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Sample records for healthy sheep received

  1. Fatal pneumonia following inoculation of healthy bighorn sheep with Pasteurella haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Snipes, K P; Kasten, R W

    1994-04-01

    In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10(8) to 8.6 x 10(11) colony forming units. Seven of eight inoculated bighorn sheep died from acute pneumonia within 48 hr of inoculation, whereas all seven domestic sheep inoculated with comparable or greater doses of bacteria remained healthy. One contact control bighorn sheep also died 6 days after its penmates received P. haemolytica. Three other noncontact control bighorn sheep remained healthy during the experiments. Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1 in the inocula was recovered from one or more tissues from all bighorns that died; whereas, it was not detected in any bighorn sheep before inoculation. Three different ribotypes of P. haemolytica A2 were recovered from bighorn sheep; however, only the ribotype reference WSU-1 in the domestic sheep-origin inoculum was recovered from all dead bighorn sheep, and was not recovered from bighorn sheep that survived the experiments. Thus, a relatively nonpathogenic and common isolate of P. haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep was lethal in bighorn sheep under experimental conditions.

  2. Pattern of 14C-behaviour in sheep organism after being received with grass or in soda solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomareva, R.P.; Fedorov, E.A.; Shilov, V.P.; Milakina, L.A.; Savina, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made on regularities of 14 C behaviour in sheep organism after being received with the ration as a part of Na 2 CO 3 solution and green mass of grass- 14 C. It is shown that 14 C, received by sheep organism, is actively involved in carbon metabolism, penetrates blood and enters milk. The equilibrium state of the nuclide in ration-milk chain is achieved during one day. It was established that C 14 , received by sheep organism with grass, was removed two times slower from the organism and penetrated milk move actively

  3. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in clinically healthy German sheep flocks

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    Hilbert Angela

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current epidemiological data on the situation of Coxiella (C. burnetii infections in sheep are missing, making risk assessment and the implementation of counteractive measures difficult. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the estimated sero-, and antigen prevalence of C. burnetii (10% and 25%, respectively was assessed at flock level in 39/252 randomly selected clinically healthy sheep flocks with more than 100 ewes and unknown abortion rate. Results The CHECKIT™ Q-fever Test Kit identified 11 (28% antibody positive herds, whereas real-time PCR revealed the presence of C. burnetii DNA in 2 (5% of the flocks. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis of 9 isolates obtained from one flock revealed identical profiles. All isolates contained the plasmid QpH1. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. burnetii is present in clinically inconspicuous sheep flocks and sporadic flare-ups do occur as the notifications to the German animal disease reporting system show. Although C. burnetii infections are not a primary veterinary concern due to the lack of significant clinical impact on animal health (with the exception of goats, the eminent zoonotic risk for humans should not be underestimated. Therefore, strategies combining the interests of public and veterinary public health should include monitoring of flocks, the identification and culling of shedders as well as the administration of protective vaccines.

  4. Fatal pneumonia of bighorn sheep following association with domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Jessup, D A

    1982-04-01

    During 1979-1980 acute fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia resulted in high mortality or total loss of herds of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in California and Washington. Contact with domestic sheep occurred shortly before the onset of disease in each case. Circumstantial evidence indicated that the apparently healthy domestic sheep transmitted pathogenic bacteria to the bighorns, resulting in mortality. Pasteurella multocida and Corynebacterium pyogenes were isolated from pulmonary tissue of dead bighorns. The presence of domestic sheep may have been an important stress which initiated or compounded the disease.

  5. Systemic and mammary gland disposition of enrofloxacin in healthy sheep following intramammary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Cristina; García, Juan José; Sierra, Matilde; Diez, María José; Pérez, Claudia; Sahagún, Ana Maria; Fernández, Nélida

    2015-04-09

    Mastitis is one of the most important diseases affecting dairy sheep. Antimicrobial drugs are often administered directly through teat to treat or prevent this disease, but data on drug distribution within glandular tissue are scarce and it cannot be estimated from concentrations in milk. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate systemic and mammary gland distribution of enrofloxacin after intramammary administration. The drug was administered to 6 healthy lactating Assaf sheep with an injector containing an enrofloxacin preparation (1 g drug/5 g ointment). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. Animals were then sedated and sacrificed, and glandular tissue samples were obtained from treated udders at 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm height. Enrofloxacin concentrations were measured in plasma and tissue samples by UV high-performed liquid chromatography. Mean enrofloxacin plasma concentrations were below 0.5 μg/mL. Mean tissue concentrations decreased in mammary gland with vertical distance from the teat, ranging from 356.6 μg/g at 2 cm to 95.60 μg/g at the base of the udder. Glandular tissue concentrations best fitted to a decreasing monoexponential model, and showed a good correlation with an ex vivo model previously developed. Enrofloxacin concentrations were effective in the entire glandular tissue against the main pathogens causing mastitis in sheep. These results suggest that this drug may be suitable to treat mastitis in sheep by intramammary administration.

  6. Comparison of the serumic levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc between apparently healthy and those affected by febrile pneumonia in Ghezel sheep

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    M Mashayekhi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between subclinical deficiency of Vit A, Vit C and zinc and ovine pneumonia. This study was conducted on 400 sheep affected by pneumonia and 100 apparently healthy sheep. All animals were from the Ghezel breed with the age of 0.5-2 years and body weight of 35-60 kg. Sampling was done during the summer and autumn in Miandoab province. Patients showing signs of rapid and shallow breathing, dyspnea, coughing, nasal discharge and abnormal lung sound were selected as having pneumonia. Animals without any sign of particular disease were selected as apparently healthy after general examination. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. The results indicated that serum levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc were 46.94±0.26 (μg/dl, 1.83±0.05 (mg/dl and 183.25±1.86 (μg/dl in healthy sheep respectively and serum levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc were 42.45±0.19 (μg/dl, 1.47±0.02 (mg/dl and 134.59±1.77 (μg/dl in pneumonic sheep (p=0.000 respectively. It can be concluded that there is a significant correlation between subclinical deficiency of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc serum and ovine pneumonia

  7. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  8. Effects of nutritional supplement of ginger root on antioxidant status in sheep

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    majid fartashvand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a medicinal plant and pungent food spice, which has antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger on antioxidant status of blood in healthy sheep. In this study, dried ginger root powder was added to the ration of 10 male yearling sheep (treatment group, at the rate of 1g/head/day for a period of 2 months. In the second group (n = 10 sheep, a single dose of vitamin E+selenium injection was administered intramuscularly (positive control group and the control group (n=10 sheep received no medication or special additives. Blood samples were collected regularly at 2 week intervals and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT and total antioxidant levels were measured. Ginger increased total antioxidant capacity of serum and blood levels of SOD, GPX and CAT, which was significant compared to the control group (p

  9. Receiver-operating characteristic curves for somatic cell scores and California mastitis test in Valle del Belice dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Valentina; Pesce, Lorenzo L; Morreale, Salvatore; Portolano, Baldassare

    2013-06-01

    Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology this study was designed to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of somatic cell count (SCC) and the California mastitis test (CMT) in Valle del Belice sheep, and to propose and evaluate threshold values for those tests that would optimally discriminate between healthy and infected udders. Milk samples (n=1357) were collected from 684 sheep in four flocks. The prevalence of infection, as determined by positive bacterial culture was 0.36, 87.7% of which were minor and 12.3% major pathogens. Of the culture negative samples, 83.7% had an SCCculture negative vs. infected), minor pathogen status (culture negative vs. infected with minor pathogens), major pathogen status (culture negative vs. infected with major pathogens), and CMT results were evaluated, the estimated area under the ROC curve was greater for glands infected with major compared to minor pathogens (0.88 vs. 0.73), whereas the area under the curve considering all pathogens was similar to the one for minor pathogens (0.75). The estimated optimal thresholds were 3.00 (CMT), 2.81 (SCS for the whole sample), 2.81 (SCS for minor pathogens), and 3.33 (SCS for major pathogens). These correctly classified, respectively, 69.0%, 73.5%, 72.6% and 91.0% of infected udders in the samples. The CMT appeared only to discriminate udders infected with major pathogens. In this population, SCS appeared to be the best indirect test of the bacteriological status of the udder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  11. Portal Vein Dopplerflowmetry in healthy sheep according to age

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    Alexandra F. Belotta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pulsed Doppler ultrasound was used to evaluate portal blood flow, portal velocity and portal congestion index in 24 healthy sheep divided into groups (lambs, yearlings and ewes, according to age. Measurements were performed at the 11th right intercostal space using ideal insonation angle and uniform insonation method. Mean values obtained in each group were compared with one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey post-hoc test. Portal velocity and portal blood flow were statistically similar between the groups (P>0.05. Mean portal velocity were 17.75; 17.13 and 16.75; while mean portal blood flow were 26.65; 31.04 and 24.32 for lambs, yearlings and ewes, respectively. Portal congestion index was statistically distinct between the groups and values for lambs, yearlings and ewes were 0.009; 0.058 and 0.09, respectively (P<0.01. Statistical differences were observed in portal vein diameter, portal vein area and portal congestion index between the groups, presumably due to influence of weight and not to age.

  12. Receiver-operating characteristic curves for somatic cell scores and California mastitis test in Valle del Be lice dairy sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riggio, V.; Pesce, L.L.; Morreale, S.; Portolano, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology this study was designed to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of somatic cell count (SCC) and the California mastitis test (CMT) in Valle del Belice sheep, and to propose and evaluate threshold values for those tests that would

  13. Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep

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    Valdir C. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The processing of Manihot esculenta (cassava tubers yield different by-products, including cassava wastewater, which is the liquid pressed out of the tuber after it has been mechanically crushed. Cyanide poisoning after ingestion of cassava wastewater has been reported in ruminants and pigs in Northeastern Brazil. With the aim of studying its toxicity, cassava wastewater was administered orally to six sheep at doses of 0.99, 0.75, 0.70, 0.63, and 0.5 mg of hydrocyanic acid kg-1 body weight, which corresponded to 14.2, 10.6, 9.8, 8.89, and 7.1 mL of wastewater kg-1. On the second day, the sheep received a volume of wastewater which corresponded to 0.46, 0.34, 0.31, 0.28, and 0.23 mg of HCN kg-1. A sheep used as control received 9.9 mL of water kg-1 BW. Sheep that received from 0.75 to 0.99 mg kg-1 of HCN on the first day exhibited severe clinical signs of poisoning, and the sheep that received 0.63 and 0.5 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs. All sheep were successfully treated with sodium thiosulfate. On the second day, only the sheep that received 0.46 mg kg-1 and 0.34 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs and recovered spontaneously. The concentration of HCN in the wastewater was 71.69±2.19 μg mL-1 immediately after production, 30.56±2.45 μg mL-1 after 24 hours, and 24.25±1.28 μg mL-1 after 48 hours. The picric acid paper test was strongly positive 5 minutes after production; moderately positive 24 hours after production, and negative 48 hours after production. We conclude that cassava wastewater is highly toxic to sheep if ingested immediately after production, but rapidly loses toxicity in 24-48 hours.

  14. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

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    Enas A. Desouky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  15. Evidence of scrapie transmission to sheep via goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Timm; Thorne, Leigh; Simmons, Hugh A; Hawkins, Steve A C; Simmons, Marion M; González, Lorenzo

    2016-09-17

    Previous studies confirmed that classical scrapie can be transmitted via milk in sheep. The current study aimed to investigate whether scrapie can also be transmitted via goat milk using in vivo (new-born lambs fed milk from scrapie-affected goats due to the unavailability of goat kids from guaranteed scrapie-free herds) and in vitro methods (serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification [sPMCA] on milk samples). In an initial pilot study, new-born lambs of two different prion protein gene (PRNP) genotypes (six VRQ/VRQ and five ARQ/ARQ) were orally challenged with 5 g brain homogenate from two scrapie-affected goats to determine susceptibility of sheep to goat scrapie. All sheep challenged with goat scrapie brain became infected based on the immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated PrP (PrP(sc)) in lymphoid tissue, with an ARQ/ARQ sheep being the first to succumb. Subsequent feeding of milk to eight pairs of new-born ARQ/ARQ lambs, with each pair receiving milk from a different scrapie-affected goat, resulted in scrapie in the six pairs that received the largest volume of milk (38-87 litres per lamb), whereas two pairs fed 8-9 litres per lamb, and an environmental control group raised on sheep milk from healthy ewes, did not show evidence of infection when culled at up to 1882 days of age. Infection in those 12 milk recipients occurred regardless of the clinical status, PrP(sc) distribution, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection status and PRNP polymorphisms at codon 142 (II or IM) of the donor goats, but survival time was influenced by PRNP polymorphisms at codon 141. Serial PMCA applied to a total of 32 milk samples (four each from the eight donor goats collected throughout lactation) detected PrP(sc) in one sample each from two goats. The scrapie agent was present in the milk from infected goats and was able to transmit to susceptible species even at early preclinical stage of infection, when PrP(sc) was undetectable in the brain of the

  16. Brachial plexus block using lidocaine/epinephrine or lidocaine/xylazine in fat-tailed sheep

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    Safoura Ghadirian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This blinded, randomized experimental study was designed to evaluate the analgesic effects of adding epinephrine or xylazine to lidocaine solution for brachial plexus block (BPB in sheep. Nine healthy, fat-tailed female lambs (26.6 ± 1.5 kg were randomly allocated into three groups: lidocaine 2%, 5 mg kg-1 (LID, n = 6, lidocaine (5 mg kg-1 with epinephrine 5 μg mL-1 (LIDEP, n = 6 or lidocaine (5 mg kg-1 with xylazine 0.05 mg kg-1 (LIDXY, n = 6. Each animal was tested twice. The sheep received a total volume of 0.25 mL kg-1 for BPB. A nerve stimulator was used to locate the nerves of the brachial plexus. Onset and duration of analgesia of the forelimb were evaluated using superficial and deep pin prick and pinching of skin with a hemostat clamp. Heart and respiratory rates, and rectal temperature were recorded before and at predetermined intervals following the completion of the block. Brachial administration of LID, LIDEP or LIDXY produced forelimb analgesia within 11.3, 11.0 and 7.0 minutes, respectively. The mean duration of analgesia was 100.0 min in LID and 133.2 min in LIDEP group. The mean duration of analgesia in LIDXY group (186.8 min was significantly longer compared with LID group. In LIDEP group a significant increase in heart rate occurred 5 min after drug administration. Heart rate decreased from 35 to 80 min in sheep received LIDXY. In conclusion, the addition of xylazine to lidocaine solution for BBP provided a prolonged duration of action without any adverse effects in fat-tailed sheep.

  17. Influence of sedation on onset and quality of euthanasia in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Michele; Hofmeister, Erik H; Peroni, John F; Thoresen, Merrilee; Scharf, Alexandra M; Quandt, Jane E

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if dexmedetomidine administered IV prior to euthanasia in sheep affected the speed or quality of euthanasia. Twenty clinically healthy Dorset-cross adult ewes between 1 and 3years of age were enrolled in a randomized blinded experimental trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive dexmedetomidine 5μg/kg IV or an equivalent volume of saline. Five minutes later, euthanasia was accomplished with a pentobarbital/phenytoin overdose given IV. The time to apnea, asystole, cessation of audible heartbeat, and absence of corneal reflex were recorded by two blinded investigators. If any muscle spasms, contractions, vocalization, and/or dysrhythmias were noted, the time was recorded and type of ECG abnormality was described. An overall score of the euthanasia event was assigned using a numeric rating scale (NRS) after the animal was declared dead. The time to loss of corneal reflex was significantly longer in sheep given dexmedetomidine compared with those who received saline (P=0.03). Although vocalization was observed only in some animals premedicated with dexmedetomidine, no significance was found for this event and no other significant differences between groups were noted. Dexmedetomidine at 5μg/kg IV 5min prior to injection of pentobarbital/phenytoin for euthanasia did not substantially affect the progress of euthanasia. Dexmedetomidine may be given to sedate sheep prior to euthanasia without concern for it adversely affecting the progress of euthanasia, however vocalization may occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Standardinng initial cooling of sheep semen before freezing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sheep semen before freezing. C. Kemp. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2,. Irene, 1675 Republic of South Africa. Received 6 June 1985. A practical and repeatable method for the cooling, during the processing phase, of sheep semen, with the aim of minimizing inter-experiment variation is ...

  19. Gender participation in sheep and goat farming in Najran, Southern Saudi Arabia

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    Fahad O. Aldosari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat farming is a major source of income in the rural areas of Al-Wadiah in Najran region of Southern Saudi Arabia. The study aims to identify the factors and parameters that influence gender participation in sheep and goat farming. Data were collected by interviewing 167 high school students, including 70 male and 97 female students, in Al-Wadiah, by using the simple random sampling technique. Data were statistically analyzed to establish the relationship between gender and participation in sheep and goat farming. The study revealed significant differences between the two genders, for instance, male herders were more experienced, received more benefits, showed greater interest in discussions on topics related to sheep and goat farming, followed information from TV and radio, and received more services offered by veterinary clinics, which proved more beneficial for them. On the other hand, female herders received fewer services, and the veterinary clinics proved less beneficial for them. However, the correlation between the participation of both genders in sheep and goats management was non-significant toward the statement “feeling ashamed of participating in sheep and goat farming.” Generally, sheep and goat rearing proves more beneficial for male participants than female participants, owing to their greater experience and interest in livestock farming. Moreover, they receive more benefits from TV, radio and veterinary clinics to maintain better health of their livestock. Both male and female herders contribute equally to sheep and goat farming by limiting the time spent on their daily routine. This study would enable policymakers and planners to develop more strategies and extension education programs to overcome the identified barriers and improve the livelihood of herders through their enhanced participation in remote areas.

  20. Gender participation in sheep and goat farming in Najran, Southern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Fahad O

    2018-01-01

    Sheep and goat farming is a major source of income in the rural areas of Al-Wadiah in Najran region of Southern Saudi Arabia. The study aims to identify the factors and parameters that influence gender participation in sheep and goat farming. Data were collected by interviewing 167 high school students, including 70 male and 97 female students, in Al-Wadiah, by using the simple random sampling technique. Data were statistically analyzed to establish the relationship between gender and participation in sheep and goat farming. The study revealed significant differences between the two genders, for instance, male herders were more experienced, received more benefits, showed greater interest in discussions on topics related to sheep and goat farming, followed information from TV and radio, and received more services offered by veterinary clinics, which proved more beneficial for them. On the other hand, female herders received fewer services, and the veterinary clinics proved less beneficial for them. However, the correlation between the participation of both genders in sheep and goats management was non-significant toward the statement "feeling ashamed of participating in sheep and goat farming." Generally, sheep and goat rearing proves more beneficial for male participants than female participants, owing to their greater experience and interest in livestock farming. Moreover, they receive more benefits from TV, radio and veterinary clinics to maintain better health of their livestock. Both male and female herders contribute equally to sheep and goat farming by limiting the time spent on their daily routine. This study would enable policymakers and planners to develop more strategies and extension education programs to overcome the identified barriers and improve the livelihood of herders through their enhanced participation in remote areas.

  1. Effects of the morphine-lidocaine-ketamine combination on cardiopulmonary function and isoflurane sparing in sheep

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    Suzane Lilian Beier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the isoflurane sparing and clinical effects of a constant rate infusion of morphine – lidocaine – ketamine (MLK in healthy sheep undergoing experimental gastrointestinal surgery. Twelve adult female sheep (Texel breed were used, weighing 36.5 ± 8.1 kg. The sheep were anesthetized for the implantation of duodenal cannulas. The sheep were premedicated with 0.3 mg kg-1 intramuscular (IM morphine and 20 ?g kg-1 intravenous (IV detomidine. After premedication, anesthesia was induced using 5 mg kg-1 ketamine and 0.5 mg kg-1 diazepam IV and maintained using isoflurane in 100% oxygen. After the induction of anesthesia, the animals were allocated into two groups (each n=6; the GMLK (MLK group – 10 mg morphine, 150 mg lidocaine, 30 mg de ketamine were added in 500 mL saline received a 10 mL kg-1h-1 MLK infusion during the maintenance of anesthesia, and GCON (control group received 10 mL kg-1h-1 of 0.9% sodium chloride. The animals were mechanically ventilated. Cardiopulmonary variables and end-tidal isoflurane concentration (FE´Iso were measured at baseline (immediately before the surgery and 15, 30 and 45 minutes after initiation of surgery. In GMLK, there was a decrease in the FE´Iso at 15, 30 and 45 minutes, a reduction of up to 75.6% during the surgery. The HR was lower in GMLK compared with GCON at 30 minutes, and the MAP was at during baseline in GCON compared with GMLK. The standing time was less in GMLK than in GCON. The use of intravenous MLK was demonstrated to offer great efficiency as part of a balanced anesthesia protocol in sheep, with a 75.6% reduction in the need for isoflurane, providing stability of the cardiovascular parameters and blood gases with a shortened recovery period.

  2. Experimental Assessment of a New Type of Carbon-Coated ARTECOR® Vascular Prosthesis in Sheep

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    Jiří Podlaha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test and verify the characteristics of a new type of carbon-coated ARTECOR® vascular prosthesis developed at the Knitting Research Institute, a.s. Brno. Eight healthy Merino sheep, aged between 2 and 3 years, were implanted four types (A, B, C with diamond-like carbon (DLC coating and D as a control without DLC of vascular prostheses. The site of implantation was the common carotid artery; the length of the implant was 7 cm. All sheep received antibiotics prophylactically in accordance with the theory of the so-called “protected coagulum”. Doppler ultrasound examination was performed before finishing the operation to verify the patency of each prosthesis. During the study period the animals were closely observed. Prostheses were extirpated on day +/- 100 in 6 sheep and on day 182 in 2 sheep. Type B prosthesis showed better results according to its postoperative patency. The implant lumen was constantly 7 mm, whereas the use of other types resulted in lumen narrowing. Type B prosthesis has a deposition of DLC coating of a thickness of 20 nm with a high content of sp3 bonds (more diamond-like ones. The experimental type B of prosthesis ARTECOR® appears to be the most successful of the tested prostheses (at the end of the study all B-type prostheses remained patent. This prosthesis appears to better satisfy the rheologic characteristics for healing.

  3. Pneumonia in bighorn sheep: Risk and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Manlove, Kezia R.; Almberg, Emily S.; Kamath, Pauline; Cox, Mike; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Roug, Annette; Shannon, Justin M.; Robinson, Rusty; Harris, Richard B.; Gonzales, Ben J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew; Besser, Thomas E.

    2018-01-01

    Infectious disease was an important driver of historic declines and extirpations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in North America and continues to impede population restoration and management. Domestic sheep have long been linked to pneumonia outbreaks in bighorn sheep and this association has now been confirmed in 13 captive commingling experiments. However, ecological and etiological complexities still hinder our understanding and control of the disease. We provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about the biology and management of respiratory disease in bighorn sheep and propose strategies for moving forward. Epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep is polymicrobial. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, a bacterium host-specific to Caprinae and commonly carried by healthy domestic sheep and goats appears to be a necessary primary agent. All-age epizootics following introduction of M. ovipneumoniae along with other pathogens into bighorn sheep populations are usually severe (median mortality 47%) but fatality rates vary widely, from 15 – 100%. Disease severity may be influenced by the strain of M. ovipneumoniae, by secondary bacterial and viral pathogens, and by factors affecting transmission and host immunity. Once introduced, M. ovipneumoniae can persist in bighorn sheep populations for decades. Carrier dams transmit the pathogen to their susceptible lambs, triggering fatal pneumonia outbreaks in nursery groups, which limits recruitment and slows or prevents population recovery. The result is that demographic costs of pathogen persistence often outweigh the impacts of the initial invasion and die-off. There is currently no effective vaccine or antibiotic for domestic or wild sheep and to date, no management actions have been successful in reducing morbidity, mortality, or disease spread once pathogen invasion has occurred. Molecular-based strain typing suggests that spillover of M. ovipneumoniae into bighorn sheep populations from domestic small ruminants

  4. MHC-DQB1 Variation and Its Association with Resistance or Susceptibility to Cystic Echinococcosis in Chinese Merino Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiao Hui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE, one of the world’s most geographically widespread diseases, still represents a considerable economic and public health significance, although a variety of methods has been used to control the disease. It has been demonstrated that genetic factors, especially variations in MHC loci, can influence the outcome of CE infection in the human population. The study described here was designed to determine whether variation in MHC-DQB1 was associated with susceptibility or resistance to CE in sheep. If so, it would lay a theoretical foundation for breeding disease resistance sheep in future. This study was carried out on 204 Chinese Merino sheep, including 101 CE sheep and 103 healthy controls. The polymorphism of MHC-DQB1 exon 2 was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method, and x2 test was used to compare genotype frequencies between CE sheep and healthy controls. A total of 22 alleles and 42 genotypes were identified in DQB1 exon 2 in Chinese Merino sheep. In addition, x2 test showed that frequencies of DQB1-TaqIaa and DQB1-HaeIIInn genotypes were significantly higher in the healthy group (82.5% and 57.3%, respectively than that in the CE group (57.4% and 28.9%, respectively (both p values = 0, OR = 0.286, 0.303, respectively, suggesting that these genotypes appeared to be associated with resistance to CE. Whereas, frequencies of DQB1-TaqIab and DQB1-HaeIIImn genotypes were significantly higher in the CE group (36.9% and 32.0%, respectively, as compared with the healthy group (16.5% and 11.15%, respectively (p = 0.001, 0.001 and OR = 2.963, 3.629, respectively, indicating that these genotypes might be associated with susceptibility to CE. It is concluded that the genetic polymorphism within MHC-DQB1 might influence immune responses to pathogens, thus leading to the development of CE or protection against CE in Chinese Merino sheep, which would pave the way for breeding

  5. Clinical findings in two cases of atypical scrapie in sheep: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplin Melanie

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical scrapie is a recently recognised form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep that differs from classical scrapie in its neuropathological and biochemical features. Most cases are detected in apparently healthy sheep and information on the clinical presentation is limited. Case presentation This report describes the clinical findings in two sheep notified as scrapie suspects and confirmed as atypical scrapie cases by immunohistochemistry and Western immunoblotting. Although both sheep displayed signs suggestive of a cerebellar dysfunction there was considerable variation in the individual clinical signs, which were similar to classical scrapie. Conclusion Any sheep presenting with neurological gait deficits should be assessed more closely for other behavioural, neurological and physical signs associated with scrapie and their presence should lead to the suspicion of scrapie.

  6. Bighorn sheep pneumonia: sorting out the cause of a polymicrobial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Frances Cassirer, E; Highland, Margaret A; Wolff, Peregrine; Justice-Allen, Anne; Mansfield, Kristin; Davis, Margaret A; Foreyt, William

    2013-02-01

    Pneumonia of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a dramatic disease of high morbidity and mortality first described more than 80 years ago. The etiology of the disease has been debated since its initial discovery, and at various times lungworms, Mannheimia haemolytica and other Pasteurellaceae, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae have been proposed as primary causal agents. A multi-factorial "respiratory disease complex" has also been proposed as confirmation of causation has eluded investigators. In this paper we review the evidence for each of the candidate primary agents with regard to causal criteria including strength of association, temporality, plausibility, experimental evidence, and analogy. While we find some degree of biological plausibility for all agents and strong experimental evidence for M. haemolytica, we demonstrate that of the alternatives considered, M. ovipneumoniae is the best supported by all criteria and is therefore the most parsimonious explanation for the disease. The strong but somewhat controversial experimental evidence implicating disease transmission from domestic sheep is consistent with this finding. Based on epidemiologic and microbiologic data, we propose that healthy bighorn sheep populations are naïve to M. ovipneumoniae, and that its introduction to susceptible bighorn sheep populations results in epizootic polymicrobial bacterial pneumonia often followed by chronic infection in recovered adults. If this hypothesized model is correct, efforts to control this disease by development or application of vectored vaccines to Pasteurellaceae are unlikely to provide significant benefits, whereas efforts to ensure segregation of healthy bighorn sheep populations from M. ovipneumoniae-infected reservoir hosts are crucial to prevention of new disease epizootics. It may also be possible to develop M. ovipneumoniae vaccines or other management strategies that could reduce the impact of this devastating disease in bighorn sheep. Copyright © 2012

  7. OSTEOPENIA in cancellous bone of sheep induced by Glucocorticoid alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, L.; Bollen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: There is a great need for suitable large animal models that closely resemble osteoporosis in humans, and that they have adequate bone size for bone prosthesis and biomaterial research. Previous investigations have shown that osteoporotic sheep model requires glucocorticoid (GC......) microarchitectural properties and mechanical properties of sheep cancellous bone after a 7 months steroid treatment; and thus to validate a large animal model for orthopaedic implant/biomaterial research. Materials and Methods: Eighteen female sheep were randomly allocated into 3 groups: group 1 (GC-1) received GC......, osteocalcin was significantly reduced after 7 months but a rebound phenomenon was observed 3 months after cessation of GC. In conclusion, this study has validated an osteopenia sheep model. Bone quality was significantly reduced following a 7 months GC-treatment and recovered after further 3 month observation...

  8. Metabolic profile of foot and mouth disease stressed sheep in semi arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita R Gupta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate serum biochemical parameters in twenty local bred sheep infected with Foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype O. Ten healthy sheep were used as controls. Peripheral blood was collected from both diseased and control group and serum was separated which was further used to estimate the concentration of glucose, total protein, albumin, urea, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol and activity of AST, ALT and ALP. It was found that there was a significant increase in glucose, AST and phosphorus in FMD affected sheep (p<0.01. Total protein, albumin, calcium, cholesterol and urea level were significantly lower (p<0.05 in FMD group compared to those in the control group. The biochemical alteration indicates the development of pancreatic dysfunction in Foot and Mouth disease affected sheep with FMDV serotype O.

  9. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

    2009-04-01

    Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range.

  10. Ethnoveterinary practices among sheep rearers in Ona-Ara Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Keywords: Ethnoveterinary medicine, Ethnoveterinary knowledge, Nigeria, Oyo State, Sheep. Received 14-10-2012 ... can be used to provide economical solutions to improve productivity of ... Other factors included road traffic accidents, theft.

  11. Fatal Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-03-01

    Six Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were raised in captivity from birth (n = 5) or taken from the wild as a lamb (n = 1). After the bighorn sheep were in captivity for over a year, 6 clinically normal domestic sheep were placed on the 2 ha of pasture on which the bighorn sheep were kept. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from all sheep at the time the domestic sheep were introduced. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from swab specimens obtained from 4 of 6 domestic sheep, but not from specimens obtained from the bighorn sheep. All 6 bighorn sheep died of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia after exposure to domestic sheep. Death in the bighorn sheep occurred on days 4, 27, 27, 29, 36, or 71 after initial exposure to domestic sheep. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from respiratory tract tissue specimens of all bighorn sheep at the time of death. None of the domestic sheep were clinically ill during the study. At the end of the study, 3 of 6 domestic sheep were euthanatized, and at necropsy, P haemolytica was isolated from 2 of them. The most common serotypes in bighorn and domestic sheep were P haemolytica T-3 and A-2. Other serotypes isolated included P haemolytica A-1, A-9, and A-11 in bighorn sheep and A-1 in domestic sheep. On the basis of results of this study and of other reports, domestic sheep and bighorn sheep should not be managed in proximity to each other because of the potential fatal consequences in bighorn sheep.

  12. Comparative assessment of recombinant and native immunogenic forms of Fasciola hepatica proteins for serodiagnosis of sheep fasciolosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarian, Kobra; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Khoshmirsafa, Majid; Razmjou, Elham; Masoori, Leila; Khanmohammadi, Majid; Akhlaghi, Lame; Falak, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis is commonly performed by coprological examinations; however, this method may lead to false negative results during the acute phase of the infection. Furthermore, the poor sensitivity of coprological methods is considered to be a paradox in the chronic phase of the infection. In this study, we compared the immunoreactivity of native and recombinant forms of Fasciola hepatica excretory/secretory antigens and determined their capabilities for the development of F. hepatica-specific immunoassays. Immunoreactivity and specificity of recombinant and native forms of F. hepatica antigens, including fatty acid binding protein (FABP), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and cathepsin L-1 (CL1), in parallel with native forms of FABP and GST, were studied for serodiagnosis of the chronic form of sheep fasciolosis, individually or in combination with each other by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The correlation of the findings was assessed by receiver-operator characteristic (ROC); furthermore, the specificity and sensitivity were assessed by Youden's J. Serologic cross-reactivity was evaluated using samples from healthy sheep (n = 40), Fasciola-infected sheep (n = 30), and sheep with other parasitic infections (n = 43). The FABPs were determined to be greater than 95% sensitive for F. hepatica serodiagnosis. The most desirable diagnostic recombinant antigen was rCL1, which showed 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity in ELISA and was capable of discriminating the positive and negative samples by maximum Youden's J results. We conclude that rCL1 can be used for routine serodiagnosis of chronic fasciolosis. Thus, it could be advantageous in development of immunoassays for screening of ovine herds in fasciolosis-endemic areas and as a reliable agent for detection of fasciolosis in non-endemic regions.

  13. Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis induced by anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody. II. Effects of injecting heterologous, homologous, or autologous glomerular basement membranes and complete Freund's adjuvant into sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Steblay, R. W.; Rudofsky, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of injecting human, rabbit, rat, or single-kidney homologous glomerular basement membrane (GBM) or autologous GBM, each in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), into 15- to 18-month-old sheep are compared. All sheep receiving heterologous GBM and 3 of 6 sheep receiving homologous GBM had anti-GBM nephritis, but such sheep did not bind autoantibodies or have Goodpasturelike lesions in their lungs. Sheep given injections of human GBM had autoantibodies to antigenic determinants shared b...

  14. Characteristics of Body Dimension and Male Reproduction on Groups of Sheep Population at Pandeglang and Garut Regencies

    OpenAIRE

    Nataatmaja, DM; Arifin, J

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the research was to characterise body and testes dimension of sheep, the optimal age of scrotal development for selection, and the correlation between body and scrotal measurements as a base for selection. The sheep surveyed were those owned by farmers at Pandeglang and Garut regencies that have been received grants from various government projects (Banpres, Bansos, Bangub, APBD, APBN). Pandeglang area was predominated by local sheep and crosbred between local and Garut sheep...

  15. The ecological adaptability of cloned sheep to free-grazing in the Tengger Desert of Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin LI,Huijuan WANG,Guanghua SU,Zhuying WEI,Chunling BAI,Wuni-MENGHE,Yanhui HOU,Changqing YU,Shorgan BOU,Guangpeng LI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the birth of the first cloned sheep, somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been successfully used to clone a variety of mammals. Cloned livestock have no apparent health risks, and the quality and safety of the cloned animal products are similar to non-cloned animals. The social behavior and environmental adaptability of postnatal cloned animals, especially when used for grassland farm production purposes, is unknown. In the present study, the cloned Dorper sheep equipped with GPS location devices were free-grazed in a harsh natural environment similar to conditions commonly experienced by Mongolian sheep. The main findings of this research were as follows. (1 Under free-grazing conditions, the cloned sheep showed excellent climatic and ecological adaptability. In extreme temperature conditions ranging from -30 to 40ºC, the cloned sheep maintained acceptable body condition and behaved as other sheep. (2 The cloned sheep quickly adapted from a herd feeding strategy to the harsh environment and quickly exhibited a grazing regimen as other free-grazing sheep. (3 The cloned sheep exhibited free-grazing patterns and social behavior as other sheep. (4 The cloned sheep in the harsh environment thrived and produced healthy lambs. Overall, the cloned Dorper sheep exhibited excellent ecological adaptation, which is an important consideration for breeding meat sheep by cloning. The Dorper sheep readily adapted to the free-grazing conditions on the Mongolian plateau grassland, which attests to their ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions.

  16. Transcatheter aortic value implantation with self-expandable nitinol valved stent: an experimental study in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Haibin; Huang Xinmiao; Bai Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to determine the feasibility and safety of transcatheter aortic valve implantation with domestic self-expandable nitinol valved stent in experimental sheep. Methods: A fresh pig pericardium was cross-linked with a 0.6% glutaraldehyde solution for 36 hours and then sutured on a nitinol self-expandable stent. Ten healthy sheep of (46.00±2.60) kg body weight were chosen for the study. Under general anesthesia, the device was delivered through catheter into the native aortic valve of the sheep via the femoral artery or abdominal aorta. The animals were followed up for three months. Results: Six devices were successfully delivered at the desired position in six sheep with no occurrence of complications. Angiographic and hemodynamic studies confirmed that the stents were fixed at correct position with competent valve function immediately and 90 days after the procedure. Technical failure or fatal complications occurred in the remaining four sheep. Conclusion: Implantation of a domestic nitinol self-expandable stent at the aortic valve position through a transcatheter approach is feasible in experimental sheep. (authors)

  17. Controlling Within-Field Sheep Movement Using Virtual Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Danila; Llewellyn, Rick; Belson, Sue; Lee, Caroline

    2018-02-26

    Virtual fencing has the potential to greatly improve livestock movement, grazing efficiency, and land management by farmers; however, relatively little work has been done to test the potential of virtual fencing with sheep. Commercial dog training equipment, comprising of a collar and GPS hand-held unit were used to implement a virtual fence in a commercial setting. Six, 5-6 year-old Merino wethers, which were naïve to virtual fencing were GPS tracked for their use of a paddock (80 × 20 m) throughout the experiment. The virtual fence was effective at preventing a small group of sheep from entering the exclusion zone. The probability of a sheep receiving an electrical stimulus following an audio cue was low (19%), and declined over the testing period. It took an average of eight interactions with the fence for an association to be made between the audio and stimulus cue, with all of the animals responding to the audio alone by the third day. Following the removal of the virtual fence, sheep were willing to cross the previous location of the virtual fence after 30 min of being in the paddock. This is an important aspect in the implementation of virtual fencing as a grazing management tool and further enforces that the sheep in this study were able to associate the audio with the virtual fence and not the physical location itself.

  18. Healthy habits: what kind of guidance the elderly population is receiving from health professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Thaynã Ramos; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-03-01

    To describe the prevalence of guidance on healthy habits received from health professionals by elderly and its relation to socioeconomic demographic, behavioral and health indicators, and the type of services. Cross sectional population based study including individuals aged 60 years or more in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Seven guidance on healthy habits were evaluated: weight control, reduction in salt, sugar and fat intake, physical activity practice, not smoking and not drinking alcohol. Among the 1,451 elderly interviewed, 1,281 (88.3%) consulted in the last year. The orientations more refereed were to fat (61.7%) and salt (61.5%) intake reduction and physical activity (58.2%). Elderly who consulted three times or more and in services financed by the Unified Health System received more guidance. Those elderly from the socioeconomic classes A/B were more likely to receive guidance for weight control (RP = 1.27; 95%CI 1.06 - 1.70) and physical activity (RP = 1.34; 95%CI 1.06 - 1.69). The orientation from health professionals were uncommon and, in some cases, unfocused.

  19. Ptaquiloside, the major carcinogen of bracken fern, in the pooled raw milk of healthy sheep and goats: an underestimated, global concern of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, Antonella; Sinisi, Annamaria; Russo, Valeria; Gerardo, Salvatore; Santoro, Adriano; Galeone, Aldo; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Roperto, Franco

    2015-05-20

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is a worldwide plant containing toxic substances, which represent an important chemical hazard for animals, including humans. Ptaquiloside, 1, a norsesquiterpenoid glucoside, is the major carcinogen of bracken detected in the food chain, particularly in the milk from farm animals. To date, ptaquiloside has been shown in the milk of cows feeding on a diet containing bracken fern. This is the first study that shows the systematic detection of ptaquiloside, 1, and reports its direct quantitation in pooled raw milk of healthy sheep and goats grazing on bracken. Ptaquiloside, 1, was detected by a sensitive method based on the chemical conversion of ptaquiloside, 1, into bromopterosine, 4, following gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The presence of ptaquiloside, 1, possibly carcinogenic to humans, in the milk of healthy animals is an unknown potential health risk, thus representing a harmful and potential global concern of food safety.

  20. Rumen microbial protein supply as estimated from purine derivative excretion on sheep receiving faba beans (vicia faba as supplement delivered at different feeding frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmuddin Natsir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and extensive degradation of faba beans (Vicia faba by ruminal microbes can result in substantial and undesirable N loss from the rumen. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that offering faba beans as a supplement more than once a day to sheep receiving a combination of oaten chaff and lucerne chaff as a basal diet will increase microbial protein supply to the intestines. The experiment was conducted in a Latin square design (4 x 4 using four mature merino sheep. The treatments were: T0 = basal diet ad libitum + nil supplements, T1 = T0 + faba beans (FB fed once daily, T2 = T0 + FB fed twice daily, T3 = T0 + FB fed 8 times daily. The basal diet was given once per day at 09:00 in the morning while FB were given at the rate of approximately 0.5% of live body weight and delivered according to the treatment protocol. Urinary excretion of purine derivative (PD was used to estimate microbial protein supply. The results indicated that even though treatment statistically had no effects on total urine output, PD excretion in the urine, PD absorbed, estimated microbial N supply, and the efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis, provision of supplement to sheep numerically improved microbial N supply by 92% compared to that of control group. However, there were no differences within the supplemented group. Therefore, it is concluded that feeding faba beans more than once a day was unnecessary.

  1. Performance on a probabilistic inference task in healthy subjects receiving ketamine compared with patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahdi, Basil; Sultan, Pervez; Sohanpal, Imrat; Brandner, Brigitta; Collier, Tracey; Shergill, Sukhi S; Cregg, Roman; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some aspects of schizophrenia can be induced in healthy volunteers through acute administration of the non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist, ketamine. In probabilistic inference tasks, patients with schizophrenia have been shown to ‘jump to conclusions’ (JTC) when asked to make a decision. We aimed to test whether healthy participants receiving ketamine would adopt a JTC response pattern resembling that of patients. The paradigmatic task used to investigate JTC has been the ‘urn’ task, where participants are shown a sequence of beads drawn from one of two ‘urns’, each containing coloured beads in different proportions. Participants make a decision when they think they know the urn from which beads are being drawn. We compared performance on the urn task between controls receiving acute ketamine or placebo with that of patients with schizophrenia and another group of controls matched to the patient group. Patients were shown to exhibit a JTC response pattern relative to their matched controls, whereas JTC was not evident in controls receiving ketamine relative to placebo. Ketamine does not appear to promote JTC in healthy controls, suggesting that ketamine does not affect probabilistic inferences. PMID:22389244

  2. Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep following experimental exposure to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Besser

    Full Text Available Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis. The cause of this disease has been a subject of debate. Leukotoxin expressing Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi produce acute pneumonia after experimental challenge but are infrequently isolated from animals in natural outbreaks. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, epidemiologically implicated in naturally occurring outbreaks, has received little experimental evaluation as a primary agent of bighorn sheep pneumonia.In two experiments, bighorn sheep housed in multiple pens 7.6 to 12 m apart were exposed to M. ovipneumoniae by introduction of a single infected or challenged animal to a single pen. Respiratory disease was monitored by observation of clinical signs and confirmed by necropsy. Bacterial involvement in the pneumonic lungs was evaluated by conventional aerobic bacteriology and by culture-independent methods. In both experiments the challenge strain of M. ovipneumoniae was transmitted to all animals both within and between pens and all infected bighorn sheep developed bronchopneumonia. In six bighorn sheep in which the disease was allowed to run its course, three died with bronchopneumonia 34, 65, and 109 days after M. ovipneumoniae introduction. Diverse bacterial populations, predominantly including multiple obligate anaerobic species, were present in pneumonic lung tissues at necropsy.Exposure to a single M. ovipneumoniae infected animal resulted in transmission of infection to all bighorn sheep both within the pen and in adjacent pens, and all infected sheep developed bronchopneumonia. The epidemiologic, pathologic and microbiologic findings in these experimental animals resembled those seen in naturally occurring pneumonia outbreaks in free ranging bighorn sheep.

