF, TGFβ2, IL7, IL8, Groα, and MIP1β were detected in all or most of the samples collected in each population and, therefore, this specific set of compounds might be considered as the “core” soluble immune factors in milk produced by healthy women worldwide. This approach may help define which immune factors are (or are not) common in milk produced by women living in various conditions, and to identify host, lifestyle, and environmental factors that affect the immunological composition of this complex biological fluid. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02670278. PMID:28713365

  1. Pelvic floor muscle strength evaluation in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Orsi Gameiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM strength in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity. Materials and Methods Fifty healthy nulliparous women with mean age of 23 years were prospectively studied. Subjective evaluation of PFM was assessed by transvaginal digital palpation (TDP of anterior and posterior areas regarding the vaginal introitus. A perineometer with inflatable vaginal probe was used to assess the PFM strength in four different positions: supine with extended lower limbs (P1; bent-knee supine (P2; sitting (P3; standing (P4. Results Physical activity, 3 times per week, was reported by 58% of volunteers. Sexual activity was observed in 80% of women and 82% of them presented orgasm. The average body mass index (BMI was 21.76 kg/m2, considered as normal according World Health Organization (WHO. We observed that 68% of volunteers were conscious about the PFM contraction. TDP showed concordance of 76% when anterior and posterior areas were compared (p = 0.00014. There was not correlation between PFM strength and orgasm in subjective evaluation. The PFM strength was significantly higher in standing position when compared with the other positions (p < 0.000. No statistical difference was observed between orgasm and PFM strength when objective evaluations were performed. Conclusions There was concordance between anterior and posterior areas in 76% of cases when subjective PFM strength was assessed. In objective evaluation, higher PFM strength was observed when volunteers were standing. No statistical correlation was observed between PFM strength and orgasm in nulliparous healthy women.

  2. What’s Normal? Immune Profiling of Human Milk from Healthy Women Living in Different Geographical and Socioeconomic Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ruiz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human milk provides a very wide range of nutrients and bioactive components, including immune factors, human milk oligosaccharides, and a commensal microbiota. These factors are essential for interconnected processes including immunity programming and the development of a normal infant gastrointestinal microbiome. Newborn immune protection mostly relies on maternal immune factors provided through milk. However, studies dealing with an in-depth profiling of the different immune compounds present in human milk and with the assessment of their natural variation in healthy women from different populations are scarce. In this context, the objective of this work was the detection and quantification of a wide array of immune compounds, including innate immunity factors (IL1β, IL6, IL12, INFγ, TNFα, acquired immunity factors (IL2, IL4, IL10, IL13, IL17, chemokines (IL8, Groα, MCP1, MIP1β, growth factors [IL5, IL7, epidermal growth factor (EGF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, TGFβ2], and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM, in milk produced by healthy women of different ethnicities living in different geographic, dietary, socioeconomic, and environmental settings. Among the analyzed factors, IgA, IgG, IgM, EGF, TGFβ2, IL7, IL8, Groα, and MIP1β were detected in all or most of the samples collected in each population and, therefore, this specific set of compounds might be considered as the “core” soluble immune factors in milk produced by healthy women worldwide. This approach may help define which immune factors are (or are not common in milk produced by women living in various conditions, and to identify host, lifestyle, and environmental factors that affect the immunological composition of this complex biological fluid.Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02670278.

  3. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) as a criterion for the identification of the healthy obesity phenotype in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwow, Felicja; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Milewicz, Andrzej; Szmigiero, Leszek

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and its complications constitute a major health problem in postmenopausal women. The identification of the obesity phenotype, especially that of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) patients, is a necessary part of obesity treatment protocols. There are several methods to define MHO, but unfortunately, all of them are arbitrary and inconsistent. The aim of this work was to determine whether lipid accumulation product (LAP) could be used as a marker of the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. A sample of 345 Polish postmenopausal women aged 50-60years old participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese when their BMI was >27. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to estimate the best cutoff for the LAP index value to identify postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome components. We found that the best cutoff value was LAP ≤29.9, and this value was used to define MHO individuals. With this definition, the identification of MHO individuals could be made when both of the following criteria were met: LAP index ≤29.9 and no arterial hypertension (SBPwomen identified according to the above definition, were compared with those of MHO women identified by two other methods in the literature. These methods and our definition identified similar proportions of MHO women ranging from 11.6% to 16.9%. We found that MHO women identified by all of the definitions used in this study possessed a similar metabolic status, and they did not differ in anthropometric indices or body fat distribution measurements. We concluded that the combination of LAP estimation and arterial blood pressure measurement appear to constitute a useful method for identifying the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects....... effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment.......Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects......·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective...

  5. Free and total urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women from the Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingshuang; Wan, Yanjian; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Cai, Zongwei; Qian, Zhengmin; Zhang, Chuncao; Huo, Wenqian; Huang, Kai; Hu, Jie; Cheng, Lu; Chang, Huailong; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Bing; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-03-01

    Total urinary phthalate metabolites (the free plus glucuronidated forms) have been frequently measured in the general population. However, data are limited on the free forms which may be more bioactive, especially for sensitive population such as pregnant women. Here the data gap was addressed by measuring concentrations of free and total forms of six phthalate metabolites in 293 urine samples from pregnant women at delivery, who were randomly selected from the prospective Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC), China. We observed detectable concentrations of the total amount of phthalate metabolites in all urine samples. The geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations of free and total mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) (5.20, 54.49ng/mL) were the highest, followed by mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) (4.52, 7.27ng/mL). For most of phthalate metabolites, urinary concentrations were significantly higher in women who were nulliparous. Significantly higher concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) were found in women who had higher educational level. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the free and total forms of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women in China. The results suggest that exposure characteristics may be related to parity and education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social support for healthy behaviors: Scale psychometrics and prediction of weight loss among women in a behavioral program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Michaela; Moore, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen; Perri, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N=267; mean BMI 32.1±3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) “never” or “rarely” experienced support from friends or family. Using non-parametric classification methods, we identified two subscales—support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity—that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ≥5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who “never” experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who “never” experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend versus family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk. PMID:21996661

  7. Impact of Probiotic SYNBIO(®) Administered by Vaginal Suppositories in Promoting Vaginal Health of Apparently Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Coata, Giuliana; Cresci, Alberto; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether vaginal administration of probiotic Lactobacillus results in their colonization and persistence in the vagina and whether it promotes normalization and maintenance of pH and Nugent score. A single-arm, open-label controlled towards the baseline (pre-post) study including 35 apparently healthy women was conducted. Each woman was examined three times during the study. Women were instructed to receive daily for 7 days, the probiotic suppositories SYNBIO(®) gin (Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502(®)). Vaginal swabs were collected during visit 1, 2, and 3 to determine the total lactobacilli count, the presence of the two administered bacteria, the measure of the pH, and the estimation of Nugent score. Evaluation of treatment tolerability was based on analysis of the type and occurrence of adverse events. The probiotic vaginal suppository was well tolerated and no side effects were reported. Intermediate Nugent score was registered in 40 % of women at visit 1 and these intermediate scores reverted to normal at day 7 (end of treatment) in 20 % of subjects. Administration of SYNBIO(®) gin contributed to a significant increase in the lactobacilli level at visit 2. Molecular typing revealed the presence of the two strains originating from SYNBIO(®) gin in 100 % of women at visit 2 and 34 % at visit 3. No significant changes were registered for pH between visits. The SYNBIO(®) gin product is safe for daily use in healthy women and it could be useful to restore and maintain a normal vaginal microbiota.

  8. Bone mineral content in the spongiosa of the lumbar spine of healthy perimenopausal women measured by QCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montag, M.; Meyer-Galander, H.M.; Peters, P.E.; Doeren, M.; Montag, T.

    1988-01-01

    Healthy perimenopausal women (152) were examined by QCT to quantify the mineral content of the axial skeleton. The density was measured in the spongiosa of the L 2-4, using single energy technique and the Cann-Genant calibration phantom. The women, aged 37 to 64, had no history of pathological fractures, ovariectomy, metabolic disease, or hormone therapy. The age-related mean values were 25 mg K2HP04/cm 3 lower than the normal values reported by Genant et al. for 203 healthy American women. The 95% confidence interval was distinctly narrower (±40 mg/cm 3 ) than the American confidence interval (±60 mg/cm 3 ). To evaluate the relationship of the BMC to mechanical stress, the BMC was compared with body weight, body mass index (weight/height 2 ), and the lumbar muscle mass was estimated from cross sections of the paravertebral muscles in the CT images. The assumption that higher mechanical stress results in higher bone mineralization could not be confirmed. (orig.) [de

  9. High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Ann; Mitchell, Klaus; Blackwell, Jamie R; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green leafy vegetables, which are high in dietary nitrate, are protective against CVD such as stroke. High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for stroke and inorganic nitrate has been shown to reduce BP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that diets containing high-nitrate (HN) vegetables would increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduce BP in healthy women. A randomized, crossover trial, where participants received HN vegetables (HN diet) or avoided HN vegetables (Control diet) for 1 week. Before and after each intervention, resting BP and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured. University of Exeter, UK. Nineteen healthy women (mean age 20 (sd 2) years; mean BMI 22·5 (sd 3·8) kg/m2). The HN diet significantly increased plasma nitrate concentration (before HN diet: mean 24·4 (sd 5·6) µmol/l; after HN diet: mean 61·0 (sd 44·1) µmol/l, Pdiet: mean 98 (sd 91) nmol/l; after HN diet: mean 185 (sd 34) nmol/l, Pdiet. The HN diet significantly reduced resting systolic BP (before HN diet: mean 107 (sd 9) mmHg; after HN diet: mean 103 (sd 6) mmHg, Pdiet (before Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg; after Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg). Consumption of HN vegetables significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduced BP in normotensive women.

  10. Physical Activity May Be Associated with Conditioned Pain Modulation in Women but Not Men among Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Shiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM, a phenomenon also known as diffuse noxious inhibitory control, is thought to be affected by various factors, including sex and level of physical activity. However, the involvement of these factors in CPM remains unclear. Methods. Eighty-six healthy young subjects (M/F, 43/43 participated in this study. Participants were assessed on the basis of their mechanical pressure pain threshold (PPT, CPM response, body mass index (BMI, basal metabolic rate (BMR, and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA over a week, using a motion counter. Response to CPM was evaluated as PPT during painful cold stimulation relative to baseline PPT. Results. Men showed significantly higher baseline PPT than women; however, this difference was no longer significant after controlling for confounders. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses revealed BMR to be a significant contributor towards baseline PPT in the entire study population. In contrast, although there were no significant contributors to CPM response among men and in the overall study group, MVPA was positively associated with CPM response among women (β = 0.397. Conclusions. These results suggest that, among healthy young individuals, CPM response may be associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in women but not in men.

