McGuire Annabel CL
Full Text Available Abstract Background Death rates in military populations outside of combat are often lower than those in the general population. This study considers how this "healthy soldier effect" changes over time. Methods Standardized mortality ratios were used to compare changes in death rates relative to the Australian population in two large studies of Australian servicemen of the Korean War (n = 17,381 and the Vietnam War era (n = 83,908. Results The healthy soldier effect was most consistently observed in deaths from circulatory diseases. A large deficit in these deaths in the initial follow-up period (10-20 years was observed before rates tended to rise to the level seen in the general population. There was no healthy soldier effect in deaths from external causes in enlisted personnel, and these death rates were significantly higher than expected in the initial follow-up period among Korean War veterans and regular Army veterans of the Vietnam War. Those selected for national service during the Vietnam War exhibited the strongest healthy soldier effect of all cohorts assessed. Conclusions Patterns of the healthy soldier effect over time varied markedly by study cohort and by cause of death studied. In a number of analyses, the healthy soldier effect was still apparent after more than 30 years of follow-up.
Lech, Marcel Lysgaard
War, armies and soldiers were omnipresent in the ancient Greek society, and thus these phenomena are equally present in the worlds of ancient Greek comedy. However, the comic outlook on war differs from Old to New Comedy. While the citizen soldier remains the norm, but mainly at periphery of Old ...
Ranes, Bethany; Long, Chris P; Traynham, Stephanie; Hayes, Amanda
In contrast to previous research that has primarily examined how psychological disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], anxiety) are affected by and affect individuals' threat perceptions, this study examines the relationship between combat experience and threat-monitoring in psychologically healthy Soldiers. Existing research has established how prolonged or intense experiences with war-related stressors can lead individuals to undergo an unconscious fear-conditioning process that affects the circuitry of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex regions of the brain. We predict that the intensity of one's combat experience positively influences Soldiers' attention to environmental threats. Participants included U. S. Army Soldiers with a score of 50 or below on the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. Participants completed the Combat Exposure Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The experimental prediction task we employed assesses the expectation of an intrusively loud white noise sound that occurred on three variable patterns in a pseudorandomized order. Each tone pattern was used 20 times over a total of 60 trials. The experimental prediction task included two neutral tones (700 and 1,300 Hz) that were presented in a repeated pattern along with a 100-dB burst of white noise (0.5-second duration). In each trial, one of three possible tone combinations was presented. To assess their attentiveness to threats, participants were asked to continuously rate their expectancy of the burst of white noise using a visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 100. VAS ratings were collected at controlled points throughout the task. None of the participants reported scores on any of the diagnostic surveys that met standards for clinical significance. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to assess the overall effect of the three prediction conditions on participants' VAS ratings. There was a significant
Toga, Kouhei; Hanmoto, Shutaro; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Dai; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto
In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers. Therefore, we focused on the presoldier differentiation and the worker JH titer in species with only male soldiers (Nasutitermes takasagoensis) and with both male and female soldiers (Reticulitermes speratus) in natural conditions. In the former species, there are four types of workers; male minor, male medium, female medium and female major workers, and presoldiers differentiate from male minor workers. First, we tried to artificially induce presoldiers from male and female workers. In N. takasagoensis, the presoldier differentiation rate and mortality was significantly higher in male minor workers. Morphological analyses showed that both male and female induced presoldiers possessed normal soldier-specific morphologies. It was suggested that female workers, from which soldiers do not differentiate under natural conditions, also maintained the physiological and developmental potential for soldier differentiation. In R. speratus, however, no differences were observed in solder differentiation rate and mortality between male and female workers. Second, the JH titers of each sex/type of workers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two different seasons (April and December). The results showed that, in N. takasagoensis, JH titer in male minor
Purvis, Dianna L; Lentino, Cynthia V; Jackson, Theresa K; Murphy, Kaitlin J; Deuster, Patricia A
Nutrition is a critical element of Soldier health and performance. Food choices, meal timing, and dietary intake behaviors contribute to nutritional fitness. The objectives of this study were to describe Soldier dietary behaviors and quantify the association between healthy eating behaviors and demographic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors. The Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness Global Assessment Tool (GAT) assesses emotional, social, family, and spiritual fitness. In 2012, 57 pilot questions were added to the GAT to create a physical dimension that included nutrition assessments. Participants included 13,858 Active Duty, Reserve, and National Guard Soldiers: 83% male; 85% enlisted; a mean age of 28±9 years. A Healthy Eating Score (HES-5) was calculated from 5 questions assessing frequency of fruit, vegetable, whole grain, dairy, and fish intake (Cronbach α=0.81). Associations between HES-5 and other dietary habits, physical activity patterns, and GAT psychosocial dimension scores were examined. Soldiers who ate breakfast regularly (6 times/week or more), drank 7 servings or more of water/day, and met weekly exercise recommendations were more likely to be in the highest HES-5 quartile than those who did not. Those who passed their Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) in the top quartile were also more likely to report high HES-5 scores than those who failed (P<.001). Soldiers with healthy anthropometric measures and the highest emotional, social, family, and spiritual fitness scores were also more likely to be in the top HES-5 quartile than those with unhealthy measures and with the lowest fitness scores (P<.001). The HES-5 may be a useful index for characterizing dietary intake behaviors. Healthy dietary intake behaviors are associated with all dimensions of health, physical fitness, and psychosocial status.
to gather data in order to determine if their theories were accurate for the CSF and therefore transferable to Soldiers became all that more important... Psychoanalysis ) who wrote a scathing criticism of the CSF called “The Dark Side of CSF” where they criticized the research utilized to develop the CSF. The
Full Text Available Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava is less common than deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities, particularly in the absence of an obvious congenital caval abnormality or hypercoagulable state. We present a case of IVC thrombosis in an otherwise healthy and active 28-year-old male soldier secondary to dehydration and venous webbing. IVC thrombosis is an uncommon and underrecognized condition; in this case, the patient’s caval thrombosis was initially mistaken for acute back strain. Prompt recognition is necessary to minimize long-term sequelae.
Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika
The study aimed to modify approach bias for healthy and unhealthy food and to determine its effect on subsequent food consumption. In addition, we investigated the potential moderating role of impulsivity in the effect of approach bias re-training on food consumption. Participants were 200 undergraduate women (17-26 years) who were randomly allocated to one of five conditions of an approach-avoidance task varying in the training of an approach bias for healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food cues in a single session of 10 min. Outcome variables were approach bias for healthy and unhealthy food and the proportion of healthy relative to unhealthy snack food consumed. As predicted, approach bias for healthy food significantly increased in the 'avoid unhealthy food/approach healthy food' condition. Importantly, the effect of training on snack consumption was moderated by trait impulsivity. Participants high in impulsivity consumed a greater proportion of healthy snack food following the 'avoid unhealthy food/approach healthy food' training. This finding supports the suggestion that automatic processing of appetitive cues has a greater influence on consumption behaviour in individuals with poor self-regulatory control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vrijsen, Janna N; Tendolkar, Indira; Onnink, Marten; Hoogman, Martine; Schene, Aart H; Fernández, Guillén; van Oostrom, Iris; Franke, Barbara
Stressful life events, especially Childhood Trauma, predict ADHD symptoms. Childhood Trauma and negatively biased memory are risk factors for affective disorders. The association of life events and bias with ADHD symptoms may inform about the etiology of ADHD. Memory bias was tested using a computer task in N = 675 healthy adults. Life events and ADHD symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. The mediation of the association between life events and ADHD symptoms by memory bias was examined. We explored the roles of different types of life events and of ADHD symptom clusters. Life events and memory bias were associated with overall ADHD symptoms as well as inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom clusters. Memory bias mediated the association of Lifetime Life Events, specifically Childhood Trauma, with ADHD symptoms. Negatively biased memory may be a cognitive marker of the effects of Childhood Trauma on the development and/or persistence of ADHD symptoms.
Calitri, Raff; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Tapper, Katy; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J
The current study explored the predictive value of cognitive biases to food cues (assessed by emotional Stroop and dot probe tasks) on weight change over a 1-year period. This was a longitudinal study with undergraduate students (N = 102) living in shared student accommodation. After controlling for the effects of variables associated with weight (e.g., physical activity, stress, restrained eating, external eating, and emotional eating), no effects of cognitive bias were found with the dot probe. However, for the emotional Stroop, cognitive bias to unhealthy foods predicted an increase in BMI whereas cognitive bias to healthy foods was associated with a decrease in BMI. Results parallel findings in substance abuse research; cognitive biases appear to predict behavior change. Accordingly, future research should consider strategies for attentional retraining, encouraging individuals to reorient attention away from unhealthy eating cues.
Mynster Christensen, Maya
The thesis is an inquiry into what is at stake for a surplus population of militia soldiers in the aftermaths of the civil war in Sierra Leone. The analysis takes its point of departure in how militarised networks are transformed and gradualy morph into new constellations of soldiering. The central...... question the thesis pursues is how the processes of mobilisation connecting these constellations are facilitated, and how the constellations are constituted in the intersection between local and global formations. Shadow soldiering, it is argued, is not a phenomenon existing in parallel with...
Fortis, Paola; Goedert, Kelly M; Barrett, Anna M
Prism adaptation (PA) has been shown to affect performance on a variety of spatial tasks in healthy individuals and neglect patients. However, little is still known about the mechanisms through which PA affects spatial cognition. In the present study we tested the effect of PA on the perceptual-attentional "where" and motor-intentional "aiming" spatial systems in healthy individuals. Eighty-four participants performed a line bisection task presented on a computer screen under normal or right-left reversed viewing conditions, which allows for the fractionation of "where" and "aiming" bias components (Schwartz et al., 1997). The task was performed before and after a short period of visuomotor adaptation either to left- or right-shifting prisms, or control goggles fitted with plain glass lenses. Participants demonstrated initial leftward "where" and "aiming" biases, consistent with previous research. Adaptation to left-shifting prisms reduced the leftward motor-intentional "aiming" bias. By contrast, the "aiming" bias was unaffected by adaptation to the right-shifting prisms or control goggles. The leftward "where" bias was also reduced, but this reduction was independent of the direction of the prismatic shift. These results mirror recent findings in neglect patients, who showed a selective amelioration of right motor-intentional "aiming" bias after right prism exposure (Fortis et al., 2009; C.L. Striemer & J. Danckert, 2010). Thus, these findings indicate that prism adaptation primarily affects the motor-intentional "aiming" system in both healthy individuals and neglect patients, and further suggest that improvement in neglect patients after PA may be related to changes in the aiming spatial system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shah, Priyanka P; Gonzalez, Keith O; Barrett, A M
Spatial bias in natural, implicit tasks such as reaching and grasping may manifest differently from that in arbitrary laboratory-experiment line bisection tasks. Because spatial processing in everyday activities is difficult to quantify, it is important to study spatial behavior in an implicit laboratory task. Drawing tasks of copying lines or objects integrate spatial perceptual-attentional ("where") input and motor-intentional ("aiming") output, and may be more implicit than line bisection because participants are unaware that the placement of their drawings will be assessed. We examined whether it is possible to distinguish "where" and "aiming" spatial biases in a line-copying task. We examined changes in "where" and "aiming" biases in response to bottom-up versus top-down cues (hemispace presentation and drawing direction). In 13 healthy adults, we collected copied-line displacements and lengths in both the natural (left-right congruency) and reversed (left-right incongruency) viewing conditions, to distinguish "where" and "aiming" biases. Participants displaced lines leftward (P=0.01) as they copied, displaying primarily a "where" bias. They displaced lines in the drawing direction irrespective of viewing condition, a finding consistent with induced "aiming" effects (P=0.291). Presenting lines on participants' right or left side did not affect the "where" spatial bias. Cues did not affect copied-line lengths. We showed that an implicit laboratory-experiment task of copying lines can discern complex stages of spatial processing in healthy adults. Further evaluation of this task will greatly contribute to the understanding of mechanisms of human spatial cognition.
Skinner, Ian W; Hübscher, Markus; Moseley, G Lorimer; Lee, Hopin; Wand, Benedict M; Traeger, Adrian C; Gustin, Sylvia M; McAuley, James H
Eyetracking is commonly used to investigate attentional bias. Although some studies have investigated the internal consistency of eyetracking, data are scarce on the test-retest reliability and agreement of eyetracking to investigate attentional bias. This study reports the test-retest reliability, measurement error, and internal consistency of 12 commonly used outcome measures thought to reflect the different components of attentional bias: overall attention, early attention, and late attention. Healthy participants completed a preferential-looking eyetracking task that involved the presentation of threatening (sensory words, general threat words, and affective words) and nonthreatening words. We used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to measure test-retest reliability (ICC > .70 indicates adequate reliability). The ICCs(2, 1) ranged from -.31 to .71. Reliability varied according to the outcome measure and threat word category. Sensory words had a lower mean ICC (.08) than either affective words (.32) or general threat words (.29). A longer exposure time was associated with higher test-retest reliability. All of the outcome measures, except second-run dwell time, demonstrated low measurement error ( .93). Recommendations are discussed for improving the reliability of eyetracking tasks in future research.
Gleason, Carey E.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Friedman, Elliot; Wharton, Whitney; Asthana, Sanjay
Objective This study investigated the phenomenon known as the healthy user bias, by equating hormone therapy (HT) use (past or current) with healthy user status. Methods Data from the Survey of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) were used to indentify predictors of HT use. The unique MIDUS data include psychological, demographic, health-related, and behavioral variables as well as history of HT use. Predictors of HT use were combined to derive propensity scores, describing the likelihood that a woman was an HT user, based on her psychological, demographic, physical, and behavioral profile (i.e., likelihood of being a healthy user) as opposed to her actual use of HT. Finally, cognitive performance on an executive function test was examined in women stratified by propensity score. Results Using a multiple logistic regression model, nine variables emerged as predictors of HT use. The nine variables were used to estimate the propensity or conditional probability of using HT for each subject; resultant propensity scores were ranked and divided into tertiles. Women in the highest tertile demonstrated shorter median response latencies on a test of executive function than women who did not use HT. Conclusions From an array of psychological, medical and behavioral variables, nine emerged as predictors of HT use. If validated, these features may serve as a means to estimate the phenomenon known as the healthy user bias. Moreover, these data suggest that the degree to which a woman fits a model of a healthy user, may influence cognitive response to HT. PMID:22207317
Vrijsen, J.N.; Tendolkar, I.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Franke, B.; Schene, A.H.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Oostrom, I.I. van
The tendency to recall more negative and less positive information has been frequently related to the genetic susceptibility to depression. This memory bias may be associated with depression candidate genes especially in individuals who experienced stressful childhood events. The serotonin
Calitri, R; Pothos, E. M.; Tapper, K.; Brunstrom, J. M.; Rogers, P J
The current study explored the predictive value of cognitive biases to food cues (assessed by emotional Stroop and dot probe tasks) on weight change over a 1-year period. This was a longitudinal study with undergraduate students (N = 102) living in shared student accommodation. After controlling for the effects of variables associated with weight (e.g., physical activity, stress, restrained eating, external eating, and emotional eating), no effects of cognitive bias were found with the dot pr...
Jackson, Theresa K; Cable, Sonya J; Jin, Wana K; Robinson, Ayanna; Dennis, Sabriya D; Vo, Linda T; Prosser, Trish J; Rawlings, Jess A
Improving Soldiers' nutritional habits continues to be a concern of the US Army, especially amidst increasing obesity and high injury rates. This study examines leadership influence on nutritional behaviors within the context of the Soldier Fueling Initiative, a program providing nutrition education and improved dining facility menus to Soldiers in Basic Combat Training (BCT) and Advanced Individual Training (AIT). A mixed methods design using surveys (N=486) and focus groups (N=112) was used to collect data at Fort Jackson, SC, and Fort Eustis, VA, in 2011. Survey results showed 75% of Soldiers in BCT believed their drill sergeant was helpful in making performance-enhancing food choices, and 86% agreed their drill sergeant believed it is important to eat for performance. Soldiers in AIT perceived their cadre as less helpful than their BCT drill sergeants and agreed less frequently that the AIT cadre believed it was important to eat for performance (Pnutritional attitudes and behaviors in both BCT and AIT. Focus groups revealed 5 key themes related to cadre influence and nutrition behavior (listed in order of most to least frequent): (1) cadre influence food choices through consequences related to selection, (2) cadre teach Soldiers how to eat, (3) cadre rush Soldiers to eat quickly to return to training, (4) cadre influence choice through example but often do not make healthy choices, and (5) cadre have no influence on food choices. Leaders influence most Soldiers' nutrition practices within the training environment, particularly within BCT. Given that leader influence can impact Soldiers' attitudes and behaviors, it is critical that military leaders become knowledgeable about optimal nutrition practices to disseminate appropriate information to their Soldiers, avoid reprimand associated with trainees' food choices, reinforce key messages associated with nutrition programming, and lead by example in their own food choices.
Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne
Living in an 'obesogenic' environment poses a serious challenge for weight maintenance. However, many people are able to maintain a healthy weight indicating that not everybody is equally susceptible to the temptations of this food environment. The way in which someone perceives and reacts to food cues, that is, cognitive processes, could underlie differences in susceptibility. An attention bias for food could be such a cognitive factor that contributes to overeating. However, an attention bias for food has also been implicated with restrained eating and eating-disorder symptomatology. The primary aim of the present review was to determine whether an attention bias for food is specifically related to obesity while also reviewing evidence for attention biases in eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy-weight individuals. Another aim was to systematically examine how selective attention for food relates (causally) to eating behaviour. Current empirical evidence on attention bias for food within obese samples, eating-disorder patients, and, even though to a lesser extent, in restrained eaters is contradictory. However, present experimental studies provide relatively consistent evidence that an attention bias for food contributes to subsequent food intake. This review highlights the need to distinguish not only between different (temporal) attention bias components, but also to take different motivations (craving v. worry) and their impact on attentional processing into account. Overall, the current state of research suggests that biased attention could be one important cognitive mechanism by which the food environment tempts us into overeating.
Schmidt, Kristin; Cowen, Philip J; Harmer, Catherine J; Tzortzis, George; Errington, Steven; Burnet, Philip W J
There is now compelling evidence for a link between enteric microbiota and brain function. The ingestion of probiotics modulates the processing of information that is strongly linked to anxiety and depression, and influences the neuroendocrine stress response. We have recently demonstrated that prebiotics (soluble fibres that augment the growth of indigenous microbiota) have significant neurobiological effects in rats, but their action in humans has not been reported. The present study explored the effects of two prebiotics on the secretion of the stress hormone, cortisol and emotional processing in healthy volunteers. Forty-five healthy volunteers received one of two prebiotics (fructooligosaccharides, FOS, or Bimuno®-galactooligosaccharides, B-GOS) or a placebo (maltodextrin) daily for 3 weeks. The salivary cortisol awakening response was sampled before and after prebiotic/placebo administration. On the final day of treatment, participants completed a computerised task battery assessing the processing of emotionally salient information. The salivary cortisol awakening response was significantly lower after B-GOS intake compared with placebo. Participants also showed decreased attentional vigilance to negative versus positive information in a dot-probe task after B-GOS compared to placebo intake. No effects were found after the administration of FOS. The suppression of the neuroendocrine stress response and the increase in the processing of positive versus negative attentional vigilance in subjects supplemented with B-GOS are consistent with previous findings of endocrine and anxiolytic effects of microbiota proliferation. Further studies are therefore needed to test the utility of B-GOS supplementation in the treatment of stress-related disorders.
Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn
Using data from an occupational medical health surveillance program, we studied the associations between mental stressors and social support and the two outcome measures postdeployment psychological distress and multiple physical symptoms among Danish soldiers deployed to Iraq. The study was cross...... the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased......-sectional and questionnaire-based with soldiers returning from the mission as the target group. Witnessing atrocities, fear of being physically harmed, feeling of insecurity, feeling of meaninglessness, and having been in touch with prisoners were associated with both outcome measures. In conclusion, our findings support...
Soldier-inventors, although use of the title “Soldier” is not used. Instead, Soldiers are grouped into the tile of “government employees.”73 It notes...apparatus for object tracking via hyperspectral imagery Alan I. Kalb ARL 6 8,611,565 Microscale implementation of a bio- inspired acoustic ...94 8,746,124 Multi-axial explosive, laterally- shearing, tiled reactive mechanism--MAELSTRM Luis Miguel Acosta TACOM David L. Kuhn
Veenstra, Esther M; de Jong, Peter J
A striking feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that these patients are extremely successful in restricting their food intake. Possibly, they are highly efficient in avoiding attentional engagement of food cues, thereby preventing more elaborate processing of food cues and thus subsequent craving. This study examined whether patients diagnosed with restrictive eating disorders ('restricting AN-like patients'; N=88) indeed show stronger attentional avoidance of visual food stimuli than healthy controls (N=76). Attentional engagement and disengagement were assessed by means of a pictorial exogenous cueing task, and (food and neutral) pictures were presented for 300, 500, or 1000 ms. In the 500 ms condition, both restricting AN-like patients and healthy controls demonstrated attentional avoidance of high-fat food as indexed by a negative cue-validity effect and impaired attentional engagement with high-fat food, whereas no evidence was found for facilitated disengagement from high-fat food. Within the group of restricting AN-like patients, patients with relatively severe eating pathology showed relatively strong attentional engagement with low-fat food. There was no evidence for attentional bias in the 300 and 1000 ms condition. The pattern of findings indicate that attentional avoidance of high-fat food is a common phenomenon that may become counterproductive in restricting AN-like patients, as it could facilitate their restricted food intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Janna N Vrijsen
Full Text Available The PCLO rs2522833 candidate polymorphism for depression has been associated to monoaminergic neurotransmission. In healthy and currently depressed individuals, the polymorphism has been found to affect activation of brain areas during memory processing, but no direct association of PCLO with memory bias was found. We hypothesized that the absence of this association might have been obscured by current depressive symptoms or genetically driven individual differences in reactivity to stressful events. Experiencing stressful childhood events fosters dysfunctional assumptions that are related to cognitive biases, and may modulate the predisposition for depression via epigenetic effects. The association between PCLO and memory bias, as well as interaction between PCLO and childhood events was studied in patients remitted from depression (N = 299, as well as a sample of healthy individuals (N = 157. The participants performed an emotional verbal memory task after a sad mood induction. Childhood trauma and adversity were measured with a questionnaire. The Genotype main effect, and Genotype by Childhood Events interaction were analyzed for memory bias in both samples. PCLO risk allele carrying remitted depressed patients did not show more negatively biased memory than non-risk allele carriers, not even patients with stressful childhood events. A similar pattern of results was found in healthy individuals. Memory bias may not be strongly associated with the PCLO rs2522833 polymorphism. We did not find any support for the PCLO-childhood events interaction, but the power of our study was insufficient to exclude this possibility.
Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Vreugdenhil, Anita C E; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Schyns, Ghislaine; Roefs, Anne
Obesity prevalence among children is high and knowledge on cognitive factors that contribute to children's reactivity to the "obesogenic" food environment could help to design effective treatment and prevention campaigns. Empirical studies in adults suggest that attention bias for food could be a risk factor for overeating. Accordingly, the current study tested if children with obesity have an elevated attention bias for food when compared to healthy-weight children. Another aim was to explore whether attention biases for food predicted weight-change after 3 and 6 months in obese children. Obese children (n = 34) were recruited from an intervention program and tested prior to the start of this intervention. Healthy-weight children (n = 36) were recruited from local schools. First, attention biases for food were compared between children with obesity (n = 30) and matched healthy-weight children (n = 30). Second, regression analyses were conducted to test if food-related attention biases predicted weight changes after 3 and 6 months in children with obesity following a weight loss lifestyle intervention. Results showed that obese children did not differ from healthy-weight children in their attention bias to food. Yet automatically directing attention toward food (i.e., initial orientation bias) was related to a reduced weight loss (R² = .14, p = .032) after 6 months in children with obesity. High palatable food is a salient stimulus for all children, irrespective of their weight status. However, automatically directing attention to food cues might facilitate further weight gain in children with obesity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background: Corynebacterial infection is a common condition in soldiers. Pitted keratolysis (PK, a bacterial infection confined to the plantar stratum corneum, does not severely impede patient activity but can be unpleasant and embarrassing because of its ‘‘rotten’’ odor. The incidence of PK in soldiers has been reported to be between 1,5% and 77.1%. Erythrasma is a superficial infection caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum and affects the major skin folds and the interdigital regions of the feet. It is characterized by erythematous, brown, scaly patches and maceration, and exhibits coral-red fluorescence under Wood light. Trichomycosis axillaris (TMA is caused by the Corynebacterium tenuis. Patients affected by trichomycosis axillaris present with complaints of a disagreeable underarm odor and a history of hyperhidrosis and poor hygiene. Examination reveals the underarm hair to be coated with black, yellow-white or reddish deposits.Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency corynebacterium triad in soldiers (pitted keratolysis, erythrasma, trichomycosis axillarisMethods: The study involved 1694 men, soldiers in age about 23 years, (in period 5 months (-8-12.2008. 103 persons, whose dermatologic symptoms/changes were analysed, were qualified for the research. Reconnaissance put on base of characteristic clinical sign and under Wood light.Results: Incidence of PK observed at 103 patients (which make up 6,08% of 1694 soldiers. EA diagnosed at 15 soldiers (14,56% of 103 patients, and TMA was diagnosed of 3 patients (2,91% of 103 patients. The coexistence are summarized as follows: erythrasma and PK; 15 of 103 patients (14,56%, TMA and PK in 3 of 103 patients (2,91%. The coexistence of rythrasma, TMA, and PK was noted in 1 patients (0,97%.Conclusions: Corynebacterial infection is a common condition in soldiers. In most cases/most often development of PK is observed. Our results demonstrate that either erythrasma or TMA
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of skin diseases among soldiers who were assigned duties in Kahramanmaras, a province of east Mediterranean region of Turkey. One hundred eighty-eight soldiers were assessed for skin diseases by a complete dermatological examination and the findings were recorded to a form. Apart from the low number of older ones, the soldiers were of 20–22 years. The diagnosis of superficial fungal infections was made by the use of potassium hydroxide preparations in addition to clinical appearance. On completion of the study period, the data were evaluated, and patients were grouped. Pitted keratolysis was the primary dermatologic disease in 34.5% of the soldiers, 29.2% were diagnosed with oral candidiasis, and 25.5% suffered from tinea pedis. Among the soldiers suffering from a cutaneous disease, dyshidrotic eczema (18.6%, intertrigo (excluding candidal intertrigo (17%, acne (17%, seborrheic dermatitis (14.9%, plantar hyperkeratosis (14.3%, contact dermatitis (13.8%, and folliculitis (12.2% were the other most frequent dermatoses. Other less frequent dermatoses were asteatotic eczema, callus, onychomycosis, traumatic onychodystrophy, and so on. We conclude that the prevalence of skin diseases in soldiers is very high and is one of the major public health problems that have a significant burden on our nation.
Brinton, Roberta Diaz
The profound disparities between the largely positive basic science findings of gonadal steroid action in brain and the adverse outcomes of recent hormone therapy clinical trials in women who are either aged postmenopausal or postmenopausal with Alzheimer's disease have led to an intense reassessment of gonadal hormone action and the model systems used in basic and clinical science. The power of model systems is their predictive validity for a target population--in this case, menopausal women considering the health benefits and risks of hormone therapy. Analysis of the model systems used across the basic to clinical research continuum separate into two broad classes: those that use prevention interventions in healthy organisms and those that use hormone interventions in organisms with compromised neurological function. Basic science analyses that led to elucidation of the neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of estrogen and the underlying mechanisms of action typically used a prevention-based experimental paradigm. This paradigm relies on healthy neurons/brains/animals/humans as the starting foundation followed by exposure to estrogen/hormone followed by exposure to neurodegenerative insult. The prevention paradigm in basic science analyses parallels the analyses of Sherwin and colleagues (Psychoneuroendocrinology 13: 345-357, 1988), who investigated the cognitive impact of estrogen therapy in women with surgical- or pharmacological-induced menopause. Observational retrospective and prospective studies are also consistent with the healthy cell bias of estrogen action and a prevention paradigm of estrogen or hormone therapy intervention. For the most part, the epidemiological observational data indicate reduction in the risk of Alzheimer's disease in women who began estrogen or hormone therapy at the time of the menopause. In contrast, studies that fall within the second class, hormone intervention in organisms with compromised neurological function--that is, a
Artiss, Kenneth L
The Gulf War illness (GWI) problem is seen as a postwar syndrome related to veteran discontent rather than as a new phenomenon. It is here proposed that application of social psychiatric thinking and workers' compensation experience can help in understanding the problem. Social psychiatry has been neglected in the training of so many psychiatrists that many of them fail to understand the Army as a community and to recognize that a community's parts may develop symptom neuroses. Most psychiatrists, however, do know that a symptom neurosis will not disappear until it no longer serves its purposes. The young soldier may know that he is being trained for combat duty but manages to distance himself from the terrible realities of military combat by creating a psychic reality that protects him. Social psychiatric emphasis is used to describe his response when brought face to face with himself as a combatant with overwhelming responsibilities and genuine lethal danger. The brilliance and relevance of social thinking is demonstrated by examples from the works of Gustave LeBon and Georg Simmel so that its application to present--and future--military problems may be brought into focus.
Brady, Rachel A.; Batson, Crystal D.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.
We designed a gait training study that presented combinations of visual flow and support surface manipulations to investigate the response of healthy adults to novel discordant sensorimotor conditions. We aimed to determine whether a relationship existed between subjects visual dependence and their scores on a collective measure of anxiety, cognition, and postural stability in a new discordant environment presented at the conclusion of training (Transfer Test). A treadmill was mounted to a motion base platform positioned 2 m behind a large visual screen. Training consisted of three walking sessions, each within a week of the previous visit, that presented four 5-minute exposures to various combinations of support surface and visual scene manipulations, all lateral sinusoids. The conditions were scene translation only, support surface translation only, simultaneous scene and support surface translations in-phase, and simultaneous scene and support surface translations 180 out-of-phase. During the Transfer Test, the trained participants received a 2-minute novel exposure. A visual sinusoidal roll perturbation, with twice the original flow rate, was superimposed on a sinusoidal support surface roll perturbation that was 90 out of phase with the scene. A high correlation existed between normalized torso translation, measured in the scene-only condition at the first visit, and a combined measure of normalized heart rate, stride frequency, and reaction time at the transfer test. Results suggest that visually dependent participants experience decreased postural stability, increased anxiety, and increased reaction times compared to their less visually dependent counterparts when negotiating novel discordant conditions.
Eidelson, Roy; Pilisuk, Marc; Soldz, Stephen
Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF), the focus of the January 2011 special issue of the "American Psychologist," is a $125 million resilience training initiative designed to reduce and prevent the adverse psychological consequences of combat for soldiers and veterans. These are worthy goals. Soldiers and veterans deserve the best care possible,…
the attribute set every possible condition that one might encounter on a base camp. For example, during survey administration some Soldiers commented...access equipment for group sports, such as volleyball, basketball, and football . The levels of this attribute were: No (reference) Yes The...CO Commanding Officer DCE Discrete Choice Experiment DFAC Dining Facilities Administration Center DP Duty Position FOB Forward
...) has conducted research in using virtual environments (VE) to train dismounted soldiers. While showing that some dismounted soldiers skills can be trained in VE, the research has also identified problems in using VE for soldier training...
Kułakowski, K; Krawczyk, M J
An attempt is made to simulate the disclosure of underground soldiers in terms of theory of networks. The coupling mechanism between the network nodes is the possibility that a disclosed soldier is going to disclose also his acquaintances. We calculate the fraction of disclosed soldiers as dependent on the fraction of those who, once disclosed, reveal also their colleagues. The simulation is immersed in the historical context of the Polish Home Army under the communist rule in 1946-49.
Shelef, Leah; Laur, Lucian; Fruchter, Eyal
Suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents in most Western world countries. Similar findings have been reported among adolescents in Israel (including the Israeli army) in times of peace; nonetheless, suicide rate has decreased significantly in recent years. In Israel, IDF service is mandatory and adolescents are obligated to serve by law. Therefore, the IDF is responsible under state and moral law to care for the physical and mental health of its soldiers. Additionally, there is an understanding that the Israeli soldiers represent a mentally healthy population as prior to their enlistment they undergo a series of tests and evaluations to determine their suitability for service. The IDF is one of the few organizations in the world that is comprised of the majority of a country's healthy adolescent population. International literature defines this population (i.e., the adolescent population) as having the highest risk of suicidality. Moreover, the risk of suicide increases in the face of two additional circumstances within the context of military service: the army service as a stressor and the availability of weapons. The IDF invests significant resources in delineating the characteristics of suicidal soldiers, realizing its importance for suicide prevention during military service. This article reviews studies regarding complete suicide cases of Israeli soldiers in the aim of characterising a 'suicidal soldier's profile' to inform better screening and prevention policies.
Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh
Recent research in military sociology has shown that in addition to their strong peer motivation modern soldiers are oriented toward contributing to society. It has not, however, been tested how soldier motivation differs from the motivation of other citizens in this respect. In this paper......, by means of public service motivation, a concept developed within the public administration literature, we compare soldier and civilian motivation. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of whether and how Danish combat soldiers differs from other Danes in regard to public service motivation? Using...... to the representativity of the military. If soldiers are less empathetic than other citizens, it might amplify differences between armed forces and society, making the individual’s transition from the one to the other even more difficult....
Poulsen, Dorthe Varning; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Refshauge, Anne Dahl
and status of practice and research concerning NAT for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The systematic review included a seven-step literature search. Relevant data sources were scrutinized in order to retrieve literature meeting the predefined inclusion criteria. Due to the limited......Nature-assisted therapy (NAT) has become more common and recognized in both practice and research. The literature often describes how NAT gradually emerged in the UK and the US offering rehabilitation of soldiers suffering from traumatic experiences after active service in WW I and WW II. The main...
Sendhil Mullainathan; Andrei Shleifer
There are two different types of media bias. One bias, which we refer to as ideology, reflects a news outlet's desire to affect reader opinions in a particular direction. The second bias, which we refer to as spin, reflects the outlet's attempt to simply create a memorable story. We examine competition among media outlets in the presence of these biases. Whereas competition can eliminate the effect of ideological bias, it actually exaggerates the incentive to spin stories.
Knerr, Bruce W
A study was conducted to document the need for immersive dismounted virtual Soldier and leader training and the available research evidence regarding the effectiveness of virtual training for training...
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167432.html Can Suicide Tries Spread Among Soldiers? Increased risk seen within ... if another member of their unit has attempted suicide in the previous year. In fact, the researchers ...
Full Text Available The story of child soldiers in the Western imagination is a story of symbolic reversals. Where the image of the child soldier once denoted public virtue and the nobility of sacrifice, it now stands for virtually everything that is wrong with war. Children were frequently present in the military through much of the 19th century (Aries 1962, p. 193. But by the middle of the 19th century, most Western nations had begun to reduce or eliminate the presence of children in their armed forces. The change was slow and erratic, however, so that even during World War I the heroic and patriotic child soldier, typically a boy sailor or soldier, remained a central image in the ideology of war and conflict (Conley 2009.
situations that require creative thinking and strong problem solving skills. In addition to their intellectual capacity, they must also be able to meet...Described by Soldiers related to this theme: • smart, technically proficient, intelligent • creative thinker, resourceful, problem solver, adaptable...taught in a traditional classroom setting (e.g. with PowerPoint slides). – The primary means by which Soldiers gain social and emotional skills is by
Ferrin, Frank J.
Headgear systems for the dismounted soldier are being developed that will provide an extensive set of new capabilites on the battlefield. These systems provide dramatically enhanced audio and visual information flow to and from the soldier. Integrated/modular headgear components include a miniature helmet mounted high resolution display, an advanced intensified night sensor, a head orientation sensor, advanced signal processing electronics, a helmet mounted radio antenna, in addition to new ballistic protection and helmet suspension and communication components.
solutions to achieve this goal. Weight-2 2 Weight Panel Panel Participants Mark Hofmann, Chair (ASB) Tony Tether, (ASB) Michael Krause (ASB) Don Wajda ...Mr. Ed Doucette U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center Mr. Don Woodbury DARPA Mr. Donald Wajda U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center Staff
Cotton, Simon L.; Scanlon, W.G.; Madahar, Bhopinder K.
Mobile ad hoc networking of dismounted combat personnel is expected to play an important role in the future of network-centric operations. High-speed, short-range, soldier-to-soldier wireless communications will be required to relay information on situational awareness, tactical instructions, and
Hewstone, Miles; Rubin, Mark; Willis, Hazel
This chapter reviews the extensive literature on bias in favor of in-groups at the expense of out-groups. We focus on five issues and identify areas for future research: (a) measurement and conceptual issues (especially in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation, and explicit vs. implicit measures of bias); (b) modern theories of bias highlighting motivational explanations (social identity, optimal distinctiveness, uncertainty reduction, social dominance, terror management); (c) key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias (identification, group size, status and power, threat, positive-negative asymmetry, personality and individual differences); (d) reduction of bias (individual vs. intergroup approaches, especially models of social categorization); and (e) the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility.
McClung, James P; Scrimgeour, Angus G
.... This review highlights the importance of adequate zinc nutrition to soldiers and discusses the potential benefits of supplemental zinc to protect soldiers against a number of diseases currently affecting them, including diarrhea, respiratory diseases, malaria, and leishmaniasis.
Vaara, Jani P; Viskari, Jarmo; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Santtila, Matti
No previous studies have investigated attitudes of the female soldiers toward physical fitness tests and physical performance requirements. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how military personnel group, age, physical fitness, and body composition are associated with female soldiers' attitudes toward fitness tests and requirements. A survey was conducted for 362 voluntary female soldiers. 76 % of them answered that the current fitness requirements are not too demanding, and 56 to 76% thought that the minimum requirements are at appropriate level for females. Nearly half (48%) of the female soldiers reported that it creates inequality when there are the same fitness standards for both genders. 12 % of the studied females had experienced bullying and 24% had experienced discrimination because of their physical fitness. Noncommissioned officers, older soldiers, overweight soldiers, and those with lower fitness thought more often that the physical fitness requirements are too high for female soldiers (p < 0.05). Lower fitness and overweight were associated with higher prevalence of being bullied and experiences of discrimination because of physical fitness (p < 0.05). The results suggest that there might be a need for a better communication about fitness requirements and targeted interventions for better integration of women in military environment. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
pain and intermittent non-bloody diarrhea . Laboratory studies were unremarkable, concurrent abdominal computed tomography (CT) and lumbar MRI showed no...Microbiol 2008; 8: 189–202. 4. Dubey L, Krasinski K, Hernanz-Schulman M: Osteomyelitis secondary to trauma or infected contiguous soft tissue. Pediatr ...51. 17. Wu M-S, Chang S-S, Lee S-H, Lee C-C: Pyogenic sacroiliitis—a com- parison between pediatric and adult patients. Rheumatology 2007; 46: 1684–7
Juracek, Kyle E.