  3. Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep following experimental exposure to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; Lahmers, Kevin; Oaks, J Lindsay; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Foreyt, William J

    2014-01-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). The cause of this disease has been a subject of debate. Leukotoxin expressing Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi produce acute pneumonia after experimental challenge but are infrequently isolated from animals in natural outbreaks. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, epidemiologically implicated in naturally occurring outbreaks, has received little experimental evaluation as a primary agent of bighorn sheep pneumonia. In two experiments, bighorn sheep housed in multiple pens 7.6 to 12 m apart were exposed to M. ovipneumoniae by introduction of a single infected or challenged animal to a single pen. Respiratory disease was monitored by observation of clinical signs and confirmed by necropsy. Bacterial involvement in the pneumonic lungs was evaluated by conventional aerobic bacteriology and by culture-independent methods. In both experiments the challenge strain of M. ovipneumoniae was transmitted to all animals both within and between pens and all infected bighorn sheep developed bronchopneumonia. In six bighorn sheep in which the disease was allowed to run its course, three died with bronchopneumonia 34, 65, and 109 days after M. ovipneumoniae introduction. Diverse bacterial populations, predominantly including multiple obligate anaerobic species, were present in pneumonic lung tissues at necropsy. Exposure to a single M. ovipneumoniae infected animal resulted in transmission of infection to all bighorn sheep both within the pen and in adjacent pens, and all infected sheep developed bronchopneumonia. The epidemiologic, pathologic and microbiologic findings in these experimental animals resembled those seen in naturally occurring pneumonia outbreaks in free ranging bighorn sheep.

  4. Immunoreactivity of protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) in sera from sheep infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Ratna B; Begg, Douglas J; Purdie, Auriol C; Bach, Horacio; Whittington, Richard J

    2014-07-15

    Evasion of host defense mechanisms and survival inside infected host macrophages are features of pathogenic mycobacteria including Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants. Protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) has been identified as a secreted protein critical for survival of mycobacteria within infected macrophages. The host may mount an immune response to such secreted proteins. In this study, the humoral immune response to purified recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis PtpA was investigated using sera from a cohort of sheep infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and compared with uninfected healthy controls. A significantly higher level of reactivity to PtpA was observed in sera collected from M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected sheep when compared to those from uninfected healthy controls. PtpA could be a potential candidate antigen for detection of humoral immune responses in sheep infected with M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary evidence of early bone resorption in a sheep model of acute burn injury: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gordon L; Xie, Yixia; Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Liangjun; Hu, Minyi; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Bonewald, Lynda F

    2014-03-01

    Treatment with bisphosphonates within the first 10 days of severe burn injury completely prevents bone loss. We therefore postulated that bone resorption occurs early post burn and is the primary explanation for acute bone loss in these patients. Our objective was to assess bone for histological and biomechanical evidence of early resorption post burn. We designed a randomized controlled study utilizing a sheep model of burn injury. Three sheep received a 40 % total body surface area burn under isoflurane anesthesia, and three other sheep received cotton-smoke inhalation and served as control. Burned sheep were killed 5 days post procedure and controls were killed 2 days post procedure. Backscatter scanning electron microscopy was performed on iliac crests obtained immediately postmortem along with quantitative histomorphometry and compression testing to determine bone strength (Young's modulus). Blood ionized Ca was also determined in the first 24 h post procedure as was urinary CTx. Three of three sheep killed at 5 days had evidence of scalloping of the bone surface, an effect of bone resorption, whereas none of the three sheep killed at 2 days post procedure had scalloping. One of the three burned sheep killed at 5 days showed quantitative doubling of the eroded surface and halving of the bone volume compared to sham controls. Mean values of Young's modulus were approximately one third lower in the burned sheep killed at 5 days compared to controls, p = 0.08 by unpaired t test, suggesting weaker bone. These data suggest early post-burn bone resorption. Urine CTx normalized to creatinine did not differ between groups at 24 h post procedure because the large amounts of fluids received by the burned sheep may have diluted urine creatinine and CTx and because the urine volume produced by the burned sheep was threefold that of the controls. We calculated 24 h urinary CTx excretion, and with this calculation CTx excretion/24 h in the burned sheep was

  6. Characterization of the microbial communities along the gastrointestinal tract of sheep by 454 pyrosequencing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The gastrointestinal tract of sheep contain complex microbial communities that influence numerous aspects of the sheep’s health and development. The objective of this study was to analyze the composition and diversity of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract sections (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum of sheep. Methods This analysis was performed by 454 pyrosequencing using the V3-V6 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from five healthy, small tailed Han sheep aged 10 months, obtained at market. The bacterial composition of sheep gastrointestinal microbiota was investigated at the phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species levels. Results The dominant bacterial phyla in the entire gastrointestinal sections were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. In the stomach, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Prevotella, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Butyrivibrio. In the small intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Escherichia, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcus. In the large intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Ruminococcus, unclassified Ruminococcaceae, and Prevotella. R. flavefaciens, B. fibrisolvens, and S. ruminantium were three most dominant species in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. Principal Coordinates Analysis showed that the microbial communities from each gastrointestinal section could be separated into three groups according to similarity of community composition: stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and large intestine (cecum, colon, and rectum. Conclusion This is the first study to characterize the entire gastrointestinal microbiota in sheep by use of 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing, expanding our knowledge of the gastrointestinal bacterial community of sheep.

  7. Variation in the metabolism of radiocaesium between individual sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L.; Mayes, R.W.; MacEachern, P.J.; Crout, N.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Considerable variability has been recorded in the radiocaesium activity concentration of muscle between individual sheep in the same flocks in upland areas that received fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In a previous paper we demonstrated that there is a propensity for certain sheep within a flock to be always amongst the most contaminated and others to be consistently the least contaminated. Here we report a study to determine the extent to which variation in the metabolism of radiocaesium by individual sheep may contribute to the observed variability within sheep flocks. The transfer coefficient and biological half-life of orally administered ionic radiocaesium in muscle were determined under controlled conditions in 22 ewes from an upland farm in an area of the UK which received comparatively high levels of Chernobyl fallout. There was considerable variation between individuals in both the transfer coefficient (0.19-0.56 day.kg -1 ; mean 0.34 day.kg -1 ) and biological half-life in muscle (5.2- 18.7 days; mean 9.8 days). Changes in liveweight during the study and feed intake together accounted for 72% of the variation in the derived transfer coefficients; liveweight change also accounted for 56% of the observed variation in biological half-life. In a subsequent study, the true absorption coefficient of radiocaesium was determined in 12 of the ewes. There was a positive correlation between transfer and true absorption coefficients (R=0.57). We conclude that differences in the metabolism of radiocaesium will contribute to the observed variability in radiocaesium activity concentrations within sheep flocks in areas which were contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. We also suggest that for growing animals, the influence of liveweight change and feed intake on radiocaesium transfer may be greater than observed here. Similarly, in dairy cattle, for which feed intake changes considerably during the course of a lactation, large temporal variation in radiocaesium

  8. Differential Gene Expression in Ovaries of Qira Black Sheep and Hetian Sheep Using RNA-Seq Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Wang, Xu Hai; Zeng, Xian Cun

    2015-01-01

    The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction. PMID:25790350

  9. Differential gene expression in ovaries of Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep using RNA-Seq technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ying Chen

    Full Text Available The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction.

  10. Effects of intramammary infection on whey proteinograms of sheep during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia F. Lemos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify potential biomarkers of mammary gland infection in Santa Inês sheep. Commercial flocks of sheep provided the same hygiene, sanitary, and nutritional management under semi-intensive production systems were monitored during the lactation stage-and assessed 15, 30, 60, and 90 days after delivery (through the end of lactation and weaning. The California Mastitis Test (CMT was performed on the mammary glands. Milk was collected for bacterial examination and protein analysis. Bacterial culture and biochemical characterization of the samples were performed. Forty-two milk samples from healthy glands (negative CMT and bacterial testing and 43 milk samples from infected glands (positive CMT and bacterial testing taken at the predefined time points were assessed. A rennin solution was used to obtain the whey. The proteins analysis was performed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, which allowed for the quantification of nine whey proteins produced in healthy glands: serum albumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgG heavy-chain (IgG HC, IgG light-chain (IgG LC, total IgG (IgG HC + IgG LC, α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, protein with MW 15.000 Da, protein with MW 29.000 Da and eleven whey proteins secreted by infected glands, including haptoglobin and α-1-acid glycoprotein. A comparison of whey proteins between healthy and infected glands showed increases (P<0.05 in the secreted and total contents of all proteins, except for IgG LC and α-lactoalbumin. The most significant changes were observed in α-1-acid glycoprotein, lactoferrin and haptoglobin, which showed three-, five-, and seven-fold increases in secretion, respectively. This study showed that haptoglobin, α-1-acid glycoprotein, lactoferrin, albumin, and the IgA and IgG immunoglobulins may serve as potential biomarkers for mammary gland infection in sheep.

  11. The rate of spread of sheep scab within small groups of Merino and Dorper sheep : short communication

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    T. Meintjies

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A single Merino sheep, artificially infested with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, and a similarly infested Dorper sheep were placed with 9 uninfested Merino or 9 uninfested Dorper sheep respectively during winter and the rate of spread of infestation on the uninfested sheep observed. The same procedure was repeated in summer. It took 14 and 8 weeks respectively in winter before all sheep in the 2 groups displayed lesions of sheep scab, whereas in summer it took 10 and 12 weeks before all sheep had lesions.

  12. Development to term of sheep embryos reconstructed after inner cell mass/trophoblast exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Pasqualino; Galli, Cesare; Lazzari, Giovanna; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fulka, Josef; Goeritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2018-04-13

    Here we report in vitro and term development of sheep embryos after the inner cell mass (ICM) from one set of sheep blastocysts were injected into the trophoblast vesicles of another set. We also observed successful in vitro development of chimeric blastocysts made from sheep trophoblast vesicles injected with bovine ICM. First, we dissected ICMs from 35 sheep blastocysts using a stainless steel microblade and injected them into 29 re-expanded sheep trophoblastic vesicles. Of the 25 successfully micromanipulated trophoblastic vesicles, 15 (51.7%) re-expanded normally and showed proper ICM integration. The seven most well reconstructed embryos were transferred for development to term. Three ewes receiving manipulated blastocysts were pregnant at day 45 (42.8%), and all delivered normal offspring (singletons, two females and one male, average weight: 3.54 ± 0.358 kg). Next, we monitored in vitro development of sheep trophoblasts injected with bovine ICMs. Of 17 injected trophoblastic vesicles, 10 (58.8%) re-expanded after 4 h in culture, and four (40%) exhibited integrated bovine ICM. Our results indicate that ICM/trophoblast exchange is feasible, allowing full term development with satisfactory lambing rate. Therefore, ICM exchange is a promising approach for endangered species conservation.

  13. Ultrasonographic features of the liver with cystic echinococcosis in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hussein Awad; Elrashidy, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study was designed to gain information about the ultrasonographic features of livers with cystic echinococcosis, as well as to evaluate the use of ultrasonography for diagnosis of such disease in sheep. Design This was a retrospective study during the period April 2011 to March 2013. Participants A total of 22 Baladi sheep (aged three to six years) were included in this study. Based on clear hepatic ultrasonographic findings, all animals were classified into two groups: those with hepatic cysts (n=9) and without liver cysts (healthy liver, n=13). Results Biochemically, serum concentrations of γ-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and globulins were significantly increased (P<0.01), while albumin was lowered (P<0.01) in sheep with cystic livers. Ultrasonographic findings of diseased sheep livers revealed the presence of rounded, anechoic and unilocular hydatid cysts with ellipse circumference ranged from 6–10 cm. The borders of cysts were mostly well defined. The interior of cysts contained echogenic particulate materials, septations, or fine echoes. At the 10th intercostal space, the ventral margin, size, thickness and angle of livers were higher (P<0.01), while the diameter of portal vein was lower (P<0.01) in sheep with liver cysts than control ones. Furthermore, at the 9th intercostal space, the circumference of the gall bladder was decreased in sheep with hepatic cysts (P<0.01). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ultrasonography for diagnosis of hepatic hydatid cysts were 80 per cent and 100 per cent, and 100 per cent and 83 per cent, respectively. Conclusions Cystic echinococcosis is associated with a number of anatomical alterations in the liver tissues that can be easily recognised by ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasonography alone or in combination with analysis of biochemical parameters reflecting liver function could be helpful for diagnosis of hepatic

  14. Causes of pneumonia epizootics among bighorn sheep, Western United States, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Highland, Margaret A; Baker, Katherine; Cassirer, E Frances; Anderson, Neil J; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren L; Wolff, Peregrine; Smith, Joshua B; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2012-03-01

    Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in lung tissue from 44 bighorn sheep from herds affected by 8 outbreaks in the western United States. M. ovipneumoniae, the only agent detected at significantly higher prevalence in animals from outbreaks (95%) than in animals from unaffected healthy populations (0%), was the most consistently detected agent and the only agent that exhibited single strain types within each outbreak. The other respiratory pathogens were frequently but inconsistently detected, as were several obligate anaerobic bacterial species, all of which might represent secondary or opportunistic infections that could contribute to disease severity. These data provide evidence that M. ovipneumoniae plays a primary role in the etiology of epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep.

  15. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  16. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Francesca; Barsotti, Giovanni; Attili, Anna Rita; Mugnaini, Linda; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Preziuso, Silvia; Corazza, Michele; Preziuso, Giovanna; Sgorbini, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to identify conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep. Prospective study. Tuscany. 100 eyes from 50 adult Massese female sheep were examined. The sheep included in the study were considered free of anterior ophthalmic abnormalities. Bacteria were identified by morphological assessment, Gram staining, biochemical tests. Identification of filamentous fungi was achieved at the genus level, and Aspergillus species were identified based on keys provided by other authors. Yeast colonies were highlighted, but not identified. Positive cultures were obtained from 100/100 eyes for bacteria, and from 86/100 eyes for fungi. A total of 14 types of bacteria and 5 types of fungi were isolated. Yeasts were isolated from 13/100 eyes. The most frequent fungal isolates were saprophytic fungi. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora of clinically normal eyes were reported in sheep. The positivity obtained for conjunctival bacteria was higher compared to findings in the literature by other authors in the same species (100 per cent v 40 per cent), while our results were in line with a recent work performed on mouflons (Ovis Musimon) with a 100 per cent positivity for bacterial conjunctival fornix. In our survey, Gram-positive species were prevalent, as reported by other authors in different species. Few data are available in the literature regarding conjunctival fungal flora in healthy small ruminants. The prevalence of conjunctival fungal flora in this study was higher than findings reported in mouflons (86 per cent v 45 per cent). Differences in fungal prevalence may be due to different methods of managing herds, though further studies are required to verify this hypothesis. The similarities in bacterial and fungal isolates between sheep and mouflons suggest a genera pattern of conjunctival colonisation by bacteria and fungi.

  17. Exclusion performance in dwarf goats (Capra aegagrus hircus and sheep (Ovis orientalis aries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nawroth

    Full Text Available Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information or non-baited cup (indirect information. Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep.

  18. Exclusion Performance in Dwarf Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

  19. Glucocorticoid induced osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep: validation of large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, Liming; Bollen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Glucocorticoid with low calcium and phosphorus intake induces osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep. OBJECTIVE: To validate a large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A variety of ovariectomized animals has been used to study...... osteoporosis. Most experimental spine fusions were based on normal animals, and there is a great need for suitable large animal models with adequate bone size that closely resemble osteoporosis in humans. METHODS: Eighteen female skeletal mature sheep were randomly allocated into 3 groups, 6 each. Group 1 (GC......-1) received prednisolone (GC) treatment (0.60 mg/kg/day, 5 times weekly) for 7 months. Group 2 (GC-2) received the same treatment as GC-1 for 7 months followed by 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as the controls. All sheep received restricted diet with low calcium...

  20. Bloat in sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, H W; Backus, R C

    1988-01-01

    1. Most of the field studies on bloat are conducted with cattle and most of the laboratory experiments seeking to explain the various parameters associated with bloat are done with sheep. 2. Based on grazing behaviour, it would be expected that sheep might bloat more severely than cattle because they selectively choose to eat leaves over stems and chew what they ingest more frequently than cattle. Furthermore, sheep appear to select legumes over grasses because the legumes can be eaten more rapidly. However, because they are selective, sheep eat more slowly than cattle. Despite a higher bloat expectation, bloating in sheep is reported to be less of a problem than in cattle. 3. Although frothing of rumen ingesta was described earlier in cattle as the cause of acute legume bloat, experiments with frothy bloat in sheep preceded those in cattle. 4. Anti-frothing agents were used in sheep before cattle to treat acute legume bloat. 5. Experiments devoted to the study of eructation in ruminants were carried out on sheep, then cattle. 6. Convincing evidence that rumen motility does not cease during acute legume bloat was gathered using sheep. 7. Although the transected tracheal technique for the determination of the volume of eructated gas was developed with cattle, the pathway of eructated gas was confirmed with sheep. 8. All the current evidence accumulated from experiments with sheep supports the hypothesis that death due to legume bloat is caused by acute neural, respiratory, and cardiovascular insult resulting from the effect of the distended rumen on thoracic viscera, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and the abdominal vena cava. 9. Experiments with sheep and cattle being fed scabrous and nonscabrous diets similar in chemical composition show that sheep are more resistant than cattle to the increase in intrarumen pressure, decline in rumen contraction amplitude, and decrease in rumen contraction frequency caused by nonscabrous diets. 10. The sequence of events in the

  1. Copper intoxication in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazaryan, V.S.; Sogoyan, I.S.; Agabalov, G.A.; Mesropyan, V.V.

    1966-01-01

    Of 950 sheep fed hay from a vineyard sprayed regularly with copper sulfate, 143 developed clinical copper poisoning and 103 died. The Cu content of the hay was 10.23 mg%, of the liver of dead sheep 17-52 mg%, and of the blood serum of affected sheep 0.86 mg%. The symptoms and the histological findings in kidneys and liver are described.

  2. Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Margaret A.; Baker, Katherine; Cassirer, E. Frances; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren L.; Wolff, Peregrine; Smith, Joshua B.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in lung tissue from 44 bighorn sheep from herds affected by 8 outbreaks in the western United States. M. ovipneumoniae, the only agent detected at significantly higher prevalence in animals from outbreaks (95%) than in animals from unaffected healthy populations (0%), was the most consistently detected agent and the only agent that exhibited single strain types within each outbreak. The other respiratory pathogens were frequently but inconsistently detected, as were several obligate anaerobic bacterial species, all of which might represent secondary or opportunistic infections that could contribute to disease severity. These data provide evidence that M. ovipneumoniae plays a primary role in the etiology of epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep. PMID:22377321

  3. Immunological and histopathological changes in sheep affected with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and treated immunotherapeutically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten A. M. Abo-Aziza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recently, it has been recorded unexpected percentage of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC in sheep. Despite the improvement in surgical treatment, the outcome of animals remains limited by metastatic relapse. Although antibodies for cancer treatment have been practiced for many decades, the use of this methodology in animals is deficient. This study aimed to establish cSCC therapy by tumor cell protein antibody (Ab1 or secondary antibody (Ab2 raised by two series of immunization in the same strain of rabbits. Materials and Methods: A total of 19 Ossimi sheep were used (14 sheep suffered from cSCC and 5 were apparently healthy. Each animal from control healthy group (n=5 and control cSCC (n=4 group was treated with a course of eight injections of normal globulins. Animals in the third (n=5 and the last (n=5 groups received a course of eight injections of Ab1and Ab2, respectively. Each tumor was measured before and after treatment. The eight injections were applied at 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th week and the remaining three injections were at 1 week interval. Tissue specimens and blood samples were taken for histological and immunological studies. Results: The obtained results revealed that injection of Ab1 might prevent the bad prognostic picture of polymorph infiltration without any criteria of regression % of tumor. Treatment with Ab2 showed regression of tumor size ranged between minimum of 8.99% and maximum of 78.12%, however, the measurements in most cases reached the maximum regression after the past two injections. In additions, infiltration of lymphocytes to tumor site, normalization of leukocytes picture and also increase of antibody titer were observed. Conclusion: This profile might confirm that Ab2 could act as an antigen and encourage us to use it as a tumor vaccine. Extensive studies are needed to isolate the idiotypic portion of Ab1 for raising Ab2 as an anti-idiotypic antibody to be used as tumor vaccine

  4. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY OF SHEEP IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Arroyo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss and analyze the available information concerning the seasonal breeding behavior of sheep in Mexico, this review was conducted. We analyzed the neuroendocrine basis that modulate the annual reproductive cycle in sheep and then discussed the degree of reproductive seasonality in Creole sheep wool, breeds originating in high latitudes and hair sheep, mainly in Pelibuey ewes. The Creole sheep wool show continuous annual reproductive activity and short seasonal anestrous. The females of northern origin, express seasonal reproductive activity, similar to that observed in individuals geographically located at latitudes above 35º. Pelibuey sheep show variable annual reproductive behavior with reduced anestrus or lack thereof.  It is suggested that the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal anestrus in ewes, are active in the sheep of northern origin that live in Mexico, in a manner contrary is not activated in Creole and hair sheep.

  5. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  6. Early structural changes in sheep lung following thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerry-Force, M.L.; Perkett, E.A.; Brigham, K.L.; Meyrick, B.

    1988-01-01

    Using a large animal model of radiation lung injury--the sheep exposed to bilateral thoracic irradiation--we have recently shown the development of sustained pulmonary hypertension during the first 4 weeks following radiation. This is the period prior to the onset of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we have examined biopsy and autopsy lung tissue from these same sheep and assessed the sequential changes in lung morphology. Six unanesthetized sheep received bilateral thoracic irradiation (a total of 15 Gy); control sheep were sham irradiated. Lung biopsy tissue was taken prior to and at weekly or biweekly intervals during the 4 weeks immediately following radiation. The lungs were also removed at autopsy for light and electron microscopic examination. Our results show early (Week 1) interstitial and progressive intraalveolar edema accompanied by endothelial and epithelial injury. A gradual increase in number of interstitial mononuclear cells was evident from Week 1, both in the lung tissue and in perivascular cuffs. The number of peripheral lung interstitial mononuclear cells was twice baseline from Week 3 and included accumulation of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and intravascular macrophages. The increased numbers of mononuclear cells paralleled the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension, perhaps suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. Alternatively, it may be that increased mononuclear cell number represents a stage of lung repair

  7. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon; Drögemüller, Cord; The International Sheep Genomics Consortium, ISGC

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  8. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  9. Evaluating pharmacological models of high and low anxiety in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Doyle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New tests of animal affect and welfare require validation in subjects experiencing putatively different states. Pharmacological manipulations of affective state are advantageous because they can be administered in a standardised fashion, and the duration of their action can be established and tailored to suit the length of a particular test. To this end, the current study aimed to evaluate a pharmacological model of high and low anxiety in an important agricultural and laboratory species, the sheep. Thirty-five 8-month-old female sheep received either an intramuscular injection of the putatively anxiogenic drug 1-(m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP; 1 mg/kg; n = 12, an intravenous injection of the putatively anxiolytic drug diazepam (0.1 mg/kg; n = 12, or acted as a control (saline intramuscular injection n = 11. Thirty minutes after the treatments, sheep were individually exposed to a variety of tests assessing their general movement, performance in a ‘runway task’ (moving down a raceway for a food reward, response to startle, and behaviour in isolation. A test to assess feeding motivation was performed 2 days later following administration of the drugs to the same animals in the same manner. The mCPP sheep had poorer performance in the two runway tasks (6.8 and 7.7 × slower respectively than control group; p < 0.001, a greater startle response (1.4 vs. 0.6; p = 0.02, a higher level of movement during isolation (9.1 steps vs. 5.4; p < 0.001, and a lower feeding motivation (1.8 × slower; p < 0.001 than the control group, all of which act as indicators of anxiety. These results show that mCPP is an effective pharmacological model of high anxiety in sheep. Comparatively, the sheep treated with diazepam did not display any differences compared to the control sheep. Thus we suggest that mCPP is an effective treatment to validate future tests aimed at assessing anxiety in sheep, and that future studies should include other subtle indicators of

  10. Lead absorption in sheep fed forage contaminated with motor vehicle exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, R; Bovay, E; Luginbuehl, H R; Loenig, H

    1972-01-01

    For a period of 24 weeks three sheep received hay contaminated with lead deposits from motor vehicle exhaust gases. The aim of this study was to compare the lead accumulation in different organs and tissues of two young sheep (I and II) consuming every day forage containing 8 and 73 ppM lead respectively (= milligrams per kg of dried substance). A third animal (III) was fed with forage containing 73 ppM Pb and received in addition water with 200 mg Pb/liter. The analyses made after slaughtering of the animals revealed a marked accumulation of lead in the liver, the bones of the pelvis, the kidneys, and the spleen. However, a notable proportion of lead is also excreted with the urine and feces. Histological studies revealed some changes in the hepatocytes of animals II and III. These lesions were more significant in animal III, which received the highest level of lead, than in animal II. It is possible that these alterations have been caused by toxic substances.

  11. Detection of Salmonella Carriers in Sheep and Goat Flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan Provinces, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Esmaeili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:    Salmonellosis is an infectious and a food-borne disease of humans and animals. The initial source of the infection is the intestinal tracts of birds and other animals. Apparently healthy animals can become subclinical carriers and persistently shed Salmonella in their feces which can act as a reservoir for the pathogen. The aim of this study is to detect the carriers of Salmonella among apparently healthy sheep and goat flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan provinces, Iran.Methods:    A total of 389 fecal samples were aseptically collected from the rectum of apparently healthy sheep and goat flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan provinces. Bacteriological culture was conducted using selenite cystine, Rappaport–Vassiliadis, brilliant green and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Suspected colonies were inoculated in to TSI, peptone water, Simmon’s Citrate, Urea medium and MRVP. Sero-groups were detected by antisera.              Results:    Two samples from 189 samples (1.05% were positive for Salmonella in Bushehr province. Salmonella abortusovis and Salmonella typhimurium were detected following serotyping. No Salmonella carriers were detected in Lorestan province.Conclusion:    As the rate of carriers of Salmonella was low, the risk of food-borne salmonellosis due to consumption of small ruminant's meat is low, especially in the condition of well cooked meat. Since S. abortusovis was detected, strategies of prevention and control of abortion due to this agent must be taken to reduce the economic losses. Moreover, the presence of S. typhimurium is a hazard to public health and people who have close contact to sheep and goats.

  12. Effects of gossypol from cottonseed cake on the blood profile in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Antônio Carlos Lopes; do Vale, André Menezes; Mattoso, Cláudio Roberto Scabelo; Melo, Marília Martins; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2016-06-01

    Cottonseed cake contains gossypol, a potentially toxic compound that, when consumed by sheep, can affect reproduction, the immune system, and the liver. Changes in hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were monitored for 63 days in 12 Santa Inês ewes, six of which received ration containing 400 g kg(-1) of cottonseed cake. Blood samples were collected at the start of the experiment and weekly thereafter for hematologic assessment and determination of serum urea, creatinine, total protein, and albumin concentrations and for measurement of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transferase activities. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed. Evaluation of the erythron showed that sheep consuming cottonseed cake had an increased packed cell volume (p sheep for 63 days may induce changes in the erythron but no consistent changes in serum biochemical parameters, indicating no damage to the liver or kidneys.

  13. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium in the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus from organic farms in Croatia: phylogenetic inferences support restriction to sheep and sheep keds and close relationship with trypanosomes from other ruminant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinković, Franjo; Matanović, Krešimir; Rodrigues, Adriana C; Garcia, Herakles A; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium is a parasite of sheep transmitted by sheep keds, the sheep-restricted ectoparasite Melophagus ovinus (Diptera: Hippoboscidae). Sheep keds were 100% prevalent in sheep from five organic farms in Croatia, Southeastern Europe, whereas trypanosomes morphologically compatible with T. melophagium were 86% prevalent in the guts of the sheep keds. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses using sequences of small subunit rRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spliced leader, and internal transcribed spacer 1 of the rDNA distinguished T. melophagium from all allied trypanosomes from other ruminant species and placed the trypanosome in the subgenus Megatrypanum. Trypanosomes from sheep keds from Croatia and Scotland, the only available isolates for comparison, shared identical sequences. All biologic and phylogenetic inferences support the restriction of T. melophagium to sheep and, especially, to the sheep keds. The comparison of trypanosomes from sheep, cattle, and deer from the same country, which was never achieved before this work, strongly supported the host-restricted specificity of trypanosomes of the subgenus Megatrypanum. Our findings indicate that with the expansion of organic farms, both sheep keds and T. melophagium may re-emerge as parasitic infections of sheep. © 2011 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  14. Blood glucose control in healthy subject and patients receiving intravenous glucose infusion or total parenteral nutrition using glucagon-like peptide 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; Walberg, Jörg; Vethacke, Arndt

    2004-01-01

    It was the aim of the study to examine whether the insulinotropic gut hormone GLP-1 is able to control or even normalise glycaemia in healthy subjects receiving intravenous glucose infusions and in severely ill patients hyperglycaemic during total parenteral nutrition.......It was the aim of the study to examine whether the insulinotropic gut hormone GLP-1 is able to control or even normalise glycaemia in healthy subjects receiving intravenous glucose infusions and in severely ill patients hyperglycaemic during total parenteral nutrition....

  15. Bartonella melophagi in Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Echinococcosis on Quality of Sheep Meat in the South Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Valieva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 2,123 slaughtered adult sheep in markets of the south-east Kazakhstan established that the average contamination of animals by Echinococcus granulosus is 9.1% with primary localization of cysts in livers and lungs. The histologic structure of the muscle tissue of infected sheep displayed destructive changes with a prevalence of granular dystrophy. The amount of protein, fat, calcium and energetical value of such meat considerably decreased. Besides in the muscle tissue of the animals infected with echinococcosis there was a substantial increase of humidity and amount of ash as well as qualitative and quantitative changes of the amino acids profile. Along with damage to the synthesis of proteins and sharp insufficiency of vitamins A, E, B1, and B2 there was a shift in a lipidic exchange that was expressed as a noticeable reduction in the level of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The data support the conclusion that the meat from the sheep infected with echinococcosis is of inferior quality and quantity compared to that of healthy animals.

  17. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain.

  18. Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribiu Edmond-Paul

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.

  19. Development of pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep after exposure to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, R J; Bunch, T D; Workman, G W; Mock, R E

    1991-03-15

    From 1986 to 1989, 5 desert bighorn sheep (3 Ovis canadensis mexicana and 2 O c nelsoni), ranging in age from 2 to 3 years, were exposed to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep to potentially achieve naturally acquired pneumonia. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from nasal samples from 4 of 6 sheep randomly sampled from the flock. Bighorn sheep were exposed individually and each exposure period was a trial. Treatment before and after exposure varied and included combinations of alpha interferon, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and vaccines. Treatments were chosen on the basis of recommendations of others for treating pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep as well as our own experience in sheep and cattle. Regardless of treatment used, bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 4 developed signs of pneumonia within 10 to 14 days of exposure. Bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 3 died within 11 to 17 days of initial exposure. In trial 4, the bighorn sheep was isolated from the carrier sheep for treatment of pneumonia on day 14 and died on day 30. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from lung tissue in 3 of the 4 bighorn sheep. On the basis of results of trials 1 to 4, a more in depth clinical study was conducted in trial 5. Nasal and blood specimens were collected prior to and during trial 5 for bacteriologic culturing and serologic testing for bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 virus, and respiratory syncytial virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Radiocaesium in grazing sheep. A statistical analysis of variability, survey methodology and long term behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehli, H

    1996-05-01

    Since 1987 sheep grazing in the areas of Norway that received Chernobyl-fallout have been monitored before slaughter. These monitoring data formed the basis for development of a model describing the long term behaviour of radiocesium in unimproved pasture showing that in years with good mushroom abundance 70-80% of the radiocesium concentration in sheep is due to fungi consumption. A study of sampling strategy and variability of radiocesium concentration within flocks was also performed. 55 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Radiocaesium in grazing sheep. A statistical analysis of variability, survey methodology and long term behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehli, H.

    1996-05-01

    Since 1987 sheep grazing in the areas of Norway that received Chernobyl-fallout have been monitored before slaughter. These monitoring data formed the basis for development of a model describing the long term behaviour of radiocesium in unimproved pasture showing that in years with good mushroom abundance 70-80% of the radiocesium concentration in sheep is due to fungi consumption. A study of sampling strategy and variability of radiocesium concentration within flocks was also performed. 55 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs

  2. Cartilage regeneration by chondrogenic induced adult stem cells in osteoarthritic sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ude, Chinedu C; Sulaiman, Shamsul B; Min-Hwei, Ng; Hui-Cheng, Chen; Ahmad, Johan; Yahaya, Norhamdan M; Saim, Aminuddin B; Idrus, Ruszymah B H

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Adipose stem cells (ADSC) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSC), multipotent adult cells with the potentials for cartilage regenerations were induced to chondrogenic lineage and used for cartilage regenerations in surgically induced osteoarthritis in sheep model. Osteoarthritis was induced at the right knee of sheep by complete resection of the anterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscus following a 3-weeks exercise regimen. Stem cells from experimental sheep were culture expanded and induced to chondrogenic lineage. Test sheep received a single dose of 2 × 10(7) autologous PKH26-labelled, chondrogenically induced ADSCs or BMSCs as 5 mls injection, while controls received 5 mls culture medium. The proliferation rate of ADSCs 34.4 ± 1.6 hr was significantly higher than that of the BMSCs 48.8 ± 5.3 hr (P = 0.008). Chondrogenic induced BMSCs had significantly higher expressions of chondrogenic specific genes (Collagen II, SOX9 and Aggrecan) compared to chondrogenic ADSCs (P = 0.031, 0.010 and 0.013). Grossly, the treated knee joints showed regenerated de novo cartilages within 6 weeks post-treatment. On the International Cartilage Repair Society grade scores, chondrogenically induced ADSCs and BMSCs groups had significantly lower scores than controls (P = 0.0001 and 0.0001). Fluorescence of the tracking dye (PKH26) in the injected cells showed that they had populated the damaged area of cartilage. Histological staining revealed loosely packed matrixes of de novo cartilages and immunostaining demonstrated the presence of cartilage specific proteins, Collagen II and SOX9. Autologous chondrogenically induced ADSCs and BMSCs could be promising cell sources for cartilage regeneration in osteoarthritis.

  3. Cartilage regeneration by chondrogenic induced adult stem cells in osteoarthritic sheep model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinedu C Ude

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In this study, Adipose stem cells (ADSC and bone marrow stem cells (BMSC, multipotent adult cells with the potentials for cartilage regenerations were induced to chondrogenic lineage and used for cartilage regenerations in surgically induced osteoarthritis in sheep model. METHODS: Osteoarthritis was induced at the right knee of sheep by complete resection of the anterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscus following a 3-weeks exercise regimen. Stem cells from experimental sheep were culture expanded and induced to chondrogenic lineage. Test sheep received a single dose of 2 × 10(7 autologous PKH26-labelled, chondrogenically induced ADSCs or BMSCs as 5 mls injection, while controls received 5 mls culture medium. RESULTS: The proliferation rate of ADSCs 34.4 ± 1.6 hr was significantly higher than that of the BMSCs 48.8 ± 5.3 hr (P = 0.008. Chondrogenic induced BMSCs had significantly higher expressions of chondrogenic specific genes (Collagen II, SOX9 and Aggrecan compared to chondrogenic ADSCs (P = 0.031, 0.010 and 0.013. Grossly, the treated knee joints showed regenerated de novo cartilages within 6 weeks post-treatment. On the International Cartilage Repair Society grade scores, chondrogenically induced ADSCs and BMSCs groups had significantly lower scores than controls (P = 0.0001 and 0.0001. Fluorescence of the tracking dye (PKH26 in the injected cells showed that they had populated the damaged area of cartilage. Histological staining revealed loosely packed matrixes of de novo cartilages and immunostaining demonstrated the presence of cartilage specific proteins, Collagen II and SOX9. CONCLUSION: Autologous chondrogenically induced ADSCs and BMSCs could be promising cell sources for cartilage regeneration in osteoarthritis.

  4. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, G.; Grünenfelder, F.; Sydler, T.; Rademacher, N.; Braun, U.; Deplazes, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts [de

  5. External and internal modulators of sheep reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Dominique; Bickell, Samantha L

    2011-12-01

    Several factors such as season, genetics, social interaction and metabolic status control or modulate the reproductive capacity of sheep. In addition to these well-studied factors in sheep, the influence of emotional reactivity on the reproductive success of sheep has started to be investigated over the last two decades. In this paper, after briefly reviewing the impact of classical factors affecting reproduction in sheep, we define emotional reactivity and the expression of its inter-individual variability, named temperament. Then, following a description of the protocol to measure temperament in sheep and discussion on the heritability of temperament traits, we illustrate how this selection affects the reproductive biology of sheep. We will be mainly using results obtained from a unique flock of sheep selected for low or high emotional reactivity. In conclusion, we propose that energy partitioning could be one of the mechanisms by which selection for temperament in sheep affects the different steps of the reproductive cycle.

  6. Characteristics of Smallholder Sheep Production at Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The household owners of sheep seldom fed forage to their sheep (17.86%), while 25% of commercial sheep farmers fed forage. The common diseases in the area were diarrhea, pneumonia and mange. The constraints to sheep production in the area included automobile accidents, seasonal lack of feed, diseases, theft and ...

  7. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  8. Demography of Dall's sheep in northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckner, Christopher; Udevitz, Mark S.; Adams, Layne G.; Shults, Brad S.

    2003-01-01

    Dall’s sheep in northwestern Alaska declined in the early 1990s following the severe 1989-90 and 1990-91 winters. In the Baird Mountains of Noatak National Preserve, estimates of adult sheep declined by 50% from 800 in 1989 to under 400 in 1991. Population counts remained low throughout 1991 to 1996, reaching a minimum of 244 adult sheep in 1996. Few lambs were observed during annual midsummer aerial surveys in 1991 to 1994. We suspect that these declines resulted from a combination of poorer nutritional condition and increased vulnerability of sheep to predation resulting from severe winter conditions.As a result of these declines, both subsistence and sport hunting seasons were closed by emergency order in 1991, resulting in substantial management controversy. The affected publics, although willing to accept the closures, questioned the validity of the sheep survey data and strongly emphasized their interest in restoring harvests as soon as populations increased sufficiently. In 1995 the Northwest Arctic Regional Advisory Council, the local advisory committee for the Federal Subsistence Board, passed a motion supporting efforts to initiate research on sheep populations in the region to better understand the factors limiting sheep populations and to evaluate sheep survey methodologies.Currently estimates of Dall’s sheep population size and composition in the western Brooks Range are based on intensive fixed-wing aerial surveys conducted annually since 1986 in areas including the Baird Mountains. The annual variation in recent Baird Mountains aerial counts cannot be explained with reasonable assumptions about reproduction and survival, suggesting that there is some variability in the proportion of the population observed each year or that a substantial number of sheep move during the survey. Prior to our research, no attempt had been made to estimate visibility bias or precision for these surveys.Our understanding of Dall’s sheep population biology comes

  9. Efficacy of doramectin injectable against Oestrus ovis and gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep in the southwestern region of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchies, P; Jacquiet, P; Bergeaud, J P; Duranton, C; Prévot, F; Alzieu, J P; Gossellin, J

    2001-03-20

    A study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of doramectin administered intramuscularly at a dose rate of 200 microg/kg to sheep harbouring naturally acquired infections of gastrointestinal nematodes and Oestrus ovis in the southwestern region of France. On day 0, 24 sheep were selected on the basis of positive faecal egg counts (>100 EPG) and positive assessment of O. ovis infection (including positive O. ovis antibody level and positive clinical score). The sheep were randomly allocated to a non-medicated control group (T1) or a doramectin-treated group (T2) of 12 animals each. On day 0, sheep in group T2 received a single intramuscular injection of doramectin (200 microg/kg), whereas those in group T1 received an intramuscular injection of saline solution (sodium chloride, 0.02ml/kg). Individual faecal egg counts were performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 14. Between days 14 and 16, all sheep were slaughtered, and worm and O. ovis burdens were determined. In doramectin-treated sheep, faecal egg counts had decreased to zero by day 4 for all recovered types of nematode eggs: strongyles, Nematodirus sp., Trichuris sp., and Rhabditidae sp. For strongyles, Nematodirus sp., and Rhabditidae, the percentage reductions in faecal egg counts (geometric means) of doramectin-treated sheep, compared to the non-medicated control sheep were 100% from days 4-7. For Trichuris sp., they were 100, 99.7, 99.9, and 100% on days 4, 5, 6, and 7, respectively. On day 14, percentage reductions were 100% for Nematodirus sp. and Rhabditidae, and 99.8 and 99.1% for strongyles and Trichuris sp., respectively. At necropsy, only adult nematodes and mainly first-stage O. ovis larvae were recovered. Doramectin was highly efficacious against the adult stages of Teladorsagia circumcincta (100%), Nematodirus battus (100%), Nematodirus filicollis (99.9%), Oesophagostomum venulosum (99.8%), and Trichuris sp. (99.3%). It was also 100% efficacious against first-stage larvae of O

  10. Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Knowles, Donald P; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Foreyt, William J; Wayman, Gary; Marciel, Ann Marie; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) died of pneumonia when commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) but did not conclusively prove that the responsible pathogens were transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep. The objective of this study was to determine, unambiguously, whether Mannheimia haemolytica can be transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep when they commingle. Four isolates of M. haemolytica were obtained from the pharynx of two of four domestic sheep and tagged with a plasmid carrying the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ampicillin resistance (AP(R)). Four domestic sheep, colonized with the tagged bacteria, were kept about 10 m apart from four bighorn sheep for 1 mo with no clinical signs of pneumonia observed in the bighorn sheep during that period. The domestic and bighorn sheep were then allowed to have fence-line contact for 2 mo. During that period, three bighorn sheep acquired the tagged bacteria from the domestic sheep. At the end of the 2 mo of fence-line contact, the animals were allowed to commingle. All four bighorn sheep died 2 days to 9 days following commingling. The lungs from all four bighorn sheep showed gross and histopathologic lesions characteristic of M. haemolytica pneumonia. Tagged M. haemolytica were isolated from all four bighorn sheep, as confirmed by growth in ampicillin-containing culture medium, PCR-amplification of genes encoding GFP and Ap(R), and immunofluorescent staining of GFP. These results unequivocally demonstrate transmission of M. haemolytica from domestic to bighorn sheep, resulting in pneumonia and death of bighorn sheep.

  11. Parturition difficulties in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grommers, F. J.; Elving, L.; Eldik, P. van

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of difficult parturition was recorded in Texel Sheep lambs (224), Milk Sheep lambs (273) and various crossbreeds (1043) in ten spring lambing seasons. at lambing time the ewes were under 24-hour observation. Difficult parturition is defined as necessity for obstetrical assistance as

  12. Phosphorus metabolism and estimation of phosphorus requirements for sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvandini, H.; Vitti, D.M.S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to determine the effects of different dietary phosphorus (P) levels on endogenous faecal loss and to estimate the minimum daily requirement of P for sheep. The study was conducted with 24 Suffolk sheep which received a basic diet consisting of a hay-concentrate mixture. The treatment consisted of different amounts of bone meal, added to the basic diet, so as to obtain supplementary P levels of 0, 2 and 3 g/day. Twenty-one days after the introduction of the experimental diet, 7.4 MBq radioactive P ( 32 P) was injected in the left jugular vein of each sheep and blood, feces and urine were collected daily for 8 days at 24-hour intervals. The samples were analysed for inorganic P and for radioactive specific activities. Mean endogenous faecal losses of P were 10.00, 31.79, 39.35 and 38.06 mg/kg live weight (LW) per day in sheep supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3 g respectively. A positive linear relation ship was observed between endogenous faecal loss and consumed P, indicating that this loss was linked to dietary P. Total P excretion in the faeces, as well as P absorption, retention urinary excretion and salivary secretion were also directly related to P intake, as part of the mechanism of homeostatic control of organism animal. The minimum endogenous faecal loss for zero P intake, calculated by interpolation, was 8.27 mg/kg LW per day, and for zero balance, the calculated phosphorus consumption was 21.36 mg/kg LW per day. (author)

  13. Clinical evaluation of unadapted sheep submited to sudden intake of melon with high levels of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leonardo Costa Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the clinical effects of two different amounts of melon, with a high sugar content, suddenly offered to unadapted sheep. Twelve rumem cannulated crossbred 8-months-old sheep , weighing 25 kg each, were used. These sheep had never been fed with food concentrated with sugar or fruits. The animals were kept in collective pens with a basal diet of roughage and then randomly divided into two equal groups. The sheep in the two groups received 25% and 75% of dry matter (DM of the diet the crushed melon, administered by the rumen cannula. Physical examination and measurement of rumen fluid pH was performed at the following times: 0, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. The animals of G25% did not present clinical signs despite subacute acidosis expected after administration of the melon. However, in the G75%, sheep developed clinical manifestation indicative of lactic acidosis with rumen fluid pH lower than 5.0 from T6h, but did not present with dehydration. In sheep from G75 %, tachycardia was observed at 3 h and continued until the end of the study; tachypnea was also observed at 3 h, which was caused by increased abdominal circumference. Based on the results obtained, the supplementation of high amounts of melon (75% DM in the diet is not recommended for sheep, although the use of 25% DM is safe. However, greater amounts of this fruit could be used in the diet of sheep with gradual adaptation to the substrate.