  11. Bacterial species colonizing the vagina of healthy women are not associated with race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, May A; Austin, Michele N; Avolia, Hilary A; Meyn, Leslie A; Bunge, Katherine E; Hillier, Sharon L

    2017-06-01

    The vaginal microbiota of 36 white versus 25 black asymptomatic women were compared using both cultivation-dependent and -independent identification. Significant differences by race were found in colonization and density of bacterial species. However, exclusion of 12 women with bacterial vaginosis by Nugent criteria resulted in no significant differences by race. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  13. Factors affecting sexual function: A comparison between women with gynecological or rectal cancer and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Chen, Lynn

    2014-11-23

    This study had two purposes: (i) to explore differences in sexual function between women with gynecological or rectal cancer after related pelvic-area treatments and women without cancer; and (ii) to investigate the relationships among body image, anxiety and depression, sexual relationship power, sexual self-schema, and female sexual function. The participants (n = 139) were recruited through Internet cancer support groups and women's health organizations in the USA. Six structured questionnaires were mailed, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that women with gynecological or rectal cancer had significantly worse sexual function than women without cancer. Having gynecological/rectal cancer and a negative sexual self-schema were significantly related to poor sexual function. Furthermore, sexual self-schema moderated the relationship between sexual relationship power and female sexual function. Healthcare providers could give more attention to sexual issues in women who have undergone treatment for gynecological or rectal cancer, especially for those with a negative sexual self-schema and high sexual relationship power, which might improve these women's quality of life. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. What’s normal? Oligosaccharide concentrations and profiles in milk produced by healthy women vary geographically12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Courtney L; McGuire, Mark A; Foster, James; Sellen, Daniel W; Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth W; Kamundia, Egidioh W; Mbugua, Samwel; Moore, Sophie E; Prentice, Andrew M; Kvist, Linda J; Otoo, Gloria E; Brooker, Sarah L; Price, William J; Shafii, Bahman; Placek, Caitlyn; Lackey, Kimberly A; Robertson, Bianca; Ruíz, Lorena; Pareja, Rossina G; Bode, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a complex fluid comprised of myriad substances, with one of the most abundant substances being a group of complex carbohydrates referred to as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). There has been some evidence that HMO profiles differ in populations, but few studies have rigorously explored this variability. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that HMO profiles differ in diverse populations of healthy women. Next, we examined relations between HMO and maternal anthropometric and reproductive indexes and indirectly examined whether differences were likely related to genetic or environmental variations. Design: In this cross-sectional, observational study, milk was collected from a total of 410 healthy, breastfeeding women in 11 international cohorts and analyzed for HMOs by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: There was an effect of the cohort (P 4 times higher in milk collected in Sweden than in milk collected in rural Gambia (mean ± SEM: 473 ± 55 compared with 103 ± 16 nmol/mL, respectively; P < 0.05), and disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT) concentrations ranged from 216 ± 14 nmol/mL (in Sweden) to 870 ± 68 nmol/mL (in rural Gambia) (P < 0.05). Maternal age, time postpartum, weight, and body mass index were all correlated with several HMOs, and multiple differences in HMOs [e.g., lacto-N-neotetrose and DSLNT] were shown between ethnically similar (and likely genetically similar) populations who were living in different locations, which suggests that the environment may play a role in regulating the synthesis of HMOs. Conclusions: The results of this study support our hypothesis that normal HMO concentrations and profiles vary geographically, even in healthy women. Targeted genomic analyses are required to determine whether these differences are due at least in part to genetic variation. A careful examination of sociocultural, behavioral, and environmental factors is needed to determine their roles in this regard. This

  15. The effects of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and age on frontal white matter integrity in healthy adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune eJonassen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of populations at genetic risk have the potential to explore the underlying structural and functional mechanisms in the development of psychological disorders. The polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been associated with major depression (Caspi et al., 2003. In healthy women, variation in the human brain white matter microstructure integrity in the uncinate fascicule (UF has been suggested as an endophenotypes in the development of major depression (MDD. Pacheco et al. (2009 found a unique effect of age and 5-HTTLPR within the left frontal UF. The present study examined whether these associations persist along the adult life span. Thirty-seven right-handed healthy women between 21 and 61 years of age were invited for a diffusion MRI study. The functional polymorphism 5-HTTLPR located in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fractional anisotropy (FA was generated for the UF based on Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Models of emotion regulation circuitry suggest that working memory is important in conscious emotion regulation (Price and Drevets, 2010. To explore if 5-HTTLPR is related to this aspects of emotion processing, a working memory pathway, the superior longitudinal fascicule (SLF was included. The results demonstrate that age may explain the hypothesized association between 5-HTTLPR and frontal uncinate fascicule white matter integrity in healthy adult women. Both white matter changes associated with the aging process and those associated with growth and development may explain why the earlier reported unique effects of genotype in frontal UF FA do not persist into adulthood.

  16. Plasmatic levels of N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide in preeclamptic patients and healthy normotensive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna-Villasmil, Eduardo; Mejia-Montilla, Jorly; Reyna-Villasmil, Nadia; Mayner-Tresol, Gabriel; Herrera-Moya, Pedro; Fernández-Ramírez, Andreina; Rondón-Tapía, Marta

    2018-05-11

    To compare plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations in preeclamptic patients and healthy normotensive pregnant women. A cases-controls study was done with 180 patients at Hospital Central Dr. Urquinaona, Maracaibo, Venezuela, that included 90 preeclamptic patients (group A; cases) and 90 healthy normotensive pregnant women selected with the same age and body mass index similar to group A (group B; controls). Blood samples were collected one hour after admission and prior to administration of any medication in group A to determine plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and other laboratory parameters. Plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations in group A (mean 1.01 [0.26] pg/mL) showed a significant difference when compared with patients in group B (mean 0.55 [0.07] pg/mL; P<.001]. There was no significant correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in preeclamptic patients (P=ns). A cut-off value of 0.66ng/mL had an area under the curve of 0.93, sensitivity of 87.8%, specificity of 83.3%, a positive predictive value of 84.0% and a negative predictive value of 87.2%, with a diagnostic accuracy of 85.6%. Preeclamptic patients have significantly higher concentrations of plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide compared with healthy normotensive pregnant women, with high predictive values for diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in healthy women with and without established osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Spencer, E M; Christiansen, C

    1995-01-01

    -controlled treatment with continuous estrogen/progestogen, anabolic steroids, salmon calcitonin or placebo and the IGFs were measured every 6 months. Women less than 35 years of age had 29% higher levels of IGF-I (p ....05) was seen in the nandrolone decanoate-treated group. The same tendency was seen for hormone replacement therapy, although it was not significant. In conclusion, the serum level of IGF-I is high in young women, when peak bone mass is attained, and low in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis....

  18. Non-targeted metabolomics and lipidomics LC-MS data from maternal plasma of 180 healthy pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Hemi; Meng, Nan; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolomics has the potential to be a powerful and sensitive approach for investigating the low molecular weight metabolite profiles present in maternal fluids and their role in pregnancy.Findings: In this Data Note, LC-MS metabolome, lipidome and carnitine profiling data were...... collected from 180 healthy pregnant women, representing six time points spanning all three trimesters, and providing sufficient coverage to model the progression of normal pregnancy.Conclusions: As a relatively large scale, real-world dataset with robust numbers of quality control samples, the data...

  19. A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bügel, S.

    2006-01-01

    A lignan complex rich in the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was isolated from flaxseed. SDG is metabolized by the colonic microflora to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), and was hypothesized to reduce plasma lipid concentrations and improve...... antioxidant capacity, The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a lignan complex, providing 500 mg/d of SDG, on serum concentration and urinary excretion of ENL, plasma lipids, serum lipoprotein oxidation resistance, and markers of antioxidant capacity. Healthy postmenopausal women (n=22...

  20. Promoting healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy with young married women in Northern Nigeria: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Cate; Joof, Yaikah M; Hassan, Aisha Ahmed; Pryor, Shannon

    2012-06-01

    The persistence of early and closely spaced pregnancies in Northern Nigeria contributes to maternal and child morbidity and mortality. A technical working group to WHO recommended that following a birth, a woman should space her next pregnancy by at least 24 months, and following a miscarriage or abortion, a woman space her next pregnancy by at least six months. UNICEF, UNFPA and WHO also recommend that a woman delay her first pregnancy until 18. These recommendations comprise the concept of Healthy Timing and Spacing of Pregnancy. The Extending Service Delivery Project (ESD) partnered with the Federation of Muslim Women Association of Nigeria and religious leaders to educate communities about the benefits of using family planning to practice HTSP in five local government areas. Informal discussions with 148 women and 28 men found high recall of the HTSP recommendations and favorable attitudes toward spacing and family planning although many remain concerned about the side effects of contraceptive methods.

  1. Knowledge is (not) power: healthy eating and physical activity for African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T

    2015-01-01

    African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity.

  2. Developing an assessment based on physical fitness age to evaluate motor function in frail and healthy elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaichi, Masaki; Anan, Yuya; Hikiji, Yuto; Uratani, Sou

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify a method for assessing physical fitness age that is easy to use with both frail and healthy elderly women and to examine its validity. Principal component analysis was used to develop a formula of physical fitness age from four motor function variables. The subjects comprised 688 (75.7±6.0 years) elderly women, in order to develop a physical fitness scale. The formula for calculating physical fitness age was expressed as physical fitness age =-0.419× grip strength -0.096× balancing on one leg with eyes open -0.737×30 s chair stand +0.503× figure-of-8 walking test +0.47× chronological age +52.68. Measures obtained from subjects in the frail elderly (n=11, 73.0±2.3 years) and exercise (n=10, 70.8±3.1 years) groups were used to examine the validity of the assessment. The mean physical fitness age of the frail elderly group (79.0±3.7 years) was significantly higher than its mean chronological age (73.0±2.3 years, p fitness age of the exercise group (65.6±3.1 years) was significantly lower than the chronological age (70.8±3.1 years, p fitness age scores are applicable to frail and healthy elderly women. Physical fitness age is a valid measure of motor function in elderly women.

  3. Effects of 25OHD concentrations on chances of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes: a cohort study in healthy Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liendgaard, Ulla Kristine Møller; við Streym, Susanna; Heickendorff, Lene

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (P-25OHD) concentrations may affect pregnancy outcomes. To elucidate this further, we studied the effects of pre-conception P-25OHD concentrations on chances for pregnancy as well as the effects of P-25OHD during pregnancy on the risk of miscarriage......, birth weight and length, Apgar score and head circumference. Moreover, we studied whether pregnancy and breastfeeding patterns affect maternal P-25OHD concentrations. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 153 healthy Caucasian women with pregnancy plans were followed with measurements performed before pregnancy......, at pregnancy weeks 11±2, 22±1 and 35±2 as well as 15±7, 129±12 and 280±15 days postpartum. Furthermore, 75 non-pregnant, age-matched women were followed in parallel as controls. RESULTS: The 203 women were aged 29 (25-35) years. At baseline, median P-25OHD was 59 nmol/l. Of these women, 31% had P-25OHD

  4. The effects of experimentally-induced sad and happy mood on sexual arousal in sexually healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Kuile, Moniek M; Both, Stephanie; van Uden, Janneke

    2010-03-01

    In depressed women, common sexual difficulties include decreased sexual desire, sexual arousal and orgasmic difficulties, reduced sexual satisfaction, and reduced sexual pleasure. Experimental research on the influence of depressed mood on genital and subjective sexual arousal in women is scarce. To investigate the effects of sad mood on genital and subjective sexual arousal in sexually healthy women, using a mood induction procedure. Thirty-two subjects received a sad mood and a happy mood induction, on two different days, using a within subjects design. The mood induction procedure was a combination of the Velten procedure and music. In the Velten procedure, the subject is asked to read sad or happy self-referent sentences and to experience the mood suggested by these sentences. Immediately following mood induction, the subjects were exposed to an erotic film clip. Genital arousal was assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography. Self-report ratings of sad and happy mood, subjective sexual arousal and affective reactions were collected before and after the erotic clip. The sad and happy mood ratings indicated that the mood inductions affected mood as intended. No difference in genital sexual arousal was found between the sad and happy mood conditions. Subjects reported significantly less subjective sexual arousal and positive affect and marginally significant fewer genital sensations and more negative affect in the sad mood condition than in the happy mood condition. The results provide empirical support for the idea that mood can impact on subjective sexual arousal in women.