The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.
Mary S. McCarthy
Full Text Available Findings from previous studies suggest that inadequate consumption of calcium and vitamin D and a decrease in exercise while deployed can be detrimental to bone health. This study enrolled 234 soldiers randomized to receive one-time nutrition and exercise education pre-deployment (n = 149, or telehealth coaching (n = 85, throughout the deployment cycle. Results suggest that online educational efforts may enhance sports activity, bone turnover, and vitamin D status. Improving vitamin D status and remaining active while deployed appears to sustain healthy bone density in young soldiers. Early and aggressive educational outreach to young adults may prevent chronic musculoskeletal conditions and disabling osteoporosis later in life.
302 Figure 112. Italian Soldier Wearing the “Soldato Futuro ”................................................305 Figure 113. Belgian...military has implemented the “Soldato Futuro ” soldier modernization program; this involves two phases, the second phase consisting of three prototype...operational test and evaluation phase. Currently, Italy’s Soldato Futuro program is in the second phase of a 304 three-month series of tests
Tracy, Russell P; Doyle, Margaret F; Olson, Nels C; Huber, Sally A; Jenny, Nancy S; Sallam, Reem; Psaty, Bruce M; Kronmal, Richard A
Although T-helper type 1 (Th1) cells are considered important in atherosclerosis, the relationships between Th1 and Th2 cells and atherosclerosis have not been examined in population-based studies. We measured Th cells as a percentage of lymphocytes by flow cytometry using CD4 staining (%CD4) in 917 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We also measured interferon gamma-positive and interleukin-4-positive CD4(+) cells, representing Th1 and Th2 subpopulations (%Th1 and %Th2), respectively. We found that %CD4 was 1.5% lower per 10 years of age (Pmedia thickness (β=0.02 and -0.02, respectively; both Pbias is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in a multiethnic population. The main Th1 correlate was CMV infectious burden. These findings are consistent with a role of Th1 cells in atherosclerosis and suggest the importance of prospective studies of T-helper cell biasing in CVD.
This study focused on identifying whether certain factors affected the academic performance of Soldiers attending an Army educational institution. Academic performance was measured by the grade percentile average of the participant upon the completion of their course of enrollment. Factors that were considered within the study through…
From a recruitment and training perspective, so it appears, the going is increasingly difficult and often at odds with a civil society not always holding the military in high esteem and portraying traits which are even more ... boredom, high intensity battles, and even the aloofness of the soldiers at times to what was going on ...
The involvement of children in fighting forces continues to be widespread, undercutting security and blocking development in many fragile states. Failure ... The project will include field testing promising techniques in an existing child soldier recruitment situation. ... Driving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods.
Carano, Kenneth T.; Bailey, Robert W.
The forceful induction of children as child soldiers is an abhorrent violation of human rights. It is very disturbing that while many children are forcibly recruited into armed conflicts, others actually volunteer, due to their nightmarish alternatives. Although the practice has recently gained worldwide attention, awareness alone will not end the…
Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Post, Manuela; Hoyer, Catrin; Adam, Hubertus
The present research examines posttraumatic resilience in extremely exposed children and adolescents based on interviews with 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age = 11-17, female = 48.5%). Despite severe trauma exposure, 27.6% showed posttraumatic resilience as indicated by the absence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and clinically…
large- scala hostilities ’commenced) weresam pled before the alert. Data regarding those soldiers utider less immediaterisk of early eney contact was...icason that the results may be used to help foranIyate EUSA recorvueevdations about the nuir-ers and kinds o- wuc_,en Lo b2 assigned to the coixand
Carter, Geoffrey; Williamson, Bill
This webtext explores the cynical/kynical humor of soldier videos, suggesting that amateur videos paradoxically both undercut authority and honor effective leaders, both make light of and also publicly reveal deployment hardships, both distance the performers from military groupthink and celebrate unit camaraderie.
This is an abridged version of a research report on the role of social support networks in the rehabilitation of child ..... eating from the same plate, playing a game together, or working in the same office with a child soldier, ..... certain needs and facilities such as electricity, television and video tended to negatively impact on ...
Obwaller, Adelheid G; Köhsler, Martina; Poeppl, Wolfgang; Herkner, Harald; Mooseder, Gerhard; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia
The incidence of leishmaniasis is known to increase in conflict areas. The aim of this study was to determine the exposure to Leishmania species in Austrian soldiers returning from missions abroad also assessing possible risk factors. A retrospective explorative cross-sectional serological study was conducted in 225 healthy Austrian soldiers returning from UN or EU peace-keeping missions in Syria, the Lebanon and Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH), respectively. Sera were tested for anti-Leishmania antibodies using a commercial ELISA. All positive individuals were screened for Leishmania DNA by PCR targeting the ITS1 region using EDTA blood samples. In total, 13.3% (30/225) of the individuals tested were either positive (8%=18/225) or borderline (5.3%=12/225) in the ELISA, with highest seroprevalence in soldiers returning from Syria (17.8%=18/101; 12 positive, 6 borderline), second from the Lebanon (11.1%=7/63; 4 positive, 3 borderline), and lowest from BIH (8.2%=5/61; 2 positive, 3 borderline). Ten soldiers returning from Syria and one from BIH were also positive for Leishmania DNA. Six of these were identified as Leishmania donovani/infantum complex, two as L. tropica, and another three as mixed infections by DNA sequencing. Epidemiological data were collected with a questionnaire, seropositivity correlated with a history of lengthy-healing insect bites (OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.23-23.04, p = 0.025). Although, pre-travel serological data was not available in this study, the exposure of soldiers to Leishmania spp. during their missions can be assumed to be considerable. As even asymptomatic infections may resurge in case of emerging immunodeficiencies, adequate prevention measures seem important. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Although this soldier knew that alcohol was prohibited in the field, he brought along a bottle of vodka to the field site. 107. This soldier...soldier made up a fake excuse for his tardiness to a counseling session. 72. This soldier did not properly clean his weapon. 73. This soldier did not
Filippopulos, Filipp M; Grafenstein, Jessica; Straube, Andreas; Eggert, Thomas
In natural life pain automatically draws attention towards the painful body part suggesting that it interacts with different attentional mechanisms such as visual attention. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients who typically report on chronic distally located pain of one extremity may suffer from so-called neglect-like symptoms, which have also been linked to attentional mechanisms. The purpose of the study was to further evaluate how continuous pain conditions influence visual attention. Saccade latencies were recorded in two experiments using a common visual attention paradigm whereby orientating saccades to cued or uncued lateral visual targets had to be performed. In the first experiment saccade latencies of healthy subjects were measured under two conditions: one in which continuous experimental pain stimulation was applied to the index finger to imitate a continuous pain situation, and one without pain stimulation. In the second experiment saccade latencies of patients suffering from CRPS were compared to controls. The results showed that neither the continuous experimental pain stimulation during the experiment nor the chronic pain in CRPS led to an unilateral increase of saccade latencies or to a unilateral increase of the cue effect on latency. The results show that unilateral, continuously applied pain stimuli or chronic pain have no or only very limited influence on visual attention. Differently from patients with visual neglect, patients with CRPS did not show strong side asymmetries of saccade latencies or of cue effects on saccade latencies. Thus, neglect-like clinical symptoms of CRPS patients do not involve the allocation of visual attention.
Soldiers before they even enter their office. One current treatment available is cognitive -behavioral treatment (CBT). This is a leading psychological...of a unit. It is common for different people to have different perceptions of the same situation; cognitively speaking it is very unlikely for an...Asch’s experiment three decades later [Electronic version]. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie , 13(1), 49-55. Thirty years later Vlaander and
Peters, Emmanuelle R; Moritz, Steffen; Schwannauer, Matthias; Wiseman, Zoe; Greenwood, Kathryn E; Scott, Jan; Beck, Aaron T; Donaldson, Catherine; Hagen, Roger; Ross, Kerry; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Ison, Rebecca; Williams, Sally; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa A
The Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for psychosis (CBQp) was developed to capture 5 cognitive distortions (jumping to conclusions, intentionalising, catastrophising, emotional reasoning, and dichotomous thinking), which are considered important for the pathogenesis of psychosis. Vignettes were adapted from the Cognitive Style Test (CST),(1) relating to "Anomalous Perceptions" and "Threatening Events" themes. Scale structure, reliability, and validity were investigated in a psychosis group, and CBQp scores were compared with those of depressed and healthy control samples. The CBQp showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The 5 biases were not independent, with a 2-related factor scale providing the best fit. This structure suggests that the CBQp assesses a general thinking bias rather than distinct cognitive errors, while Anomalous Perception and Threatening Events theme scores can be used separately. Total CBQp scores showed good convergent validity with the CST, but individual biases were not related to existing tasks purporting to assess similar reasoning biases. Psychotic and depressed populations scored higher than healthy controls, and symptomatic psychosis patients scored higher than their nonsymptomatic counterparts, with modest relationships between CBQp scores and symptom severity once emotional disorders were partialled out. Anomalous Perception theme and Intentionalising bias scores showed some specificity to psychosis. Overall, the CBQp has good psychometric properties, although it is likely that it measures a different construct to existing tasks, tentatively suggested to represent a bias of interpretation rather than reasoning, judgment or decision-making processes. It is a potentially useful tool in both research and clinical arenas.
田端, 克至; タバタ, カツシ; Katsushi, TABATA
This article discussed on, what we call, the home bias puzzle and international equity investment transactions, in which international security has less been invested in foreign countries After 1989, US and German foreign capital outflow have drastically increased, however. It is the background why this article focuses on these maters. Some changes might be happen in the international financial market. These developments in the world have important implications for us.
Dohmen, Thomas; Sauermann, Jan
This paper surveys the empirical literature on the behavior of referees in professional football and other sports. Referees are typically appointed by a principal to be impartial, especially when unbiased referee judgment is vital for the accomplishment of the principal's objective. Answering whether referees make biased decisions and understanding the causes that lead referees to digress from their principal duty of impartiality is therefore fundamental from a theoretical point of view. At t...
Roy Cooper Dr. Bert Smith Dr. Phil Brandler Don Wajda Don Woodbury Ed Doucette Bonnie Jezior COL Gary Engel Earl Rubright Kathleen Kinsella Dan...Donald Wajda U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center Staff Assistant Mr. Tom Conway Army Materiel Command Cadet Assistant CDT Erik Wright Rose
Full Text Available In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA and tyramine (TA, as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes.
Soldier Training System, Simulation Training Capabilities, Immersive Training, Squad Tactical Tasks 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Simulation, VSTS – Virtual Squad Training System 4 and microphone. The VSMM utilizes radio frequency identification ( RFID ) tags and hand sensors to...are available when programmed into the RFID tags. Soldiers can be issued a lensatic compass or GPS based on leadership discretion. These items
Bügler, Max; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Shacham, Roei; Keasar, Tamar; Thuijsman, Frank
Parasitoid wasps are convenient subjects for testing sex allocation theory. However, their intricate life histories are often insufficiently captured in simple analytical models. In the polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma koehleri, a clone of genetically identical offspring develops from each egg. Male clones contain fewer individuals than female clones. Some female larvae develop into soldiers that kill within-host competitors, while males do not form soldiers. These features complicate the prediction of Copidosoma’s sex allocation. We developed an individual-based simulation model, where numerous random starting strategies compete and recombine until a single stable sex allocation evolves. Life-history parameter values (e.g., fecundity, clone-sizes, larval survival) are estimated from experimental data. The model predicts a male-biased sex allocation, which becomes more extreme as the probability of superparasitism (hosts parasitized more than once) increases. To test this prediction, we reared adult parasitoids at either low or high density, mated them, and presented them with unlimited hosts. As predicted, wasps produced more sons than daughters in all treatments. Males reared at high density (a potential cue for superparasitism) produced a higher male bias in their offspring than low-density males. Unexpectedly, female density did not affect offspring sex ratios. We discuss possible mechanisms for paternal control over offspring sex. PMID:23755142
Full Text Available Parasitoid wasps are convenient subjects for testing sex allocation theory. However, their intricate life histories are often insufficiently captured in simple analytical models. In the polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma koehleri, a clone of genetically identical offspring develops from each egg. Male clones contain fewer individuals than female clones. Some female larvae develop into soldiers that kill within-host competitors, while males do not form soldiers. These features complicate the prediction of Copidosoma's sex allocation. We developed an individual-based simulation model, where numerous random starting strategies compete and recombine until a single stable sex allocation evolves. Life-history parameter values (e.g., fecundity, clone-sizes, larval survival are estimated from experimental data. The model predicts a male-biased sex allocation, which becomes more extreme as the probability of superparasitism (hosts parasitized more than once increases. To test this prediction, we reared adult parasitoids at either low or high density, mated them, and presented them with unlimited hosts. As predicted, wasps produced more sons than daughters in all treatments. Males reared at high density (a potential cue for superparasitism produced a higher male bias in their offspring than low-density males. Unexpectedly, female density did not affect offspring sex ratios. We discuss possible mechanisms for paternal control over offspring sex.
Tonguc Utku Yilmaz
Full Text Available AIM: Cancer prevention is the most important public cancer management. Although the preventive methods have been known, they havent been performed in practice. Beside the education, consultation should be given. A descriptive study which was performed in military where the adolescents younger than 25 years of age with the capability of developing behaviour styles exist more, was presented in order to evaluate the effects of cancer prevention education to the practice. METHOD: After the evaluation of demographic features and knowledge of soldiers in Ulucinar Special Education Commadership, cancer preventive methods were told by the doctor. Following th lesson, consultation was given about healthy nutrition, quiting smoking, weight control, and determination of risk factors. Nutritional and smoking habits were evaluated after the consultation. RESULTS: Among the soldiers, %20 of them thought that cancer was contagious and %23 of them thought that cancer was fetal. Media is the major source of information. Although they knew preventive methods like stop smoking, healthy nutrition, exersize, medical follow-up, they didnt carry out them. After the consultation, some of them quit smoking but the rate of healthy nutrition didnt improved. 20 participants whose body mass index greater than 25, achieved ideal body weight. The followup is told to the 44 participants with family histories. CONCLUSION: Results of cancer prevention education can be seen in pratice among the soldiers which were tought to be lack of health responsibilities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 475-480
Ostroumov, Roman; Forrester, Thomas; Lee, Kang; Stephens, Robert; Lai, Anthony; Zahzah, Mohamad
Physical Optics Corporation (POC) developed the body-worn Integrated Soldier Power and Data System (ISPDS), a configurable node for plug-in wired or wireless server/client or peer-to-peer computing with accommodations for power, sensor I/O interfaces, and energy harvesting. The enabling technology increases the efficacy of uniformed personnel and first responders and provides an option for reducing force structure associated with the need for hardware network infrastructure to enable a mobile digital communications architecture for dismounted troops. The ISPDS system addresses the DoD's need for an "intelligent" power control system in an effort to increase mission duration and maximize the first responders and warfighter's effectiveness without concern for the available energy resources (i.e., batteries). ISPDS maximizes durability and survivability, assesses influences that affect performance, and provides the network backbone and mobile node hardware. POC is producing two vest-integrated variants, one each for the U.S. Army PEO Ground Soldier and the Air Soldier, with each including state-of-the-art low-profile and robust wearable connectors, cabling, and harnesses, and an integrated low-profile power manager and conformal battery for data and power distribution. The innovative intelligent power controller (IPC), in the form of the ISPDS firmware and power sensing and control electronics, will enable ISPDS to optimize power levels both automatically and in accordance with manually set preferences. The IPC module is power dense and efficient, and adaptively provides lossless transfer of available harvested photovoltaic energy to the battery. The integrated systems were tested for suitable electrical, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and environmental performance as outlined in military standards such as MIL-STD- 810G and MIL STD-461F.
Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez
Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.
Song, Suzan J; de Jong, Joop
Around the world, there are an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 children involved in armed conflict. Children can be abducted into a fighting force to fight or serve as sex slaves. Child soldiers have depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, evidence is mixed because of methodologic limitations. Various mental health interventions have been tried, with promising results. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are uniquely trained in understanding and assisting youth to heal from such extraordinary experiences. A public health paradigm could include interventions that are based on a comprehensive assessment of interweaving developmental, biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Manual (SM); the task was rct going to be included in the 1iB Skill Qualification Test (SQT) hands-on ccmponent, SQT skill component, or Expert...Breech (8 steps): The step where most errors were made was to assemble the obturator so that the split rings were 180 degrees apart. Again, there is no...in this test is the obturator . If the soldier starts to disassemble any otber component, tell him, "You do not have to disassemble that component
consumer / Soldier performance-based nutrition education internal and external to the DFAC. This may require developing a HPP DFAC program marketing plan ...Beverage Choice Categories of 2BCT DFAC Patrons Pre-Post Assessment 60 9 SWCS Patron Fruit, Vegetable, and Dairy Servings (Cups) Pre to Post HPP...Healthy Eating Index 2010 (or HEI 2010); Menu Planning ; Healthy Eating; and Performance. These searches identified a gap with limited research
Amelie M. Achim
Full Text Available Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+ show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ− and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.
... Topics Eating Healthy Eating Healthy Contact Us Resources Eating Healthy Eating healthy is part of living a healthy life. Healthy eating is a responsibility of our communities, schools, clinics, ...
Full Text Available Long gone are the days that the law pertaining to children essentially dealt with the position of children within the parent-child relationship. On the contrary it has become a highly specialised legal discipline in which international and regional conventions progressively establish norms and standards to be adhered to. This book by Waschefort, the 53rd volume in the series Studies in International Law, bears ample testimony to this. It reviews all of the international instruments containing proscriptive norms to prohibit the use and recruitment of child soldiers. It commences with an analysis of the current state of child soldiering internationally, after which relevant international instruments are comprehensively discussed with a clear focus on the question of whether or not the prohibitive norms are optimally enforced – are they capable of better enforcement? The author adopts an “issues-based approach” in terms of which no specific regime of law, for instance International Humanitarian Law, is considered dominant. He assesses universal and regional human rights law together with International Human Rights Law and International Criminal Law to establish a mutually reinforcing web of protection for children. He also critically assesses the international judicial, quasi-judicial and non-judicial entities most relevant to child soldier prevention. He argues that the effective implementation of child soldier prohibitive norms does not require fundamental changes to any entity or functionary engaged in such prevention. In fact, what is required according to the author is the constant reassessment and refinement of all such entities and functionaries. The conclusions which are reached are ultimately tested against the background of a comprehensive case study on the use and recruitment of child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. International Law and Child Soldiers is to be welcomed as a timely contribution to the evaluation
Full Text Available Individuals entering US Army service are generally young and healthy, but many are overweight, which may impact cardiometabolic risk despite physical activity and fitness requirements. This analysis examines the association between Soldiers' BMI at accession and incident cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF using longitudinal data from 731,014 Soldiers (17.0% female; age: 21.6 [3.9] years; BMI: 24.7 [3.8] kg/m2 who were assessed at Army accession, 2001-2011. CRF were defined as incident diagnoses through 2011, by ICD-9 code, of metabolic syndrome, glucose/insulin disorder, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or overweight/obesity (in those not initially overweight/obese. Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI between BMI categories at accession and CRF. Initially underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2 were 2.4% of Soldiers, 53.5% were normal weight (18.5-<25, 34.2% were overweight (25-<30, and 10.0% were obese (≥30. Mean age range at CRF diagnosis was 24-29 years old, with generally low CRF incidence: 228 with metabolic syndrome, 3,880 with a glucose/insulin disorder, 26,373 with hypertension, and 13,404 with dyslipidemia. Of the Soldiers who were not overweight or obese at accession, 5,361 were eventually diagnosed as overweight or obese. Relative to Soldiers who were normal weight at accession, those who were overweight or obese, respectively, had significantly higher risk of developing each CRF after multivariable adjustment (HR [95% CI]: metabolic syndrome: 4.13 [2.87-5.94], 13.36 [9.00-19.83]; glucose/insulin disorder: 1.39 [1.30-1.50], 2.76 [2.52-3.04]; hypertension: 1.85 [1.80-1.90], 3.31 [3.20-3.42]; dyslipidemia: 1.81 [1.75-1.89], 3.19 [3.04-3.35]. Risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight/obesity in initially underweight Soldiers was 40%, 31%, and 79% lower, respectively, versus normal-weight Soldiers. BMI in early adulthood has important implications for
Bartsch, Adam; Samorezov, Sergey
Nearly 2 million Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) occur in the U.S. each year, with societal costs approaching $60 billion. Including mild TBI and concussion, TBI's are prevalent in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan as well as in domestic athletes. Long-term risks of single and cumulative head impact dosage may present in the form of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicide, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Quantifying head impact dosage and understanding associated risk factors for the development of long-term sequelae is critical toward developing guidelines for TBI exposure and post-exposure management. The current knowledge gap between head impact exposure and clinical outcomes limits the understanding of underlying TBI mechanisms, including effective treatment protocols and prevention methods for soldiers and athletes. In order to begin addressing this knowledge gap, Cleveland Clinic is developing the "Intelligent Mouthguard" head impact dosimeter. Current testing indicates the Intelligent Mouthguard can quantify linear acceleration with 3% error and angular acceleration with 17% error during impacts ranging from 10g to 174g and 850rad/s2 to 10000rad/s2, respectively. Correlation was high (R2 > 0.99, R2 = 0.98, respectively). Near-term development will be geared towards quantifying head impact dosages in vitro, longitudinally in athletes and to test new sensors for possible improved accuracy and reduced bias. Long-term, the IMG may be useful to soldiers to be paired with neurocognitive clinical data quantifying resultant TBI functional deficits.
Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.
Orr, Robin Marc; Coyle, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Pope, Rodney
The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational load carriage constitutes a significant source of injury to military soldiers. An online survey was sent to soldiers serving in specific Australian Army Corps known to experience the greatest occupational exposure to load carriage. Of the 338 respondents, 34% sustained at least one load carriage injury. Fifty-two per cent of those injured during initial training reported sustaining an additional load carriage injury. The majority of injuries (61%) were to the lower limbs with bones and joints the most frequently injured body structures (39%). Endurance marching (continuous marching as part of a physical training session) was the activity accounting for most (38%) injuries. Occupational load carriage is associated with military soldier injuries and, once injured, soldiers are at a high risk of future load carriage injury. The bodily sites and nature of self-reported injuries in this study are akin to those of formally reported injuries and those of other militaries.
Orr, Robin Marc; Pope, Rodney; Johnston, Venerina; Coyle, Julia
This narrative review examines injuries sustained by soldiers undertaking occupational load carriage tasks. Military soldiers are required to carry increasingly heavier occupational loads. These loads have been found to increase the physiological cost to the soldier and alter their gait mechanics. Aggregated research findings suggest that the lower limbs are the most frequent anatomical site of injury associated with load carriage. While foot blisters are common, other prevalent lower limb injuries include stress fractures, knee and foot pain, and neuropathies, like digitalgia and meralgia. Shoulder neuropathies (brachial plexus palsy) and lower back injuries are not uncommon. Soldier occupational load carriage has the potential to cause injuries that impact on force generation and force sustainment. Through understanding the nature of these injuries targeted interventions, like improved physical conditioning and support to specialised organisations, can be employed.
Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.
In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined...
capabilities of the Soldiers of the 101st Airborne (Air Assault) to assist with their deployment training. Today’s Soldier, described as a tactical...materials and exercise descriptions to assist in the delivery of the program. Quality control audits will be conducted by a task force comprised of the...R, Henderson J. Predictors of basic infantry success. Mil Med. 1994;159:616-22. 34 22. Siri WE. Body composition from fluid spaces and density
DATES COVERED 26 FEB 2014 Final 1 SEP 2011 - 31 DEC 2013 - 4. TITLE AND S UBTITLE I’· CONTRACT NUMBER I Family Reintegration Experiences of Soldiers...unlimited [ 13. SUPPLEMENTARY OTES I N/A 14. ABSTRACT I Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore family reintegration processes ofpost-mTBI...nurses who provide much of that care and who educate soldiers and their family members about mTBI. 15. SUBJECT TERMS family reintegration , deployment
of educating soldiers that humanitarian law applies to both adults as well as children is imperative. This informs and reminds Army units that...be held accountable and will face legal ramifications, with the possibility of being tried for war crimes , in their use and abuse of children as... CHILDREN : ARMY POLICY AND CHILD SOLDIERS by John A. Burkhart III June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Bradley Strawser Second Reader: Ian Rice
Stevens, Amy Jane
There are estimated 120,000 girl child soldiers worldwide. Recruitment makes girls vulnerable to the violence of war, torture, psychological trauma and sexual abuse with huge impact on their physical, mental and reproductive health. Despite this, girl soldiers often remain an invisible and marginalised group frequently neglected from disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes. This is not just a local issue: with former child soldiers seeking asylum as refugees there is an increasing need for health workers in the destination countries to understand their health needs in order to inform appropriate holistic service provision. This review provides an overview of how the duties and life experiences of girl soldiers, including gender-specific abuses, impacts upon their health and concludes with a summary of recommendations as to how their rehabilitation needs can be addressed.
Pearn, John H
Sick and injured children, like combatants wounded by shot and shell in war, are disproportionately represented in the tallies of both man-made and national disasters. Paediatricians have a particularly proud heritage of military service, a nexus dating in Australia from the early 19th century. This paper traces this link between service to children in peacetime and the care of servicemen, women and children in times of war and disaster. The extraordinary record of Australian 'paediatric' doctors who also served in the Gallipoli Campaign (1915) is documented as an illustration of this duality. Paediatricians who serve in the Defence Reserves and in civilian non-government organisations which respond to disasters and civil wars have special credentials in their advocacy for the protection of children enmeshed in conflict or disaster. Such applies particularly to the banning of the recruitment and use of child soldiers; support for children caught up in refugee and illegal immigrant confrontations; and continued advocacy for greater international compliance with the Ottawa Convention to ban the use of anti-personnel landmines. Volunteering for such service must occur in cold 'down time', ensuring that paediatricians are trained in disaster and conflict response, when such challenges inevitably confront the paediatricians of the future. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Based on over 400 in-depth interviews with child soldiers and their commanders, this research reveals how rebel group socialization leads to allegiance among child soldiers and how this contributes to the creation of a cohesive group.
Brumley, Donald W
.... The abdication of the monarchy in 1918 forced the professional soldier to look for a substitute sovereign who would insure the survival of the privileged role of the soldier in republican state and society...
Bovill, Maria E; Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R
...%) reported current supplement use with more SF (90%) than non-SF, support soldiers (76%) using supplements (p Supplements that SF soldiers reported using most were multivitamins, sports bars or sports drinks, and vitamin C...
Shahar, Eyal; Shahar, Doron J
Information bias might be present in any study, including randomized trials, because the values of variables of interest are unknown, and researchers have to rely on substitute variables, the values of which provide information on the unknown true values. We used causal directed acyclic graphs to extend previous work on information bias. First, we show that measurement is a complex causal process that has two components, ie, imprinting and synthesizing. Second, we explain how the unknown values of a variable may be imputed from other variables, and present examples of valid and invalid substitutions for a variable of interest. Finally, and most importantly, we describe a previously unrecognized bias, which may be viewed as antithetical to information bias. This bias arises whenever a variable does not exist in the physical world, yet researchers obtain "information" on its nonexistent values and estimate nonexistent causal parameters. According to our thesis, the scientific literature contains many articles that are affected by such bias.
Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners
Child soldiers are not a new phenomena for U.S. military forces, but they are an expanding problem that has implications for military training and...the mental health of U.S. troops. This paper examines the problem of child soldiers throughout the world and assesses current U.S. military policies and...practices regarding child soldiers . Specifically, the author describes the impact of child soldiers on the effectiveness of combat forces, the
Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse
Given the various developments in former child soldiers' psychosocial well-being over time, the question arises as to which factors are associated with the prevalence of psychological distress. An ongoing debate points to the plausible importance of child soldiering-related and post-child soldiering factors. This study is an exploratory analysis of both types of association with former child soldiers' psychosocial well-being in the longer term. Follow-up data on a convenience sample of 424 northern Ugandan former child soldiers are analysed. Psychological symptoms are assessed by a review of the intake and assessment forms of the Rachele Rehabilitation Centre, which were not validated and did not include a standardised translation into the local language. These psychological symptoms and possible associated factors are analysed using binary logistic regression analysis. Thereby, both child soldiering-related and post-child soldiering variables are accounted for. The outcomes reveal almost no significant main effects of child soldiering-related variables, while a range of post-child soldiering variables (number of meals a day, school attendance, insults and professional support) are clearly associated with the prevalence of the measured psychological symptoms in the longer term. These exploratory conclusions should be further investigated in representative samples of former child soldiers using validated assessment tools.
Spellings, Carolyn R.
Over 300,000 children are estimated to be conscripted participants in conflicts throughout the world. Depending on the particular armed group that employs child soldiers, girls represent 6 to 50% of child soldiers. Despite this prevalence of involvement, the experience of girls as soldiers in war and political conflict has rarely been…
of child soldiering. This article takes issue with this universalism as neither deterring the use of children in conflict nor providing appropriate post-conflict reintegration of child soldiers. The article instead provides a critical pluralist approach to the post-conflict treatment of child soldiers. In particular, the discussion focuses on ...
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Simmons, Stephanie; Borisova, Ivelina; Brewer, Stephanie E.; Iweala, Uzo; de la Soudiere, Marie
A number of studies have explored aspects of education relating to the reintegration of former child soldiers into their communities. In particular, researchers have shown the negative effects of child soldiering on the educational and economic outcomes of former child soldiers. A few studies have discussed the relative benefits of education for…
Background Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. Methods This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452) and never-recruited peers (N=191) who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005–06); immediately afterwards (T2; 2006–07); and at present (T3; 2010). Participants also rated present functional impairment and mental health indicators. Results Participants reported improvement on all indicators, especially economic opportunity and social integration. At present no difference existed between both groups on any of the outcome indicators. Socio-economic functioning was negatively related with depression- and, health complaints and positively with intervention satisfaction. Conclusion The present study demonstrates promising reintegration trajectories of former child soldiers after participating in a support program. PMID:23095403
Jordans, Mark J D; Komproe, Ivan H; Tol, Wietse A; Ndayisaba, Aline; Nisabwe, Theodora; Kohrt, Brandon A
Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452) and never-recruited peers (N=191) who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005-06); immediately afterwards (T2; 2006-07); and at present (T3; 2010). Participants also rated present functional impairment and mental health indicators. Participants reported improvement on all indicators, especially economic opportunity and social integration. At present no difference existed between both groups on any of the outcome indicators. Socio-economic functioning was negatively related with depression- and, health complaints and positively with intervention satisfaction. The present study demonstrates promising reintegration trajectories of former child soldiers after participating in a support program.
Full Text Available This article examines the issue of the position of child soldiers under International Law. After preliminary remarks on the approach of international human rights and humanitarian law to the protection of children involved in armed conflicts, the article discusses the prohibitions on recruiting children and the individual criminal responsibility of recruiters. Case-law on the child soldiers’ recruitment is considered. In the fourth part the position of the child soldiers as perpetrators is discussed and the retributive approach to the issue is explored. The last section offers an overview of the restorative justice-oriented solution to the dilemma of the criminal responsibility of child soldiers adopted in the context of the post-conflict situation in Sierra Leone.
Jordans Mark JD
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. Methods This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452 and never-recruited peers (N=191 who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005–06; immediately afterwards (T2; 2006–07; and at present (T3; 2010. Participants also rated present functional impairment and mental health indicators. Results Participants reported improvement on all indicators, especially economic opportunity and social integration. At present no difference existed between both groups on any of the outcome indicators. Socio-economic functioning was negatively related with depression- and, health complaints and positively with intervention satisfaction. Conclusion The present study demonstrates promising reintegration trajectories of former child soldiers after participating in a support program.
Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Adam, Hubertus
The present study examines the effect of war and domestic violence on the mental health of child soldiers in a sample consisting of 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age: 11-17 years, female: 49%). All children had experienced at least 1 war-related event and 78% were additionally exposed to at least 1 incident of domestic violence. Prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder were 33%, and 36%, respectively. Behavioral and emotional problems above clinical cutoff were measured in 61%. No gender differences were found regarding mental health outcomes. War experience and domestic violence were significantly associated with all mental health outcomes. The authors' findings point to the detrimental effects of domestic violence in addition to traumatizing war experiences in child soldiers.
Johannessen, Steinar; Holgersen, Helge
With this article, we explore how staff working at transit centers and vocational training centers in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo experienced the problems and needs of former child soldiers. We argued that the staff's experience of the children's daily lives and their understanding of the sociocultural context of the conflict make their perspective a valuable source of information when trying to understand the phenomenon of child soldiering. Additionally, we reasoned that how the staff frame these children's problems influences how they attempt to aid the children. We conducted 11 semistructured interviews and analyzed these using a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach. We clustered our findings around six themes: unfavorable contextual factors, acting as if still in the army, addiction, symptoms of psychopathology, social rejection, and reintegration needs. The overarching message we observed was that the informants experienced that former child soldiers require help to be transformed into civilians who participate proactively in their society.
The development of a successful exoskeleton for human performance augmentation (EHPA) will require a multi-disciplinary systems approach based upon sound biomechanics, power generation and actuation systems, controls technology, and operator interfaces. The ability to integrate key components into a system that enhances performance without impeding operator mobility is essential. The purpose of this study and report are to address the issue of feasibility of building a fieldable EHPA. Previous efforts, while demonstrating progress and enhancing knowledge, have not approached the level required for a fully functional, fieldable system. It is doubtless that the technologies required for a successful exoskeleton have advanced, and some of them significantly. The question to be addressed in this report is have they advanced to the point of making a system feasible in the next three to five years? In this study, the key technologies required to successfully build an exoskeleton have been examined. The primary focus has been on the key technologies of power sources, actuators, and controls. Power sources, including internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, and hybrid sources have been investigated and compared with respect to the exoskeleton application. Both conventional and non-conventional actuator technologies that could impact EHPA have been assessed. In addition to the current state of the art of actuators, the potential for near-term improvements using non-conventional actuators has also been addressed. Controls strategies, and their implication to the design approach, and the exoskeleton to soldier interface have also been investigated. In addition to these key subsystems and technologies, this report addresses technical concepts and issues relating to an integrated design. A recommended approach, based on the results of the study is also presented.
Lieberman, Harris R; Stavinoha, Trisha; McGraw, Susan; White, Alan; Hadden, Louise; Marriott, Bernadette P
Eighty-percent of the US adult population regularly consumes caffeine, but limited information is available on the extent and patterns of use. Caffeine use is a public health issue and its risks and benefits are regularly considered in scientific literature and the lay media. Recently, new caffeine-containing products have been introduced and are widely available on Army bases and are added to rations to maintain cognitive performance. This study surveyed caffeine consumption and demographic characteristics in 990 US Army soldiers. Data were weighted by age, sex, rank, and Special Forces status. Total caffeine intake and intake from specific products were estimated. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between caffeine use and soldier demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Eighty-two percent of soldiers consumed caffeine at least once a week. Mean daily caffeine consumption was 285 mg/day (347 mg/day among regular caffeine consumers). Male soldiers consumed, on average, 303 mg/day and females 163 mg/day (regular consumers: 365 mg/day for male soldiers, 216 mg/day for female soldiers). Coffee was the main source of caffeine intake. Among young males, energy drinks were the largest source of caffeine intake, but their intake was not greater than older males. Regression analysis indicated an association of higher caffeine intake with male sex, white race, and tobacco use (Pcaffeine in levels accepted as safe, but some consume greater quantities than recommended, although definitive information on safe upper limits of caffeine intake is not available. Labels of caffeine-containing products should provide caffeine content so individuals can make informed decisions. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bracken, P J; Giller, J E; Ssekiwanuka, J K
There is growing international concern that large numbers of children are being recruited to military forces in situations of conflict around the globe, despite the fact that there are principles established in international law specifically directed against the use of children as soldiers. It has been assumed that military experience will have negative psychological effects on children, and several projects aimed at the rehabilitation of such children have been developed. We have had opportunities to examine the situation of child soldiers in Uganda, Liberia and Sierra Leone. In this article we draw attention to some of the conceptual and practical problems involved in this rehabilitative work.
... United States Mint Prices for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star- Spangled Banner.... SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing pricing for the 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012.... Dollar. 2012 Infantry Soldier Uncirculated $49.95 $54.95. Silver Dollar. 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver...
... United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star- Spangled Banner... United States Mint is announcing adjusted pricing for the 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012... Soldier Proof Silver Dollar.... $49.95 $54.95 Infantry Soldier Uncirculated Silver 44.95 49.95 Dollar...
Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P
Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people.
such issues, I explicitly formulate my argument to complement their disciplinary perspective. Let me outline my argument in short: My main contention is that, ... surveillance of military missions may lead to psychological problems that some ..... expertise of soldiers in the management and effectuation of organised violence.
Gewald, J.B.; Bechhaus-Gerst, M.; Klein-Arendt, R.
Between 1904 and 1908 imperial German troops committed genocide in German South West Africa, present-day Namibia. African survivors of the war were cruelly treated, placed in camps and put to work as forced labourers. This paper addresses the question of why German soldiers and settlers committed
ELEMENT RDRL HRM DJ D DURBIN BLDG 4506 (DCD) RM 107 FORT RUCKER AL 36362-5000 1 ARMY RSCH LABORATORY – HRED RDRL HRM CK J REINHART...KNAPP ONLY) 300 ARMY PENTAGON RM 2C489 WASHINGTON DC 20310-0300 1 US ARMY SOLDIER SYSTEMS CENTER ATTN JENNIFER ROURKE RESEARCH
Over the past decade, child soldiers have inundated the popular media. Images of boys armed with AK47s appear ubiquitous, providing a cautionary tale of innocent childhood gone awry. While these representations turn commonly held assumptions of a protected and innocuous childhood on its head, what they conceal is as provocative as what they…
Song, S.; de Jong, J.