  14. EVALUATION OF ELISA METHOD TO DETECTION OF COW β-LACTOGLOBULIN IN SHEEP MILK AND SHEEP MILK PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Paulov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to optimalize the ELISA method to detect the adulteration of sheep milk and sheep milk products by cow milk in the laboratory. We have focused on laboratory testing of ELISA kit (β-Lactoglobulin ELISA Set, SEDIUM R&D for detection of cow β-Lg in sheep milk order to obtain high-quality, reliable and economically advantageous method suitable for routine use in practice. The results shown that for the quality of adulteration determination  it is necessary to verify the sensitivity of applied kit by the samples dilution in accordance with the producer declared quantification range contained in the manual ELISA kit. The starting point for obtaining of relevant data was to create separate regression curves with high deter­mination coefficient, which allowed to quickly and easily detect the cow milk additions in sheep milk, cloddish sheep and Slovak sheep cheese. doi:10.5219/78  

  15. Spatio-temporal dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia R.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Potter, Kathleen A.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Bighorn sheep mortality related to pneumonia is a primary factor limiting population recovery across western North America, but management has been constrained by an incomplete understanding of the disease. We analysed patterns of pneumonia-caused mortality over 14 years in 16 interconnected bighorn sheep populations to gain insights into underlying disease processes. 2. We observed four age-structured classes of annual pneumonia mortality patterns: all-age, lamb-only, secondary all-age and adult-only. Although there was considerable variability within classes, overall they differed in persistence within and impact on populations. Years with pneumonia-induced mortality occurring simultaneously across age classes (i.e. all-age) appeared to be a consequence of pathogen invasion into a naïve population and resulted in immediate population declines. Subsequently, low recruitment due to frequent high mortality outbreaks in lambs, probably due to association with chronically infected ewes, posed a significant obstacle to population recovery. Secondary all-age events occurred in previously exposed populations when outbreaks in lambs were followed by lower rates of pneumonia-induced mortality in adults. Infrequent pneumonia events restricted to adults were usually of short duration with low mortality. 3. Acute pneumonia-induced mortality in adults was concentrated in fall and early winter around the breeding season when rams are more mobile and the sexes commingle. In contrast, mortality restricted to lambs peaked in summer when ewes and lambs were concentrated in nursery groups. 4. We detected weak synchrony in adult pneumonia between adjacent populations, but found no evidence for landscape-scale extrinsic variables as drivers of disease. 5. We demonstrate that there was a >60% probability of a disease event each year following pneumonia invasion into bighorn sheep populations. Healthy years also occurred periodically, and understanding the factors driving these

  16. Changed mitochondrial function by pre- and/or postpartum diet alterations in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Wenche; Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin; Andersen, Jesper Løvind

    2009-01-01

    In a sheep model, we investigated diet effects on skeletal muscle mitochondria to look for fetal programming. During pregnancy, ewes were fed normally (N) or were 50% food restricted (L) during the last trimester, and lambs born to these ewes received a normal (N) or a high-fat diet (H...

  17. Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia pubiflora in sheep whith non-toxic dosis of the plant and ruminal content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciel Becker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Amorimiapubiflora (Malpighiaceae, which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA is the main cause of "sudden death" in cattle in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. This research investigated the induction of resistance to the poisoning in sheep by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses of the plant and also the possibility to transfer this resistance to other sheep by the transfaunation of ruminal fluid. For this a group of four sheep (G1 received daily doses of 0.5g kg-1 for 20 days and after an interval of 15 days were challenged with three daily doses of 1g kg-1 for 3 days. Also the transfer of resistance to A. pubiflora poisoning was evaluated by transfaunation of rumen fluid (100ml for 10 days from G1 sheep to five sheep (G2, followed by challenge with the dose of 1g kg-1 for 3 days (G2D2 and after a three-day interval they received a single dose of 3g kg-1 (G2D3. The degree of resistance was evaluated by monitoring the onset of clinical signs, heart rate, and outcome of the poisoning compared with the control groups, which were challenged with three daily doses of 1g kg1 (G3 and with a single dose of 3g kg-1 (G4. Clinical parameters evaluated in Groups G1 and G2 were significantly less pronounced than those observed in G3 and G4 (control (P<0.05. Sheep in G4 (control died after receiving a single dose of 3g kg-1, while those in G2 (transfaunated survived. These findings demonstrated that consumption of non-toxic doses of A. pubiflora induced resistance in sheep and that this resistance can be transferred by transfaunation. New experiments are needed to determine the most efficient ways to induce resistance and to use this technique in the field to prevent the poisoning.

  18. Reindeer as hosts for nematode parasites of sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabok, J T; Oksanen, A; Nieminen, M; Rydzik, A; Uggla, A; Waller, P J

    2006-03-31

    The reindeer husbandry range of Scandinavia overlaps with sheep, goat, and cattle pastures. The aim of this study was to determine whether reindeer are suitable hosts for ovine or bovine nematode parasites, and thus may spread these parasites into the reindeer husbandry regions. To render worm-free, twelve 4-month-old male reindeer calves, six lambs, and six bovine calves were given ivermectin at 200 microg/kg body weight. Five weeks post-treatment, six reindeer calves were each artificially dosed with 10,000 third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from sheep, and an additional six reindeer with L3 derived from cattle. Lambs and bovine calves received the same dose of ovine and bovine larvae as reindeer, from the same larval source, respectively. Faecal samples collected on five occasions after the larval dosing revealed that by the fourth week, all reindeer calves, lambs, and bovine calves were infected. Animals were slaughtered on days 40 (reindeer) or 47 (lambs and bovine calves) after the larval dosing. Reindeer calves were most susceptible to L3 derived from sheep. The overall mean intensity of Haemochus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, and Teladorsagia circumcincta, did not differ between reindeer and sheep; however, early fourth-stage larvae of H. contortus were more abundant in reindeer (p = 0.002). The establishment of bovine-derived Ostertagia ostertagi was similar in reindeer (62%) and bovine calves (57%), but larval inhibition was much higher in reindeer (91%, p bovine derived Cooperia oncophora was recorded in reindeer calves (2%) compared with bovine calves (59%). These results show that young reindeer are susceptible hosts to the important gastrointestinal parasites of sheep (T. circumcincta, H. contortus) and cattle (O. ostertagi), as well as being a suitable host for T. axei.

  19. Aspects Regarding the Coprological Pollution Level in Some Sheep Helminthiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep  performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gilău area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys  of 72.7% in young  sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ​​depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in  adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ​​for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of  lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys  parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ​​in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.

  20. Characterization of introduced breed of sheep and pattenl of conservation of Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep in North Sumatera

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    Priyanto D

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep are highly adapted to the local environment, no seasonal reproductive activity, and highresistance to internal parasite, but they have small body size and low mature body weight. "On Fann research" to identify morphological characteristics of intoduced breed and STT sheep, as well as an altemative conservation pattem were conducted in two location, i.e. Pulahan village, Air Batu District, Asahan Regency as the potensial area for STT sheep and Pulo Gambar village, Galang District, Deli Serdang Regency as the development area of introduced breed of sheep. The approach of Agroecosystem analysis, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of STT and introduced breed of sheep as well as interview to the farmer that raised STT in order to get recommendation of conservation pattern were aplied. The study show that STT sheep were isolated from the other area, and the populations tend to decrease from year to year. Qualitative characteristics of STT indicated smaller linear body measurements than those of introducted breed of sheep at the same age. Qualitative characteristics indicated that STT possess dominance body color of light brown and white (50.93% vs 41.28%. The STT mostly have one body color pattern (61.75%. The dominance spotted pattem were 1-10% of the body (60.29%, while the dominance of the head color was light brown (48.40%. Conservation pattern of STT are through natural process, in which the farmers are directly conserved, therefore the farmers do not have opportunity to develop their sheep farming. Therefore the conservation pattern recomnendation for STT sheep are by defending the location as "in situ conservation" or "on farm conservation" and giving "compensation program" to fanner because STT sheep farming less benefit than those of introduced breed of sheep.

  1. Comparative evaluation of positive tests to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in clinically healthy sheep and goats in south-west Greece using molecular techniques, serology, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomopoulos, John; Balaskas, Christos; Kantzoura, Bagia; Fragiadaki, Eirini; Pavlik, Ivo; Bartos, Milan; Lukas, John C; Gazouli, Maria

    2007-09-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of paratuberculosis, which affects mainly ruminants although there is a growing concern about its possible implication in Crohn's disease in humans especially in connection with environmental spread and risks to the food chain. Retail cheese may represent a significant source of human exposure to MAP and the aim of this study was to assess MAP status in clinically healthy sheep and goats in Greece, comparing techniques routinely used in the positive diagnosis of the disease. From a total of 30 flocks, 632 sheep and goats had faecal, serum, and whole-blood samples examined by culture, complement fixation test (CFT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeted at IS900, IS1245, and IS6110. PCR produced positive results in 21% of the animals tested, with 5.6%, 3.9%, and 11.5% being identified as MAP, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, respectively. CFT produced positive and suspicious results in 4.4% and 14.4% of the cases. Faecal cultures were negative in all but a single case that was identified as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-type BC1. Agreement between results obtained by PCR and CFT was poor with isolated cases although an assessment of the MAP positive tests produced similar results for both methods. The findings indicate the need for additional measures of control, although the costs may be substantial if public health protection justifies elimination of MAP from livestock.

  2. The International Sheep and Wool Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This revised book is an expanded and updated version of the Australian Sheep and Wool Handbook published in 1991 and focuses on the sheep wool and meat industry. The book is divided in 5 sections, each including several chapters written by well-known and qualified researchers and industry representatives from many countries. The first section on Major sheep and wool industries, in my opinion, is particularly interesting because it explores the sheep and wool industries of leading countries (e.g. Australia, South Africa and New Zealand and continents (Europe and South America, and those of emerging countries (e.g. China.....

  3. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  4. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alton C S; Weiser, Glen C; Anderson, Bruce C; Cummings, Patrick J; Arnold, Karen F; Corbeil, Lynette B

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host-parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection.

  5. Susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onderka, D K; Rawluk, S A; Wishart, W D

    1988-10-01

    Bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of nonhemolytic Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) unique to wild bighorns, with beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) isolated from clinically normal domestic sheep or intradermally with half a dose of a cattle vaccine containing P. haemolytica biotype A (10(5) organisms). The bighorn strain caused lobar necrotizing bronchopneumonia whereas both domestic livestock strains precipitated fatal septicemia and fibrinous bronchopneumonia. The serotypes given were T3, T4, T15 and A1 and these were recovered from lung lesions and other organs. In three trials, domestic sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of bighorn sheep pneumonic lungs, and two concentrations of the P. haemolytica bighorn strain (10(4) and 10(12) organisms). One of these sheep was inoculated intrabronchially. The domestic sheep experienced a transient fever and elevated white blood cell counts. After six days, none of the sheep had lung lesions and inoculated organisms could not be recovered. It is suggested that bighorn sheep are very susceptible to P. haemolytica from domestic livestock and should not be allowed in contact with sheep or cattle.

  6. Disposition kinetics of long acting moxifloxacin following intravenous administration in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag M. Modi

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to study the disposition kinetics and dosage regimens of long acting moxifloxacin following intravenous administration at the dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg-1 b. wt. in six male sheep and to calculate dosage regimens of the same in sheep. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using six healthy male sheep. Long acting Moxifloxacin solution (10 % moxifloxacin in solution with L- arginine, N-butyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol was injected in jugular vein and periodical blood samples were collected from contra-lateral jugular vein in test tubes containing 30-50 IU heparin (anticoagulant at 0.083 (5 min, 0.166 (10 min, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and up to 96 h post administration of drug. Drug concentration in plasma was determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with Fluorescence Detector. The blood concentrations versus time data were analyzed using software. Results: After single dose intravenous administration of long acting moxifloxacin the plasma concentration of 0.016 ± 0.001 μg/ml-1 was maintained for up to 72 h. Distribution half-life (t and elimination half-life (t were 1.637 ± 0.053 h, and 1/2 1/2 12.130 ± 0.202 h, following IV administration. The mean values of apparent volume of distribution V 5.436 ± 0.135 L/kg-1 d(area as well as mean residence time 10.02 ± 4.787 minute were detected with IV administration. Conclusion: The long acting Moxifloxacin @ the dose 7.5 mg/kg IV maintains the effective therapeutic concentration in the plasma of sheep for up to 72 hours. The long acting Moxifloxacin at this dose rate can be used to treat sensitive bacteria causing infectious diseases in sheep. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 517-521

  7. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host–parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330

  8. Isolation, molecular characterization and prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sheep and goats of Kashmir Himalayas, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salik Nazki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to report the occurrence of the Clostridium perfringens in sheep and goats of the Kashmir valley for the 1st time and to characterize them molecularly with respect to toxin genes to determine the prevalence of the various toxinotypes. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 samples (152 from sheep and 25 from goats collected from healthy, diarrheic animals, and morbid material of animals suspected to have died of enterotoxaemia were screened for C. perfringens toxinotypes. The presumptive positive isolates were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All the confirmed isolates were screened for six toxin genes, namely; cpa, cpb, etx, cpi, cpb2, and cpe using a multiplex PCR. Results: The PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene revealed that out of 177 samples collected, 125 (70.62% were found positive for C. perfringens, of which 110 (72.36% were from sheep and 15 (60% were from goats. The highest prevalence of C. perfringens toxinotype D was observed in lambs (56.16% and kids (46.16% followed by 3.84% in adult sheep while it was absent in samples obtained from adult goats. The multiplex PCR revealed that 67 (60.90% isolates from sheep and 8 (53.33% isolates from goats belonged to toxinotype A, while 43 (39.09% isolates from sheep and 7 (46.66% isolates from goats were detected as toxinotype D. None of the isolates was found to be toxinotype B, C, or E. All the C. perfringens toxinotype A isolates from sheep were negative for both cpb2 and cpe genes, however, 27.90% toxinotype D isolates from sheep carried cpb2 gene, and 6.97% possessed cpe gene. In contrast, 12.50% C. perfringens toxinotype A isolates from goats harbored cpb2 and cpe genes while 14.28% isolates belonging to toxinotype D carried cpb2 and cpe genes, respectively. Conclusion: The high prevalence of C. perfringens was observed, even in day-old lambs. The toxinotypes A and D are prevalent in both sheep and goats. The severity of

  9. Epizootic Pneumonia of Bighorn Sheep following Experimental Exposure to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; Lahmers, Kevin; Oaks, J. Lindsay; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Foreyt, William J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). The cause of this disease has been a subject of debate. Leukotoxin expressing Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi produce acute pneumonia after experimental challenge but are infrequently isolated from animals in natural outbreaks. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, epidemiologically implicated in naturally occurring outbreaks, has received little experimental evaluation as a primary agent o...

  10. Preliminary bluetongue Transmission with the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, A J; Jochim, M M; Bowne, J G

    1965-09-01

    Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs.

  11. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abu Samraa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 600 sheep were collected from 5 different provinces randomly chosen in South Africa. Two sheep abattoirs (representing formal slaughter of sheep and 1 rural location (representing informal slaughter of sheep per province were also selected randomly. The serum samples were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using 2 different serological tests : an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test available as a commercial kit. This study provides the first published data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa, although positive titres have been found previously in wild felids, ferrets, chinchillas and a dog. Data on seroprevalence in sheep is considered important because consumption of mutton is universally considered to be a source of zoonotic transfer to humans. Seroprevalence in humans in South Africa was previously found to be 20% and it is postulated that this may be linked to the informal slaughter and consumption of mutton. During this study, the overall national seroprevalence per province in sheep was found to be 5.6 % (IFA and 4.3 % (ELISA, respectively. This is lower than in other countries, possibly because South Africa has an arid climate. Differences in seroprevalence in different areas studied suggested an association with the climate and a significant correlation (P > 0.05 was detected between the prevalence of T. gondii and the minimum average temperature. The seroprevalence was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01 in sheep originating from commercial farms (7.9 % than in rural sheep in the informal sector (3.4 %. Also, sheep managed extensively had a seroprevalence of 1.8 %, which was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than the seroprevalence in sheep under semi-intensive or intensive management systems (5.3 %. An incidental finding of interest was the considerable movement of sheep to abattoirs and mutton after slaughter. The

  12. Morphohistological and surgical anatomy of the sinus interdigitalis in Egyptian native breeds of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Awaad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to characterize the gross and microscopic structures of the interdigital sinus in Egyptian native breeds of sheep and goats (Baladi sheep and goats to aid in conducting farther studies on such sinus and its surgical importance. The study was carried out on the distal fore and hind limb specimens (below the fetlock joint obtained from healthy mature ten Baladi sheep and ten Baladi goats of both sexes. For sheep, thirty specimens were subjected to gross anatomical investigation and the other ten specimens were used for histological examination. While, the forty goats fore and hind feet specimens were examined grossly. The results obtained revealed the presence of a well-developed interdigital sinus in Baladi sheep, but there was no evidence for the existence of this unique structure in all examined specimens of Baladi goats. Such sinus appeared grossly as a pipe-like, composed of two parts; body (corpus and neck (column which opened in the skin of the interdigital area with an external orifice. The body consisted of three distinct parts in the forefeet and a single part in the hind feet. Histologically, the wall in body and neck regions of the interdigital sinus composed of three distinct layers; epidermis, dermis and a fibrous capsule. Many sebaceous glands, hair follicles and sweat glands in addition to the glandular apocrine gland were distributed within the dermis. The secretory adenomers of the interdigital sinus arranged in different lobules and lined with cuboidal cells with bleb-like projections. It reacted positively with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS, Sudan black and Sudan III stains, on the other hand it negatively reacted with Alcian blue stain (AB.

  13. Preliminary Bluetongue Transmissions with the Sheep Ked Melophagus Ovinus (L.)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, A. J.; Jochim, M. M.; Bowne, J. G.

    1965-01-01

    Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs. PMID:4221988

  14. Early breeding and pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi sheep yearlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merestani, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.; Wardeh, M.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)

  15. Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of detomidine constant rate infusion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Rauane Sousa; Bittar, Isabela Plazza; da Silva, Luiz Henrique; Villela, Ana Carolina Vasquez; Dos Santos Júnior, Marcelo Borges; Borges, Naida Cristina; Franco, Leandro Guimarães

    2018-02-01

    The use of sheep in experiments is widespread and is increasing worldwide, and so is the need to develop species-specific anaesthetic techniques to ensure animal safety. Previous studies have mentioned several protocols involving the administration of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists in sheep; however, assessment of the efficacy and safety of these infusion techniques is still relatively new. Thus, the aim of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of detomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) in sheep by measuring the cardiovascular and respiratory parameters, blood gas variables and sedation scores. Eight adult female Santa Inês sheep received 20 µg/kg of detomidine hydrochloride intravenously as a bolus loading dose, followed by an infusion rate of 60 µg/kg/h. The heart rates and respiratory rates changed continuously during the CRI period. No arrhythmias were observed. The reduction in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2 ) was not significant, but one animal showed signs of hypoxaemia (minimum PaO 2 of 66.9 mmHg). The arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ) increased, but the animals did not become hypercapnic. The bicarbonate (HCO 3- ), pH and base excess (BE) tended towards metabolic alkalosis. The cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), cardiac index (CI) and ejection fraction (EF%) showed no significant changes. The fractional shortening (FS%) decreased slightly, starting at T 45min . Sedation scores varied between 3 (0/10) after sedation and during recovery and 7 (0/10) during CRI. We concluded that administering detomidine at an infusion rate of 60 µg/kg/h in Santa Inês sheep is a simple technique that produces satisfactory sedation for minimally invasive procedures.

  16. Molecular evidence for the subspecific differentiation of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and polyphyletic origin of dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Zou, Dandan; Tang, Lei; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Quekun; Zeng, Bo; Zhang, Chen; Zou, Fangdong

    2012-06-01

    Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), a Central Asian ungulate with restricted geographic distribution, exhibits unclear variation in morphology and phylogeographic structure. The composition of species and subspecies in the genus Pseudois is controversial, particularly with respect to the taxonomic designation of geographically restricted populations. Here, 26 specimens including 5 dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi), which were collected from a broad geographic region in China, were analyzed for 2 mitochondrial DNA fragments (cytochrome b and control region sequences). In a pattern consistent with geographically defined subspecies, we found three deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages restricted to different geographic regions. The currently designated two subspecies of blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur nayaur and Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis, were recognized in the phylogenetic trees. In addition, the Helan Mountain population showed distinct genetic characteristics from other geographic populations, and thus should be classified as a new subspecies. In contrast, dwarf blue sheep clustered closely with some blue sheep from Sichuan Province in the phylogenetic trees. Therefore, dwarf blue sheep appear to be a subset of Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis. After considering both population genetic information and molecular clock analysis, we obtained some relevant molecular phylogeographic information concerning the historical biogeography of blue sheep. These results also indicate that western Sichuan was a potential refugium for blue sheep during the Quaternary period.

  17. Genotyping and surveillance for scrapie in Finnish sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hautaniemi Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.

  18. The effect of polyethylene glycol on intake of Mediterranean shrubs by sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosic, J; Pfister, J A; Provenza, F D; Pavlicevic, J

    2008-12-01

    Poor nutritional quality and increased content of secondary compounds can reduce consumption of Mediterranean shrubs by herbivores. In 2 sequential trials, we examined the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and number of shrub species offered on daily intake of Mediterranean shrubs by 12 sheep and 12 goats. The PEG (25 g) was fed to experimental animals with barley. In trial 1 (6 shrubs), goats ate more (P = 0.0008) daily total shrub biomass than did sheep (60.7 vs. 45.9 +/- 2.6 g/kg of BW). There was a trend (P = 0.08) toward a positive PEG effect on total shrub intake, with PEG-supplemented animals consuming more total shrubs than controls (56.7 vs. 50.0 +/- 2.6 g/kg of BW). Trial 2 (using 3 shrubs) was a continuation of trial 1, except that animals were given less barley and treatment animals were given more PEG (50 g). Both sheep and goats showed a numerical decrease in total shrub intake from trial 1 to trial 2. Sheep receiving PEG ate more (P = 0.002) total shrubs than did controls, but no PEG effect was found for goats. Thus, PEG had a greater influence on sheep than goats when only 3 shrubs were offered, a result that may be related to the fact that fewer shrubs with complementary secondary compounds were offered and that goats appear to have a greater ability to consume and detoxify secondary compounds from Mediterranean shrubs. Overall, as the number and diversity of shrubs offered increased, supplemental PEG had less effect on increasing intake for both goats and sheep.

  19. Validation of the Osteopenia Sheep Model for Orthopaedic Biomaterial Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2009-01-01

    months. This suggests that a prolonged administration of GC is needed for a long-term observation to keep osteopenic bone.                 In conclusion, after 7 months of GC treatments with restricted diet, the microarchitectural characteristics, mechanical competence, mineralization of the bone tissues...... resemble osteoporosis in humans. This study aimed to validate glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia sheep model for orthopaedic implant and biomaterial research. We hypothesized that a 7-month GC treatment together with restricted diet but without OVX would induce osteopenia. Materials and Methods: Eighteen...... for 7 months. The sheep were housed outdoors in paddocks, and received restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus (0.55% calcium and 0.35% phosphorus) and hay. After sacrifice, cancellous bone specimens from the 5th lumbar vertebra, bilateral distal femur, and bilateral proximal tibia, and cortical...

  20. Effects of substitute coated with hyaluronic acid or poly-lactic acid on implant fixation. Experimental study in ovariectomized and glucocorticoid treated sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christina M; Ding, Ming; Andersen, Thomas L

    2018-01-01

    Investigated in healthy animal models, hyaluronic acid (HyA) and poly-D,L -lactic acid (PDLLA) demonstrate osteoconductive properties when coated onto hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) scaffolds. In this study, we examined the efficacy of HA/βTCP granules coated with HyA or PD...... formation, HyA and PDDLA are indeed considered valuable as new coating materials for composite ceramics when tested in a sheep model - even in bones of a compromised quality.......Investigated in healthy animal models, hyaluronic acid (HyA) and poly-D,L -lactic acid (PDLLA) demonstrate osteoconductive properties when coated onto hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) scaffolds. In this study, we examined the efficacy of HA/βTCP granules coated with Hy...... allograft obtained from a healthy donor sheep (control), pure HA/βTCP, HA/βTCP-HyA or HA/βTCP-PDLLA. After 12 weeks, the bone formation adjacent to the implant surface was evaluated by histology and histomorphometry, while the implant fixation was measured by a push-out test. The investigation showed a bone...

  1. Production response of lambs receiving creep feed while grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the production responses of lambs receiving either creep feed or not while grazing two different pastures. The production of ewes within each treatment was also recorded. The study was conducted at both the Kromme Rhee and Langgewens Research Farms. At Kromme Rhee, sheep ...

  2. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...... results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period....

  3. Phosphorus availability from different sources for sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, D.M.S.S.; Abdalla, A.L.; Meirelles, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    An assay was carried out with 12 sheep to determine the endogenous losses of P and the true absorption of this element from rock phosphate (TP), diammonium phosphate (DP) and bone meal (BM). Animals received the experimental diet for 30 days and after this period 200μCi 32 P was injected in each one. Blood and faeces samples were collected to determine specific activity. Faecal endogenous P and P availability were estimated. P availability was 58.39, 69.71 and 75.03 per cent for TP, DP and BM, respectively. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  4. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United States...

  5. Spatio-temporal dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer, E Frances; Plowright, Raina K; Manlove, Kezia R; Cross, Paul C; Dobson, Andrew P; Potter, Kathleen A; Hudson, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    1. Bighorn sheep mortality related to pneumonia is a primary factor limiting population recovery across western North America, but management has been constrained by an incomplete understanding of the disease. We analysed patterns of pneumonia-caused mortality over 14 years in 16 interconnected bighorn sheep populations to gain insights into underlying disease processes. 2. We observed four age-structured classes of annual pneumonia mortality patterns: all-age, lamb-only, secondary all-age and adult-only. Although there was considerable variability within classes, overall they differed in persistence within and impact on populations. Years with pneumonia-induced mortality occurring simultaneously across age classes (i.e. all-age) appeared to be a consequence of pathogen invasion into a naïve population and resulted in immediate population declines. Subsequently, low recruitment due to frequent high mortality outbreaks in lambs, probably due to association with chronically infected ewes, posed a significant obstacle to population recovery. Secondary all-age events occurred in previously exposed populations when outbreaks in lambs were followed by lower rates of pneumonia-induced mortality in adults. Infrequent pneumonia events restricted to adults were usually of short duration with low mortality. 3. Acute pneumonia-induced mortality in adults was concentrated in fall and early winter around the breeding season when rams are more mobile and the sexes commingle. In contrast, mortality restricted to lambs peaked in summer when ewes and lambs were concentrated in nursery groups. 4. We detected weak synchrony in adult pneumonia between adjacent populations, but found no evidence for landscape-scale extrinsic variables as drivers of disease. 5. We demonstrate that there was a >60% probability of a disease event each year following pneumonia invasion into bighorn sheep populations. Healthy years also occurred periodically, and understanding the factors driving these

  6. Chronic intoxication with copper in sheep: prophylaxis and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomov, A

    1964-01-01

    In the period 1961-1962 chronic intoxication of sheep with copper was observed on 7 farms, the number of sheep totaling about 9000. In one of the flocks intoxication occurred after feeding the sheep for a long time with aftermath collected from orchards which had been sprinkled with copper compounds. The aftermath was proven to contain from 11 to 17 mg. per cent of copper. The other flocks were put to pasture in vineyards after the grapes had been gathered. Intoxication in these flocks was caused by vineleaves. No accumulation of copper through the soil was established in the investigated fresh grass found in the vineyards and which the sheep had also grazed. From 36 to 81 mg. per cent of copper was established in the livers of dead sheep. In order to protect the sheep from this intoxication, 100-200 mg. of ammonium or sodium molybdate and 5-10 g. of sodium sulfate were used in the case of each sheep daily for 2-3 weeks. The concentrated fodder of the sheep was moistened with an aqueous solution of these compounds. A very good prophylactic effect was obtained. At the same time oats, maize, oilcakes and others, which constitute a fodder rich in fats, were eliminated from the food rations of the sheep. The above substances, given at larger doses simultaneously with vitamin B/sub 12/ were also used for the treatment of diseased sheep, and of 10 ill sheep, 7 recovered.

  7. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Henk Mathijs Johannes; Budisatria, I Gede Suparta

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers' conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Main motives for the gradual change-over to fat-tailed sheep have been their potential larger body size and the preference of consumers for their meat. Management systems are changing in response to the intensification of land use. The reproductive performances of fat-tailed sheep are good. Households keep four to six animals, housed close to the family quarters. This results in very high levels of faecal bacteria contamination of drinking water sources. Sheep provide a small income, manure, security and help to accumulate capital. Sheep also play a key role in religious festivities. Farmers hardly profit from the increased demand for the feast of sacrifice; animals are sold mainly when the owners have urgent cash needs. Systematic sheep fattening can contribute to higher economic results, if sufficient family labour and crop residues are available.

  8. Vaccination Against Toxoplasmosis (RH Virulent Strain) by Using Gamma Irradiated Cysts to Protect Sheep from Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, M.A.; El Gawish, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Joxoplasma gondii is perhaps the most prevalent parasitic infection of human in the world, although only a limited number of individuals actually become symptomatic from infection. It would be desirable to have a vaccine for the immunization of sheep to prevent abortion because sheep can develop a protective immunity against infection with T. gondii. The present study was designed to produce a vaccine against T. gondii in sheep using an optimum dose of gamma irradiation (0.4 kGy). Twenty seven of female sheep serologi-cally free from T. gondii were divided into three groups, nine for each group. Two groups were injected with the proposed vaccine at dose of 2 ml and 3 ml to stimulate the immune response. The third group was left without immunization and served as control group. The liters of T. gondii antibodies were assayed for eight weeks after immunization by modified agglutination test. After a month of pregnancy, the three groups were challenged with a virulent RH strain of 7| gondii. The results of these study revealed that the immunized groups of sheep with 2 or 3 ml of gamma irradiated cysts of T. gondii gave healthy lambs with normal weight, while the control group suffered from abortion. This work with further investigation is promising for commercial production of vaccine to protect animals from T. gondii infection and consequently prevent the transmission of the disease to human. n addition to humans, T. gondii can infect all mammalian species. It is a major :ause of abortion in domestic livestock making it a major economic concern to igriculture industry. As a result of the hidden nature of toxoplasmosis, many aimers remain unaware of the true cause of the losses they are suffering. Abortions, stillbirths and neonatal mortality occur when susceptible sheep ire infected during pregnancy (Buxton, 1991). Infection of sheep in early ;estation leads to death and re-absorption of the fetus and can be mistaken for nfertility (Johnston, 1988)

  9. Effect of perphenazine enanthate on open-field test behaviour and stress-induced hyperthermia in domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedernera-Romano, Cecilia; Ruiz de la Torre, José L; Badiella, Llorenç; Manteca, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The open-field test (OFT) and stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) have been used to measure individual differences in fear. The present study has been designed as a pharmacological validation of OFT and SIH as indicators of fear in sheep using perphenazine enanthate (PPZ), a long-acting neuroleptic. Twenty four ewes of two breeds, Lacaune and Ripollesa, were tested in an arena measuring 5mx2.5m. Treatment group received one dose of 1.5mg/kg of PPZ and control group received sterile sesame oil. All animals were tested for 10min and behaviours were recorded. Rectal temperature was measured at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the test. SIH was defined as the difference between T2 and T1. Sheep were tested on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 9 after PPZ injection. Variables were analysed using a mixed model. PPZ decreased bleats on days 2, 3, 4 and the SIH response on days 2 and 3. Breed differences were observed. Treated animals showed positive correlations between SIH and bleats; squares entered; attempts to escape and negative correlation between SIH and visits to the food bucket. Our results suggest that behaviour and SIH on the OFT are useful measures of fear in sheep.

  10. Tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after intramammary or simulated systemic administration in isolated perfused sheep udders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Cadenas, Cristina; Fernández Martínez, Nélida; Sierra Vega, Matilde; Diez Liébana, Maria J; Gonzalo Orden, Jose M; Sahagún Prieto, Ana M; García Vieitez, Juan J

    2012-11-01

    To determine the tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after intramammary or simulated systemic administration in isolated perfused sheep udders by measuring its concentration at various sample collection sites. 26 udders (obtained following euthanasia) from 26 healthy lactating sheep. For each isolated udder, 1 mammary gland was perfused with warmed, gassed Tyrode solution. Enrofloxacin (1 g of enrofloxacin/5 g of ointment) was administered into the perfused gland via the intramammary route or systemically via the perfusion fluid (equivalent to a dose of 5 mg/kg). Samples of the perfusate were obtained every 30 minutes for 180 minutes; glandular tissue samples were obtained at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm from the teat base after 180 minutes. The enrofloxacin content of the perfusate and tissue samples was analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. After intramammary administration, maximun perfusate enrofloxacin concentration was detected at 180 minutes and, at this time, mean tissue enrofloxacin concentration was detected and mean tissue enrofloxacin concentration was 123.80, 54.48, 36.72, and 26.42 μg/g of tissue at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm from the teat base, respectively. Following systemic administration, perfusate enrofloxacin concentration decreased with time and, at 180 minutes, tissue enrofloxacin concentrations ranged from 40.38 to 35.58 μg/g of tissue. By 180 minutes after administration via the intramammary or systemic route in isolated perfused sheep mammary glands, mean tissue concentration of enrofloxacin was greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit growth of 90% of many common mastitis pathogens in sheep. Use of either route of administration (or in combination) appears suitable for the treatment of acute mastitis in sheep.

  11. THE USE OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS TO STUDY GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDONESIAN SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakaria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT and average genetic differentiation (FST were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.

  12. truncatula pasture bY sheeP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amounts of amino acids derived by sheep on ... Keywords: Intake, digestion, Medicago truncatula, grazing, sheep ... low productivity based on studies of intake and digestion ... salivary content of extrusa was measured by tritiated water.

  13. Coadministration of nematophagous fungi for biological control over gastrointestinal helminths in sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor de; Santos, Antonielson dos; Morais, Dayana Firmino de; Souto, Diego Vagner de Oliveira; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues

    2016-05-15

    This study aimed to evaluate coadministration of Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium in a sodium alginate matrix for controlling gastrointestinal helminths in young and adult sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. An area of 1ha was divided into two paddocks, in which two experimental groups (fungus and control) were formed, each consisting of six adult females and ten young males. In each group, two subgroups were formed in accordance with the animal category (adult or young). In the fungus group, each animal received 3g of pellets containing 0.6g of fungal mycelium, with 0.3g of D. flagrans and 0.3g of M. thaumasium for each 10 kg of body weight, in their feed twice a week, for six months. In the control group, each animal received 3g of pellets without fungus for each 10 kg of body weight, in their feed twice a week, for six months, serving as a witness group. Reductions in numbers of eggs per gram of feces of 76% among the adult sheep in the fungus group and 83% among the young sheep in the fungus group were observed, in comparison with their respective control subgroups. The groups that received these fungi needed less salvage deworming and presented better packed cell volume percentages, better weight gain and lower levels of L3/kg dry matter in their paddock than the control groups. Thus, it was concluded that coadministration of D. flagrans and M. thaumasium was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths of adults and young sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The performance of probiotic fermented sheep milk and ice cream sheep milk in inhibiting enamel mineral loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelman, P; Frazão, J V; Vieira, T I; Balthazar, C F; Andrade, M M; Alexandria, A K; Cruz, A G; Fonseca-Gonçalves, A; Maia, L C

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of two different sheep milk-based food matrices - fermented sheep milk and ice cream - with added probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei 431) on dental enamel subjected to an in vitro highly cariogenic challenge. Sixty enamel blocks were selected and randomly allocated into five treatment groups (n=12): conventional fermented sheep milk (CFSM), probiotic fermented sheep milk (PFSM), conventional sheep milk ice cream (CSMIC), probiotic sheep milk ice cream (PSMIC) and control using deionized water. The blocks were subjected to highly cariogenic pH cycling and the products were applied (5min), in a blinded way, once a day to simulate a daily use for 8 consecutive days. A microhardness test was performed before and after the treatment to estimate the percentage of microhardness surface loss (% SML). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was performed to confirm the mineral loss. All groups had lost microhardness after the experiment. However, CFSM and PFSM exhibited the most positive findings when compared to the control in both ice creams. Scanning electron microscopy showed less mineral loss in CFSM and PFSM compared with CSMIC, PSMIC and control after the cariogenic challenge. Overall, fermented milk decreased mineral loss from enamel subjected to a highly cariogenic challenge, regardless of the presence of probiotics in their composition, which had a higher efficacy compared to ice cream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Variability of Pasteurella multocida isolated from Icelandic sheep and detection of the toxA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Thorbjorg; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Sigurdardottir, Olof G; Jorundsson, Einar; Fridriksdottir, Vala; Thorarinsdottir, Gudridur E; Hjartardottir, Sigridur

    2016-09-01

    Pasteurella multocida can be part of the upper respiratory flora of animals, but under conditions of stress or immunocompromisation, the bacteria can cause severe respiratory symptoms. In this study, we compared 10 P. multocida isolates from Icelandic sheep with respiratory symptoms and 19 isolates from apparently healthy abattoir sheep. We examined capsule type, genetic variability and the presence of the toxA gene in the two groups. Surprisingly, we found that all ovine P. multocida isolates examined in this study carried the toxA gene, which markedly differs from what has been published from other studies. Interestingly, all isolates from abattoir animals were capsule type D, whilst bacteria isolated from animals with clinical respiratory symptoms had capsule type A, D or F. Examination of seven housekeeping genes indicated that the clinical respiratory isolates were significantly more heterogeneous than the abattoir isolates (P<0.05, two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test). The results suggest that there may be at least two groups of P. multocida in sheep - a genetically homogeneous group that resides in the respiratory tract and a genetically heterogeneous group that is the predominant cause of disease.

  16. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of albendazole sulfoxide in sheep and goats, and dose-dependent plasma disposition in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksit, Dilek; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Sekkin, Selim; Boyacioğlu, Murat; Cirak, Veli Yilgor; Ayaz, Erol; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2015-05-27

    The aims of this study were to compare the pharmacokinetics of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO, ricobendazole) in goats and sheep at a dose of 5 g/kg bodyweight (BW), after intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations, and to investigate the effects of increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg BW) on the plasma disposition of ABZ-SO in goats following SC administration. A total of 16 goats (Capra aegagrus hircus, eight males and eight females) and 8 sheep (Ovis aries, four males and four females) 12-16 months old and weighing 20-32 kg, were used. The study was designed according to two-phase crossover study protocol. In Phase-1, eight sheep were assigned as Group I and 16 goats were allocated into two groups (Group II and Group III). ABZ-SO was applied to Group I (sheep) and Group II (goats) animals subcutaneously, and to Group III (goats) animals intravenously, all at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW. In Phase-2, the sheep in the Group I received ABZ-SO intravenously in a dose of 5 mg/kg BW; the goats in Group II and Group III received ABZ-SO subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg BW, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at different times between 1 and 120 h after drug administrations. The plasma concentrations of ABZ-SO and its metabolites were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. In goats, the area under the curve, terminal half-life and plasma persistence of ABZ-SO were significantly smaller and shorter, respectively, compared with those observed in sheep following both IV and SC administrations at a dose of 5 mg/kg BW. On the other side, dose-dependent plasma dispositions of ABZ-SO were observed following SC administration at increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg) in goats. Consequently, ABZ-SO might be used at higher doses to provide higher plasma concentration and thus to achieve greater efficacy against the target parasites.

  17. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  18. Influence of altitude on vitamin D and bone metabolism of lactating sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, M; Leiber, F; Willems, H; Merbold, L; Liesegang, A

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of alpine grazing on vitamin D (vitD) and bone metabolism in sheep and goats. Two groups of five adult lactating East Friesian milk sheep and Saanen dairy goats were kept on pastures at 2,000 to 2,600 m a.s.l. (SA: sheep alpine; GA: goats alpine) and 400 m a.s.l. (SL: sheep lowland; GL: goats lowland). The animals were milked twice daily and the milk yield was measured. Blood, milk, skin, and forage samples were collected and the left metatarsi were measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography. The relative humidity and air temperature were recorded and the ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation was measured with a solar meter at both research stations. In addition, animals from the alpine group were equipped with a global positioning system receiver. The UVB radiation was higher at the alpine station (Psheep compared to goats and the 25(OH)D3 concentration in serum increased in all four groups but was higher in the alpine groups during the experiment. In addition, no differences in 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) concentrations in the skin at high altitude and lowland groups were detectable. However the 7-DHC concentrations in the skin of sheep were less than a tenth of the concentrations in the skin of goats and were nearly not detectable. In both groups SA and SL bone strength index increased during the trial (P=0.043). Bone strength index was lower in GA compared to GL at wk 12 (P=0.047). Mean serum Ca concentrations were higher and P concentrations were lower in the alpine groups than in the lowland groups (P=0.047). In both groups SA and GA the distance travelled increased during the trial. In conclusion, no effect of altitude on vitD status, vitD milk concentration and bone strength could be detected. Both sheep and goats are able to produce vitD in the skin, but sheep depend more on vitD intake with feedstuff, whereas goats rely more on cutaneous vitD production.

  19. Comparison of Gene Expression by Sheep and Human Blood Stimulated with the TLR4 Agonists Lipopolysaccharide and Monophosphoryl Lipid A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perenlei Enkhbaatar

    Full Text Available Animal models that mimic human biology are important for successful translation of basic science discoveries into the clinical practice. Recent studies in rodents have demonstrated the efficacy of TLR4 agonists as immunomodulators in models of infection. However, rodent models have been criticized for not mimicking important characteristics of the human immune response to microbial products. The goal of this study was to compare genomic responses of human and sheep blood to the TLR4 agonists lipopolysaccharide (LPS and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA.Venous blood, withdrawn from six healthy human adult volunteers (~ 28 years old and six healthy adult female sheep (~3 years old, was mixed with 30 μL of PBS, LPS (1μg/mL or MPLA (10μg/mL and incubated at room temperature for 90 minutes on a rolling rocker. After incubation, 2.5 mL of blood was transferred to Paxgene Blood RNA tubes. Gene expression analysis was performed using an Agilent Bioanalyzer with the RNA6000 Nano Lab Chip. Agilent gene expression microarrays were scanned with a G2565 Microarray Scanner. Differentially expressed genes were identified.11,431 human and 4,992 sheep probes were detected above background. Among them 1,029 human and 175 sheep genes were differentially expressed at a stringency of 1.5-fold change (p 1.5-fold changes in human samples. Genes of major inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8, TNF alpha, NF-kappaB, ETS2, PTGS2, PTX3, CXCL16, KYNU, and CLEC4E were similarly (>2-fold upregulated by LPS and MPLA in both species.The genomic responses of peripheral blood to LPS and MPLA in sheep are quite similar to those observed in humans, supporting the use of the ovine model for translational studies that mimic human inflammatory diseases and the study of TLR-based immunomodulators.

  20. The Prevalence of Sheep Traumatic Myiasis in Three Counties from the West Side of Romania and Bacteria Isolated from the Insects Maggots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marina Mot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis represents an infestation of animals and humans caused by the maggots of certain fly species of Diptera order, Insecta class, which feed on the hosts' living or dead tissues or body fluids. In sheep, myiasis is a major animal welfare issue developing serious pain, suffering and in untreated cases may result in tissue injuries, reproduction and productivity losses and even death. There are two most important fly species which cause traumatic cutaneous myiasis of sheep in Europe: Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Sarcophagidae implicated in etiology of wound myiasis in southern and eastern Europe and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae, implicated in etiology of sheep strike, mainly in the middle latitudes of Europe continent. A few farmers from Timiş, Arad and Caraş-Severin counties were been asked to response to a questionnaire on the prevalence of traumatic myiasis which evolved in their sheep flock in April-September period of year 2012. From a total number of 2206 sheep taken into study were been discovered 1658 healthy sheep (75.16% and 548 sheep with myiasis (24.84%. From identified lesions with myiasis were been collected insects maggots from all three stages of development and were been prepared in Microbiology laboratory in the view to obtain data on the culturable bacteria isolated under aerobic conditions. Bacteria detected from maggots samples were: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli. The myasis insects maggots in sheep infestation can acquire many bacteria from their host or from their surroundings, all these can, together another bacteria, complicate the lesions and without treatment may lead to animals death.