  5. Stress reactivity and its effects on subsequent food intake in depressed and healthy women with and without adverse childhood experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Boeker, Anita; Schultebraucks, Katharina; Ritter, Kristin; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Otte, Christian; Spitzer, Carsten

    2017-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increase the risk to develop major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity or metabolic syndrome in adulthood. In addition, ACE may be associated with an exaggerated endocrine response to stress, which, in turn, may lead to enhanced food intake resulting in obesity and metabolic problems. We systematically examined the stress response and consecutive food intake in 32 women with MDD and ACE as determined by a clinical interview (Early Trauma Inventory), 52 women with MDD without ACE, 22 women with ACE but no current or lifetime MDD and 37 healthy women without either MDD or ACE. All participants underwent a psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) and a control condition (Placebo-TSST) before they were offered a buffet of snacks. Participants were not aware that the primary outcome variable was the amount of consumed kilocalories (kcal). The four groups did not differ in demographic variables. Stress resulted in higher cortisol release and higher blood pressure compared to the control condition. Patients with MDD without ACE had a significantly lower cortisol response to stress compared to controls. Across groups, we found higher kcal intake after stress compared to the control condition. Comparing high and low cortisol responders to stress, higher kcal intake after stress was only seen in those with low cortisol release. This study provides evidence that blunted rather than enhanced cortisol release to stress might lead to increased food intake, independent from MDD and ACE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diurnal salivary cortisol in relation to perceived stress at home and at work in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjörs, Anna; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the association between diurnal salivary cortisol profile and perceived stress at work and at home. Healthy participants (N=180, 52% women) collected saliva cortisol samples immediately after waking up, 15 min later, 30 min later, and at 9:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00. The area under the cortisol awakening curve with respect to ground (AUCgCAR) and increase (AUCiCAR), and diurnal slope between 9:00 and 21:00 were analyzed. Perceived stress at work and at home was measured with the Stress-Energy Questionnaire. Participants reporting stress at home had significantly lower AUCgCAR and a flatter diurnal slope. When performing separate analyses for men and women, this association was only significant among women. Perceived stress at work was not associated with any cortisol measure. This study highlights the importance of stress outside the workplace. The sex differences may indicate an increased vulnerability to non-work stress in women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of HPV and co-infecting pathogens in healthy Italian women by multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporiondo, Maria Pia; Farchi, Francesca; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Denaro, Aurelia; Gallone, Domenica; Maracchioni, Fabio; Favalli, Cartesio; Ciotti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Several pathogens can be transmitted sexually and are an important cause of morbidity among sexually active women. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in a group of 309 healthy women enrolled at the San Camillo - Forlanini hospital of Rome by using two multiplex real-time PCR assays based on TOCE® technology. The women's ages ranged from 34 to 60 years, median 49 [IQR 45-54]. Of the 309 women tested, HPV DNA was detected in 77/309 (24.9%) patients. Of these, 44 (14.2%) harboured a single infection while 33 (10.7%) were infected by multiple genotypes. Prevalence of HPV infection was highest among females aged 40-50 years (15.2%). Of the other pathogens sought, CT, MG and NG were not detected while positive results were found for MH (12/309, 3.9%), TV (4/309, 1.3%), UP (89/309, 28.8%) and UU (14/309, 4.5%). Co-infections were as follows: 5 MH/HPV, 4 TV/HPV, 34 UP/HPV and 9 UU/HPV. In HPV-positive women, the probability of being infected by UP and UU was 2.5 (p=0.00045) and 6 fold higher (p=0.0016) than in HPV-negative women. The study supports the use of multiplex real-time PCR assays in a routine diagnostic setting. The high sensitivity and specificity of these assays along with the simultaneous detection of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens confers an advantage with respect to more obsolete methods reducing costs and time to diagnosis.

  8. Seasonal and biological variation of urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, A H; Skovgaard, L T

    2001-01-01

    There is a significant circadian and seasonal periodicity in various endocrine functions. The present study describes the within-day and seasonal fluctuation for urinary catecholamines and cortisol and estimates the within- (CV(i)) and between-subject (CV(g)) coefficients of variation for healthy...

  9. Leg extension power asymmetry and mobility limitation in healthy older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portegijs, Erja; Sipilä, Sarianna; Alen, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Tiainen, Kristina; Rantanen, Taina

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of asymmetry in leg extension power (LEP) with walking and standing balance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy female twins (N=419), ages 63 to 75 years. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME

  10. Plasma oxytocin concentrations are lower in depressed vs. healthy control women and are independent of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kaeli W; Garner, Joseph P; Carson, Dean S; Keller, Jennifer; Lembke, Anna; Hyde, Shellie A; Kenna, Heather A; Tennakoon, Lakshika; Schatzberg, Alan F; Parker, Karen J

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) promotes social behavior and attenuates stress responsivity in mammals. Recent clinical evidence suggests OT concentrations may be dysregulated in major depression. This study extends previous research by testing whether: 1) OT concentrations vary systematically in depressive disorders with and without hypercortisolemia, 2) gender differences in OT concentrations are observed in depressed vs. healthy control participants, and 3) OT concentrations are predictive of clinical phenotypes. Plasma OT concentrations of psychotic major depressive (PMD; n = 14: 10 female, 4 male), non-psychotic major depressive (NPMD; n = 17: 12 female, 5 male), and non-depressed, healthy control (n = 19: 11 female, 8 male) participants were assayed at 2000, 2400, 0400, and 0800 h. Plasma cortisol concentrations were quantified at 2300 h, and clinical phenotypes were determined. As expected, PMD participants, compared to NPMD and healthy control participants, showed higher plasma cortisol concentrations. Although both depressed groups showed similar OT concentrations, a significant interaction effect between group and gender was observed. Specifically, depressed females exhibited lower mean OT concentrations than depressed males. Further, depressed vs. healthy control female participants exhibited lower mean OT concentrations, whereas depressed vs. healthy control male participants showed a trend in the opposite direction. OT concentrations were also predictive of desirability, drug dependence, and compulsivity scores as measured by the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. All findings were independent of cortisol. These data suggest that OT signaling may provide a mechanism by which to better understand female-biased risk to develop depressive disorders and that plasma OT concentrations may be a useful biomarker of certain clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Neural-humoral responses during head-up tilt in healthy young white and black women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara S Jarvis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Young black women have higher prevalence of hypertension during pregnancy compared to white women, which may be attributable to differences in blood pressure (BP regulation. We hypothesized that young normotensive black women would demonstrate augmented muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA and renal-adrenal responses to orthostasis. Fifteen white and ten black women (30±4 vs. 32±6 yrs; means±SD had haemodynamics and MSNA measured during baseline (BL, 30° and 60° head-up tilt (HUT, and recovery. Blood was drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, vasopressin, and aldosterone. BL brachial systolic BP (SBP: 107±6 vs. 101±9 mmHg and diastolic BP (DBP: 62±4 vs. 56±7 mmHg were higher in white women (both p< 0.05. ΔDBP (60° HUT-BL was greater in black women compared to white (p< 0.05. Cardiac output and total peripheral resistance was similar between groups. MSNA burst frequency was higher in whites (BL: 16±10 vs. 14±9 bursts/min, p< 0.05 and increased in both groups during HUT (60°: 39±8 vs. 34±13 bursts/min, p< 0.05 from BL. Noradrenaline was higher in white women (BL: 210±87 vs. 169±50 pg/ml; 60° HUT: 364±102 vs. 267±89 pg/ml, p< 0.05. Direct renin was higher and vasopressin and Δaldosterone tended to be higher in blacks (BL, direct renin: 12.1±5.0 vs. 14.4±3.7 pg/ml, p< 0.05; BL, vasopressin: 0.4±0.0 vs. 1.6±3.6pg/ml, p=0.065; Δaldosterone: -0.9±5.1 vs. 3.8±7.5 ng/ml; p=0.069. These results suggest that young normotensive white women rely on sympathetic neural more so than black women who have a tendency to rely on the renal-adrenal system to regulate BP during an orthostatic stress.

  12. Neural-humoral responses during head-up tilt in healthy young white and black women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Sara S.; Shibata, Shigeki; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Levine, Benjamin D.; Fu, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Young black women have higher prevalence of hypertension during pregnancy compared to white women, which may be attributable to differences in blood pressure (BP) regulation. We hypothesized that young normotensive black women would demonstrate augmented muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and renal-adrenal responses to orthostasis. Fifteen white and ten black women (30 ± 4 vs. 32 ± 6 years; means ± SD) had haemodynamics and MSNA measured during baseline (BL), 30 and 60° head-up tilt (HUT), and recovery. Blood was drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, vasopressin, and aldosterone. BL brachial systolic BP (SBP: 107 ± 6 vs. 101 ± 9 mmHg) and diastolic BP (DBP: 62 ± 4 vs. 56 ± 7 mmHg) were higher in white women (both p < 0.05). Δ DBP (60° HUT-BL) was greater in black women compared to white (p < 0.05). Cardiac output and total peripheral resistance were similar between groups. MSNA burst frequency was higher in whites (BL: 16 ± 10 vs. 14 ± 9 bursts/min, main effect p < 0.05) and increased in both groups during HUT (60°: 39 ± 8 vs. 34 ± 13 bursts/min, p < 0.05 from BL). Noradrenaline was higher in white women during 60° HUT (60° HUT: 364 ± 102 vs. 267 ± 89 pg/ml, p < 0.05). Direct renin was higher and vasopressin and Δ aldosterone tended to be higher in blacks (BL, direct renin: 12.1 ± 5.0 vs. 14.4 ± 3.7 pg/ml, p < 0.05; BL, vasopressin: 0.4 ± 0.0 vs. 1.6 ± 3.6 pg/ml, p = 0.065; Δ aldosterone: −0.9 ± 5.1 vs. 3.8 ± 7.5 ng/ml; p = 0.069). These results suggest that young normotensive white women may rely on sympathetic neural activity more so than black women who have a tendency to rely on the renal-adrenal system to regulate BP during an orthostatic stress. PMID:24624092

  13. Preventative therapies for healthy women at high risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sestak, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce the risk of developing estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer by at least 50%, in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The current challenge is to find new agents with fewer side effects and to find agents that are specifically suitable for premenopausal women with ER-negative breast cancer. Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene, have been shown to reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 50%–80%. SERMs are interesting agents for the prevention of breast cancer, but longer follow-up is needed for some of them for a complete risk–benefit profile of these drugs. Aromatase inhibitors have emerged as new drugs in the prevention setting for postmenopausal women. In the Mammary Prevention 3 (MAP3) trial, a 65% reduction in invasive breast cancer with exemestane was observed, and the Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II trial, which compared anastrozole with placebo, reported a 60% reduction in those cancers. Although SERMs and aromatase inhibitors have been proven to be excellent agents in the preventive setting specifically for postmenopausal women and ER-positive breast cancer, newer agents have to be found specifically for ER-negative breast cancers, which mostly occur in premenopausal women

  14. Evidence of estrogen modulation on memory processes for emotional content in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Assunta; Arnone, Benedetto; D'Amico, Mario; Federico, Paolo; Gasbarri, Antonella