Conscription of children into the armed forces continues to be a worldwide problem. Understanding the transition from being a child soldier to becoming a civilian adult is crucial in understanding the longitudinal and social effects of childhood trauma. This study examined the community and family
This article describes how students in an American history class learned about the Civil War through soldiers' letters. Letters from the Civil War era come in a variety of styles and syntax. Some are easy to read while others are extremely difficult to transcribe. But every one of them speaks to the reader, revealing an unknown entity from another…
Lima, Thâmarah de Albuquerque; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Dornelles, Leonardo Prezzi; Amorim, Poliana Karla; Sá, Roberto Araújo; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes
The digestive apparatus of termites may have several biotechnological applications, as well as being a target for pest control. This report discusses the detection of cellulases (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase), hemicellulases (β-xylosidase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase, and β-d-xylanase), α-amylase, and proteases (trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, and keratinase-type) in gut extracts from Nasutitermes corniger workers and soldiers. Additionally, the effects of pH (3.0-11.0) and temperature (30-100°C) on enzyme activities were evaluated. All enzymes investigated were detected in the gut extracts of worker and soldier termites. Endoglucanase and β-xylanase were the main cellulase and hemicellulase, respectively. Zymography for proteases of worker extracts revealed polypeptides of 22, 30, and 43kDa that hydrolyzed casein, and assays using protease inhibitors showed that serine proteases were the main proteases in worker and soldier guts. The determined enzyme activities and their response to different pH and temperature values revealed that workers and soldiers contained a distinct digestive apparatus. The ability of these termites to efficiently digest the main components of lignocellulosic materials stimulates the purification of gut enzymes. Further investigation into their biotechnological potential as well as whether the enzymes detected are produced by the termites or by their symbionts is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
brown rice for white rice; eliminated other nutrient-stripped starches – Replaced white bread with wheat and served only whole grain high fiber cereal ... consumption by the soldiers – Added leafy vegetables into salads to increase iron content – Added evening granola bar with low fat milk & morning pre
Glasgow, Jacqueline N.; Baer, Allison L.
Sierra Leone is only one of the more than 50 armed conflicts currently going on around the world. It is estimated that 20 million children were either refugees or displaced internally, and some 300,000 children under the age of 18 were used in hostilities at any given time as government or rebel soldiers, with about one-third reportedly fighting…
Background: There is a popular belief among the general population that Nigerian soldiers tend to have large families but this has not been substantiated with evidence-based research. The Nigerian military health authority implements femaletargetted contraception strategies, with less focus on their husbands; who are the ...
Cornum, Rhonda; Matthews, Michael D.; Seligman, Martin E. P.
The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program is designed to increase psychological strength and positive performance and to reduce the incidence of maladaptive responses of the entire U.S. Army. Based on the principles of positive psychology, CSF is a historically unique approach to behavioral health in a large (1.1 million members)…
Juracek, Kyle E.
Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages along Soldier Creek in northeast Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to assess annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow.Annual mean streamflows along Soldier Creek were characterized by substantial year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trends. On average, annual mean base flow accounted for about 20 percent of annual mean streamflow. Mean monthly flows followed a general seasonal pattern that included peak values in spring and low values in winter. Annual peak flows, which were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability, were most likely to occur in May and June and least likely to occur during November through February. With the exception of a weak yet statistically significant increasing trend at the Soldier Creek near Topeka, Kansas, streamgage, there were no pronounced long-term trends in annual peak flows. Annual 1-day, 30-day, and 90-day mean minimum flows were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trend. During an extreme drought, as was the case in the mid-1950s, there may be zero flow in Soldier Creek continuously for a period of one to several months.
become the western States, the citizen soldier would help provide security against bandits and vigilantes. The militia contributed to both union...National Guard and Reserves, 2008), 52. 21 11 Global Security, “National Guard in Dessert Storm,” http://www.globalsecurity.org/military
In Liberia, a bloody civil war broke out in 1989 in which thousands of children were used as child soldiers. Surprisingly, not much is known about how they are settling back into civil society after the end of hostilities. This study tries to fill that gap by focusing on the role of social support networks in their rehabilitation.
Worldwide, children are drawn into lives as soldiers and terrorism as the result of forced recruitment and also by extremist ideologies and their inability to obtain security, food, power, prestige, education, and positive life options through civilian means. Using an example from Sierra Leone, this article shows that peace education is an…
governmental agency. (References to this study should include the foregoing statement.) iv ABSTRACT TECNOLOGY SUPPORTED SELF-DEVELOPMENT FOR SOLDIERS...closely related to education than training. However, “The Army Training System comprises training and education . . . . Training and education occur in...all three training domains. Training prepares individuals for certainty. Education prepares individuals for uncertainty. Education enables agility
Return through a reception center or through a cleansing ritual did not protect against depression. Discussion: Post-traumatic stress disorder among former LRA child soldiers at a rehabilitation centre in northern Uganda is presented. The report highlights the huge unmet need for psychological services among former child ...
The relevance of a book review of a fictional account of the life story of a child soldier in Sierra Leone for a journal such as Scientia Militaria is twofold: a). Truth (reality) remains stranger (more horrific) than fiction; b) Based on national foreign policy, the truth (realities) of Sierra Leone is by continental affiliation a.
He was also one of the founding members of the MK Military Intelligence wing, which played an important role in the ... of Cuban cigars. Ngculu also tells how frustrated the MK soldiers were, because some of them spent years in the camps while waiting to be deployed to the front. This frustrated them because they were all ...
been significant progress made in updating the tool and databases as well as the mobile application for the Triad mobile program ( iphone and android ...devices, e.g. Droid, iphone , Blackberry. The launch of the program on Smartphones has enabled field managers to engage Soldiers more efficiently at
reversal protest is inevitable in most post military rule societies, but is pronounced in. Nigeria owing to the given ... Key words: Role Reversal Protest, Post military Soldiers, Inter Group Conflicts,. Partisan Ruling/Dominant .... The report database include market traders, commercial drivers, sex workers, criminal suspects, and ...
This article focuses on the dilemma of using child soldiers in violent conflicts throughout Africa and on ways of resolving it in the future. The first section briefly examines some important domestic and international aspects and dimensions of the problem. Then, attention is shifted to particular individual countries on the ...
As a result, a huge stockpile of munitions and transport vehicles together with approximately 33 000. Allied soldiers ..... of a wave having launched Operation Blue in June 1942 making immediate and massive gains towards ..... which Klopper allegedly took exception to the British Radio Daventry report that Tobruk was of no.
Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Bramsen, I.; van der Ploeg, H.M.
This study aimed to investigate positive and negative consequences of peacekeeping operations, help-seeking behaviour among peacekeepers, PTSD prevalence rates and factors associated with PTSD symptoms. A sample of 3,481 peacekeeping soldiers who participated in various peacekeeping operations was
Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Bramsen, I.; Ploeg, H.M. van der
This study aimed to investigate positive and negative consequences of peacekeeping operations, help-seeking behaviour among peacekeepers, PTSD prevalence rates and factors associated with PTSD symptoms. A sample of 3,481 peacekeeping soldiers who participated in various peacekeeping operations was
Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan
This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model sta...
... changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of ... Get the screening tests you need Maintain a healthy weight Eat a variety of healthy foods, and ...
Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Brunoni, André R
BACKGROUND: To aid in the differentiation of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) from healthy controls, numerous peripheral biomarkers have been proposed. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the existence of bias favoring the publication of significant results or inflating effect......-analysis would equal the one of its largest study. A significant summary effect size estimate was observed for 20 biomarkers. We observed an excess of statistically significant studies in 21 meta-analyses. The summary effect size of the meta-analysis was higher than the effect of its largest study in 25 meta...
Street, A. E.; Gilman, S. E.; Rosellini, A. J.; Stein, M. B.; Bromet, E. J.; Cox, K. L.; Colpe, L. J.; Fullerton, C. S.; Gruber, M. J.; Heeringa, S. G.; Lewandowski-Romps, L.; Little, R. J. A.; Naifeh, J. A.; Nock, M. K.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoenbaum, M.; Ursano, R. J.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Kessler, R. C.
Background The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) has found that the proportional elevation in the US Army enlisted soldier suicide rate during deployment (compared with the never-deployed or previously deployed) is significantly higher among women than men, raising the possibility of gender differences in the adverse psychological effects of deployment. Method Person-month survival models based on a consolidated administrative database for active duty enlisted Regular Army soldiers in 2004–2009 (n = 975 057) were used to characterize the gender × deployment interaction predicting suicide. Four explanatory hypotheses were explored involving the proportion of females in each soldier’s occupation, the proportion of same-gender soldiers in each soldier’s unit, whether the soldier reported sexual assault victimization in the previous 12 months, and the soldier’s pre-deployment history of treated mental/behavioral disorders. Results The suicide rate of currently deployed women (14.0/100 000 person-years) was 3.1–3.5 times the rates of other (i.e. never-deployed/previously deployed) women. The suicide rate of currently deployed men (22.6/100 000 person-years) was 0.9–1.2 times the rates of other men. The adjusted (for time trends, sociodemographics, and Army career variables) female:male odds ratio comparing the suicide rates of currently deployed v. other women v. men was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1–6.8), became 2.4 after excluding soldiers with Direct Combat Arms occupations, and remained elevated (in the range 1.9–2.8) after adjusting for the hypothesized explanatory variables. Conclusions These results are valuable in excluding otherwise plausible hypotheses for the elevated suicide rate of deployed women and point to the importance of expanding future research on the psychological challenges of deployment for women. PMID:25359554
The aim is to discuss the various forms of bias in surgical research, including how it impacts validity and how to recognize and avoid it. The various factors affecting bias in surgical research's design, execution, and reporting were explored. The impact of these factors on internal and external validity in both observational and randomized controlled trials was examined, and recommendations were made for ameliorating the various biases. Identifying bias when interpreting a trial enables surgeons to assess surgical research's internal and external validity. Avoiding bias and/or using methods that minimize bias helps surgeons design and conduct trials with enhanced validity, which can be reliably translated into practice. To accomplish this, surgeons need to be cognizant of susceptibility bias, the applicability of surrogate endpoints, and the use of inappropriate comparators in trial design. They must also be aware of detection, ascertainment, performance and transfer bias in trial execution, and of citation bias in trial reporting. Familiarity with clinical trials' potential biases helps surgeons assess the believability and applicability of research results. Though these biases may sometimes be ameliorated by randomization, blinding, and intervention standardization, these remedies can present distinctive problems to surgical research. This poses a unique need and opportunity for innovation in surgical research design and evaluation. It necessitates that further research be done on methods to improve not only the internal and external validity of surgical trials but also their assessment.
and Evans (1968) found college students who smoked were much more apt to report their 145 friends engaged in petting and premarital sex than students...and Harman, S. M. 1982. Relationship of serum testosterone to sexual activity in healthy elderly men. Journal of Gerontology. 37:288-293. 212 Tucker...tobacco deprivation; smoking- disease relationships and their effects on productivity and absenteeism; smoking and abuse of other substances
Pikkel, Yoav Y; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Eliahou, Ruth; Honig, Asaf
Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality. To describe 20 years of experience treating infections of the central nervous system in Israel Defense Force (IDF) soldiers, including the common presentations, pathogens and sequelae, and to identify risk groups among soldiers. All soldiers who were admitted to the Hadassah University Medical Center (both campuses: Ein Kerem and Mt. Scopus) due to meningitis and meningoencephalitis from January 1993 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic data were reviewed from their hospital and army medical corps files. Attention was given to patients' military job description, i.e., combat vs. non-combat soldier, soldiers in training, and medical personnel. We identified 97 cases of suspected meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Six were mistakenly filed and these patients were found to have other disorders. Four soldiers were diagnosed with epidural abscess and five with meningitis due to non-infectious in flammatory diseases. Eighty-two soldiers in active and reserve duty had infectious meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Of these, 46 (56.1%) were combat soldiers and 31 (37.8%) non-combat; 20 (29.2%) were soldiers in training, 10 (12.2%) were training staff and 8 (9.8%) were medical staff. The main pathogens were enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus an d Neisseria meningitidis. In our series, soldiers in training, combat soldiers and medical personnel had meningitis and meningoencephalitis more than other soldiers. Enteroviruses are highly infectious pathogens and can cause outbreaks. N. meningitidis among IDF soldiers is still a concern. Early and aggressive treatment with steroids should be considered especially in robust meningoencephalitis cases.
Full Text Available We estimate the CPI bias in Korea by employing the approach of Engel’s Law as suggested by Hamilton (2001. This paper is the first attempt to estimate the bias using Korean panel data, Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS. Following Hamilton’s model with nonlinear specification correction, our estimation result shows that the cumulative CPI bias over the sample period (2000-2005 was 0.7 percent annually. This CPI bias implies that about 21 percent of the inflation rate during the period can be attributed to the bias. In light of purchasing power parity, we provide an interpretation of the estimated bias.
Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Guldager, Bernadette
Where much is known about the consequences of spinal and low back pain (LBP) during military deployments, there is lesser knowledge of risk factors for LBP among the deployed forces. The objective of this study was to identify deployment-related exposures associated with LBP. The study was a questionnaire-based cohort study among 1,931 Danish soldiers deployed to Iraq. Of the 680 respondents, 175 (26%) reported LBP. The population of respondents was adjusted for potential nonresponse bias. The associations between LBP and explanatory variables were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression models. Older age (p = 0.016), support from leaders (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69, p = 0.019), psychological stress (OR = 1.71, p = 0.009), awkward working positions (OR = 1.98, p = 0.001), and working in depots or storehouses (OR = 2.60, p = 0.041) were found to be associated with LBP after adjustment of all other variables. Combat and exposure to work, sport, or traffic accidents were not associated with LBP in this study, which was attributed to the characteristics of the actual mission. Preventive measures should include predeployment preparation of leaders to cope with LBP and other musculoskeletal trouble among their subordinates and involve medical personnel, especially deployed physiotherapists, by giving advice to soldiers of different military occupational specialties on how to optimize ergonomics at work. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Within the spokes model of Chen and Riordan (2007) that allows for non-localized competition among arbitrary numbers of media outlets, we quantify the effect of concentration of ownership on quality and bias of media content. A main result shows that too few commercial outlets, or better, too few separate owners of commercial outlets can lead to substantial bias in equilibrium. Increasing the number of outlets (commercial and non-commercial) tends to bring down this bias; but the strongest ef...
Anderson, M K; Grier, T; Canham-Chervak, M; Bushman, T T; Jones, B H
To investigate injury risk associated with occupation and occupational physical demand levels among U.S. Army Soldiers. Retrospective cohort study. Personal characteristics, physical fitness, military occupational specialty (MOS), and injury data were obtained by survey from Soldiers in an Army light infantry brigade (n = 2101). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from a multivariate analysis assessing injury risk were calculated. Injury incidence for the prior 12 months was 43%. Physical fitness and behavioral factors associated with injury risk included age 21-29 (OR [age 21-29/age ≤ 20] = 1.37, 95% CI 1.00-1.90), BMI 27.5-29.9 (high-overweight) (OR high-overweight/normal = 1.62, 95% CI 1.20-2.18); BMI >29.9 (obese) (OR obese/normal = 1.73, 95% CI 1.23-2.44), cigarette smoking (OR Smoker/Nonsmoker = 1.34, 95% CI 1.11-1.63), and poor APFT two mile run performance (OR (Q4/Q1) = 1.61, 95% CI 1.19-2.19). Higher risk of injury was associated with some MOSs (OR (Chemical, Explosives & Ammunition/Infantry) = 2.82, 95% CI 1.19-6.68; OR (Armor/Infantry) = 1.53, 95% CI 1.13-2.07). This study identified a number of potentially modifiable risk factors for injuries including: maintenance of healthy weight, improved aerobic endurance, and reduction in smoking. Results also indicate certain Army occupations may be at higher risk of injury. Further investigation into reasons for their higher risk is warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.
Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny
Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jackson, Matthew O.; Morelli, Massimo
We examine how countries' incentives to go to war depend on the "political bias" of their pivotal decision makers. This bias is measured by a decision maker’s risk/ reward ratio from a war compared to that of the country at large. If there is no political bias, then there are mutually acceptable transfers from one country to the other that will avoid a war in the presence of commitment or enforceability of peace treaties. There are cases with a strong enough bias on the part of one or both co...
Chul Chung; KimBonggeun Kim; Myung-Ho Park
We estimate the CPI bias in Korea by employing the approach of Engel’s Law as suggested by Hamilton (2001). This paper is the first attempt to estimate the bias using Korean panel data, Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS). Following Hamilton’s model with nonlinear specification correction, our estimation result shows that the cumulative CPI bias over the sample period (2000-2005) was 0.7 percent annually. This CPI bias implies that about 21 percent of the inflation rate during the per...
Mir Abdolali Mojabi
Full Text Available Introduction: High level noises can induce many bad effects on people and probably the most significant effect is hearing loss. Most important part of otologic structure that affect is outer hairy cells of cochlea. Soldiers are one of the high risk groups that affect by explosion noises. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on soldiers with normal hearing examined before and after gun shooting. Hearing level before and after gun shooting examined in both right and left ears in different frequencies. Hearing threshold evaluated by OAE and PTA methods and data analyzed finally. Results: Hearing thresholds before and after gun shooting in right and left ears were different in ≥4000 HZ frequency but there is no difference in lower frequencies. Differences of hearing thresholds before and after gun shooting measured by OAE were also significant. Conclusion: Loud noise of gun shooting can adversely affect hearing on high frequencies.
Full Text Available Education plays a key role in the process of rehabilitation and reintegracion of child soldiers and helps them to overcome the psysologial and moral impact of the war. Children see education as their gateway to a different life away from the violence and suffering they experienced during the years lived with the armed grups. The desire to change life makes children strive in this activity devouting great effort to stand out above the rest of their classmates. The disruption of the educational process generates great frustration for former child soldiers. Therefore, all reintegration and rehabilitation programs must invest time and resources to ensure that these children have secured their training until the end.
Full Text Available This article examines the issue of the position of child soldiersunder International Law. After preliminary remarks on the approach ofinternational human rights and humanitarian law to the protection of children involved in armed conflicts, the article discusses the prohibitions on recruiting children and the individual criminal responsibility of recruiters.Case-law on the child soldiers’ recruitment is considered. In thefourth part the position of the child soldiers as perpetrators is discussed and the retributive approach to the issue is explored. The last section offers an overviewof the restorative justice-oriented solution to the dilemma of the criminal responsibility of child soldiers adopted in the context of the post-conflict situation in Sierra Leone.
Pettigrew, Judith; Robinson, Katie; Moloney, Stephanie
More is known about the experience of occupational therapists than the experience of patients during the profession's early years. We examined soldiers' experiences of occupational therapy in American Base Hospital 9 in France during World War I through analysis of a 53-line poem by Corporal Frank Wren contained in the unpublished memoir of occupational therapy reconstruction aide Lena Hitchcock. Historical documentary research methods and thematic analysis were used to analyze the poem, the memoir, and the hospital's published history. The poem describes the activities engaged in during occupational therapy, equipment used, and the context of therapy. It articulates positive dimensions of the experience of engaging in activities, including emotional benefits, diversion, and orthopedic benefits. Previous historical research has identified core philosophical premises about the use of occupational therapy; in this article, the enactment of these principles is established through the analysis of a soldier's account of receiving occupational therapy.
Luis Eduardo Bosemberg
Full Text Available The article aims to narrate the visit the Colombian militaries paid to the Nazi Germany. It is based on the idea that this presence was not only part of the relations between the two countries but, instead, it contributed to the formation of networks in interrelated spaces. These soldiers got into the German military world which, in turn, managed to infiltrate Colombia as well. The article inquires into what the parties involved wanted, who participated, what attitudes Colombians had towards that country, if those soldiers were nazis. It is concluded that three missions were sent and they do not only visited Germany, but they were also in other countries. Their reports are full of admiration for the host country and the journey raised their criticism, which is evidenced in the constant compasions between the two countries. However, knowledge transfer did not have much effect because American influence grew and WWII broke out shortly after.
endangered? A genuine relativist would have to forego such action. And what about the egoist? Egoism is the claim that self-interest is the focus of all...may not have made a careful study of egoism and may hold other moral views inconsistent with the egoist position. This would be true of the...professional soldier who thinks he accepts egoism ; without reconciling it to his commitment to military values. Because so much of what any person routinely
Full Text Available Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents’ experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study’s goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014.Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5 and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Participants were recruited using a convenience sample, by posting ads on the public Facebook pages of the researchers and of the groups dedicated to parents of Israeli soldiers.Results: Parents’ depression and anxiety symptom levels were higher than depression and anxiety symptom levels of the adult community norms in Israel. General distress rates of parents were similar to those presented by adults in southern Israel who were exposed for 7 years to the ongoing threat of daily rocket fire from Gaza, and higher than rates of a non-threatened Israeli population. Finally, 20.2% of the parents presented PTSD-like symptoms, a higher percentage than the probable PTSD diagnosis rates that were found in the general population in Israel during previous terror waves.Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of soldiers’ parents’ distress and indicates the need for a better understanding of the impact of military service on soldiers’ parents.
Objective happiness. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener & N. Schwaz ( Eds .) Well being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 3-25). NY: Russell Sage. Kerr, S. A...Technical Report 1280 Understanding and Managing the Career Continuance of Enlisted Soldiers Mark C. Young ( Ed .) U.S. Army...Research Institute U. Christean Kubisiak ( Ed .) Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Inc. Peter J. Legree and Trueman R. Tremble ( Eds .) U.S
This occurs partly because soft skills identified in our approach—such as leadership , teamwork, and train- ing, coaching, and mentoring others—are...results of a study to improve the transition process for enlisted soldiers leaving the Regular Army. We assessed the knowledge, skills , and abilities... skills to civilian jobs can help. • Our analytical approach improves on existing job recom- mendations by generating higher-quality military occupa
Americans have been in one, seen one in a movie , or at least heard a description of one. It is the church that today’s soldiers may have visited with...Elvis: Repainting the Christian Faith (2005) Sex God: Exploring the Endless Connections between Sexuality and Spirituality (2007). While those titles...the defining sound of the nineties, and also greatly influence its fashion. Nirvana’s difficult to decipher, “Sounds Like Teen Spirit” was multi
laboratory testing . Errors are likely to be made at the knowledge-based level because the Soldier is problem solving where to go (as seen during the...software and test this hierarchy through use of design principles across multiple displays. Task 3: Identify what makes a design principle fit the...New York: Plenum Press, 1989. Lidwell, W.; Holden, K.; Butler, J. Universal Principles of Design; Glucester, Massachusetts: Rockport Publishers
measured while participants stood on a force platform. Soldiers were tested under four load weight configurations comprised of Army clothing and...pack design and to develop exercise programs that improve Soldiers’ balance ( Tinetti et al., 1994). To maintain balance when standing and to avoid a...stability. Ledin and Odkvist (1993) measured postural sway during standing in test participants without loads on the body and with lead weights placed on
O'Brien, Barry J.; Karan, Cem; Young, Stuart H.
The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Computational and Information Sciences Directorate (CISD) has long been involved in autonomous asset control, specifically as it relates to small robots. Over the past year, CISD has been making strides in the implementation of three areas of small robot autonomy, namely platform autonomy, Soldier-robot interface, and tactical behaviors. It is CISD's belief that these three areas must be considered as a whole in order to provide Soldiers with useful capabilities. In addressing the Soldier-robot interface aspect, CISD has begun development on a unique dismounted controller called the Future Operator Control Unit: Soldier (FOCU:S) that is based on an Apple iPod Touch. The iPod Touch's small form factor, unique touch-screen input device, and the presence of general purpose computing applications such as a web browser combine to give this device the potential to be a disruptive technology. Setting CISD's implementation apart from other similar iPod or iPhone-based devices is the ARL software that allows multiple robotic platforms to be controlled from a single OCU. The FOCU:S uses the same Agile Computing Infrastructure (ACI) that all other assets in the ARL robotic control system use, enabling automated asset discovery on any type of network. Further, a custom ad hoc routing implementation allows the FOCU:S to communicate with the ARL ad hoc communications system and enables it to extend the range of the network. This paper will briefly describe the current robotic control architecture employed by ARL and provide short descriptions of existing capabilities. Further, the paper will discuss FOCU:S specific software developed for the iPod Touch, including unique capabilities enabled by the device's unique hardware.
Often Soldiers providing these functions serve in alternative roles as truck drivers, guards or guardians in the form of contracting officer technical ...officer technical representatives of these outsourced facilities. Commanders endorse these temporary increases of capability, because of the... Culinary Center of Excellence1 When the Secretary and Chief of Staff of the Army drafted the 2010 Army Posture Statement and stated, “The Army must
Individual failure translates into unit failure, wounded and dead, and for 47 the survivors the possibility of long-term physical and mental disability ...while remaining technically proficient. While they must manage their own fear in combat, they must also cope with their subordinate’s fears. Most...Naplyokov, 2011). 3) Soldiers who rated their leaders more highly and who reported higher unit cohesion also reported lower scores on both stigma and
result is not explained clearly--or at all--to novices . iv SOLDIER COGNITIVE PROCESSES: SUPPORTING TELEOPERATED GROUND VEHICLE OPERATIONS...objectives". A teacher or trainer might have a learning objective for students to solve algebra word problems dealing with work. However, such learning...that a novice needs to acquire. Thus, a task analysis can be crucial for identifying the needed information. The Task Analysis by Problem Solving
EXPERIMENTS CAPABILITY VBS3 Training Game ុ Soldier Experiments 2-3 Days = Several Refights Lickert Subjective Questionaires ESP Engine...Modernization Command, Dec. 2014 7 TEST DESIGN • What would motivate Soldiers to participate? • How to get data useful to concept developers? • 76 Soldiers...if driving Series Hybrid Electric Drive Remote Weapon Station High Capacity Energy Storage Advanced Combat Engine External Fully Active
Africa and other parts of the world. The purpose of this paper titled, "The Utility and Consequences of Using Impressed Child Soldiers in Africa’s...fighters in several African states have used child soldiers . These include Liberia, Uganda, Mozambique, Namibia and in South Africa during the Boar War...and more recently, the latter days of apartheid. This paper addresses the background of the use of child soldiers as early as the Stone Age and the
Appellant could not cook in his room, have overnight guests, or have unaccompanied underage guests. Appellant knew he was subject to inspection to a degree...between the single or unaccompanied soldier, the installation staff, and the local command. In October 1990, the Chief of Staff of the Army directed that...battalions and tactical units are required to educate leaders on single soldier issues. The USAREUR staff was tasked to develop single soldier programs of
Zerehsaz, Yaser; Jin, Jionghua Judy; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P
Data from a previous study of soldier driving postures and seating positions were analysed to develop statistical models for defining accommodation of driver seating positions in military vehicles. Regression models were created for seating accommodation applicable to driver positions with a fixed heel point and a range of steering wheel locations in typical tactical vehicles. The models predict the driver-selected seat position as a function of population anthropometry and vehicle layout. These models are the first driver accommodation models considering the effects of body armor and body-borne gear. The obtained results can benefit the design of military vehicles, and the methods can also be extended to be utilised in the development of seating accommodation models for other driving environments where protective equipment affects driver seating posture, such as vehicles used by law-enforcement officers and firefighters. Practitioner Summary: A large-scale laboratory study of soldier driving posture and seating position was designed to focus on tactical vehicle (truck) designs. Regression techniques are utilised to develop accommodation models suitable for tactical vehicles. These are the first seating accommodation models based on soldier data to consider the effects of personal protective equipment and body-borne gear.
Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E
In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.
Bush, Nigel E; Fullerton, Nicole; Crumpton, Rosa; Metzger-Abamukong, Melinda; Fantelli, Emily
Personal technologies such as smartphones, computers, and gaming devices, are ubiquitous in the civilian world. Consequently they represent ideal vehicles for disseminating psychological and other health resources and interventions. However, almost nothing is known about personal technology use in the U.S. military. We conducted the most comprehensive survey to date of the use, availability, and need for personal technologies by U.S. military service members. Our survey asked detailed questions about computers and the Internet, phones and smartphones, other mobile or portable technologies, gaming devices, and TV and video media used during deployment and at permanent duty station or home. We collected data by paper-and-pencil survey in 2010 and 2011 from 331 active Army service members at a processing and registration center in a large military installation in the western United States. Two cohorts were surveyed: Soldiers who had previously been deployed to a warzone and soldiers who had never been deployed. We measured high rates of personal technology use by service members at home across all popular electronic media. Soldiers at home essentially resembled civilian consumers in their use of popular technologies. Some technologies, including the Internet, gaming, and TV, were widespread on deployment. Others, most notably cellphones, were more restricted by availability, connectivity, opportunity, and military regulation in the warzone. Results will enable researchers and technology developers target their efforts on the most promising and popular technologies for psychological health in the military.
... Weight Gain Losing Weight Getting Started Improving Your Eating Habits Keeping It Off Healthy Eating for a Healthy ... or "program". It's about lifestyle changes in daily eating and exercise habits. Success Stories They did it. So can you! ...
... recreational water activities like swimming, also helps promote healthy living. Often, waterâ€™s vital role is most apparent during an emergency or disaster. We launched the Healthy Water website to provide answers to your water- ...
Betancourt, Theresa S; Newnham, Elizabeth A; McBain, Ryan; Brennan, Robert T
Former child soldiers are at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the trajectory of symptoms has yet to be examined. The risk and protective factors associated with PTSD symptom change among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone were investigated. Data from 243 former child soldiers (mean age 16.6 years, 30% female) were analysed. Self-reported rates of possible PTSD using standard cut-off points declined from 32% to 16% 4 years later (Pchild soldiers despite limited access to care. Family and community support played a vital part in promoting psychological adjustment.
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; McBain, Ryan; Brennan, Robert T.
Background Former child soldiers are at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the trajectory of symptoms has yet to be examined. Aims The risk and protective factors associated with PTSD symptom change among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone were investigated. Method Data from 243 former child soldiers (mean age 16.6 years, 30% female) were analysed. Results Self-reported rates of possible PTSD using standard cut-off points declined from 32% to 16% 4 years later (Pchild soldiers despite limited access to care. Family and community support played a vital part in promoting psychological adjustment. PMID:23887999
Background: Despite increased attention the last couple of decades, child soldiering continues to be a major global challenge and it is estimated that there is approximately 300,000 child soldiers globally. One conflict which has seen the use of child soldiers is the ongoing armed conflict in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Diverting from the media image of a child soldier being a young boy with an AK47, girls often constitute a significant number of chi...
The genetic code is degenerate: most amino acids are coded by multiple codons. However, it is known that certain ... tems, under certain conditions, it is possible to empirically demonstrate the effects of codon bias at the ... ing the metabolic costs incurred in terms of nonfunctional/ misfunctional proteins. Hence, codon bias ...
Sylvester, Chad M; Hudziak, James J; Gaffrey, Michael S; Barch, Deanna M; Luby, Joan L
Attention biases towards threatening and sad stimuli are associated with pediatric anxiety and depression, respectively. The basic cognitive mechanisms associated with attention biases in youth, however, remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that threat bias (selective attention for threatening versus neutral stimuli) but not sad bias relies on stimulus-driven attention. We collected measures of stimulus-driven attention, threat bias, sad bias, and current clinical symptoms in youth with a history of an anxiety disorder and/or depression (ANX/DEP; n = 40) as well as healthy controls (HC; n = 33). Stimulus-driven attention was measured with a non-emotional spatial orienting task, while threat bias and sad bias were measured at a short time interval (150 ms) with a spatial orienting task using emotional faces and at a longer time interval (500 ms) using a dot-probe task. In ANX/DEP but not HC, early attention bias towards threat was negatively correlated with later attention bias to threat, suggesting that early threat vigilance was associated with later threat avoidance. Across all subjects, stimulus-driven orienting was not correlated with early threat bias but was negatively correlated with later threat bias, indicating that rapid stimulus-driven orienting is linked to later threat avoidance. No parallel relationships were detected for sad bias. Current symptoms of depression but not anxiety were related to decreased stimulus-driven attention. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that threat bias but not sad bias relies on stimulus-driven attention. These results inform the design of attention bias modification programs that aim to reverse threat biases and reduce symptoms associated with pediatric anxiety and depression.
Aue, Tatjana; Okon-Singer, Hadas
Healthy individuals often exhibit prioritized processing of aversive information, as manifested in enhanced orientation of attention to threatening stimuli compared with neutral items. In contrast to this adaptive behavior, anxious, fearful, and phobic individuals show exaggerated attention biases to threat. In addition, they overestimate the likelihood of encountering their feared stimulus and the severity of the consequences; both are examples of expectancy biases. The co-occurrence of attention and expectancy biases in fear and anxiety raises the question about causal influences. Herein, we summarize findings related to expectancy biases in fear and anxiety, and their association with attention biases. We suggest that evidence calls for more comprehensive research strategies in the investigation of mutual influences between expectancy and attention biases, as well as their combined effects on fear and anxiety. Moreover, both types of bias need to be related to other types of distorted information processing commonly observed in fear and anxiety (e.g., memory and interpretation biases). Finally, we propose new research directions that may be worth considering in developing more effective treatments for anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Donor performance of combat readiness skills of special forces soldiers are maintained immediately after whole blood donation: a study to support the development of a prehospital fresh whole blood transfusion program.
Strandenes, Geir; Skogrand, Håkon; Spinella, Philip C; Hervig, Tor; Rein, Erling B
Bleeding is a major cause of death in combat settings, and combat casualties in shock may benefit from fresh whole blood (FWB) transfusion. "Buddy transfusion" is a well-known lifesaving intervention, but little is known about donor combat safety aspects immediately after blood donation. The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of donation of 1 unit of blood on physical and combat-related performance among active duty soldiers. We also investigated the feasibility of a short training program to teach nonmedics buddy transfusion. Twenty-five fit male soldiers from a special forces unit were divided into three groups and tested on 1) a Bruce protocol treadmill stress test, push-ups, and pull-ups; 2) a 50-round rapid pistol shooting test; and 3) an uphill hiking exercise carrying a 20-kg backpack. After baseline testing, the soldiers performed the tests again (2-6 min) after donating 450 mL of blood. The training program included blood collection and reinfusion procedures and we measured success rate of venipuncture, time for blood collection, and success in placing sternal intraosseous needle and reinfusing 1 unit of autologous blood. We did not find any significant decrease in performance either in physical or in shooting performance after donating blood. Nonmedic soldiers had a 100% success rate in blood collection and also infusion on fellow soldiers after a short introduction to the procedures. This study supports the fact that buddy transfusion may be feasible for healthy well-trained soldiers and does not decrease donor combat performance under ideal circumstances. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
MacKinnon, James G.; Smith Jr., Anthony A
This paper discusses ways to reduce the bias of consistent estimators that are biased in finite samples. It is necessary that the bias function, which relates parameter values to bias, should be estimable by computer simulation or by some other method. If so, bias can be reduced or, in some cases that may not be unrealistic, even eliminated. In general, several evaluations of the bias function will be required to do this. Unfortunately, reducing bias may increase the variance, or even the mea...
Full Text Available Social insects exhibit a variety of caste-specific behavioral tendencies that constitute the basis of division of labor within the colony. In termites, the soldier caste display distinctive defense behaviors, such as aggressively attacking enemies with well-developed mandibles, while the other castes retreat into the colony without exhibiting any aggressive response. It is thus likely that some form of soldier-specific neuronal modification exists in termites. In this study, the authors compared the brain (cerebral ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG of soldiers and pseudergates (workers in the damp-wood termite, Hodotermopsis sjostedti. The size of the SOG was significantly larger in soldiers than in pseudergates, but no difference in brain size was apparent between castes. Furthermore, mandibular nerves were thicker in soldiers than in pseudergates. Retrograde staining revealed that the somata sizes of the mandibular motor neurons (MdMNs in soldiers were more than twice as large as those of pseudergates. The enlargement of MdMNs was also observed in individuals treated with a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA, indicating that MdMNs become enlarged in response to juvenile hormone (JH action during soldier differentiation. This enlargement is likely to have two functions: a behavioral function in which soldier termites will be able to defend more effectively through relatively faster and stronger mandibular movements, and a developmental function that associates with the development of soldier-specific mandibular muscle morphogenesis in termite head. The soldier-specific enlargement of mandibular motor neurons was observed in all examined species in five termite families that have different mechanisms of defense, suggesting that such neuronal modification was already present in the common ancestor of termites and is significant for soldier function.
Matthew Gentzkow; Shapiro, Jesse M.
A Bayesian consumer who is uncertain about the quality of an information source will infer that the source is of higher quality when its reports conform to the consumer's prior expectations. We use this fact to build a model of media bias in which firms slant their reports toward the prior beliefs of their customers in order to build a reputation for quality. Bias emerges in our model even though it can make all market participants worse off. The model predicts that bias will be less severe w...
Brownstein, Aaron L
Decision makers conduct biased predecision processing when they restructure their mental representation of the decision environment to favor one alternative before making their choice. The question of whether biased predecision processing occurs has been controversial since L. Festinger (1957) maintained that it does not occur. The author reviews relevant research in sections on theories of cognitive dissonance, decision conflict, choice certainty, action control, action phases, dominance structuring, differentiation and consolidation, constructive processing, motivated reasoning, and groupthink. Some studies did not find evidence of biased predecision processing, but many did. In the Discussion section, the moderators are summarized and used to assess the theories.
INTRODUCTION: Physical fitness is an important attribute in soldiers because military work may be physically demanding. To ensure that military personnel are “fit to fight”, soldiers are typically selected and evaluated based on fitness tests, and physical training and physical activity are emphasized to maintain or develop physical fitness. Existing literature has primarily described fitness and activity levels in full-time soldiers, while reserve soldiers are less frequently investigated. N...
Schmelz, Joan T.
We all have biases, and we are (for the most part) unaware of them. In general, men and women BOTH unconsciously devalue the contributions of women. This can have a detrimental effect on grant proposals, job applications, and performance reviews. Sociology is way ahead of astronomy in these studies. When evaluating identical application packages, male and female University psychology professors preferred 2:1 to hire "Brian” over "Karen” as an assistant professor. When evaluating a more experienced record (at the point of promotion to tenure), reservations were expressed four times more often when the name was female. This unconscious bias has a repeated negative effect on Karen's career. This talk will introduce the concept of unconscious bias and also give recommendations on how to address it using an example for a faculty search committee. The process of eliminating unconscious bias begins with awareness, then moves to policy and practice, and ends with accountability.
Epidemiologists have always been conscious of the importance of controlling for distortions, although the definition itself of bias has changed over time. Central to this discussions in the past was the relative vulnerability of different study designs to bias and uncontrollable confounding (confounding being clearly distinguishable from bias, as a problem of inter-mixed causal effects due to the non-random distribution of risk factors within the study population). In particular, controversy arose over aspects of case-control study design. Also a formulation of "typologies of bias" during the 1970s helped to define some of the most important sources of distortion in the design, analysis and interpretation of epidemiological studies. The subsequent period--until now--has been characterised by more formal and systematic definitions.