  1. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bin Tarif Abid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV and Ganjam virus (GV are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  2. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-10-19

    Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  3. Lung cancer induced in mice by the envelope protein of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV closely resembles lung cancer in sheep infected with JSRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York Denis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV causes a lethal lung cancer in sheep and goats. Expression of the JSRV envelope (Env protein in mouse lung, by using a replication-defective adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6 vector, induces tumors resembling those seen in sheep. However, the mouse and sheep tumors have not been carefully compared to determine if Env expression alone in mice can account for the disease features observed in sheep, or whether additional aspects of virus replication in sheep are important, such as oncogene activation following retrovirus integration into the host cell genome. Results We have generated mouse monoclonal antibodies (Mab against JSRV Env and have used these to study mouse and sheep lung tumor histology. These Mab detect Env expression in tumors in sheep infected with JSRV from around the world with high sensitivity and specificity. Mouse and sheep tumors consisted mainly of well-differentiated adenomatous foci with little histological evidence of anaplasia, but at long times after vector exposure some mouse tumors did have a more malignant appearance typical of adenocarcinoma. In addition to epithelial cell tumors, lungs of three of 29 sheep examined contained fibroblastic cell masses that expressed Env and appeared to be separate neoplasms. The Mab also stained nasal adenocarcinoma tissue from one United States sheep, which we show was due to expression of Env from ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV, a virus closely related to JSRV. Systemic administration of the AAV6 vector encoding JSRV Env to mice produced numerous hepatocellular tumors, and some hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas, showing that the Env protein can induce tumors in multiple cell types. Conclusion Lung cancers induced by JSRV infection in sheep and by JSRV Env expression in mice have similar histologic features and are primarily characterized by adenomatous proliferation of peripheral lung epithelial cells. Thus it is

  4. Epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Janet L; Martin, Daniel J; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2008-04-01

    A pneumonia epidemic reduced bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survival and recruitment during 1997-2000 in a population comprised of three interconnected wintering herds (Kenosha Mountains, Sugarloaf Mountain, Twin Eagles) that inhabited the Kenosha and Tarryall Mountain ranges in central Colorado, USA. The onset of this epidemic coincided temporally and spatially with the appearance of a single domestic sheep (Ovis aires) on the Sugarloaf Mountain herd's winter range in December 1997. Although only bighorns in the Sugarloaf Mountain herd were affected in 1997-98, cases also occurred during 1998-99 in the other two wintering herds, likely after the epidemic spread via established seasonal movements of male bighorns. In all, we located 86 bighorn carcasses during 1997-2000. Three species of Pasteurella were isolated in various combinations from affected lung tissues from 20 bighorn carcasses where tissues were available and suitable for diagnostic evaluation; with one exception, beta-hemolytic mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (primarily reported as biogroup 1(G) or 1(alphaG)) was isolated from lung tissues of cases evaluated during winter 1997-98. The epidemic dramatically lowered adult bighorn monthly survival in all three herds; a model that included an acute epidemic effect, differing between sexes and with vaccination status, that diminished linearly over the next 12 mo best represented field data. In addition to the direct mortality associated with epidemics in these three herds, lamb recruitment in years following the pneumonia epidemic also was depressed as compared to years prior to the epidemic. Based on observations presented here, pasteurellosis epidemics in free-ranging bighorn sheep can arise through incursion of domestic sheep onto native ranges, and thus minimizing contact between domestic and bighorn sheep appears to be a logical principle for bighorn sheep conservation.

  5. Spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora (Leguminosae) in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to describe the first report of clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora in sheep. Of a total of 500 sheep at risk, two adult male sheep were affected; one died spontaneously and the other animal was examined, euthaniz...

  6. Efficacy of an energy block containing Duddingtonia flagrans in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagüés, María F; Fusé, Luis A; Fernández, Alicia S; Iglesias, Lucía E; Moreno, Fabiana C; Saumell, Carlos A

    2011-09-01

    The efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans incorporated into an energy block was evaluated for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Four naturally parasitised sheep with average nematode egg counts of 2,470 eggs per gram grazed by pairs on two similar parasite-free paddocks for 30 days. During that period, one pair of sheep (treated animals, T1) received an energy block containing chlamydospores of D. flagrans at a dose of 200,000 chlamydopores/kg bw/day, while the second pair (control animals, C1) received a fungus-free energy block. The animals in both groups were taken off the paddocks after contaminating the pastures for a month with either nematode eggs plus fungal chlamydospores (T1) or nematode eggs alone (C1). Twelve parasite-free sheep were divided into two groups of six animals each, the treated group (T2) was placed on the paddock previously contaminated with parasites and fungus, while the control group (C2) was placed on the parasite-only paddock. These two groups grazed on their respective paddocks during 30 days and were then housed for 15 days, after which period they were slaughtered in order to determine the parasite burden present in each animal. Results showed that animals in group T2 harboured significantly less nematodes than their counterpart in group C2. The efficacy of D. flagrans was 92% against the total parasite burden, 100% against Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, 89.9% against Trichostrongylus colubriformis, 87.5% against Cooperia onchopora, and 90% against Trichostrongylus axei. No efficacy was detected against Nematodirus spathiger, Trichuris ovis and T. skrjabini.

  7. Preliminary Results Regarding Organic Sheep Meat Consumption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ilisiu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With a national flock of  10.07 million sheep, Romania currently occupies the 3rd place in the EU (after the UK and Spain in terms of the sheep numbers. However, only 0.85% (85.419 heads are being reared in organic production systems. The development of sheep breeding in organic systems is very heavily influenced by the economic factors, but also by the consumer demand for organic products. An empirical study on consumer behavior towards sheep meat produced in organic system was developed in 2016. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of developing sheep breeding sector in the organic system, in the terms of the consumer’s behavior towards  sheep meat obtained in organic system in order to develop strategies that will lead to sustainable development of the sector. The finding shown that 85% of consumers consider that sheep meat produced in organic farming system is more expensive compared to that produced in the conventional systems. However, 74% of respondents believe that higher prices are justified. The availability of the respondents to pay an additional price for organic sheep product is high, hovering around 77%. Current research highlights the potential production and marketing of sheep from Romania in organic system, which could have a positive impact on overall farm income and on animal welfare.

  8. Prevalence of Brucella antibodies in sheep and springbok ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded that sheep and springbok on the eleven farms had not been exposed to Brucella melitensis and B. abortus infections and that on previously positive farms the infection had been eliminated in sheep and had not spread to springbok. Key words: springbok, sheep, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, ...

  9. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of β-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex α-subunit with human Hex β-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Glucocorticoid induced osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep: validation of large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, Liming; Bollen, Peter; Schwarz, Peter; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-02-15

    Glucocorticoid with low calcium and phosphorus intake induces osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep. To validate a large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research. A variety of ovariectomized animals has been used to study osteoporosis. Most experimental spine fusions were based on normal animals, and there is a great need for suitable large animal models with adequate bone size that closely resemble osteoporosis in humans. Eighteen female skeletal mature sheep were randomly allocated into 3 groups, 6 each. Group 1 (GC-1) received prednisolone (GC) treatment (0.60 mg/kg/day, 5 times weekly) for 7 months. Group 2 (GC-2) received the same treatment as GC-1 for 7 months followed by 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as the controls. All sheep received restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus during experiment. After killing the animals, cancellous bone specimens from the vertebra, femurs, and tibias were micro-CT scanned and tested mechanically. Serum biomarkers were determined. In lumbar vertebra, the GC treatment resulted in significant decrease of cancellous bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness, and bone strength. However, the microarchitecture and bone strength of GC-2 recovered to a similar level of the controls. A similar trend of microarchitectural changes was also observed in the distal femur and proximal tibia of both GC treated sheep. The bone formation marker serum-osteocalcin was largely reduced in GC-1 compared to the controls, but recovered with a rebound increase at month 10 in GC-2. The current investigation demonstrates that the changes in microarchitecture and mechanical properties were comparable with those observed in humans after long-term GC treatment. A prolonged GC treatment is needed for a long-term observation to keep osteopenic bone. This model resembles long-term glucocorticoid treated osteoporotic model, and is useful in preclinical studies.

  11. Host preference of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Meintjies

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep scab mites, Psoroptes ovis, collected from a Merino donor sheep, were used to infest Merino and Dorper sheep, and Angora and Boer goats. Mites were placed on the sheep on 1 or 2 occasions and on 5 occasions on the goats. All the animals were examined at regular intervals for the presence of scab lesions and living mites. Both sheep breeds developed lesions, but those on the Merino sheep were always larger than those on the Dorper sheep at the same intervals after infestation. None of the goats developed lesions or showed signs of irritation, or harboured any mites.

  12. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  13. Differential Susceptibility of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries) Neutrophils to Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin is not due to Differential Expression of Cell Surface CD18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Liu, Weiguo; Casas, Eduardo; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2017-07-01

    Bighornsheep ( Ovis canadensis ) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is the principal virulence factor involved in pneumonia pathogenesis. Although leukotoxin is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes, neutrophils are the most susceptible subset. Bighorn sheep neutrophils are four- to eightfold more susceptible to leukotoxin-induced cytolysis than are domestic sheep neutrophils. We hypothesized that the higher susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils, in comparison to domestic sheep neutrophils, is due to higher expression of CD18, the receptor for leukotoxin on leukocytes. Our objective was to quantify CD18 expression on neutrophils of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Cell-surface CD18 expression on bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils was measured as antibody binding capacity of cells by flow cytometric analysis with two fluorochrome-conjugated anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (BAQ30A and HUH82A) and microspheres. Contrary to our expectations, CD18 expression was higher (Psheep neutrophils in comparison to bighorn sheep neutrophils. These findings suggest that the higher in vitro susceptibility to leukotoxin of bighorn sheep neutrophils compared to domestic sheep neutrophils is not due to higher expression of the leukotoxin receptor CD18 on bighorn sheep neutrophils.

  14. Use of exposure history to identify patterns of immunity to pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Raina K; Manlove, Kezia; Cassirer, E Frances; Cross, Paul C; Besser, Thomas E; Hudson, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Individual host immune responses to infectious agents drive epidemic behavior and are therefore central to understanding and controlling infectious diseases. However, important features of individual immune responses, such as the strength and longevity of immunity, can be challenging to characterize, particularly if they cannot be replicated or controlled in captive environments. Our research on bighorn sheep pneumonia elucidates how individual bighorn sheep respond to infection with pneumonia pathogens by examining the relationship between exposure history and survival in situ. Pneumonia is a poorly understood disease that has impeded the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) following their widespread extirpation in the 1900s. We analyzed the effects of pneumonia-exposure history on survival of 388 radio-collared adults and 753 ewe-lamb pairs. Results from Cox proportional hazards models suggested that surviving ewes develop protective immunity after exposure, but previous exposure in ewes does not protect their lambs during pneumonia outbreaks. Paradoxically, multiple exposures of ewes to pneumonia were associated with diminished survival of their offspring during pneumonia outbreaks. Although there was support for waning and boosting immunity in ewes, models with consistent immunizing exposure were similarly supported. Translocated animals that had not previously been exposed were more likely to die of pneumonia than residents. These results suggest that pneumonia in bighorn sheep can lead to aging populations of immune adults with limited recruitment. Recovery is unlikely to be enhanced by translocating naïve healthy animals into or near populations infected with pneumonia pathogens.

  15. Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

    1988-06-01

    We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant.

  16. Executive decision-making in the domestic sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jennifer Morton

    Full Text Available Two new large animal models of Huntington's disease (HD have been developed recently, an old world monkey (macaque and a sheep. Macaques, with their large brains and complex repertoire of behaviors are the 'gold-standard' laboratory animals for testing cognitive function, but there are many practical and ethical issues that must be resolved before HD macaques can be used for pre-clinical research. By contrast, despite their comparable brain size, sheep do not enjoy a reputation for intelligence, and are not used for pre-clinical cognitive testing. Given that cognitive decline is a major therapeutic target in HD, the feasibility of testing cognitive function in sheep must be explored if they are to be considered seriously as models of HD. Here we tested the ability of sheep to perform tests of executive function (discrimination learning, reversal learning and attentional set-shifting. Significantly, we found that not only could sheep perform discrimination learning and reversals, but they could also perform the intradimensional (ID and extradimensional (ED set-shifting tasks that are sensitive tests of cognitive dysfunction in humans. Their performance on the ID/ED shifts mirrored that seen in humans and macaques, with significantly more errors to reach criterion in the ED than the ID shift. Thus, sheep can perform 'executive' cognitive tasks that are an important part of the primate behavioral repertoire, but which have never been shown previously to exist in any other large animal. Sheep have great potential, not only for use as a large animal model of HD, but also for studying cognitive function and the evolution of complex behaviours in normal animals.

  17. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis between small-tail Han sheep and the Surabaya fur sheep using high-throughput RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao

    2013-06-01

    The small-tail Han sheep and the Surabaya fur sheep are two local breeds in north China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-prolificacy breed respectively. Significant genetic differences between these two breeds have provided increasing interests in the identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in these sheep. High prolificacy is a complex trait, and it is difficult to comprehensively identify the candidate genes related to this trait using the single molecular biology technique. To understand the molecular mechanisms of fecundity and provide more information about high prolificacy candidate genes in high- and low-fecundity sheep, we explored the utility of next-generation sequencing technology in this work. A total of 1.8 Gb sequencing reads were obtained and resulted in more than 20 000 contigs that averaged ∼300 bp in length. Ten differentially expressed genes were further verified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR to confirm the reliability of RNA-seq results. Our work will provide a basis for the future research of the sheep reproduction.

  18. Susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to pneumonia caused by Pasteurella haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Silflow, R M; Lagerquist, J E

    1996-10-01

    We evaluated susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to bacterial pneumonia induced by two strains of Pasteurella haemolytica of domestic sheep origin by evaluating the sensitivity of blood neutrophils of eight Dall sheep to lysis by cytotoxins of P. haemolytica, and by intratracheal inoculation of three Dall sheep, two bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and two domestic sheep with 3.7 x 10(6) or 2.5 x 10(7) colony forming units of P. haemolytica. Neutrophils from the Dall sheep were more sensitive to lysis by cytotoxins from supernatants of a P. haemolytica, biotype A, serotype 2 (A2), of domestic sheep origin, than were neutrophils from six bighorn sheep. This cytotoxic bacterium was the same isolate that was used for intratracheal inoculation of two Dall sheep and two domestic sheep. Inoculation of this cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 resulted in fatal fibrinopurulent pleuropneumonia in the first Dall sheep within 24 hr of inoculation, and pneumonic lesions in the second Dall sheep before it was euthanized 52 hr after inoculation. This strain of P. haemolytica A2 did not cause respiratory disease when inoculated into two domestic sheep. A noncytotoxic strain of P. haemolytica; biotype T, serotype 3,4,10 of domestic sheep origin did not result in pneumonia in the third Dall sheep or two bighorn sheep. Prior to inoculation, P. haemolytica, biotype T isolates were obtained from all three Dall sheep, but none of these isolates was cytotoxic. At necropsy, cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 was isolated from lungs and other tissues of the two pneumonic Dall sheep. Based on these results, we conclude that Dall sheep appear to be at least as sensitive as bighorn sheep to pneumonia caused by P. haemolytica A2 of domestic sheep origin. Because in vitro and in vivo results appear closely correlated in this and other studies, we believe with additional evaluation and standardization, neutrophil cytotoxicity tests may serve as a substitute for live animal challenges in future

  19. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  20. The influence of radiation on reproduction of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanikova, A.; Pastorova, B.; Halagan, J.; Maracek, I.; Sopkova, D.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative histological changes in the sexual apparatus of slovak merino ewes were studies in the anoestrous period after irradiation (2.5 Gy) and hormonal stimulation. Estrus synchronization of the sheep has been carried out by application of 20 mg chlorosuperlutine in impregnated vaginal Ageline sponges. The sheep were hormone stimulated by application of 1500 IU of Serum gonadotrophin. The animals were killed approximately 120 h after the application of the hormone. Samples from the sexual apparatus were processed by the common histological methods for examination under a light microscope and for examination under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Despite higher number of ovulations in irradiated and hormonally stimulated sheep, the examination of viability of irradiated oocytes showed absence of pregnancy in all 20 sheep after mating. This indicated that the dose of 2.5 Gy was not harmless to the reproductive system of sheep. (authors)

  1. Gaucher disease in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgos, Litsa; Lancaster, Malcolm J; Nimmo, Judith S; Hopwood, John J

    2011-02-01

    Gaucher disease, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene, was recently discovered in sheep on a "Southdown" sheep stud in Victoria, Australia. Clinical signs include neuropathy, thickened leathery skin, and ichthyosis, with lambs unable to stand from birth. Affected lambs were found to be deficient in glucocerebrosidase activity, and mutational analysis found them to be homozygous for the missense mutations c.1142G>A (p.C381Y) and c.1400C>T (p.P467L). In addition, four silent mutations were detected (c.777C>A [p.Y259Y], c1203A>G [p.Q401Q], c.1335T>C [p.I445I], c.1464C>G [p.L488L]). The human equivalent [C342Y] to the C381Y mutation leads to an acute neuronopathic phenotype in patients. Identification of an acute neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease in sheep provides a large animal model that will enable studies of pathology and evaluation of therapies to treat this common lysosomal storage disorder.

  2. Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds using DNA markers. AAG Adam, NB Hamza, MAW Salim, KS Khalil. Abstract. The genetic variation of Najdi, Harri and Awassi breeds of Saudi sheep prevailing in Raniah province of Makka district were assessed and compared to Sudanese Desert sheep ...

  3. Breeding strategies to make sheep farms resilient to uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    The sheep industry in Western Australian has had many challenges over the last 20 years which have caused sheep numbers to decline. This decline is because sheep farms are not resilient to uncertain pasture growth and commodity prices. One way to improve resilience and profitability of farming

  4. REVEALING THE HISTORY OF SHEEP DOMESTICATION USING RETROVIRUS INTEGRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, B.; Pereira, F.; Arnaud, F.; Amorim, A.; Goyache, F.; Mainland, I.; Kao, R.R.; Pemberton, J. M.; Beraldi, D.; Stear, M.; Alberti, A.; Pittau, M.; Iannuzzi, L.; Banabazi, M.H.; Kazwala, R.; Zhang, Y.-P.; Arranz, J.J.; Ali, B.A.; Wang, Z.; Uzun, M.; Dione, M.; Olsaker, I.; Holm, L.-E.; Saarma, U.; Ahmad, S.; Marzanov, N.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Holland, M.J.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; Bruford, M.W.; Kantanen, J.; Spencer, T.E.; Palmarini, M.

    2011-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their “retrotype” and morphological traits, dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as “primitive” on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of NW Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the vast majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication. PMID:19390051

  5. Revealing the history of sheep domestication using retrovirus integrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, Bernardo; Pereira, Filipe; Arnaud, Frederick; Amorim, Antonio; Goyache, Félix; Mainland, Ingrid; Kao, Rowland R; Pemberton, Josephine M; Beraldi, Dario; Stear, Michael J; Alberti, Alberto; Pittau, Marco; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Banabazi, Mohammad H; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Arranz, Juan J; Ali, Bahy A; Wang, Zhiliang; Uzun, Metehan; Dione, Michel M; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik; Saarma, Urmas; Ahmad, Sohail; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Holland, Martin J; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael W; Kantanen, Juha; Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo

    2009-04-24

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication.

  6. Bartonella melophagi in blood of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern US: Cultures, genetic characterization, and ecological connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Enscore, Russell; Rizzo, Maria Rosales; Bender, Scott; Popov, Vsevolod; Albayrak, Levent; Fofanov, Yuriy; Chomel, Bruno

    2016-07-15

    Bartonella melophagi sp. nov. was isolated from domestic sheep blood and from sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern United States. The sequence analyses of the reference strain performed by six molecular markers consistently demonstrated that B. melophagi relates to but differ from other Bartonella species isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. Presence of 183 genes specific for B. melophagi, being absent in genomes of other Bartonella species associated with ruminants also supports the separation of this bacterial species from species of other ruminants. Bartonella DNA was detected in all investigated sheep keds; however, culturing of these bacteria from sheep blood rejects a speculation that B. melophagi is an obligatory endosymbiont. Instead, the results support the hypothesis that the domestic sheep is a natural host reservoir for B. melophagi and the sheep ked its main vector. This bacterium was not isolated from the blood of bighorn sheep and domestic goats belonging to the same subfamily Caprinae. B. melophagi has also been shown to be zoonotic and needs to be investigated further. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. MRI of experimental focal cerebral ischemia in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerschler, A.; Waldmin, D.; Gille, U.; Leipzig Univ.; Zimmer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: With respect to the specific characteristic of rete mirabile epidurale rostrale in sheep, the aim of this study was to investigate the use of time of flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to observe vascular anatomy and to validate MCA occlusion in a new model of experimental focal cerebral ischemia by permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in sheep (designed to study stroke therapy using autologous stem cells from umbilical cord blood). Furthermore, we wanted to assess the extent and natural time course of ischemic focal brain injury in sheep using functional and morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Method: 13 Merino sheep were examined. In 4 of the animals all, in 5 sheep 1 or 2 MCA branches were occluded and in 1 one case touched (sham operation). 4 controls did not undergo a surgical procedure. 23 MRI sessions were performed in 10 sheep. These sessions included T1, T2, T2 * sequences, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and TOF MRA before and 2 - 46 days after the onset of stroke using a 1.5T clinical MR scanner. Corrosion casts of the cerebral arteries of 3 sheep were prepared and compared to MRA. Results: The MRA visualized the vessel anatomy or occlusion distal to the rete mirabile. Anatomical variants concerning the variant origin of the MCA and inconstant arteria choroidea rostralis and communicans rostralis were revealed. Sheep with occluded left MCA showed space occupying lesions with a drop in ADC values. Depending on the number of preserved MCA branches (0; 1; 2), highly significant (p < 0.001) differences in lesion size (21 ± 5.7; 13; 1.7 ± 1.3 ml) could be found. No indication of ischemia but minimal contusion damage was observed in the sham operated animal. (orig.)

  8. Sheep model for osteoporosis: The effects of peripheral hormone therapy on centrally induced systemic bone loss in an osteoporotic sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oheim, Ralf; Simon, Maciej J K; Steiner, Malte; Vettorazzi, Eik; Barvencik, Florian; Ignatius, Anita; Amling, Michael; Clarke, Iain J; Pogoda, Pia; Beil, F Timo

    2017-04-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection (HPD) leads to low bone turnover followed by bone loss and reduced biomechanical properties in sheep. To investigate the role of peripheral hormones in this centrally induced systemic bone loss model, we planned a hormone replacement experiment. Therefore, estrogen (OHE), thyroxin (OHT) or a combination of both (OHTE) was substituted in ovariectomized HPD sheep, as both hormones are decreased in HPD sheep and are known to have a significant but yet not fully understood impact on bone metabolism. Bone turnover and structural parameters were analyzed in comparison to different control groups - untreated sheep (C), ovariectomized (O) and ovariectomized+HPD sheep (OH). We performed histomorphometric and HR-pQCT analyses nine months after the HPD procedure, as well as biomechanical testing of all ewes studied. In HPD sheep (OH) the low bone turnover led to a significant bone loss. Treatment with thyroxin alone (OHT) mainly increased bone resorption, leading to a further reduction in bone volume. In contrast, the treatment with estrogen alone (OHE) and the combined treatment with estrogen and thyroxin (OHTE) prevented HPD-induced bone loss completely. In conclusion, peripheral hormone substitution was able to prevent HPD-induced low-turnover osteoporosis in sheep. But only the treatment with estrogen alone or in combination with thyroxin was able to completely preserve bone mass and structure. These findings demonstrate the importance of peripheral hormones for a balanced bone remodeling and a physiological bone turnover. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  10. Evaluation of Marginal Microgaps of Two Glass-ionomer Cements (GIC in Dogs and Sheep in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Figurová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the marginal microgaps of two ionomer cements: Kavitan Plus (Spofa Dental and Vitremer (3M ESPE in dog and sheep dentition in vivo. Dentitions of sheep and dogs were restored in vivo with a conventional, glass polyalkenoic, chemically activated cement Kavitan Plus with hydrophilic properties capable and with a resinmodified glass-ionomer cement Vitremer with light-induced polymerization and autopolymerization reaction of methyl metacrylate group. The parameters of glass-ionomers were evaluated in 6 groups of animals, 2 animals in each, at various time intervals (after 1, 4 and 6 months in dogs and 3, 6 and 9 months in sheep, starting from the beginning of the experiment. The restorative materials were placed to buccal surfaces of permanent teeth. At the intervals specified, under general injection anaesthesia, throughout the experiment we extracted 24 teeth from sheep and 30 from dogs. When processing the samples of dog's teeth two samples were damaged. One month after the placement, Kavitan plus restorations became loose only in one case in dogs (80% successfulness. In sheep two Kavitan Plus restorations became loose after 9 months (50% successfulness. During the experiment we observed neither cracks nor marginal discoloration in both Kavitan Plus and Vitremer restorations. Statistically significant (P = 0.04 differences were observed in the dentin of dogs receiving glass-ionomer Vitremer restorations which exhibited lower marginal microgaps. The remaining results were non- significant (ANOVA test. Fluoride ions released from GIC support the treatment of dental hard tissues. These materials could be used as definitive restorations of class A - D cavities in dogs and dental cervical caries in sheep as well as underlying layers ofcomposite and amalgam materials.

  11. Experimental contact transmission of Pasteurella haemolytica from clinically normal domestic sheep causing pneumonia in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onderka, D K; Wishart, W D

    1988-10-01

    Two Rocky Mountain bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis canadensis) were held in captivity for 120 days before being housed with two domestic sheep. The lambs were clinically normal and had no Pasteurella spp. on nasal swab cultures. The domestic sheep were known to carry Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A in the nasal passages. After being in close contact for 19 days. P. haemolytica biotype A was cultured from nasal swabs of one of the bighorn lambs. By 26 days, both bighorn sheep developed coughs, were anorectic and became lethargic and nasal swabs yielded P. haemolytica biotype T, serotype 10. Twenty-nine days after contact, the lambs were necropsied and found to have extensive fibrinous bronchopneumonia. From affected tissues pure cultures of beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T, serotype 10 were grown. Both domestic sheep remained clinically normal and had no gross or microscopic lesions, but they carried the same P. haemolytica serotype in their tonsils. Behavioural observations gave no indication of stress in the bighorn lambs.

  12. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis, Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries, and Goats (Capra hircus in Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries and domestic goat (Capra hircus and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  13. Shared bacterial and viral respiratory agents in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus) in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J.; Keating, Kim A.; Chapman, Phillip L.; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack C.; Clarke, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  14. Trial of human laser epilation technology for permanent wool removal in Merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, I G; Cox, T; Small, A H

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether human laser epilation technology can permanently prevent wool growth in sheep. An observational study. Two commercial human epilation lasers (Sharplan alexandrite 755 nm laser, and Lumenis LightSheer 800 nm diode laser) were tested at energies between 10 and 100 J/cm2 and pulse widths from 2 to 400 ms. Wool was clipped from flank, breech, pizzle and around the eyes of superfine Merino sheep with Oster clippers. After initial laser removal of residual wool to reveal bare skin, individual skin sites were treated with up to 15 cycles of laser irradiation. Behavioural responses during treatment, skin temperature immediately after treatment and skin and wool responses for 3 months after treatment were monitored. A clear transudate was evident on the skin surface within minutes. A dry superficial scab developed by 24 h and remained adherent for at least 6 weeks. When scabs were shed, there was evidence of scarring at sites receiving multiple treatment cycles and normal wool growth in unscarred skin. There was no evidence of laser energy level or pulse width affecting the response of skin and wool to treatment and no evidence of permanent inhibition of wool growth by laser treatment. Laser treatment was well tolerated by the sheep. Treatment of woolled skin with laser parameters that induce epilation by selective photothermolysis in humans failed to induce permanent inhibition of wool growth in sheep. Absence of melanin in wool may have contributed to the result. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Integrating agroforestry and sheep feed in Mali | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Sheep herding plays a significant role in the livelihoods of rural households in Mali and other semi-arid countries of West Africa. Although sheep herding could improve the incomes of rural women, its potential is not being realized because a lack of feed reduces the meat production of sheep. Agroforestry ...

  16. haematological values of appararently healthy sheep and goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Uquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M. and Jenning, F.W. (1992). Veterinary Parasitology,. Chuchill Livingstone Inc. New York, U.S.A. pp 4-244. Wilkins, J.H. and Hodges, R.E.D.H. (1962):. Observations on normal goats blood. Royal Army Vet. Corp. J. 33:7. Received: July 1998. Revised version accepted: June ...

  17. Heart rate variability analysis in sheep affected by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konold Timm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The function of the autonomic nervous system can be assessed by determining heart rate variability (HRV, which is impaired in some brainstem diseases in humans. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs in sheep are diseases characterised by accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in the brainstem, including nuclei of the parasympathetic nervous system. This study was undertaken to assess whether analysis of HRV can be used as an aid in the diagnosis of TSEs in clinically affected, naturally or experimentally infected sheep. Findings When HRV indices were compared between 41 clinical TSE cases (18 sheep infected with scrapie and 23 sheep infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, 11 control sheep and six sheep reported as scrapie suspects or dosed with BSE brain homogenate, which were not confirmed as TSE cases by postmortem tests, no significant differences were found between the groups. Median heart rate was significantly different but only when sheep were grouped by gender: it was higher in female TSE cases than in control sheep and higher in female than castrated male ovine classical BSE cases. Conclusions HRV analysis was not useful as a diagnostic aid for TSEs of sheep.

  18. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    OpenAIRE

    bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated ...

  19. Encephalitic Sarcocystosis and its Prophylactic Treatment in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZMEN, Özlem; ŞAHİNDURAN, Şima; HALIGÜR, Mehmet; YUKARI, Bayram Ali; DORRESTEIN, Gerry M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and pathological findings in sheep naturally infected with severe encephalitic sarcocystosis and to evaluate the prophylactic effect of amprolium on the disease. From a flock of approximately 350 animals, 10 sheep were referred to the Veterinary Faculty Clinic with neurological symptoms that developed during the previous 2 weeks. These 10 sheep were clinically and pathologically examined, and the remaining animals in the flock without neurolog...

  20. Current practices on sheep and beef farms in New Zealand for depriving sheep of feed prior to transport for slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M W; Gregory, N G; Muir, P D

    2012-05-01

    To assess current practices on sheep and beef farms that deprive sheep of feed prior to transport to facilitate effluent management and processing at slaughter. A national telephone survey of 122 sheep and 346 sheep and beef farmers was conducted in March and April 2010. They were asked how long sheep were held off green feed prior to transport and why, what environment the sheep were held in, and if that period ever varied. Of the 468 respondents, 303 (65%) removed their sheep from green feed 3-12 h before transport for slaughter, with longer periods reported in the South than North Island. The main reasons given were to reduce the volume of effluent for transport operators (n=174), to prevent wool staining during transport (n=173), and that sheep were better suited to load and travel empty (n=171). Water was provided during feed deprivation by 313 farmers. The period of food deprivation could be altered in response to requirements of transporters and processors, the weather, and by the class of stock involved, although 115/468 (25%) farmers stated that they never changed their normal protocol. Amongst survey respondents, common practices compared favourably with recommendations to reduce effluent during transportation. Previous studies have investigated the effects of fasting lambs whilst in lairage prior to slaughter and focussed on carcass quality such as carcass weight and tenderness. Changes in liveweight and gastrointestinal tract contents suggest feed deprivation reduces the risk of defaecation and urination contributing to the accumulation of effluent during transport and of carcass contamination during processing. However, the point at which that risk is acceptable to transport and processing is unclear. Fasting results in physiological changes indicative of altered metabolism but it is not clear when those changes are indicative of adaptation to food deprivation or metabolic depletion and compromised welfare. There may be opportunities to improve the

  1. Use of exposure history to identify patterns of immunity to pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina K Plowright

    Full Text Available Individual host immune responses to infectious agents drive epidemic behavior and are therefore central to understanding and controlling infectious diseases. However, important features of individual immune responses, such as the strength and longevity of immunity, can be challenging to characterize, particularly if they cannot be replicated or controlled in captive environments. Our research on bighorn sheep pneumonia elucidates how individual bighorn sheep respond to infection with pneumonia pathogens by examining the relationship between exposure history and survival in situ. Pneumonia is a poorly understood disease that has impeded the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis following their widespread extirpation in the 1900s. We analyzed the effects of pneumonia-exposure history on survival of 388 radio-collared adults and 753 ewe-lamb pairs. Results from Cox proportional hazards models suggested that surviving ewes develop protective immunity after exposure, but previous exposure in ewes does not protect their lambs during pneumonia outbreaks. Paradoxically, multiple exposures of ewes to pneumonia were associated with diminished survival of their offspring during pneumonia outbreaks. Although there was support for waning and boosting immunity in ewes, models with consistent immunizing exposure were similarly supported. Translocated animals that had not previously been exposed were more likely to die of pneumonia than residents. These results suggest that pneumonia in bighorn sheep can lead to aging populations of immune adults with limited recruitment. Recovery is unlikely to be enhanced by translocating naïve healthy animals into or near populations infected with pneumonia pathogens.

  2. Risk of subacute ruminal acidosis in sheep with separate access to forage and concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commun, L; Mialon, M M; Martin, C; Baumont, R; Veissier, I

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether sheep offered free-choice intake of forage and concentrate develop subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and to identify SARA-associated feeding behavior components. In a crossover design over two 28-d periods, 11 rumen-cannulated wethers received wheat and alfalfa hay in 2 separate compartments. Concentrate and forage were provided for ad libitum access or in a fixed amount corresponding to 80% of ad libitum hay intake with a concentrate:forage ratio of 60:40 on a DM basis. In both diets, sheep were fed 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. Ruminal pH, voluntary intake, and feeding behavior were recorded continuously from d 1 to 9 and d 15 to 23 in each period. When no measurements were performed, the animals were housed in larger pens with straw bedding. When fed for ad libitum intake, the sheep ingested 1,340 g of DM/d consisting of 49.1% wheat, whereas with the fixed diet they ate 872 g of DM/d consisting of 58.4% wheat. Sheep fed for ad libitum intake spent more time with ruminal pH ruminal pH ruminal pH reached the same minimum level in both diets after main meals, time to reach pH nadir was longer with ad libitum diet (P ruminal pH increased more slowly in this diet, inducing a decreased preprandial ruminal pH (P ruminal pH may enable sheep to consume larger quantities of food. However, free access to concentrate maintains continuously elevated content of ruminal fermentation end products and so requires more time for pH to return to neutral values. Thus, interval between feed distributions should be as large as possible to help resume the preprandial ruminal pH and to limit time spent with pH <5.6.

  3. Occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum among healthy dairy animals: an emerging public health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Hamza, Dalia A

    2016-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum in the feces of dairy animals. Fecal samples were collected from 203 apparently healthy dairy animals (50 cattle, 50 buffaloes, 52 sheep, 51 goats). Samples were cultured to recover C. botulinum while human pathogenic C. botulinum strains were identified after screening of all C. botulinum isolates for the presence of genes that encode toxins type A, B, E, F. The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 18.7% whereas human pathogenic C. botulinum strains (only type A) were isolated from six animals at the rates of 2, 2, 5.8, and 2% for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats, respectively. High fecal carriage rates of C. botulinum among apparently healthy dairy animals especially type A alarm both veterinary and public health communities for a potential role which may be played by dairy animals in the epidemiology of such pathogen.

  4. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Idris Babiker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livestock markets. These markets are deficient in basic infrastructures and systematic marketing research. The system as a whole is faced by various complex obstacles and constraints, which decrease the contribution of livestock in general, and sheep in particular, to the national economy, and suppress the optimum exploitation of this resource. These obstacles are represented in the lack of transportation networks that connect the production and consumption centres to break the seasonality of supply that creates shortages and high prices at the consumption centres. This paper employs the policy analysis matrix (PAM technique to examine the Sudanese live sheep and mutton competitiveness in the international market. The results indicated that the market price was greater than the border price implying a positive incentive as an implicit subsidy to the live sheep exporter. The mutton exporters were found subsidised as well. The international value added (IVA indicted a positive foreign exchange earnings or savings. Exported live sheep and mutton coefficient of competitiveness (CIC implied that sheep and mutton exports are profitable and internationally competitive.

  5. Participatory disease surveillance (PDS) of sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Afar,Goat, Participatory disease surveillance, Sheep, PPR, Sheep and goat ... the region favors the pastoral livestock production system. ..... yellow color on carcass, in ... Foroda/Surota/ Bronchopnemonia fever, coughing, nostrils.

  6. Effects of sudden melon intake on ruminal parameters of non-adapted sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco L.C. Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of varying amounts of melon with high sugar content offered to sheep without prior melon experience and that were not adapted to consuming it. We used 12 eight-month-old, rumen-cannulated crossbred sheep weighing 25 kg each. The animals received a base diet of roughage, and then half were randomly selected to have 25% of their diet replaced with melon (G25% and the other half had 75% of their diet replaced with melon (75%. Ruminal fluid was collected before administration of melon and at 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after the administration of the fruit. Sheep from the G25% group presented volatile fatty acid ruminal acidosis (sub-acute between 3 and 6 h after consumption. This acidosis was characterized by a rumen pH slightly lower than 5.6, increased discrete L-lactic acid content, and increased redox potential (RP and methylene blue redox (MBR time of the ruminal fluid. The G75% group presented lactic ruminal acidosis at T6h, characterized by a rumen pH lower than 5.0, high lactate-L content, increased RP and MBR time, and increased ruminal fluid osmolarity. Therefore, offering large amounts of melon (75% of dry matter (DM is not recommended but 25% of DM of this fruit can be used safely.

  7. Sheep production as a Senecio spp. control tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mota Bandarra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since poisoning by Senecio spp. is one of the main causes of cattle death in southern Brazil, control of these plants is a priority for the local livestock production. After the pasture has been mowed, grazing by 16 sheep was efficient for controlling Senecio brasiliensis and Senecio madagascariensis populations in a 5.5-hectare area that had long been severely infested with these species. A total of 28,629 plants among S. brasiliensis (flower-of-souls, 10,122 and S.madagascariensis (fireweed, 18,507 were almost completely eliminated in a two-year period. The number of sheep was kept at 3.0 stock units/ha, but a variable number of cattle were temporarily stocked according to pasture availability. The major sanitary practice applied to the sheep was anthelmintic administration. Liver biopsies taken from sheep and cattle before and after experimental period didn't reveal any change associable with seneciosis. The performance levels of the sheep were comparable to those observed in flocks managed under traditional extensive grazing systems in southern Brazil.

  8. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, H.M.J.; Budisatria, I.G.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers’ conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia

  9. Dynamics of Sheep Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rezende Paiva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.

  10. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  11. Antenatal dexamethasone after asphyxia increases neural injury in preterm fetal sheep.

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    Miriam E Koome

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Maternal glucocorticoid treatment for threatened premature delivery dramatically improves neonatal survival and short-term morbidity; however, its effects on neurodevelopmental outcome are variable. We investigated the effect of maternal glucocorticoid exposure after acute asphyxia on injury in the preterm brain. METHODS: Chronically instrumented singleton fetal sheep at 0.7 of gestation received asphyxia induced by complete umbilical cord occlusion for 25 minutes. 15 minutes after release of occlusion, ewes received a 3 ml i.m. injection of either dexamethasone (12 mg, n = 10 or saline (n = 10. Sheep were killed after 7 days recovery; survival of neurons in the hippocampus and basal ganglia, and oligodendrocytes in periventricular white matter were assessed using an unbiased stereological approach. RESULTS: Maternal dexamethasone after asphyxia was associated with more severe loss of neurons in the hippocampus (CA3 regions, 290 ± 76 vs 484 ± 98 neurons/mm(2, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 and basal ganglia (putamen, 538 ± 112 vs 814 ± 34 neurons/mm(2, P<0.05 compared to asphyxia-saline, and with greater loss of both total (913 ± 77 vs 1201 ± 75/mm(2, P<0.05 and immature/mature myelinating oligodendrocytes in periventricular white matter (66 ± 8 vs 114 ± 12/mm(2, P<0.05, vs sham controls 165 ± 10/mm(2, P<0.001. This was associated with transient hyperglycemia (peak 3.5 ± 0.2 vs. 1.4 ± 0.2 mmol/L at 6 h, P<0.05 and reduced suppression of EEG power in the first 24 h after occlusion (maximum -1.5 ± 1.2 dB vs. -5.0 ± 1.4 dB in saline controls, P<0.01, but later onset and fewer overt seizures. CONCLUSIONS: In preterm fetal sheep, exposure to maternal dexamethasone during recovery from asphyxia exacerbated brain damage.

  12. Status of sheep sera to bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants and sheep pox in a few northern states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT, peste des petits ruminants (PPR and sheep pox are the most economically important viral diseases of sheep in India. Serum samples obtained from sheep in five northern states of the country were screened for antibody against these agents to explore the extent of spread of these infections. A total of 516 serum samples were screened for the presence of antibodies against BT and PPR viruses. Of these, 155 samples were also tested for antibodies against sheep pox virus. BT antibodies were found in 293 (56.8% animals, PPR virus antibodies in 215 (41.7% and sheep pox virus antibodies in 106 (68.3%. Of the serum samples tested, 25.2% were positive for antibodies against all three viruses. These findings clearly demonstrated not only the enzootic nature of disease, but also the co-existence of antibodies to more than one of these viruses which would indicate that concurrent infections were common. Therefore, control measures should focus in combating all three diseases simultaneously by exploring the possibility of a trivalent vaccine or the use of multiple genes expressing vectored vaccine.

  13. Evaluation of a commercially available molybdate formulation and zinc oxide boluses in preventing hepatic copper accumulation and thus enzootic icterus in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a molybdate formulation and a zinc oxide bolus as prophylactic agents for enzootic icterus was evaluated in sheep. Before copper loading, liver biopsies were performed on 12 male, 6-month-old, Mutton Merino sheep to determine hepatic copper (Cu and zinc (Zn concentrations. The animals were restrictively randomised according to liver copper concentrations to 3 treatment groups (n = 4 to achieve similar mean liver copper concentrations per group. All sheep received 4 m /kg of a 0.5 %aqueous solution of CuSO4·5H2O intraruminally 7 days per week for 10 weeks. On Day 0 the sheep in the Mo-group were injected subcutaneously with 42 mg molybdenum (Mo contained in a commercial molybdate formulation. The animals in the Zn-group each received a zinc oxide bolus, containing 43 g zinc oxide, via a rumen cannula. Treatment was repeated on Day 42. Four animals served as untreated controls. Urinary copper excretion, plasma copper concentration, haematocrit and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH activity were determined throughout the trial. The animals were sacrificed after 10 weeks and liver samples were submitted for histopathological examination. Liver and kidney copper and zinc concentrations were determined. Neither the molybdate treatment nor the zinc oxide boluses prevented hepatic copper accumulation. The urinary copper excretion, plasma copper concentration, haematocrit and GLDH activity were not significantly different (P > 0.05 from the controls.

  14. Brucellosis outbreak in a flock of seventeen sheep in Zaria | Onoja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is a case report of brucellosis in a flock of sheep in Zaria. The flock comprised of seventeen Yankasa sheep, 14 ewes and 3 rams, with history of 2 recent cases of abortion, a presented case of uterine prolapse and 3 cases of carpal hygroma (1st and 2nd sheep bilaterally and the 3rd sheep left unilaterally).

  15. Application of the Reverse Line Blot Assay for the Molecular Detection of Theileria and Babesia sp. in Sheep and Goat Blood Samples from Pakistan

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    A Rasul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was designed to detect the presence of tick-borne parasites (Theileria and Babesia spp. in 196 blood samples collected from apparently healthy sheep and goats from two provinces, Punjab and Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa, in Pakistan.Methods: Reverse line blot (RLB assay was applied for the parasitic detection by the amplification of hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene. A membrane with covalently linked generic and species specific oligonucleotide probes was used for the hybridization of amplified PCR products.Results: Parasites were detected in 16% of the ruminant blood samples under study. Two Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis, were identified in samples. 25, of the total 32, infected animals were from Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa.Conclusion: Sheep were more prone to tick borne haemoprotozans as 81% infected samples were sheep as compared to 19% goats (P > 0.001. Risk factor analysis revealed that male (P = 0.03, ani­mals infested by ticks (P = 0.03 and herd composed of sheep only (P = 0.001 were more infected by blood parasites.