    2016-03-01

    It is well accepted that emotional content can affect memory, interacting with the encoding and consolidation processes. The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of estrogens in the interplay of cognition and emotion. Images from the International Affective Pictures System, based on valence (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral), maintaining arousal constant, were viewed passively by two groups of young women in different cycle phases: a periovulatory group (PO), characterized by high level of estrogens and low level of progesterone, and an early follicular group (EF), characterized by low levels of both estrogens and progesterone. The electrophysiological responses to images were measured, and P300 peak was considered. One week later, long-term memory was tested by means of free recall. Intra-group analysis displayed that PO woman had significantly better memory for positive images, while EF women showed significantly better memory for negative images. The comparison between groups revealed that women in the PO phase had better memory performance for positive pictures than women in the EF phase, while no significant differences were found for negative and neutral pictures. According to the free recall results, the subjects in the PO group showed greater P300 amplitude, and shorter latency, for pleasant images compared with women in the EF group. Our results showed that the physiological hormonal fluctuation of estrogens during the menstrual cycle can influence memory, at the time of encoding, during the processing of emotional information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regular meal frequency creates more appropriate insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles compared with irregular meal frequency in healthy lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, H R; Taylor, M A; Macdonald, I A

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the impact of irregular meal frequency on circulating lipids, insulin, glucose and uric acid concentrations which are known cardiovascular risk factors. A randomised crossover dietary intervention study. Nottingham, UK--Healthy free-living women. A total of nine lean healthy women aged 18-42 y recruited via advertisement. A randomised crossover trial with two phases of 14 days each. In Phase 1, subjects consumed their normal diet on either 6 occasions per day (regular) or by following a variable meal frequency (3-9 meals/day, irregular). In Phase 2, subjects followed the alternative meal pattern to that followed in Phase 1, after a 2-week (wash-out) period. Subjects were asked to come to the laboratory after an overnight fast at the start and end of each phase. Blood samples were taken for measurement of circulating glucose, lipids, insulin and uric acid concentrations before and for 3 h after consumption of a high-carbohydrate test meal. Fasting glucose and insulin values were not affected by meal frequency, but peak insulin and AUC of insulin responses to the test meal were higher after the irregular compared to the regular eating patterns (P meal frequency was associated with higher fasting total (P meal frequency appears to produce a degree of insulin resistance and higher fasting lipid profiles, which may indicate a deleterious effect on these cardiovascular risk factors. : The Ministry of Health and Medical Education, IR Iran.

  16. Effects of high-protein vs. high- fat snacks on appetite control, satiety, and eating initiation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Laura C; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Leidy, Heather J

    2014-09-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a high-protein afternoon yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake compared to other commonly-consumed, energy dense, high-fat snacks. Twenty, healthy women (age: 27 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2) completed the randomized crossover design study which included 3, 8-h testing days comparing the following 160 kcal afternoon snacks: high-protein yogurt (14 g protein/25 g CHO/0 g fat); high-fat crackers (0 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat); and high-fat chocolate (2 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat). Participants were acclimated to each snack for 3 consecutive days. On day 4, the participants consumed a standardized breakfast and lunch; the respective snack was consumed 3-h post-lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed throughout the afternoon until dinner was voluntarily requested. An ad libitum dinner was then provided. The consumption of the yogurt snack led to greater reductions in afternoon hunger vs. chocolate (p snack also delayed eating initiation by approximately 30 min compared to the chocolate snack (p snack led to approximately 100 fewer kcals consumed at dinner vs. the crackers (p = 0.08) and chocolate (p snacks, eating less energy dense, high-protein snacks like yogurt improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake in healthy women.

  17. The effects of an unsupervised water exercise program on low back pain and sick leave among healthy pregnant women - A randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Tabor, Ann; Albert, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low back pain is highly prevalent among pregnant women, but evidence of an effective treatment are still lacking. Supervised exercise-either land or water based-has shown benefits for low back pain, but no trial has investigated the evidence of an unsupervised water exercise program...... on low back pain. We aimed to assess the effect of an unsupervised water exercise program on low back pain intensity and days spent on sick leave among healthy pregnant women. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, parallel-group trial, 516 healthy pregnant women were randomly assigned to either...... unsupervised water exercise twice a week for a period of 12 weeks or standard prenatal care. Healthy pregnant women aged 18 years or older, with a single fetus and between 16-17 gestational weeks were eligible. The primary outcome was low back pain intensity measured by the Low Back Pain Rating scale at 32...

  18. Biomarker-calibrated nutrient intake and healthy diet index associations with mortality risks among older and frail women from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, Oleg; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Hebert, James R; Steck, Susan E; Shivappa, Nitin; Tabung, Fred K; Wirth, Michael D; Bu, Yunqi; Shikany, James M; Orchard, Tonya; Wallace, Robert B; Snetselaar, Linda; Tinker, Lesley F

    2017-06-01

    Background: Although studies to date have confirmed the association between nutrition and frailty, the impact of dietary intake and dietary patterns on survivorship in those with frailty is yet to be examined in a well-powered cohort with validated frailty status. Moreover, previous studies were limited by measurement error from dietary self-reports. Objective: We derived biomarker-calibrated dietary energy and protein intakes to address dietary self-report error. Using these data, we then evaluated the association of mortality in older women with frailty and dietary intake and healthy diet indexes, such as the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII). Design: The analytic sample included 10,034 women aged 65-84 y with frailty and complete dietary data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Frailty was assessed with modified Fried's criteria. Dietary data were collected by food-frequency questionnaire. Results: Over a mean follow-up period of 12.4 y, 3259 (31%) deaths occurred. The HRs showed progressively decreased rates of mortality in women with higher calibrated dietary energy intakes ( P- trend = 0.003), higher calibrated dietary protein intakes ( P- trend = 0.03), higher aMED scores ( P- trend = 0.006), and higher DASH scores ( P- trend = 0.02). Although the adjusted point estimates of HRs (95% CIs) for frail women scoring in the second, third, and fourth quartiles on DII measures were 1.15 (1.03, 1.27), 1.28 (1.15, 1.42), and 1.24 (1.12, 1.38), respectively, compared with women in the first quartile, no overall effect was observed across quartiles ( P- trend = 0.35). Subgroup analyses by chronic morbidity or smoking status or by excluding women with early death did not substantially change these findings. Conclusions: The current study highlights the importance of nutrition in older, frail women. Diet quality and quantity should be considered in

  19. Facing possible illness detected through screening--experiences of healthy women with pathological cervical smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain knowledge about women's perceptions of illness based on their abnormal PAP smears, following screening for cervical cancer. The study uses a phenomenological, hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. Twelve women, aged between 23 and 59...... of a face-value review of participant experiences (naive reading), structural analysis and, critical interpretation of what it means to be potentially ill. The women were unprepared to find that their screening results showed abnormal cells, indicative of incipient genital cancer. They were frustrated...... by the results as they had not experienced any symptoms and felt well, despite being diagnosed with a potential disease. Being diagnosed with abnormal cells caused the participants to feel anxious. Their anxiety had subsided 6 months after the cells had been removed. For those who did not require treatment...

  20. A standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention for healthy pregnant women. A qualitative feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Katballe, Malene; Hansson, Helena

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low back pain during pregnancy is common and associated with sick leave. Studies suggest that exercise may reduce low back pain during pregnancy. Before carrying out a randomised controlled trail with individual water exercise as intervention a qualitative feasibility study was done....... OBJECTIVE: To explore women's views and experiences of the acceptability and benefits of and possible barriers to the standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven women were interviewed after participating in a water exercise intervention. Content analysis...... was used. RESULTS: Four main categories emerged: motivation to participate, attitudes towards the exercise programme, perception of benefits, and acceptability of supportive components. The women had a desire to stay physically active during pregnancy and found water exercise a suitable, type of exercise...

  1. Relationship between dynapenia and cardiorespiratory functions in healthy postmenopausal women: novel clinical criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbat-Artigas, Seébastien; Dupontgand, Sophie; Fex, Annie; Karelis, Antony D; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2011-04-01

    Muscle strength seems to be a better indicator of physical limitations than skeletal muscle mass is. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using a new developed clinical tool, the relationship between type I dynapenia and cardiorespiratory functions in postmenopausal women. Forty-six postmenopausal women were recruited and divided into two groups (dynapenic vs nondynapenic). Body composition (bioelectrical impedancemetry), muscle strength (dynamometer), cardiorespiratory functions (maximum oxygen consumption and forced expiratory volume in 1 second), resting energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), and dietary intake (3-d dietary journal) were measured. Type I dynapenia was defined as less than 1.53 kg per skeletal muscle mass (kg) based on handgrip dynamometer. Significant differences were found between dynapenic (n=23) and nondynapenic (n=23) postmenopausal women for cardiorespiratory functions (maximum oxygen consumption, P=0.003; and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, P=0.046). We observed no differences between groups for age, age at menopause, use of hormone therapy, body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, resting energy expenditure, and total energy intake, which are known to be potential confounders. No differences were observed for cardiorespiratory functions when our population was divided into sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic groups. Type I dynapenic women have significantly poorer cardiorespiratory functions that do nondynapenic women even if they presented the same skeletal muscle mass index. Thus, based on our results, dynapenia could potentially be used as a marker of cardiorespiratory functions. The clinical method developed to identify dynapenic women could be used by health professionals. © 2011 by The North American Menopause Society

  2. Psychometric properties of the Thai version of the work ability index (Thai WAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the Work Ability Index (WAI). Forward translation and back-translation of the WAI were performed by seven bilingual professionals to ensure that the Thai WAI was culturally relevant and conceptually accurate. To ensure generalizability of the Thai WAI, a sample of 2,744 Thai workers from 19 different enterprises in five regions of Thailand completed the Thai version of the WAI along with the General Health Questionnaire. The 19 enterprises were from the following industries: canned food, snack food, cooking oil, footwear, pharmaceutical, ceramics, toy, steel, petrochemical, and auto parts. The results from exploratory factor analysis supported a 3-factor model, accounting for 53.49% of the total variance. The results also provided evidence for adequate test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Thai WAI. The internal consistency of the Thai WAI was found to be slightly low due to the newness of the concept of work ability, which is not a common term used in the Thai language; therefore, explanation of the meaning of work ability is needed to increase understanding of workers. By providing early recognition of workers' health risks as well as risks of early termination, the WAI can help Thai human resources managers respond better to the needs of workers and be proactive in their efforts to retain workers in their organizations. Occupational health professionals could also utilize the WAI to evaluate the work ability of Thai workers in order to help organizations recognize early signs of their workers' health risks and possible early terminations and respond appropriately.

  3. Physical health correlates of pathological and healthy dependency in urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Bornstein, Robert F; Markova, Tsveti; Huprich, Steven K

    2009-10-01

    This study assessed the relationship between dependency and indicators of health/illness, healthcare costs, and utilization. Dependency ratings were obtained using the Relationship Profile Test (Bornstein and Languirand, 2003), a questionnaire that assesses healthy and pathological dependency: destructive overdependence (DO), dysfunctional detachment (DD), and healthy dependency (HD). The sample consisted of primarily low-income, African-American, and female primary care patients (N = 110). DO and DD were significantly associated with indices of increased illness, with DO evidencing slightly larger effect sizes than DD. HD was significantly (negatively) associated with 1 health/illness variable. DD and DO were associated with higher total outpatient costs with DD also being associated with average costs per visit. DO and HD were associated with utilization (increased hospital days and fewer emergency room visits, respectively). Further research is recommended to inform researchers and clinicians about the dependency-illness relationship and to develop interventions that maximize HD and minimize pathological dependency.