Full Text Available We examine two departures of individual perceptions of randomness from probability theory: the hot hand and the gambler's fallacy, and their respective opposites. This paper's first contribution is to use data from the field (individuals playing roulette in a casino to demonstrate the existence and impact of these biases that have been previously documented in the lab. Decisions in the field are consistent with biased beliefs, although we observe significant individual heterogeneity in the population. A second contribution is to separately identify these biases within a given individual, then to examine their within-person correlation. We find a positive and significant correlation across individuals between hot hand and gambler's fallacy biases, suggesting a common (root cause of the two related errors. We speculate as to the source of this correlation (locus of control, and suggest future research which could test this speculation.
Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan
A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).
Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn
that the agricultural price incentive bias generally perceived to exist during the 1980s was largely eliminated during the 1990s. Results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of agricultural bias. Our comprehensive...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....
Tourtois, Joseph; Ali, Jared Gregory; Grieshop, Matthew J
Production costs and limited regional availability are two key factors limiting the widespread adoption of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) in biological control programs. We explore the potential of using black soldier fly larvae Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) as an alternative in vivo rearing host to the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). We injured black soldier fly larvae to test the hypothesis that the tough cuticle was preventing the penetration of founding infective juveniles (IJs) into the host and egress of offspring from the cadaver. Injuring the black soldier fly larvae increased the infection rate, the number of nematodes entering a host, and the number of IJs harvested from a cadaver. Black soldier fly larvae, however, provided at most 10-fold less IJs compared to G. mellonella. In olfactometer assays, we assessed nematode behavioral responses to wounded black soldier fly larvae. Steinernema carpocapsae did not move towards the insects. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora was attracted to black soldier fly larvae but not G. mellonella. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora did not show a preference for injured black soldier fly larvae over non-injured larvae. Thus, increased colonization on wounded black soldier fly larvae was likely due to additional entry points rather than an increase in their apparency in the soil solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maringira, G.; Gibson, D.; Richters, A.
This article examines the habitus of soldiers who either deserted or resigned from the Zimbabwe National Army in the post-2000 crisis in Zimbabwe and now live in exile in Johannesburg, South Africa. It is based on the information provided by forty-four former soldiers who related their life
Full Text Available Background: Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression. Objective: To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants in the DR Congo. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews concerning military experiences, experienced and perpetrated violence, and mental health. Results: Former child soldiers reported more experienced and perpetrated violence, a greater severity of trauma-related suffering, as well as higher appetitive aggression than adult ex-combatants. Appetitive aggression was related to more perpetrated violence, higher military ranks, voluntary recruitment and higher rates of reenlistments in former child soldiers. Conclusions: Our results indicate that growing up in an armed group is related to higher levels of trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior. This may explain the challenge of reintegrating former child soldiers. It is thus important to consider mental health problems, particularly trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior, of former child soldiers for designing adequate reintegration programs.
Krupenia; Cuizinaud; Muller, T.J.; Hulst, A.H. van der
The trend towards network-centric warfare has been accompanied by a shift towards the ‘Every Soldier is a Sensor’ (ES2) concept where battlefield information collection is completed by regular soldiers within a company/platoon (U.S. Army, 2008). To support the development of ES2 training we
the Army lacks data on the specific base camp capabilities that keep Soldiers ready across cognitive , physical, social, and emotional (CPSE...OPERATIONAL READINESS COGNITION SUSTAINABILITY MENTAL READINESS EXPEDITIONARY OPERATIONS EMOTIONS QUALITY OF LIFE...into four domains adapted from the Army Human Dimension Strategy: Cognitive , Physical, Social, and Emotional (CPSE). Soldiers also rated the severity
Song, S.; Tol, W.; de Jong, J.
Since many former child soldiers are aging and having children of their own, this study aimed to understand how the effects of trauma are passed to the next generation. In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews, focus groups, and observations were conducted with 25 former child soldiers
It recommends procedures and policy that will provide better support for returning Guard veterans . REINTEGRATION OF NATIONAL GUARD SOLDIERS...OIF deployments started, the military had little recent experience with reintegrating Guard combat veterans back into their communities. 42 It was...and DOD led to the YRRP, a national combat veteran reintegration program that provides Guard soldiers and their families with information, services
Hermenau, Katharin; Hecker, Tobias; Maedl, Anna; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas
Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression. To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants in the DR Congo. We conducted semi-structured interviews concerning military experiences, experienced and perpetrated violence, and mental health. Former child soldiers reported more experienced and perpetrated violence, a greater severity of trauma-related suffering, as well as higher appetitive aggression than adult ex-combatants. Appetitive aggression was related to more perpetrated violence, higher military ranks, voluntary recruitment and higher rates of reenlistments in former child soldiers. Our results indicate that growing up in an armed group is related to higher levels of trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior. This may explain the challenge of reintegrating former child soldiers. It is thus important to consider mental health problems, particularly trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior, of former child soldiers for designing adequate reintegration programs.
Research with child soldiers is crucial to improving mental health services after war. This research also can illuminate innovative approaches to treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adult soldiers, veterans and other trauma survivors in high-income countries. A key contribution is the role of social ecology for trauma-healing interventions.
Betancourt, Theresa S; Borisova, Ivelina I; de la Soudière, Marie; Williamson, John
To examine associations between war experiences, mental health, and gender in a sample of male and female Sierra Leonean former child soldiers. A total of 273 former child soldiers (29% females) were assessed for depression and anxiety by using the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist, and for hostility, confidence, and prosocial attitudes by using an instrument developed for use with Sierra Leonean child soldiers. The former child soldiers had witnessed and perpetrated violence at largely comparable rates, although females experienced higher rates of rape (p child soldiers who lost caregivers were also more vulnerable to depression (p child soldiers. In our sample, female and male child soldiers experienced comparable levels of most war exposures. Female soldiers reported higher rates of rape and lower levels of adaptive outcomes. Toxic forms of violence (killing or injuring; rape) were associated with particularly poor outcomes. Although all boys and girls who experience rape and loss of caregivers are generally at risk for mental health problems, boys in our sample demonstrated increased vulnerability; these findings indicate a need for more inclusive mental health services. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; Derluyn, Ilse; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric
Objective: Child soldiering can be considered as one of the worst practices of institutionalized child abuse. However, little is known about the scope and nature of this abuse and the consequent experiences of children enrolled in an armed faction. This research aims at enriching the knowledge on the experiences of child soldiers in the Lord's…
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.
Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…
van der Snoek, E. M.; Lammers, A. M.; Kortbeek, L. M.; Roelfsema, J. H.; Bart, A.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.
We report two Dutch infantry soldiers who acquired American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) during military jungle training in Surinam. The lesions had existed for 3 and 5 months, respectively, before the soldiers presented for treatment. The lesions occurred on the head and right thigh, and were
Christensen, Anna M; Pietralczyk, Elizabeth; Lopez, Job E; Brooks, Christopher; Schriefer, Martin E; Wozniak, Edward; Stermole, Benjamin
In August 2015, a soldier returned from field exercises in Texas, USA, with nonspecific febrile illness. Culture and sequencing of spirochetes from peripheral blood diagnosed Borrelia turicatae infection. The patient recovered after receiving doxycycline. No illness occurred in asymptomatic soldiers potentially exposed to the vector tick and prophylactically given treatment.
Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus
The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.
Libraries and Archives will also receive hardcopies.” Gender and Physical Training Effects on Soldier Physical Competencies and Physiological... Library , US 1 Materials Information, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, US 1 Documents Librarian , The Center for Research Libraries , US 1 SPARES...Gender and Physical Training Effects on Soldier Physical Competencies and Physiological Strain Mark J Patterson, Warren S Roberts, Wai-Man
Berghaus, Paul T.
Militaries that take a character development approach in their moral education programs but rely heavily on authority figures as subject matter experts to teach soldiers face two serious problems. First, soldiers improperly defer to their instructors and, as a result, do not understand the moral virtues taught in class. Second, instructors are in…
Khoe, Y.S.; Horst, M.J. van der; Weiden, M.C. van der
The introduction, analysis or development of soldier systems presents many questions regarding the optimum of possible combinations of burden, effectiveness and safety of the soldier system. The soldier is subject to a broad spectrum of physical loads as a consequence of the threats being
Shin Ah Kim
Full Text Available Heightened attentional bias to emotional information is one of the main characteristics of disorders related to emotion dysregulation such as anxiety, depression, and substance abuse. Although reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy, is known to effectively modulate subjective experience of emotions, it remains unknown whether reappraisal can alter attentional biases to emotional information. In the current research, we investigated the influence of instruction-induced state reappraisal (Study 1 and trait reappraisal (Study 2 on attentional biases to happy and angry faces. In Study 1, healthy young women were recruited and randomly assigned to one of the three groups: up-, down-, and no-regulation. Participants were instructed to reappraise their emotions to increase and decrease emotional experience while viewing an emotionally negative film clip. Attentional bias was assessed with a dot-probe task with pictures of angry and happy facial expressions. In Study 2, a separate group of healthy young men and women participated. Participants’ trait reappraisal and suppression as well as state and trait anxiety were assessed. A dot-probe task was completed by all participants. Statistical tests in Study 1 revealed that participants who reappraised to decrease negative emotions while viewing an emotionally negative film clip had reduced attentional bias to subsequently presented angry faces compared to participants who reappraised to increase negative emotions. Multiple regression analyses in Study 2 revealed that trait reappraisal predicted slower orienting toward angry faces, whereas state anxiety predicted slower disengagement from angry faces. Interestingly, trait suppression predicted slower disengagement from happy faces. Taken together, these results suggest that both instruction-induced state reappraisal and trait reappraisal are linked to reduced attentional bias to negative information and contribute to better understanding of how
Parween, Rizuwana; Pratap, Rudra
Nature has evolved a beautiful design for small-scale vibratory rate-gyro in the form of dipteran halteres that detect body rotations via Coriolis acceleration. In most Diptera, including soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, halteres are a pair of special organs, located in the space between the thorax and the abdomen. The halteres along with their connecting joint with the fly's body constitute a mechanism that is used for muscle-actuated oscillations of the halteres along the actuation direction. These oscillations lead to bending vibrations in the sensing direction (out of the haltere's actuation plane) upon any impressed rotation due to the resulting Coriolis force. This induced vibration is sensed by the sensory organs at the base of the haltere in order to determine the rate of rotation. In this study, we evaluate the boundary conditions and the stiffness of the anesthetized halteres along the actuation and the sensing direction. We take several cross-sectional SEM (scanning electron microscope) images of the soldier fly haltere and construct its three dimensional model to get the mass properties. Based on these measurements, we estimate the natural frequency along both actuation and sensing directions, propose a finite element model of the haltere's joint mechanism, and discuss the significance of the haltere's asymmetric cross-section. The estimated natural frequency along the actuation direction is within the range of the haltere's flapping frequency. However, the natural frequency along the sensing direction is roughly double the haltere's flapping frequency that provides a large bandwidth for sensing the rate of rotation to the soldier flies. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Full Text Available Nature has evolved a beautiful design for small-scale vibratory rate-gyro in the form of dipteran halteres that detect body rotations via Coriolis acceleration. In most Diptera, including soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, halteres are a pair of special organs, located in the space between the thorax and the abdomen. The halteres along with their connecting joint with the fly's body constitute a mechanism that is used for muscle-actuated oscillations of the halteres along the actuation direction. These oscillations lead to bending vibrations in the sensing direction (out of the haltere's actuation plane upon any impressed rotation due to the resulting Coriolis force. This induced vibration is sensed by the sensory organs at the base of the haltere in order to determine the rate of rotation. In this study, we evaluate the boundary conditions and the stiffness of the anesthetized halteres along the actuation and the sensing direction. We take several cross-sectional SEM (scanning electron microscope images of the soldier fly haltere and construct its three dimensional model to get the mass properties. Based on these measurements, we estimate the natural frequency along both actuation and sensing directions, propose a finite element model of the haltere's joint mechanism, and discuss the significance of the haltere's asymmetric cross-section. The estimated natural frequency along the actuation direction is within the range of the haltere's flapping frequency. However, the natural frequency along the sensing direction is roughly double the haltere's flapping frequency that provides a large bandwidth for sensing the rate of rotation to the soldier flies.
... for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Healthy Eating KidsHealth > For Parents > Healthy Eating Print A A A What's in this article? ... best strategies to improve nutrition and encourage smart eating habits: Have regular family meals . Serve a variety ...
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are made by data variation, while the model is the same. It appears that SR0 generates narrow funnels much at odds with observed funnels, while the other four funnels look more realistic. SR1 to SR4 give the mean a substantial bias that confirms the prior causing the bias. The FAT-PET MRA works well......Economic research typically runs J regressions for each selected for publication – it is often selected as the ‘best’ of the regressions. The paper examines five possible meanings of the word ‘best’: SR0 is ideal selection with no bias; SR1 is polishing: selection by statistical fit; SR2...... is censoring: selection by the size of estimate; SR3 selects the optimal combination of fit and size; and SR4 selects the first satisficing result. The last four SRs are steered by priors and result in bias. The MST and the FAT-PET have been developed for detection and correction of such bias. The simulations...
Popa, Radu; Green, Terrence R
A large number of biodegradable byproducts including alcohols, soluble saccharides, volatile organic acids, and amines accumulate in the liquid fraction (leachate) produced as vegetal and food scrap waste decomposes. Untreated leachate, because it is rich in nutrients and organic byproducts, has a high chemical oxygen demand and is normally cleared of soluble organic byproducts by mineralization before its discharge into waterways. Mineralizing leachates using chemical and microbial biotechnologies is, however, a lengthy and costly process. We report here that the larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), an insect rich in protein and lipids, and having significant commercial value, while feeding and growing off of compost leachate, lowers its chemical oxygen demand relative to that of leachate unexposed to larvae, neutralizes its acidity, and clears it of volatile organic acids, amines, and alcohols. These observations demonstrate that black soldier fly larvae could be used to help offset the cost and clean up of organic solutes in leachate waste streams while recycling carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate into usable and commercially valuable biomass.
Full Text Available The army training presents a very stressful life event that may lead to several mental disorders. Therefore it is important to establish good screening methods to identify people that are prone to propulsive reactions and autoaggressive behaviour. I have analysed the data from the sample of 1032 draftees from the Maribor's county in regard of different mental disorders that were established by the screening and examinations of our health care professionals. Besides I have analysed the data from 71 soldiers that were already serving the military service and were urgently send to the psychiatric ambulatory care unit because of different mental health problems. Between all draftees there were only 471 (45,6 % fully capable for military duty, 180 were partially capable and from them only 5 because of mental health problems, 164 were temporary rejected for the army service and from them 43 because of mental health problems and 97 were rejected, 72 of them because of different mental disorders. The most frequent reason for rejection or limitation of the capability for military service were personality disorders in 56,7 % of cases. In the sample of soldiers already on duty the frequency of personality disorders was even higher, 74,6 %. From this sample the most frequent personality disorder was dissocial (41,5 %. Therefore we should add the inventory for personality disorders assessment to the psychological screening of draftees.
Carter, Sarah; Loew, Benjamin; Allen, Elizabeth; Stanley, Scott; Markman, Howard; Rhoades, Galena
Social support, including support from spouses, may buffer against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study assessed whether the frequency of spousal communication during a recent deployment, a potentially important source of support for soldiers, was related to postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Data came from 193 married male Army soldiers who returned from military deployment within the past year. For communication modalities conceptualized as “delayed” (i.e., letters, care packages, and e-mails), greater spousal communication frequency during deployment was associated with lower postdeployment PTSD symptom scores, but only at higher levels of marital satisfaction (p = .009). At lower marital satisfaction, more “delayed” spousal communication during deployment was associated with more PTSD symptoms (p = .042). For communication modalities conceptualized as “interactive” (i.e., phone calls, instant messaging, instant messaging with video), the same general direction of effects was seen, but the interaction between communication frequency and marital satisfaction predicting PTSD symptoms did not reach significance. PMID:21618290
Habibi, Mojtaba; Darharaj, Mohammad; Kelly, Adrian B; Shahmiri, Hasan; Malekianjabali, Mona; Kheirolomoom, Seyedeh Leili
Given the stressful nature of military life, people in the armed forces are vulnerable to substance use. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between family and peers with drug use among military forces in Iran. Convenience sampling was used to recruit a total of 422 draftees doing military service in army units in Tehran, Iran. Measures of family and peers' risk and protective factors, alcohol use, and other drug use were administered. Findings indicated significant relationships between family (i.e., family models for risk behavior, parent sanctions, and family controls) and peers (i.e., peer modeling for risk behavior, peer controls, support from friends) with drug use. A multiple regression analysis revealed that peer modeling for risk behavior, family models for risk behavior, and parent sanctions were significant predictors of drug use in soldiers. These results were consistent with the influence of family and peer on drug use amongst soldiers. Programs designed to reduce alcohol and other drug use may benefit from tailoring to fit risk and protective files amongst peer and family networks.
Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; Schuyten, Gilberte; De Temmerman, Els
Worldwide, 300?000 children are currently used as child soldiers in armed conflicts. We interviewed 301 former child soldiers who had been abducted by the northern Ugandan rebellion movement Lord's Resistance Army. All the children were abducted at a young age (mean 12.9 years) and for a long time (mean 744 days). Almost all the children experienced several traumatic events (mean six events); 233 (77%) saw someone being killed, and 118 (39%) had to kill someone themselves. 71 children also filled in the impact of event scale--revised to assess their post-trauma stress reactions. 69 (97%) reported post-traumatic stress reactions of clinical importance. The death of a parent, especially of the mother, led to an important increase in score for avoidance symptoms (mother alive 16.4, mother not alive 21.6; p=0.04), with a high increase for girls (from 15.1 to 25.8), but almost no change for boys (from 17.7 to 17.4; p=0.02). Our findings shed light on the nature of severe trauma experienced by this group of children, and show a high rate of post-traumatic stress reactions.
Experience has shown that the breakdown of protective structures such as families and communities, particularly in times of conflict, leaves children vulnerable to recruitment into armed groups. These children are subject to gross violations of their human rights, such as the right to protection from harm, violence and abuse. At least 300,000 children are currently being used to fight in armed conflicts in over 30 countries across the world. Girls and boys are abducted, coerced or persuaded to join armed forces, often in brutal circumstances. These children are usually involved in internal conflicts, where poverty and exclusion leave very few other viable options--becoming soldiers may appear to be their only means of survival. Many, however, sustain physical injuries and permanent disabilities as a result of combat and it is impossible to know how many are killed. A large number encounter health problems such as sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. Lack of data on the health of child soldiers means that appropriate medical care and treatment may be inadequate or inaccessible, even during a planned demobilization. There is an urgent need for systematic research and data collection in order to better understand and provide for the healthcare of all children leaving armed groups.
Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter
The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.
Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn
shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust......The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...
Wald, I; Lubin, G; Holoshitz, Y; Muller, D; Fruchter, E; Pine, D S; Charney, D S; Bar-Haim, Y
Acute stress disorder involves prominent symptoms of threat avoidance. Preliminary cross-sectional data suggest that such threat-avoidance symptoms may also manifest cognitively, as attentional threat avoidance. Confirming these findings in a longitudinal study might provide insights on risk prediction and anxiety prevention in traumatic exposures. Attention-threat bias and post-traumatic symptoms were assessed in soldiers at two points in time: early in basic training and 23 weeks later, during advanced combat training. Based on random assignment, the timing of the repeat assessment occurred in one of two schedules: for a combat simulation group, the repeat assessment occurred immediately following a battlefield simulation exercise, and for a control group, the assessment occurred shortly before this exercise. Both groups showed no threat-related attention bias at initial assessments. Following acute stress, the combat simulation group exhibited a shift in attention away from threat whereas the control group showed no change in attention bias. Stronger threat avoidance in the combat simulation group correlated with severity of post-traumatic symptoms. Such an association was not found in the control group. Acute stress may lead some individuals to shift their attention away from threats, perhaps to minimize stress exposure. This acute attention response may come at a psychological cost, given that it correlates with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Further research is needed to determine how these associations relate to full-blown PTSD in soldier and civilian populations.
Fruh, Sharon M; Nadglowski, Joe; Hall, Heather R; Davis, Sara L; Crook, Errol D; Zlomke, Kimberly
Overweight and obesity are escalating in epidemic proportions in the United States. Individuals with overweight and obesity are often reluctant to seek medical help, not only for weight reduction but also for any health issue because of perceived provider discrimination. Providers who are biased against individuals with obesity can hinder our nation's effort to effectively fight the obesity epidemic. By addressing weight bias in the provider setting, individuals affected by obesity may be more likely to engage in a meaningful and productive discussion of weight. Providers need to be the go-to source for obesity-focused information on new and emerging treatments.
Full Text Available Objective To explore the changes in basic serum levels of hypothalamus-pituitrin-adrenal (HPA axis, hypothalamus-pituitrin-gonad (HPG axis and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-2 and IL-6 in repeated acute stress caused by one-week intensive training, and study the effects of oral administration of Schisandrae, salidroside and Schisandrae compound on the contents of those stress hormones and cytokines mentioned above. Methods One hundred and twenty healthy soldiers chosen from junior infantry combat troops who had never received long-term amphibious training were randomly divided into four groups (30 each: group A (Schisandrae compound group, group B (Schisandrae group, group C (salidroside group and group D (control group. Each and every soldier of all the groups underwent high-intensity composite military training, 8 hours per day, for a week. Venous blood sampling was collected at 7:00-8:00 a.m. before and after the training, respectively. Levels of cortisol (CORT, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, testosterone (T, IL-1, IL-2 and IL-6 in different groups were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA. The changes in the levels of all the above mentioned hormones and cytokines in every group were observed and compared. Results In group D, as compared with the pre-stress levels, no marked difference was found in the levels of serum CORT and ACTH (P>0.05, but the levels of T and IL-6 significantly decreased (P0.05. In group C, the levels of T and IL-6 significantly decreased (P0.05. In group A, the serum levels of CORT, ACTH, T, IL-1 and IL-6 significantly decreased, while that of IL-2 significantly increased (P<0.01. As compared with group D, the level of ACTH in group A and group B, the level of IL-2 in group C significantly decreased (P<0.05. Conclusions Schisandrae and Schisandrae compound have a marked and lasting inhibitory effect on the activation of HPA axis and the elevation of serum CORT levels induced by stress, while the similar
Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Walter, Steffen; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Traue, Harald C
This pilot study examined the extent to which a specific mechanism of emotion regulation - namely, ambivalence concerning the expressiveness of German soldiers' emotions - affects the severity of PTSD symptoms after a military operation. A survey was conducted at three points in time among 66 soldiers deployed on military crisis operations. The Harvard Trauma Questionaire (HTQ), the Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire (AEQ-G18), and a questionnaire on the particular stress of German soldiers during military operations were used. The study showed a significant correlation between emotional ambivalence and traumatization. Furthermore, it was shown that the subjective stress of soldiers leading up to deployment is more pronounced when emotional ambivalence is stronger in the context of military operations. This particular stress is greater before and during the military operation than after. Compared to a male control sample, the average AEQ-G18 scores of the soldier sample examined here are considerably lower. This pilot study clearly indicates that the AEQ-G18 could be a suitable predictor of the psychological burden on soldiers. The correlations between emotional ambivalence on the one hand and the particular and post-traumatic stressors on the other hand are not only statistically significant in the present pilot study, but may also be relevant as risk factors. It is, therefore, necessary to conduct more extensive studies on soldiers participating in military operations to verify the results of this pilot study.
Taylor, Christine M; Ross, Michelle E; Wood, Joanne N; Griffis, Heather M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Rubin, David M
We described the risk for maltreatment among toddlers of US Army soldiers over different deployment cycles to develop a systematic response within the US Army to provide families appropriate supports. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated maltreatment reports and medical diagnoses among children of 112,325 deployed US Army soldiers between 2001 and 2007. Risk of maltreatment was elevated after deployment for children of soldiers deployed once but not for children of soldiers deployed twice. During the 6 months after deployment, children of soldiers deployed once had 4.43 substantiated maltreatment reports and 4.96 medical diagnoses per 10,000 child-months. The highest maltreatment rate among children of soldiers deployed twice occurred during the second deployment for substantiated maltreatment (4.83 episodes per 10,000 child-months) and before the first deployment for medical diagnoses of maltreatment (3.78 episodes per 10,000 child-months). We confirmed an elevated risk for child maltreatment during deployment but also found a previously unidentified high-risk period during the 6 months following deployment, indicating elevated stress within families of deployed and returning soldiers. These findings can inform efforts by the military to initiate and standardize support and preparation to families during periods of elevated risk.
Julian, Christopher H; Valente, Juliana M
Work provides daily structure, physical and mental activity, interpersonal contact, social status, self-esteem, respect of others, and the ability to use acquired skills. Wounded, ill, or injured soldiers are often removed from duty and assigned or attached to a Warrior Transition Unit during medical and rehabilitation management. Separation from meaningful employment can lead to negative physical and behavioral health outcomes that may impact an active duty soldier's ability to resume work. This cross-sectional study explored the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) psychosocial factors of Personal Causation, Values, Interests, Roles, Habits, and Perceptions of Environment related to returning to work in US Army Soldiers in a Warrior Transition Unit (WTU) at a large military medical center. Single data collection sessions were held for 34 soldiers using the following instruments: a demographic and work status questionnaire, the Role Checklist, and the Worker Role Interview (WRI). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square analysis, and the Mann Whitney U test were used to analyze the results. Analysis revealed that one WRI item related to Personal Causation and three items related to Roles and Habits were supportive factors for successfully returning to employment among soldiers that were working or engaged in returning to work. There are significant differences among psychosocial factors related to returning to work between soldiers who are currently working or have returned to work and those who have not. Longitudinal studies could help to clarify how these factors augment a soldier's rehabilitation at a WTU.
Peleg, Kobi; Jaffe, Dena H
To compare injuries and hospital utilization and outcomes from terror and war for civilians and soldiers. Injuries from terror and war are not necessarily comparable, especially among civilians and soldiers. For example, civilians have less direct exposure to conflict and are unprepared for injury, whereas soldiers are psychologically and physically prepared for combat on battlefields that are often far from trauma centers. Evidence-based studies distinguishing and characterizing differences in injuries according to conflict type and population group are lacking. A retrospective study was performed using hospitalization data from the Israel National Trauma Registry (10/2000-12/2006). Terror and war accounted for trauma hospitalizations among 1784 civilians and 802 soldiers. Most civilians (93%) were injured in terror and transferred to trauma centers by land, whereas soldiers were transferred by land and air. Critical injuries and injuries to multiple body regions were more likely in terror than war. Soldiers tended to present with less severe injuries from war than from terror. Rates of first admission to orthopedic surgery were greater for all casualties with the exception of civilians injured in terror who were equally likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit. In-hospital mortality was higher among terror (7%) than war (2%) casualties, and particularly among civilians. This study provides evidence that substantial differences exist in injury characteristics and hospital resources required to treat civilians and soldiers injured in terror and war. Hospital preparedness and management should focus on treating combat injuries that result from specific causes-terror or war.
Dr. C.P. van der Schans
Presentatie gehouden bij de bijeenkomst voor het Regionaal Genootschap Fysiotherapie Het Noorden op 10 februari te Marum, over het belang van fysieke activiteit voor healthy ageing en de rol van de fysiotherapeut hierin
Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jgen/083/02/0113-0115. Keywords. codon bias; alcohol dehydrogenase; Darwinian fitness; Drosophila melanogaster. Author Affiliations. Sutirth Dey1. Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Evolutionary & Organismal Biology Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific ...
Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia.
Huang, Kai-Cheng; Tzeng, Dong-Sheng; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chung, Wei-Ching
This case-control study enrolled 226 maladjusted soldiers and 229 controls to investigate the impact of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, alexithymia, personality, and childhood trauma on suicide risk among Taiwanese soldiers. Assessments included the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Brief Symptom Rating Scale. In addition to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, other risks included less extraversion with higher neuroticism, higher alexithymia, poor academic performance, domestic violence, and life-threatening events. Our study demonstrates the interaction of the interpersonal-psychological theory and other suicide risk factors in Taiwanese soldiers. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.
Bemiller, Michelle; Williams, L Susan
Domestic violence and sexual assault advocates, unlike other social service workers, experience only moderate burnout. The present study extends burnout research, exploring simultaneous effects of job demands and adaptation factors as they relate to burnout in the advocacy population. The authors identify the good soldiering phenomenon in which advocates adapt to work that is worthwhile, but risky, demanding, and resource poor. Good soldiering is related to, but distinct from, a "calling" because it links to the position, not simply intrinsic motivation. The authors find that though job demands significantly increase burnout, advocates who identify with good soldiering experience significantly lower levels of burnout.
Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Naifeh, James A; Herberman Mash, Holly; Fullerton, Carol S; Bliese, Paul D; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B
Mental health of soldiers is adversely affected by the death and injury of other unit members, but whether risk of suicide attempt is influenced by previous suicide attempts in a soldier's unit is unknown. To examine whether a soldier's risk of suicide attempt is influenced by previous suicide attempts in that soldier's unit. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (STARRS), this study identified person-month records for all active-duty, regular US Army, enlisted soldiers who attempted suicide from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009 (n = 9650), and an equal-probability sample of control person-months (n = 153 528). Data analysis was performed from August 8, 2016, to April 10, 2017. Logistic regression analyses examined the number of past-year suicide attempts in a soldier's unit as a predictor of subsequent suicide attempt, controlling for sociodemographic features, service-related characteristics, prior mental health diagnosis, and other unit variables, including suicide-, combat-, and unintentional injury-related unit deaths. The study also examined whether the influence of previous unit suicide attempts varied by military occupational specialty (MOS) and unit size. Of the final analytic sample of 9512 enlisted soldiers who attempted suicide and 151 526 control person-months, most were male (86.4%), 29 years or younger (68.4%), younger than 21 years when entering the army (62.2%), white (59.8%), high school educated (76.6%), and currently married (54.8%). In adjusted models, soldiers were more likely to attempt suicide if 1 or more suicide attempts occurred in their unit during the past year (odds ratios [ORs], 1.4-2.3; P attempts increased. The odds of suicide attempt among soldiers in a unit with 5 or more past-year attempts was more than twice that of soldiers in a unit with no previous attempts (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 2.1-2.6). The association of previous unit suicide attempts with subsequent
Full Text Available There has been extensive research on impaired emotion recognition in schizophrenia in the facial and vocal modalities. The literature points to biases toward non-relevant emotions for emotional faces but few studies have examined biases in emotional recognition across different modalities (facial and vocal. In order to test emotion recognition biases, we exposed 23 patients with stabilized chronic schizophrenia and 23 healthy controls to emotional facial and vocal tasks asking them to rate emotional intensity on visual analog scales. Results showed that patients performed poorer than healthy controls whatever the task. However, we showed that patients with schizophrenia provided higher intensity ratings on the nontarget scales (e.g. surprise scale for fear stimuli than healthy controls for the both tasks. Furthermore, with the exception of neutral vocal stimuli, they provided the same intensity ratings on the target scales as the healthy controls. These findings suggest that patients with chronic schizophrenia have emotional biases when judging emotional stimuli in the visual and vocal modalities. These biases may stem from a basic sensorial deficit, a high-order cognitive dysfunction, or both. The respective roles of prefrontal-subcortical circuitry and the basal ganglia are discussed.
Langdon, Robyn; Still, Megan; Connors, Michael H; Ward, Philip B; Catts, Stanley V
Attributional biases to externalize blame for negative events (externalizing bias) and to target other people for blame (personalizing bias) may constitute a vulnerability to psychosis. However, most research to date has only examined attributional biases in chronic patients. We examined attributional style, paranoia, and depression in early psychosis patients to assess the primacy of attributional biases in psychosis. A quasi-experimental design was adopted to compare the attributional style of patients and controls. Correlates of attributional style were also examined. Early psychosis patients and age- and gender-matched healthy controls completed the 'Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire'. Paranoid tendencies, suspiciousness, and depression were also assessed in both groups, while severity of current symptoms was assessed in patients. A high proportion of patients had persecutory delusions. These patients, however, did not differ from controls in externalizing or personalizing bias. Whereas suspiciousness and persecutory delusions in patients associated with externalizing bias, no bias measures associated with paranoid tendencies in either patients or controls. Counter to the pattern seen for endogenous depression, depression in patients was associated with an increased tendency to attribute events to self and a decreased tendency to attribute events to circumstances. These preliminary findings raise doubts about the primacy of attributional biases in psychosis. The novel findings with regard to depression warrant further investigation and suggest that young people, who develop depression after the onset of psychosis, may experience a need to re-establish a sense of personal control over life events that appear unpredictable. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Naudin, Marine; Carl, Tatiana; Surguladze, Simon; Guillen, Catherine; Gaillard, Philippe; Belzung, Catherine; El-Hage, Wissam; Atanasova, Boriana
Alterations in emotional processing occur during a major depressive episode (MDE), and olfaction and facial expressions have implications in emotional and social interactions. To gain a better understanding of these processes, we characterized the perceptive sensorial biases, potential links, and potential remission after antidepressant treatment of MDE. We recruited 22 patients with acute MDE, both before and after three months of antidepressant treatment, and 41 healthy volunteers matched by age and smoking status. The participants underwent a clinical assessment (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Physical and Social Anhedonia scales, Pleasure-Displeasure Scale), an olfactory evaluation (hedonic aspect, familiarity and emotional impact of odors), and a computerized Facial Affect Recognition task. MDE was associated with an olfactory bias concerning hedonic and emotional aspects, including negative olfactory alliesthesia (unpleasant odorants perceived as more unpleasant), facial emotion expression recognition (happy facial expressions), and in part olfactory anhedonia (pleasant odorants perceived as less pleasant). In addition, the results revealed that these impairments represent state markers of MDE, suggesting that the patients recovered the same sensory processing as healthy subjects after antidepressant treatment. This study demonstrated that MDE is associated with negative biases toward olfactory perception and the recognition of facial emotional expressions. The link between these two sensory parameters suggests common underlying processes.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Alterations in emotional processing occur during a major depressive episode (MDE, and olfaction and facial expressions have implications in emotional and social interactions. To gain a better understanding of these processes, we characterized the perceptive sensorial biases, potential links, and potential remission after antidepressant treatment of MDE. METHODS: We recruited 22 patients with acute MDE, both before and after three months of antidepressant treatment, and 41 healthy volunteers matched by age and smoking status. The participants underwent a clinical assessment (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Physical and Social Anhedonia scales, Pleasure-Displeasure Scale, an olfactory evaluation (hedonic aspect, familiarity and emotional impact of odors, and a computerized Facial Affect Recognition task. RESULTS: MDE was associated with an olfactory bias concerning hedonic and emotional aspects, including negative olfactory alliesthesia (unpleasant odorants perceived as more unpleasant, facial emotion expression recognition (happy facial expressions, and in part olfactory anhedonia (pleasant odorants perceived as less pleasant. In addition, the results revealed that these impairments represent state markers of MDE, suggesting that the patients recovered the same sensory processing as healthy subjects after antidepressant treatment. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated that MDE is associated with negative biases toward olfactory perception and the recognition of facial emotional expressions. The link between these two sensory parameters suggests common underlying processes.
van Bergen, Leo
Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.
Kanagaratnam, Pushpa; Raundalen, Magne; Asbjørnsen, Arve E
This study focuses on the impact of present ideological commitment on posttraumatic stress symptoms in former child soldiers living in exile. Eighteen men and two women (aged 25-37), who had joined different Tamil armed groups in Sri Lanka between the ages of 13 and 17 years, participated. The Impact of Event Scale was used to measure posttraumatic symptoms. Qualitative methods were used to investigate the participants' ideological commitment. Participants reported being exposed to many potentially traumatizing events, and had high scores on the Impact of Event Scale. Twenty-five percent of the sample showed strong ideological commitment to the "cause". Ideological commitment at the present seemed to predict better mental health when exposure was less intense and overwhelming. Time had a negative impact on ideological commitment.
Green, Chris A; Ross, D A; Bailey, M S
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are endemic in most developing countries, including Nepal and Afghanistan, and may cause outbreaks in military personnel. Previously, more than 99% of new British Gurkha recruits were already immune to HAV because of prior infection, but this may be declining due to improved living conditions in their countries of origin. Acute HAV infections have occurred in Gurkha soldiers serving in Afghanistan, which made them unfit for duty for 2-3 months. In one case, early serological diagnosis was impeded by IgM results against both HAV and HEV that were caused by cross-reactivity or persistence from a previous infection. These cases have led to a policy change whereby all Gurkha recruits are now tested for previous HAV infection and if negative they are offered vaccination. Meanwhile, HEV infection remains a significant threat in Nepal and Afghanistan with low levels of background immunity and no commercially available vaccine.
Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report. Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health. Date Released: 4/13/2007.
Wills, T. E.; Chapman, T. W.; Kranz, B. D.; Schwarz, M. P.
An analysis of multiple species of Australian gall-inducing thrips with soldiers reveals a significant negative correlation between the size of gall produced and the reproductive division of labour. This correlation suggests that the evolution of smaller galls limited the available space and feeding sites for the offspring of female soldiers, and was a major factor that led to the evolution of an altruistic caste in the gall-inducers. We argue that high levels of inbreeding by singly mated foundresses and incestuous mating by her soldier offspring are key to this evolutionary relationship because they make the relatedness of a female soldier to her daughters and sisters approximately equal. Evidence that relatedness plays an important role is strengthened by the observation of outbred multiply mated foundresses and unbiased sex ratio of dispersers in Oncothrips waterhousei, and the inference that both gall volume and skew decreased along this lineage.
Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find a correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency of soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenia Armed Forces (SAF. The subject consisted of 115 soldiers (age = 27,1 ± 3,7 years who were serving in the first brigade of the SAF. Motor abilities were measured with 11 motor tests, assessing the level of flexibility, speed, strength and coordination. To evaluate working efficiency of soldiers a special questionnaire was used, which consisted of 19 statements. Superior officer was asked to fill a questionnaire for each inferior soldier with values from 1 to 5. The correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency was assessed with the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We have found 5 statistically significant correlations. Motor tests correlating most with working performance were tests of arm strength.
Knox, Stephen H.
Discusses Robert Stone's "Dog Soldiers," a novel written out of the author's experiences in Vietnam in 1973, and its refusal to present an ultimate apocalyptic vision of history. Contrasts it with other modern works pervaded by apocalyptic anxiety. (DMM)
.... In a recent study of U.S. Army units deployed to Kosovo in support of a multinational peacekeeping mission, soldier attitudes and health were surveyed on site, mid-way during a 6-month deployment...