  16. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of 32 P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney

  17. Valence of Facial Cues Influences Sheep Learning in a Visual Discrimination Task

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    Lucille G. A. Bellegarde

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emotional states of neutral (ruminating in the home pen or negative valence (social isolation or aggressive interaction. Sheep (n = 35 first had to learn a discrimination task with colored cards. Animals that reached the learning criterion (n = 16 were then presented with pairs of images of the face of a single individual taken in the neutral situation and in one of the negative situations. Finally, sheep had to generalize what they had learned to new pairs of images of faces taken in the same situation, but of a different conspecific. All sheep that learned the discrimination task with colored cards reached the learning criterion with images of faces. Sheep that had to associate a negative image with a food reward learned faster than sheep that had to associate a neutral image with a reward. With the exception of sheep from the aggression-rewarded group, sheep generalized this discrimination to images of faces of different individuals. Our results suggest that sheep can perceive the emotional valence displayed on faces of conspecifics and that this valence affects learning processes.

  18. Sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Rodriguez, Joana D'Ark; Souza, Fernando A; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; dos Santos, Ricardo Silva; Rosanese, Walter Matheus; Lopes, Werik Renato Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-07-01

    Male sheep of reproductive age were distributed into three groups: GI, a sheep inoculated (oral) with 2.0×10(5) oocysts of the P strain of Toxoplasma gondii; GII, a sheep infected (subcutaneous) with 1.0×10(6) tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii; and GIII, a sheep kept as a control (not infected). After the inoculation of the males, 12 breeding ewes, which were not pregnant and which were serologically negative for reproductive diseases (particularly toxoplasmosis), were distributed into three groups, synchronized, and subsequently exposed to natural mating with previously inoculated males. The distribution was as follows: five ewes that underwent natural mating with the GI male, five ewes that were exposed to natural mating with the GII male, and two ewes that were mated with the non-infected male (control). Serum samples of all the ewes were collected on days -30, -14, -7, -1, and 0 (days before natural mating) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, and weekly until birth; the presence of serum antibodies against T. gondii was assessed by IFAT. Using a bioassay and PCR, T. gondii was isolated from the semen of the infected reproducing sheep before mating. Following natural mating, 5 of the 12 females displayed antibodies specific for T. gondii; of these animals, two of the ewes underwent natural mating with the male inoculated with oocysts (GI) and three with the male infected with tachyzoites (GII). One of the females that displayed antibodies specific to this coccidian and that underwent natural mating with the GII sheep had a macerated fetus on the 70th day following coverage. Using a bioassay after the birth, it was possible to isolate T. gondii from samples of the "pool" of tissues from the five females that seroconverted after natural mating and from their respective lambs. Using PCR, the DNA of T. gondii was isolated from the "pool" of tissues from one and two females exposed to natural mating with the reproductive males infected with the oocysts and

  19. Long-term Bias of Internal Markers in Sheep and Goat Digestion Trials

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    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two digestion trials, one with sheep and another with goats, were conducted to evaluate the long-term bias (LTB of the indigestible dry matter (iDM, indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF and indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF internal markers. The study used eight Santa Inês castrated male sheep (average body weight of 16.6 kg distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares and eight Saanen castrated male goats (average body weight of 22.6 kg distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares. The experiments were conducted simultaneously, and the animals were housed in 1.2 m2 individual pens with wood-battened floors equipped with individual feeders and drinkers. The animals received isonitrogenous diets that were offered ad libitum and contained 14% crude protein and 70% sugar cane (with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% CaO, in natural matter percentage, corrected with 1% urea and 30% concentrate. The experiment consisted of four experimental periods of 14 d each, with the feed, leftovers and feces sampled on the last four days of each period. The marker concentrations in the feed, leftovers and fecal samples were estimated by an in situ ruminal incubation procedure with a duration 240 h. The relationship between the intake and excretion of the markers was obtained by adjusting a simple linear regression model, independently from the treatment (diets fixed effects and Latin squares. For both the sheep and goats, a complete recovery of the iDM and iNDF markers was observed (p>0.05, indicating the absence of LTB for these markers. However, the iADF was not completely recovered, exhibiting an LTB of −9.12% (p<0.05 in the sheep evaluation and −3.02% (p<0.05 in the goat evaluation.

  20. A survey on serumic zinc levels of sheep in Miandoab Province in 2008

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    A.P Rezaei Saber

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to complexity of Zinc metabolism in the body, there is much interest to study this element. Every phase of growth and development requires Zinc. Zinc deficiency leads to many complications including reproduction and fertility disorders, weakness of the immune system and occurrence of secondary infections. In this study, blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein of 200 apparently healthy sheep of Miandoab province using venoject tubes in each season of the year (a total of 800 samples following age and gender determination. Based on the one-way analysis of variance, there was a significant difference (p

  1. Forage selection and performance of sheep grazing dry annual range.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Benjamin, R.W.; Keulen, van H.

    1986-01-01

    During 114 days of grazing, sheep grazing a dry annual pasture in Israel selected the fine fraction available with a higher nutritive value. As this fraction became depleted and feed quality dropped, organic matter intake dropped from 1.73 to 0.75 kg/sheep/d. Sheep lost weight, body condition and

  2. Grasses grazed by springbok and sheep | R. | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing habits were determined by analysis of rumina from slaughtered springbok and sheep where springbok grazed together with Merino sheep in False Upper Karoo and together with Dorper sheep in Kalahari Thornveld. Results show that in both veld types, grass constituted about 39 percent of the dry mass intake of ...

  3. Effectiveness of a short-term treatment with progesterone injections on synchrony of lambing and fertility in tropical hair sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, Marlon; Ramgattie, Reeza; Siew, Narendra; Singh-Knights, Doolarie; Bourne, Gregory

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of using a low cost system for delivering progesterone as part of an estrous synchronization protocol in sheep was evaluated. In experiment 1, Barbados Black Belly ewes (n=34) and ewe lambs (n=35; 37.5±0.9 kg) were assigned to be untreated, control animals (C), or to receive PGF(2α) on d0 (PG), or receive two injections of progesterone (200mg, i.m. each) on D -5 and on D -2.5, prior to PGF(2α), on D 0 (2PPG). Treatment with 2PPG increased the proportion of animals lambing to the first service (Psynchronized regardless of physiological state. In conclusion, the two-progesterone injection synchronization protocol may be used as a practical low cost and efficient method of synchronizing estrus to reduce the lambing interval and maximize productivity in tropical breeds of sheep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ORIGIN, HISTORY AND CURRENT SITUATION OF PELIBUEY SHEEP IN MEXICO

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    Cecilio Ubaldo Aguilar Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic sheep (Ovis aries is descendant from Asian mouflon and was domesticated in the Near East. Later, sheep began its dissemination to West Africa, where it is believed that the ancestry of Pelibuey sheep came from. Pelibuey sheep were brought to America by the Spaniards to feed the crew of the boats. It is unclear whether these animals came directly from West Africa or from the Canary Islands. It is considered that Pelibuey sheep entered to Mexico between 1930 and 1940, although some authors think that this breed already existed in the country in the late nineteenth century. Since 1963, Pelibuey sheep has been the most studied breed in Mexico, due to its ability to produce in tropics, as well as its high adaptability to most agro-ecological zones of the country. A brief review about productive and reproductive traits in current Pelibuey herds, allowed to conclude that they are very similar to those of the first sheep studied almost 50 years ago. Currently, the breed has been subjected to  non-planned crosses with other breeds to increase productivity, which puts in risk this important genetic resource. Therefore, there is a need to realize the conservation of the breed.

  5. Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers’ perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n = 45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (≤50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to

  6. Determination of ionophore antibiotics nactins produced by fecal Streptomyces from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tan, Hongming; Lu, Yu; Cao, Lixiang

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the correlation between fecal actinobacteria and host animals, Streptomyces was isolated from fresh faeces of healthy sheep and secondary metabolites were analyzed. The most frequently isolated strain S161 with antibiotic activity against bacteria and fungi were analyzed. The S161 showed the highest 99 % similarity to Streptomyces canus DSB17 based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Metabolite analysis based on MS and NMR spectra showed that S161 produces nactins, cyclotetralactones derived from nonactic acid and homononactic acid as building units of ionophoretic character. Due to ionophores are antimicrobial compounds that are commonly fed to ruminant animals to improve feed efficiency, stable beneficial interactions between Streptomyces bacteria and vertebrates have been demonstrated.

  7. Gene expression and maturation evaluation of sheep oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated X protein (Bax) of matured sheep oocytes. To carry out this study, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) aspirated from sheep ovaries were cultured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with various concentrations of FSE (0, 1 and 10 μg/mL).

  8. Short- to medium-term effects of consumption of quebracho tannins on saliva production and composition in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A Z M; López, S; Ranilla, M J; González, J S

    2013-03-01

    Eight Merino sheep (49.4 ± 4.23 kg BW) and 8 Alpine goats (53.2 ± 2.51 kg BW) were used to study the effect of ingestion of quebracho tannins on salivation. Four sheep and 4 goats were individually fed a daily allotment of 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW (Control). Another 4 sheep and 4 goats were also given 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW supplemented with 50 g of quebracho/kg DM (Tannin) for a period of 64 d. The saliva secretion from the left parotid gland was collected by insertion of a polyvinyl chloride catheter into the parotid duct and the amount of parotid saliva produced recorded over three 48-h periods on d 1 and 2 (P1), d 31 and 32 (P2), and d 61 and 62 (P3) after the tannin feeding was initiated. The total amount of saliva produced was estimated from rumen water kinetics determined on d 4, d 34, and d 64 of the experiment. Experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures on each experimental unit, performing separate analysis for sheep and goats. Parotid saliva production was not affected by the sampling period in either animal species receiving the Control diet. Corresponding values for sheep were 2.04, 2.12, and 2.27 L/d (P = 0.89) and for goats 1.65, 1.79, and 1.86 L/d (P = 0.95). Sheep fed the Tannin diet produced 55, 73, and 107% of the amount of saliva recorded in sheep fed the Control diet on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Corresponding values in goats were 88, 130, and 134% on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Estimated total saliva production was not affected (P = 0.50 for sheep and P = 0.97 for goats) by the ingestion of quebracho. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in osmotic pressure, P, Mg, Ca, urea, and protein concentrations in parotid saliva. There were, however, differences in Na and K concentrations in response to the ingestion of quebracho tannins, with Na concentrations increasing (P = 0.05) and K concentrations decreasing (P = 0.04) in sheep saliva and pH increasing (P = 0.05) in goat saliva. In conclusion, the inclusion

  9. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...

  10. Sheep skeletal muscle transcriptome analysis reveals muscle growth regulatory lncRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tianle; Ji, Zhibin; Hou, Lei; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Chunlan; Wang, Guizhi; Wang, Jianmin

    2018-01-01

    As widely distributed domestic animals, sheep are an important species and the source of mutton. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the regulatory lncRNAs associated with muscle growth and development between high production mutton sheep (Dorper sheep and Qianhua Mutton Merino sheep) and low production mutton sheep (Small-tailed Han sheep). In total, 39 lncRNAs were found to be differentially expressed. Using co-expression analysis and functional annotation, 1,206 co-expression interactions were found between 32 lncRNAs and 369 genes, and 29 of these lncRNAs were found to be associated with muscle development, metabolism, cell proliferation and apoptosis. lncRNA-mRNA interactions revealed 6 lncRNAs as hub lncRNAs. Moreover, three lncRNAs and their associated co-expressed genes were demonstrated by cis-regulatory gene analyses, and we also found a potential regulatory relationship between the pseudogene lncRNA LOC101121401 and its parent gene FTH1. This study provides a genome-wide resolution of lncRNA and mRNA regulation in muscles from mutton sheep.

  11. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Overgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    of 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as controls. All sheep received a restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus. At sacrifice, cortical bone samples from the femur midshaft of each sheep were harvested, micro-CT scanned and subjected to three-point bending...... and tensile strength testing. Bone collagen and mineral were determined. Cortical porosity was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Apparent density was significantly decreased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 group....... Collagen content was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Bone mineral content did not differ between the groups. Neither the three-point bending mechanical properties nor the tensile mechanical properties differed significantly between...

  12. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement by hybrid approach using a novel polymeric prosthetic heart valve: proof of concept in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Zhang

    Full Text Available Since 2000, transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement has steadily advanced. However, the available prosthetic valves are restricted to bioprosthesis which have defects like poor durability. Polymeric heart valve is thought as a promising alternative to bioprosthesis. In this study, we introduced a novel polymeric transcatheter pulmonary valve and evaluated its feasibility and safety in sheep by a hybrid approach.We designed a novel polymeric trileaflet transcatheter pulmonary valve with a balloon-expandable stent, and the valve leaflets were made of 0.1-mm expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE coated with phosphorylcholine. We chose glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium valves as control. Pulmonary valve stents were implanted in situ by a hybrid transapical approach in 10 healthy sheep (8 for polymeric valve and 2 for bovine pericardium valve, weighing an average of 22.5±2.0 kg. Angiography and cardiac catheter examination were performed after implantation to assess immediate valvular functionality. After 4-week follow-up, angiography, echocardiography, computed tomography, and cardiac catheter examination were used to assess early valvular function. One randomly selected sheep with polymeric valve was euthanized and the explanted valved stent was analyzed macroscopically and microscopically.Implantation was successful in 9 sheep. Angiography at implantation showed all 9 prosthetic valves demonstrated orthotopic position and normal functionality. All 9 sheep survived at 4-week follow-up. Four-week follow-up revealed no evidence of valve stent dislocation or deformation and normal valvular and cardiac functionality. The cardiac catheter examination showed the peak-peak transvalvular pressure gradient of the polymeric valves was 11.9±5.0 mmHg, while that of two bovine pericardium valves were 11 and 17 mmHg. Gross morphology demonstrated good opening and closure characteristics. No thrombus or calcification was seen macroscopically

  13. [The epidemiology and etiology research of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Baiqing; Xiong, Haoming; Yang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yonghai; Qi, Meiying; Jin, Juan; Xin, Youquan; Li, Xiang; Yang, Hanqing; Han, Xiumin; Dai, Ruixia

    2015-03-01

    To identify the epidemiology and etiology characteristics of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau. The background materials of Qinghai Tibetan sheep plague found during 1975 to 2009 were summarized, the regional, time and interpersonal distribution, infection routes, ecological factors for the spread were used to analyze; followed by choosing 14 Yersinia pestis strains isolated from such sheep for biochemical test, toxicity test, virulence factors identification, plasmid analysis, and DFR genotype. From 1975 to 2009, 14 Yersinia pestis strains were isolated from Tibetan sheep in Qinghai province. Tibetan sheep, as the infection source, had caused 10 cases of human plague, 25 plague patients, and 13 cases of death. All of the initial cases were infected due to eating Tibetan sheep died of plague; followed by cases due to contact of plague patients, while all the initial cases were bubonic plague. Cases of bubonic plague developed into secondary pneumonic plague and septicemia plague were most popular and with high mortality. Most of the Tibetan sheep plague and human plague occurred in Gannan ecological zone in southern Gansu province, which was closely related to its unique ecological and geographical landscape. Tibetan sheep plague coincided with human plague caused by Tibetan sheep, especially noteworthy was that November (a time for marmots to start their dormancy) witnesses the number of Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Tibetan sheep and human plague cases caused by Tibetan sheep. This constituted the underlying cause that the epidemic time of Tibetan sheep plague lags obviously behind that of the Marmot plague. It was confirmed in the study that all the 14 strains were of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ecotype, with virulence factors evaluation and toxicity test demonstrating strains as velogenic. As found in the (Different Region) DFR genotyping, the strains isolated from Yushu county and Zhiduo county were genomovar 5, the two strain isolated from Nangqian

  14. Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Timm; Bone, Gemma; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Tortosa, Raul; Davis, Andrew; Dexter, Glenda; Hill, Peter; Jeffrey, Martin; Simmons, Marion M; Chaplin, Melanie J; Bellworthy, Susan J; Berthelin-Baker, Christine

    2008-04-29

    The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), has been attributed to prion protein genotype, strain, breed, clinical duration, dose, route and type of inoculum and the age at infection. The study aimed to describe the clinical signs in sheep infected with the BSE agent throughout its clinical course to determine whether the clinical signs were as variable as described for classical scrapie in sheep. The clinical signs were compared to BSE-negative sheep to assess if disease-specific clinical markers exist. Forty-seven (34%) of 139 sheep, which comprised 123 challenged sheep and 16 undosed controls, were positive for BSE. Affected sheep belonged to five different breeds and three different genotypes (ARQ/ARQ, VRQ/VRQ and AHQ/AHQ). None of the controls or BSE exposed sheep with ARR alleles were positive. Pruritus was present in 41 (87%) BSE positive sheep; the remaining six were judged to be pre-clinically infected. Testing of the response to scratching along the dorsum of a sheep proved to be a good indicator of clinical disease with a test sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 98% and usually coincided with weight loss. Clinical signs that were displayed significantly earlier in BSE positive cases compared to negative cases were behavioural changes, pruritic behaviour, a positive scratch test, alopecia, skin lesions, teeth grinding, tremor, ataxia, loss of weight and loss of body condition. The frequency and severity of each specific clinical sign usually increased with the progression of disease over a period of 16-20 weeks. Our results suggest that BSE in sheep presents with relatively uniform clinical signs, with pruritus of increased severity and abnormalities in behaviour or movement as the disease progressed. Based on the studied sheep, these clinical features appear to be independent of breed, affected genotype, dose, route

  15. Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Martin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, has been attributed to prion protein genotype, strain, breed, clinical duration, dose, route and type of inoculum and the age at infection. The study aimed to describe the clinical signs in sheep infected with the BSE agent throughout its clinical course to determine whether the clinical signs were as variable as described for classical scrapie in sheep. The clinical signs were compared to BSE-negative sheep to assess if disease-specific clinical markers exist. Results Forty-seven (34% of 139 sheep, which comprised 123 challenged sheep and 16 undosed controls, were positive for BSE. Affected sheep belonged to five different breeds and three different genotypes (ARQ/ARQ, VRQ/VRQ and AHQ/AHQ. None of the controls or BSE exposed sheep with ARR alleles were positive. Pruritus was present in 41 (87% BSE positive sheep; the remaining six were judged to be pre-clinically infected. Testing of the response to scratching along the dorsum of a sheep proved to be a good indicator of clinical disease with a test sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 98% and usually coincided with weight loss. Clinical signs that were displayed significantly earlier in BSE positive cases compared to negative cases were behavioural changes, pruritic behaviour, a positive scratch test, alopecia, skin lesions, teeth grinding, tremor, ataxia, loss of weight and loss of body condition. The frequency and severity of each specific clinical sign usually increased with the progression of disease over a period of 16–20 weeks. Conclusion Our results suggest that BSE in sheep presents with relatively uniform clinical signs, with pruritus of increased severity and abnormalities in behaviour or movement as the disease progressed. Based on the studied sheep, these clinical features appear to

  16. Genetic diversity of Haemonchus contortus isolated from sympatric wild blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and sheep in Helan Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Dong; Wang, Ji-Fei; Zhang, Dan-Yu; Peng, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Tian-Yun; Wang, Zhao-Ding; Bowman, Dwight D; Hou, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Zhen-Sheng

    2017-09-19

    Haemonchus contortus is known among parasitic nematodes as one of the major veterinary pathogens of small ruminants and results in great economic losses worldwide. Human activities, such as the sympatric grazing of wild with domestic animals, may place susceptible wildlife hosts at risk of increased prevalence and infection intensity with this common small ruminant parasite. Studies on phylogenetic factors of H. contortus should assist in defining the amount of the impact of anthropogenic factors on the extent of sharing of agents such as this nematode between domestic animals and wildlife. H. contortus specimens (n = 57) were isolated from wild blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) inhabiting Helan Mountains (HM), China and additional H. contortus specimens (n = 20) were isolated from domestic sheep that were grazed near the natural habitat of the blue sheep. Complete ITS2 (second internal transcribed spacer) sequences and partial sequences of the nad4 (nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene) gene were amplified to determine the sequence variations and population genetic diversities between these two populations. Also, 142 nad4 haplotype sequences of H. contortus from seven other geographical regions of China were retrieved from database to further examine the H. contortus population structure. Sequence analysis revealed 10 genotypes (ITS2) and 73 haplotypes (nad4) among the 77 specimens, with nucleotide diversities of 0.007 and 0.021, respectively, similar to previous studies in other countries, such as Pakistan, Malaysia and Yemen. Phylogenetic analyses (BI, MP, NJ) of nad4 sequences showed that there were no noticeable boundaries among H. contortus populations from different geographical origin and population genetic analyses revealed that most of the variation (94.21%) occurred within H. contortus populations. All phylogenetic analyses indicated that there was little genetic differentiation but a high degree of gene flow among the H. contortus populations among

  17. Evaluation of dairy sheep lambs supplemented with crude glycerin conveyed in water during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemilly Cristina Menezes Sá

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of crude glycerin (CG suplementation in sheep diets during pregnancy and transition period. Twenty-four Lacaune x East Friesian genotypes sheep were randomly assigned to four treatments. Diet was composed of roughage: tifton hay, and standard concentrate for the categories, being these similar among the treatments, whereas the CG differed for the supplements in (zero, 1,5, 3,0 and 4,5% of dry matter being It added to the animals’ drinking water. The sheep received supplementation during all pregnancy and lactation. Dry matter intake during gestation was reduced with the higher supplementation of CG in the animals’ drinking water, presenting a linear decreasing response and remaining until delivery. Throughout lactation, the variable presented a linear behavior with the supplementation of CG on the eighteenth day of this phase, after a quadratic behavior was observed until the end of the evaluated period. The beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids levels were not influenced by CG supplementation throughout the gestation period. CG suplementation conveyed in water did not affect negatively milk production and composition.

  18. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pazzona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella on Sheep Carcasses Slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... indicated that Salmonella is a common problem in slaughtered sheep carcasses in Adama municipal abattoir. Therefore, Sources of pathogens in food animals need to be investigated and a further study of pathogens in the food chain is recommended. Keywords: Adama Carcass Ethiopia Prevalence Salmonella Sheep.

  20. The preclinical sheep model of high tibial osteotomy relating basic science to the clinics: standards, techniques and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Dietrich; Madry, Henning

    2013-01-01

    To develop a preclinical large animal model of high tibial osteotomy to study the effect of axial alignment on the lower extremity on specific issues of the knee joint, such as in articular cartilage repair, development of osteoarthritis and meniscal lesions. Preoperative planning, surgical procedure and postoperative care known from humans were adapted to develop a HTO model in the adult sheep. Thirty-five healthy, skeletally mature, female Merino sheep between 2 and 4 years of age underwent a HTO of their right tibia in a medial open-wedge technique inducing a normal (group 1) and an excessive valgus alignment (group 2) and a closed-wedge technique (group 3) inducing a varus alignment with the aim of elucidating the effect of limb alignment on cartilage repair in vivo. Animals were followed up for 6 months. Solid bone healing and maintenance of correction are most likely if the following surgical principles are respected: (1) medial and longitudinal approach to the proximal tibia; (2) biplanar osteotomy to increase initial rotatory stability regardless of the direction of correction; (3) small, narrow but long implant with locking screws; (4) posterior plate placement to avoid slope changes; (5) use of bicortical screws to account for the brittle bone of the tibial head and to avoid tibial head displacement. Although successful high tibial osteotomy in sheep is complex, the sheep may--because of its similarities with humans--serve as an elegant model to induce axial malalignment in a clinically relevant environment, and osteotomy healing under challenging mechanical conditions.

  1. Grazing by sheep Ovis aries reduces island populations of water voles Arvicola amphibius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Frafjord

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The population of water voles Arvicola amphibius was surveyed on 21 islands in the Solvær archipelago, northern Norway, in August 2012; 11 islands with semi-wild domestic sheep Ovis aries and 10 islands without sheep. Signs from water voles are very easy to detect and were used as a measure of the population (on a scale 0-10, and the numbers of sheep were counted. The ranking of signs on islands with and without sheep was compared, and a significant difference was found. Islands with sheep had, with one exception, only very small and fragmented populations of water voles, the one exception being a fairly large Carex swamp that was not grazed by the sheep and where a moderate-sized population of voles was found. Islands without sheep had much larger populations of water voles, giving a ranking about four times higher. One reason for the devastating effect of sheep on water voles is probably the fact that the sheep are living year-round on these islands with no supplemental food.

  2. Forensic analysis of bone in Regio antebrachii of deer (Capreolus capreolus and sheep (Ovis aries in order to determine origin of animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are frequent cases of poaching in which it is necessary to determine to which animal species the prey belonged on the basis of morphological characteristics of the bone. In this case, the Department of Forensic Medicine received material for giving an expert opinion on the left and right forearm (radius and ulna and twelve pieces of the ribs. The ribs were completely broken, so in order to identify the bones as belonging to a particular animal species, only the radius and ulna were used. Forensic analysis was perfomed by comparing the osteological features of the delivered bones with those of museum specimens of deer and sheep bones. The forearm (ossa antebrachii of the deer is slender and thin, and it is massive and heavier in sheep. There are two interosseus spaces (spatium interosseum antebrachii of the forearm in the deer and only one in the sheep. The olecranon tuber (tuber olecrani of the sheep is triangular in shape, and in deer it is divided into cranial and caudal prominences. The radial tuberosity (tuberositas radii of the sheep is better defined. Based on morphological characteristics of the disputed bones we found that the submitted material originated from a doe.

  3. Comparative analysis of the number of sheep in FYR and some European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Slavica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep farming in Serbia, from year to year, notices a descending course in number of sheep, as well as in production of milk and meat. The main objective of this paper is the analysis of the number of sheep in Serbia and the surrounding countries (FYR. By comparing the current state of the total number of sheep (in 2011 with the state in the former Yugoslavia, the result shown is that there are 66% less sheep in Serbia compared to the total number seen in 1967 (base year. Compared to the last census from 2012, there is an increased number of sheep in Serbia, compared to previous year (2011 by 18.4%. Other former Yugoslav republics (FYR also have a decrease in the total number of sheep: in Bosnia and Herzegovina by 76.5%, in Montenegro by 64.3%, in Croatia by 41.3%, in Macedonia by 63.5% compared to 1967 (base year, except for Slovenia, which has an increase in the total number of sheep by 83,000 head of cattle. In paper is given overview of the number of sheep for some European countries and for some part of world, in purpose of comparison with sheep state in FYR.

  4. Ecotypic variation in population dynamics of reintroduced bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Vernon C.; Sargeant, Glen A.; Wiedmann, Brett P.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) for translocation historically has been motivated by preservation of subspecific purity rather than by adaptation of source stocks to similar environments. Our objective was to estimate cause‐specific, annual, and age‐specific mortality of introduced bighorn sheep that originated at low elevations in southern British Columbia, Canada (BC ecotype), or in the Missouri River Breaks region of central Montana, USA (MT ecotype). In North Dakota, USA, mortality was similar and typically low for adult female bighorn sheep from Montana (0.09 ± 0.029 [SE]) and British Columbia (0.08 ± 0.017) during 2000–2016. Median life expectancy was 11 years for females that reached adulthood (2 yrs old); however, mortality accelerated with age and reached 86% by age 16. Mortalities resulted primarily from low rates of predation, disease, accidents, and unknown natural causes (<0.04 [upper 90% CI]). Similar survival rates of female bighorn sheep from female bighorn sheep from British Columbia and Montana, coupled with greater recruitment of bighorn sheep from Montana, resulted in a greater projected rate of increase for the MT ecotype (λ = 1.21) than for the BC ecotype (1.02), and a more youthful age structure. These results support translocation of bighorn sheep from areas that are environmentally similar to areas that will be stocked. Potential benefits include more rapid population growth, greater resilience to and more rapid recovery from density‐independent losses, an increased possibility that rapidly growing populations will expand into adjacent habitat, increased hunter opportunity, increased connectivity among herds, and a more complete restoration of ecosystem processes.

  5. Re-visiting the nutrition of dairy sheep grazing Mediterranean pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Decandia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the light of recent findings in sheep nutrition and behaviour, the diets of grazing dairy sheep should be based on forages encompassing a variety of complementary nutritional values and containing moderate levels of complementary plant secondary metabolites, until recently regarded as "anti-nutritional". In lactating sheep, pastures of tannin-containing legumes like sulla (Hedysarum coronarium and chicory (Cichorium intybus can be integrated with annual grasses for establishing sustainable artificial pastures under rainfed conditions. Diets based on these forages, while ensuring high milking performance, can mitigate the unbalance of CP to energy ratio of grazing sheep. By grazing sulla and annual or Italian ryegrass (50:50 by area as spatially conterminal monocultures or in timely sequence (complementary grazing sheep eat more and perform better than by grazing the ryegrass pasture only. Concentrate supplementation of lactating sheep should be preferably based on fibrous sources (soyhulls or beet pulps, particularly from mid-lactation onwards and when supplementation levels are high. Milk urea concentration is confirmedly a useful monitoring tool to balance protein nutrition and curb the waste of N at animal and system level.

  6. Field and experimental symptomless infections support wandering donkeys as healthy carriers of Trypanosoma vivax in the Brazilian Semiarid, a region of outbreaks of high mortality in cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carla M F; Batista, Jael S; Lima, Joseney M; Freitas, Francisco J C; Barros, Isabella O; Garcia, Herakles A; Rodrigues, Adriana C; Camargo, Erney P; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2015-10-28

    The Brazilian Semiarid is the home of the largest herd of donkeys in South America and of outbreaks of Trypanosoma vivax infection of high mortality in dairy cattle and sheep. For a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these outbreaks and epidemiological role of donkeys, we surveyed for T. vivax in wandering donkeys and follow the experimental infection of donkeys and sheep with a highly virulent isolate from the Semiarid. Blood samples from 180 randomly selected wandering donkeys from the Brazilian Semiarid region were employed for PCV and parasitemia assessments and tested using the T. vivax-specific TviCATL-PCR assay. PCR-amplifed Cathepsin L (CATL) sequences were employed for genotyping and phylogenetic analysis. Four wandering donkeys were experimentally infected with a T. vivax isolate obtained during an outbreak of high mortality in the Semiarid; the control group consisted of two non-inoculated donkeys. We detected T. vivax in 30 of 180 wandering donkeys (16.6 %) using TviCATL-PCR. The prevalence was higher during the dry (15.5 %) than the wet season (1.1 %) and more females (23.1 %) than males (8.9 %) were infected. All the PCR-positive donkeys lacked patent parasitemia and showed normal values of body condition score (BCS) and packed cell volume (PCV). To evaluate the probable tolerance of donkeys to T. vivax, we inoculated five donkeys with a highly virulent isolate (TviBrRp) from the Semiarid. All inoculated donkeys became PCR-positive, but their parasitemia was always subpatent. A control goat inoculated with TviBrRp showed increasing parasitemia concurrently with fever, declining PCV, tachycardia, mucous membrane pallor, enlarged lymph nodes and anorexia. None of these signs were observed in donkeys. However, T. vivax from wandering donkeys shared identical or highly similar genotypes (identified by Cathepsin L sequences) with isolates from cattle and sheep outbreaks of acute disease in the Semiarid. This is the first

  7. Production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Krvavica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to learn from a survey about the production and economic characteristics of sheep production as well as economic position and developmental orientation of sheep breeders on the island of Pag. Data on production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag were collected from a survey and processed through relevant descriptive statistics methods. The respondents have on average 47 breeding sheep, 2 rams and 9 sheep intended for flock renewal rate (not older than one year; which means an average flock has 58 sheep. The average total income from sheep production in 2009 was 72,460.10 HRK. The average total production costs in 2009 were 13,260.10 HRK, including the costs of fodder and veterinary services. All farms achieved positive financial results of 59,199.90 HRK in average. As many as three quarters of respondents indicated profitability of sheep production as the main motivation to engage in sheep production; very few indicated that heritage and inability to do other jobs were the main motivation. Important limiting factors for future development of sheep breeding on the island of Pag in most farms are lack of potential heirs and high average age of farm holders. Regarding the effects of joining the European Union, half the breeders intend to improve their production and harmonise it with the EU requirements and standards; one quarter of them intend to keep the existing production capacity; and another quarter intend to quit with production.

  8. Induction of photosensitivity in sheep with Erodium moschatum (L. L'Hérit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Stroebel

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Erodium moschatum is an exotic weed in the southern and southwestern coastal areas of the Western Cape Province (WCP, South Africa. It has been suspected as the cause of photosensitivity in sheep. However, attempts to induce photosensitivity by dosing it to sheep have thus far been unsuccessful. During August 1999, 2 sheep suffering from severe photosensitivity were presented for clinical examination to the Western Cape Provincial Veterinary Laboratory (WCPVL. One sheep was sacrificed for autopsy. Except for skin lesions associated with photosensitivity, no icterus or other lesions were present. Histopathological examination of affected skin revealed epidermal necrosis while the liver had no microscopic lesions. It was therefore concluded that the sheep might have been suffering from primary photosensitivity. The farmfrom which the sheep came, situated in the Malmesbury district, WCP, was visited to determine the source of the photodynamic agent. The flock from which the sheep originated had been grazing in a camp where E. moschatum was growing abundantly and had been heavily grazed. Some remaining Erodium in the camp was collected, pulped and dosed over a period of 7 days to an adult sheep. Another sheep was dosed simultaneously with Erodium growing on the premises of the WCPVL. Both sheep developed mild photosensitivity, which was confirmed by histopathological examination of skin biopsies. It was concluded that E. moschatum can induce photosensitivity (probably the primary type in sheep if ingested in large quantities.

  9. Relationship between behavioural reactivity and feed efficiency in housed sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Williams, Andrew Richard; Maloney, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we test the hypothesis that selecting sheep for a low behavioural reactivity to stressful situations will improve their metabolic efficiency, and thereby feed efficiency, during a controlled trial in an animal house. Twenty-four Merino wethers were used, 12 each from lines selected...... for high (HBR) and low (LBR) behavioural reactivity to stressful stimuli (human presence and social isolation). The sheep were habituated to the experimental procedures for 10 days, followed by 45 days during which voluntary feed intake was measured so that total daily energy intake was quantified....... It is possible that LBR sheep may be more efficient than HBR sheep in more stressful situations....

  10. Bovicola ovis and Melophagus ovinus: Spatial distribution on Menz breed Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Mersha Chanie

    2011-01-01

    This study was done from September 2006 to May 2007. A total of 105 Menz breed sheep from Yemenze Gera Midir district in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. The spatial distribution of sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) and chewing lice (Bovicola ovis) on Menz breed sheep were examined which were naturally infested. The densities if sheep keds and lice were determined through counting after parting of the fleece/wool at five (5) points on a length of 10 cm areas of six (6) different reg...

  11. The comparison between the humoral response and the neutralizing capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural venom and Co60 irradiated venom from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with Co 60 to investigate the effects of antigen-irradiation on antivenom production in sheep. Twelve sheep were divided in two groups of 6. One group received irradiated, while the other received natural venom. Three doses of antigen were given at monthly intervals. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD 50 in mice. Weekly blood samples were obtained to evaluate anti-crotalic serum titers by indirect ELISA, neutralization capacity, and serum potency. A complete blood count, plasma protein and fibrinogen concentration, and serum albumin and globulin were also determined. At end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with ovine LD 50 , without clinical abnormalities. (author)

  12. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep, and...

  13. Radioactivity and countermeasures like clean feeding of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    It's been 25 years since the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, but there is still radioactivity remaining in the Norwegian nature. The radioactive cesium-137 is taken up by plants and fungi and transferred to animals on rangelands. In the grazing season of 2010 had 20 000 sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding to reduce radioactivity levels in the meat before slaughter. Oppland had most sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding with almost 12 000 animals. Total was paid 2.2 million in compensation to livestock owners in 2010. In the period 1986-2010 is about 2.2 million sheep have been suspended with a charge of approximately NOK 227 million. (AG)

  14. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES ON OXYTETRACYCLINE IN CAMELS, SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Al-Nazawi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC injected intravenously (IV at a dose of 5 mg/kg was determined in each of eight camels, sheep and goats. The disposition of OTC was described by two-compartment open model. Two elimination half-lives were recorded for the camel (81 min and 46.1 h, whereas in sheep and goats these were 3.2 and 3.4 h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration was 10.2, 850 and 780 g/ml at 5 minutes in camel, sheep and goats, respectively. The values of volume of distribution were 1.4, 13.4 and 12.1 litre/kg for the camels, sheep and goats, respectively. In sheep and goats, values of t1/2, Vd and clearance were found similar but different from camel, indicating exclusive distribution and substantial storage which were consistent with oxytetracycline lipophilicity and the large fat content of camel body.

  15. Sheep Model for Uterine Transplantation: The Best Option Before Starting a Human Program

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    Wellington Andraus

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study reports the first four cases of a uterine transplant procedure conducted in sheep in Latin America. The aim of this study was to evaluate the success of uterine transplantation in sheep. METHOD: The study was conducted at Laboratory of Medical Investigation 37 (LIM 37 at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine. Four healthy mature ewes weighing 40-60 kg were used as both the donor and recipient for a transplant within the same animal (auto-transplant. Institutional guidelines for the care of experimental animals were followed. RESULTS: The first two cases of auto-transplant were performed to standardize the technique. After complete uterine mobilization and isolation of the blood supply, the unilateral vascular pedicle was sectioned and anastomosed on the external iliac vessels. After standardization, the protocol was implemented. Procurement surgery was performed without complications or bleeding. After isolation of uterine arteries and veins as well as full mobilization of the uterus, ligation of the distal portion of the internal iliac vessels was performed with subsequent division and end-to-side anastomosis of the external iliac vessels. After vaginal anastomosis, the final case presented with arterial thrombosis in the left uterine artery. The left uterine artery anastomosis was re-opened and flushed with saline solution to remove the clot from the artery lumen. Anastomosis was repeated with restoration of blood flow for a few minutes before another uterine artery thrombosis appeared on the same side. All four animals were alive after the surgical procedure and were euthanized after the experimental period. CONCLUSION: We describe the success of four uterine auto-transplants in sheep models.

  16. Feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the aid of questionnaires, farm visits and personal interviews, to determine the feed and feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat producers in the area. Materials fed to sheep and goats included cut forage such as grasses, weeds, herbs, forbs, trees and shrubs, lianas, crop ...

  17. Sexual Dimorphism in Lori Sheep Vomeronasal Organ dimensions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to study the effect of gender on anatomy of vomeronasal organ (VNO) and their correlations with some external body measurements in Lori sheep. Six external body characteristics were measured on 21 Lori sheep (10 ewes and 11 rams). Heads of the animals were collected and several ...

  18. Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiretia punctata (Willd.) Desv. was associated with cattle and sheep poisoning on nine farms in the State of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. The animals were found dead or died later after showing clinical signs for up to 18 hours. Two sheep that ingested 40g/kg body weight (g/kg) of fresh P punctata...

  19. Adaptation of indigenous sheep, goats and camels in harsh grazing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W. von; Weyreter, H.; Heller, R.; Lechner, M.; Schultka, W.

    1986-01-01

    Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)

  20. Influence of Dexamethasone on Some Reproductive Hormones and Uterine Progesterone Receptor Localization in Pregnant Yankasa Sheep in Semiarid Zones of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Yahi, Dauda; Ojo, Nicholas Adetayo; Mshelia, Gideon Dauda

    2017-01-01

    Dexamethasone is widely used in both veterinary and human medical practices. However, it seems to cause some deleterious effects on pregnancy probably by causing changes in the reproductive hormone levels and their corresponding receptor concentrations. This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone on these parameters. Twenty healthy adult Yankasa sheep comprising 18 ewes and 2 rams were used for this study. Pregnancies were achieved by natural mating after estrus synchronization. Dexa...

  1. The comparison between the humoral response and the neutralizing capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural venom and Co{sup 60} irradiated venom from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netto, D.P. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva]. E-mail: mnetto@uel.br

    2000-07-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with Co{sup 60} to investigate the effects of antigen-irradiation on antivenom production in sheep. Twelve sheep were divided in two groups of 6. One group received irradiated, while the other received natural venom. Three doses of antigen were given at monthly intervals. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD{sub 50} in mice. Weekly blood samples were obtained to evaluate anti-crotalic serum titers by indirect ELISA, neutralization capacity, and serum potency. A complete blood count, plasma protein and fibrinogen concentration, and serum albumin and globulin were also determined. At end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with ovine LD{sub 50}, without clinical abnormalities. (author)

  2. Valence of facial cues influences sheep learning in a visual discrimination task

    OpenAIRE

    Bellegarde, Lucille; Erhard, Hans; Weiss, A.; Boissy, Alain; Haskell, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a) whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b) whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emot...

  3. Valence of Facial Cues Influences Sheep Learning in a Visual Discrimination Task

    OpenAIRE

    Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Hans W. Erhard; Alexander Weiss; Alain Boissy; Marie J. Haskell

    2017-01-01

    Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a) whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b) whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emot...

  4. Relationship between thoracic auscultation and lung pathology detected by ultrasonography in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Phil; Collie, Dave; McGorum, Bruce; Sargison, Neil

    2010-10-01

    The utility of routine auscultation to detect and characterise the nature of a range of superficial lung and pleural pathologies in domestic sheep was assessed using ultrasonographic examination to indicate and localise pathologies pre-mortem. Necropsy examination was then used to fully characterise the nature and extent of the lesions. Auscultation recordings were made from 10 normal sheep with no clinical evidence of respiratory disease and with absence of significant superficial lung pathology, which was confirmed initially by ultrasound examination and subsequently at necropsy examination. A further two sheep with endotoxaemia and 30 sheep with well-defined lung lesions were also examined. Increased audibility of normal lung sounds in 4/10 normal sheep was associated with tachypnoea as a consequence of handling and transport during hot weather and was also observed in the two sheep with endotoxaemia. Moderate to severe coarse crackles detected in all advanced cases of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (n=16) were audible over an area larger than the lesion distribution identified during ultrasound examination, and confirmed later at necropsy. Auscultation did not detect abnormal sounds in any of the five sheep with focal pleural abscesses (up to 10 cm diameter). Unilateral pyothorax caused attenuation of sounds relative to the contra-lateral normal lung in all three sheep with this condition. Marked fibrinous pleurisy caused attenuation of sounds relative to normal areas of lung in six sheep. No sounds resembling the description of pleural frictions rubs were heard in the sheep with marked fibrinous pleurisy (n=6) or associated with focal pleural abscesses (n=5). Routine interpretation of auscultated sound did not allow the presence of superficial lung pathology or its distribution to be accurately defined in the respiratory diseases represented in this study. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on the polymorphism of POU1F1 gene in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yan Bai

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, POU1F1 gene polymorphism was detected in five sheep populations (large-tailed Han, small-tailed Han, Yuxi fat-tailed, Lanzhou large-tailed, and Mongolian sheep, using DNA pooling and sequencing, to provide theoretical basis for the breeding of excellent sheep varieties. Three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci of POU1F1 gene were detected in five sheep populations, namely C355T (C/T, C71G (C/G, and C330G (C/G. C and T frequencies of C355T were 0.67/0.33, 0.81/0.19, 0.67/0.33, 1.00/0.00, and 0.93/0.07, respectively, in large-tailed Han, small-tailed Han, Yuxi fat-tailed, Mongolian, and Lanzhou large-tailed sheep. C of C355T locus was the dominant allele in five sheep populations. C and G allele frequencies of C330G locus were detected in Yuxi fat-tailed sheep; their frequencies were 0.75 and 0.25, respectively. C and G allele of C71G locus were only detected in Yuxi fat-tailed and large-tailed Han sheep; their frequencies were 0.87/0.13 and 0.87/0.13, respectively. The cluster analysis based on POU1F1 gene sequence showed that bactrian camel, dromedary, and wild camel clustered first, and dolphin and killer whales clustered according to taxonomy. Although the four species Tibetan antelope, buffalo, goat, and sheep were alone, they got close and the relative genetic relationship was intimate according to the dendrogram. The mutation site analysis of the POU1F1 gene in five sheep populations in this study would be favorable for uncovering the function of POU1F1 gene deeply.