  4. Assessment of HNA alloimmunisation risk in Northeastern Thais, Burmese and Karen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simtong, P; Puapairoj, C; Leelayuwat, C; Santoso, S; Romphruk, A V

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine human neutrophil antigen (HNA) frequency, estimate possible HNA incompatibilities and predict the risk of HNA alloimmunisation in the Northeastern Thai, Burmese and Karen populations. Alloantibodies against HNA are implicated in a number of clinical conditions, including immune-mediated neutropenia and transfusion reactions. A total of 400 unrelated healthy Thais, 261 Burmese and 249 Karen was included in this study. DNA samples were typed for HNA-1, -3, -4 and -5 systems using polymerase chain reactions with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). In this cohort, HNA-1a was more prevalent than HNA-1b. Accordingly, the possible risk of HNA-1a alloimmunisation against HNA-1a is lower than HNA-1b (0·0802-0·1351 vs 0·2293-0·2497). This is in contrast to the situation reported in Caucasian and African populations. The predicted risk of HNA-3 incompatibility in Thais, Burmese and Karen were 28·09%, 30·66% and 22·77%, respectively. The possible risks of HNA-3a alloimmunisation were 0·0493 in Thais, 0·0608 in Burmese and 0·0196 in Karen, respectively. No individuals were found to be homozygous for HNA-4bb. The probability of developing alloantibodies against HNA-4a was low in these populations and every population in Asia. In contrast, the overall frequency of HNA-5bb homozygous individuals was high in this study, peaking at 0·192. This is the first study that reported the allele frequencies of HNA-1, -3, -4, and -5 in a large sample of healthy unrelated individuals from ethnic Thais, Burmese and Karen. Our results indicated the high possible risk of HNA-1, -3 and -5 alloimmunisation in these populations. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. Income and Subjective Well-Being: New Insights from Relatively Healthy American Women, Ages 49-79.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wyshak

    Full Text Available The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women's Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women's health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM. New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income--contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks--religion and clubs--among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists

  6. The decision making on mutual investment of thai investors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decision making on mutual investment of thai investors. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home ... The study was a research survey that used questionnaires to collect data from 400 samples of Thai investors.

  7. Genetics, Lifestyle, and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Young and Apparently Healthy Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, Jan-Willem; Rimbert, Antoine; Zhang, Xiang; Viel, Martijn; Kanninga, Roan; van Dijk, Freerk; Lansberg, Peter; Sinke, Richard; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis starts in childhood but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), a causal risk factor, is mostly studied and dealt with when clinical events have occurred. Women are usually affected later in life than men and are underdiagnosed, undertreated, and understudied in

  8. Relevance of the Thought-Shape Fusion Trait Questionnaire for healthy women and women presenting symptoms of eating disorders and mixed mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyssen, Andrea; Debbeler, Luka J; Meyer, Andrea H; Coelho, Jennifer S; Humbel, Nadine; Schuck, Kathrin; Lennertz, Julia; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Trier, Stephan N; Isenschmid, Bettina; Milos, Gabriella; Flury, Hanspeter; Schneider, Silvia; Munsch, Simone

    2018-03-23

    Thought-shape fusion (TSF) describes the experience of marked concerns about body weight/shape, feelings of fatness, the perception of weight gain, and the impression of moral wrongdoing after thinking about eating fattening/forbidden foods. This study sets out to evaluate the short version of the TSF trait questionnaire (TSF). The sample consists of 315 healthy control women, 244 women with clinical and subthreshold eating disorders, and 113 women with mixed mental disorders (mixed). The factor structure of the TSF questionnaire was examined using exploratory and subsequent confirmatory factor analyses. The questionnaire distinguishes between a Concept scale and a Clinical Impact scale. However, a lack of measurement invariances refers to significant differences between groups in terms of factor loadings, thresholds, and residuals, which questions cross-group validity. Results indicate that the concept is understood differently in the 3 groups and refers to the suitability of the questionnaire primarily for individuals presenting with symptoms of eating disorders. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Age-specific effects of estrogen receptors' polymorphisms on the bone traits in healthy fertile women: the BONTURNO study

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    Pirazzoli Antonella

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal characteristics such as height (Ht, bone mineral density (BMD or bone turnover markers are strongly inherited. Common variants in the genes encoding for estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 and beta (ESR2 are proposed as candidates for influencing bone phenotypes at the population level. Methods We studied 641 healthy premenopausal women aged 20–50 years (yrs participating into the BONTURNO study. Exclusion criteria were irregular cyclic menses, low trauma fracture, metabolic bone or chronic diseases. Serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX, osteocalcin (OC, and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP were measured in all enrolled subjects, who underwent to lumbar spine (LS, total hip (TH and femoral neck (FN BMD evaluation by DXA. Five hundred seventy Caucasian women were genotyped for ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 and ESR2 rs4986938 polymorphisms. Results Although no genotype differences were found in body parameters, subjects with combined ESR1 CCGG plus ESR2 AA-AG genotype were taller than those with opposite genotype (P = 0.044. Moreover, ESR1 rs2234693 genotypes correlated with family history of osteoporosis (FHO and hip fracture (FHF (P When clustered by age, 20–30 yrs old subjects, having at least one ESR1 rs2234693 C allele presented lower LS- (P = 0.008 and TH-BMD (P = 0.047 than TT genotypes. In 41–50 yrs age, lower FN-BMD was associated with ESR2 AA (P = 0.0180 subjects than in those with the opposite genotype. ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 and ESR2 rs4986938 polymorphisms did not correlate with age-adjusted values of OC, CTX and P1NP. Conclusion These findings support the presence of age-specific effects of ESR1 and ESR2 polymorphisms on various skeletal traits in healthy fertile women.

  10. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Renata Neves; Aveiro, Mariana Chaves; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz; Oishi, Jorge; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis. Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age); adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88); and elderly women (n = 10; 62.40 ± 2.67). Bone mineral density (BMD), degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p ≤ 0.05). The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009) and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p ≤ 0.001), and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p ≤ 0.001). The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03) and extensors (p = 0.02). This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  11. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Neves Granito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis.METHODS: Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age; adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88; and elderly women (n= 10; 62.40 ± 2.67. Bone mineral density (BMD, degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p < 0.05.RESULTS: The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009 and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p < 0.001, and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p < 0.001. The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03 and extensors (p = 0.02.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  12. The relationship between sugar-sweetened beverages and liver enzymes among healthy premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimony, Maya K; Schliep, Karen C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Ahrens, Katherine A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Rotman, Yaron; Perkins, Neil J; Pollack, Anna Z; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mumford, Sunni L

    2016-03-01

    To prospectively assess the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), added sugar, and total fructose and serum concentrations of liver enzymes among healthy, reproductive-age women. A prospective cohort of 259 premenopausal women (average age 27.3 ± 8.2 years; BMI 24.1 ± kg/m(2)) were followed up for up to two menstrual cycles, providing up to eight fasting blood specimens/cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls/cycle. Women with a history of chronic disease were excluded. Alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively) were measured in serum samples. Linear mixed models estimated associations between average SSB, added sugar, and total fructose intake and log-transformed liver enzymes adjusting for age, race, body mass index, total energy and alcohol intake, and Mediterranean diet score. For every 1 cup/day increase in SSB consumption and 10 g/day increase in added sugar and total fructose, log ALT increased by 0.079 U/L (95 % CI 0.022, 0.137), 0.012 U/L (95 % CI 0.002, 0.022), and 0.031 (0.012, 0.050), respectively, and log AST increased by 0.029 U/L (-0.011, 0.069), 0.007 U/L (0.000, 0.014), and 0.017 U/L (0.004, 0.030), respectively. Women who consumed ≥1.50 cups/day (12 oz can) SSB versus less had 0.127 U/L (95 % CI 0.001, 0.254) higher ALT [percent change 13.5 % (95 % CI 0.1, 28.9)] and 0.102 (95 % CI 0.015, 0.190) higher AST [percent change 10.8 % (95 % CI 1.5, 20.9)]. Sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with higher serum ALT and AST concentrations among healthy premenopausal women, indicating that habitual consumption of even moderate SSB may elicit hepatic lipogenesis.

  13. Interleukins 6 and 8 and abdominal fat depots are distinct correlates of lipid moieties in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Johannes D; Dyer, Roy B; Trushin, Sergey A; Bondar, Olga P; Singh, Ravinder J; Klee, George G

    2016-12-01

    Available data associate lipids concentrations in men with body mass index, anabolic steroids, age, and certain cytokines. Data were less clear in women, especially across the full adult lifespan, and when segmented by premenopausal and postmenopausal status. 120 healthy women (60 premenopausal and 60 postmenopausal) in Olmsted County, MN, USA, a stable well studied clinical population. Dependent variables: measurements of 10 h fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. testosterone, estrone, estradiol, 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, and sex-hormone binding globulin (by mass spectrometry); insulin, glucose, and albumin; abdominal visceral, subcutaneous, and total abdominal fat [abdominal visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, total abdominal fat by computerized tomography scan]; and a panel of cytokines (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Multivariate forward-selection linear-regression analysis was applied constrained to P abdominal visceral fat (P abdominal visceral fat (P abdominal fat and interleukin-8 (P = 2.0 × 10 -5 , 16.9 % of variance; and P = 0.0031, 9.4 % of variance, respectively). Premenopausal vs. postmenopausal comparisons identified specific relationships that were stronger in premenopausal than postmenopausal individuals, and vice versa. Age was a stronger correlate of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; interleukin-6 of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein; and both sex-hormone binding globulin and total abdominal fat of non high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in premenopausal than postmenopausal women. Conversely, sex-hormone binding globulin, abdominal visceral fat, interleukin-8, adiponectin were stronger correlates of triglycerides; abdominal visceral fat, and testosterone of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and age of both non high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein in postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Our data

  14. The dementia and disability project in Thai elderly: rational, design, methodology and early results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senanarong Vorapun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong inverse relationship of functional limitation and socioeconomic status has been established in western ageing society. Functional limitation can be related to chronic diseases, disuse, cognitive decline, and ageing. Among chronic diseases in the Thai population, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and arthritis are common. These factors are known to contribute to disability and poor quality of life in the elder population. Neuropsychiatric problems, cognitive decline, dementia, and cultural issues in elderly people also can alter the quality of life of the elderly. Methods The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly (DDP aims at comprehensively assessing community dwelling Thai elderly to understand the relationship between disability and motor function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and chronic diseases. The DDP is the first study to look at the prevalence and etiology of dementia and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI in Thai elders and to explore the relationship of cognition, disability, small vessel diseases and cortical degeneration with neuroimaging in Thai elderly people. 1998 Thai elders were screened in 2004–2006 and diagnosed as having MCI or dementia. 223 elders with MCI or dementia and cognitively normal elderly had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or at baseline. 319 elders from the 3 groups had blood tests to investigate the risks and possible etiologies of dementia including genotyping at baseline. Results The mean age of elders in this study is 69.51(SD=6.71, min=60, max=95 years. 689(34.9% are men and 1284(65.1% are women. Mean body weight was 58.36(SD=11.20 kgs. The regression model reveals that performance on gait and balance and serum triglyceride predicts activity of daily living performance (adjusted r2 = 0.280, f=2.644, p=0.003. The majority of abnormal gait in Thai elders was lower level gait disturbance. Only 1.5% (29/1952 had highest level gait disorders. 39

  15. The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly: rational, design, methodology and early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanarong, Vorapun; Harnphadungkit, Kamolthip; Poungvarin, Niphon; Vannasaeng, Sathit; Chongwisal, Samut; Chakorn, Tipa; Jamjumrus, Piyanuch; Raksthaput, Atthapon; Chaichanettee, Sinisa; Aoonkaew, Nattapol; Udompunthurak, Suthipol; Doody, Rachelle S; Cummings, Jeffrey L