Redman, Edwin H
.... Huntington, and Eliot Cohen. Clausewitz maintains that, because war is an extension of policy, both dialog and action must be two-way, even to the extent that the soldier become a statesman during war...
...). A prototype CFA trial, conducted using 64 male soldiers of 3 Brigade, Townsville, allowed for the evaluation of both the CFA and the severity of heat strain experienced during physical training...
..., a prominent conservative evangelical church that is training men to become “citizen‐soldiers.” Mars Hill serves as an institutional resource and home to young pastors disenchanted with attempts to influence electoral politics...
Senga, Raphael Kabangwa; Lutala, Prosper Mukobelwa
Syphilis, a known major public health issue for soldiers during periods of conflict, is exacerbated in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to widespread sexual violence. However, there has been no previous study to determine the extent of this problem. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of syphilis among young demobilized soldiers. Screening of syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was conducted in three transit sites of soldier reintegration in 2005. The Fisher Exact probability test was used to compare results. The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 3.4%, with almost equal distribution in respect to sex, location. Syphilis continues to be highly prevalent in demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo. Syphilis screening tests are recommended.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis, a known major public health issue for soldiers during periods of conflict, is exacerbated in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to widespread sexual violence. However, there has been no previous study to determine the extent of this problem. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of syphilis among young demobilized soldiers. Methods Screening of syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was conducted in three transit sites of soldier reintegration in 2005. The Fisher Exact probability test was used to compare results. Results The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 3.4%, with almost equal distribution in respect to sex, location. Conclusion Syphilis continues to be highly prevalent in demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo. Syphilis screening tests are recommended.
Song, Suzan Joon; Tol, Wietse; de Jong, Joop
Since many former child soldiers are aging and having children of their own, this study aimed to understand how the effects of trauma are passed to the next generation. In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews, focus groups, and observations were conducted with 25 former child soldiers and 15 matched civilian parents. Analysis used a grounded-theory approach. Trauma may be transmitted from former child soldiers to their offspring via (a) the effect on indero (how to raise a child); (b) severe parental emotional distress; and (c) community effects. Incorporating themes of indero values on how to raise children, the effects of parental posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms on offspring, and the stigma associated with the families of former child soldiers may provide key areas of intervention in mental healing. © 2014 FPI, Inc.
Full Text Available The current field study compares the time preferences of young adults of similar ages but in two very different environments, one more dangerous and uncertain than the other. Soldiers, college students and a control group of teenagers answered questionnaires about their time preferences. During mandatory service, soldiers live in a violent atmosphere where they face great uncertainty about the near future and high risk of mortality (measured by probability of survival. University students and teenagers live in much calmer environment and are tested for performance only periodically. The soldier-subjects show relatively high subjective discount rates when compared to the other two groups. We suggest that the higher subjective discount rate among soldiers can be the result of high perceived risk in the army as an institution, or higher mortality risk.
... (alcohol consumption, sick days, and sleep). Findings indicated that soldiers reporting high levels of exposure to peacekeeping experiences reported more post-traumatic symptoms, greater use of conflict-related tactics, more alcohol consumption...
Ali Murat Alparslan; Ali Can
The aim of this study is to reveal the antecedents of extra-role behaviors carried out by the soldiers, who serve in the army without having any financial expectation and have to stay in the barracks...
Derluyn, Ilse; Vandenhole, Wouter; Parmentier, Stephan; Mels, Cindy
Worldwide, thousands of children are acting in different roles in armed groups. Whereas human rights activism and humanitarian imperatives tend to emphasize the image of child soldiers as incapable victims of adults' abusive compulsion, this image does not fully correspond with prevailing pedagogical and jurisprudential discourses, nor does it represent all child soldiers' own perceptions of their role. Moreover, contemporary warfare is often marked by fuzzy distinctions between perpetrators and victims. This article deepens on the question how to conceptualize the victim-perpetrator imaginary about child soldiers, starting from three disciplines, children's rights law, psychosocial approaches and transitional justice, and then proceeding into an interdisciplinary approach. We argue that the victim-perpetrator dichotomy in relation to child soldiers needs to be revisited, and that this can only be done successfully through a truly interdisciplinary approach. Key to this interdisciplinary dialogue is the growing awareness within all three disciplines, but admittedly only marginally within children's rights law, that only by moving beyond the binary distinction between victim- and perpetrator-hood, the complexity of childhood soldiering can be grasped. In transitional justice, the concept of role reversal has been instructive, and in psychosocial studies, emphasis has been put on the 'agency' of (former) child soldiers, whereby child soldiers sometimes account on how joining the armed force or group was (partially) out of their own free will. Hence, child soldiers' perpetrator-hood is not only part of the way child soldiers are perceived in the communities they return to, but equally of the way they see themselves. These findings plea for more contextualized approaches, including a greater participation of child soldiers, the elaboration of accountability mechanisms beyond criminal responsibility, and an intimate connection between individual, social and societal
governments went as far as impressing migrant workers or " strollers ." Such recruiting methods often filled the ranks with the least desirable...been forced to consider seriously the constitutional issues of representation, taxation, or sovereignty. However, with this British effort to tax the...his soldiers why flour was to be issued in lieu of hardbread or a that a gill of rum was to be provided to each soldier 3 owing to the bad weather. As
soldier in National Socialism defies easy geTneralizations and the quick interpretation required of this kind of essay. Yet an understanding of this era of...and duty for what they iegarded as a just cause, there were many professional soldiers who identified with the pernicious aimis of National Socialism and...democracy long plagued German politics and society. The disaster of National Socialism exacerbated this long-standing problem and required military reforr
Eyal Lahav; Uri Benzion; Tal Shavit
The current field study compares the time preferences of young adults of similar ages but in two very different environments, one more dangerous and uncertain than the other. Soldiers, college students and a control group of teenagers answered questionnaires about their time preferences. During mandatory service, soldiers live in a violent atmosphere where they face great uncertainty about the near future and high risk of mortality (measured by probability of survival). University students an...
researched psychotherapies for PTSD. Virtual reality exposure (VRE) has demonstrated growing support as an innovative method for activating the trauma ...is considered one of the most effective cognitive-behavioral therapy ( CBT ) for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there were no...Soldiers. First, PE requires a level of emotional engagement in the re-living of the trauma that many Soldiers are unable to obtain (4). Second
Adel Mahmoud Khattab
Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is a common habit among soldiers and it starts in a relatively young age mainly due to social influence. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the most frequent encountered complaints among soldiers. Main causes that led them to try quitting were health concerns and financial issues; as most of them spend a considerable percentage of their monthly income to obtain cigarettes. Unfortunately there was no organized positive support to help the quitters.
Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah
Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David
Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities.
Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the research was to find a correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency of soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenia Armed Forces (SAF. Methods: The subject consisted of 115 soldiers (age=27.1±3.7 years who were serving in the first brigade of the SAF. Motor abilities were measured with 11 motor tests, assessing the level of flexibility, speed, strength and coordination. To evaluate working efficiency of soldiers a special questionnaire was used, which consisted of 19 statements. Superior officer was asked to fill a questionnaire for each inferior soldier with values from 1 to 5. The correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency was assessed with the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: We have found 4 statistically significant correlations. Motor tests correlating most with working performance were tests of arm strength. Conclusions: The superior officer better-evaluated soldiers, who could express higher level of arm and leg strength, who could perform the complex motor tasks quickly and solve the space related problem efficiently. Stronger, faster and more coordinated soldiers appeared to be more effective with carrying out the each day’s demands of modern military.
Douglas, Susan R; Vides de Andrade, Ana Regina; Boyd, Stephanie; Leslie, Melanie; Webb, Lynn; Davis, Lauren; Fraine, Melissa; Frazer, Nicole L; Hargraves, Ryan; Bickman, Leonard
To evaluate the effectiveness of patient-centered communication training for military providers who conduct post-deployment health screening. The half-day interactive workshop included simulated Soldier patients using video technology. Using a quasi-experimental design, all health care providers at four military treatment facilities were recruited for data collection during a four- to nine-day site visit (23 trained providers, 28 providers in the control group, and one provider declined to participate). All Soldiers were eligible to participate and were blinded to provider training status. Immediately after screening encounters, providers reported on their identification of mental health concerns and Soldiers reported on provider communication behaviors resulting in 1,400 matched pairs. Electronic health records were also available for 26,005 Soldiers. The workshop was found to increase (1) providers' patient-centered communication behaviors as evaluated by Soldiers; (2) provider identification of Soldier mental health concerns; and (3), related health outcomes including provision of education and referral to a confidential counseling resource. Results are promising, but with small effect sizes and study limitations, further research is warranted. A brief intensive workshop on patient-centered communication tailored to the military screening context is feasible and may improve key outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu
Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C.
Harmon, S Cory; Hoyt, Timothy V; Jones, Michael D; Etherage, Joseph R; Okiishi, John C
The Global War on Terrorism and its corresponding frequent and long deployments have resulted in an increase in mental health concerns among active duty troops. To mitigate these impacts, the Department of Defense has implemented postdeployment screening initiatives designed to identify symptomatic soldiers and refer them for mental health care. Although the primary purpose of these screenings is to identify and provide assistance to individuals, macrolevel reporting of screening results for groups can assist Commanders, who are charged with ensuring the wellbeing of their soldiers, to make unit-level interventions. This study assesses the utility of a metatheory of occupational stress, the Soldier Adaptation Model, in organizing feedback information provided to Army Commanders on their units' postdeployment screening results. The results of a combat brigade of 2319 soldiers who completed post-deployment screening following return from Iraq were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling to assess the Soldier Adaptation Model's use for macrolevel reporting. Results indicate the Soldier Adaptation Model did not strengthen the macrolevel reporting; however, alcohol use and reckless driving were found to mediate the relationship between combat exposure and numerous mental health symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, anger, depression, anxiety, etc.). Research and practice implications are discussed.
Koster, Ernst; Hoorelbeke, Kristof
The past decades have witnessed intense research on valence-specific information processing biases in depression. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a technique that attempts to experimentally modify processing biases through extended computerized training to understand their causal role in the maintenance of depression. Moreover, reducing maladaptive processing biases has clinical potential. The current paper discusses the current state-of-the-art on CBM at the level of attentional, interp...
Tran, Tanya B; Hertel, Paula T; Joormann, Jutta
Previous research has shown that it is possible to experimentally induce interpretive biases using ambiguous scenarios. This study extends past findings by examining the effects of cognitive bias modification for interpretation on subsequent scenario recall. Participants were trained to interpret emotionally ambiguous passages in either a positive or negative direction. Transfer of the training to novel scenarios was tested. After training, participants were also asked to recall details from these novel scenarios. The results indicate that the training was effective in inducing the intended group differences in interpretive bias. Importantly, participants exhibited memory biases that corresponded to their training condition. These results suggest that manipulating interpretive biases can result in corresponding changes in memory. Findings from this study highlight the importance of future research on the relation among cognitive biases and on the possibility of modifying cognitive biases in emotional disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Sedlacek, William E.
Three types of test bias are discussed: content bias, atmosphere bias, and use bias. Use bias is considered the most important. Tests reflect the bias in society, and eliminating test bias means eliminating racism and sexism in society. A six-stage model to eliminate racism and sexism is presented. (Author)
social , political, and economic factors that influence the use of child soldiers in armed conflicts. The thesis also suggests...examines social , political, and economic factors that influence the use of child soldiers in armed conflicts. The thesis also suggests ways to mitigate...Victims: An Analysis of the Mutation of the Social Meaning of Child Soldiering,” International Criminal Law Review 14, no. 3 (2014): 619-40.
Robinson, O.; Cools, R.; Crockett, M.; Sahakian, B.
Reduction of the monoamine serotonin (5-HT) via the dietary manipulation of tryptophan (acute tryptophan depletion; ATD) has been shown to induce negative cognitive biases similar to those found in depression in healthy individuals. However, evidence also indicates that there can be positive effects
Robinson, O.J.; Cools, R.; Crockett, M.J.; Sahakian, B.J.
Reduction of the monoamine serotonin (5-HT) via the dietary manipulation of tryptophan (acute tryptophan depletion; ATD) has been shown to induce negative cognitive biases similar to those found in depression in healthy individuals. However, evidence also indicates that there can be positive effects
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between job burnout and neuroendocrine indicators in soldiers living in a harsh environment. Three hundred soldiers stationed in the arid desert and 600 in an urban area were recruited. They filled in the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. One hundred soldiers were randomly selected from each group to measure their levels of noradrenaline, serotonin, heat shock protein (HSP-70, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and serum cortisol. Job burnout was more common in soldiers from urban areas than those from rural areas. Job burnout was significantly higher among soldiers stationed in the arid desert than those in urban areas. For soldiers in the arid desert, the levels of HSP-70, serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly higher than in soldiers in urban areas. Correlation analyses showed that the degree of job burnout was weakly negatively correlated with the level of HSP-70. Being an only child, HSP-70 levels, cortisol levels, and ACTH levels were independently associated with job burnout in soldiers stationed in the arid desert. A higher level of job burnout in soldiers stationed in arid desert and a corresponding change in neuroendocrine indicators indicated a correlation between occupational stress and neurotransmitters.
Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole
The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012...
Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole
The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012...
Shiban, Youssef; Fruth, Martina B; Pauli, Paul; Kinateder, Max; Reichenberger, Jonas; Mühlberger, Andreas
The current study investigates biases in size estimations made by spider-phobic and healthy participants before and after treatment. Forty-one spider-phobic and 20 healthy participants received virtual reality (VR) exposure treatment and were then asked to rate the size of a real spider immediately before and, on average, 15days after the treatment. During the VR exposure treatment skin conductance response was assessed. Prior to the treatment, both groups tended to overestimate the size of the spider, but this size estimation bias was significantly larger in the phobic group than in the control group. The VR exposure treatment reduced this bias, which was reflected in a significantly smaller size rating post treatment. However, the size estimation bias was unrelated to the skin conductance response. Our results confirm the hypothesis that size estimation by spider-phobic patients is biased. This bias is not stable over time and can be decreased with adequate treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A
Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed cyromazine or pyriproxifen treated media. Cyromazine LC50 for larvae dying before becoming prepupae ranged from 0.25 to 0.28 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 5.79 and 12.04. Cyromazine LC50s for larvae dying before emergence ranged from 0.13 to 0.19 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 3.94 and 7.69. Pyriproxifen dosage-mortality regressions were not generated for larvae failing to become prepupae since <32% mortality was recorded at the highest concentration of 1,857 ppm. LC50s for larvae failing to become adults ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 ppm with dosage mortality-regression slopes between 1.67 and 2.32. Lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin dosage-mortality regressions were determined for wild adult black soldier flies and house flies, Musca domestica L., and for susceptible house flies. Our results indicate that the wild house fly, unlike the black soldier fly, population was highly resistant to each of these pyrethroids. Regression slopes for black soldier flies exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin were twice as steep as those determined for the wild house fly strain. Accordingly, LC50s for the black soldier fly and susceptible house fly were 10- to 30-fold lower than those determined for wild house flies. The differential sensitivity between wild black soldier flies and house flies might be due to behavioral differences. Adult house flies usually remain in animal facilities with the possibility of every adult receiving pesticide exposure, while black soldier fly adults are typically present only during emergence and oviposition thereby limiting their exposure.
Tornero-Aguilera, José Francisco; Robles-Pérez, José Juan; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier
We aimed to analyse the effect of combat stress in the psychophysiological responses of elite and non-elite soldiers. We analysed heart rate, cortical arousal, skin temperature, blood lactate concentration and lower body muscular strength before and after a tactical combat simulation in 40 warfighters divided in two groups: elite (n: 20; 28.5 ± 6.38 years) and non-elite (n:20; 31.94 ± 6.24 years) group. Elite presented a significantly higher lactate concentration after combat than non elite soldiers (3.8 ± 1.5 vs 6.6 ± 1.3 mmol/L). Non-elite soldiers had a higher heart rate pre and post the simulation than elite (82.9 ± 12.3 vs 64.4 ± 11. pre non elite and elite respectively; 93.0 ± 12.8 vs 88 ± 13.8 bpm post non elite and elite respectively). Elite soldiers presented higher lower muscular strength than elite in all test and before and after the combat simulation. Cortical arousal was not modified significantly in both groups. We conclude elite soldiers presented in combat a higher anaerobic metabolism activation and muscular strength than non-elite soldiers, but cardiovascular, cortical, and muscular strength manifestation presented the same response in both elite and non-elite soldiers.
Schumacher, Sophie E; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika
Recent evidence has demonstrated that bias modification training has potential to reduce cognitive biases for attractive targets and affect health behaviours. The present study investigated whether cognitive bias modification training could be applied to reduce approach bias for chocolate and affect subsequent chocolate consumption. A sample of 120 women (18-27 years) were randomly assigned to an approach-chocolate condition or avoid-chocolate condition, in which they were trained to approach or avoid pictorial chocolate stimuli, respectively. Training had the predicted effect on approach bias, such that participants trained to approach chocolate demonstrated an increased approach bias to chocolate stimuli whereas participants trained to avoid such stimuli showed a reduced bias. Further, participants trained to avoid chocolate ate significantly less of a chocolate muffin in a subsequent taste test than participants trained to approach chocolate. Theoretically, results provide support for the dual process model's conceptualisation of consumption as being driven by implicit processes such as approach bias. In practice, approach bias modification may be a useful component of interventions designed to curb the consumption of unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lai, Tristan T; Jaeger, Lisa; Jones, Benjamin L; Kaderbek, Eric W; Malchow, Randall J
Case series. Military medical facility providing acute care for soldiers injured while fighting in the war in Iraq and Afghanistan. To report a series of infections related to use of continuous peripheral nerve catheters for postoperative pain control in the military polytraumatic setting. The analysis of the above infections includes similarities and differences in infection patterns and attempts to clarify possible risk factors for such infections to include duration of catheter placement, type of catheter, preprocedural antibiotics, and tunnel vs nontunneled catheters. The goal of this analysis is to assist in the development of protocols that may prevent future catheter infections. Clinical data were obtained from five previously healthy male soldiers receiving acute care at Brooke Army Medical Center using continuous peripheral nerve catheters for postoperative pain for multiple and frequent procedures. In a total of six catheter infections, two were noted to have superficial skin infections while four were shown to have deep tissue involvement confirmed by imaging studies. All patients were started on initial or additional antibiotics after catheter removal. Three catheter infections, all with stimulating catheters, required surgical irrigation and debridement in the operating room. Continuous peripheral nerve catheters are not without complications and risks including infection. Duration of catheter use was the most significant factor with the development of a catheter-related infection in our series. This series also highlights how stimulating and nonstimulating catheter infections may present differently, as stimulating catheters may have a greater tendency to present as deep space infections with minimal superficial findings. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E
Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.
Boothby, N; Crawford, J; Halperin, J
As the use of child soldiers continues to proliferate throughout the world, effective psychosocial interventions must be developed and evaluated. Our research shows that former child soldiers who are provided rehabilitative services and accepted back into their families and communities are able to become productive, responsible and caring adults. In 1988, 39 captured or escaped child soldiers were brought by the Mozambican government to the Lhanguene Rehabilitation Center in Maputo, Mozambique's capital city. Interventions that focused on rehabilitating the children both psychologically and physically were initiated during their 6-month stay at the Lhanguene centre, and reintegration assistance was provided for 2 years thereafter to support their return to families and communities. Our research continued to follow these former child soldiers for 16 years, and focused on their psychological, social and economic functioning. The study included qualitative and quantitative data collection methods to obtain adult well-being outcomes and was also designed to identify interventions that enabled these child soldiers to re-enter civilian life and lead relatively productive lives. Efficacious rehabilitation activities included those that strengthened individuals' coping skills for anticipated trauma and grief, instilled a sense of social responsibility and promoted self-regulation and security (versus survival) seeking behaviour. Activities that supported long term reintegration and self-sufficiency included community acceptance and forgiveness, traditional cleansing and healing rituals, livelihoods and apprenticeships.
Zombie soldier beetles: Epizootics in the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) caused by Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina: Entomophthoraceae).
Steinkraus, Donald C; Hajek, Ann E; Liebherr, Jim K
Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence. Of the beetles collected, 281 (63%) were males and 165 (37%) were females. A total of 90 beetles were infected with E. lampyridarum, an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Prevalence in males was 19.6% (n=55 infected/281 males total) and prevalence in females was 21.2% (n=35 infected /165 females total). Conidia were produced from 57% of the infected beetles, 23% of the infected beetles produced resting spores, and 20% contained the hyphal body stage. Infected beetles produced either conidia or resting spores but never both in the same host. Post-mortem morphological changes in the hosts due to E. lampyridarum were observed periodically for 24h. Shortly before death, by unknown mechanisms, dying infected beetles tightly clamped their mandibles into flower heads and ca. 15-22h later (between 2400 and 0700h) the fungus caused dead beetles to raise their elytra and expand their metathoracic wings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
2010). “The Effect of a Tiered Body Armour System on Soldier Physical Mobility.” Research Online – University of Wollongong. Perry, C. J., Kiriella...TECHNICAL REPORT AD ________________ NATICK/TR-15/020 USE OF BODY ARMOR...2012- July 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE USE OF BODY ARMOR PROTECTION LEVELS WITH SQUAD AUTOMATIC WEAPON FIGHTING LOAD IMPACTS SOLDIER PERFORMANCE
Wilson Kristin B.; Smith, Natesha L.; Lee, Allisha L.; Stevenson, Melissa A.
In this study, the Tinto model of student integration is applied qualitatively to soldiers attending college. The authors found that soldiers commit to the military primarily and to college secondarily; therefore, military policies and relationships related to college offered a better understanding of college commitments than did college policies…
Both, J.; Reis, R.
This article addresses the long term impact of having been a child soldier in Yumbe District, Uganda. Within this district, a group of former child soldiers fell beyond the scope of almost all reintegration initiatives from the time a peace agreement was signed in 2002. Ten years after the youths’
With the surge of translational medicine and computational omics research, complex disease diagnosis is more and more relying on massive omics data-driven molecular signature detection. However, how to detect and prevent possible diagnostic biases in translational bioinformatics remains an unsolved problem despite its importance in the coming era of personalized medicine. In this study, we comprehensively investigate the diagnostic bias problem by analyzing benchmark gene array, protein array, RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq data under the framework of support vector machines for different model selection methods. We further categorize the diagnostic biases into different types by conducting rigorous kernel matrix analysis and provide effective machine learning methods to conquer the diagnostic biases. In this study, we comprehensively investigate the diagnostic bias problem by analyzing benchmark gene array, protein array, RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq data under the framework of support vector machines. We have found that the diagnostic biases happen for data with different distributions and SVM with different kernels. Moreover, we identify total three types of diagnostic biases: overfitting bias, label skewness bias, and underfitting bias in SVM diagnostics, and present corresponding reasons through rigorous analysis. Compared with the overfitting and underfitting biases, the label skewness bias is more challenging to detect and conquer because it can be easily confused as a normal diagnostic case from its deceptive accuracy. To tackle this problem, we propose a derivative component analysis based support vector machines to conquer the label skewness bias by achieving the rivaling clinical diagnostic results. Our studies demonstrate that the diagnostic biases are mainly caused by the three major factors, i.e. kernel selection, signal amplification mechanism in high-throughput profiling, and training data label distribution. Moreover, the proposed DCA-SVM diagnosis provides a
Full Text Available Background: After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Method: Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11 were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated. Results: Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (−, power (−, tradition (+, and universalism (+ were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Conclusions: Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.
Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin
Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens T.; Backus, Johannes; Siegel, Stefan; Willmund, Gerd; Maercker, Andreas
Background After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Method Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11) were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated). Results Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (−), power (−), tradition (+), and universalism (+) were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Conclusions Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches. PMID:24808938
Ali Murat Alparslan
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal the antecedents of extra-role behaviors carried out by the soldiers, who serve in the army without having any financial expectation and have to stay in the barracks due to their compulsory military service. For this purpose, an exploratory research was conducted, in which the detailed interview method was applied on 14 soldiers, who had a certificate of appreciation from their commanders and said to exhibit extra-role behaviors by their commanders. The findings have indicated that exhibited extra-role behaviors were highly related with friendship. Other behaviors are tasks in company, training other soldiers, learning new things, and using the knowledge and skills from civil life in army. When the reasons of these behaviors are examined in detail, it can be seen that the most important factor is friendship, followed by personality, being liked and esteemed by commanders, reciprocity, institute’s success and patriotism
Holmes, Leslie A; VanLaerhoven, Sherah L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K
This study tested the effect of photophase duration on black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.; Diptera: Stratiomyidae), development. Successful larval eclosion, development time and adult emergence were measured for individuals exposed to 0 h, 8 h, and 12 h of light, at approximately 27°C and 70% relative humidity. Accumulated degree hours (ADH) were calculated to correct for differences in temperature across treatments. Larvae successfully eclosed in all treatments, with larvae in 12 h light requiring 5.77% and 4.5% fewer ADH to eclose than larvae in 0 h and 8 h, respectively. Overall, larvae in 0 h required 39.34% and 37.78% more ADH to complete their development from egg to adult than larvae in 8 h and 12 h, respectively. The effect of photophase duration on juvenile development was largest in the post-feeding stage, and smallest in the pupal stage. Specifically, post-feeding larvae in 0 h required 80.02% and 90.08% more ADH to pupate than larvae in 8 h and 12 h, respectively, but pupae in 8 h required 9.63% and 7.52% fewer ADH to eclose than pupae in 0 h and 12 h, respectively. Lastly, larval mortality was significantly higher in 0 h, with 72% survivorship, and 96% and 97% in 8 h and 12 h, respectively. However, 17.8% of mortality in the absence of light is hypothesized to be a result of predation by Arachnidae and Blattidae. These data could prove valuable for optimizing industrial processes for mass-production of this species for use as alternative protein in feed for livestock, poultry, and aquaculture. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Spranghers, Thomas; Noyez, Annelies; Schildermans, Kristof; De Clercq, Patrick
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), shows potential as a resource for animal feed. However, industrial production in regions where the insect is not native, like northwestern Europe, could lead to permanent establishment, which might entail environmental risks. In temperate climates, establishment depends on the insect's ability to overwinter. This study assessed the insect's cold hardiness by determining the supercooling point (SCP) and lower lethal time at 5 °C (LTime10,50,90) for different life stages. As diet or acclimation can influence cold hardiness, prepupae reared on different substrates and acclimated prepupae were tested in separate experiments. The SCP ranged from -7.3 °C for late-instar larvae to -13.7 °C for pupae. Prepupae reared on a highly nutritional substrate had a lower SCP compared with a control diet composed of chicken feed (-14.1 °C vs. -12.4 °C, respectively), whereas the SCP was unaffected by acclimation. Based on the LTime, prepupae and pupae were the most cold hardy life stages. Acclimated prepupae were most cold tolerant, with a LTime50 of 23 d. Based on an empirical relationship between LTime50 and field survival of various arthropods, it was predicted that H. illucens would survive about 47 d in the field during northwestern European winters. The results from this laboratory study suggest that H. illucens is rather unlikely to overwinter in northwestern Europe. However, caution is warranted given that diet and acclimation can influence the insect's cold hardiness and in the field the insect may survive in a diapausing state or in protected hibernacula. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hepfinger, Lisa B.
The mission of the Individual Protection Directorate of the U. S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center is to develop clothing and equipment to protect the individual combat soldier against battlefield chemical, ballistic, surveillance, environmental and nuclear hazards. In an effort to meet our countersurveillance mission, the Terrain Analysis Systn was developed by Natick in conjunction with Decilog, Inc., Melville, New York. The Terrain Analysis System was developed to satisfy the need for a scientific method of designing camouflage patterns based on natural terrain reflectance data. It functions as a portable, abridged spectrophotometer to obtain spectral refltance data in the visible and near-infrared on any scene of interest. Data is collected on videotape in the field, digitized into the computer back in the laboratory, and spectral reflectance factors determined for each pixel in the scene. The 1976 CIE L*a*b* color coordinates are calculated and the image is clustered to a user-specific number of color domains. Camouflage patterns can be designed based on these domains, and visual camouflage evaluations can be made by overlaying the designed patterns on any desired background scene. Additional capabilities include calculation of values analogous to the CIE values, which use infrared film or an image intensifier as the observer. The Terrain Analysis System is also capable of analyzing video data taken through an image intensifier or thermal imager and calculating the probability of detection of a user-defined target against the background. "What if" cases can be run to determine the detection probability under other sets of conditions, such as a detector with a different spectral response or under different atmospheric conditions.
Crabb, Sarah L
Effectiveness of barrier and oral contraceptive pills is dependent on daily adherence and consistency that cannot always be guaranteed by military lifestyle. Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods could provide a good alternative to guarantee effective contraception in unpredictable scenarios, and recent studies have suggested they could provide wider non-contraceptive benefits. LARC has been proven to be more cost effective than the combined oral contraceptive pill. The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has released guidelines on contraception provision to ensure all women receive the contraception method that is most appropriate to the individual. A retrospective audit of 105 sets of primary healthcare notes of serving female soldiers was assessed to establish contraceptive choices and whether appropriate information had been provided within the last year of their last consultation. 100% had seen a healthcare provider capable of providing contraceptive advice in the last year. 69% documented as using some form of non-surgical contraception versus 58% quoted as national usage. 21% were using some form of LARC versus 8% national usage. 66% of eligible women had not had LARC discussed with them, and of these 50% did not have any contraceptive usage documented. Among other consultations, 41% had had a medical within the year period, of which over half had no documented contraceptive status. As military healthcare providers, we have more exposure to our patients than NHS equivalents and this small study suggests there is an increased demand for contraception. Contraceptive choice counselling should be a mandatory part of routine initial medicals. If the situation demands a medical for any other reason, a documented contraception status should form an important part of the risk assessment process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Zoricić, Zoran; Karlović, Dalibor; Buljan, Danijel; Marusić, Srdan
The aim of this study was to compare aggressive behavior in soldiers with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), PTSD comorbid with alcohol addiction and alcohol addiction only. Three groups of male combat experienced soldiers with PTSD (n=43), PTSD comorbid with alcohol addiction (n=41) and alcohol addiction (n=39) were compared by Aggression rating scale A-87. PTSD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria and Watson's PTSD rating scale. Alcohol addiction was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria and CAGE Questionnaire. Combat-experienced soldiers with alcohol addiction as well as soldiers with combat-related PTSD comorbid with alcohol addiction have a high level of verbal latent aggression (VLA), (F=26.65; Paggression (PLA), (F=37.86; Paggression (INA), (F=56.94; Pverbal manifest aggression (VMA), (F=18.35; Paggression (PMA), (F=43.22; Pfactor in increasing aggression levels in soldiers with PTSD.
Marlène Elias; Susan S Hummel; Bimbika S Basnett; Carol J.P. Colfer
Gender biases persist in forestry research and practice. These biases result in reduced scientific rigor and inequitable, ineffective, and less efficient policies, programs, and interventions. Drawing from a two-volume collection of current and classic analyses on gender in forests, we outline five persistent and inter-related themes: gendered governance, tree tenure,...
Besemer, S.; Farrington, D.P.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.
We investigated to what extent children of convicted parents might have a higher risk of a conviction themselves because criminal justice systems, such as the police and courts, focus more attention towards certain criminal families - a concept called official bias. Bias was measured using several
Inglis, Matthew; Simpson, Adrian
In this paper we briefly describe the dual process account of reasoning, and explain the role of heuristic biases in human thought. Concentrating on the so-called matching bias effect, we describe a piece of research that indicates a correlation between success at advanced level mathematics and an ability to override innate and misleading…
Gluud, Lise Lotte
Research on bias in clinical trials may help identify some of the reasons why investigators sometimes reach the wrong conclusions about intervention effects. Several quality components for the assessment of bias control have been suggested, but although they seem intrinsically valid, empirical...
Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Healthy-cooking techniques capture the flavor and nutrients of food without ... in expensive cookware. You can use basic cooking techniques to prepare food in healthy ways. By using ...
Bradley, S W; Sheppard, D C
Wild populations of house flies were inhibited from ovipositing into poultry manure containing larvae of the black soldier fly,Hermetia illucens (L.). A laboratory strain of house fly responded differently, readily ovipositing into manure with lower densities of soldier fly larvae, but avoiding the higher densities tested. The amount of timeH. illucens larvae occupy the manure prior to an oviposition test influences ovipositional responses of house flies. Manure conditioned byH. illucens larvae for 4-5 days did not significantly inhibit house fly oviposition. We suggest that some type of interspecific chemical communication (allomone) is present.
Kim, Hyung Jin; Shin, Y S; Choi, H; Kim, M K; Jeong, Y B; Park, J K
We present a case of undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a cause of acute urinary retention in a 21-year-old male soldier. Soldiers live in close quarters, and have a regimented lifestyle that may not allow for frequent voiding; therefore, undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may result in acute urinary retention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-2-0165 TITLE: “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2 & 3”.” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...27Sep2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0165 “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2...Virginia Tech – Wake Forest University, Center for Injury Biomechanics and the U.S. Army entitled “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury
Full Text Available In all countries around the world, the duties of the soldier are codified in detail, but in very different ways, according to the various histories, and cultural backgrounds of the respective Nations. As this soldier has the right to legally use a powerful lethal force, a lot is required from him, which is normal. He is now most often a professional. He has mainly to master perfectly his weapons, to respect the Law of Armed Conflicts and to apply the principle of humanity. But his leaders have to guide him and his Nation to understand and support him.
Jeong, Donghui; Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian
Here, we briefly introduce the key results of the recent review (arXiv:1611.09787), whose abstract is as following. This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.
home to begin a 30, 60, and 90-day cycle similar to the current system to ensure success in reintegration . Providing decompression immediately...and leads to a more successful transition into reintegration back into civilian life. A second recommendation is for the SCNG Family Programs to...RETURNING FROM DEPLOYMENT – ASSESSING THE PROGRAMS FOR REINTEGRATION OF SOUTH CAROLINA NATIONAL GUARD SOLDIERS BY COLONEL R. VAN MCCARTY United
de l'Escalopier, Nicolas; Barbier, Olivier; Demoures, Thomas; Ollat, Didier; Versier, Gilbert
Stabilizing surgery of the shoulder with a coracoid graft according to Latarjet is a recognized surgical treatment for anterior instability of the shoulder. This pathology frequently affects soldiers. Postoperatively, the potential risk of recurrence or of secondary shoulder arthritis can limit the practitioner in their ability assessment. The aim of this study is to analyze the long-term outcomes of this surgery in a military population, in order to assess the possible implications for French soldiers' medical ability. Twenty soldiers operated on the shoulder by Latarjet procedure by the same surgeon were retrospectively reviewed after more than 15 yr. All of them did regular physical activity for leisure or competitions. None had preoperative osteoarthritis injuries. The number of dislocation recurrences, the functional score, and the rate of radiographic osteoarthritis were assessed. After more than 16.3 yr (extremes: 15-24 yr), none displayed a dislocation recurrence. The average Rowe's score was 91.8 ± 9.9. The average subjective shoulder value was 89.2 ± 9.7. All patients had resumed sport. Three of them developed level 1 or 2 radiological signs of osteoarthritis according to Samilson. No level 3 or 4 osteoarthritis was found. Among all the patients, 14 still did regular physical activity. In view of our results and of those from the literature, the results of treatment for anterior shoulder instability with the Latarjet procedure are good, even very good in the long term. These data must be considered to favor this procedure for soldiers with shoulder instability and from a medico-administrative viewpoint for military patients in order to pursue their careers without any job restrictions.
Kipping, David M.; Sandford, Emily
Observational biases distort our view of nature, such that the patterns we see within a surveyed population of interest are often unrepresentative of the truth we seek. Transiting planets currently represent the most informative data set on the ensemble properties of exoplanets within 1 au of their star. However, the transit method is inherently biased due to both geometric and detection-driven effects. In this work, we derive the overall observational biases affecting the most basic transit parameters from first principles. By assuming a trapezoidal transit and using conditional probability, we infer the expected distribution of these terms both as a joint distribution and in a marginalized form. These general analytic results provide a baseline against which to compare trends predicted by mission-tailored injection/recovery simulations and offer a simple way to correct for observational bias. Our results explain why the observed population of transiting planets displays a non-uniform impact parameter distribution, with a bias towards near-equatorial geometries. We also find that the geometric bias towards observed planets transiting near periastron is attenuated by the longer durations which occur near apoastron. Finally, we predict that the observational bias with respect to ratio-of-radii is super-quadratic, scaling as (RP/R⋆)5/2, driven by an enhanced geometric transit probability and modestly longer durations.
E S Nwauche
Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.
Working definition of cognitive bias: Patterns by which information is sought and interpreted that can lead to systematic errors in decisions. Cognitive bias is used in diverse fields: Economics, Politics, Intelligence, Marketing, to name a few. Attempts to ground cognitive science in physical characteristics of the cognitive apparatus exceed our knowledge. Studies based on correlations; strict cause and effect is difficult to pinpoint. Effects cited in the paper and discussed here have been replicated many times over, and appear sound. Many biases have been described, but it is still unclear whether they are all distinct. There may only be a handful of fundamental biases, which manifest in various ways. Bias can effect system verification in many ways . Overconfidence -> Questionable decisions to deploy. Availability -> Inability to conceive critical tests. Representativeness -> Overinterpretation of results. Positive Test Strategies -> Confirmation bias. Debiasing at individual level very difficult. The potential effect of bias on the verification process can be managed, but not eliminated. Worth considering at key points in the process.
The practice of Homeopathy ought to be strictly logical. In the Organon Samuel Hahnemann gives the impression that the unprejudiced observer should be able to follow an algorithmic route to the simillimum in every case. Judgement and Decision Research, however, indicates that when people grapple with complex systems like homeopathy they are more likely to use heuristics or empirical rules to help them reach a solution. Thus Hahnemann's concept of the unprejudiced observer is virtually impossible to attain. There is inevitable bias in both case-taking and remedy selection. Understanding the types of bias may enable the practitioner to reduce his/her own bias.