  6. Characterization of inappetent sheep in a feedlot using radio-tracking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Anne L; Wickham, Sarah L; Admiraal, Ryan; Miller, David W; Collins, Teresa; Stockman, Catherine; Fleming, Patricia A

    2018-04-03

    The feeding and drinking behaviours of sheep were monitored using RFID technology at a commercial pre-embarkation feedlot in Western Australia with the aim of characterizing feeding and drinking patterns of inappetent sheep that might allow them to be treated. Feeding and drinking behaviours of sheep were compared with their survival and change in body condition. Patterns of number of visits and the time spent at feed and water troughs were analyzed for a total of 8,206 sheep, representing four consignments that were monitored for a range of 6-31 d. Data for feeding and drinking behaviours were compared for the first 6 d. For animals that were alive at exit, 18.9% of sheep attended the feed trough for less than 0.25 h d-1 (15 min per day) on day 1; this decreased to only 2.4% of sheep by day 6. Of the sheep monitored, 0.93% died (n = 76); Salmonella spp. infection was the leading cause of death (n = 40; 52.6% of all deaths) across all months and was accompanied with inanition. There was marked variability in the average time spent at the feed trough for sheep that died eventually from salmonella/inanition (contributing to the lack of statistical difference in time spent at feed trough between sheep dying from different causes; P = 0.056). Over half (55%) of the animals diagnosed with salmonella/inanition spent an average of less than 0.50 h d-1 (30 min per day) and 45% less than 0.25 h d-1 at the feed trough. There was a negative correlation (r) in time spent at the feed trough overtime for individual sheep that died from salmonella/inanition, indicating that these individuals went off their feed. This pattern was not evident for animals that died from other causes (significant difference in r values between five categories of cause of death; P = 0.040). Characterization of feeding behaviour of sheep that died from salmonella/inanition therefore appears to require more than simply monitoring daily intake. There was no difference in time spent at water troughs

  7. The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma on the skin wound healing process: A comparative experimental study in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daikh Badis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The therapeutic evaluation of the biological effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP used as a surgical adjunct to maintain the inflammatory process and to potentiate tissue healing, make the subject of recent research in regenerative medicine. This study was designed to evaluate the healing activity of PRP by its topical application on the skin experimentally injured in a sheep model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 9 adult and clinically healthy males sheep. PRP was obtained by a protocol of double centrifugation of whole blood from each animal. After sterile skin preparation, full-thickness excisional wounds (20 mm x 20 mm were created on the back of each animal. The animals were randomly divided into three equal groups of three sheep for each. In Group I, the wounds were treated with PRP, in Group II; wounds were treated with Asiaticoside; in Group III, wounds were treated with saline solution. The different treatments were administered topically every 3 days. Morphometric measurements of the contraction surface of the wounds and histopathological biopsies were carried out at the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days of healing. Results: The results of the morphometric data obtained revealed that it was significant differences recorded at the 7th and 14th day of healing in favor for animals of Group I. Semi-quantitative histopathological evaluation showed that PRP reduces inflammation during 3 first days post-surgical and promotes epithelialization in 3 weeks of healing. Conclusion: We concluded that topical administration of PRP obtained by double centrifugation protocol could potentially improve the skin healing process in sheep.

  8. Protostrongylid parasites and pneumonia in captive and wild thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, E J; Veitch, A M; Kutz, S J; Bollinger, T K; Chirino-Trejo, J M; Elkin, B T; West, K H; Hoberg, E P; Polley, L

    2007-04-01

    We describe health significance of protostrongylid parasites (Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and Protostrongylus stilesi) and other respiratory pathogens in more than 50 naturally infected Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) from the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories (1998-2002) as well as in three Stone's sheep (O. d. stonei) experimentally infected with P. odocoilei (2000-2002). Histological lesions in the brain and distribution of P. odocoilei in the muscles of experimentally and naturally infected sheep were consistent with a previously hypothesized "central nervous system to muscle" pattern of migration for P. odocoilei. Dimensions of granulomas associated with eggs of P. odocoilei and density of protostrongylid eggs and larvae in the cranial lung correlated with intensity of larvae in feces, and all varied with season of collection. Prevalence of P. stilesi based on the presence of larvae in feces underestimated true prevalence (based on examination of lungs) in wild Dall's sheep collected in summer and fall. Similarly, counts of both types of protostrongylid larvae in feces were unreliable indicators of parasitic infection in wild Dall's sheep with concomitant bacterial pneumonia associated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Pasteurella sp., and Mannheimia sp. Diffuse, interstitial pneumonia due to P. odocoilei led to fatal pulmonary hemorrhage and edema after exertion in one experimentally infected Stone's sheep and one naturally infected Dall's sheep. Bacterial and verminous pneumonia associated with pathogens endemic in wild Dall's sheep in the Mackenzie Mountains caused sporadic mortalities. There was no evidence of respiratory viruses or bacterial strains associated with domestic ruminants, from which this population of wild sheep has been historically isolated.

  9. Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria. ... Farmers kept more sheep (58.75%) than goats (41.25%). ... Disease occurrence showed that enteritis, foot rot, fracture/ dislocation, helmenthosis, mange/scabies, nutritional disorder, PPR, pneumonia and others having incidence ...

  10. Bacterial community in the rumen of Tibetan sheep and Gansu alpine fine-wool sheep grazing on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinqiang; Li, Yongjuan; Luo, Yuzhu

    2017-05-12

    The rumen microbiome plays a vital role in ruminant nutrition and health, and its community is affected by environmental factors. However, little is known about the rumen bacterial community of ruminants living in the special ecological environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) of China. The objectives of this study were to investigate the rumen bacterial community of the typical plateau sheep (Tibetan sheep, TS, and Gansu alpine fine-wool sheep, GS) grazing on the QTP, using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and to evaluate the relationship between the rumen bacterial community and the QTP environment. A total of 116 sequences (201 clones) were examined and divided into 53 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the TS library and 46 OTUs in the GS library. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences that belonged to the Firmicutes were the most predominant bacteria in both TS and GS libraries, representing 79.4% and 62.8% of the total clones, respectively. The remaining sequences belonged to Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, or were unclassified bacteria. Sequence analysis revealed that the TS and GS rumens harbored many novel sequences associated with uncultured bacteria that accounted for 63.6% and 46.8% of the total clones, respectively. Comparison of the composition and diversity of the TS and GS rumen bacteria revealed few overlapping known bacteria between the two breeds, and a higher diversity in TS. The rumen bacteria of the plateau sheep showed higher percentages of bacteria that belonged to Firmicutes and novel species compared with the low-elevation sheep. The unique bacterial community in the plateau sheep rumens is perhaps one of the major reasons that they can adapt to the harsh plateau environment. These results can help identify the rumen bacterial community of the ruminants in the QTP, and provide bacteria resources and basic data to improve ruminant productivity.

  11. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A

    2002-07-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to {sup 137}Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding

  12. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg -1 fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the 137 Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the 137 Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to 137 Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding of protein-dry matter

  13. Polymorphism in exon2 of BMP15 gene in Iranian sangsari sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zana pirkhezranian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertility rate is an economically important trait in sheep, which is influenced by genetic and environment. So far, three genes have been identified that affects this trait, one of them would be the BMP family, the most famous one is BMP15. Different mutations in the BMP15 gene, increases reproductive performance and growth rate in sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic and phylogenetic of BMP15 gene sequence in Iranian Sangsari sheep. For this purpose, the blood samples from 20 animal of Damghan station were collected. After DNA extracting, a segment of 222 bp of exon 2 of BMP15 gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. Then, all of the PCR products were sequenced. The results showed existence of four haplotypes and three significant mutations of the gene that which one of them was seen for first. In order to determine the genetic distance of Sansari sheep with other animals especially sheep breeds about 103 sequences were taken from Genebank, Then, phylogenetic trees were drawn. Genetic distances and nucleotide differences were calculated. The results showed that goat, cattle and buffalo have minimum genetic distance and monkey, human and mouse have maximum distance with Sangsari sheep and native Hindi and Kashmiri sheep have not any differences with Iranian Sangsari sheep.

  14. Genetic signatures of a Mediterranean influence in Iberian Peninsula sheep husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Filipe; Davis, Simon J M; Pereira, Luísa; McEvoy, Brian; Bradley, Daniel G; Amorim, António

    2006-07-01

    Highly adaptable and versatile populations of domestic sheep, the result of millennia of intense husbandry, are found in almost every corner of the world. Here we describe a genetic survey of sheep from the western fringe of its European distribution. We studied the mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 161 individuals belonging to 7 Portuguese sheep breeds. Our study revealed a high level of genetic diversity, with an average breed haplotype diversity of 0.983, substantially above that observed in central European breeds, as well as the presence of maternal lineages until now only found in the Middle East and Asia. A broad north-south pattern describes the most important trend in the Portuguese sheep population with a southern population clearly distinct from most other breeds. A recurrent influx of new genetic diversity, probably via the Mediterranean Sea, may explain these patterns and appears to corroborate the importance of this maritime route in the history of both mankind and livestock. Zooarchaeological studies of sheep bones from southern Portugal indicate a marked size increase during the Moslem period that may reflect an improvement of this animal--perhaps part of the well known "Arab agricultural revolution" in Andalusia. This could have been a time when the gene pool of Iberian sheep was substantially enriched and may help to explain the history of modern sheep breeds in this peninsula.

  15. An Outbreak of Sheep Pox in Zabajkalskij kray of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksyutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Agafonov, A P; Taranov, O S; Glotov, A G; Miheev, V N; Shchelkunov, S N; Sergeev, A N

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we investigated recent sheep pox outbreaks that occurred in Ononsky and Borzunsky regions of Zabajkalskij kray of Russia. The outbreaks involved in 2756 animals of which 112 were infected and 3 were slaughtered. Samples of injured skin of infected sheep were analysed by electron microscopy and CaPV-specific P32 gene amplification. Following sequence analysis of entire P32 gene showed that both specimens were identical to the sequence of several sheep poxvirus isolates from China and India. The close location of China to the last decade's Russian outbreaks suggest that possible future outbreaks in Russia could occur along the border regions with countries where sheep and goat pox are not controlled. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus response to feces and urine from sheep (Ovis aries and reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein R. Moe

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available In many Norwegian alpine and tundra areas sheep and reindeer graze sympatrically. Areas covered with dung or urine may have consequences for reindeer pasture utilization. Experiments were conducted on 5 stall fed male reindeer calves where animals were individually presenred with two troughs (experimental and control containing 200 g of concentrate. Fresh and dry sheep and reindeer pellets (50 g wet weight were mixed with the concentrate in the experimental trough and the aversive response was tested against the control. Both fresh sheep (P < 0.0001 and reindeer (P < 0.0001 pellets were associated with aversive response by reindeer. A similar response was found for dry sheep (P = 0.006 and dry reindeer (P = 0.0009 pellets. Similar trials were conducted using sheep and reindeer urine (20 g sprayed evenly on the food and the aversive response by reindeer was tested against the control (sprayed with 20 g of water. Both sheep and reindeer urine stimulated an aversive response by reindeer {P = 0.03 for both tests. The differences in the aversive response of reindeer ro fresh sheep and reindeer pellets, dry sheep and reindeer pellets and sheep and reindeer urine were also tested. No differences by reindeer were found between sheep and reindeer pellets, either for fresh (P = 0.28 or dry (P = 0.07, or between food treated with sheep and reindeer urine (P = 0.28. Possible habituation to sheep and reindeer pellets was tested using 8 consecutive trials with dry pellets, followed by 2 additional trials when dry pellets were soaked in water. This was done to simulate natural dry periods followed by rain showers. Habituation effects were found in trials with dry sheep and reindeer pellets. Subsequent trials with fecal pellets soaked in water significantly reduced food intake when compared with the last habituation trial with dry pellets (P < 0.05.

  17. Recognition of lameness and decisions to catch for inspection among sheep farmers and specialists in GB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green LE

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have used farmer estimates of the prevalence of lameness in their flocks. This assumes that farmers can identify lame sheep. Eight movie clips of sheep with locomotion from sound to moderately lame were used to investigate the ability of farmers and sheep specialists to recognise lame sheep. Each participant was asked to complete a form and indicate, for each movie clip, whether they thought the sheep was lame and whether they would catch it if it was the only lame sheep or if 2 – 5, 6 – 10 or > 10 sheep were equally lame. The farmers' responses were compared with their estimates of flock lameness prevalence and the interval between observing a lame sheep and catching it. Results 178 farmers and 54 sheep specialists participated. Participants could identify even mildly lame sheep but made a separate decision on whether to catch them. This decision was dependent on the severity of lameness and the number of sheep lame in a group. Those who said they would catch the first lame sheep in a group were significantly more likely to catch mildly lame sheep (farmer-reported median prevalence of lameness 5% (IQR: 2%–6%. In contrast, farmers who waited for several sheep to be lame indicated that they would only catch more severely lame sheep (farmer reported median flock lameness 11% (IQR: 9%–15%. Approximately 15% of farmers did not catch individual lame sheep (farmer reported median flock lameness 15% (IQR: 10%–15%. The flock prevalence of lameness increased as time to treatment increased and time to treatment was positively correlated with only catching more severely lame sheep. Conclusion If movie-clips are similar to the flock situation, farmers and specialists can recognise even mildly lame sheep but vary in their management from prompt treatment of the first lame sheep in a group to no individual sheep treatments. The former practices would be appropriate to minimise transmission of footrot, a

  18. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the HIRA Gene Affect Litter Size in Small Tail Han Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of appropriate levels of fecundity is critical for efficient sheep production. Opportunities to increase sheep litter size include identifying single gene mutations with major effects on ovulation rate and litter size. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS data of 89 Chinese domestic sheep from nine different geographical locations and ten Australian sheep were analyzed to detect new polymorphisms affecting litter size. Comparative genomic analysis of sheep with contrasting litter size detected a novel set of candidate genes. Two SNPs, g.71874104G>A and g.71833755T>C, were genotyped in 760 Small Tail Han sheep and analyzed for association with litter size. The two SNPs were significantly associated with litter size, being in strong linkage disequilibrium in the region 71.80–71.87 Mb. This haplotype block contains one gene that may affect litter size, Histone Cell Cycle Regulator (HIRA. HIRA mRNA levels in sheep with different lambing ability were significantly higher in ovaries of Small Tail Han sheep (high fecundity than in Sunite sheep (low fecundity. Moreover, the expression levels of HIRA in eight tissues of uniparous Small Tail Han sheep were significantly higher than in multiparous Small Tail Han sheep (p < 0.05. HIRA SNPs significantly affect litter size in sheep and are useful as genetic markers for litter size.

  19. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  20. Effect of chronic copper poisoning on the kidneys of sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopinath, C; Hall, G A; Howell, J M.C.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of copper poisoning on kidneys was studied in 16 housed sheep given a daily drench of copper sulfate at the rate of 20 mg CuSO/sub 4/5H/sub 2/O per kg body weight. Seven similar sheep were kept as controls. All sheep were bled and weighed at weekly intervals, urine was collected via a catheter from groups of sheep at varying times and animals were killed in groups throughout the experiment. Nine sheep were allowed to develop the hemolytic crisis. Prior to hemolysis copper levels in the liver and copper and iron levels in the kidneys rose significantly, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic granules became numerous in the epithelium of the proximal convoluted tubules (PCT), but significant changes were not detected by the histochemical methods used nor was kidney function impaired. In the animals that developed hemolysis there was degeneration, necrosis and loss of enzyme activity from the cells of the PCT. The tubule cells contained large amounts of hemoglobin, copper and iron and much of this material seemed to be localized in intracytoplasmic granules that were probably lysosomes. There was marked functional impairment at this time and blood urea levels began to rise. These lesions, an interstitial fibroblastic and inflammatory cell response together with changes suggestive of tubular regeneration were seen in the posthemolytic group of sheep.

  1. Doramectin and albendazole resistance in sheep in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.D.; Huijbers, R.

    2007-01-01

    A faecal egg count reduction test was conducted on a sheep farm with suspected avermectin resistance. Five groups of 10 sheep were formed. Group 1 was the untreated control group. Groups 2¿5 were treated according to weight with the recommended dose of, respectively, levamisole, doramectin,

  2. The efficacy of showers for control of ectoparasites of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, A C; Quick, M P

    1978-01-21

    Ectoparasites of sheep in Britain include the tick Ixodes ricinus, the blowfly, Lucilia sericata, the ked, Melophagus ovinus and the lice, Damalinia ovis and Linognathus ovillus. The most important ectoparasite, however, is the mite Psoroptes communis ovis which causes sheep scab. This notifiable disease was eradicated from Britain in 1952 but was reported again in 1973. The control of ectoparasites depends largely on the efficient application of insecticide to the fleece and skin. Plunge dipping in a bath is generally regarded as the most efficient method and is compulsory for the control of sheep scab but it is not always the most convenient. After the eradication of sheep scab in 1952 plunge dipping was no longer compulsory and jetting, spraying and showering techniques were then employed for the other ectoparasites.

  3. A comparative study of the fatty acid profiles in commercial sheep cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, C.; Toro-Mujica, P.; Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the FA profile of sheep cheese marketed in Chile. Fifty-eight cheeses were collected from supermarkets of 5 different Chilean cities including 34 sheep cheeses, 7 from goat's milk, 11 from cow's milk, 4 from a mixture of sheep, goat and cow's milk...

  4. Microsatellite based genetic structure of regional transboundary Istrian sheep breed populations in Croatia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gutierrez-Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize

  5. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem.

  6. Influence of Nutrition in Milk Production of Sheep and Lambs in Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Roşu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sheeps breeding is an old and traditional activity in Romania country. Depending on the number of sheeps and goats, Romania ranks in the fourth among E.U. countries. The research was conducted on three groups of sheeps, from same breed. All groups sheeps were feeding with the same amount of food, but the ratio structure was different, in the following scheme conformities: group I - has been used a fibrous ratio; group II – has been used a juicy ratio; group III – has been used a concentrate ratio. Also, in all the groups was recorded the milk production and the weight of lambs in the first month of the life. Based on research conducted, the fallowing conclusions were drawn: The highest milk production was produced by sheeps in group I and group II; The weight of lambs in the first month of life was also influenced by the mother sheeps ratio structure; The largest increase growth was made of lambs coming from a group III, and the smallest increase was made of lambs coming a group II. As a general conclusion, the best results are obtained when the mother sheeps are fed with concentrate ratio type and fibrous ratio type.

  7. Genetic distances and phylogenetic trees of different Awassi sheep populations based on DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Atiyat, R M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-08-27

    This study aimed to estimate evolutionary distances and to reconstruct phylogeny trees between different Awassi sheep populations. Thirty-two sheep individuals from three different geographical areas of Jordan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were randomly sampled. DNA was extracted from the tissue samples and sequenced using the T7 promoter universal primer. Different phylogenetic trees were reconstructed from 0.64-kb DNA sequences using the MEGA software with the best general time reverse distance model. Three methods of distance estimation were then used. The maximum composite likelihood test was considered for reconstructing maximum likelihood, neighbor-joining and UPGMA trees. The maximum likelihood tree indicated three major clusters separated by cytosine (C) and thymine (T). The greatest distance was shown between the South sheep and North sheep. On the other hand, the KSA sheep as an outgroup showed shorter evolutionary distance to the North sheep population than to the others. The neighbor-joining and UPGMA trees showed quite reliable clusters of evolutionary differentiation of Jordan sheep populations from the Saudi population. The overall results support geographical information and ecological types of the sheep populations studied. Summing up, the resulting phylogeny trees may contribute to the limited information about the genetic relatedness and phylogeny of Awassi sheep in nearby Arab countries.

  8. Do Welsh hill farmers dream of radioactive sheep?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Gwyn; Williams, Aled; Last, D.

    1993-01-01

    A low-power portable device is being used successfully in North Wales to provide precise position-logging of sheep grazing on upland hill pastures following irradiation by fallout from the Chernobyl reactor. This follows the discovery that radiation levels appear to vary significantly among sheep from the same flock, suggesting hot-spots of radiation. The design and execution of the system is described. (UK)

  9. Reproductive health status of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed to provide basic information regarding reproductive status of Gaddi sheep reared by nomadic tribe of Himachal Pradesh. Female genitalia of Gaddi sheep (n=190) were collected from unorganized abattoirs around Palampur over a period of one and half years. Out of total genitalia examined, 80.53% ...

  10. Performance Of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Diets Supplemented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to investigate the possible growth promoting effect of rare earth elements (REE) in growing West African dwarf sheep as well as their influence on the haematological and blood serum biochemical changes was conducted for 12 weeks. Forty West African dwarf sheep were allotted to four dietary treatments: a ...

  11. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersissa Kumsa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p  0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

  12. Nematodiasis in sheep and goats kept under traditional farming practice in Batujajar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriajaya

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the relation of age, sex, season and reproduction on gastrointestinal nematode parasitism of the two most commonly kept breeds of sheep and goat in Bogor district. A total of 119 Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT sheep and 130 Peranakan Etawah (PE goats with different age and sex were monitored for 16 months. Age of sheep and goat was divided into 3 groups respectively, i.e. before weaning (8 months 31 and 35. Each 4 weeks, individual faeces were collected and individual animals were weighed. Information on the mortality, morbidity, pregnancy, slaughtered and sold was recorded. The results showed that Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. were dominant species of nematodes found in the faecal cultured. In the period of monitoring, egg counts of nematodes in sheep were higher (P<0.05 than in goats, however both animals have similar pattern of egg counts. In the first three months, the egg counts remained steady relatively in 3 groups of age, but soon after that the egg counts increased and reached its peak (in March of 6186 eggs in sheep and 3434 in goats, there after they decreased along with the onset of dry season. A part from this, the egg counts increased (P<0.05 three months before lambing and remained steady until 2 months after partus in sheep, but not in goats. During the monitoring period, weight gain in wet season was lower (P<0.05 as compared to dry season. There was no effect of sex on faecal egg count in either sheep or goats although male sheep had higher egg counts than female sheep had in November and January. Evidence of diarrhoeic faeces was higher in wet season than in dry season.

  13. Taenia ovis: an emerging threat to the Chinese sheep industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yadong

    2016-07-26

    Taenia ovis is a tapeworm that is mainly transmitted between dogs and sheep. Although T. ovis infection is not a public health issue, it causes a great financial loss due to condemnation of carcasses.  The first outbreak of T. ovis infection in China occurred in 2015. Reassessment of adverse effects of T. ovis infection on Chinese sheep industry in future is necessary. The first T. ovis outbreak in China suggests that the epidemic situation across the country is underestimated. For the transmission of T. ovis, many factors, including eggs, dogs and wild canids, human behaviours and sheep trade, should be seriously considered. In blocking the transmission chain, regular treatments of the infected dogs using anthelmintics play a crucial step, but at the moment it is difficult to be fully executed in China, largely due to the behaviours, customs and faith of local farmers. Moreover, combined with no clinical symptoms in the infected adult sheep and goats, the lack of pre-mortem diagnostic tools makes it harder to practice a national wide surveillance as well as inspection and quarantine in increasingly frequent free sheep trade activities in China, leading to an inability to restrict T. ovis infection into small areas. Furthermore, the ongoing campaigns against Echinococcus granulosus may have an adverse effect on control of T. ovis infection because of no consideration of a role of dogs in the transmission of the parasite. Lack of national epidemic data, pre-mortem diagnostic reagents and vaccines severely hampers the implementation of disease control campaigns and the restriction of T. ovis infection into small areas. Consequently, sheep and goats are at an increasing risk of T. ovis exposure and the possibility of large-scale outbreaks across China in future is possible, causing great adversity towards sheep industry.

  14. Radionuclides in sheep grazing near old uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Malta, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico/Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear/ (IST/CTN), Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - ao km 139,7, - 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lemos, M.E. [Servicos de Alimentacao e Veterinaria da Regiao Centro, Bairro Na Sra dos Remedios, 6300 Guarda (Portugal); Vala, H.; Esteves, F. [Escola Superior Agraria de Viseu, Quinta da Alagoa, Estrada de Nelas, Ranhados,3500-606 Viseu (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    During the past century extensive uranium mining took place in Portugal for radium and uranium production. Many uranium deposits were mined as open pits and after ore extraction and transportation to milling facilities, mining wastes were left on site. One uranium ore mining site, Boco Mine, was extracted in the 1960's and 70's and mining waste and open pits were left uncovered and non-remediated since closure of uranium mining activities. During the nineties a quarry for sand extraction was operated in the same site and water from a local stream was extensively used in sand sieving. Downstream the mine areas, agriculture soils along the water course are currently used for cattle grazing. Water from this stream, and water wells, soil, pasture and sheep meat were analyzed for radionuclides of the uranium series. The U- series radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was generally the highest in concentrations especially in soil, pasture, and in internal organs of sheep. Ra-226 concentrations averaged 1093±96 Bq/kg (dry weight) in soil, 43±3 Bq/kg (dw) in pasture, and 0.76±0.41 Bq/kg (dw) in muscle tissue of sheep grown there. Other sheep internal organs displayed much higher {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such as the brain and kidneys with 7.7±2.3 Bq/kg (dw) and 28±29 Bq/kg (dw), respectively. Results of tissue sample analysis for sheep grown in a comparison area were 2 to 11 times lower, depending on the tissue. Absorbed radiation doses for internal organs of sheep were computed and may exceed 20 mSv/y in the kidney. Although elevated, this absorbed radiation dose still is below the threshold for biological effects on mammals. Nevertheless, enhanced environmental radioactive contamination mainly due to radium was observed in the area of influence of this legacy uranium mine and there is potential food chain transfer for humans (authors)

  15. Developing an Ethically Acceptable Virtual Fencing System for Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Marini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To ensure animal welfare isn’t compromised when using virtual fencing, animals must be able to associate a benign conditioned stimulus with an aversive stimulus. This study used an associative learning test to train 30, four-year-old, Merino x Suffolk ewes, to associate an audio cue with an electric stimulus. Collars manually controlled by a GPS hand-held unit were used to deliver the audio and electric stimuli cues. For the associative learning, when sheep approached an attractant at a distance of three m from the trough, an audio cue was applied for one s. If the sheep stopped or changed direction, the audio cue ceased immediately and no electrical stimulus was applied. If the sheep did not respond to the audio cue it was followed by a low-level electrical stimulus. Approaches to the attractant significantly decreased from day one to day two. It took a mean of three pairings of the audio cue and electrical stimulus for a change in behaviour to occur, after which sheep that approached the attractant had a 52% probability of avoiding the electrical stimulus and responding to the audio cue alone. Further research is required to determine whether sheep can be trained to associate an audio cue with a negative stimulus for use in group grazing situations.

  16. Quartz exposure, retention, and early silicosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin, R; Dufresne, A; Cantin, A; Possmayer, F; Sébastien, P; Fabi, D; Bilodeau, G; Martel, M; Bisson, D; Pietrowski, B

    1989-05-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to investigate the chronology of events in cellular and biochemical changes thought to be important in the development of silicosis, (2) to relate these to changes in lung function and radiograph, and (3) to evaluate the relation of quartz exposure and retention to individual response leading to early silicosis. Thirty-six sheep were exposed by repeated intratracheal infusion at 10-day intervals to 100 mg Minusil-5 in 100 ml saline (Si group), and 10 sheep were exposed at the same intervals to 100 ml saline (control). All sheep were investigated at 3-month intervals by chest radiograph, lung function, and lung lavage. At month 9, chest radiograph score of parenchymal opacities was significantly increased at 2.8 +/- 0.6 versus 0.4 +/- 0.4 in the Si group (p less than .05), establishing early radiologic silicosis. Lung function was significantly altered with reduction in lung compliance, vital capacity, and diffusion capacity (p less than .05). Lung lavage cellularity revealed significant increase in total cells (X 2.5), macrophages (X3), and neutrophils (X3). Albumin in BAL remained at the control level. Fibronectin production was significantly increased, as was the fibroblast growth activity, without significant change in procollagen 3 at this early stage of disease. Total phospholipids were significantly elevated in the Si-exposed sheep, and the profile demonstrated an increase in all the phospholipid components. Spontaneous release of hydrogen peroxide by alveolar cells was not increased, but in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) higher levels of peroxide were found in the quartz-exposed sheep (p less than .05). The cellular and biochemical alterations of lung lavage preceded other changes. At month 12, there were good correlations (r greater than .49, p less than .001) between parameters evaluating related phenomena but poor correlations between measurements evaluating different aspects of the disorder. To

  17. Antiparasitic efficacy of ivermectin in naturally parasitized sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazwinski, T A; Greenway, T; Presson, B L; Pote, L M; Featherstone, H; Williams, M

    1983-11-01

    Sixteen sheep harboring naturally acquired parasitisms were allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups: (i) sheep given ivermectin in an oral solution at the dosage rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight, and (ii) those given the vehicle at a dosage rate of 0.25 ml/kg. All animals were necropsied at 2 weeks after treatment. Parasites and percentages of parasitic reductions, as demonstrated in this trial, were: Dictyocaulus filaria (99.4%), Oestrus ovis first stage instars (100%), Trichuris ovis (98.9%), Strongyloides papillosus (99.8%), Nematodirus spathiger (100%), arrested 4th stage Nematodirus spp (96.2%), Trichostrongylus colubriformis (100%), T axei (100%), Oster tagia circumcincta (100%), Haemonchus contortus (100%), and arrested Haemonchus spp 4th stage larvae (99.9%). The sheep showed no adverse effects due to ivermectin or vehicle administration.

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of Onderstepoort Biological Products’ Rift Valley fever Clone 13 vaccine in sheep and goats under field conditions in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modou M. Lo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This blinded field safety study was conducted in Senegal to assess safety and immunogenicity of administration of the registered dose of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV Clone 13 vaccine (Onderstepoort Biological Products to sheep and goats of West African breeds under natural conditions. A total of 267 small ruminants (220 sheep, 47 goats were included; half received RVFV Clone 13 vaccine at the recommended dose and half received the diluent (as placebo only. The study was performed on three commercial farms in the northern and eastern region of Senegal in accordance with veterinary good clinical practices. The animals were observed daily for 3 days after vaccination, and then weekly for 1 year. In both sheep and goats vaccinated against RVFV seroconversion rates above 70% were recorded. No seroconversion related to RVFV was observed in placebo-treated animals. No statistically significant differences were determined between placebo and vaccinated groups for mean rectal temperatures for the first 3 days after administration (p > 0.05. No abnormal clinical signs related to treatment were noted, and only one slight injection site reaction was observed in one vaccinated animal for 2 days after vaccination. Out of 176 births assessed over 1 year (93 from the vaccinated group, 83 from the placebo group, 9 were abnormal in the placebo group and 3 in the vaccinated group (p > 0.05. The frequency of adverse events was similar in the placebo and vaccinated groups. RVFV Clone 13 vaccine administered according to the manufacturer’s instructions was safe and well tolerated in West African breeds of sheep and goats, including animals of approximately 6 months of age and pregnant females, under field conditions in Senegal. Antibody levels persisted up to 1 year after vaccination.

  19. Sheep oocyte expresses leptin and functional leptin receptor mRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Jalil Taheri

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The result of present study reveals that leptin and its functional receptor (Ob-Rb mRNA are expressed in sheep oocyte and further studies should investigate the role(s of leptin on sheep oocyte physiology and embryo development.

  20. Sheep do not have a major role in bovine herpesvirus 1 transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.J.; Vellema, P.; Schukken, Y.H.; Barkema, H.W.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Wentink, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    With regard to BHV1 eradication programs in cattle it is important to know whether sheep can he a reservoir of BHV1. We therefore performed an experiment that consisted of three phases. In phase 1, 10 sheep were inoculated with high doses of BHV1 and kept in close contact with 5 sheep and 5 calves.

  1. Emerging cases of chlamydial abortion in sheep and goats in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spičic, Silvio; Račić Ivana; Andrijanić, Milan; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Stepanić, Maja; Cvetnić, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    In a recent lambing season (2012/2013), the seroprevalence of ovine chlamydiosis was monitored in small ruminant abortion cases in Croatia. Blood samples of 93 sheep and 69 goats were examined. In addition, 50 sheep and 61 goat samples were tested using molecular methods. Furthermore, 14 sheep blood samples, one goat blood sample and one sheep placenta sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) were also tested as a part of inter-laboratory cooperation. Overall high seroprevalence was detected in sheep, 19.6% with the ELISA IDEXX kit and 20.5% with the ClVTEST kit. Seroprevalence in goats was 11.4%. In BIH, four sheep and one goat blood sample were seropositive for chlamydiosis. The disease causing agent, Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) was confirmed using molecular methods in two sheep flocks in continental Croatia and in one sheep flock in BIH. In this study, C. abortus infection in sheep was identified for the first time in Croatia using species specific molecular methods. Ovine chlamydiosis is present in national sheep and goat flocks in Croatia and BIH. Thus should be subject to ongoing controls in the case of abortion. A combination of serological and molecular methods should be used for optimal laboratory diagnostics of C. abortus.

  2. Influence of Dexamethasone on Some Reproductive Hormones and Uterine Progesterone Receptor Localization in Pregnant Yankasa Sheep in Semiarid Zones of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahi, Dauda; Ojo, Nicholas Adetayo; Mshelia, Gideon Dauda

    2017-01-01

    Dexamethasone is widely used in both veterinary and human medical practices. However, it seems to cause some deleterious effects on pregnancy probably by causing changes in the reproductive hormone levels and their corresponding receptor concentrations. This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone on these parameters. Twenty healthy adult Yankasa sheep comprising 18 ewes and 2 rams were used for this study. Pregnancies were achieved by natural mating after estrus synchronization. Dexamethasone was administered at 0.25 mg/kg body weight on days 1, 3, and 5 during first trimester; days 51, 53, and 55 during second trimester; and days 101, 103, and 105 during the third trimester. Blood samples were collected biweekly for hormonal assay. Uterine biopsies were harvested through caesarean section for immunohistochemical analysis. Results showed that dexamethasone significantly ( p progesterone concentrations and caused abortion in Yankasa sheep but had no significant ( p > 0.05) effect on estrogen, while progesterone receptors (PR) were upregulated. The abortion could probably be due to decreased progesterone concentrations as a consequence of the adverse effects on placenta. The PR upregulation may be a compensatory mechanism to increase progesterone sensitivity. It was concluded that dexamethasone should not be used in advanced pregnancy in Yankasa sheep.

  3. Growth performance of indigenous sheep fed Sporobolus virginicus grass hay grown in saline desert lands and irrigated with high salt content ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadrami, G A; Al-Shorepy, S A; Yousef, A M

    2010-12-01

    Twenty-eight indigenous ewe lambs (6 months of age and 14.4 kg body weight (BW)) were used to evaluate the effect of feeding Sporobolus grass hay (SGH) as the only source of forage on growth, and feed and water intakes. The ewe lambs were randomly and equally allocated to two treatment groups (14 lambs/group). The ewe lambs in group 1 (treatment 1) received SGH, while lambs in group 2 (treatment 2) received Rhodes grass hay (RGH) as the only source of forage. Water was available at all times for both treatment groups. Sporobolus grass was irrigated with brackish water of high salt content (20,000 ppm) and grown in saline desert lands (sabkha) in the United Arab Emirates. The average daily dry matter intake was significantly (P  .05) between the two groups at all stages. From these data, we conclude that SGH can replace Rhodes hay in sheep diet without significant effect on sheep performance.

  4. Transfer of single dose of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab and bevacizumab into milk of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Cakmak Argun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether single-dose intravitreal injections of bevacizumab and ranibizumab transfer into milk. METHODS: This study included lactating 12 sheep and a single 3-month old suckling lamb of each sheep. Two groups consisting of 6 sheep and their lambs were constituted; the ranibizumab group and the bevacizumab group before the administration of intravitreal injections, blood and milk samples were obtained from all sheep and, following the injections, blood and milk samples of all sheep and blood samples of all lambs were collected at regular time points. Serum and milk concentrations of bevacizumab and ranibizumab were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The limit of determination was 0.9 ng/mL for bevacizumab and 0.62 ng/mL for ranibizumab. RESULTS: At 6h after intravitreal injections, bevacizumab concentration was above the limit of determination in the blood of all sheep. At 3wk, when the study was terminated, bevacizumab concentrations were high in 4 sheep. Even though bevacizumab concentrations in milk showed fluctuations, the drug transferred into the milk of all sheep at detectable concentrations. Ranibizumab drug concentrations in the blood and milk of sheep and those in the blood of lambs were below the limit of determination by the ELISA kit. CONCLUSION: This sheep model study demonstrate that intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, which did not transfer into the milk of sheep and suckling lambs, is safer than bevacizumab during lactation period.

  5. Correlations between hematological, parasitological patterns and animal performance of sheep supplemented with protected fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Alves Costa Afonso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of populations of gastrointestinal parasites resistant to antihelmintics has led to seeks new alternatives its control. Stimulation of natural immunity by means of animal nutrition has shown promising results in controlling nematodes in sheep. The addition of protected fat sources, containing essential fatty acids, may be an alternative due to many effects, among them, regulation of immunity expression and regulation of the inflammatory response by immune effectors. The aim of this study was to estimate correlations between haematological and parasitological patterns, animal performance through weight and body condition, under the influence of protected fat in ewes. Fifty Santa Ines sheep, in the final third of pregnancy or postpartum, in paddocks of Panicum maximum, received, individually, 200 g per day of concentrate, isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, with or without the addition of protected fat. In general, except for total leukocytes and eosinophils, almost all of Pearson correlation coefficients of other variables were significant. However, the protected fat, in the amount offered, had no antihelmintic effect.

  6. Radio phosphorus kinetics in the blood of sheep supplemented with dicalcium phosphate, mono ammonium phosphate, triple superphosphate and Tapira rock phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim to study the kinetics of radio phosphorus ( 32 P) in the blood of animals supplemented with dicalcium phosphate (BIC), mono ammonium phosphate (MAP), triple superphosphate (SPT) and Tapira rock phosphate (TAP), 32 male sheep were kept in metabolic cages at the Animal Science Section / CENA - USP. Plasma was obtained by centrifugation and the specific activity, rate of disappearance and half life of 32 P in plasma were determined. In the red blood cells were determined the uptake rate of the radioisotope, the rate of disappearance and half life of 32 P up taken. It was observed a statistical significant difference (p 32 P in the plasma and erythrocytes. The specific activity and half life of 32 P in the plasma were statistically different (p<0,10) among sheep receiving the different phosphorus sources; the same was observed in respect to the red blood cells. It was concluded that the supplemented phosphorus source given in the diet of sheep may affect the kinetics of the radio phosphorus in the blood after been intravenously injected. (author)

  7. The genomic architecture of mastitis resistance in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Bramis, G; Bush, S J; Clark, E L; McCulloch, M E B; Smith, J; Schulze, G; Arsenos, G; Hume, D A; Psifidi, A

    2017-08-16

    Mastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy sheep with major economic, hygienic and welfare implications. The disease persists in all dairy sheep production systems despite the implementation of improved management practises. Selective breeding for enhanced mastitis resistance may provide the means to further control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the genetic architecture of four mastitis traits in dairy sheep. Individual animal records for clinical mastitis occurrence and three mastitis indicator traits (milk somatic cell count, total viable bacterial count in milk and the California mastitis test) were collected monthly throughout lactation for 609 ewes of the Greek Chios breed. All animals were genotyped with a custom-made 960-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array based on markers located in quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for mastitis resistance previously detected in three other distinct dairy sheep populations. Heritable variation and strong positive genetic correlations were estimated for clinical mastitis occurrence and the three mastitis indicator traits. SNP markers significantly associated with these mastitis traits were confirmed on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 16 and 19. We identified pathways, molecular interaction networks and functional gene clusters for mastitis resistance. Candidate genes within the detected regions were identified based upon analysis of an ovine transcriptional atlas and transcriptome data derived from milk somatic cells. Relevant candidate genes implicated in innate immunity included SOCS2, CTLA4, C6, C7, C9, PTGER4, DAB2, CARD6, OSMR, PLXNC1, IDH1, ICOS, FYB, and LYFR. The results confirmed the presence of animal genetic variability in mastitis resistance and identified genomic regions associated with specific mastitis traits in the Chios sheep. The conserved genetic architecture of mastitis resistance between distinct dairy sheep breeds suggests that across-breed selection programmes would be

  8. Comparison of humoral response in sheep to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica experimental infection

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    Zhang W.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Humoral response of sheep to F. gigantica was compared with the well known humoral response to F. hepatica, in order to explain the difference of susceptibility of sheep to these two parasites. In this work, a lesser susceptibility of sheep to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica infection was confirmed. Humoral response to F. hepatica infection is similar to that previously described by several authors. IgG level of F. gigantica infected sheep increased from week 2 post-infection (2WPI and displayed a peak at 13WPI. F. gigantica excretory-secretory products (FgESP analyzed by SDS-PAGE showed at least 31 bands from 12.0 to 127.6 kDa in FgESP. Western blot indicated that F. gigantica infected sheep sera recognized, in FgESP, at least 30 antigens from 7.8 to 119.2 kDa of which 12 major bands recognized after OWPI. In FhESP and FgESP, F. hepatica infected sheep serum reacted only with the lower molecular mass antigens, while F. gigantica infected sheep serum reacted with the lower and the higher molecular mass antigens. These differences of antigenic recognition might be associated with the difference of susceptibility of sheep. Further investigation must be done to study the mechanism of resistance between the sheep infected with F. hepatica or F. gigantica.

  9. Yersinia enterocolitica in sheep - a high frequency of biotype 1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderqvist Karin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are regarded as the main reservoir for human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is dominated by bioserotype 4/O:3. Other animals, including sheep, have occasionally been reported as carriers of pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in the Nordic countries in which the presence of Y. enterocolitica in sheep is investigated. Methods Tonsils and faecal samples collected from sheep slaughtered on the island Gotland (Sweden from September 2010 through January 2011 were analysed for presence of Y. enterocolitica. In an attempt to maximize recovery, several cultural strategies were applied. Various non-selective media were used and different temperatures and durations of the enrichment were applied before subculturing on Cefsulodin Irgasan Novobiocin (CIN agar. Presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies were subjected to urease, API 20E and agglutination test. Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were biotyped, serotyped, and tested for pathogenicity using a TaqMan PCR directed towards the ail-gene that is associated with human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. Results The samples collected from 99 sheep yielded 567 presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies. Eighty urease positive isolates, from 35 sheep, were identified as Y. enterocolitica by API 20E. Thirty-four of 35 further subtyped Y. enterocolitica isolates, all from faecal samples, belonged to biotype 1A serotype O:5, O:6. O:13,7 and O:10. One strain was Yersinia mollaretii serotype O:62. No human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica were found in the investigated sheep. Other species identified were Y. kristensenii (n = 4, Y. frederiksenii/intermedia (n = 3, Providencia rettgeri (n = 2, Serratia marcescens (n = 1 and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1. Conclusions This study does not support the hypothesis that sheep play an important role in transmission of the known human pathogenic Y

  10. Immune response to allergens in sheep sensitized to house dust mite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velden Joanne

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background House dust mite (HDM allergens are a major cause of allergic asthma. Most studies using animal models of allergic asthma have used rodents sensitized with the 'un-natural' allergen ovalbumin. It has only recently been recognized that the use of animal models based on HDM provide a more relevant insight into the allergen-induced mechanisms that underpin human allergic disease. We have previously described a sheep model of human allergic asthma that uses Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus HDM. The present study extends our understanding of the immune effects of HDM and the allergens Der p 1 and Der p 2 in the sheep model of asthma. Methods Peripheral blood sera from non-sensitized (control sheep and sheep sensitized to HDM was collected to determine immunoglobulin (Ig reactivities to HDM, Der p 1 and Der p 2 by ELISA. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid collected following allergen challenge was also assessed for the presence of HDM-specific antibodies. To examine the cellular immune response to HDM allergens, T cell proliferation and cutaneous responses were assessed in sensitized and control sheep. Results Strong HDM- and Der p 1-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG2 and IgA serum responses were observed in sensitized sheep, while detectable levels of HDM-specific IgG1 and IgA were seen in BAL fluid of allergen-challenged lungs. In contrast, minimal antibody reactivity was observed to Der p 2. Marked T cell proliferation and late phase cutaneous responses, accompanied by the recruitment of eosinophils, indicates the induction of a cellular and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH type II response by HDM and Der p 1 allergen, but not Der p 2. Conclusion This work characterizes the humoral and cellular immune effects of HDM extract and its major constituent allergens in sheep sensitized to HDM. The effects of allergen in HDM-sensitized sheep were detectable both locally and systemically, and probably mediated via enzymatic and immune actions of the

  11. Yersinia enterocolitica in sheep--a high frequency of biotype 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderqvist, Karin; Boqvist, Sofia; Wauters, Georges; Vågsholm, Ivar; Thisted-Lambertz, Susanne

    2012-06-29

    Pigs are regarded as the main reservoir for human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is dominated by bioserotype 4/O:3. Other animals, including sheep, have occasionally been reported as carriers of pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in the Nordic countries in which the presence of Y. enterocolitica in sheep is investigated. Tonsils and faecal samples collected from sheep slaughtered on the island Gotland (Sweden) from September 2010 through January 2011 were analysed for presence of Y. enterocolitica. In an attempt to maximize recovery, several cultural strategies were applied. Various non-selective media were used and different temperatures and durations of the enrichment were applied before subculturing on Cefsulodin Irgasan Novobiocin (CIN) agar. Presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies were subjected to urease, API 20E and agglutination test. Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were biotyped, serotyped, and tested for pathogenicity using a TaqMan PCR directed towards the ail-gene that is associated with human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. The samples collected from 99 sheep yielded 567 presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies. Eighty urease positive isolates, from 35 sheep, were identified as Y. enterocolitica by API 20E. Thirty-four of 35 further subtyped Y. enterocolitica isolates, all from faecal samples, belonged to biotype 1A serotype O:5, O:6. O:13,7 and O:10. One strain was Yersinia mollaretii serotype O:62. No human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica were found in the investigated sheep. Other species identified were Y. kristensenii (n = 4), Y. frederiksenii/intermedia (n = 3), Providencia rettgeri (n = 2), Serratia marcescens (n = 1) and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1). This study does not support the hypothesis that sheep play an important role in transmission of the known human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in the studied geographical region. However

  12. Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission

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    Timm eKonold

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Classical scrapie is an environmentally transmissible prion disease of sheep and goats. Prions can persist and remain potentially infectious in the environment for many years and thus pose a risk of infecting animals after re-stocking. In vitro studies using serial Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (sPMCA have suggested that objects on a scrapie-affected sheep farm could contribute to disease transmission. This in vivo study aimed to determine the role of field furniture (water troughs, feeding troughs, fencing and other objects that sheep may rub against used by a scrapie-infected sheep flock as a vector for disease transmission to scrapie-free lambs with the prion protein genotype VRQ/VRQ, which is associated with high susceptibility to classical scrapie. When the field furniture was placed in clean accommodation sheep became infected when exposed to either a water trough (four out of five or to objects used for rubbing (four out of seven. This field furniture had been used by the scrapie-infected flock eight weeks earlier and had previously been shown to harbor scrapie prions by sPMCA. Sheep also became infected (20 out of 23 through exposure to contaminated field furniture placed within pasture not used by scrapie-infected sheep for 40 months, even though swabs from this furniture tested negative by PMCA. This infection rate decreased (1 out of 12 on the same paddock after replacement with clean field furniture. Twelve grazing sheep exposed to field furniture not in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for 18 months remained scrapie-free.The findings of this study highlight the role of field furniture used by scrapie-infected sheep to act as a reservoir for disease re-introduction although infectivity declines considerably if the field furniture has not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. PMCA may not be as sensitive as VRQ/VRQ sheep to test for environmental contamination.