    2013-01-10

    A strong inverse relationship of functional limitation and socioeconomic status has been established in western ageing society. Functional limitation can be related to chronic diseases, disuse, cognitive decline, and ageing. Among chronic diseases in the Thai population, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and arthritis are common. These factors are known to contribute to disability and poor quality of life in the elder population. Neuropsychiatric problems, cognitive decline, dementia, and cultural issues in elderly people also can alter the quality of life of the elderly. The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly (DDP) aims at comprehensively assessing community dwelling Thai elderly to understand the relationship between disability and motor function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and chronic diseases. The DDP is the first study to look at the prevalence and etiology of dementia and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Thai elders and to explore the relationship of cognition, disability, small vessel diseases and cortical degeneration with neuroimaging in Thai elderly people. 1998 Thai elders were screened in 2004-2006 and diagnosed as having MCI or dementia. 223 elders with MCI or dementia and cognitively normal elderly had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or at baseline. 319 elders from the 3 groups had blood tests to investigate the risks and possible etiologies of dementia including genotyping at baseline. The mean age of elders in this study is 69.51(SD=6.71, min=60, max=95) years. 689(34.9%) are men and 1284(65.1%) are women. Mean body weight was 58.36(SD=11.20) kgs. The regression model reveals that performance on gait and balance and serum triglyceride predicts activity of daily living performance (adjusted r2 = 0.280, f=2.644, p=0.003). The majority of abnormal gait in Thai elders was lower level gait disturbance. Only 1.5% (29/1952) had highest level gait disorders. 39.5% of 1964 subjects were free of chronic diseases

  16. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição MS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Soares Conceição,1 Valéria Bonganha,1 Felipe Cassaro Vechin,2 Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton,1 Manoel Emílio Lixandrão,1 Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira,1 Giovana Vergínia de Souza,1 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil,1 Cleiton Augusto Libardi2 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 2Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptation to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg. In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8–10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162. Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001, and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%, reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75% and noticeable increases in

  17. Systematic review of the potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikoff, Daniele; Welsh, Brian T; Henderson, Rayetta; Brorby, Gregory P; Britt, Janice; Myers, Esther; Goldberger, Jeffrey; Lieberman, Harris R; O'Brien, Charles; Peck, Jennifer; Tenenbein, Milton; Weaver, Connie; Harvey, Seneca; Urban, Jonathan; Doepker, Candace

    2017-11-01

    To date, one of the most heavily cited assessments of caffeine safety in the peer-reviewed literature is that issued by Health Canada (Nawrot et al., 2003). Since then, >10,000 papers have been published related to caffeine, including hundreds of reviews on specific human health effects; however, to date, none have compared the wide range of topics evaluated by Nawrot et al. (2003). Thus, as an update to this foundational publication, we conducted a systematic review of data on potential adverse effects of caffeine published from 2001 to June 2015. Subject matter experts and research team participants developed five PECO (population, exposure, comparator, and outcome) questions to address five types of outcomes (acute toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, bone and calcium effects, behavior, and development and reproduction) in four healthy populations (adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children) relative to caffeine intake doses determined not to be associated with adverse effects by Health Canada (comparators: 400 mg/day for adults [10 g for lethality], 300 mg/day for pregnant women, and 2.5 mg/kg/day for children and adolescents). The a priori search strategy identified >5000 articles that were screened, with 381 meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria for the five outcomes (pharmacokinetics was addressed contextually, adding 46 more studies). Data were extracted by the research team and rated for risk of bias and indirectness (internal and external validity). Selected no- and low-effect intakes were assessed relative to the population-specific comparator. Conclusions were drawn for the body of evidence for each outcome, as well as endpoints within an outcome, using a weight of evidence approach. When the total body of evidence was evaluated and when study quality, consistency, level of adversity, and magnitude of response were considered, the evidence generally supports that consumption of up to 400 mg caffeine/day in healthy adults is not associated

  18. Comparison of Static Force Sense of Knee Extension between Women with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome and Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Salah-Zadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Patellofemoaral pain syndrome (PFPS is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Proprioception is important factor in neuromuscular control. Others studies showed that, because of pain and abnormal stresses on soft tissue around joint and Proprioception may be change in these patients. The aim of this study was investigation of sense of quadriceps muscle force accuracy in patients with PFPS. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional and case –control study, thirty four young women with and without PFPS were participated. Biodex isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure isometric torque and sense of quadriceps static force. Force matching with ipsilateral limb was used by determining of reference force levels (20 and 60% of maximal voluntary isometric force (MVIF in 20 and 60 degree of knee flexion and attempting to perception and reproduction of target forces .Absolute error (AE, constant error (CE and variability error (VE were calculated for evaluation sense of force accuracy. Data were analyzed by independent T test and Logistics Regression. Results: There was statistically difference in force reproduction error in 60 degree and 60% MVIF between two groups (P<0.005. Sense of force errors were high in patient group. Conclusion: The results confirmed the past studies and showed that proprioception may be altered in PFPS patients because of changes proprioception afferents, specially for quadriceps muscle receptors.

  19. Establishing Validity of the Thai Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, Gabriel; Jackson, Jack L., II.; Panarach, Yupadee

    2016-01-01

    This article presents our work in translating the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MTEBI) from English to Thai and our resulting investigation of validity with Thai preservice teachers. The translation process occurred over several meetings between two U.S. mathematics educators and one Thai mathematics educator. To check for…

  20. Cognitive differences between men and women: a comparison of patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Longenecker, Julia; Dickinson, Dwight; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Elvevåg, Brita

    2010-01-01

    Gender modulates cognition such that women display advantages in certain domains while men excel in others tasks. Similar patterns have been seen in patients with schizophrenia. We derived six cognitive factor domain scores from a cognitive battery and examined gender-based cognitive differences in patients with schizophrenia and controls. There were strikingly different effects of gender in patients as compared to controls. The large sample size and broad range of tests in our study add impo...

  1. A standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention for healthy pregnant women. A qualitative feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Katballe, Malene; Hansson, Helena; Tabor, Ann; Damm, Peter; Hegaard, Hanne K

    2014-12-01

    Low back pain during pregnancy is common and associated with sick leave. Studies suggest that exercise may reduce low back pain during pregnancy. Before carrying out a randomised controlled trail with individual water exercise as intervention a qualitative feasibility study was done. To explore women's views and experiences of the acceptability and benefits of and possible barriers to the standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention. Eleven women were interviewed after participating in a water exercise intervention. Content analysis was used. Four main categories emerged: motivation to participate, attitudes towards the exercise programme, perception of benefits, and acceptability of supportive components. The women had a desire to stay physically active during pregnancy and found water exercise a suitable, type of exercise to perform during pregnancy. The intervention was experienced to have benefits on both their physical health and their mental well-being. Crowded swimming pools were perceived as the greatest barrier. It is feasible to perform a RCT using the described intervention. The intervention was accepted by the participants because it supported their desire to be physically active during pregnancy. The main barrier was crowded swimming pools and this issue must be addressed in a future RCT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors influencing maternal distress among Dutch women with a healthy pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontein-Kuipers, Yvonne; Ausems, Marlein; Budé, Luc; Van Limbeek, Evelien; De Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    Maternal distress is a public health concern. Assessment of emotional wellbeing is not integrated in Dutch antenatal care. Midwives need to understand the influencing factors in order to identify women who are more vulnerable to experience maternal distress. To examine levels of maternal distress during pregnancy and to determine the relationship between maternal distress and aetiological factors. A cross-sectional study including 458 Dutch-speaking women with uncomplicated pregnancies during all trimesters of pregnancy. Data were collected with questionnaires between 10 September and 6 November 2012. Demographic characteristics and personal details were obtained. Maternal distress was measured with the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ). Behaviour was measured with Coping Operations Preference Enquiry-Easy (COPE-Easy). Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression analysis were used. Just over 20 percent of the women in our sample (21.8%) had a heightened score on one or more of the EDS, STAI or PRAQ. History of psychological problems (B=1.071; p=.001), having young children (B=2.998; p=.001), daily stressors (B=1.304; p=birth (B=.636; p=order to give adequate advice about how to best cope with this condition. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypotensive response after water-walking and land-walking exercise sessions in healthy trained and untrained women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocalini DS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Rodriguez1, Valter Silva2, Jonato Prestes3, Roberta Luksevicius Rica4, Andrey Jorge Serra5, Danilo Sales Bocalini6, Francisco Luciano Pontes Junior71São Judas Tadeu University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2College of Physical Education of Sorocaba, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil; 3Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia-DF, Brazil; 4Department of Physical Education, Arbos College, São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil; 5Department of Physical Education and Laboratory of Rehabilitation Science, Nove de Julho University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 6Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo – Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 7School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BrazilBackground: The aim of this study was to compare post-exercise hypotension after acute sessions of water-walking and land-walking in healthy trained and untrained women.Methods: Twenty-three untrained (n = 12 and trained (n = 11 normotensive women performed two walking sessions in water and on land at 40% of peak VO2 for 45 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were measured 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the exercise sessions.Results: No differences were found between the groups for age and anthropometric parameters, but peak VO2 for the trained women (45 ± 8 mL/kg/minute was higher than for the untrained women (31 ± 3 mL/kg/minute. No differences were found between the groups with regard to systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure after water immersion. The heart rate in the trained group (62 ± 3 beats per minute [bpm] was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than in the untrained group (72 ± 4 bpm on land, and after water immersion, this difference disappeared (58 ± 5 bpm in the trained women and 66 ± 5 bpm in the untrained women. Sixty minutes after water-walking, systolic blood pressure (108 ± 8 mmHg vs

  4. Reliability and validity of migraine disability assessment questionnaire-Thai version (Thai-MIDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethong, Piman; Nimmannit, Akarin; Chaisewikul, Rungsan; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn; Chotinaiwattarakul, Wattanachai

    2013-02-01

    To assess the validity and test-retest reliability of a Thai translation of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) Questionnaire in Thai patients with migraine. Migraineurs from the Headache Clinic in Siriraj Hospital were recruited and asked to complete a 13-weeks diary and answered the Thai-MIDAS at once. Some participants were asked to provide the 2nd Thai-MIDAS in the next 2 weeks for test-retest reliability. Ninety-three patients had completed the 13-weeks diaries. Age range was 18-58 years with mean 37.69 +/- 9.60 years. All 5 items and the total score of Thai-MIDAS were moderately correlated with data from 13-weeks diary (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.32-0.62). The test-retest reliability of the total score of Thai-MIDAS in 30 patients demonstrated a highly reliable degree of intraclass correlation (ICC = 0.76, 95% CI 0.49-0.88). The present study reveals that the Thai-MIDAS has satisfactory validity and reliability in comparison with the original English MIDAS version.