Mitaka, Yuki; Mori, Naoki; Matsuura, Kenji
Division of labour in eusocial insects is characterized by efficient communication systems based on pheromones. Among such insects, termites have evolved specialized sterile defenders, called soldiers. Because they are incapable of feeding themselves, it has been suggested that soldiers are sustained by workers and emit the pheromone arresting workers. However, such a soldier pheromone has not been identified in any termite species, and the details of the soldier-worker interaction remain to be explored. Here, we identified a soldier-specific volatile sesquiterpene as a worker arrestant, which also acts as a primer pheromone regulating soldier differentiation and fungistatic agent in a termite Reticulitermes speratus Chemical analyses revealed that (-)-β-elemene is the major component of soldier extract, and its authentic standard exhibited arrestant activity to workers and inhibited the differentiation from workers to soldiers. This compound also showed fungistatic activity against entomopathogenic fungi. These suggest that (-)-β-elemene secreted by soldiers acts not only as a worker arrestant but also as one component of inhibitory primer pheromone and an anti-pathogenic agent. Our study provides novel evidence supporting the multi-functionality of termite soldier pheromone and provides new insights into the role of soldiers and the evolutionary mechanisms of pheromone compounds. © 2017 The Author(s).
Farina, Emily K; Taylor, Jonathan C; Means, Gary E; Murphy, Nancy E; Pasiakos, Stefan M; Lieberman, Harris R; McClung, James P
Special Operations Forces (SOF) Soldiers deploy frequently and require high levels of physical and cognitive performance. Nutritional status is linked to cognitive and physical performance. Studies evaluating dietary intake and nutritional status in deployed environments are lacking. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of combat deployment on diet quality and serum concentrations of nutritional status markers, including iron, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), glucose, and lipids, among elite United States (U.S.) Army SOF Soldiers. Changes from baseline to post-deployment were determined with a repeated measure within-subjects design for Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores, intake of foods, food groups, key nutrients, and serum nutritional status markers. Dietary intake was assessed with a Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. The association between post-deployment serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) and PTH was determined. Analyses of serum markers were completed on 50 participants and analyses of dietary intake were completed on 33 participants. In response to deployment, HEI-2010 scores decreased for total HEI-2010 (70.3 ± 9.1 vs. 62.9 ± 11.1), total fruit (4.4 ± 1.1 vs. 3.7 ± 1.5), whole fruit (4.6 ± 1.0 vs. 4.2 ± 1.4), dairy (6.2 ± 2.7 vs. 4.8 ± 2.4), and empty calories (14.3 ± 3.2 vs. 11.1 ± 4.5) (P ≤ 0.05). Average daily intakes of foods and food groups that decreased included total dairy (P diet quality in the U.S. and while deployed by avoiding empty calories and consuming fruits, vegetables, and adequate sources of calcium, vitamin D, and iron. Improving availability and quality of perishable food during deployment may improve diet quality.
Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Levine, Debra Siegel; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Blow, Adrian J; Marchiondo, Christopher; Walters, Heather; Valenstein, Marcia
National Guard (NG) soldiers returning from deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan were surveyed at 6 and 12 months following their return (N = 970). The overall prevalence of suicide risk at 6 and 12 months following their return was assessed, as were changes in suicide risk among soldiers initially at high or low risk. Factors associated with changes in risk were assessed. The percentage of NG soldiers with high suicide risk increased from 6.8% at 6 months to 9.2% at 12 months (odds ratio = 1.7, p = .02). In the 882 soldiers initially at low risk, 5.9% (52/882) became high risk at 12 months; in the 64 soldiers initially at high risk, 46.9% (30/64) became low risk at 12 months. Initial levels of depressive symptoms were predictive of changing to high risk; this association appeared to be partially explained by soldier reports of increased search in the meaning in life and higher levels of perceived stress. Because suicide risk increases over the first 12 months, continued risk assessments during this time period should be considered. Supporting soldiers to find meaning in their life after deployment and enhancing their capacity to cope with perceived stress may help prevent increases in suicide risk over time. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.
Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gregulski, Robert
The article presents the results of a research study into the reasons for medical evacuations of Polish military personnel taking part in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operation in Afghanistan from 2007 to 2013. The authors have analysed medical records of 485 soldiers who were medically evacuated out of a combat zone in Afghanistan for battle injuries, non-battle injuries and diseases. Each medically evacuated Polish soldier was subjected to statistical analysis. The study population comprised 25,974 soldiers assigned to the Polish Military Contingent Afghanistan in the given period. From 2007 to 2013, 1.9% of the Polish military personnel (n = 485) participating in the ISAF operation in Afghanistan were evacuated for medical reasons before the scheduled termination of their contract. 40.6% of all medical evacuations were due to battle injuries, 32.4% due to non-battle injuries, and 27.0% due to diseases. ISAF is an example of a combat operation, in which battle injuries remain the leading health problem in mission participants. 3 of 4 Polish soldiers who were medically evacuated from Afghanistan were no longer fit for military service in the area of operations due to the traumas they had suffered.
A growth trial and fillet sensory analysis were conducted to examine the effects of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, Hermetia illucens, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A practical-type trout diet was formulated to contain 45% protein; four test diets were dev...
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor ability of coordination and personality traits of Slovenian soldiers. The subject sample consisted of 94 soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF who were serving in the first brigade (age 26,5 ± 3,4 years. Motor ability of coordination was assessed with two motor tasks (polygon bac- kwards and figure 8 duck test. The structure of personality traits was measured with a FPI (Freiburg Personality Inventory included 114 items and measured 9 personality traits of order I (neuroticism, impulsivity, depression, irritability, sociability, calmness, dominance, suppression, sincerity and 3 personality traits of order II (extroversion, emotional istability, masculinity. The correlation between coordination and personality traits was estimated by the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The results show that soldiers who did worse in motor test polygon backwards were more neurotic, suppressed, and impulsive. They also tend to be more sociable. The correlation between second test of coordination shows that better soldiers in this test are more extrovert or less introvert.
Kippenberger , Howard. Infantry Brigadier. London: Geoffrey Cumberlege, Oxford University Press, 1949. Major-General Kippenberger’s account of...measured by education and aptitude, per se, Kippenberger does discuss soldier capability, empha- sizing the importance of realistic unit training in...achieving it. Kippenberger stresses the importance of battalion unit cohesion and esprit de corps. He emphasizes the roles of unit history, drill
Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office
Maj. Gen. Gregg Martin, Commanding General of the U.S. Army Maneuver Support Center at Fort Leonard Wood, rallied Naval Postgraduate School students with a resounding passion for full spectrum training of soldiers in mind, body and spirit at the Secretary of the Navy Guest Lecture.
soldiers for war. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Army physical fitness doctrine, Army Physical Readiness Training, CrossFit , P90X 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...57 CrossFit ...Side Wallball Toss/Shuttle Run Muscle Utilization .......................................64 Table 17. CrossFit Evaluation Criteria
Gans, Eric; Lee, Kang; Jannson, Tomasz; Walter, Kevin
In addition to military radios, modern warfighters carry cell phones, GPS devices, computers, and night-vision aids, all of which require electrical cables and connectors for data and power transmission. Currently each electrical device operates via independent cables using conventional cable and connector technology. Conventional cables are stiff and difficult to integrate into a soldier-worn garment. Conventional connectors are tall and heavy, as they were designed to ensure secure connections to bulkhead-type panels, and being tall, represent significant snag-hazards in soldier-worn applications. Physical Optics Corporation has designed a new, lightweight and low-profile electrical connector that is more suitable for body-worn applications and operates much like a standard garment snap. When these connectors are mated, the combined height is hand (gloved or bare) and blindly (without looking). Furthermore, POC's connectors are integrated into systems that distribute data or power from a central location on the soldier's vest, reducing the length and weight of the cables necessary to interconnect various mission-critical electronic systems. The result is a lightweight power/data distribution system offering significant advantages over conventional electrical connectors in soldier-worn applications.
... death in 1922. He also served as the first African-American superintendent of a national park... military career with the all-black 9th and 10th Calvary regiments, often called ``Buffalo Soldiers... served on the western frontier, saw combat in the Philippines, and rode with General John ``Black Jack...
Mayer, John M; Childs, John D; Neilson, Brett D; Chen, Henian; Koppenhaver, Shane L; Quillen, William S
Low back pain is common, costly, and disabling for active duty military personnel and veterans. The evidence is unclear on which management approaches are most effective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of lumbar extensor high-intensity progressive resistance exercise (HIPRE) training versus control on improving lumbar extension muscular strength and core muscular endurance in soldiers. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with active duty U.S. Army Soldiers (n = 582) in combat medic training at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Soldiers were randomized by platoon to receive the experimental intervention (lumbar extensor HIPRE training, n = 298) or control intervention (core stabilization exercise training, n = 284) at one set, one time per week, for 11 weeks. Lumbar extension muscular strength and core muscular endurance were assessed before and after the intervention period. At 11-week follow-up, lumbar extension muscular strength was 9.7% greater (p = 0.001) for HIPRE compared with control. No improvements in core muscular endurance were observed for HIPRE or control. Lumbar extensor HIPRE training is effective to improve isometric lumbar extension muscular strength in U.S. Army Soldiers. Research is needed to explore the clinical relevance of these gains. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Kattoju, Ravi Kiran; Barber, Daniel J.; Abich, Julian; Harris, Jonathan
With increasing necessity for intuitive Soldier-robot communication in military operations and advancements in interactive technologies, autonomous robots have transitioned from assistance tools to functional and operational teammates able to service an array of military operations. Despite improvements in gesture and speech recognition technologies, their effectiveness in supporting Soldier-robot communication is still uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of gesture and speech interface technologies to facilitate Soldier-robot communication during a spatial-navigation task with an autonomous robot. Gesture and speech semantically based spatial-navigation commands leveraged existing lexicons for visual and verbal communication from the U.S Army field manual for visual signaling and a previously established Squad Level Vocabulary (SLV). Speech commands were recorded by a Lapel microphone and Microsoft Kinect, and classified by commercial off-the-shelf automatic speech recognition (ASR) software. Visual signals were captured and classified using a custom wireless gesture glove and software. Participants in the experiment commanded a robot to complete a simulated ISR mission in a scaled down urban scenario by delivering a sequence of gesture and speech commands, both individually and simultaneously, to the robot. Performance and reliability of gesture and speech hardware interfaces and recognition tools were analyzed and reported. Analysis of experimental results demonstrated the employed gesture technology has significant potential for enabling bidirectional Soldier-robot team dialogue based on the high classification accuracy and minimal training required to perform gesture commands.
the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. He received his ScD in applied kinesiology and bio- mechanics from Boston...study applied two different physical loads to the Soldier and hypothesized that the rucksack load would cause fatigue, decreasing marksmanship at mid...
Olesya M. Dolidovich
Full Text Available Authors examine the question of the types, scale, efficiency of public aid and social support of soldiers' families in Yenisei province during the First World War. Particular attention is paid to the activities of cities and urban guardianship organizations that have paid to families of the mobilized amount exceeding the amount of state benefits. It is shown that in the rural guardianship organizations did not have more money. They failed to organize labor help with the agricultural work. Soldiers' families reduced tillage, many of them wanted to move to the provincial center. Siberian city were not a major commercial and industrial centers, their budgets have been modest. Siberia had no zemstvo institutions, therefore, the city suffered heavy costs for the solution of many other problems caused by wartime (the organization of assistance to refugees and the injured, the fight against the high cost and lack of, the development of cooperatives, and others, they were making regular payments for all-Russian charitable societies. The flow of donations to urban guardianship and charitable organizations has decreased dramatically in 1916, and the number in need has increased significantly, the municipal government began to curtail payments to soldiers' families. The discontent of the soldiers' wives resulted in the pogroms of malls and attacks against members of municipal self-government bodies of Minusinsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kansk in 1916–1917.
Annan, Jeannie; Brier, Moriah; Aryemo, Filder
In war's aftermath, many young soldiers attempt to reintegrate and reestablish their lives. Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) programs are a priority intervention for youth in postconflict countries; yet there is little evidence to suggest what aids reintegration. This research uses qualitative methodology to describe the issues…
Sutcliffe, Marcella P.
This paper focuses on the reading and educational practices of common soldiers during the First World War. It argues that the question of how war libraries were imagined and constructed by civilians needs to be framed in the larger context of pre-war Edwardian debates surrounding the "value of books" in society. Indeed, it was within…
Kathryn van Boom
SAJSM VOL. 29 2017 2. (patient record analysis), a follow-up survey and measurement of running biomechanics. The inclusion criteria were all soldiers with ERLP who received gait retraining as part of their treatment programme in the year 2015 with the following diagnoses: 1. MTSS; 2. CECS (ICPM > 35 mm Hg); 3. BOS.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 196 / Wednesday, October 10, 2012 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2012-18 of September 28, 2012 Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 Memorandum for...
Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.
This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…
Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems in former Ugandan child soldiers in comparison with civilian children living in the same conflict setting. Participants included 133 former child soldiers and 101 never-abducted children in northern Uganda, who were interviewed about exposure to traumatic war-related experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems. Results indicated that former child soldiers had experienced significantly more war-related traumatic events than nonabducted children, with 39.3% of girls having been forced to engage in sexual contact. Total scores on measures of PTSD symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems were significantly higher among child soldiers compared to their never-abducted peers. Girls reported significantly more emotional and behavioral difficulties than boys. In never-abducted children, more mental health problems were associated with experiencing physical harm, witnessing the killings of other people, and being forced to engage in sexual contact.
Moscardino, Ughetta; Scrimin, Sara; Cadei, Francesca; Altoè, Gianmarco
The present study aimed to evaluate posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems in former Ugandan child soldiers in comparison with civilian children living in the same conflict setting. Participants included 133 former child soldiers and 101 never-abducted children in northern Uganda, who were interviewed about exposure to traumatic war-related experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems. Results indicated that former child soldiers had experienced significantly more war-related traumatic events than nonabducted children, with 39.3% of girls having been forced to engage in sexual contact. Total scores on measures of PTSD symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems were significantly higher among child soldiers compared to their never-abducted peers. Girls reported significantly more emotional and behavioral difficulties than boys. In never-abducted children, more mental health problems were associated with experiencing physical harm, witnessing the killings of other people, and being forced to engage in sexual contact.
Song, S.; van den Brink, H.; de Jong, J.
While numerous studies on former child soldiers (FCS) have shown mental health needs, adequate services are a challenge. This study aimed to identify priorities, barriers and facilitators of mental health care for Sierra Leonean FCS. Thematic analysis was done on 24 qualitative interviews with
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 78 Wednesday, No. 205 October 23, 2013 Part III The President Presidential Determination No. 2013-17 of September 30, 2013-- Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 205 /...
Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Sauter, Cornelia; Kowalski, Jens T; Kropp, Stefan; Ströhle, Andreas; Wesemann, Ulrich; Zimmermann, Peter L
In this prospective study, subjective sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness prior to, during and after deployment of German soldiers in Afghanistan were examined. Sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS) were assessed in 118 soldiers of the German army, who were deployed in Afghanistan for 6 months (deployment group: DG) and in 146 soldiers of a non-deployed control group (CG) at baseline. Results of the longitudinal analysis are reported, based on assessments conducted prior to, during the deployment and afterwards in the DG, and in the CG in parallel. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in the DG were already impaired during the predeployment training phase and remained at that level during the deployment phase, which clearly indicates the need for more attention on sleep in young soldiers, already at this early stage. The percentage of impaired sleepers decreased significantly after deployment. Programmes to teach techniques to improve sleep and reduce stress should be implemented prior to deployment to reduce sleep difficulties and excessive daytime sleepiness and subsequent psychiatric disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.
Full Text Available Background: Constant checkup and control of body fat mass is an important parameter for the health and efficiency of individuals in any society. This parameter is especially crucial in army soldiers since physical fitness is a key role in reaching high physical performance, health, and survival in war. Objective: This study was designed to compare two methods of measuring fat, the method of circumference-based military equations (CBEs to estimate body fat mass compared to the method of skinfold thickness-based equation (SBE in Iranian soldiers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 246 Iranian soldiers were recruited in Tehran (2016. Height, waist, and neck circumference were measured and the total body fat mass was calculated using CBEs. Then, the results of using Pierson’s correlation and Bland-Altman methods were compared with Jackson and Pollock’s skinfold thickness measurement. Findings: The total body fat mass of the soldiers using CBEs was 18.94±6.30% and using Jakson and Pollock’s skinfold thickness formula was 17.43±4.45%. The correlation between the two methods was r=0.984 and SEE was 1.1% (P<0.001. Conclusion: The more body fat makes the error waist circumference greater. The error is so much that don’t use this method to measure fat.
Ramchand, Rajeev; Ayer, Lynsay; Geyer, Lily; Kofner, Aaron; Burgette, Lane
Noncommissioned officers (NCOs) in the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps were surveyed to identify their ability and willingness to identify, intervene on behalf of, and refer fellow soldiers and marines at risk of suicide. A total of 1,184 Army soldiers and 796 marines completed surveys. Descriptive statistics were collected, and regression analyses comparing the groups were conducted. Thirty-seven percent of marines and 40% of Army soldiers reported that they could use more suicide prevention training. Compared with trained civilians, NCOs reported greater efficacy to intervene with at-risk peers, but they also reported relatively more reluctance to intervene. Close to 40% of NCOs believed that they would be held responsible for a service member's suicide if they had asked the service member about suicidal thoughts before the suicide occurred. Chaplains were the preferred referral source, primarily because of the confidentiality they afford. Suicide prevention training for NCOs should focus on strategies for asking about suicide risk, assuring soldiers and marines that they will not be blamed for the suicides of fellow service members, and encouraging referrals. These results can help improve suicide prevention programs in the Army and Marine Corps, including whether current policies may need to be changed to optimize NCOs' ability to identify, intervene on behalf of, and refer service members at risk of suicide.
Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa E; Crimmins, Eileen M; Cole, Steven W
Adverse social conditions in early life have been linked to increased expression of proinflammatory genes and reduced expression of antiviral genes in circulating immune cells-the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). However, it remains unclear whether such effects are specific to the Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) cultural environments in which previous research has been conducted. To assess the roles of early adversity and individual psychological resilience in immune system gene regulation within a non-WEIRD population, we evaluated CTRA gene-expression profiles in 254 former child soldiers and matched noncombatant civilians 5 y after the People's War in Nepal. CTRA gene expression was up-regulated in former child soldiers. These effects were linked to the degree of experienced trauma and associated distress-that is, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity-more than to child soldier status per se. Self-perceived psychological resilience was associated with marked buffering of CTRA activation such that PTSD-affected former child soldiers with high levels of personal resilience showed molecular profiles comparable to those of PTSD-free civilians. These results suggest that CTRA responses to early life adversity are not restricted to WEIRD cultural contexts and they underscore the key role of resilience in determining the molecular impact of adverse environments.
Abstract. This article focuses on the dilemma of using child soldiers in violent conflicts throughout Africa and on ways of resolving it in the future. The first section briefly examines some important domestic and international aspects and dimensions of the problem. Then, attention is shifted to particular individual countries on ...
Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; Meulenaer, De Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; Clercq, De Patrick; Smet, De Stefaan
BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and
Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.
An experiment was conducted to compare the suitability of chicken, pig, and cow manure as feed for larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.); Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Newly hatched larvae were inoculated on moistened manure (33% dry matter). Water and dried manure were added three
Hisashi Murakami; Takenori Tomaru; Yuta Nishiyama; Toru Moriyama; Takayuki Niizato; Yukio-Pegio Gunji
... on mass effects are rare. In this study, we show that a swarm of soldier crabs could spontaneously enter a water pool, which are usually avoided, by forming densely populated part of a swarm at the edge of the water pool...
Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon
This study explored the hypothesis that the presence of anxiety symptoms is less related to simulated basic rifle marksmanship (S-BRM) performance than is cognitive disruption. The sample was comprised of 82 Stryker Brigade Soldiers at a large military post in the Pacific Northwest. Simulated rifle marksmanship was assessed using the Engagement…
Levesque, J.; Banko, K.; Binsch, O.
The miniaturization of digital image acquisition and processing hardware, positional sensors, and batteries has enabled the creation of assisted targeting systems light enough to be integrated onto small firearms to increase the probability of soldiers detecting and hitting targets. As well, the
behind a Hesco watching little gouts of dirt erupt from the ground in front of me. It takes me a moment to understand that those are incoming rounds...resistance in the military to having soldiers tell their story, but there are some advocates saying it’s a great form of therapy and if the public
Raquel Braz Assunção Botelho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research is to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of meals served and consumed by soldiers in a construction unit (army and civil employees of the Brazilian Army Construction. METHODS: Body mass index, fat percentage (bioimpedance and the physical activity level were evaluated. Furthermore, the nutritional evaluation of meals offered and consumed by soldiers was evaluated, in relation to the macronutrients, sodium, fibers and total energetic value. RESULTS: Through the results, we verified that 76% of the soldiers were eutrophic, and that the population's energetic requirement was approximately 3.600 kcal. We verified that the energetic consumption of this population was below the required value (3.200 kcal and with inadequacy regarding the distribution of macronutrients: percentage of carbohydrates above the recommended one, percentage of lipid below the minimum value recommended and percentage of proteins within the recommendation. Moreover, the amount of fibers was in accordance to the standards; however, there was an excessive amount of sodium, which may put this population in danger. CONCLUSION: We concluded that it is necessary to improve the quality of the meals offered in relation to the nutritional aspect, by promoting the adequacy to the soldiers' needs. Other types of quality were not studied, but they are important when evaluating acceptability of meals.
Full Text Available Abstract Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS. If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers.
Song, S.; de Jong, J.; O'Hara, R.; Koopman, C.
Studies around the world show that former child soldiers (FCSs) have mental health strengths and limitations, and highlight the important role of families and communities in reintegration to society. However, there are limited data that examine the mental health risks and protective factors of the
Biswas, Subir; Quwaider, Muhannad
The physical safety and well being of the soldiers in a battlefield is the highest priority of Incident Commanders. Currently, the ability to track and monitor soldiers rely on visual and verbal communication which can be somewhat limited in scenarios where the soldiers are deployed inside buildings and enclosed areas that are out of visual range of the commanders. Also, the need for being stealth can often prevent a battling soldier to send verbal clues to a commander about his or her physical well being. Sensor technologies can remotely provide various data about the soldiers including physiological monitoring and personal alert safety system functionality. This paper presents a networked sensing solution in which a body area wireless network of multi-modal sensors can monitor the body movement and other physiological parameters for statistical identification of a soldier's body posture, which can then be indicative of the physical conditions and safety alerts of the soldier in question. The specific concept is to leverage on-body proximity sensing and a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based mechanism that can be applied for stochastic identification of human body postures using a wearable sensor network. The key idea is to collect relative proximity information between wireless sensors that are strategically placed over a subject's body to monitor the relative movements of the body segments, and then to process that using HMM in order to identify the subject's body postures. The key novelty of this approach is a departure from the traditional accelerometry based approaches in which the individual body segment movements, rather than their relative proximity, is used for activity monitoring and posture detection. Through experiments with body mounted sensors we demonstrate that while the accelerometry based approaches can be used for differentiating activity intensive postures such as walking and running, they are not very effective for identification and
de Corniere, A; Taylor, G.
Competition authorities all over the world worry that integration between search engines (mainly Google) and publishers could lead to abuses of dominant position. In particular, one concern is that of own-content bias, meaning that Google would bias its rankings in favor of the publishers it owns or has an interest in, to the detriment of competitors and users. In order to investigate this issue, we develop a theoretical framework in which the search engine (i) allocates users across publishe...
This thesis aims to chart political bias in the news coverage during the election campaigns in years 2006, 2010 and 2013 in three the most widely read serious newspapers in the Czech Republic. The thesis summarizes theoretical framework of political bias. Newspapers in liberal-democratic countries should inform about political parties balanced. Content analysis was used to analyze the newspapers. This thesis compares the information balance in newspapers from several perspectives. It compares...
Gravin, Nick; Immorlica, Nicole; Lucier, Brendan; Pountourakis, Emmanouil
Individuals working towards a goal often exhibit time inconsistent behavior, making plans and then failing to follow through. One well-known model of such behavioral anomalies is present-bias discounting: individuals over-weight present costs by a bias factor. This model explains many time-inconsistent behaviors, but can make stark predictions in many settings: individuals either follow the most efficient plan for reaching their goal or procrastinate indefinitely. We propose a modification in...
Auerbach, Randy P.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Stanton, Colin H.; Mueller, Erik M.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.
Background While theorists have posited that adolescent depression is characterized by emotion processing biases (greater propensity to identify sad than happy facial expressions), findings have been mixed. Additionally, the neural correlates associated with putative emotion processing biases remain largely unknown. Our aim was to identify emotion processing biases in depressed adolescents and examine neural abnormalities related to these biases using high-density resting EEG and source localization. Methods Healthy (n = 36) and depressed (n = 23) female adolescents, aged 13–18 years, completed a facial recognition task in which they identified happy, sad, fear, and angry expressions across intensities from 10% (low) to 100% (high). Additionally, 128-channel resting (i.e., task-free) EEG was recorded and analyzed using a distributed source localization technique (LORETA). Given research implicating the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in depression and emotion processing, analyses focused on this region. Results Relative to healthy youth, depressed adolescents were more accurate for sad and less accurate for happy, particularly low-intensity happy faces. No differences emerged for fearful or angry facial expressions. Further, LORETA analyses revealed greater theta and alpha current density (i.e., reduced brain activity) in depressed versus healthy adolescents, particularly in the left DLPFC (BA9/BA46). Theta and alpha current density were positively correlated, and greater current density predicted reduced accuracy for happy faces. Conclusion Depressed female adolescents were characterized by emotion processing biases in favor of sad emotions and reduced recognition of happiness, especially when cues of happiness were subtle. Blunted recognition of happy was associated with left DLPFC resting hypoactivity. PMID:26032684
S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)
textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.
Wood, Paola S; Grant, Catharina C; du Toit, Peet J; Fletcher, Lizelle
Mixed gender basic military training (BMT) is adopted to integrate the female South African soldier into the military. This study aimed to assess gender differences before, during (12 weeks), and after a 20-week mixed BMT course and determine if BMT significantly reduced these differences. A total of 186 soldiers (114 male: mean age = 21.0 ± 1.1 year; 72 female: mean age = 20.5 ± 1.2 year) completed the BMT course and all anthropometric, physical fitness, explosive power, and hand grip strength measurements. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to model BMT data with main effects for gender comparison between males and females, and time main effect for evaluation of differences between weeks 1, 12, and 20 of BMT, as well as an interaction effect for differences in changes over time for males and females. Alpha was set at α ≤0.05. Male soldiers were significantly taller (p fitness test. Differences in power output and hand grip strength remained unchanged. Large initial anthropometrical and physical fitness differences decreased but were still obvious at the end of BMT. BMT should bridge the physical gap between male and female soldiers to ensure they can all perform the same duties. The enforcing of equal minimum physical fitness requirements for acceptance into BMT; conditional acceptance into the military subject to the successful completion of a bridging course aimed at improving physical fitness in individuals who do not meet the minimum physical fitness requirements for acceptance; and developing a cyclic physical training program with different entry points, dependent on initial physical performance at the start of BMT, ensuring adequate progression and overload for all soldiers are possible avenues to explore to achieve this goal. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Johnson, Tony; Manteuffel, Chris; Brewster, Benjamin; Tierney, Terry
As the Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) introduce emerging technologies and new force structures to the battlefield, soldiers will increasingly face new challenges in workload management. The next generation warfighter will be responsible for effectively managing robotic assets in addition to performing other missions. Studies of future battlefield operational scenarios involving the use of automation, including the specification of existing and proposed technologies, will provide significant insight into potential problem areas regarding soldier workload. The US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) is currently executing an Army technology objective program to analyze and evaluate the effect of automated technologies and their associated control devices with respect to soldier workload. The Human-Robotic Interface (HRI) Intelligent Systems Behavior Simulator (ISBS) is a human performance measurement simulation system that allows modelers to develop constructive simulations of military scenarios with various deployments of interface technologies in order to evaluate operator effectiveness. One such interface is TARDEC's Scalable Soldier-Machine Interface (SMI). The scalable SMI provides a configurable machine interface application that is capable of adapting to several hardware platforms by recognizing the physical space limitations of the display device. This paper describes the integration of the ISBS and Scalable SMI applications, which will ultimately benefit both systems. The ISBS will be able to use the Scalable SMI to visualize the behaviors of virtual soldiers performing HRI tasks, such as route planning, and the scalable SMI will benefit from stimuli provided by the ISBS simulation environment. The paper describes the background of each system and details of the system integration approach.
METHODOLOGY 2 RESULTS 4 DISCUSSION 19 CONCLUSIONS 20 APPENDIX A-i ix SOLDIER SATISFACiON WIIH LIFE IN RESTRUCTUhED UNlfS DURING PHASE I O THE RESTRUCTURING...snow the results from the Main Questionnaire. fhe first two questions concerned the amount of time that soldiers spent on their jobs and the amount of...time they spent in meaningful work on their jobs . A comparison of questions 10 and 11 in lable 8 shows that soldiers in both T-TOE units and H-TOE units
Ümit Baran Metin
Full Text Available Soldiering is defined as engaging behaviourally or cognitively into non-work-related activities during working hours with no intention of harming the employer, co-workers, and/or clients. The present study will investigate this phenomenon using the Job-Demands Resources Model. The proposed model will consider the influence of job demands and resources on soldiering, as well as the relationship of soldiering with employee wellbeing and performance. The data, collected via online questionnaires across seven European countries, will be analysed using structural equation modelling in order to explore the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model as well as its potential cross cultural variations.
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...
Clasen, Peter C.; Wells, Tony T.; Ellis, Alissa J.; Beevers, Christopher G.
This study examined whether attentional biases for emotional information are associated with impaired mood recovery following a sad mood induction among individuals with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). Attentional biases were assessed with an exogenous cuing task using emotional facial expressions as cues among adults with (n = 48) and without (n = 224) current MDD. Mood reactivity and recovery were measured following a sad mood induction. Mood reactivity strongly predicted mood recovery; however, this relationship was moderated by attentional biases for negative emotional stimuli. Biases for sad and fear stimuli were associated with diminished mood recovery following mood induction across the sample. However, biases for sad stimuli were associated with significantly greater impairments in mood recovery among individuals with MDD than healthy controls. Furthermore, within the MDD group, impaired mood recovery was positively associated with depression severity. These results suggest that attentional biases maintain depression, in part, by facilitating the persistence of sad mood. PMID:22867117
Clasen, Peter C; Wells, Tony T; Ellis, Alissa J; Beevers, Christopher G
This study examined whether attentional biases for emotional information are associated with impaired mood recovery following a sad mood induction among individuals with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). Attentional biases were assessed with an exogenous cuing task using emotional facial expressions as cues among adults with (n = 48) and without (n = 224) current MDD. Mood reactivity and recovery were measured following a sad mood induction. Mood reactivity strongly predicted mood recovery; however, this relationship was moderated by attentional biases for negative emotional stimuli. Biases for sad and fear stimuli were associated with diminished mood recovery following mood induction across the sample. However, biases for sad stimuli were associated with significantly greater impairments in mood recovery among individuals with MDD than healthy controls. Furthermore, within the MDD group, impaired mood recovery was positively associated with depression severity. These results suggest that attentional biases maintain depression, in part, by facilitating the persistence of sad mood. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
... NEI for Kids > Healthy Vision Tips All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Healthy Vision Tips Healthy vision starts with you! Use these ...
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Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients are ... 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...
Healthy food trends - borecole; Healthy snacks - kale; Weight loss - kale; Healthy diet - kale; Wellness - kale ... drugs), you may need to limit vitamin K foods. Vitamin K can affect how these medicines work. ...
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Mor, Nilly; Hertel, Paula; Ngo, Thuy Anh; Shachar, Tal; Redak, Shimrit
Rumination, a maladaptive cognitive style of responding to negative mood, is thought to be maintained by a variety of cognitive biases. However, it is unknown whether rumination is characterized by interpretation biases. Two experiments examined the link between rumination and interpretation biases, revealed in lexical-decision tasks (LDT). A homograph with both benign and ruminative or otherwise negative meaning was presented on each trial and followed by a letter string, to which participants responded by judging whether it was a word or a non-word. Letter strings were non-words or words related or unrelated to one meaning of the homograph. In both experiments, faster latencies to respond to targets related to the ruminative meaning of the homographs were produced by students with higher scores on self-report measures of rumination. Moreover, these biases were associated with both brooding, the maladaptive form of rumination, and reflection, the more adaptive component. No measure of rumination was significantly correlated with general biases toward negative meaning (Experiment 1) or with threatening interpretations of homographs (Experiment 2). The paucity of available rumination-related homographs dictated the use of non-fully randomized stimuli presentation (Experiment 1) or the use of only one set of the meanings associated with the homographs (Experiment 2). Rumination is associated with a tendency to interpret ambiguous information in a rumination-consistent manner. This tendency may exacerbate ruminative thinking and can possibly be a target for future intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zimmermann, P; Jenuwein, M; Biesold, K H; Heinz, A; Ströhle, A
Due to various stressors, soldiers need a high level of social functioning. In those with ADHS, psychological problems and thus a disability for duty can result. Thirty-six German Armed Forces members with ADHS who presented themselves as outpatients or inpatients in the Army Hospitals of Hamburg and Berlin between 2005 and 2007 were evaluated retrospectively and compared with a control group. The adaptability during duty was defined based on five criteria and statistical correlations with psychological status and psychosocial risk factors of the soldiers were evaluated. Of the soldiers with ADHS, 55.6% were able to continue their duty. Cumulative adaptability problems in the Army were significantly correlated with aggressive and dissocial symptoms and with partnership problems. The control group showed no correlations. The results show that adult ADHS does not automatically prevent a soldier from military duty and thus indicate that a differentiated judgement should be preferred.
Scribner, David R; Wiley, Patrick H; Harper, William H; Kelley, Troy D
... conceivable that the mental overburden could result in decreased Soldier survivability and lethality. This study was performed in the dismounted infantry survivability and lethality test bed shooting simulator facility of the U.S...
Full Text Available Food safety knowledge is considered as an important precautionary principle for foodborne illnesses as well as protecting environment from contamination.The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of soldiers of food safety and sanitation. A cross-sectional-analytical study was performed on 191 of Arak Malek-Ashtar garrison soldiers and the survey questionnaire contained personal information about food safety knowledge and attitude. According to the results, 57% of the soldiers had a good knowledge, 18% an average and 25% had a low degree of knowledge about food safety and sanitation. Although all soldiers had good attitude towards food safety, a statistically significant correlation (p
Ana E. Garcia-Vedrenne; Anastasia C. E. Quintana; Andrea M. DeRogatis; Kayla Martyn; Armand M. Kuris; Ryan F. Hechinger
.... Hence, the extent to which a soldier caste is present throughout the Trematoda is sparsely documented, and there are no studies detailing the structure of a species lacking such a social structure...
Milliken, CHarles S; Auchterlonie, Jennifer L; Hoge, Charles W
Described the Department of Defense's (DoDs) screening efforts to identify mental health concerns among soldiers and Marines as they return from Iraq and Afghanistan using the Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA...
Love, Heather A; Durtschi, Jared A; Ruhlmann, Lauren M; Nelson Goff, Briana S
Suicide among United States active-duty Army soldiers rapidly increased over the past two decades. Using a sample of 322 soldiers from the Army STARRS study, the researchers examined if romantic relationship factors (i.e., hostile disagreements and relationship distress) were linked with suicidal thoughts in Army soldiers, and if these associations were moderated by a recent separation or divorce. Hostile disagreements and relational distress were both significantly associated with higher rates of suicidal ideation. These associations were significantly amplified in magnitude when in the context of a recent separation or divorce. Implications include novel assessment, prevention, and treatment efforts focused on romantic relationships that may reduce the likelihood of soldiers experiencing thoughts of suicide. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco
It is well known that women are underrepresented in the academic systems of many countries. Gender discrimination is one of the factors that could contribute to this phenomenon. This study considers a recent national academic recruitment campaign in Italy, examining whether women are subject...... to more or less bias than men. The findings show that no gender-related differences occur among the candidates who benefit from positive bias, while among those candidates affected by negative bias, the incidence of women is lower than that of men. Among the factors that determine success in a competition...... for an academic position, the number of the applicant’s career years in the same university as the committee members assumes greater weight for male candidates than for females. Being of the same gender as the committee president is also a factor that assumes greater weight for male applicants. On the other hand...
Yang, Zimo; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao
Voting online with explicit ratings could largely reflect people's preferences and objects' qualities, but ratings are always irrational, because they may be affected by many unpredictable factors like mood, weather and other people's votes. By analyzing two real systems, this paper reveals a systematic bias embedding in the individual decision-making processes, namely people tend to give a low rating after a low rating, as well as a high rating following a high rating. This so-called anchoring bias is validated via extensive comparisons with null models, and numerically speaking, the extent of bias decays with voting interval in a logarithmic form. Our findings could be applied in the design of recommender systems and considered as important complementary materials to previous knowledge about anchoring effects on financial trades, performance judgments, auctions, and so on.
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the changes of serum protein expression in soldiers under mental stress,who have undergone different psychological trainings,and to evaluate the effect of the psychological training.Methods Ninety-six male commando soldiers were randomly assigned into the common psychological training group,the circulation psychological training group,and the control group(each group comprising 32 soldiers.After four weeks of training,the soldiers in the three groups attended a high-intensity simulated anti-riot exercise.The changes in their serum protein expression were then determined using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry(SELDI-TOF-MS combined with ProteinChip technology.Results The variance analysis showed that significant differences existed among the three groups(P < 0.05 in the relative contents of proteins,with M/Z values of 6417.8,9134.2,15171.9,and 14972.7 Da.The expression of proteins with M/Z values 9134.2 and 15171.9 Da increased in the common psychological training group compared with the control group(P < 0.05.The expression of all four proteins increased in the circulation psychological training group compared with the control group(P < 0.05.The expression of proteins with M/Z values 6417.8 and 14972.7 Da increased in the circulation psychological training group compared with the common psychological training group(P < 0.05.The classification tree formed by proteins with M/Z values 6417.8 and 14972.7 Da classified the 96 soldiers correctly,both in the learning mode and in the test mode.Conclusion Psychological training may upregulate the expression of proteins that are downregulated after stress and may improve the adaptability of soldiers to psychological stress.The effect of circulation psychological training is better than that of common psychological training.