  13. The Effect of Crude Protein Content on Meat and Fat Production in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawati, S.; Restitrisnani, V.; Soedarsono

    2018-02-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) content on meat protein and fat production in sheep. Twenty four male thin tail sheep aged 6-7 months with average body weight of 13±1.56 kg were used in this study. The sheep were fed 10-14% CP. Sheep with the average body weight amount 16.75 kg were slaughter after 4 months rising. Parameters observed in this study were carcass weight, meat weight and fat weight of thin tail sheep. The data were analyzed using correlation analysis. The result of this study showed that CP content on diet had weak and negative correlation with meat production (r = -0.06) (y = -0.148x + 62.54) but had weak and possitive correlation with fat production (r = 0.3) (y = 0.807x2 -18.40x + 119.1). Based on the result, it can be concluded that the optimum CP content for sheep is 12.5% CP.

  14. Susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    OpenAIRE

    Onderka, D K; Rawluk, S A; Wishart, W D

    1988-01-01

    Bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of nonhemolytic Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) unique to wild bighorns, with beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) isolated from clinically normal domestic sheep or intradermally with half a dose of a cattle vaccine containing P. haemolytica biotype A (10(5) organisms). The bighorn strain caused lobar necrotizing bronchopneumonia whereas both domestic livestock strains precipitated fatal ...

  15. THE APPROACHES TO DESIGNING OF NEW GENERATION VACCINES AGAINST THE SHEEP POX DISEASE

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    E. F. Yilmaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review the authors analyzed the sheep pox disease, which occurs outbreaks all over the world particularly in Asia and Africa causing substantial losses in trade of animal and animal products. They categorized the sheep pox disease is one of the prioritized groups of diseases against which the World Organization for Animal Health is fighting. Data concerning a sheep poxes’ history, epidemiology, epizootiology, mortality and economic impact, clinical and pathological signs, features of capripoxvirus that forms the disease are given. Diagnosis treatment and vaccine have been investigated as well. The main conclusion is done according which the designing of new vaccine generation against the sheep pox disease could be as an alternative approach against sheep pox.

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation with selenium-enriched yeast or sodium selenite on ruminal enzyme activities and blood chemistry in sheep

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    Zita Faixová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding a diet supplemented with different forms of selenium on the rumen fluid, blood and serum enzyme activity and osmotic fragility of red blood cells in sheep. The experiment was carried out on 18 sheep of the Valashka breed at the age of 18 months, divided into 3 groups. The first group was given basal diet (BD with a Se content of 0.17 mg/kg of dry matter (DM. The second group received BD supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg of (DM in the form of sodium selenite. The third group received BD supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg of (DM in the form of Se-yeast extract. Duration of the trial was 12 weeks. Selenium concentration in blood and total rumen fluid were elevated in both supplemented groups with the highest values in Se-yeast-treated sheep. Blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity was significantly increased, regardless of the source of selenium. Osmotic resistance of red blood cells was not affected by selenium supplementation. The results indicate that feeding a diet supplemented with selenium from Se-yeast or selenite improved selenium status in blood and total rumen fluid. Selenium from sodium selenite was as effective as selenium from Se-yeast in the availability of selenium for the blood GPx activity. The effect of selenium supplementation on the ruminal enzyme activity depends on the selenium form; GGT and GDH were significantly higher in the Se-yeast supplement group, AST and ALP were significantly higher in the selenite supplement group.

  17. Productivity of Sumateran Composite dan Barbados Cross sheep breed in the field condition

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    Bambang Setiadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Two years field study has been carried out in the Purwakarta district , West Java, to evaluate sheep productivity of Sumateran Composite (K and Barbados cross (BC breeds introduced to the farmers, compared with locally thin tail sheep breed (L that were maintained by the farmers. Genotype compositions of K sheep were Barbados Blackbelly 25%, St. Croix 25%, and Sumateran sheep 50%; and for BC were Barbados Blackbelly 50% and Sumateran sheep 50%. Sheep those were introduced was new breed from breeding improvement of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. Litter size of K, BC, and L ewes was 1.3; 1.4; and 1.5 respectively. Pre-weaning mortality rate were 5.0; 5.0 and 8.0% respectively for K, BC, and L lambs. Ewe Reproduction Rate (LRI = number of lamb at weaning/ewe/year of L (2.14 was higher than BC (2.0 and K (1.85. The ewe productivity (PI = kg lambs/ewe/year is the average of weaning weight timed LRI. Because the weaning weight of L (7.0 kg were significantly lowest than BC (10.5 kg and K (9.25 kg will affect on PI. PI of L (14.98 ewe were significantly (P<00.5 lowest than BC (21 and K (17.11. Body weight of crossbred (K X L and BCxL under the same physiologic status were similarly with BC and K. According to the result of productivity evaluation of introduced sheep breed in the field condition, can be sumarize that productivity of K and BC sheep were significantly better than locally thin tail sheep.

  18. The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep

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    Cockett Noelle E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG, which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition.

  19. Phosphorus metabolic disorder of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep.

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    Xiaoyun Shen

    Full Text Available Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep are affected by a disease, characterized by emaciation, lameness, stiffness in the gait, enlargement of the costochondral junctions, and abnormal curvature in the long bones. The objective of this study was to determine possible relationships between the disease and mineral deficiencies. Samples of tissue and blood were collected from affected and unaffected sheep. Samples of soil and forage were collected from affected and unaffected areas. The samples were used for biochemical analyses and mineral nutrient measurements. Results showed that phosphorus (P concentrations in forage samples from affected areas were significantly lower than those from unaffected areas (P < 0.01 and the mean ratio of calcium (Ca to P in the affected forage was 12:1. Meanwhile, P concentrations of blood, bone, tooth, and wool from the affected sheep were also significantly lower than those from the unaffected group (P < 0.01. Serum P levels of the affected animals were much lower than those of the unaffected ones, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase levels from the affected were significantly higher than those from the unaffected (P < 0.01. Inorganic P levels of the affected sheep were about half of those in the control group. Oral administration of disodium hydrogen phosphate prevented and cured the disease. The study clearly demonstrated that the disease of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep was mainly caused by the P deficiency in forage, as a result of fenced pasture and animal habitat fragmentation.

  20. Transvaginal ultrasound ovarian diathermy: sheep as an experimental model

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    Pimentel Anita M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some techniques of transvaginal ovarian drilling have been previously described. Nevertheless a monopolar transvaginal ovarian cauterization, that use the expertise and safety of transvaginal puncture for oocyte captation seems to be an easier and feasible approach. The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive ovarian cauterization technique under transvaginal ultrasound control, and to evaluate the safety of the transvaginal ovarian monopolar cauterization, female sheep at reproductive age were used as an experimental model. Findings An experimental study was performed in a university research center. Seventeen female sheep (15 Corriedale e 2 Suffolk in reproductive age were submitted to transvaginal ovarian cauterization with a monopolar Valleylab Force 2 electrocautery. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed. Ovarian size were 1.31 cm2 ± 0,43 (Corriedale and 3.41 cm2 ± 0,64 (Suffolk. From 30 ovaries from Corriedale sheep punctured, only 3 were cauterized, presenting macroscopic and typical microscopic lesion. In the Suffolk sheep group, only one ovary was cauterized. No lesion could be found in the needle path. Conclusions This is the first experimental animal model described for ovarian cauterization needle guided by transvaginal ultrasound. The sheep does not seem to be the ideal animal model to study this technique. Another animal model, whose ovaries are better identified by transvaginal ultrasound should be sought for this technique, theoretically less invasive, before it could be offered safely to women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  1. Ecotypic variation in population dynamics of reintroduced bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Vernon C.; Sargeant, Glen A.; Wiedmann, Brett P.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) for translocation historically has been motivated by preservation of subspecific purity rather than by adaptation of source stocks to similar environments. Our objective was to estimate cause‐specific, annual, and age‐specific mortality of introduced bighorn sheep that originated at low elevations in southern British Columbia, Canada (BC ecotype), or in the Missouri River Breaks region of central Montana, USA (MT ecotype). In North Dakota, USA, mortality was similar and typically low for adult female bighorn sheep from Montana (0.09 ± 0.029 [SE]) and British Columbia (0.08 ± 0.017) during 2000–2016. Median life expectancy was 11 years for females that reached adulthood (2 yrs old); however, mortality accelerated with age and reached 86% by age 16. Mortalities resulted primarily from low rates of predation, disease, accidents, and unknown natural causes (recruitment of bighorn sheep from Montana, resulted in a greater projected rate of increase for the MT ecotype (λ = 1.21) than for the BC ecotype (1.02), and a more youthful age structure. These results support translocation of bighorn sheep from areas that are environmentally similar to areas that will be stocked. Potential benefits include more rapid population growth, greater resilience to and more rapid recovery from density‐independent losses, an increased possibility that rapidly growing populations will expand into adjacent habitat, increased hunter opportunity, increased connectivity among herds, and a more complete restoration of ecosystem processes.

  2. An Assessment of Omani Native Sheep Fiber Production and Quality Characteristics

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    Osman Mahgoub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wool production and quality measurements were carried out on 100 Omani native female sheep (body weight 38.6 ± 5.5 kg; age 993 ± 488 d. Sheep were kept in partially shaded pens and fed ad libitum Rhodes grass hay (crude protein 8.83% plus a daily amount of 200 g general ruminant concentrate (crude protein 16.5% DM. Animals were shorn once a year and samples were taken from the left mid-side site to determine fleece and fiber characteristics. The scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to study the fine appearance of the wool fibers. A skin sample was used to study the histological arrangement and number of secondary and primary follicles. The greasy fleece weight (GFW in Omani sheep ranged between 0.50- 2.65 kg (mean 1.12 ± 0.43 kg and the GFW expressed as a percentage of BW ranged between 1.0-7.6 with a mean of 2.9 ± 1.16. Clean wool yield in Omani sheep fleece ranged between 57.1 and 88.4% with a mean of 76.4 ± 7.6. Omani sheep fleece contained various staple shapes and had a mean staple length of 22.9 ± 1.16 cm, 4.3 ± 0.8 crimps per staple; and a mean fiber diameter of 46 ± 12 µm. Electron microscopy revealed three types of fibers; wrap-around, angled type and polygonal and elongated scales. This study indicated a wide variation in the wool characteristics of Omani native sheep fleece, which suggested that selection may be employed to improve wool production and quality in these sheep.

  3. Comparison of airway responses in sheep of different age in precision-cut lung slices (PCLS.

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    Verena A Lambermont

    Full Text Available Animal models should display important characteristics of the human disease. Sheep have been considered particularly useful to study allergic airway responses to common natural antigens causing human asthma. A rationale of this study was to establish a model of ovine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS for the in vitro measurement of airway responses in newborn and adult animals. We hypothesized that differences in airway reactivity in sheep are present at different ages.Lambs were delivered spontaneously at term (147d and adult sheep lived till 18 months. Viability of PCLS was confirmed by the MTT-test. To study airway provocations cumulative concentration-response curves were performed with different allergic response mediators and biogenic amines. In addition, electric field stimulation, passive sensitization with house dust mite (HDM and mast cells staining were evaluated.PCLS from sheep were viable for at least three days. PCLS of newborn and adult sheep responded equally strong to methacholine and endothelin-1. The responses to serotonin, leukotriene D4 and U46619 differed with age. No airway contraction was evoked by histamine, except after cimetidine pretreatment. In response to EFS, airways in PCLS from adult and newborn sheep strongly contracted and these contractions were atropine sensitive. Passive sensitization with HDM evoked a weak early allergic response in PCLS from adult and newborn sheep, which notably was prolonged in airways from adult sheep. Only few mast cells were found in the lungs of non-sensitized sheep at both ages.PCLS from sheep lungs represent a useful tool to study pharmacological airway responses for at least three days. Sheep seem well suited to study mechanisms of cholinergic airway contraction. The notable differences between newborn and adult sheep demonstrate the importance of age in such studies.

  4. Adeno-Associated Virus Gene Therapy in a Sheep Model of Tay-Sachs Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Edwards, Heather L; Randle, Ashley N; Maitland, Stacy A; Benatti, Hector R; Hubbard, Spencer M; Canning, Peter F; Vogel, Matthew B; Brunson, Brandon L; Hwang, Misako; Ellis, Lauren E; Bradbury, Allison M; Gentry, Atoska S; Taylor, Amanda R; Wooldridge, Anne A; Wilhite, Dewey R; Winter, Randolph L; Whitlock, Brian K; Johnson, Jacob A; Holland, Merilee; Salibi, Nouha; Beyers, Ronald J; Sartin, James L; Denney, Thomas S; Cox, Nancy R; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Martin, Douglas R

    2018-03-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hexosaminidase A (HexA). TSD also occurs in sheep, the only experimental model of TSD that has clinical signs of disease. The natural history of sheep TSD was characterized using serial neurological evaluations, 7 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiograms, electrodiagnostics, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Intracranial gene therapy was also tested using AAVrh8 monocistronic vectors encoding the α-subunit of Hex (TSD α) or a mixture of two vectors encoding both the α and β subunits separately (TSD α + β) injected at high (1.3 × 10 13 vector genomes) or low (4.2 × 10 12 vector genomes) dose. Delay of symptom onset and/or reduction of acquired symptoms were noted in all adeno-associated virus-treated sheep. Postmortem evaluation showed superior HexA and vector genome distribution in the brain of TSD α + β sheep compared to TSD α sheep, but spinal cord distribution was low in all groups. Isozyme analysis showed superior HexA formation after treatment with both vectors (TSD α + β), and ganglioside clearance was most widespread in the TSD α + β high-dose sheep. Microglial activation and proliferation in TSD sheep-most prominent in the cerebrum-were attenuated after gene therapy. This report demonstrates therapeutic efficacy for TSD in the sheep brain, which is on the same order of magnitude as a child's brain.

  5. Evaluating potential overlap between pack stock and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae) in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Robert C.; Few, Alexandra P.; Knox, Kathleen A.; Hatfield, Brian E.; Clark, Jonathan; German, David W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Pack stock (horses, mules, burros, llamas, and goats) are frequently assumed to have negative effects on public lands, but there is a general lack of data to be able to quantify the degree to which this is actually the case. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks have received complaints that pack stock may affect Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae; SNBS), a federally endangered subspecies that occurs in largely disjunct herds in the Sierra Nevada Range of California. The potential effects are thought to be displacement of SNBS from meadows on their summer range (altered habitat use) or, more indirectly, through changes in SNBS habitat or forage quality. Our goals were to conduct an association analysis to quantify the degree of potential spatial overlap in meadow use between SNBS and pack stock and to compare differences in vegetation community composition, structure, and diversity among meadows with different levels of use by bighorn sheep and pack stock. For the association analysis, we used two approaches: (1) we quantified the proportion of meadows that were within the herd home ranges of bighorn sheep and were potentially open to pack stock, and, (2) we used Monte Carlo simulations and use-availability analyses to compare the proportion of meadows used by bighorn sheep relative to the proportional occurrence or area of meadows available to bighorn sheep that were used by pack stock. To evaluate potential effects of pack stock on meadow plant communities and SNBS forage, we sampled vegetation in 2011 and 2012 at 100 plots to generate data that allowed us to compare:

  6. Prevalence of and risk factors associated with ovine progressive pneumonia in Wyoming sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner, Shelley; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J; Duncan, John V; Laegreid, William W; Marshall, Katherine L; Logan, James R; Schumaker, Brant A

    2015-10-15

    To determine the prevalence of antibodies against small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), the causative agent of ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP), and to identify risk factors associated with OPP in Wyoming sheep flocks. Cross-sectional study. 1,415 sheep from 54 flocks in Wyoming. Flocks were surveyed as part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) 2011 sheep study. Serum samples obtained from sheep in Wyoming were analyzed for anti-SRLV antibodies by use of a competitive-inhibition ELISA. The prevalence of seropositive animals overall and within each flock was calculated. Respective associations between flock OPP status and various demographic and management variables were assessed. The estimated prevalence of sheep seropositive for anti-SRLV antibodies and OPP-infected flocks in Wyoming was 18.0% and 47.5%, respectively. Within OPP-infected flocks, the prevalence of seropositive sheep ranged from 3.9% to 96%. Flocks maintained on nonfenced range were more likely to be infected with OPP than were flocks maintained on fenced range (OR, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 10.7). The estimated prevalence of OPP-infected flocks in Wyoming did not vary substantially from that at the regional or national level reported in the NAHMS 2001 sheep study. Compared with results of the NAHMS 2011 sheep study, Wyoming producers were more familiar with OPP than were other US sheep producers, but only 61% of Wyoming producers surveyed reported being very or somewhat familiar with the disease. Results indicated that OPP is prevalent in many Wyoming sheep flocks, which suggested that continued efforts are necessary to increase producer knowledge about the disease and investigate practices to minimize economic losses associated with OPP.

  7. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia.

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    Thomas E Besser

    Full Text Available Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumonia was reported from previous comingling studies with domestic goats. Here, we evaluated the ability of domestic goats of defined M. ovipneumoniae carriage status to induce pneumonia in comingled bighorn sheep.In experiment 1, three bighorn sheep naïve to M. ovipneumoniae developed non-fatal respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge following comingling with three naturally M. ovipneumoniae-colonized domestic goats. Gross and histological lesions of pneumonia, limited to small areas on the ventral and lateral edges of the anterior and middle lung lobes, were observed at necropsies conducted at the end of the experiment. A control group of three bighorn sheep from the same source housed in isolation during experiment 1 remained free of observed respiratory disease. In experiment 2, three bighorn sheep remained free of observed respiratory disease while comingled with three M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic goats. In experiment 3, introduction of a domestic goat-origin strain of M. ovipneumoniae to the same comingled goats and bighorn sheep used in experiment 2 resulted in clinical signs of respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge in both host species. At the end of experiment 3, gross and histological evidence of pneumonia similar to that observed in experiment 1 bighorn sheep was observed in both affected bighorn sheep and domestic goats.M. ovipneumoniae strains carried by domestic goats were transmitted to comingled bighorn sheep, triggering development of

  8. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; Foreyt, William J

    2017-01-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries) and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumonia was reported from previous comingling studies with domestic goats. Here, we evaluated the ability of domestic goats of defined M. ovipneumoniae carriage status to induce pneumonia in comingled bighorn sheep. In experiment 1, three bighorn sheep naïve to M. ovipneumoniae developed non-fatal respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge) following comingling with three naturally M. ovipneumoniae-colonized domestic goats. Gross and histological lesions of pneumonia, limited to small areas on the ventral and lateral edges of the anterior and middle lung lobes, were observed at necropsies conducted at the end of the experiment. A control group of three bighorn sheep from the same source housed in isolation during experiment 1 remained free of observed respiratory disease. In experiment 2, three bighorn sheep remained free of observed respiratory disease while comingled with three M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic goats. In experiment 3, introduction of a domestic goat-origin strain of M. ovipneumoniae to the same comingled goats and bighorn sheep used in experiment 2 resulted in clinical signs of respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge) in both host species. At the end of experiment 3, gross and histological evidence of pneumonia similar to that observed in experiment 1 bighorn sheep was observed in both affected bighorn sheep and domestic goats. M. ovipneumoniae strains carried by domestic goats were transmitted to comingled bighorn sheep, triggering development of pneumonia. However

  9. Quantitating PrP Polymorphisms Present in Prions from Heterozygous Scrapie-Infected Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Christopher J; Erickson-Beltran, Melissa L; Hui, Colleen; Badiola, Juan José; Nicholson, Eric M; Requena, Jesús R; Bolea, Rosa

    2017-01-03

    Scrapie is a prion (PrP Sc ) disease of sheep. The incubation period of sheep scrapie is strongly influenced by polymorphisms at positions 136, 154, and 171 of a sheep's normal cellular prion protein (PrP C ). Chymotrypsin was used to digest sheep recombinant PrP to identify a set of characteristic peptides [M 132 LGSXMSRPL 141 (X = A or V), Y 153 XENMY 158 (X,= H or R), and Y 166 RPVDXY 172 (X = H, K, Q, or R)] that could be used to detect and quantitate polymorphisms at positions 136, 154, and 171 of sheep PrP C or PrP Sc . These peptides were used to develop a multiple reaction monitoring method (MRM) to detect the amounts of a particular polymorphism in a sample of PrP Sc isolated from sheep heterozygous for their PrP C proteins. The limit of detection for these peptides was less than 50 attomole. Spinal cord tissue from heterozygous (ARQ/VRQ or ARH/ARQ) scrapie-infected Rasa Aragonesa sheep was analyzed using this MRM method. Both sets of heterozygotes show the presence of both polymorphisms in PrP Sc . This was true for samples containing both proteinase K (PK)-sensitive and PK-resistant PrP Sc and samples containing only the PK-resistant PrP Sc . These results show that heterozygous animals contain PrP Sc that is composed of significant amounts of both PrP polymorphisms.

  10. Prevalence of Coenurus cerebralis in sheep in Northwest of Iran

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    Mosa Tavassoli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis survey was carried out to determine the infection rate of Coenurus cerebralis in Urmiaabattoir, West Azerbaijan, Iran. A total of 402 sheep heads were examined and the number ofC. cerebralis cysts per each head was recorded. Thirty three sheep heads were examined eachmonth during 12 months from 2006 to 2007. Of 402 heads, a number of 75 heads (18.65%were infected with C. cerebralis. The cysts located in the left and right hemispheres andcerebellum were 54.63%, 40.20% and 5.15%, respectively. The infected heads contained 1-4cysts. The highest and lowest prevalence were detected in sheep in March (42.42% and in July(2.94%, respectively. The infection rates according to age of sheep were 42.02% in 0.5 to 2years, 22.50% in 2 to 4 years and 8.92% in older than 4 years. The age specific infection ratesamong age groups were significantly differed (P 0.05.

  11. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal...

  12. Magnesium sulfate reduces EEG activity but is not neuroprotective after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Robert; Draghi, Vittoria; Wassink, Guido; Davidson, Joanne O; Drury, Paul P; Lear, Christopher A; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Magnesium sulfate is now widely recommended for neuroprotection for preterm birth; however, this has been controversial because there is little evidence that magnesium sulfate is neuroprotective. Preterm fetal sheep (104 days gestation; term is 147 days) were randomly assigned to receive sham occlusion (n = 7), i.v. magnesium sulfate (n = 10) or saline (n = 8) starting 24 h before asphyxia until 24 h after asphyxia. Sheep were killed 72 h after asphyxia. Magnesium sulfate infusion reduced electroencephalograph power and fetal movements before asphyxia. Magnesium sulfate infusion did not affect electroencephalograph power during recovery, but was associated with marked reduction of the post-asphyxial seizure burden (mean ± SD: 34 ± 18 min vs. 107 ± 74 min, P < 0.05). Magnesium sulfate infusion did not affect subcortical neuronal loss. In the intragyral and periventricular white matter, magnesium sulfate was associated with reduced numbers of all (Olig-2+ve) oligodendrocytes in the intragyral (125 ± 23 vs. 163 ± 38 cells/field) and periventricular white matter (162 ± 39 vs. 209 ± 44 cells/field) compared to saline-treated controls ( P < 0.05), but no effect on microglial induction or astrogliosis. In conclusion, a clinically comparable dose of magnesium sulfate showed significant anticonvulsant effects after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep, but did not reduce asphyxia-induced brain injury and exacerbated loss of oligodendrocytes.

  13. Disposition Kinetics and Optimal Dosage of Ciprofloxacin in Healthy Domestic Ruminant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Javed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the disposition kinetics and optimal dosages of ciprofloxacin in healthy domestic ruminant species including adult female buffalo, cow, sheep and goat. The drug was given as a single intramuscular dose of 5 mg/kg. The plasma concentrations of the drug were determined with HPLC and pharmacokinetic variables were determined. The biological half-life (t1/2 β was longer in cows (3.25 ± 0.46 h followed by intermediate values in buffaloes (3.05 ± 0.20 h and sheep (2.93 ± 0.45 h and shorter in goats (2.62 ± 0.39 h. The volume of distribution (Vd in buffaloes was 1.09 ± 0.06 l/kg, cows 1.24 ± 0.16 l/kg, sheep 2.89 ± 0.30 l/kg and goats 3.76 ± 0.92 l/kg. Total body clearance (ClB expressed in l/h/kg was minimum in buffaloes 0.25 ± 0.02 followed by values in cows 0.31 ± 0.02 and sheep 0.75 ± 0.04 and maximum in goats 1.09 ± 0.11. An optimal dosage regimen for 12-h interval consisted of 5.17, 5.62, 6.54 and 6.10 mg/kg body weight as priming and 4.84, 5.37, 6.26 and 5.91 mg/kg body weight as maintenance intramuscular dose in buffalo, cow, sheep and goat, respectively. The manufacturers of ciprofloxacin have claimed 5 mg/kg dose to be repeated after 24 h. However, the investigated dosage regimen may be repeated after 12 h to maintain MIC at the end of the dosage interval. Therefore, it is imperative that an optimal dosage regimen be based on the disposition kinetics data determined in the species and environment in which a drug is to be employed clinically.

  14. Immunohistochemical characterization of tuberculous lesions in sheep naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Raquel; García Marín, Juan Francisco; Juste, Ramón Antonio; Muñoz-Mendoza, Marta; Salguero, Francisco Javier; Balseiro, Ana

    2018-05-04

    Sheep have been traditionally considered as less susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis (Mbovis) infection than other domestic ruminants such as cattle and goats. However, there is increasing evidence for the role of this species as a domestic Mbovis reservoir, mostly when sheep share grazing fields with infected cattle and goats. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the pathogenesis and the immune response of Mbovis infection in sheep. The goals of this study were to characterize the granuloma stages produced by the natural infection of Mbovis in sheep, to compare them with other species and to identify possible differences in the sheep immune response. Samples from bronchial lymph nodes from twelve Mbovis-naturally infected sheep were used. Four immunohistochemical protocols for the specific detection of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages were performed to study the local immune reaction within the granulomas. Differences were observed in the predominant cell type present in each type of granuloma, as well as differences and similarities with the development of tuberculous granulomas in other species. Very low numbers of T-lymphocytes were observed in all granuloma types indicating that specific cellular immune response mediated by T-cells might not be of much importance in sheep in the early stages of infection, when macrophages are the predominant cell type within lesions. Plasma cells and mainly B lymphocytes increased considerably as the granuloma developed being attracted to the lesions in a shift towards a Th2 response against the increasing amounts of mycobacteria. Therefore, we have proposed that the granulomas could be defined as initial, developed and terminal. Results showed that the study of the lymphoid tissue granulomata reinforces the view that the three different types of granuloma represent stages of lesion progression and suggest an explanation to the higher resistance of sheep based on a higher effective innate

  15. Problems and Solution Proposals Related to Sheep and Goat Husbandry in Kastamonu Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Tüfekci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted by using a survey made at 80 enterprises from 63 villages with the aim of determining situations, problems and solution proposals related to the sheep and goat farms in Kastamonu province. The average age of the farmers was 49.3 years. The farmers were 8.75% of primary school graduates, 68.75% of secondary school and also 22.6% of illiterate. The enterprises have raised animals as 31.75% of state + own land and 68.75%’ of private + leased land. Also they are kept the rate of 70% Hair goat, 30% Angora goat and 55% Merino sheep, 42.5% Akkaraman sheep, and 16.25% Turkmen genotype, 7.5% Sakız sheep and 6.25% of Kıvırcık Sheep. The average flock sizes goat and sheep enterprises were 77.3 head goats and 71.7 heads sheep, respectively. Sixty percent of the breeder feed their animals on the pasture for 8-10 months and only 30% the breeders give supplementary feeding before and during mating period. The enterprises have 31.2% parturition chamber and 92.5% lamb growth areas. While all enterprises are routinely used to protective vaccines but only used disinfectant of 73.7% enterprises. The reason of sheep and goat breeders is majority contributions of income and habits. So, flock sizes are small (74.5 heads animal. In conclusion, young people by encouraging small animal farming in the province of Kastamonu, should be given to technical, economic support and educational seminars. In the future, as the sole source of income and a large flock size may lead to a development of sheep and goat breeding in Kastamonu province.

  16. Serological survey for antibodies against pestiviruses in sheep in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestiviruses including Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus type 1 (BVDV1), BVDV-2 and Border Disease Virus (BDV) have been reported in sheep populations worldwide. These viruses are not strictly host specific and can also infect cattle, goats, swine and wild ruminants. In sheep, clinical signs are related t...

  17. Implications for the human food chain of models of cadmium accumulation in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prankel, S.H.; Nixon, R.M.; Phillips, C.J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Critical limits for cadmium in parts of the human food chain are considered to have too small margins of safety and some limits are regularly exceeded. There is concern about the exposure of some sections of the population to cadmium in the human food chain, in particular regarding offal, which is a major source of cadmium to some sectors. The kidney is the first organ of sheep to reach the limit of fitness for human consumption. A model (based on a meta-analysis) predicts that this would occur after a mean of just 130 days of feeding sheep the maximum permitted cadmium concentration in feed (in the European Union) in the organic form. Thus it is not surprising that sheep organs are found routinely to exceed cadmium limits. Since reduction of maximum cadmium levels in sheep feed or of the duration of their exposure are not economically viable measures of control, routine removal of liver and kidney from older sheep from the food chain is recommended as the best option to reduce human dietary cadmium intake from sheep origin

  18. Comparison of bacteriological culture and PCR for detection of bacteria in ovine milk--sheep are not small cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadoks, Ruth N; Tassi, Riccardo; Martin, Elena; Holopainen, Jani; McCallum, Sarah; Gibbons, James; Ballingall, Keith T

    2014-10-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is an important cause of disease, mortality, and production losses in dairy and meat sheep. Mastitis is commonly caused by intramammary infection with bacteria, which can be detected by bacterial culture or PCR. PathoProof (Thermo Fisher Scientific Ltd., Vantaa, Finland) is a commercially available real-time PCR system for the detection of bovine mastitis pathogens. Sheep differ from cattle in the bacterial species or bacterial strains that cause mastitis, as well as in the composition of their milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the PathoProof system was suitable for detection of mastitis pathogens in sheep milk. Milk samples were collected aseptically from 219 udder halves of 113 clinically healthy ewes in a single flock. Aliquots were used for bacteriological culture and real-time PCR-based detection of bacteria. For species identified by culture, the diagnosis was confirmed by species-specific conventional PCR or by sequencing of a housekeeping gene. The majority of samples were negative by culture (74.4% of 219 samples) and real-time PCR (82.3% of 192 samples). Agreement was observed for 138 of 192 samples. Thirty-four samples were positive by culture only, mostly due to presence of species that are not covered by primers in the PCR system (e.g., Mannheimia spp.). Two samples were positive for Streptococcus uberis by culture but not by PCR directly from the milk samples. This was not due to inability of the PCR primers to amplify ovine Streptococcus uberis, as diluted DNA extracts from the same samples and DNA extracts from the bacterial isolates were positive by real-time PCR. For samples containing Staphylococcus spp., 11 samples were positive by culture and PCR, 9 by culture only, and 20 by PCR only. Samples that were negative by either method had lower bacterial load than samples that were positive for both methods, whereas no clear relation with species identity was observed. This study provides

  19. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925 of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01 and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  20. Sero-prevalence study of bluetongue infection in sheep and goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion channels, muddy areas and fecal runoff areas around farms and habitats for them ... susceptible than native African sheep (Davies and Walker, 1974; Howell, 1979; ..... ity in sheep flocks in North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Prev. Vet.

  1. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Glen C.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep. PMID:28282407

  2. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Mark L; Weiser, Glen C

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  3. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Drew

    Full Text Available Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  4. Changes in bone structure of Corriedale sheep with inherited rickets: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, Keren E; Firth, Elwyn C; Thompson, Keith G; Marshall, Jonathan C; Blair, Hugh T

    2011-03-01

    An inherited skeletal disease with gross and microscopic features of rickets has been diagnosed in Corriedale sheep in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to quantify the changes present in tibia from sheep with inherited rickets using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. In affected sheep, scans in the proximal tibia, where metaphysis becomes diaphysis, showed significantly greater trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). The sheep with inherited rickets had significantly greater BMC and bone area in the mid-diaphysis of the proximal tibia compared to control sheep. However, BMD in the mid-diaphysis was significantly less in affected sheep than in controls, due to the greater cortical area and lower voxel density values in affected sheep. From this it was concluded that the increased strain on under-mineralised bone in sheep with inherited rickets led to increased bone mass in an attempt to improve bone strength. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  6. The use of Eucalyptus staigeriana nanoemulsion for control of sheep haemonchosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley L.C. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sustainable control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN in small ruminants has been based on the use of alternative methods, including targeted selective treatment, such as FAMACHA. Another GIN control alternative is the use of herbal medicines, although in many cases their use is based on empirical knowledge. Biopolymer nanoformulations has been investigated to maximize the essential oil effects against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of the present study was to combine a Eucalyptus staigeriana essential oil nanoemulsion (EsNano with FAMACHA as an alternative control for sheep haemonchosis. The study was performed over six months at a commercial sheep farm located in a semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. Initially, a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT in sheep with levamisole, ivermectin and oxfendazole in sheep was performed used to determine the most effective anthelmintic to use as the positive control. Levamisole has been selected because it showed efficacy superior to 95%. EsNano was obtained and then its physicochemical properties were characterized. The average (±SE size of the particles in the nanoemulsion was 276.8 (±12.3 nm with bimodal distribution and polydispersity. Nine visits were performed, from April to September 2013, with an interval of 17 days. One hundred sixty-two male and female sheep were divided into three groups (n=54 each and were treated when FAMACHA score was 3, 4, or 5: G-EsNano 250mg kg-1 EsNano; G-Lev 7.5mg kg-1 levamisole (positive control, and G-Neg was not treated (negative control. Feces from sheep were collected to quantify the number of eggs per gram of feces (epg and to identify nematode genera. Sheep weight gain was monitored. The epg data for each group and the average sheep weight gains were analyzed by variance analysis and compared with the Tukey’s test (P0.05. The epg variation was similar in the G-EsNano and G-Lev groups on visits (P>0.05, except the second and fifth

  7. Commercial cuts and carcass characteristics of sheep and goats supplemented with multinutritional blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Araújo C

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aimed to identify the weight and yield of the commercial cuts, muscularity, and adiposity in the carcasses of sheep and goats grazing in the Caatinga supplemented with different sources of supplementations; these include feed-blocks. Material and methods. Sixty non-castrated males an initial average body weight of 18.63 ± 1.93 kg were used: 30 goats and 30 sheep all animals did not have a defined breed standard (WDBS. The experimental design used was entirely randomized (DIC, in factorial scheme 3x2 (three types of supplementation: mineral salt, MBs and MBs + buffel hay, and two species: sheep and goats and 10 replications. Animals were raised in a rangeland grazing system in an area with vegetation characteristic of Caatinga ecosystem under three types of supplementation: 1: only mineral salt; 2: Feed blocks (MBs; and 3: MBs + buffel hay There were measured the weight, yield and the components of left half-part of carcass of lambs and kids. Results. The sheep were superior to goats in carcass conformation, loin-eye area, index of muscularity of the leg and compactness index of the leg while the goats were superior to sheep in leg muscles weight. Conclusions. Sheep and Goats, when fed with supplementation of pasture feeding blocks in the Caatinga ecosystem; Supplementation with mineral salt and Multinutritional Blocks with and without Buffel can be used to improve herds in the caatinga, with similar results among the three. Sheep show more adiposity of meat than goats, in contrast, goats have higher musculature than sheep when fed with feed blocks.

  8. Relative Occurrence of Fasciola species in cattle, sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All liver flukes detected in cattle, sheep and goats were collected and transported to laboratory for analysis to determine the relative occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatic in slaughtered cattle, sheep, and goats by observing their size and morphology. The study showed that all the liver flukes collected in ...

  9. Polymorphism of calpastatin gene in Arabic sheep using PCR- RFLP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calpastatin has been known as candidate gene in muscle growth efficiency and meat quality. This gene has been located to chromosome 5 of sheep. In order to evaluate the calpastatin gene polymorphism, random blood sample were collected from 111 Arabic ram sheep from different regions. The DNA extraction was ...

  10. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa toestimate the prevalence of Taeniahydatigena. With theaim to determine theprevalence of T. hydatigena inslaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in Aprilto...... with T. solium, but showed no signs of otherinfections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem and theprevalence of T. hydatigena wassimilar in goats and sheep with 45.7% and 51.9%, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from...... a subsample of metacestodesfrom goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. Theprevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conductedin Africa, but for pigs it is one of the highest recorded to date. The presentstudy also confirms the occurrence of T.hydatigena and T. solium...

  11. Pyrosequencing Analysis Reveals Changes in Intestinal Microbiota of Healthy Adults Who Received a Daily Dose of Immunomodulatory Probiotic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Plaza-Díaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The colon microbiota plays a crucial role in human gastrointestinal health. Current attempts to manipulate the colon microbiota composition are aimed at finding remedies for various diseases. We have recently described the immunomodulatory effects of three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, and Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035. The goal of the present study was to analyze the compositions of the fecal microbiota of healthy adults who received one of these strains using high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Bacteroides was the most abundant genus in the groups that received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 or L. paracasei CNCM I-4034. The Shannon indices were significantly increased in these two groups. Our results also revealed a significant increase in the Lactobacillus genus after the intervention with L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. The initially different colon microbiota became homogeneous in the subjects who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. While some orders that were initially present disappeared after the administration of L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, other orders, such as Sphingobacteriales, Nitrospirales, Desulfobacterales, Thiotrichales, and Synergistetes, were detected after the intervention. In summary, our results show that the intake of these three bacterial strains induced changes in the colon microbiota.

  12. Pathology of AA amyloidosis in domestic sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménsua, C; Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; Biescas, E; Fernández, A; Murphy, C L; Weiss, D T; Solomon, A; Luján, L

    2003-01-01

    We describe the main pathologic changes in small ruminants affected by AA amyloidosis, together with the partial sequence of the protein involved. Twenty-one sheep and one goat were selected for presenting macroscopic kidney lesions compatible with systemic amyloidosis. Available tissue samples were studied by histologic, immunopathologic, and ultrastructural means. Renal lesions were characterized grossly by pale cortical surfaces with scattered, miliary, whitish-yellow foci and on cut cortical surfaces by straight, whitish-yellow striations. Gangrenous pneumonia was observed in 16 out of 21 affected sheep (76.2%), although other chronic inflammations were also observed. Amyloid was detected in all grossly affected kidneys using Congo red staining, lesions being most remarkable in glomeruli, affecting 95.5% of animals studied. Congophilic deposits were also observed in intertubular interstitium (68.2%) and medulla (57.1%). All amyloid-affected animals presented proximal convoluted tubule lesions, mostly characterized by an increase in diameter and by hyaline granular degeneration that were responsible for the macroscopic appearance of the kidney. Histologically, amyloid was also seen in blood vessels, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, and adrenal glands. All amyloid deposits demonstrated greenish-yellow birefringence with polarized light, and the antisera prepared against goat amyloid extracts specifically reacted with birefringent congophilic deposits of both sheep and goats. Ultrastructurally, these deposits were formed by masses of straight, nonbranching fibrils located predominantly in the basement membranes of glomerular capillaries and in the mesangium. Partial sequence of the protein in sheep and goats indicated a high degree of homology with the previously reported sequence of sheep Serum Amyloid A.

  13. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced chorioamnionitis by Ureaplasma parvum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Candice C; Wolfe, Katherine B; Gisslen, Tate; Knox, Christine L; Kemp, Matthew W; Kramer, Boris W; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2013-05-01

    Ureaplasma colonization in the setting of polymicrobial flora is common in women with chorioamnionitis, and is a risk factor for preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity. We hypothesized that Ureaplasma colonization of amniotic fluid would modulate chorioamnionitis induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sheep received intraamniotic (IA) injections of media (control) or live Ureaplasma either 7 or 70 days before delivery. Another group received IA LPS 2 days before delivery. To test for interactions, U parvum-exposed animals were challenged with IA LPS, and delivered 2 days later. All animals were delivered preterm at 125 ± 1 day of gestation. Both IA Ureaplasma and LPS induced leukocyte infiltration of chorioamnion. LPS greatly increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase in leukocytes, while Ureaplasma alone caused modest responses. Interestingly, 7-day but not 70-day Ureaplasma exposure significantly down-regulated LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase expression in the chorioamnion. Acute (7-day) U parvum exposure can suppress LPS-induced chorioamnionitis. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic arsenic toxicity in sheep of Kurdistan province, western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Seradj, Afsaneh; Akbari, Zahra; Moore, Farid; Shahraki, Alireza Rahmani; Pourjafar, Mehrdad

    2015-07-01

    After the detection of arsenic (As) toxicity in sheep from Ebrahim-abad and Babanazar villages in Kurdistan province, the concentration of this element in drinking water, cultivated soil, alfalfa hay, wool, and blood samples was evaluated. Total As concentrations ranged from 119 to 310 μg/L in drinking water, 46.70-819.20 mg/kg in soil 1.90-6.90 mg/kg in vegetation 1.56-10.79 mg/kg in sheep's wool, and 86.30-656 μg/L in blood samples. These very high As contents, in all parts of the biogeochemical cycle, exceed the recommended normal range for this element compared with a control area. Results indicate that As has moved through all compartments of the biogeochemical cycle by way of direct or indirect pathways. The present investigation illustrated decreased packed cell volume and hemoglobin in sheep from the As-contaminated zone. It was concluded that sheep from the contaminated areas suffer from anemia. Chronic As exposure of the liver was determined by liver function tests. For this purpose, blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. The results show that serum ALT and AST activities are increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the sheep population exposed to As in the contaminated zone. Moreover, chronic As exposure causes injury to hepatocytes and damages the liver.