  5. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire: psychometric properties of Thai language versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanglakmankhong, Kamonthip; Perrin, Nancy A; Lowe, Nancy K

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report of the psychometric properties of the Thai language versions of the Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire, and the equivalence of the Thai and English versions of these instruments. The Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire were developed to measure women's abilities to cope with labour and fear of childbirth. Consistent with Bandura's Self-Efficacy Theory, women who have greater confidence in their ability to cope with labour have reported having less fear in childbirth. However, research is needed to validate the measures and this relationship in countries other than the United States of America, where the tools were developed. Back-translation was used. Content validity was examined by experts. The psychometric properties were estimated with internal consistency reliability, construct validity, contrasted groups and criterion-related validity with 148 pregnant women at a hospital in Thailand in 2008. Both measures were shown to have high internal consistency. Contrasting group and criterion-related validity were consistent with self-efficacy theory and findings in the United States. Differences between the stages of labour across expectancies in the Childbirth Self-Efficacy inventory were found only for second stage. Support for good validity and reliability of the instruments when used with Thai women was demonstrated. It may be appropriate for Thai women to use The Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory only in relation to the second stage of labour. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Does a healthy lifestyle behaviour influence the prognosis of low back pain among men and women in a general population? A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Tony; Alfredsson, Lars; Jensen, Irene; Hallqvist, Johan; Vingård, Eva; Skillgate, Eva

    2014-12-30

    To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18-84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. Lifestyle factors and potential confounders were assessed at baseline. The lifestyle factors smoking habits, alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity and consumption of fruit and vegetables were dichotomised using recommendations for a health-enhancing lifestyle and combined to form the exposure variable 'healthy lifestyle behaviour'. The exposure was categorised into five levels according to the number of healthy lifestyle factors met. The follow-up questionnaire in 2010 gave information about the outcome, long duration troublesome low back pain. Crude and adjusted binomial regression models were applied to estimate the association between the exposure and the outcome analysing men and women separately. The risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain decreased with increasing healthy lifestyle behaviour (trend test: p=0.006). 21% (28/131) among women with no healthy lifestyle factor (reference) experienced the outcome compared to 9% (36/420) among women with all four factors. Compared to the reference group, the risk was reduced by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96) for women with one healthy lifestyle factor and 52% (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77) for women with all four healthy lifestyle factors. There were no clear associations found among men. Healthy lifestyle behaviour seems to decrease the risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain and may be recommended to improve the prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  8. Validation of the Thai version of Bergen Facebook addiction scale (Thai-BFAS). .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanasathit, Muthita; Manwong, Mereerat; Hanprathet, Nitt; Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee

    2015-03-01

    To determine the validity ofthe Thai version ofthe Bergen FacebookAddiction Scale (Thai-BFAS) using Facebook addiction screening in Thai high school students. The original BFAS was authorized for translation and validation in Thai. After content validity and usability were approved by three Thai psychiatrists, the Thai-BFAS was adjusted again by the authors and back translated by an English expert. Thisfinal version was investigated using the internal consistency method among 874 high schools students in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani and Songkhla, and confirmatoy factor analysis (CFA) was employed to prove that the six-component model could be representative of addiction behaviors. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed separately among 30 pilot high school students in Bangkok. The Thai-BFAS has six items, which are each scored on a 5-point scale with total score ranges from 0 to 24; the cutoff score for Facebook addition stands at least 12 points. The Cronbach s alpha coefficient was 0.91 (95% CI; 0.90, 0.92) and the inter-class correlation coefficient was 0.80 (95% CI; 0.49, 0.92). The CFA showed that the six items accurately represent the six-component model of addiction such as salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, relapse and conflict. The Thai-BFAS is consistent as a screening testfor Facebook addiction among high school students due to good reliability and validity. It also conforms well to the original version. The six items in the Thai-BFAS are a good representation of the addiction behaviors. Further studies should be undertaken in cases of sensitivity and specificity when compared with other similar tests of addiction as well as in various additional populations and circumstances.

  9. An Investigation into Aspects of Thai Culture and Its Impact on Thai Students in an International School in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveney, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This article describes research undertaken to investigate aspects of Thai culture and its effects on Thai students in an international school in Thailand. Using a variety of data gathering methods, the investigation looks at how Thai culture manifests itself in the classroom in the form of student behaviour and attitudes. The research also…

  10. Cost-effectiveness of healthy eating and/or physical activity promotion in pregnant women at increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; Simmons, David; Devlieger, Roland

    2018-01-01

    for pregnant women at increased risk for GDM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the healthy eating and/or physical activity promotion intervention compared to usual care among pregnant women at increased risk of GDM from a societal perspective. Methods: An economic evaluation...... was performed alongside a European multicenter-randomized controlled trial. A total of 435 pregnant women at increased risk of GDM in primary and secondary care settings in nine European countries, were recruited and randomly allocated to a healthy eating and physical activity promotion intervention (HE + PA...... intervention), a healthy eating promotion intervention (HE intervention), or a physical activity promotion intervention (PA intervention). Main outcome measures were gestational weight gain, fasting glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and societal costs. Results: Between...

  11. Whole-Body Vibration Does Not Seem to Affect Postural Control in Healthy Active Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. C. Gomes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigated the acute residual effects induced by different frequencies of whole-body vibration (WBV on postural control of elderly women. Design. Thirty physically active elderly women (67±5 years were randomly divided into three groups: two experimental groups (high WBV frequency: 45 Hz and 4 mm amplitude, n=10; low WBV frequency: 30 Hz and 4 mm amplitude, n=10 and one control group (n=10, with no treatment. The participants were first subjected to stabilometry tests and were then guided through three sets of isometric partial squats for 60 s while the WBV stimulation was applied. The control group was subjected to the same conditions but without the WBV stimulation. The participants were again subjected to body balance tests immediately following the end of the intervention period and again at 8, 16, and 24 min. To measure body sway control, three 60 s tests were performed at 10 s intervals for each of the following experimental conditions: (1 eyes opened and (2 eyes closed. The following variables were investigated: the average velocity of the displacement of the centre of pressure in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral planes as well as in the elliptical area. Results. A 3 (condition × 5 (test two-way repeated-measures ANOVA did not identify significant differences in the stabilometric variables, regardless of group, time, or experimental condition. Conclusions. The effect of WBV, regardless of the stimulation frequency, did not have a significant effect immediately after or up to 24 minutes after vibration cessation, on the variables involved in the control of postural stability in physically active elderly women.

  12. Changes in metabolic correlates of personality traits in healthy elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Personality traits are generally known to be stable, although the brain changes with aging. Especially women experience striking alterations in the neuroendocrinergic system at menopause, which may cause considerable changes in personality traits and alter their underlying neural substrates. To investigate changes in the neural substrates underlying personality traits, we investigated metabolic correlates of personality traits in women before and after menopause. We obtained FDG PET images from 13 young (24.0±3.1 y) and 11 elderly females (66.8±3.3 y). Three factors of personality traits (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Characteristic Inventory. Three ANCOVA maps were created in SPM2 (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100), each constructed to assess the metabolic correlates of each temperament factor. In young females NS scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right insula and right cingulate; in elderly females, the right cuneus. In young females HA scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right lingual gyrus; in elderly females, the left anterior cingulate and bilateral hippocampus. Only in elderly females, HA scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right orbital gyrus and bilateral frontal gyri. In young females, RD scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the bilateral frontal gyri and bilateral cingulate; in elderly females, the right middle frontal gyrus. In young females, RD scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right precuneus; in elderly females, the left insula. We found that neural substrates underlying personality traits in females were dissociable across young and elderly women. These results may provide better understanding of differential prevalence and susceptibility to psychiatric illnesses in young and elderly females

  13. Changes in metabolic correlates of personality traits in healthy elderly women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Personality traits are generally known to be stable, although the brain changes with aging. Especially women experience striking alterations in the neuroendocrinergic system at menopause, which may cause considerable changes in personality traits and alter their underlying neural substrates. To investigate changes in the neural substrates underlying personality traits, we investigated metabolic correlates of personality traits in women before and after menopause. We obtained FDG PET images from 13 young (24.0{+-}3.1 y) and 11 elderly females (66.8{+-}3.3 y). Three factors of personality traits (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Characteristic Inventory. Three ANCOVA maps were created in SPM2 (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100), each constructed to assess the metabolic correlates of each temperament factor. In young females NS scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right insula and right cingulate; in elderly females, the right cuneus. In young females HA scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right lingual gyrus; in elderly females, the left anterior cingulate and bilateral hippocampus. Only in elderly females, HA scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right orbital gyrus and bilateral frontal gyri. In young females, RD scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the bilateral frontal gyri and bilateral cingulate; in elderly females, the right middle frontal gyrus. In young females, RD scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right precuneus; in elderly females, the left insula. We found that neural substrates underlying personality traits in females were dissociable across young and elderly women. These results may provide better understanding of differential prevalence and susceptibility to psychiatric illnesses in young and elderly females.

  14. Vertebral fracture prevalence among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women: association with demographics, anthropometric parameters, and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Flokatoula, Maria; Armeni, Eleni; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Augoulea, Areti; Antoniou, Aris; Alexandrou, Andreas; Creatsa, Maria; Panoulis, Constantinos; Dendrinos, Spyridon; Papacharalambous, Xenofon

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of skeletal fractures shows a marked geographic variability; however, data regarding the Greek population remain limited. To evaluate the frequency of asymptomatic vertebral fractures (VFs), and potential risk factors, in a large sample of Greek postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study at the University Menopause Clinic. Four hundred fifty-four postmenopausal women aged 35 to 80 years, with an average menopausal age of 9.2±7.1 years. They included medical history, anthropometric and biochemical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), and LS lateral radiographs. Lumbar spine lateral radiographs were evaluated according to quantitative procedures, aiming to identify VFs. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters and values of BMD were compared according to the presence of VFs. A total of 37 (8.15%) women had at least one VF. Lumbar spine and FN-osteoporosis was identified in up to 23.1% and 40.9% subjects with prevalent VFs, respectively. The prevalence of VFs was largely associated with age, with women aged 60 years or more presenting an up to fourfold risk compared with younger women. Moreover, the presence of VFs was associated with higher menopausal age, advanced age at menarche, a history of early menopause, and prolonged lactation. Lower LS-BMD and, especially, FN-BMD were negatively associated with VF prevalence (prevalent VF vs. no VF: LS-BMD, 0.89±0.16 g/cm(2) vs. 0.98±0.16 g/cm(2), p=.010; FN-BMD, 0.72±0.10 g/cm(2) vs. 0.81±0.12 g/cm(2), p=.008). Asymptomatic VFs are common among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women. More than 50% subjects with prevalent VFs present with normal BMD or osteopenia. Age and bone density classification at the FN presented the strongest association with the prevalence of VFs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin D status in relation to obesity, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and vitamin D receptor genotypes in healthy Saudi pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardawi, M-S M; Qari, M H; Rouzi, A A; Maimani, A A; Raddadi, R M

    2011-02-01

    The various factors that may contribute to vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency were examined among healthy Saudi pre- and postmenopausal women. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent among studied Saudi women with obesity, poor sunlight exposure, poor dietary vitamin D supplementation and age as the main risk factors. The various factors that may contribute to vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in relation to bone health among Saudi women are not known. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the factors influencing vitamin D status in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone turnover markers (BTMs), bone mineral density (BMD), and vitamin D receptor genotype (VDR) in healthy Saudi pre- and postmenopausal women. A total number of 1,172 healthy Saudi women living in the Jeddah area were randomly selected and studied. Anthropometric parameters, socioeconomic status, sun exposure index together with serum levels of 25(OH)D, calcitriol, intact PTH, Ca, PO4, Mg, creatinine, albumin, and biochemical BTMs were measured. BMD was measured by a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and VDR genotypes were also determined. About 80.0% of Saudi women studied exhibited vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D75 nmol/L). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was evident in 18.5% and 24.6% in pre- and postmenopausal women with 25(OH)Dobesity, poor exposure to sunlight, poor dietary vitamin D supplementation, and age.

  16. Healthy foods prepared at home: Diet and support as protective strategies during pregnancy for Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Allison L; Yeoman, Michelle; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Birth outcomes tend to be better among Hispanics than among other ethnic groups, even when matched for poverty and education, and foreign-born Latinas compared to their US-born counterparts. These patterns suggest that sociocultural factors exhibited by recent immigrants have the potential to protect birth outcomes against the instability of minority and low socioeconomic status. To discover potential sociocultural factors, a pilot qualitative study was carried out in Tucson, Arizona, with 18 Hispanic mothers. The two most prevalent factors reported were (1) a healthy diet prepared at home from minimally processed ingredients, and (2) constant and comprehensive social support. When comparing responses related to diet by interview language preference, a proxy for acculturation, there was very little difference between participants who interviewed in Spanish and those who interviewed in English. This result may be explained by greater maternal social support and higher education levels among those who interviewed in English.