Einat Kodesh, Eyal Shargal, Rotem Kislev-Cohen, Shany Funk, Lev Dorfman, Gil Samuelly, Jay R. Hoffman, Nurit Sharvit
Full Text Available The amount of training days lost to injury during military training has highlighted the need to identify a screening tool to predict injury. One hundred and fifty-eight female soldiers from the Combat Fitness Instructor Course (CFIC of the Israel Defense Forces volunteered to participate in this study. All soldiers were free of orthopedic and neurologic conditions for at least one month before the study. All participants performed a battery of measurements during the first week of the course. Measures included anthropometric, functional movement screen (FMS, power performances (counter movement jump [CMJ], drop jump, single leg triple hop jump [SLTH], 10-m sprint and a 2K run. Injury data was collected throughout the 3 month course. Median tests were used to compare between injured/non-injured soldiers. Chi-square and/or logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between various predictors and injury. Percent body fat [%BF] was higher (p = 0.04, distance for SLTH was less for both left and right legs (p = 0.029, p = 0.047 respectively and 2K run was slower (p =0.044 in injured compared to non-injured soldiers. No differences between groups were noted in total FMS score, however more zero scores in one or more movement pattern were found in the injured group (51.35 % vs. 30.5% p=0.0293. Only %BF, 2K run and SLTH distance were significant predictors of injury (p = 0.05, p = 0.02, p =0.016 respectively. The results of this study indicated that the FMS total score is not a predictor of injury in female soldiers in a CFIC. We found that %BF, SLTH, 2K run time, 10 meter sprint time and zero scores differentiated between injured and non-injured soldiers. In addition, %BF, 2K run and SLTH were each found to be separate predictors of injury. Further research is needed to determine threshold scores that predict injury.
Care as Usual with Suicidal Soldiers With 44,193 deaths per year in the United States, suicide is the 10th leading cause of death and poses a major...expectancies and minimizing between-group contamination leading to more generalizable results (Comtois et al., 2011). Study Treatments CAMS. Soldiers were...access to lethal means and increase coping strategies; CAMS also targets and treats patient-defined suicidal “drivers” using appropriate clinical
Psychotherapy has since increasing deployments of german soldiers in foreign countrys high relevance in the German Federal Armed Forces. This study is to assess the efficacy and analysis of predictos for efficacy of short-term group psychotherapy rooted in depth psychology for Bundeswehr soldiers suffering from depressive, neurotic, stress, or personality disorders. Method: 103 participants in the in-patient, closed group setting were evaluated prospectively and compared with a non-random...
Muscular performance capability is increased most by’caffeine when necessary. In some situations it might be appropriate to and least by theobromine . "In...in operating in feine drinks, or cola preparations can achieve the desired goal a hot climate. At daily mean temperatures of 90’F, soldiers although...show no improved work at this temperature raises the requirement to 8 quarts per results."" day, while soldiers doing heavy work for 8 hours at this
Pickens, Judy E., Ed.; And Others
This guidebook discusses ways to eliminate various types of discrimination from business communications. Separately authored chapters discuss eliminating racial and ethnic bias; eliminating sexual bias; achieving communication sensitive about handicaps of disabled persons; eliminating bias from visual media; eliminating bias from meetings,…
Winegard, Bo; Reynolds, Tania; Baumeister, Roy F.; Plant, E. Ashby
Research indicates that antigay bias follows a specific pattern (and probably has throughout written history, at least in the West): (a) men evince more antigay bias than women; (b) men who belong to traditionally male coalitions evince more antigay bias than those who do not; (c) antigay bias is
Barendse, M. T.; Oort, F. J.; Werner, C. S.; Ligtvoet, R.; Schermelleh-Engel, K.
Measurement bias is defined as a violation of measurement invariance, which can be investigated through multigroup factor analysis (MGFA), by testing across-group differences in intercepts (uniform bias) and factor loadings (nonuniform bias). Restricted factor analysis (RFA) can also be used to detect measurement bias. To also enable nonuniform…
The library literature addressing the role of bias in collection development emphasizes a philosophical approach. It is based on the notion that bias can be controlled by the conscious act of believing in certain values and adhering to a code of ethics. It largely ignores the psychological research on bias, which suggests that bias is a more…
Liland, Nina S; Biancarosa, Irene; Araujo, Pedro; Biemans, Daan; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan
Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.
Nina S Liland
Full Text Available Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.
Seifert, Abby E; Polusny, Melissa A; Murdoch, Maureen
We examined associations between abusive childhood experiences and functioning and psychiatric symptoms in an active duty sample of U.S. Army soldiers. Cross-sectional survey of 204 soldiers stationed at a southern U.S. Army facility. Forty-six percent of individuals reported childhood physical abuse alone, whereas 25% reported both childhood physical and sexual abuse. Soldiers' work, role, and social functioning; physical functioning; depression severity; and severity of alcohol misuse did not differ significantly with childhood abuse status (p > 0.22 for all). However, individuals who reported both childhood physical and sexual abuse reported severer posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms than did soldiers who reported no childhood abuse or childhood physical abuse only (p = 0.007). Although abusive childhood experiences were common, soldiers with such experiences reported functioning as well as those soldiers without such experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were significantly elevated only in those who reported both childhood physical and sexual abuse.
Sweezy, Jeremy Ed [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nolen, Steven Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Adams, Terry R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trahan, Travis John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
A 1/N bias in the estimate of the neutron time-constant (commonly denoted as α) has been seen in dynamic neutronic calculations performed with MCATK. In this paper we show that the bias is most likely caused by taking the logarithm of a stochastic quantity. We also investigate the known bias due to the particle population control method used in MCATK. We conclude that this bias due to the particle population control method is negligible compared to other sources of bias.
Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin
Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named "Kilianstollen" in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach.
Leichtentritt, Ronit D; Leichtentritt, Judy; Barzilai, Yael; Pedatsur-Sukenik, Nomi
This qualitative study examined the loss experience of 15 Israeli bereaved girlfriends of fallen soldiers. The girlfriends of fallen Israeli soldiers are socially unacknowledged as being bereaved. This disenfranchised experience of grief is conveyed through social exclusion components and personal experiences of grief that were conceptualized into four themes: (a) learning about the loss; (b) loneliness and lack of social support; (c) intensifying initial experiences while creating alternative social networks; and (d) missed opportunities. The results provide new insight into the concept of disenfranchised grief suggesting it is a multidimensional experience that includes personal, interpersonal, and social dimensions, each of which falls along a continuum ranging from a sense of acceptance to a sense of exclusion. Results also suggest that there are various depths to the experience of disenfranchised grief, which changes over time. Thus, disenfranchised grief is an ongoing and temporal personal, interpersonal, and social experience. Practical implications are discussed.
Barbian, Lenore; Sledzik, Paul S; Reznick, Jeffrey S
The National Museum of Health and Medicine holds a collection of anatomical specimens from nearly 2,000 soldiers injured during the American Civil War. Originally collected as part of a study of trauma and disease during war, these specimens have been museum artifacts for over 140 years. During this time, they have been displayed and utilized in an array of interpretative strategies. They have functioned as medical specimens documenting the effects of gunshot wounds and infection to the human body, as mementos mori symbolizing the refuse of a nation divided by war, and as objects of osteological and forensic interest. The museum's curators recently discovered four of these specimens from soldiers who the poet and essayist Walt Whitman nursed in the wartime hospitals of Washington, DC. Uniting these remains with Whitman's words yields a new interpretation that bears witness to individual histories during a time of unprecedented conflict in American history.
Sripada, Rebecca K; Richards, Sarah K H; Rauch, Sheila A M; Walters, Heather M; Ganoczy, Dara; Bohnert, Kipling M; Gorman, Lisa A; Kees, Michelle; Blow, Adrian J; Valenstein, Marcia
Convergent evidence suggests that low socioeconomic status (SES) may be related to reduced mental health service use. However, this relationship has not been tested in the National Guard (NG) population, in which the prevalence of mental health symptoms is high. Surveys were completed by 1,262 NG soldiers. SES was measured by education and income. Adjusted multivariable regression models assessed associations between SES, overall service use, and use of specific types of services. SES was not associated with overall use but was associated with use of certain types of services. Higher SES was associated with lower likelihood of psychotropic medication use (odds ratio=.83, 95% confidence interval=.72-.96), and higher SES strengthened the positive relationship between PTSD and use of individual therapy. Higher SES may increase the use of individual therapy among soldiers with PTSD. Barriers to care among individuals with low SES merit continued attention and outreach efforts.
Wyatt, Rob; Goodwyn, Erik; Ignatowski, Michael
Treating combat deployed soldiers is becoming more prevalent and needed in psychiatry. Modern combat produces unique psychological challenges, including those without criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article will attempt to share the primary author's experience with psychotherapy in a combat zone, along with understanding the general themes of dreams the author encountered while being deployed. Toward that end, the primary author [RW] discusses his personal experiences in Iraq working with soldiers whom he saw and treated while in theatre, with a particular focus on the dreams they reported. The co-authors [EG and MI] afterward collaborated with the primary author to formulate and provide insight into the dreams from a Jungian perspective. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Greer, Michelle A
The Korean War occupies a unique time in our nation's history. Because of the fragile relationship between the Koreas, U.S. forces stationed in Korea live within miles of a potential rival, necessitating strict discipline and courtesy by U.S. Soldiers. However, despite the standards and regulations, Soldiers are not immune to injury and hand injuries are among the most common afflictions obtained. Thus, 64 patients seen by occupational therapy for treatment of metacarpal fractures participated in a retrospective study regarding the circumstances surrounding the injury. The findings revealed that single males, aged 21-25 years, on their first assignment are most at risk for injury. The most prevalent method of injury was from striking a person or object out of anger. The results include several findings that can be used to implement injury prevention initiatives, thus avoiding the loss of work time and productivity associated with the healing and rehabilitation period.
Schuman, Donald L; Slone, Norah C; Reese, Robert J; Duncan, Barry
This study investigated whether routine monitoring of client progress, often called "client feedback," via an abbreviated version of the Partners for Change Outcome Management System (PCOMS) resulted in improved outcomes for soldiers receiving group treatment at an Army Substance Abuse Outpatient Treatment Program (ASAP). Participants (N = 263) were active-duty male and female soldiers randomized into a group feedback condition (n = 137) or a group treatment-as-usual (TAU) condition (n = 126). Results indicated that clients in the feedback condition achieved significantly more improvement on the outcome rating scale (d = 0.28), higher rates of clinically significant change, higher percentage of successful ratings by both clinicians and commanders, and attended significantly more sessions compared to the TAU condition. Despite a reduced PCOMS protocol and a limited duration of intervention, preliminary results suggest that the benefits of client feedback appear to extend to group psychotherapy with clients in the military struggling with substance abuse.
G. Dennis Shanks
Full Text Available Laborers and soldiers from China and Southeast Asia recruited during the First World War by Britain and France have been suggested as the origin of the 1918 influenza pandemic in Western Europe. This study aimed to review the available data to better understand the sources and origins of the 1918 influenza pandemic, and clarify whether, in fact, there was an Asian connection to its onset. We reviewed official mortality lists from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission and the French Ministry of Defence for all-cause (Britain and pneumonia/influenza (France mortality, respectively. The results indicated that influenza mortality (estimated 1/1000 in Chinese and Southeast Asian laborers and soldiers lagged other co-located military units by several weeks. This finding does not support a Southeast Asian importation of lethal influenza to Europe in 1918.
The purpose of this article is twofold: to describe some of the biases common to anthropological investigations of healing, particularly Biomedical healing; and to suggest that the physician-anthropologist is uniquely positioned to avoid some of these biases and to make valid contributions to the understanding of the practice of healing. Biases described are methodological (the tendency to formal-symbolic analyses rather than practical-instrumental understanding of behavior, transference and the observer effect), ontological (due to the estrangement of the anthropologist from his culture, other disciplines and his subjects, romanticization of the Other and celebration of the exotic over the mundane), and conventional or stylistic (the minimal importance given to emotional or psychological aspects of behavior, the emphasis on visual and linguistic understanding over other forms of investigation, unsophisticated use of medical texts as an indicator of clinical practice, a characteristic mode of reductionism, and the failure to elicit the responses of the subjects to interpretations made by anthropologists). As native-ethnographer, the M.D./Ph.D. physician-anthropologist may avoid some of these biases and offer complementary interpretations of healing.
Mengel, Friederike; Sauermann, Jan; Zölitz, Ulf Zoelitz
This paper provides new evidence on gender bias in teaching evaluations. We exploit a quasi-experimental dataset of 19,952 student evaluations of university faculty in a context where students are randomly allocated to female or male instructors. Despite the fact that neither students’ grades nor
Full Text Available Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math. Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of math anxiety and 13 with low levels of math anxiety were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of 6 types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, were presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks. Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in math anxiety. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words. These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense math anxiety symptoms.
Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart
Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-
Robinson, Jessica A.
Courses: This activity can be used in a wide range of classes, including interpersonal communication, introduction to communication, and small group communication. Objectives: After completing this activity, students should be able to: (1) define attribution theory, personality attribution, situational attribution, and attribution bias; (2)…
IMPROVING THE CHOICE OF HIGHER ORDER UNIVARIATE. KERNELS THROUGH BIAS REDUCTION TECHNIQUE. J. E. Osemwenkhae and J. I. Odiase. Department of Math ematics. University of Benin. Benin City, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Within the last two decades, higher order nnivariate kernels ha/ve been under focus ...
Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart
Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against
Knapik, J J; Bullock, S H; Canada, S; Toney, E; Wells, J D; Hoedebecke, E; Jones, B H
This study evaluated the influence of a multiple injury control intervention on injury and physical fitness outcomes among soldiers attending United States Army Ordnance School Advanced Individual Training. The study design was quasiexperimental involving a historical control group (n = 2559) that was compared to a multiple intervention group (n = 1283). Interventions in the multiple intervention group included modified physical training, injury education, and a unit based injury surveillance system (UBISS). The management responsible for training independently formed an Injury Control Advisory Committee that examined surveillance reports from the UBISS and recommended changes to training. On arrival at school, individual soldiers completed a demographics and lifestyle questionnaire and took an army physical fitness test (APFT: push-ups, sit-ups, and two mile run). Injuries among soldiers were tracked by a clinic based injury surveillance system that was separate from the UBISS. Soldiers completed a final APFT eight weeks after arrival at school. Cox regression (survival analysis) was used to examine differences in time to the first injury while controlling for group differences in demographics, lifestyle characteristics, and physical fitness. The adjusted relative risk of a time loss injury was 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 1.8) times higher in the historical control men and 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.8) times higher in the historical control women compared with the multiple intervention men and women, respectively. After correcting for the lower initial fitness of the multiple intervention group, there were no significant differences between the multiple intervention and historical control groups in terms of improvements in push-ups, sit-ups, or two mile run performance. This multiple intervention program contributed to a reduction in injuries while improvements in physical fitness were similar to a traditional physical training program
addressing armed conflict. Until most recently, child protection has been relegated as a social issue, placed in the hands of civil society...164 | FEATURES PRISM 6, no. 1 AUTHOR Child in a rebel camp in the northeast of the Central African Republic UNICEF CAR/Pierre Holtz PRISM 6, no. 1...FROM THE FIELD | 165 Innovation in the Prevention of the Use of Child Soldiers Women in the Security Sector BY ROMÉO DALLAIRE, SHELLY WHITMAN, AND
Barros-Cordeiro, Karine Brenda; Báo, Sônia Nair; PUJOL-LUZ, José Roberto
The intra-puparial development of the black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was studied based on 125 pupae under controlled conditions in laboratory. The 6th instar larvae were reared until they stopped feeding, and the pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction in larval length and degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. The pupal stage lasted eight days (192 hours). The process of pupation (larva/pupa apolysis) occurred in the first s...
Marx , 2001). Further, by shifting training devices into the hands of Soldiers outside the classroom, it contextualizes learning in the real world...Blumenfeld, P., Fishman, B., Krajcik, J. & Marx , R. (2001). Handheld devices are ready-at-hand. Communications of the ACM, 44(6), 15-20. Stark, S...content housed in the respective training iii environments (i.e., mobile device , virtual classroom, and game-based collaborative scenario), as well as
Background: The versatility of military physical therapist practice enables them not only to diagnose knee injuries but also to provide a wide range of definitive care and rehabilitation, reducing the need for costly evacuation. The aim this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) in the functional knee rehabilitation in soldiers and describe the main predictors and determinants in each intervention. Methods: A systematic search ...
exploited as a suicide terrorist, other times recruited and trained in a very cruel tradition of local warlords. Based upon frontline observations and two...sometimes exploited as a suicide terrorist, other times recruited and trained in a very cruel tradition of local warlords. The latter example seems to occur...suicide bombers be classified as child soldiers? If they are dressed in civilian garb and blend into a crown are they merely ‘civilians’ until they
estradiol levels vary by the menstrual cycle phase for women. It does not appear that the reproductive axis was negatively impacted for any Soldier...disease No known family history of bone disease 93 89.42 Known family history of bone disease 11 10.58 History of stress fractures No...history stress fractures 79 75.96 Positive history of stress fractures 25 24.04 2. Body composition variables (Groups combined) Baseline
MILITARY MEDICINE, 175,5:367,2010 An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq CPT Jeremy B. Fisher, SP USA *; CPT...Christopher E. Curtis, MC USAt 188143 ABSTRACT Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Cases have been...Turkey.3-S We report an unexpected case of Lyme disease from Iraq. CASE REPORT A 28-year-old active duty Army male, on a deployment to northern Iraq
Full Text Available Background: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers’ PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop compassionate imagery between their CURRENT SELF (today and their TRAUMATIZED SELF (back then. Method: The sample comprised 24 male German soldiers diagnosed with PTSD who were examined on the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS and two additional measures: the Emotional Distress Inventory (EIBE and the Quality of Interaction between the CURRENT SELF and the TRAUMATIZED SELF (QUI-HD: Qualität der Interaktion zwischen HEUTIGEN ICH und DAMALIGEN ICH at pre- and post-treatment and again at follow-up. The treatment used was imagery rescripting and reprocessing therapy (IRRT. Results: Eighteen of the 24 soldiers showed significant improvement in their PTSD symptoms at post-treatment and at follow-up (on their reliable change index. A significant change in trauma-associated guilt and shame emerged when compassionate imagery was developed towards one’s TRAUMATIZED SELF. The degree and intensity of the guilt and shame felt at the beginning of treatment and the degree of compassionate imagery developed toward the TRAUMATIZED SELF were predictors for change on the PDS scores. Conclusions: For soldiers suffering from specific war-related trauma involving PTSD, the use of self-nurturing, compassionate imagery that fosters reconciling with the traumatized part of the self can effectively diminish trauma-related symptoms, especially when guilt and shame are central emotions.
The vast majority of the force employed by the Italians to crush local resistance in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica was composed of Libyans, Eritreans and Ethiopians. The article examines why the Italians came to rely so heavily on colonial soldiers. It highlights two key predicaments the Italians faced: how to contend with the social, economic and political repercussions that military recruitment for the counter-insurgency created in East Africa; and the extent to which they could depend on forc...
Further, technical or can-do performance tends to be more strongly predicted by cognitive ability and less by temperament and other noncognitive ...Peer Support, and 6-month attrition). To create the two noncognitive -focused composites (can-do and will-do) for use in the performance screen...50th percentile of TAPAS can-do composite, and (c) score in top 50th percentile of noncognitive will-do composite. Soldiers meeting these criteria
Jovanović, Dalibor; Karkalić, Radovan; Zeba, Snjezana; Pavlović, Miroslav; Radaković, Sonja S
In military services, emergency situations when soldiers are exposed to a combination of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) contamination combined with heat stress, are frequent and complex. In these specific conditions, usage of personal body cooling systems may be effective in reducing heat stress. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficiency of four various types of contemporary personal body cooling systems based on the "Phase Change Material" (PCM), and its effects on soldiers' subjective comfort and physiological performance during exertional heat stress in hot environments. Ten male soldiers were voluntarily subjected to exertional heat stress tests (EHSTs) consisted of walking on a treadmill (5.5 km/h) in hot conditions (40 degreesC) in climatic chamber, wearing NBC isolating impermeable protective suits. One of the tests was performed without any additional cooling solution (NOCOOL), and four tests were performed while using different types of cooling systems: three in a form of vests and one as underwear. Physiological strain was determined by the mean skin temperature (Tsk), tympanic temperature (Tty), and heart rate values (HR), while sweat rates (SwR) indicated changes in hydration status. In all the cases EHST induced physiological response manifested through increasing Tty, HR and SwR. Compared to NOCOOL tests, when using cooling vests, Tty and Tsk were significantly lower (on 35th min, for 0.44 +/- 0.03 and 0.49 +/- 0.05 degrees C, respectively; p PCM in the form of vest under NBC protective clothes during physical activity in hot conditions, reduces sweating and alleviates heat stress manifested by increased core and skin temperatures and heart rate values. These effects directly improve heat tolerance, hydration state, decrease in the risk of heat illness, and extends the duration of soldiers' exposure to extreme conditions.
Kardouni, Joseph R; McKinnon, Craig J; Seitz, Amee L
Shoulder dislocations present a potentially debilitating injury for soldiers and other groups of physically active adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the 10-yr incidence rate of shoulder dislocations in soldiers, the percentage with recurrent instability, and risk factors for these injuries. This retrospective cohort study used medical encounter data from U.S. Army soldiers to calculate the 10-yr incidence rate for shoulder dislocations and the percentage of chronic or recurrent injuries >3 months and ≤2 yr after the initial diagnosis. A Cox proportional hazards model was constructed using demographic variables (age, race, education level, marital status, and sex) to determine incidence rate ratios for risk factors related to shoulder dislocation. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio for risk factors for recurrent injury, including concurrent diagnoses (brachial plexus or peripheral nerve injuries and fractures of the scapula or proximal humerus). There were 15,426 incident shoulder dislocations, with a 10-yr incidence rate of 3.13 per 1000 person-year. Soldiers ≤40 yr old showed greater risk for injury compared with those older than 40 yr. The incidence rate ratio for males compared with females was 1.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.55-1.74. Recurrent injury occurred in 28.7% of cases. Concurrent axillary nerve injury (odds ratio = 3.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.56-8.46) and age ≤35 yr were associated with greater risk of recurrence. Within the active duty U.S. Army, men and younger individuals showed greater risk for shoulder dislocations. Over one-quarter of incident cases became recurrent. Axillary nerve injuries and younger age increased the odds of recurrent injury.
concerns, including posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety and alcohol misuse. Given the distinctive nature of the Army National Guard, some...combat deployment. Between 15-17% of soldiers qualified for a diagnosis of generalized anxiety , depression, or PTSD. Not surprisingly, there was a...PTG.51 In a study involving combat-related amputation, Benetato examined associations among social support, rumination , and PTG among these veterans
for 5 h while carrying 100 lb, able to fit through a doorway and climb stairs, and has USB ports to accommodate advanced sensors and intelligent...risks that will be encountered during this investigation are typical of the risks encountered by Soldiers performing indoor classroom training...in control via a handheld controller. 1 Durability to withstand the environmental elements with capability to climb or negotiate terrain and
Radaković Sonja S.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Exertional heat stress is a common problem in military services. The aim of this study was to examine changes in body water and serum concentrations of some electrolites in soldiers during exertional heat stress (EHST, as well as effects of 10-day passive or active acclimation in a climatic chamber. Methods. Forty male soldiers with high aerobic capacity, performed EHST either in cool (20 ºC, 16 ºC WBGT-wet bulb globe temperature, or hot (40 ºC, 25 ºC WBGT environment, unacclimatized, or after 10 days of passive or active acclimation. The subjects were allowed to drink tap water ad libitum during EHST. Mean skin (Tsk and tympanic (Tty temperatures and heart rates (HR measured physiological strain, while sweat rate (SwR, and serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and osmolality measured changes in water and electrolyte status. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after the EHST. Results. Exertional heat stress in hot conditions induced physiological heat stress (increase in Tty, HR, and SwR, with significant decrease in serum sodium concentration (140.6±1.52 before vs 138.5±1.0 mmol/l after EHST, p < 0.01 and osmolality (280.7±3.8 vs 277.5±2.6 mOsm/kg, p < 0.05 in the unacclimatized group. The acclimated soldiers suffered no such effects of exertional heat stress, despite almost the same degree of heat strain, measured by Tty, HR and SwR. Conclusion. In the trained soldiers, 10-day passive or active acclimation in a climatic chamber can prevent disturbances in water and electrolytic balance, i.e. decrease in serum sodium concentrations and osmolality induced by exertional heat stress.
diploma or obtained additional years of education (which range from some college to advanced degrees), receive a value of zero for this variable. Similar...military officer training in college . I assume these programs will have a small negative 18 effect on attrition due to the soldiers having some...this may in part be due to the proliferation of alternative certifications for high school completion. These would include GED, homeschooling , adult
Full Text Available The study has aimed to evaluate results of reproductive health training in the First army as a part the Reproductive Health Program of Turkish Armed Forces (TAF. Hard copies of training results from the a sample of 9 reproductive health classrooms between November 2006 and February 2007 have been collected and analyzed after entering in a SPSS file. A Pre-test and a post-test included the same 25 questions on RH issues were given to the soldiers. Total mean scores and scores for 5 modules of Sexual Health, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs, Contraceptives, Safe Motherhood, and Gender, were estimated. By deciding 60 as cutting point, achievement of soldiers was also evaluated. Total Pre and posttest mean scores were compared between groups according to the achievement, hometown, and region of residency, educational level, and marital status. Furthermore, Relative efficiency, Efficiency attributed to training course and Efficiency Ratio has been also calculated. The mean pre-test score of soldiers is 60.4 ± 21.0 and it has been significantly increased up to 82.8 ± 14.5 after the training course (p<0.05. This significant increase was also found for each of sub dimensions similar to total score (p<0.05. While 52.5 % of soldiers have been successful on pretest, this percent has been rise up to 93.1% for the post test (p<0.05.. The relative efficiency of intervention as 6.9, efficiency attributed to training as 40.6%, and efficiency ratio as 85.5% have been estimated. Involving in reproductive health training has improved soldiers� awareness particularly on women�s health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 41-48
psychopathic is almost zero, and the residual organization underlying their group makes irrational behavior similarly unlikely. These anomalous soldiers...dearly and he is not a pedophile. Hearst would love to raise children of his own with his wife Chantal. Complications within his marriage currently...prevent that possibility, so he resorts to photography of the neighborhood children as a way of envisioning his dream nuclear family. This is also the
Shelef, Leah; Laur, Lucian; Fruchter, Eyal
Suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents in most Western world countries. Similar findings have been reported among adolescents in Israel (including the Israeli army) in times of peace; nonetheless, suicide rate has decreased significantly in recent years. In Israel, IDF service is mandatory and adolescents are obligated to serve by law. Therefore, the IDF is responsible under state and moral law to care for the physical and mental health of its soldiers. Additionally, th...
Zimmermann, Peter; Kr?ger, Norbert; Willmund, Gerd; Str?hle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Hahne, Hans Heiner
Objective: This study is to assess the efficacy of short-term group psychotherapy rooted in depth psychology for Bundeswehr soldiers suffering from depressive, neurotic, stress, or personality disorders. Method: 103 participants in the in-patient, closed group setting were evaluated prospectively and compared with a non-randomized waitlisted control group. Results: In all relevant SCL-90-R (Symptom-Check-List-90) and MMPI-K (Minnesota-Multiphasic-Personality-Inventory short-form) scales thera...
NUMBER 4. TITLE (end Subtitlm) THE AMERICAN VOLUNTEER SOLDIER: WILL HE FIGHT? (A PROVISIONAL ATTITUDINAL ANALYSIS) 5. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD... Psychologycal Solutions to Social Problems; An Introduction to Social Technology. New York: Academic Press, 1971. Walton, George, COL, USA (Ret...QUESTIONNAIRE. There are several types of questions in this questionnaire. EXAMPLES of the types you will encounter are listed below: FILL IN: [EXAMPLE
veterans. Sexual violence is commonly under-reported,27 and soldiers may be espe- cially concerned about stigma , fear of negative conse- quences, and...suicide ideation and attempts associated with adverse childhood experiences. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:946–952. 25. Koss MP, Gidycz CA, Wisniewski N...women compared a sample of male veterans with PTSD to a sample of female victims of childhood or adult sexual trauma with PTSD; the latter group
Alliger-Horn, Christina; Zimmermann, Peter Lutz; Schmucker, Mervyn
Background: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers’ PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop compassionate imagery between their CURRENT SELF (today) and their TRAUMATIZED SELF (back then). Method: The sample comprised 24 male German soldiers diagnosed with PTSD who were examined on the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and two additional measures: the Emotional Distress Inventory (EIBE) and the Quality of Interaction between the CURRENT SELF and the TRAUMATIZED SELF (QUI-HD: Qualität der Interaktion zwischen HEUTIGEN ICH und DAMALIGEN ICH) at pre- and post-treatment and again at follow-up. The treatment used was imagery rescripting and reprocessing therapy (IRRT). Results: Eighteen of the 24 soldiers showed significant improvement in their PTSD symptoms at post-treatment and at follow-up (on their reliable change index). A significant change in trauma-associated guilt and shame emerged when compassionate imagery was developed towards one’s TRAUMATIZED SELF. The degree and intensity of the guilt and shame felt at the beginning of treatment and the degree of compassionate imagery developed toward the TRAUMATIZED SELF were predictors for change on the PDS scores. Conclusions: For soldiers suffering from specific war-related trauma involving PTSD, the use of self-nurturing, compassionate imagery that fosters reconciling with the traumatized part of the self can effectively diminish trauma-related symptoms, especially when guilt and shame are central emotions. PMID:27775587
expected to reduce mission completion times by enhancing the operator’s ability to multitask . For example, the operator could drive the SUGV with the...components of the prototype OCU used for the experiment. The backpacked computer worn by the dismounted Soldiers was an Intel Core i5 with 4-GB memory and...Individual Differences in Human-Robot Interaction in a Military Multitasking Environment. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making 2011, 5
This article challenges conventional theories about the role of medical photography in the early twentieth century. Some scholars argue that the camera intensified the Foucauldian medical gaze, reducing patients to mere pathologies. Others maintain that with the rise of the new modern hospital and its state-of-the-art technologies, the patient fell from view entirely, with apertures pointing toward streamlined operating rooms rather than the human subjects who would go under the knife. The Army Surgeon General's World War I rehabilitation journal, Carry On: A Magazine on the Reconstruction of Disabled Soldiers and Sailors, problematizes these assumptions. Hoping to persuade a skeptical public that the Army's new programs in medical rehabilitation for disabled soldiers provided the best means of veteran welfare, the editorial officials at Carry On photographed patients fully clothed, wounds hidden, engaged in everyday activities in order to give the impression that the medical sciences of the day could cure permanent disabilities. In the end, Carry On shows us that medical doctors could, and did, use photography to conceal as well as reveal the reality faced by injured soldiers. In doing so, they (like other Progressive reformers at the time) hoped to persuade the public that rehabilitation had the power to make the wounds of war disappear. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Vindevogel, Sofie; Wessells, Michael; De Schryver, Maarten; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse
This study aimed to evaluate the potential contribution of informal community initiatives and formal interventions in support of former child soldiers' resilience in the wake of armed conflict. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a stratified random sample of 330 formerly recruited and 677 nonrecruited young people was consulted about their perspective on desirable support for former child soldiers provided by close support figures, communities, humanitarian organizations, and governments. Data analysis occurred by conducting qualitative thematic analysis and statistical chi-square analysis to explore clusters, similarities, and variations in reported support across the different "agents," hereby comparing the perspectives of formerly recruited and non-recruited participants. The results indicated that formerly recruited and non-recruited participants had comparable perspectives that call for the contribution of various informal and formal support systems to former child soldiers' human capacities and the communal sociocultural fabric of war-affected societies. This highlights the importance of community-based, collective, and comprehensive support of formerly recruited young people and their surroundings in the aftermath of armed conflict.
Kuwert, Philipp; Spitzer, Carsten; Rosenthal, Jenny; Freyberger, Harald J
The aim of the study was to determine the amount of trauma impact and significant post-traumatic stress symptoms, which can indicate a possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in a sample of former German child soldiers of World War II. 103 participants were recruited through the press, then administered a modified Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS). Subjects reported a high degree of trauma exposure, with 4.9% reporting significant post-traumatic stress symptoms after WW II, and 1.9% reporting that these symptoms persist to the present. In line with other studies on child soldiers in actual conflict settings, our data document a high degree of trauma exposure during war. Surprisingly, the prevalence of significant post-traumatic stress symptoms indicating a possible PTSD was low compared to other groups of aging, long-term survivors of war trauma. Despite some limitations our data highlight the need for further studies to identify resilience and coping factors in traumatized child soldiers.
Huang, Kai-Cheng; Tzeng, Dong-Sheng; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chung, Wei-Ching
Suicide is an important issue among military personnel, who have higher suicide rates compared with the general population. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) might provide an empirical explanation of this phenomenon, and parental bonding influences social adjustment and suicide. To investigate the relevance of IPTS and parental bonding for suicide among Taiwanese soldiers, a case-control study was conducted. Using a suicide-reporting system in a teaching general hospital in Southern Taiwan, 226 at-risk maladjusted soldiers and 229 well-adjusted controls were enrolled. We collected basic information, and participants answered four IPTS-based questions. Suicide risk was assessed using the Brief Symptom Rating Scale item 6. A four-factor model of the Parental Bonding Instrument assessed parental bonding. All participants were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for primary screening and to recheck the accuracy of the Brief Symptom Rating Scale item 6 score. A parsimonious model obtained by regression analysis of risk factors indicated that poor academic performance, conduct-related issues in childhood, and exposure to life-threatening situations are risk factors for suicide intention. Maladjusted suicidal soldiers showed a sense of thwarted belongingness (β = 0.145; P psychological theory of suicide, accompanied by an assessment of parental bonding, could be used for assessing suicide risk and preventing suicide attempts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential contribution of informal community initiatives and formal interventions in support of former child soldiers' resilience in the wake of armed conflict. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a stratified random sample of 330 formerly recruited and 677 nonrecruited young people was consulted about their perspective on desirable support for former child soldiers provided by close support figures, communities, humanitarian organizations, and governments. Data analysis occurred by conducting qualitative thematic analysis and statistical chi-square analysis to explore clusters, similarities, and variations in reported support across the different “agents,” hereby comparing the perspectives of formerly recruited and non-recruited participants. The results indicated that formerly recruited and non-recruited participants had comparable perspectives that call for the contribution of various informal and formal support systems to former child soldiers' human capacities and the communal sociocultural fabric of war-affected societies. This highlights the importance of community-based, collective, and comprehensive support of formerly recruited young people and their surroundings in the aftermath of armed conflict.
Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Lanocha, Aleksandra
Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite found in humans living in poor sanitary conditions, living in tropical and subtropical climates, exposed to infected animals, or consuming contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. hominis in Polish military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. In total, 1,826 stool samples were examined. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 17% of the soldiers. The examined stool samples most frequently contained vacuolar forms of B. hominis (15.3%) and cysts of Entamoeba coli (1.0%) or Giardia lamblia (0.7%). In 97.1% of stool samples from infected soldiers, we observed less than five developmental forms of B. hominis in the field of view (40×). The parasite infections in soldiers were diagnosed in the autumn and the spring. There was no statistical correlation between age and B. hominis infection. Our results show that peacekeeping missions in countries with tropical or subtropical climates could be associated with risk for parasitic diseases, including blastocystosis. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Vindevogel, Sofie; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse
Although former child soldiers face considerable challenges after their return from the warring faction to the war-affected society, the presence of resources enables many to maintain well-being in the wake of child soldiering. Academic research has recently engaged with identifying these salient resources, but has left the question why they are helpful to former child soldiers largely unaddressed. This study therefore focuses on the meaning underlying certain phenomena that causes them to become resources. Semistructured in-depth interviews and a free-listing task on resources were conducted with 48 northern Ugandan former child soldiers. The phenomenological hermeneutical method is applied to analyze their lived experiences and the meaning they assign to resources. Four essential themes emerge from this study, representing the fourfold meaning of resources for former child soldiers in helping them (a) to break with their former existence as child soldiers, (b) to be able to overcome the challenges in their current life, (c) to belong to others and the environment to which they have returned, and (d) to become the person they aspire to be. Considering these research themes in the context of former child soldiers' return process, parallels with theories on transition are recognized and further explored so as to contextualize this emerging meaning. As such, this research delivers empirical evidence illustrating how resources help to pilot former child soldiers through transition in the wake of child soldiering.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Research suggests that older adults display a positivity bias at the level of information processing. However, because studies investigating attentional bias for emotional information in older adults have produced mixed findings, research identifying inter-individual differences that may explain these inconsistent results is necessary. Therefore, we investigated whether mood, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and future time perspective are related to attentional bias in older adults. METHOD: Thirty-seven healthy older adults and 25 healthy middle-aged adults completed questionnaires to assess mood, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and future time perspective. Attentional bias towards happy, sad and neutral information was measured using a modified exogenous cueing paradigm with long cue presentations, to measure maintained attention versus avoidance of emotional stimuli. RESULTS: Older adults showed attentional avoidance for all emotional faces, whereas no attentional biases were found in the middle-aged group. Moreover, in the older adult group, avoidance for negative information was related to anxiety. Future time perspective was unrelated to attentional bias. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that anxiety may lead to inter-individual differences in attentional bias in older adults, and that avoidance from negative information may be an emotion regulation strategy.
Demeyer, Ineke; De Raedt, Rudi
Research suggests that older adults display a positivity bias at the level of information processing. However, because studies investigating attentional bias for emotional information in older adults have produced mixed findings, research identifying inter-individual differences that may explain these inconsistent results is necessary. Therefore, we investigated whether mood, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and future time perspective are related to attentional bias in older adults. Thirty-seven healthy older adults and 25 healthy middle-aged adults completed questionnaires to assess mood, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and future time perspective. Attentional bias towards happy, sad and neutral information was measured using a modified exogenous cueing paradigm with long cue presentations, to measure maintained attention versus avoidance of emotional stimuli. Older adults showed attentional avoidance for all emotional faces, whereas no attentional biases were found in the middle-aged group. Moreover, in the older adult group, avoidance for negative information was related to anxiety. Future time perspective was unrelated to attentional bias. These findings suggest that anxiety may lead to inter-individual differences in attentional bias in older adults, and that avoidance from negative information may be an emotion regulation strategy.
Gabr, Ahmed; Kallini, Joseph Ralph; Desai, Kush; Hickey, Ryan; Thornburg, Bartley; Kulik, Laura; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad
Bias is a systemic error in studies that leads to inaccurate deductions. Relevant biases in the field of IR and interventional oncology were identified after reviewing articles published in the Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology and CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology. Biases cited in these articles were divided into three categories: preinterventional (health care access, participation, referral, and sample biases), periinterventional (contamination, investigator, and operator biases), and postinterventional (guarantee-time, lead time, loss to follow-up, recall, and reporting biases). Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Amendola, Gilles; Blanchard, Yves; Exertier, Anne; Spirkovitch, Serge; Lu, Guo N.; Alquie, George
A CMOS, self-biased transconductance amplifier has been designed to be associated and integrated with a silicon capacitive microphone. To meet requirements especially on gain sensitivity, power consumption, and minimization of parasite capacitance effect, we have proposed a cascode structure with the cascode transistor source used as signa input. Switched-capacitor techniques have been applied for realizing self-bias for the amplifier and ensuring its high- gain operation. The proposed amplifier has been designed and fabricated in a 0.8 micrometers CMOS process. It has a surface area of 210 micrometers by 170 micrometers . Experimental results obtained from measuring the fabricated chip show a high-gain sensitivity and a low power dissipation for the amplifier. Results of simulations and measurements have been discussed.
Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian
Alice is a charismatic quantum cryptographer who believes her parties are unmissable; Bob is a (relatively) glamorous string theorist who believes he is an indispensable guest. To prevent possibly traumatic collisions of self-perception and reality, their social code requires that decisions about invitation or acceptance be made via a cryptographically secure variable-bias coin toss (VBCT). This generates a shared random bit by the toss of a coin whose bias is secretly chosen, within a stipulated range, by one of the parties; the other party learns only the random bit. Thus one party can secretly influence the outcome, while both can save face by blaming any negative decisions on bad luck. We describe here some cryptographic VBCT protocols whose security is guaranteed by quantum theory and the impossibility of superluminal signaling, setting our results in the context of a general discussion of secure two-party computation. We also briefly discuss other cryptographic applications of VBCT.
Roberts, Maxwell J; Sykes, Elizabeth D A
When people evaluate categorical syllogisms, they tend to reject unbelievable conclusions and accept believable ones irrespective of their validity. Typically, this effect is particularly marked for invalid conclusions that are possible, but do not necessarily follow, given the premises. However, smaller believability effects can also be detected for other types of conclusion. Three experiments are reported here, in which an attempt was made to determine whether belief bias effects can manifest themselves on the relational inference task. Subjects evaluated the validity of conclusions such as William the Conqueror was king after the Pyramids were built (temporal task) or Manchester is north of Bournemouth (spatial task) with respect to their premises. All of the major findings for equivalent categorical syllogism tasks were replicated. However, the overall size of the main effect of believability appears to be related to task presentation, a phenomenon not previously identified for categorical syllogisms and which current theories of belief bias have difficulty explaining.
Duschek, Stefan; Werner, Natalie S; Limbert, Nils; Winkelmann, Andreas; Montoya, Pedro
In addition to central nervous sensitization, affect dysregulation constitutes an important factor in the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The present study is concerned with emotional influences on information processing in FMS. The hypothesis of attentional bias, i.e., selective processing of negatively connoted stimuli, was tested. Twenty-seven female FMS patients and 34 healthy women undertook an emotional modification of the Stroop task. Subjects had to decide whether the colors of positive, negative, and neutral adjectives accorded with color words presented in black. Attentional bias was defined as delay in color naming of emotional words relative to neutral words. Affective and anxiety disorders, pain severity, as well as medication were considered as possible factors mediating the expected interference. Patients showed marked attentional bias, manifested in a greater response delay due to negative words compared with the control group. Among the clinical features, pain severity was most closely associated with the extent of the interference. While depression played only a subordinate role, anxiety and medication were without effect. The study provides evidence of emotionally driven selective attention in FMS. Attentional bias to negative information may play an important role in the vicious circle between negative affective state and pain augmentation. In the management of FMS pain, strategies aiming at conscious direction of attention may be helpful, e.g., imagery techniques or mindfulness training. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Adimari, Gianfranco; Chiogna, Monica
For a continuous-scale diagnostic test, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is a popular tool for displaying the ability of the test to discriminate between healthy and diseased subjects. In some studies, verification of the true disease status is performed only for a subset of subjects, possibly depending on the test result and other characteristics of the subjects. Estimators of the ROC curve based only on this subset of subjects are typically biased; this is known as verification bias. Methods have been proposed to correct verification bias, in particular under the assumption that the true disease status, if missing, is missing at random (MAR). MAR assumption means that the probability of missingness depends on the true disease status only through the test result and observed covariate information. However, the existing methods require parametric models for the (conditional) probability of disease and/or the (conditional) probability of verification, and hence are subject to model misspecification: a wrong specification of such parametric models can affect the behavior of the estimators, which can be inconsistent. To avoid misspecification problems, in this paper we propose a fully nonparametric method for the estimation of the ROC curve of a continuous test under verification bias. The method is based on nearest-neighbor imputation and adopts generic smooth regression models for both the probability that a subject is diseased and the probability that it is verified. Simulation experiments and an illustrative example show the usefulness of the new method. Variance estimation is also discussed.
Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xuan; Hu, Chun; Liao, Huayu; Yang, Tong; Shen, Mowei
Although evidence suggests that drug abusers exhibit biases when coding individual emotional facial expressions, little is known about how they process multiple expressions simultaneously. The present study evaluated the mean emotions perceived by abstinent heroin abusers. Male abstinent heroin abusers (AHs) and healthy controls (HCs) were randomly assigned into three emotional conditions (happy, sad, or angry), viewed sets of four faces (Experiment 1) or individual faces (Experiment 2) that varied in emotionality (neutral to happy/sad/angry), and judged whether a test face presented later was more/less emotional than the preceding stimuli. Average points of subjective equality were calculated to reflect participants' biases in perceiving emotions of sets or single faces. Relative to HCs, AHs overestimated mean emotions for sad and angry faces in Experiment 1; however, no such biases were found in Experiment 2. This suggests biased ensemble coding towards negative emotional facial expressions in AHs. Furthermore, when controlling for depression and anxiety, AHs' enhanced perception of mean emotion for angry or sad faces in Experiment 1 decreased, indicating a possible mediating effect of these psychopathological variables in the relationship between drug addiction history and abnormal ensemble processing for sets of emotional expressions.
Luo, Xijia; Ikani, Nessa; Barth, Anja; Rengers, Lea; Becker, Eni; Rinck, Mike
Attention Bias Modification (ABM) is used to manipulate attention biases in anxiety disorders. It has been successful in reducing attention biases and anxious symptoms in social anxiety and generalized anxiety, but not yet in specific fears and phobias. We designed a new version of the dot-probe training task, aiming to train fearful participants' attention away from or towards pictures of threatening stimuli. Moreover, we studied whether the training also affected participants' avoidance behavior and their physical arousal upon being confronted with a real threat object. In Experiment 1, students with fear of spiders were trained. We found that the attention manipulation was successful, but the training failed to affect behavior or arousal. In Experiment 2, the same procedure was used on snake-fearful students. Again, attention was trained in the expected directions. Moreover, participants whose attention had been trained away from snakes showed lower physiological arousal upon being confronted with a real snake. The study involved healthy students with normal distribution of the fear of spider/snake. Future research with clinical sample could help with determining the generalizability of the current findings. The effect of ABM on specific phobia is still in question. The finding in the present study suggested the possibility to alter attentional bias with a dot-probe task with general positive stimuli and this training could even affect the behavior while encountering a real threat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chowdhry, D P
This article identifies gender bias against female children and youth in India. Gender bias is based on centuries-old religious beliefs and sayings from ancient times. Discrimination is reflected in denial or ignorance of female children's educational, health, nutrition, and recreational needs. Female infanticide and selective abortion of female fetuses are other forms of discrimination. The task of eliminating or reducing gender bias will involve legal, developmental, political, and administrative measures. Public awareness needs to be created. There is a need to reorient the education and health systems and to advocate for gender equality. The government of India set the following goals for the 1990s: to protect the survival of the girl child and practice safe motherhood; to develop the girl child in general; and to protect vulnerable girl children in different circumstances and in special groups. The Health Authorities should monitor the laws carefully to assure marriage after the minimum age, ban sex determination of the fetus, and monitor the health and nutrition of pre-school girls and nursing and pregnant mothers. Mothers need to be encouraged to breast feed, and to breast feed equally between genders. Every village and slum area needs a mini health center. Maternal mortality must decline. Primary health centers and hospitals need more women's wards. Education must be universally accessible. Enrollments should be increased by educating rural tribal and slum parents, reducing distances between home and school, making curriculum more relevant to girls, creating more female teachers, and providing facilities and incentives for meeting the needs of girl students. Supplementary income could be provided to families for sending girls to school. Recreational activities must be free of gender bias. Dowry, sati, and devdasi systems should be banned.
Armen E Allahverdyan
Full Text Available Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science.We formulate a (non-Bayesian model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency or the first opinion (primacy -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties.The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.
Allahverdyan, Armen E; Galstyan, Aram
Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science. We formulate a (non-Bayesian) model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency) or the first opinion (primacy) -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties. The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.
Bareham, Corinne A; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Scott, Sophie K; Manly, Tom
We recently demonstrated that drowsiness, indexed using EEG, was associated with left-inattention in a group of 26 healthy right-handers. This has been linked to alertness-related modulation of spatial bias in left neglect patients and the greater persistence of left, compared with right, neglect following injury. Despite handedness being among the most overt aspects of human lateralization, studies of this healthy analogue of left neglect have only been conducted with predominantly or exclusively right-handed individuals. Here, with a group of 26 healthy non-right-handers we demonstrate that, unlike right-handers who showed a rightward shift in attention with drowsiness, non-right-handers showed the opposite pattern on an auditory spatial localization task. The current results are the first indication that factors linked to handedness can affect the development and extremity of spatial biases, potentially conferring resilience to clinical symptoms in non-right-handers and, given that 90% of us are right-handed, why left neglect is disproportionately persistent.
Andresen, Bradley T
Biased agonism is one of the fastest growing topics in G protein-coupled receptor pharmacology; moreover, biased agonists are used in the clinic today: carvedilol (Coreg®) is a biased agonist of beta-adrenergic receptors. However, there is a general lack of understanding of biased agonism when compared to traditional pharmacological terminology. Therefore, this review is designed to provide a basic introduction to classical pharmacology as well as G protein-coupled receptor signal transduction in order to clearly explain biased agonism for the non-scientist clinician and pharmacist. Special emphasis is placed on biased agonists of the beta-adrenergic receptors, as these drugs are highly prescribed, and a hypothetical scenario based on current clinical practices and proposed mechanisms for treating disease is discussed in order to demonstrate the need for a more thorough understanding of biased agonism in clinical settings. Since biased agonism provides a novel mechanism for treating disease, greater emphasis is being placed to develop biased agonists; therefore, it is important for biased agonism to be understood in equal measure of traditional pharmacological concepts. This review, along with many others, can be used to teach the basic concepts of biased agonism, and this review also serves to introduce the subsequent reviews that examine, in more depth, the relevance of biased agonism towards the angiotensin type 1 receptor, parathyroid hormone receptor, and natural biased ligands towards chemokine receptors.
Miskowiak, K W; Larsen, J E; Harmer, C J
BACKGROUND: Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of self-referent emotional words seem to be trait-marks of depression. However, it is unclear whether these neurocognitive changes are present in unaffected first-degree relatives and constitute an illness endophenotype. METHODS......: Fifty-three healthy, never-depressed monozygotic or dizygotic twins with a co-twin history of depression (high-risk group: n = 26) or no first-degree family history of depression (low-risk group: n = 27) underwent neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) as part of a follow....... Functional MRI yielded no differences between high-risk and low-risk twins in retrieval-specific neural activity for positive or negative words or during the recognition of negative versus positive words within the hippocampus or prefrontal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: The subtle display of negative recall bias...
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Full Text Available Children receive more care and resources from their maternal grandmothers than from their paternal grandmothers. This asymmetry is the “matrilateral bias” in grandmaternal investment. Here, we synopsize the evolutionary theories that predict such a bias, and review evidence of its cross-cultural generality and magnitude. Evolutionists have long maintained that investing in a daughter’s child yields greater fitness returns, on average, than investing in a son’s child because of paternity uncertainty: the son’s putative progeny may have been sired by someone else. Recent theoretical work has identified an additional natural selective basis for the matrilateral bias that may be no less important: supporting grandchildren lightens the load on their mother, increasing her capacity to pursue her fitness in other ways, and if she invests those gains either in her natal relatives or in children of a former or future partner, fitness returns accrue to the maternal, but not the paternal, grandmother. In modern democracies, where kinship is reckoned bilaterally and no postmarital residence norms restrict grandmaternal access to grandchildren, many studies have found large matrilateral biases in contact, childcare, and emotional closeness. In other societies, patrilineal ideology and postmarital residence with the husband’s kin (virilocality might be expected to have produced a patrilateral bias instead, but the available evidence refutes this hypothesis. In hunter-gatherers, regardless of professed norms concerning kinship and residence, mothers get needed help at and after childbirth from their mothers, not their mothers-in-law. In traditional agricultural and pastoral societies, patrilineal and virilocal norms are common, but young mothers still turn to their natal families for crucial help, and several studies have documented benefits, including reduced child mortality, associated with access to maternal, but not paternal, grandmothers. Even
This article advocates biased spinners as an engaging context for statistics students. Calculating the probability of a biased spinner landing on a particular side makes valuable connections between probability and other areas of mathematics. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)
... Your Pet Healthy Whether you have a dog, cat, horse, parakeet, gerbil, or bearded dragon, providing regular, life-long veterinary care is important to having a healthy pet and a healthy family. Regular veterinary visits are essential to good pet health. Talk to your pet’s veterinarian about ...
Rice, Valerie J; Butler, Jenny; Marra, Diane
During interviews with Health Care Specialist military cadre, instructors voiced concern that symptoms associated with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (SoADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (SoODD) were interfering with soldiers' ability to complete training. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between SoADHD and SoODD with soldiers' grade point average (GPA), Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores, and musculoskeletal injuries during Health Care Specialist (HCS) Advanced Individual Training (AIT). Participants included 122 soldiers attending HCS training. Participants completed a demographic survey and Barkley and Murphy's ADHD and ODD self-report symptom surveys. Their ADHD and ODD self-report scores were correlated with course performance metrics at the conclusion of their 16 weeks of training. Pearson Correlation Coefficients revealed a significant negative relationship between ratings on the Oppositional Defiant Disorder scale with soldiers' GPA (p APFT scores or musculoskeletal injuries. Symptoms associated with ADHD and ODD had little impact on the academic and physical performance of soldiers attending HCS training. Implications and future research are explored, in this article.
Perić, Davorka; Plancak, Darije; Bulj, Martina; Tudor, Vedrana; Spalj, Stjepan
Health status of soldiers affects their quality of life and combat readiness. The aim of the research was to explore the differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between combat ready und unready soldiers and to what extent are clinically assessed combat readiness and psychological dimensions related to self-reported HRQoL. The study included 402 consecutively selected soldiers aged 21 to 54 (mean age 35.3 +/- 6.0) who were classified on the basis of a regular health examination as combat ready (N=327) and unready (N=75). HRQoL was assessed using the Short Form-8 Questionnaire and psychological dimensions using the Brief Symptom Inventory. There were no significant differences in physical and mental components of HRQoL between combat ready and unready soldiers. Clinically assessed combat readiness and psychological symptomatic dimensions were weak predictors of HRQoL. Higher intensity of psychoticism and less years in military service were the only significant predictor of higher physical component of HRQoL (p=0.027 and p=0.020, respectively) but accounted for low variability (each 1%). None variable was a predictor of mental component. In conclusion, clinically assessed combat readiness of soldiers and psychological symptomatic dimensions are poor predictors of HRQoL. HRQoL should be introduced in evaluation of combat readiness.
Nibbeling, Nicky; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Ubink, Emiel M; Daanen, Hein A M
Operational performance in military settings involves physical and mental skills that are generally investigated separately in lab settings, leading to reduced ecological validity. Therefore, we investigated the effects of anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue, separately and in combination, on cognitive and shooting performance of 22 soldiers in a real-world setting. Findings indicated that soldiers' shooting accuracy and decision-making and mathematical skills decreased significantly under anxiety. Whether exercise-induced fatigue was beneficial or detrimental to task performance depended on the task at hand. The increased arousal levels through exercise prevented shooting accuracy from deteriorating in the decision task. In contrast, cognitive performance suffered from the increased arousal: participants more often failed to shoot when being fired at by an opponent and also math performance seemed to decrease. We conclude that anxiety can deteriorate soldier performance and that exercise-induced fatigue may improve or deteriorate performance in combination with anxiety depending on the nature of the task. Soldiers encounter anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue. We investigated to what degree these factors influence soldiers' shooting and cognitive performance. Experimental manipulation of anxiety and exercise during a representative field course indicated decreased performance under anxiety. Exercise prevented shooting accuracy from deteriorating under anxiety, although cognitive performance was negatively affected after exercise.
Caouette, Justin D; Ruiz, Sarah K; Lee, Clinton C; Anbari, Zainab; Schriber, Roberta A; Guyer, Amanda E
Social anxiety (SA) involves a multitude of cognitive symptoms related to fear of evaluation, including expectancy and memory biases. We examined whether memory biases are influenced by expectancy biases for social feedback in SA. We hypothesised that, faced with a socially evaluative event, people with higher SA would show a negative expectancy bias for future feedback. Furthermore, we predicted that memory bias for feedback in SA would be mediated by expectancy bias. Ninety-four undergraduate students (55 women, mean age = 19.76 years) underwent a two-visit task that measured expectations about (Visit 1) and memory of (Visit 2) feedback from unknown peers. Results showed that higher levels of SA were associated with negative expectancy bias. An indirect relationship was found between SA and memory bias that was mediated by expectancy bias. The results suggest that expectancy biases are in the causal path from SA to negative memory biases for social evaluation.
Marissen, Marlies A. E.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Waters, Andrew J.; Blanken, Peter; van den Brink, Wim; Hendriks, Vincent M.
AIMS: Previous studies have shown that abstinent heroin addicts exhibit an attentional bias to heroin-related stimuli. It has been suggested that attentional bias may represent a vulnerability to relapse into drug use. In the present study, the predictive value of pre-treatment attentional bias on
Kirman, Joseph M.
Suggests that students can learn to recognize media bias by studying media reports of current events or historical topics. Describes a study unit using media coverage of the second anniversary of the Palestinian uprising against Israel. Discusses lesson objectives, planning, defining bias teaching procedures, and criteria for determining bias. (DK)
Pool, Eva; Brosch, Tobias; Delplanque, Sylvain; Sander, David
Despite an initial focus on negative threatening stimuli, researchers have more recently expanded the investigation of attentional biases toward positive rewarding stimuli. The present meta-analysis systematically compared attentional bias for positive compared with neutral visual stimuli across 243 studies (N = 9,120 healthy participants) that used different types of attentional paradigms and positive stimuli. Factors were tested that, as postulated by several attentional models derived from theories of emotion, might modulate this bias. Overall, results showed a significant, albeit modest (Hedges' g = .258), attentional bias for positive as compared with neutral stimuli. Moderator analyses revealed that the magnitude of this attentional bias varied as a function of arousal and that this bias was significantly larger when the emotional stimulus was relevant to specific concerns (e.g., hunger) of the participants compared with other positive stimuli that were less relevant to the participants' concerns. Moreover, the moderator analyses showed that attentional bias for positive stimuli was larger in paradigms that measure early, rather than late, attentional processing, suggesting that attentional bias for positive stimuli occurs rapidly and involuntarily. Implications for theories of emotion and attention are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram
Background Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science. Methodology/Principal Findings We formulate a (non-Bayesian) model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect–when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency) or the first opinion (primacy) –and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties. Conclusions The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development. PMID:25007078
Covert, Clinton Mark
A study identified and compared characteristics of enlisted soldiers who participated in postsecondary educational offerings to those who did not and identified barriers to participation for participants and nonparticipants. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 92 soldiers at one Army installation. Nonparticipants named these…
Lowest Price, Technically Acceptable Evaluation Criteria Used in the November 2014 Request for Proposal for the Program Executive Office Soldier Systems Engineering and Technical Assistance (SETA) Contract
USED IN THE NOVEMBER 2014 REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL FOR THE PROGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE SOLDIER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE (SETA) CONTRACT...NOVEMBER 2014 REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL FOR THE PROGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE SOLDIER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE (SETA) CONTRACT 5. FUNDING...evaluation process for replies received in response to a request for proposal (RFP) for systems engineering and technical assistance (SETA) support
Pedersen, Rasmus Tue
Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...
Martin, Gina S; Tapsell, Linda C; Batterham, Marijka J; Russell, Kenneth G
Investigation of relative bias in diet history measurement during dietary intervention trials. Retrospective analysis of human dietary data from two randomised controlled trials examining modified fat diets in the prevention and treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. Wollongong, Australia. Thirty-five overweight, otherwise healthy subjects in trial 1 and 56 subjects with diabetes in trial 2. Diet history interviews and three-day weighed food records administered at one-month intervals in trial 1 and three-month intervals in trial 2. In a cross-sectional bias analysis, graphs of the association between bias and mean dietary intake showed that bias decreased in higher carbohydrate consumers in trial 1 (r = -0.344, P bias did not change over time in either trial. There were no significant differences in bias magnitudes between the trials, with the exception of monounsaturated fat measurement where bias was significantly greater and more positive in trial 2, indicating overestimation of monounsaturated fat intake with the diet history. Subjects in control and intervention groups underestimated energy, fat, saturated fat and alcohol intakes with the diet history in both trials. Overweight and obese individuals appeared to make the greatest contribution to the overall underestimation of saturated fat intake by the diet history regardless of whether they were in the control or intervention group and whether they were healthy or had diabetes. Bias in diet history measurement appears to be macronutrient-specific, with energy, fat and saturated fat consistently underreported in the interview by subjects with and without diabetes and in both intervention and control groups in a dietary intervention trial. Relative bias analysis appears to be an informative tool in quality control for dietary intervention trials when biochemical markers are unavailable.
Full Text Available This paper overviews the theoretical and empirical research on behavioral biases and their influence in the literature. To provide a systematic exposition, we present a unified framework that takes the reader through an original taxonomy, based on the reviews of relevant authors in the field. In particular, we establish three broad categories that may be distinguished: heuristics and biases; choices, values and frames; and social factors. We then describe the main biases within each category, and revise the main theoretical and empirical developments, linking each bias with other biases and anomalies that are related to them, according to the literature.
Shrestha, Merica; Combest, Travis; Fonda, Stephanie J; Alfonso, Abel; Guerrero, Arthur
This study evaluated whether using a web-linked accelerometer, plus mandatory physical training, is associated with various weight- and fitness-related outcomes in overweight/obese active duty soldiers. Soldiers who failed the height/weight standards of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) were randomized to use a Polar FA20 accelerometer device (polar accelerometer group [PA], n = 15) or usual care (UC, n = 13) for 6 months. Both groups received 1.5 hours of lifestyle instruction. We collected data at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months, and evaluated group differences in temporal changes in study outcomes. At 6 months, 1/28 subjects (UC) passed the APFT height/weight standards. There were no group differences in changes in weight (PA: -0.1 kg vs. UC: +0.3 kg; p = 0.9), body fat (PA: -0.9% vs. UC: -1.1%; p = 0.9), systolic blood pressure (PA: +1.3 mm Hg vs. UC: -2.1 mm Hg; p = 0.2), diastolic blood pressure (PA: +3.8 mm Hg vs. UC: -2.4 mm Hg; p = 0.3), or resting heart rate in beats per minute (bpm) (PA: +7.8 bpm vs. UC: +0.1 bpm; p = 0.2). These results suggest that using an accelerometer with web-based feedback capabilities plus mandatory physical training does not assist in significant weight loss or ability to pass the APFT height/weight standards among overweight/obese soldiers.
Kang, Suk-Hyung; Choi, Seung Hong; Seong, Nak Jong; Ko, Jung Min; Cho, Eun-Suk; Ko, Kwang Pil
This study was undertaken to compare the diagnostic performances of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MR myelography (MRM) and myelography in young soldiers with a herniated lumbar disc (HLD). Sixty-five male soldiers with HLD comprised the study cohort. A visual analogue scale for low back pain (VAS-LBP), VAS for leg radiating pain (VAS-LP), and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were applied. Lumbar MR, MRM, and myelographic findings were checked and evaluated by four independent radiologists, respectively. Each radiologist was asked to score (1 to 5) the degree of disc protrusion and nerve root compression using modified grading systems devised by the North American Spine Society and Pfirrmann and the physical examination rules for conscription in the Republic of Korea. Correlated coefficients between clinical and radiological factors were calculated. Interpretational reproducibility between MRI and myelography by four bases were calculated and compared. Mean patient age was 20.5 ± 1.1. Mean VAS-LBP and VAS-LP were 6.7 ± 1.6 and 7.4 ± 1.7, respectively. Mean ODI was 48.0 ± 16.2%. Mean MRI, MRM, and myelography scores were 3.3 ± 0.9, 3.5 ± 1.0, and 3.9 ± 1.1, respectively. All scores of diagnostic performances were significantly correlated (p < 0.05). However, none of these scores reflected the severity of patients' symptoms. There was no statistical difference of interpretational reproducibility between MRI and myelography. Although MRI and myelography are based on different principles, they produce similar interpretational reproducibility in young soldiers with a HLD. However, these modalities do not reflect the severity of symptoms.
Mo, Jong Hyun; Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Park, Yang Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyoon [Chonnam National Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)
To evaluate the MR imaging findings of fatigue fractures of the lower extremity in young soldiers. In 22 cases of fatigue fractures of the lower extremity in young soldiers proven by clinical findings and radiological follow up, the MRI findings were retrospectively evalvated. All patients were male and aged between 19 and 21 years. As seen on MRI, the bone marrow edema, intramedullary low signal intensity band, cortical fracture line, periosteal reaction, surrounding soft tissue edema, and enhancement pattern were analyzed and the site of involvement was determined in the axial plane. The locations of fatigue fractures of the lower extremity were the tibia (n=12), fibula (n=8), femur (n=1) and second metatarsus (n=1). All occurred in diaphyses: the junction of the proximal and middle (n=10), middle (n=9), proximal (n=2), and distal shaft (n=1). The sites of involvement were the posteromedial (n=6) and medial side (n=6) of the tibia, and the entire portion of the fibula(n=5) in the axial plane. MRI findings were bone marrow edema in 20 cases, intramedullary low signal intensity band in 14 (which were continuous with the cortex or cortical fracture line), cortical fracture line in 13, and periosteal reaction and surrounding soft tissue edema in all. On gadolinium-enhanced images, enhancement was seen in the bone marrow in 19 cases, in the subperiosteal region in 18, and in the surrounding soft tissue in 22. In fatigue fractures of the lower extremity in young soldiers, the main locations were the tibia and fibula, and characteristic MR imaging findings were intramedullary low signal intensity bands, which were continuous with the cortex or cortical fracture line and often accompanied by bone marrow edema, periosteal reaction, and surrounding soft tissue edema.
Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Konior, Monika; Augustynowicz, Alina; Lass, Anna; Kowalska, Ewa
Members of the Polish Military Contingent (PMC) have been stationed in Afghanistan since 2002. They typically serve in areas characterised by low standards of sanitation which often leads to the development of food- and waterborne diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis infections among Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. The research study was conducted as part of a programme for prevention of parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract run by the Polish Armed Forces. The study was carried out in August 2011; it involved 630 asymptomatic Polish soldiers serving in the Forward Operational Base (FOB) Ghazni in eastern Afghanistan. Stool specimens obtained from members of the PMC were first tested in FOB Ghazni (detection of Giardia intestinalis by Rida Quick Giardia immunochromatographic tests and Ridascreen Giardia immunoenzymatic tests - single samples). Next, the same biological material and two other faecal specimens fixed in 10% formalin were transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland, where they were tested for Giardia intestinalis under light microscopy (direct smear, decantation in distilled water). Parasitological tests performed under light microscopy showed that 2.7% (17/630) of the study group were infected with Giardia intestinalis. Some of these results were confirmed by immunochromatographic tests (6/630). In contrast, immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate reaching 18.1% (114/630). Immunoenzymatic tests confirmed all the positive results given by light microscopy and by immunochromatographic tests. The prevalence rate of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan was found to be high. Microscopic methods exhibit low sensitivity and therefore may result in the underestimation of the true parasite prevalence. Immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) showing a much higher sensitivity in comparison to light microscopy
Nelson, D Alan; Deuster, Patricia A; Carter, Robert; Hill, Owen T; Wolcott, Vickee L; Kurina, Lianne M
Studies have suggested that sickle cell trait elevates the risks of exertional rhabdomyolysis and death. We conducted a study of sickle cell trait in relation to these outcomes, controlling for known risk factors for exertional rhabdomyolysis, in a large population of active persons who had undergone laboratory tests for hemoglobin AS (HbAS) and who were subject to exertional-injury precautions. We used Cox proportional-hazards models to test whether the risks of exertional rhabdomyolysis and death varied according to sickle cell trait status among 47,944 black soldiers who had undergone testing for HbAS and who were on active duty in the U.S. Army between January 2011 and December 2014. We used the Stanford Military Data Repository, which contains comprehensive medical and administrative data on all active-duty soldiers. There was no significant difference in the risk of death among soldiers with sickle cell trait, as compared with those without the trait (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 2.13; P=0.97), but the trait was associated with a significantly higher adjusted risk of exertional rhabdomyolysis (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.12; P=0.008). This effect was similar in magnitude to that associated with tobacco use, as compared with no use (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.94; PSickle cell trait was not associated with a higher risk of death than absence of the trait, but it was associated with a significantly higher risk of exertional rhabdomyolysis. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.).
Jamil, Hikmet; Hamdan, Thamer A; Grzybowski, Mary; Arnetz, Bengt B
Although Iraqis sustained the gravest exposure conditions during the 1991 Gulf War (GW), little is known about the possible relationship between environmental exposures during the GW and long-term health in Iraqis. To study the relationship between distance from Kuwait during the GW and somatic health among Iraqi Soldiers vs civilians. A survey questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 742 GW veterans and 413 civilians in Iraq. The odds ratios were calculated for somatic disorders as a function of distance from Kuwait during the GW, as well as a self-reported environmental exposure index. Soldiers reported a significantly higher prevalence of somatic disorders as compared to civilians. Soldiers closest to Kuwait reported significantly more somatic disorders as compared to Soldiers deployed further away from Kuwait. Iraqi GW veterans are at an increased risk of numerous somatic disorders. Soldiers are at an increased risk compared to civilians, suggesting that war-associated exposures are of etiologic relevance.
Ushakova, N A; Dontsov, A E; Bastrakov, A I; Garmash, N Y; Pavlov, D S
Larva, prepupa (last instar larva), pupa, and an empty shell of pupa after hatching of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens contain eumelanin, an active synthesis of which is observed at the prepupal stage, which is probably due to the release of prepupa from the feed substrate thickness to the open space for pupation. It was shown for the first time that prepupa contains high quantities of the magnetically active form of manganese Mn(2+). This fact indicates that Mn(2+) stimulates the copper-containing tyrosinase-the key enzyme in the synthesis of melanin in the period of migration and adaptation of the insect to the solar radiation.
Ushakova, N A; Brodskii, E S; Kovalenko, A A; Bastrakov, A I; Kozlova, A A; Pavlov, D S
The lipid fraction of larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens was shown to contain lauric acid (38.43 wt %) and its esters, azelaic and sebacic acids, and azelaic acid dibutyl ester. The dominant compound in the group of identified glycerides was lauric acid monoglyceride (0.70 wt %). Glycerides were also represented by triglycerides and diglycerides of lauric acid. Sterols were represented primarily by phytosterols (over 75%), the major of which was alpha-sitosterol (45%). The identified lipid complex composition is apparently determined by the biological characteristics of the fly Hermetia illucens and ensures antibacterial defence of larvae and stability of lipids at changing ambient temperature.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Exertional heat stress is common problem in military services. The aim was to examine changes in serum concentrations of some enzymes in soldiers during exertional heat stress test (EHST as well as the effects of 10-days passive or active acclimatization in climatic chamber. Methods. Forty male soldiers with high aerobic capacity, performed EHST either in cool (20 ºC, 16 ºC Wet bulb globe temperature - WBGT, or hot (40 ºC, 25 ºC WBGT environment, unacclimatized, or after 10 days of passive or active acclimation. Physiological strain was measured by tympanic temperatures (Tty and heart rates (HR. Concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and creatine-kinase (CK were measured in blood samples collected before and immediately after EHST. Results. Exertional heat stress test in hot conditions induced physiological heat stress (increase in Tty and HR, with significant increase in concentrations of all enzymes in unacclimatized group: ALT (42.5 ± 4.2 before vs 48.1 ± 3.75 U/L after EHST, p < 0.01, AST (24.9 ± 5.1 vs 33.4 ± 4.48 U/L, p < 0.01, LDH (160.6 ± 20.2 vs 195.7 ± 22.6 U/L, p < 0.001 and CK (215.5 ± 91.2 vs 279.1 ± 117.5 U/L, p < 0.05. In acclimatized soldiers there were no significant changes in concentrations of ALT and AST, while concentration of CK was significantly higher. Concentrations of LDH were significantly higher in all investigated groups, regardless of temperature conditions. Conclusion. In trained soldiers, 10-days passive or active acclimatization in climatic chamber can prevent increase in serum concentrations of ALT and AST, induced by exertional heat stress. Increase of serum concentrations of CK and LDH was induced by physical strain itself, with no additional effect of heat stress.
Nuermaimaiti, Ajiguli; Bombis, Christian; Knudsen, Martin Markvard
Molecular-level insights into chiral adsorption phenomena are highly relevant within the fields of asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis or chiral separation and may contribute to understand the origins of homochirality in nature. Here, we investigate chiral induction by the "sergeants and soldiers......" mechanism for an oligo(phenylene ethynylene) based chiral conformational switch by coadsorbing it with an intrinsically chiral seed on Au(111). Through statistical analysis of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data we demonstrate successful chiral induction with a very low concentration of seeding...
Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank
The psychological rehabilitation of former child soldiers and their successful reintegration into postconflict society present challenges. Despite high rates of impairment, there have been no randomized controlled trials examining the feasibility and efficacy of mental health interventions for former child soldiers. To assess the efficacy of a community-based intervention targeting symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in formerly abducted individuals. Randomized controlled trial recruiting 85 former child soldiers with PTSD from a population-based survey of 1113 Northern Ugandans aged 12 to 25 years, conducted between November 2007 and October 2009 in camps for internally displaced persons. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: narrative exposure therapy (n = 29), an academic catch-up program with elements of supportive counseling (n = 28), or a waiting list (n = 28). Symptoms of PTSD and trauma-related feelings of guilt were measured using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The respective sections of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used to assess depression and suicide risk, and a locally adapted scale was used to measure perceived stigmatization. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, and related impairment were assessed before treatment and at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. Treatments were carried out in 8 sessions by trained local lay therapists, directly in the communities. Change in PTSD severity, assessed over a 1-year period after treatment. Secondary outcome measures were depression symptoms, severity of suicidal ideation, feelings of guilt, and perceived stigmatization. PTSD symptom severity (range, 0-148) was significantly more improved in the narrative exposure therapy group than in the academic catch-up (mean change difference, -14.06 [95% confidence interval, -27.19 to -0.92]) and waiting-list (mean change difference, -13.04 [95% confidence interval, -26.79 to 0.72]) groups. Contrast analyses
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autistic and we have struggled for almost two years to get increased services, i.e., speech therapy and the system is so backlogged that appointments are...the mission when your family is still in need of assistance... (Survey Participant) AER would not help me or my Soldiers when they needed it. Pay Day...loans and Pioneer loans are what they had to use. If AER did their job ight there wouldn’t be 10 Pay Day loan places within feet of the Ft Riley Gate
J Song, Suzan; van den Brink, Helene; de Jong, Joop
While numerous studies on former child soldiers (FCS) have shown mental health needs, adequate services are a challenge. This study aimed to identify priorities, barriers and facilitators of mental health care for Sierra Leonean FCS. Thematic analysis was done on 24 qualitative interviews with participants from diverse sectors. Priorities of mental distress, substance abuse, and gender-based violence were common among FCS clients. Barriers were governmental support and communication with other providers. Perceived facilitators of care were primary- and secondary-level interventions. A public mental health model would feasibly build upon local, culturally embraced interventions, targeting local priorities and reducing barriers to care.
M. García Silgo
Antecedentes: En enero de 2011, la revista de Psicología American Psychologist, publicación oficial de la Asociación Americana de Psicología, publicó un monográfico sobre el programa de entrenamiento Comprehensive Soldier Fitness desarrollado por el ejército de los Estados Unidos. Este programa contempla el entrenamiento de diversas variables, entre otras, psicosociales. Dicha publicación suscitó cinco réplicas de psicólogos civiles del ámbito académico norteamericano, comenzando así una polé...
Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B
We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939-1940). We measured facial width-to-height ratio-a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males-and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank.
Hellerup, Janne; Andersen, Søren Bo; Høgh (Hogh), Annie
Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan (N...... = 445). Using a prospective design data was collected using questionnaires including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The results showed a PTSD-prevalence of 9.2% in the total sample 2.5 years after homecoming. Using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U...
Johannessen, Kim Berg; Bohn, Annette; Staugaard, Søren Risløv
This study compares the characteristics of positive and negative memories in 610 Danish soldiers across three measurement points (before, during and after deployment). Participants were asked to report the most positive and most negative memory from their lives before deployment, and to report...... the most positive and most negative memories concerning their deployment (during deployment and right after deployment). The memory narratives were coded by two independent raters for specificity, coherence, and degree of desorganisation. For all three time points, these ratings were compared across time...
Full Text Available Objective To observe the efficacy of Xiao-tan-jie-yu prescription (XTJYF on sleep quality of the soldiers who acutely exposed to western area of high altitude. Methods In this prospective, completely randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled study, 550 soldiers acutely exposed to western area of high altitude were investigated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, 100 soldiers with sleep disorder were selected and divided into two groups (50 each: treatment group received TCM XTJYF therapy and control group was treated with placebo. After 2 weeks' treatment, PSQI total score and respective factor scores before and after treatment were assessed, and clinical therapeutic efficacy and adverse reactions were observed. Results The PSQI total score and respective factor scores of these soldiers were significantly higher than those of normal adults, but significantly lower than those of insomnia patients, while their sleep disorder factor score was significantly higher compared with insomnia patients. XTJYF reduced the total score and some factor scores (subjective sleep quality, time for initiating sleep, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency for PSQI in the soldiers with sleep disorder, and the overall response rate was 91.49% which is higher than those in the placebo control group (P<0.05 or 0.01, without toxic side effects. Conclusions The sleep quality of soldiers who acutely exposed to western area of high altitude in China is not high, and XTJYF may safely and effectively improve the sleep quality. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.10.15