  17. The dynamic pressure response to rapid dilatation of the resting urethra in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Thind, P; Colstrup, H

    1993-01-01

    beta e-t/tau beta, where Pequ, P alpha and P beta are constants, and tau alpha and tau beta are time constants; this equation has previously been demonstrated to describe the pressure decay following dilatation. On the basis of a theoretical model the elastic and viscous constants for the urethral......The urethral pressure response to a sudden forced dilatation was studied at the bladder neck, in the high-pressure zone and in the distal urethra in ten healthy female volunteers. The pressure response was fitted with a double exponential function of the form Pt = Pequ + P alpha e-t/tau alpha + P...... a detailed assessment of static and dynamic urethral responses to dilatation which can be applied as an experimental simulation of urine ingression, and is therefore presumed to be of value in the evaluation of normal and pathological urethral sphincter function....

  18. Toxocara seroprevalence among clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients and associated risk factors in Shandong Province, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection.Seroprevalence of Toxocara was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Qingdao and Weihai, Shandong Province, eastern China. Factors potentially associated with Toxocara infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence among the study population (n = 2866 was 12.25%, and a significantly higher seroprevalence in psychiatric patients (16.40%, 73/445 than that in clinically healthy individuals (13.07%, 187/1431 and pregnant women (9.19%, 91/990 was revealed. Univariate analyses suggested that keeping dogs at home (OR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.05-0.08, P<0.001, contact with cats and dogs (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.53, P<0.001 and exposure with soil (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.49, P<0.001 were risk factors associated with Toxocara infection.The present study revealed, for the first time, that human infection with Toxocara is common in eastern China, posing a significant public health concern. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change all will serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. Further studies under controlled conditions are necessary to define potential

  19. Interrelationships of spontaneous growth hormone axis activity, body fat, and serum lipids in healthy elderly women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R

    1999-11-01

    Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL in women (P body fat or lipid measures, except for a positive correlation of IGF-I with triglycerides in men. Thus, endogenous nocturnal GH secretion predicts total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels independently of total or abdominal fat, suggesting that it is an independent cardiometabolic risk factor in healthy elderly people.

  20. Whole body creatine and protein kinetics in healthy men and women: effects of creatine and amino acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, Satish C; Gruca, Lourdes; Marczewski, Susan; Bennett, Carole; Kummitha, China

    2016-03-01

    Creatine kinetics were measured in young healthy subjects, eight males and seven females, age 20-30 years, after an overnight fast on creatine-free diet. Whole body turnover of glycine and its appearance in creatine was quantified using [1-(13)C] glycine and the rate of protein turnover was quantified using L-ring [(2)H5] phenylalanine. The creatine pool size was estimated by the dilution of a bolus [C(2)H3] creatine. Studies were repeated following a five days supplement creatine 21 g.day(-1) and following supplement amino acids 14.3 g day(-1). Creatine caused a ten-fold increase in the plasma concentration of creatine and a 50 % decrease in the concentration of guanidinoacetic acid. Plasma amino acids profile showed a significant decrease in glycine, glutamine, and taurine and a significant increase in citrulline, valine, lysine, and cysteine. There was a significant decrease in the rate of appearance of glycine, suggesting a decrease in de-novo synthesis (p = 0.006). The fractional and absolute rate of synthesis of creatine was significantly decreased by supplemental creatine. Amino acid supplement had no impact on any of the parameters. This is the first detailed analysis of creatine kinetics and the effects of creatine supplement in healthy young men and women. These methods can be applied for the analysis of creatine kinetics in different physiological states.

  1. Diet quality and six-year risk of overweight and obesity among mid-age Australian women who were initially in the healthy weight range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadani, Haya M; Patterson, Amanda J; Sibbritt, David; Collins, Clare E

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed The present study investigated the association between diet quality, measured using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), and 6-year risk of becoming overweight or obese in mid-age women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). Methods Women (n=1107) aged 47.6-55.8 years who were a healthy weight (body mass index (BMI) between ≤18.5 and healthy weight range and those who became overweight or obese at follow-up was 35.3±8.1 and 34.3±8.8, respectively. There was no relationship between baseline ARFS and risk of becoming overweight or obese over 6 years. Women who were smokers were more likely to become overweight or obese (odds ratio 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.11-2.09; P=0.008). Conclusions Poor diet quality was common among mid-age women of a healthy weight in the ALSWH. Higher diet quality was not associated with the risk of overweight or obesity after 6 years, yet smoking status was. So what? Better diet quality alone will not achieve maintenance of a healthy weight, but should be encouraged to improve other health outcomes.

  2. Isometric Back Exercise Has Different Effect on Pressure Pain Thresholds in Healthy Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajsar, Hannah; Titze, Christina; Hasenbring, Monika Ilona

    2017-01-01

    .07). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this pilot study indicate that isometric back exercise produces local and remote hypoalgesia. Remote EIH was only demonstrated in women, supporting the influence of sex in the hypoalgesic response after exercise. The effect of isometric back exercise on pain sensitivity in patients......OBJECTIVE: Isometric exercises produce an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity, known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). Existing EIH paradigms use exercises at the extremities with more pronounced EIH at local compared to remote body sites, indicating local inhibition in addition to central...... inhibitory mechanisms. So far the results on EIH in patients with low back pain (LBP) are equivocal and no studies have investigated an EIH paradigm targeting the lower back in order to assess EIH in patients with LBP. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess pressure pain sensitivity at local...

  3. Healthy Aging in Older Women Living with HIV Infection: a Systematic Review of Psychosocial Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsova, Anna A; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Taylor, Tonya N; Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Wingood, Gina M; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    2017-02-01

    Due to life-enhancing effects of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-positive persons have the potential for long life comparable to their uninfected peers. Older women (age 50+) living with HIV (OWLH) are often an under-recognized aging group. We conducted a systematic review to examine psychosocial factors that impact how OWLH live, cope, and age with HIV. Initial key word search yielded 1527 records, and 21 studies met our inclusion criteria of original quantitative or qualitative research published between 2013 and 2016 with results specific to OWLH. These focused on health care and self-management, sexual health and risk, stigma, loneliness, mental health (depression, substance use), and protective factors (coping, social support, well-being). Due to the scarcity of studies on each topic and inconclusive findings, no clear patterns of results emerged. As the number of OWLH continues to grow, more research, including longitudinal studies, is needed to fully characterize the psychosocial factors that impact aging with HIV.

  4. Biochemical and Anthropometric Effects of a Weight Loss Dietary Supplement in Healthy Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron G. McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background We have recently noted an acute increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol, as well as resting metabolic rate, when men and women ingested the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ in a single dose. We have also noted a reduction in appetite when subjects were treated with this supplement for 14 consecutive days. It is possible that such findings may favor body weight and fat loss over time. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of this dietary supplement on weight loss and associated markers using an eight week intervention. Methods Exercise-trained subjects were randomly assigned in double blind manner to ingest either the dietary supplement (n = 16; aged 22.8 ± 0.7 or a placebo (n = 16; 22.5 ± 0.5 every day for eight weeks. Body weight, body composition, skinfold thickness, serum lipids, and appetite were measured as the primary outcome variables. As measures of supplement safety, a complete blood count and comprehensive metabolic panel were performed, and resting heart rate and blood pressure were measured (pre and post intervention. Results No interactions or main effects were noted for our primary outcome measures ( P > 0.05. However, when comparing pre and post intervention values for the supplement, significant decreases were noted in appetite, body weight, body fat percentage, and skinfold thickness ( P 0.05, with the exception of an increase in HDL-C ( P 0.05, with the exception of monocytes, for which an interaction effect was noted ( P = 0.04. Conclusion These data indicate that the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ may assist in weight and body fat loss in a sample of exercise-trained men and women. The supplement does not result in any adverse effects pertaining to resting blood pressure or bloodborne markers of safety; however a small increase in resting heart rate is observed.

  5. Can decision-making skills affect responses to psychological stress in healthy women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Garcia-Rios, M Carmen; Fernandez-Sanchez, José Carlos; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2012-12-01

    In recent studies showing how stress can affect an individual's decision-making process, the cognitive component of decision-making could also be considered a coping resource available to individuals when faced with a stressful situation. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) constitutes the standard test for the assessment of decision-making skills under conditions of uncertainty. Responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to psychosocial stress, in turn, have been estimated by means of cortisol measurements. Our main objective in this study was to test if good and bad IGT performers show distinct HPA axis responses, when challenged in a classic psychosocial stress test. Because women have been shown to outperform men on the IGT under the influence of psychosocial stress, we chose a sample of 40 women to take the IGT before they were exposed to a public speaking task in a virtual environment. The activation of the HPA axis, involved in the stress response, was assessed by examining the levels of cortisol in the subjects' saliva at the following four stages: before the challenge, after the challenge, and 10 and 20 min after the task. Participants were divided into two groups according to their level of performance, good or poor, on the IGT. Results showed statistically significant differences between the groups for pre-exposure cortisol levels and for cortisol levels 20 min after exposure. Overall cortisol levels were significantly higher in the group with poor performance on the IGT. It appears that good decision-making, which may be an important resource for coping with stress, is associated with a lower HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Beneficial metabolic effects of regular meal frequency on dietary thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and fasting lipid profiles in healthy obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, Hamid R; Taylor, Moira A; Macdonald, Ian A

    2005-01-01

    Although a regular meal pattern is recommended for obese people, its effects on energy metabolism have not been examined. We investigated whether a regular meal frequency affects energy intake (EI), energy expenditure, or circulating insulin, glucose, and lipid concentrations in healthy obese women. Ten women [x +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 37.1 +/- 4.8] participated in a randomized crossover trial. In phase 1 (14 d), the subjects consumed their normal diet on 6 occasions/d (regular meal pattern) or followed a variable meal frequency (3-9 meals/d, irregular meal pattern). In phase 2 (14 d), the subjects followed the alternative pattern. At the start and end of each phase, a test meal was fed, and blood glucose, lipid, and insulin concentrations were determined before and for 3 h after (glucose and insulin only) the test meal. Subjects recorded their food intake on 3 d during each phase. The thermogenic response to the test meal was ascertained by indirect calorimetry. Regular eating was associated with lower EI (P thermogenesis (P meal pattern, but peak insulin concentrations and area under the curve of insulin responses to the test meal were lower after the regular than after the irregular meal pattern (P thermogenesis.

  7. The effect of shoe type on static and dynamic balance during treadmill walking in young healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Kong, Byung-Sun; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of various shoes on the static and dynamic balance of young women in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 15 healthy young women and repeated measured design. The subjects walked on the treadmill at a speed of 4 km/h for 30 minutes wearing three types of shoes: sneaker, rain boots, and combat boots. Balance was measured by a Romberg test and a limits of stability test. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. [Results] As the results of the Romberg test, the main effect of time was shown in the EO-COG area, EO-COG length, and EO-COG velocity. As the results of the limits of stability test, the main effects of time in LT, RT, FW, and total. There were significant differences in the LT in the sneaker group, the rain boots group, and the LT and RT in the combat boots group between the pre- and post-test. [Conclusion] The characteristics of shoes such as the materials, hardness, and thickness of the soles, the coefficient of friction of the outsoles, and the collar height affected the static and dynamic balance.

  8. Health/Service Providers' Perspectives on Barriers to Healthy Weight Gain and Physical Activity in Pregnant, Urban First Nations Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Francine E; Giles, Audrey R

    2016-