  15. Determination of erythrocyte susceptibility of Chinese sheep (Tan mutton breed) and French sheep (Vendéen breed) to Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) by in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guiquan; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Brisseau, Nadine; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong; Chauvin, Alain

    2010-05-28

    The Babesia species "BQ1 (Lintan)" is infective to sheep and goats. The species was isolated from Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis collected in the Gannan Tibet Autonomous Region, China in April 2000. In this study, an in vitro culture system was developed for the propagation of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan). Continuous cultivation and 5.0% parasitemia was obtained in vitro in RPMI 1640 medium with sheep red blood cells (RBC) (7.5%) supplemented with Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) (20%), Amphotericin B (0.5 microg/ml) and Gentamicin (50 microg/ml) in an incubator at 37 degrees C and 6% CO(2) in 24-well and 6-well plates. Parasitemia could attain 10% in 75 cm(2) flasks with the same culture medium but with 2.5% RBC. A clonal line of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) was screened using the limiting dilution method and designated G7. Growth of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) in vitro was measured by microtitre-based spectrophotometric method and from parasitemia counts. The generation time was between 20.57 h (based the A(405) of the culture supernatant) and 26.41 h (based on parasitemia). Three French sheep were successfully infected with the culture and the infectivity of the clonal line G7 was determined. Finally, this in vitro culture system was used to compare the susceptibility (capacity to sustain Babesia sp. growth in vitro) of RBC from French sheep (Vendéen breed) and Chinese sheep (Tan mutton breed) for Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) and B. divergens. The lower susceptibility to B. divergens and Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) of RBC from French sheep, compared to Chinese sheep, is discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protection against severe hypokalemia but impaired cardiac repolarization after intense rowing exercise in healthy humans receiving salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atanasovska, Tania; Smith, Robert; Graff, Claus

    2018-01-01

    repolarization (QT hysteresis). Eleven healthy adults participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind trial receiving either 1000 µg salbutamol (SAL) or placebo (PLAC) by inhalation. Arterial plasma potassium concentration ([K+]a) was measured at rest, during 3 min intense rowing exercise and 60 min......-exercise (Peffect). [K+]a was lower after SAL than PLAC, from 2 min pre-exercise until 2.5 min during exercise, and at 50 and 60 min post-exercise (P...-exercise decline in [K+]a was correlated with QT hysteresis (r=0.343, n=112, pooled data, P=0.001). Thus the decrease in [K+]a from end-exercise by ~4 mM was associated with reduced QT hysteresis by ~75 ms. Whilst salbutamol lowered [K+]a during exercise, no additive hypokalemic effects occurred in early recovery...

  17. Reduced lentivirus susceptibility in sheep with TMEM154 mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Heaton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP as it is known in the United States, is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine genetic risk factors for lentivirus infection. Sixty-nine matched pairs of infected cases and uninfected controls were identified among 736 naturally exposed sheep older than five years of age. These pairs were used in a genome-wide association study with 50,614 markers. A single SNP was identified in the ovine transmembrane protein (TMEM154 that exceeded genome-wide significance (unadjusted p-value 3×10(-9. Sanger sequencing of the ovine TMEM154 coding region identified six missense and two frameshift deletion mutations in the predicted signal peptide and extracellular domain. Two TMEM154 haplotypes encoding glutamate (E at position 35 were associated with infection while a third haplotype with lysine (K at position 35 was not. Haplotypes encoding full-length E35 isoforms were analyzed together as genetic risk factors in a multi-breed, matched case-control design, with 61 pairs of 4-year-old ewes. The odds of infection for ewes with one copy of a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele were 28 times greater than the odds for those without (p-value<0.0001, 95% CI 5-1,100. In a combined analysis of nine cohorts with 2,705 sheep from Nebraska, Idaho, and Iowa, the relative risk of infection was 2.85 times greater for sheep with a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele (p-value<0.0001, 95% CI 2.36-3.43. Although rare, some sheep were homozygous for TMEM154 deletion mutations and remained uninfected despite a lifetime of significant exposure. Together, these findings indicate that TMEM154 may play a central role in ovine lentivirus infection and removing sheep with the most susceptible genotypes may help eradicate OPP and protect flocks from reinfection.

  18. Considerations on Trends in the Romanian Sheep and Goat Meat Market, 1990-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper purpose was to identify the main trends in the Romanian sheep and goat meat market based on the analysis of the specific indicators regarding sheep and goat livestock and production at country level and by region, using the data provided by National Institute of Statistic for the period 1990-2009. About 198,729 farmers are raising sheep and goats and the average farm size is about 16 heads. The sheep and goat livestock declined by 34 % in the analyzed period accounting for 10,058 thousand heads in 2009. Sheep/goat ratio changed from 14/1 in 1990 to 9.96/1 in 2009, in the advantage of goats. Sheep and goats are mainly grown in Central, North-Eastern and South-Western Romania. Mutton and goat meat production accounted for 1,443 thousand tons in 2009, being by 40 % lower than in 1990  because of  livestock  decline.  About 23 % mutton and sheep meat is produced in the South-Eastern Romania, 18 % in the Central part and 14 % in North-East. The share of mutton and goat meat declined from 8.38 % in 1990 to 7.21 % in 2009 in total meat production in the country. As a conclusion,  mutton  and goat meat market registered a decline during the last decades, in favour of pork and poultry meat.

  19. Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural. Karoo pasture. 2. Nitrogen. P.J.L.Zeeman, P.G. Marais and M.J. Coetsee. Research Institute of the Karoo Region, Middelburg, Cape. The nitrogen (N) content of material selected by cattle, Boer goats,. Dorper and Merino sheep on natural Karoo pasture was ...

  20. Effects of environmental factors on growth traits in Ghezel sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... growth traits in Ghezel sheep breed. Growth related data (birth weight, weaning weight, month 6 weight, average daily gain from birth to weaning and weaning to month 6) were collected from lambs that have been born during 1994 - 2006 at Ghezel sheep breeding station in west Azerbaijan and data was analyzed using

  1. Footrot and interdigital dermatitis in sheep: farmer satisfaction with current management, their ideal management and sources used to adopt new strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassink, G J; George, T R N; Kaler, J; Green, L E

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this research were to identify management practices that sheep farmers currently use to treat and prevent footrot in sheep and whether they consider that these are successful management tools and to find out how sheep farmers would ideally like to manage footrot in their flock. Over 90% of lameness in sheep in the UK is caused by Dichelobacter nodosus, which presents clinically as interdigital dermatitis (ID) alone or with separation of hoof horn (FR). A questionnaire was sent to 265 farmers to investigate their current management and their satisfaction with current management of the spectrum of clinical presentations of footrot. Farmers were also asked their ideal management of footrot and their interest in, and sources of information for, change. Approximately 160 farmers responded. Farmers satisfied with current management reported a prevalence of lameness 5%. These farmers practised routine foot trimming, footbathing and vaccination against footrot. Whilst 89% of farmers said they were satisfied with their management of FR over 34% were interested in changing management. Farmers identified veterinarians as the most influential source for new information. Farmers reported that ideally they would control FR by culling/isolating lame sheep, sourcing replacements from non-lame parents, trimming feet less, using antibacterial treatments less and using vaccination more. Footbathing was a commonly used management that was linked with dissatisfaction and that also was listed highly as an ideal management. Consequently, some of the ideal managements are in agreement with our understanding of disease control (culling and isolation, sourcing healthy replacements) but others are in contrast with our current knowledge of management and farmers self-reporting of satisfaction of management of footrot (less use of antibacterial treatment, more footbathing and vaccination). One explanation for this is the theory of cognitive dissonance where belief follows behaviour

  2. The sheep as a large osteoporotic model for orthopaedic research in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, L.; Ding, Ming; Li, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Although small animals as rodents are very popular animals for osteoporosis models , large animals models are necessary for research of human osteoporotic diseases. Sheep osteoporosis models are becoming more important because of its unique advantages for osteoporosis reseach. Sheep are docile...... in nature and large in size , which facilitates obtaining blood samples , urine samples and bone tissue samples for different biochemical tests and histological tests , and surgical manipulation and instrument examinations. Their physiology is similar to humans. To induce osteoporosis , OVX and calcium...... intake restriction and glucocorticoid application are the most effective methods for sheep osteoporosis model. Sheep osteoporosis model is an ideal animal model for studying various medicines reacting to osteoporosis and other treatment methods such as prosthetic replacement reacting to osteoporotic...

  3. Tick infestation on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Muthukrishnan, S; Arul Prakash, M

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of tick infestation and their predilection sites on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare were studied at various places of Tamil Nadu, India. The prevalence of tick infestation in Madras red sheep, Tellicherry goat and horse was 77.11, 78.21 and 13.33%, respectively. Sheep were heavily infested with Haemaphysalis bispinosa followed by Hyalomma isaaci , Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides and H . anatolicum . The ticks from goats were identified as H . bispinosa , R . haemaphysaloides , H . isaaci and R . sanguineus . Horses were infested with Otobus megnini and R . sanguineus . The ticks on wild hare ( Lepus nigricollis ) were identified as R . haemaphysaloides and H . bispinosa . Wild hare acts as a source of infestation to the sheep and goats since these animals shared the same field.

  4. Toxoplasmosis Prevalence in Sheep in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Nurcahyo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A research on toxoplasmosis prevalence in sheep was conducted in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. The objective of the research was to understand the prevalence level of toxoplasmosis in sheep using skin test method by taking the membrane protein of tachyzoit produced in vivo. The research was initiated by producing the tachyzoit membrane protein at the testing animals, later the obtained protein was prepared and used in the skin test method. At the end of the research agglutination test was conducted to confirm the diagnosis using card agglutination test. An optimal dosage of tachyzoit membrane protein used in sheep as the basic material of the skin test was 1.5 mg/ml/head. Result showed the reaction of skin was thickening and the duration after being injected intradermally varied from 12 to 30 minutes in various sizes from 8 to 19 millimetres. The skin test method showed that the prevalence level of toxoplasmosis in Yogyakarta was more than 70%. Key Words: toxoplasmosis, prevalence, skin test

  5. Fatal systemic cladosporiosis in a merino sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haligur, Mehmet; Ozmen, Ozlem; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2010-12-01

    Systemic cladosporiosis is described in 25 merino sheep from a flock consisting 250 animals. The fungal pneumonia appeared after an intensive antibiotic treatment, because of a respiratory system disorder. The pen of the flock was humid and crowded, and animals had signs of respiratory distress, coughing, fever and anorexia. All of the ill animals died, and necropsy was performed on 10 sheep. The lesions were characterized by a multifocal pyogranulomatous pneumonia and an abomasitis. Severe hemorrhages were observed in the lungs. At the histopathological examination, severe vasculitis with thrombosis was observed in various organs, especially in the lungs and abomasums, suggestive for a hematogenous dissemination of the infection in these organs. Numerous PAS-positive fungal elements were seen in the pyogranulomatous foci. Dark green fungal colonies were seen in the blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar that were identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides. This report highlights that phaeohyphomycosis can cause a severe systemic and fatal disease in merino sheep under insufficient management conditions.

  6. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; Foreyt, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries) and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumoni...

  7. The reindeer abomasal nematode (Ostertagia gruehneri) is naturally transmitted to sheep when sharing pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manninen, Saana-Maaria; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Finland, often alternately corralled with winter-fed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), creates potential for cross-infection of gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to elucidate this possibility with 43 animals. Eleven...... reindeer and 8 sheep had shared a corral by turns, reindeer during winters, and sheep in summers. Another 12 reindeer had no known contact with sheep. Twelve sheep had no close contact to other ruminants. Both reindeer groups were free-ranging during summers. During slaughter in September to November, 2003......, abomasa and parts of intestines were collected. Gastrointestinal nematodes were counted and identified. The species found were the following: in reindeer, Ostertagia gruehneri/Ostertagia arctica, Mazamastrongylus dagestanica, Nematodirus tarandi, Nematodirella longissimespiculata and Bunostomum...

  8. Sheep lymph-nodes as a biological indicator of environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledda, Caterina; Loreto, Carla; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita; Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2016-01-01

    A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. The lymph-nodes draining the pulmonary lobes of sheep grazing around the town were examined, to gain insights into fibre diffusion. The pasture areas of six sheep flocks lying about 3 km from Biancavilla were located using the global positioning system. The cranial tracheobronchial and one middle mediastinal lymph-node as well as four lung tissue samples were collected from 10 animals from each flock and from 10 control sheep for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The lymph-nodes from exposed sheep were enlarged and exhibited signs of anthracosis. Histologically, especially at the paracortical level, they showed lymph-follicle hyperplasia with large reactive cores and several macrophages (coniophages) containing grey-brownish particulate interspersed with elements with a fibril structure, forming aggregates of varying dimensions (coniophage nodules). Similar findings were detected in some peribronchiolar areas of the lung parenchyma. SEM examination showed that FE fibres measured 8–41 µm in length and 0.4–1.39 µm in diameter in both lymph-nodes and lung tissue. Monitoring of FE fibres in sheep lymph-nodes using appropriate techniques can help set up environmental pollution surveillance. - Highlights: • Lymph-nodes draining sheep lung were used to assess environmental fluoro-edenite exposure. • Monitoring fluoro-edenite fibres in sheep lung nodes can provide pollution surveillance. • Our findings document a risk of fluoro-edenite fibre inhalation a few kilometres from the source. • Sheep appear to be a valuable bioindicator species.

  9. Spatial distribution patterns of sheep following manipulation of feeding motivation and food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, R; Swain, D L; Friend, M A

    2012-05-01

    We hypothesised that (i) increased feeding motivation will cause sheep to move further apart as a result of individuals trying to find food and (ii) in conditions of high food availability, sheep will move less and show greater social attraction. The effects of both feeding motivation and food availability on spatial distribution was examined in eight groups of food-deprived (high feeding motivation) and satiated (low feeding motivation) sheep in good or poor food resource plots in a 2 × 2 design. Distance travelled was assessed using Global Positioning System collars, grazing time using scan sampling and social cohesion using proximity collars that record the number and duration of encounters within 4 m. Food-deprived sheep in the good-resource plots grazed the most, whereas satiated sheep in the poor-resource plots grazed the least (P = 0.004). Food deprivation had no significant effect on the number or duration of encounters and feeding motivation appeared to have little effect on spatial distribution. Contrary to expectation, sheep had more encounters (P = 0.04) of a longer total duration (P = 0.02) in poor-resource plots than in good-resource plots, indicating that sheep were showing more social cohesion if food was scarce. Our findings suggest that when food is scarce, animals may come together in an attempt to share information on food availability. However, when a highly preferred food is abundant and well dispersed, they may move apart in order to maximise the intake. It is concluded that the particular details of our experiment, namely the even distribution or absence of a highly preferred food, affected spatial distribution patterns as sheep tried to find this food and maximise the intake.

  10. Sheep lymph-nodes as a biological indicator of environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledda, Caterina, E-mail: cledda@unict.it [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Loreto, Carla [Human Anatomy and Histology, Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Pomara, Cristoforo [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Rapisarda, Giuseppe [Department of Veterinary Medicine, ASP Catania, Catania (Italy); Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita [Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Fenga, Concettina [Occupational Medicine, Department of the Environment, Safety, Territory, Food and Health Sciences, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); Rapisarda, Venerando [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. The lymph-nodes draining the pulmonary lobes of sheep grazing around the town were examined, to gain insights into fibre diffusion. The pasture areas of six sheep flocks lying about 3 km from Biancavilla were located using the global positioning system. The cranial tracheobronchial and one middle mediastinal lymph-node as well as four lung tissue samples were collected from 10 animals from each flock and from 10 control sheep for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The lymph-nodes from exposed sheep were enlarged and exhibited signs of anthracosis. Histologically, especially at the paracortical level, they showed lymph-follicle hyperplasia with large reactive cores and several macrophages (coniophages) containing grey-brownish particulate interspersed with elements with a fibril structure, forming aggregates of varying dimensions (coniophage nodules). Similar findings were detected in some peribronchiolar areas of the lung parenchyma. SEM examination showed that FE fibres measured 8–41 µm in length and 0.4–1.39 µm in diameter in both lymph-nodes and lung tissue. Monitoring of FE fibres in sheep lymph-nodes using appropriate techniques can help set up environmental pollution surveillance. - Highlights: • Lymph-nodes draining sheep lung were used to assess environmental fluoro-edenite exposure. • Monitoring fluoro-edenite fibres in sheep lung nodes can provide pollution surveillance. • Our findings document a risk of fluoro-edenite fibre inhalation a few kilometres from the source. • Sheep appear to be a valuable bioindicator species.

  11. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  12. A pharmacology-based comparison of the activity of albendazole and flubendazole against Echinococcus granulosus metacestode in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, L; Virkel, G; Elissondo, C; Canton, C; Canevari, J; Murno, G; Denegri, G; Lanusse, C; Alvarez, L

    2013-09-01

    observed in liver microsomes obtained from sheep receiving ABZ, compared to those of the unmedicated and FLBZ-treated animals. In conclusion, FLBZ is an available anthelmintic which may be developed into an effective and safe drug for the human CE treatment. Despite the low plasma concentrations measured by FLBZ/R-FLBZ, an important reduction in protoscoleces' vitality was observed in cysts located in sheep liver. Modern pharmaceutical technology may help to greatly improve FLBZ systemic exposure improving its efficacy against CE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Parasitic helminth infections in native sheep (Mehraban in Hamedan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Gharekhani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep play an important role in national economy and social economy in rural areas in Iran. The main goal of this study was to investigate the fauna and frequency of parasitic helminth infections prevalent in native sheep in Hamedan, western Iran. From April 2010 to March 2011, the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of 100-sheep were examined using conventional parasitological methods. The overall infection rate was found as 69%. No infection was found in esophagus and rumens. Parabronema skerjabini (22% and Ostertagia circumcincta (1% were recorded as the maximum and minimum cases for the presence of nematode, respectively. On the other hand, the most dominant of trematode and cestode were Fasciola hepatica (13% and Monezia expansa (13%, respectively. The highest infection rate was reported in summer (84%. The prevalence of helminth infection was varied among gender, seasons and age groups. In conclusion, this is the first report of parasitic helminth infections in sheep in Hamedan province in western Iran. Our results provide baseline information for the future studies.

  14. The Productivity of Male Thin-Tailed Lambs and Sheep Fed Complete Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluns, M. S.; Luthfi, N.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the productivity of thin tailed lambs and sheep fed complete feed. The material used in this study were 6 thin tailed lambs aged ± 5 months with an average body weight of 15.41 ± 2.11 kg (CV 37.04%) and 6 thin tailed rams aged ± 1 year with an average body weight of 23, 01 ± 1.91 kg (CV 28.83%). The animals were raised intensively with complete feed as much as 3.5% of body weight. The feed contained 12% crude protein (CP) and 55% Total Digestible Nutrients (TDNs). The results showed that the average feed intake was 567.10 g DMI/d in lambs and 726.24 g DMI per day in sheep. An average of body gain of lambs was 0.02 kg/d and 0.01 kg/d. The day matter digestibility of lambs achieves 50.23% and 50.74% in sheep. Based on results, it can be inferred that lambs has same digestibility with sheep and has more efficient to be fattened than sheep.

  15. Detection of prions in the faeces of sheep naturally infected with classical scrapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Linda A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Classical scrapie is a naturally transmitted prion disease of sheep and goats. Contaminated environments may contribute to the spread of disease and evidence from animal models has implicated urine, blood, saliva, placenta and faeces as possible sources of the infection. Here we sought to determine whether sheep naturally infected with classical scrapie shed prions in their faeces. We used serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA along with two extraction methods to examine faeces from sheep during both the clinical and preclinical phases of the disease and showed amplification of PrPSc in 7 of 15 and 14 of 14 sheep respectively. However PrPSc was not amplified from the faeces of 25 sheep not exposed to scrapie. These data represent the first demonstration of prion shedding in faeces from a naturally infected host and thus a likely source of prion contamination in the environment.

  16. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  17. Quantitative kinetics of renal glucose metabolism by the isotope dilution method in the unanesthetized sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Yasukuni; Ambo, Kaichi; Tsuda, Tsuneyuki.

    1982-01-01

    Renal glucose production and utilization rates in normal fed and fasted sheep were determined by the measurements of renal blood flow and arteriovenous 14 C-glucose and glucose concentration differences using the method of primed continuous infusion of u- 14 C-glucose. At the same time total body glucose turnover rate was measured, and the contribution of renal glucose production to glucose requirement in the whole animal was quantitatively estimated. The renal blood flow for fed and fasted sheep were 20 +- 1 and 20 +- 3 ml/min/kg, respectively. No significant difference in the renal blood flow existed between the groups. The total body glucose turnover rate in fasted sheep (1.68 +- 0.20 mg/min/kg) was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) than that of fed sheep (2.20 +- 0.13 mg/min/kg). The renal glucose production rate in fed sheep was 0.47 +- 0.05 mg/min/kg and this rate accounted for about 21.4% of the glucose turnover rate. The renal glucose production rate in fasted sheep decreased to about 45% of that in fed sheep. However, the renal glucose utilization rate was similar in fed (0.26 +- 0.04 mg/min/kg) and fasted sheep (0.27 +- 0.04 mg/min/kg). Net renal glucose production rate in fed sheep, which was measured by the method of arteriovenous glucose concentration differences, was 0.22 +- 0.05 mg/min/kg, but that in fasted sheep was a negative value. These results suggest that the kidney of ruminant seems to produce a significant amount of glucose and to utilize it simultaneously with production. (author)

  18. Changes in protein expression in the sheep abomasum following trickle infection with Teladorsagia circumcincta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Alan D; Brown, Jeremy K; Craig, Nicky M; Pate, Judith; McLean, Kevin; Inglis, Neil F; Knox, David; Knight, Pamela A

    2012-03-01

    Continual low-level exposure of sheep to the helminth Teladorsagia circumcincta elicits a temporary protective immunity, where factors in the immune abomasal mucosa prevent penetration of infective larvae, but which is essentially lost within 6 weeks of cessation of parasite challenge. Here, a proteomic approach was used to identify proteins that are differentially regulated in immune compared to naïve sheep, as potential key mediators of immunity. Six naïve sheep and 12 sheep trickle-infected with T. circumcincta were treated with anthelmintic, and the naïve (control) and 6 immune sheep were killed 7 days later. The remaining 6 sheep (immune waning) were killed 42 days after anthelmintic treatment. Abomasal tissue samples were subjected to 2D-gel electrophoresis and densitometric analysis. Selected spots (n=73) were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting and confirmatory Western blotting was carried out for 10 proteins. Spots selectively up-regulated in immune versus control, but not immune waning versus control sheep, included galectin-15 and thioredoxin, which were confirmed by Western blotting. In immune sheep, serum albumin was significantly down-regulated and albumin proteolytic cleavage fragments were increased compared to controls. Unexpectedly, albumin mRNA was relatively highly expressed in control mucosa, down-regulated in immune, and was immunolocalized to mucus-producing epithelial cells. Thus we have identified differential expression of a number of proteins following T. circumcincta trickle infection that may play a role in host protection and inhibition of parasite establishment.

  19. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Cefquinome (Cobactan 2.5% following Repeated Intramuscular Administrations in Sheep and Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Hewaity

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative pharmacokinetic profile of cefquinome was studied in sheep and goats following repeated intramuscular (IM administrations of 2 mg/kg body weight. Cefquinome concentrations in serum were determined by microbiological assay technique using Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341 as test organism. Following intramuscular injection of cefquinome in sheep and goats, the disposition curves were best described by two-compartment open model in both sheep and goats. The pharmacokinetics of cefquinome did not differ significantly between sheep and goats; similar intramuscular dose rate of cefquinome should therefore be applicable to both species. On comparing the data of serum levels of repeated intramuscular injections with first intramuscular injection, it was revealed that repeated intramuscular injections of cefquinome have cumulative effect in both species sheep and goats. The in vitro serum protein-binding tendency was 15.65% in sheep and 14.42% in goats. The serum concentrations of cefquinome along 24 h after injection in this study were exceeding the MICs of different susceptible microorganisms responsible for serious disease problems. These findings indicate successful use of cefquinome in sheep and goats.

  20. Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survivorship and habitat studies in Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area and surrounding lands, Wyoming and Montana, 2000–2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Singer, Francis J.; Grams, Kayla A.; Roelle, James E.

    2004-01-01

    In the 1850s, bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were numerous and distributed throughout the Bighorn and Pryor Mountains of Montana and Wyoming. After European settlement, bighorn sheep populations declined, and local extinctions occurred in much of their historic range in the western United States. The current bighorn sheep population of Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area (BICA) is the product of several reintroductions into BICA and surrounding lands. Following a release in 1973 and growth rates near maximum potential of 19.8% per year, the population grew to an estimated peak population of about 211 animals in 1993 and 1994 (Kissell and others, 1996). Recent counts indicate the bighorn sheep population has declined. Kissell and others (1996) reported that the population began to decline rapidly in 1995 and 1996. He noted low ewe:lamb ratios during the decline phase. Bighorn sheep numbers declined to the lowest minimum viable population size of 100 animals recommended by several bighorn sheep experts (Bailey, 1990; Berger, 1990; Smith and others, 1991). National Park Service (NPS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) managers were concerned about the decline and requested a study of its causes. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey- Biological Resources Division (USGS-BRD) received funding to start a 3-year study of survivorship, condition, and population growth rate of the BICA bighorn sheep population.Several possibilities exist for the bighorn sheep decline. The herd may have experienced a rapid population expansion, followed by a decline to stability at a lower long-term carrying capacity. This pattern of apparently overshooting carrying capacity following an initial release has been reported for a number of ungulates (Caughley, 1976). Disease may have caused the decline; predation and/or competition with wild horses (Equus caballus) may also have been factors. A spatial model of wild horse carrying capacity (Coughenour, 1999) was developed to assist managers

  1. Endogenous phosphorus excretion by sheep fed hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse, lucerne hay and citrus pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, R.S.; Roque, A.P.; Vitti, D.M.S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine endogenous phosphorus excretion in sheep fed with different diets. Sixteen male growing sheep, received a basic diet with: 42% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (HSB), 45% lucerne hay (LH) plus 14% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse, and 30% citrus pulp (CTP) plus 40% hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse. A dose of 7.7 MBq 32 P was injected into the left jugular vein of each animal. The P endogenous fecal losses were: 1.69, 2.50, 2.33 and 1.45 g/animal for treatments HSB, LH, and CTP respectively (P>0.05). The type of diet influenced slight endogenous P excretion but altered excretion of P in urine. Endogenous P excreted in feces (P F ) comes mainly from saliva and represents an important loss of P. The estimation of net requirements of phosphorus (P) for ruminants includes endogenous losses, which is also essential for calculating true absorption of this mineral. Physical structure of the feed may influence endogenous losses, altering the metabolism of P and also the demand of this mineral, therefore being important to know how different feeds affect endogenous P losses. (author)

  2. Marker-assisted selection in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werf, H.J. van der

    2007-01-01

    Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)

  3. Experimentally induced cam impingement in the sheep hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenrock, Klaus A; Fiechter, Ruth; Tannast, Moritz; Mamisch, Tallal C; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2013-04-01

    Sheep hips have a natural non-spherical femoral head similar to a cam-type deformity in human beings. By performing an intertrochanteric varus osteotomy, cam-type femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) during flexion can be created. We tested the hypotheses that macroscopic lesions of the articular cartilage and an increased Mankin score (MS) can be reproduced by an experimentally induced cam-type FAI in this ovine in vivo model. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the MS increases with longer ambulatory periods. Sixteen sheep underwent unilateral intertrochanteric varus osteotomy of the hip with the non-operated hip as a control. Four sheep were sacrificed after 14, 22, 30, and 38-weeks postoperatively. We evaluated macroscopic chondrolabral alterations, and recorded the MS, based on histochemical staining, for each ambulatory period. A significantly higher prevalence of macroscopic chondrolabral lesions was found in the impingement zone of the operated hips. The MS was significantly higher in the acetabular/femoral cartilage of the operated hips. Furthermore, these scores increased as the length of the ambulatory period increased. Cam-type FAI can be induced in an ovine in vivo model. Localized chondrolabral degeneration of the hip, similar to that seen in humans (Tannast et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 2008; 466: 273-280; Beck et al., J Bone Joint Surg Br 2005; 87: 1012-1018), can be reproduced. This experimental sheep model can be used to study cam-type FAI. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  4. INTAKE OF TROPICAL TANNINIFEROUS PLANTS BY GOATS AND SHEEP WHEN OFFERED AS A SOLE FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Alonso-Díaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The intake of tropical tanniniferous plants (TTP (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Piscidia piscipula and Acacia pennatula when offered as a single feed to small ruminants could help to design a supplementation strategy looking for an anthelmintic effect. The objectives of the current study were: i to determine the chemical composition of TTP offered to goats and sheep, ii to determine and compare the total intake of TTP when offered as a single feed to goats and sheep. Adult sheep and goats, with experience in the intake of TTP, were allocated to individual pens. Three consecutive experimental period (15 d separated by seven days were used. Each period consisted of 10 d adaptation and 5 days of experiment. During adaptation animals received 40 g of leaves of each TTP plant, fresh grass and concentrate feed on a daily basis. During the experimental period animals were fed ad libitum only with the fodder of a sole TTP. Between each period, animals were fed with fresh grass (ad libitum and concentrate (200 g-1 day. Crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and lignin (L were determined from each TTP. Total polyphenols (TP, total tannins (TT and condensed tannins (CT were also determined. During each experimental period, refused fodder and intake were measured every 24 h. A multivariate analysis was used in order to determine the effect of factors (animal species, plant species and individual animal within specie on the dry matter intake. Factors with statistical effect (P

  5. Non-overlapping distributions of feral sheep (Ovis aries) and Stout Iguanas (Cyclura pinguis) on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Ben R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Kalyvaki, Maria; McGaughey, Kathleen; Mougey, Krista; Navarrete, Laura; Rondeau, Renée; Boal, Clint W.; Perry, Gad

    2013-01-01

    Stout Iguanas (Cyclura pinguis) remain one of the most critically endangered reptiles in the world. Factors contributing to that status include habitat loss, predation by introduced species, and competition with introduced herbivores. On Guana Island, British Virgin Islands, the presence of feral sheep (Ovis aries) has been a hypothesized detriment to iguanas. Using motion sensitive cameras, we documented the distribution of feral sheep on Guana Island in 2010. We also quantified the impact of feral sheep on ground vegetation by comparing plant abundance at longterm sheep exclosures and areas where sheep were absent to areas where sheep were present. Finally, we compared sheep distribution to iguana distribution on the island. The co-occurrence of sheep and Stout Iguanas was less than expected, indicating possible competition. Although we detected no difference in vegetative cover between areas where sheep were present and absent, the long-term exclosures showed that the exclusion of sheep allowed the abundance of many plant species to increase. Our data support the hypothesis that feral sheep are altering the abundance of ground-level vegetation and limiting iguana distribution on the island.

  6. Genetic structure of South African Nguni (Zulu) sheep populations reveals admixture with exotic breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selepe, Mokhethi Matthews; Ceccobelli, Simone; Lasagna, Emiliano; Kunene, Nokuthula Winfred

    2018-01-01

    The population of Zulu sheep is reported to have declined by 7.4% between 2007 and 2011 due to crossbreeding. There is insufficient information on the genetic diversity of the Zulu sheep populations in the different area of KwaZulu Natal where they are reared. The study investigated genetic variation and genetic structure within and among eight Zulu sheep populations using 26 microsatellite markers. In addition, Damara, Dorper and South African Merino breeds were included to assess the genetic relationship between these breeds and the Zulu sheep. The results showed that there is considerable genetic diversity among the Zulu sheep populations (expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.57 to 0.69) and the level of inbreeding was not remarkable. The structure analysis results revealed that Makhathini Research Station and UNIZULU research station share common genetic structure, while three populations (Nongoma, Ulundi and Nquthu) had some admixture with the exotic Dorper breed. Thus, there is a need for sustainable breeding and conservation programmes to control the gene flow, in order to stop possible genetic dilution of the Zulu sheep.

  7. Genetic structure of South African Nguni (Zulu sheep populations reveals admixture with exotic breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhethi Matthews Selepe

    Full Text Available The population of Zulu sheep is reported to have declined by 7.4% between 2007 and 2011 due to crossbreeding. There is insufficient information on the genetic diversity of the Zulu sheep populations in the different area of KwaZulu Natal where they are reared. The study investigated genetic variation and genetic structure within and among eight Zulu sheep populations using 26 microsatellite markers. In addition, Damara, Dorper and South African Merino breeds were included to assess the genetic relationship between these breeds and the Zulu sheep. The results showed that there is considerable genetic diversity among the Zulu sheep populations (expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.57 to 0.69 and the level of inbreeding was not remarkable. The structure analysis results revealed that Makhathini Research Station and UNIZULU research station share common genetic structure, while three populations (Nongoma, Ulundi and Nquthu had some admixture with the exotic Dorper breed. Thus, there is a need for sustainable breeding and conservation programmes to control the gene flow, in order to stop possible genetic dilution of the Zulu sheep.

  8. Immunoprotection of recombinant Eg.P29 against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Li, Zihua; Gao, Fu; Zhao, Jiaqing; Zhu, Mingxing; He, Xin; Niu, Nan; Zhao, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the immunoprotection of recombinant Eg.P29 (rEg.P29) vaccine and analyze the underlying mechanism in sheep. Three groups of male sheep were immunized subcutaneously with rEg.P29 and PBS, Freund's complete adjuvant as controls, respectively. After prime-boost vaccination, the sheep were challenged with encapsulated Echinococcus granulosus eggs. The percentage of protection in sheep was determined 36 weeks after the infection. Humoral immune response was analyzed for specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgM and IgE levels. Moreover, cytokines including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4,and IL-10 were also evaluated. Immunization with rEg.P29 induced protective immune responses up to 94.5 %, compared with immunoadjuvant group. The levels of specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgE as well as IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4 significantly increased after two immunizations (P granulosus infection.

  9. Dietary phosphorus depletion in sheep: Longterm effects on bone structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, G.; Prokop, M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 6 sheep from 8 months old to study effects of dietary phosphorus depletion on bone structure. Sheep were given a semisynthetic diet of chopped straw and pellets for 38 weeks. Mean daily P in the diet was 0.97 g and 3 sheep were given additional NaH2PO4.H2O, increasing daily P supply to 4.5 g (controls). Bone density was estimated photometrically within the laterodistal metaphysis of the foreleg and standardized by a copper step wedge. Metacarpal cortical thickness was also measured. Cortical thickness and bone density started to decrease about 4 weeks after start of P depletion. The trabecular structure of the distal radius was coarser and less dense with reduced cross-linking between trabeculae

  10. Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene Arabi sheep breed in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovine scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease caused by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (Prnp); especially the amino acid residue alterations at codons 136, 154, and 174, in sheep have been found to be associated with susceptibility to scrapie disease. We studied Prnp polymorphisms in local sheep of ...

  11. Efficacy of a high potency O1 Manisa monovalent vaccine against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus of O/SEA/Mya-98 lineage in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singanallur, N B; Pacheco, J M; Arzt, J; Stenfeldt, C; Fosgate, G T; Rodriguez, L; Vosloo, W

    2017-09-01

    Potency tests for commercial oil-adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are usually carried out in cattle, using a full dose (2 ml) of vaccine and homologous virus challenge. However, in sheep the recommended vaccine dose is half of the cattle dose (1 ml) and most vaccines have not been potency tested for this species, especially with heterologous viruses. To determine the efficacy of a high potency (>6PD 50 ) FMD virus (FMDV) O1Manisa vaccine in sheep, we carried out a study using a heterologous FMDV (FMDV O/SKR/2010 - Mya-98 strain) challenge. Groups of seven animals each were vaccinated with 2×, 1×, 1/2× or 1/4× dose (2 ml, 1 ml, 0.5 ml or 0.25 ml respectively) and challenged at 7 days post vaccination (dpv). Only 3 of the 7 sheep in the group vaccinated with 2 ml were protected. With 2 additional groups, receiving double or single doses and challenged at 14 dpv, 4 of 7 sheep were protected in each group. None of the sheep had measurable neutralising antibodies against the vaccine or challenge virus at 7 dpv. However, all vaccinated animals challenged at 14 dpv had a homologous neutralising response against FMDV O1 Manisa on the day of challenge and all but one animal also had a heterologous response to FMDV O/SKR/2010. Infectious FMDV and viral RNA could be found in nasal swabs between 1 and 6 days post challenge (dpc) in most vaccinated sheep, but those vaccinated with higher doses or challenged at 14 dpv showed significant decreases in the level of FMDV detection. Intermittent virus shedding was noticed between 1 and 35 dpc in all vaccinated groups, but persistent infection could be demonstrated only in 4 sheep (20%). This study showed that at the recommended dose, a high potency (>6 PD 50 ) FMDV O1Manisa vaccine does not protect sheep against a heterologous challenge at 7 dpv. However, partial protection was observed when a double dose was used at 7 dpv or when double or single dose vaccinated sheep were challenged at 14 dpv. Copyright

  12. ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ángeles Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic production systems are based on natural processes, leveraging local resources and decreasing in soil degradation. Effectiveness of milk production of organic systems vs. conventional production systems is a subject open to debate. There are various studies in which there is a positive effect of organic systems in relation to the welfare and animal health, product quality and environmental impact. However, some authors report lower milk yields production and increased susceptibility to environmental conditions compared with those obtained in conventional systems. The lower milk yields in organic systems in Dairy sheep's production, are related to the limited nutritional value, low genetic potential, and the changing environmental conditions. These systems are mainly a production method for a specific market with premium quality products and high standards in their production processes. Thus, a company organic Dairy sheep production should be considered viable when present a positive global sustainability level, that is socially beneficial, economically viable and environmentally responsible.

  13. Identification of sheep ovary genes potentially associated with off-season reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Ka; Zhao, Zongsheng; Blair, Hugh T; Zhang, Peng; Li, Daquan; Ma, Runlin Z

    2012-04-20

    Off-season reproduction is a favorable economic trait for sheep industry. Hu sheep, an indigenous Chinese sheep breed, demonstrates a higher productivity of lambs and displays year-around oestrous behavior under proper nutrition and environment. The genetic basis behind these traits, however, is not well understood. In order to identify genes associated with the off-season reproduction, we constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library using pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 oestrous Hu females as a tester and the pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 non-oestrous Chinese Merino females as a driver. A total of 382 resulting positive clones were obtained after the SSH. We identified 114 differentially up-regulated genes in oestrous Hu sheep by using subsequent screening and DNA sequencing, of which 8 were previously known, 93 were reported for the first time in sheep, and 13 were novel with no significant homology to any sequence in the DNA databases. Functions of the genes identified are related to cell division, signal transduction, structure, metabolism, or cell defense. To validate the results of SSH, 6 genes (Ntrk2, Ppap2b, Htra1, Nid1, Serpine2 and Foxola) were selected for conformational analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and two of them (Htral and Foxo1a) were verified by Northern blot. All of the 6 genes were differentially up-regulated in the ovary of oestrous Hu. It is obvious that off-season reproduction is a complex trait involving multiple genes in multiple organs. This study helps to provide a foundation for the final identification of functional genes involved in the sheep ovary. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Seroepidemiological detection of antibodies against Leptospira spp using microscopic agglutination test in Urmia cows and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Ag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the level of incidence, titer and various serovars of leptospira in 203 cows and 166 sheep at Urmia abattoir in 2011. Blood samples were collected during the slaughter of animals and sera were separated to evaluate the serological reaction to Leptospira spp by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT using live antigens representing Leptospira interrogans serogroups: pomona, grippotyphosa, canicola, hardjo, icterrohaemoragiae, and ballum. Overall, 36% of cows and 19.3% of sheep including 33.8% of bulls, 40.5% of female cows, 18.3% of rams and 25% of ewes had a positive reaction to at least one of the leptospira serovars. The most prevalent serovars in cows were pomona (22.7%, grippotyphosa (13.8%, and hardjo (8.4%, and in sheep were grippotyphosa (66.7%, pomona (26.2% and canicola (7.1%. Other serovars were not detected in cows and sheep. The most prevalent serological titers of 1:100 and 1:200 in cows was 18.2% and 26.6%, and for sheep were 13.5% and 8%, respectively, and of 1:400 in sheep was 2.3%. Cows with a positive reaction to one, two and three serovars were 28.6%, 5.9%, and 1.5% and sheep positive to one and two serovars were 13.3% and 6%, respectively. Age comparison in seropositive cows and sheep showed a significantly increased infection (p<0.05 from young to adult ruminants, while no differences were seen regarding gender. The main mixed serovars were between grippotyphosa/pomona, grippotyphosa/canicola and canicola/pomona. The gender comparison of the serovars' distribution revealed that the pomona and grippotyphosa were predominant among other leptospiral serovars in cows and sheep, respectively. In conclusion, the rate of leptospirosis in Urmia cows was about 2 fold in sheep. The most current serovars in cows and sheep were pomona and grippotyphosa, respectively. The majority of animals was infected with one serovar, but polyserovars, are also possible. The highest titer (1:200 was observed in cows

  15. INVIVO DEGRADATION OF PROCESSED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN EVALUATED WITH TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWACHEM, PB; VANLUYN, MJA; NIEUWENHUIS, P; KOERTEN, HK; DAMINK, LO; TENHOOPEN, H; FEIJEN, J

    The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could

  16. Cloning and sequencing of growth hormone gene of Iranian Lori Bakhtiari sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dayani-Nia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and animals. It is a 191-amino acid, single chain polypeptide hormone which is synthesized, stored, and secreted by the somatotroph cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland. The goal of this research was to clone and sequence sheep growth hormone of Lori Bakhtiary breed in Iran. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from the pituitary gland of freshly slaughtered sheep and cDNA of growth hormone produced. The T/A cloning technique was used to clone the cDNA of growth hormone and then the synthesized construct was transferred into E. coli as the host. Once the correct recombinants were further confirmed by colony PCR or restriction enzyme digestion, sequencing was done. The sequencing results showed that, the length of sheep growth hormone cDNA was 690 bp fragments. Comparison of sequence of growth hormone inside the synthesized construct with those recorded in Genebank (NCBI, Blast indicated high degrees of similarity between Iranian native sheep and other sheep breeds of the world.

  17. The effect of phosphorus level in the sheep diet on the element uptake by the erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, J.C. da; Vitti, D.M.S.S.

    1995-01-01

    A trial with sheep was carried out to investigate the effect of the level of phosphorus in the diet on the 32 P uptake by the red blood cells. Twenty four male sheep were kept in individual cages, during two periods of 45 days each. In the first one the animals received a basal diet without phosphorus supplementation. In the second period the animals were divided in four groups and different amounts of bone meal were offered to supply 1,2 and 3 gP/head/day. The control group received only the basal diet. An in vitro technique was used to incubate total blood and 32 P solution as Na HP O 4 . After 3 hours incubation, the red blood cells were washed thrice with an isotonic saline solution. The solid material was transferred to crucibles, dried at 100 0 C and reduced to ash 500 0 C. Diggestion with 6N H 2 SO 4 solution was followed and radioactivity was detected by Cherenkov effect. The average 32 P uptake were: 6.04± 0.40 and 6.56 ±- 1.94, 6.18± 0.36 and 5.53 ± 1.06, 5.84 ± 0.48 and 6.31 ± 1.32, 6.0 ± 0.80 and 6.03 ± 1.50 at the first and second periods in treatments 0, 1, 2 and 3gP/head/day, respectively. There was no differences between treatments. (author). 22 refs, 1 tab

  18. A single dose of bovine somatotropin 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization increases prolificacy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, F; Hernández-Cerón, J; Orozco, V; Hernández, J A; Gutiérrez, C G

    2007-11-01

    Bovine somatotropin (bST) enhances ovarian follicular and embryonic development in sheep and cattle. In the present study, the objective was to assess whether bST given 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization improves prolificacy and lambing rate in sheep. Pelibuey ewes (n=92) exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals received an intravaginal sponge containing 45mg of FGA for 12 days. Five days before sponge withdrawal, ewes were treated with either 125mg of bST sc (bST group; n=47) or saline solution (control; n=45). After the sponge was removed, ewes were observed for estrus and subsequently mated twice. Lambing rate and prolificacy was determined at birth. Blood samples were taken from the time of treatment until day 15 after estrus in eight ewes from the bST group and nine from the control group. Concentrations of IGF-I were determined by immunoradiometric assay and progesterone by RIA. Treatment with bST increased (P0.05). IGF-I concentrations were greater (PProgesterone concentrations did not vary (P>0.05) between groups. It is concluded that a single dose of bST 5 days before progestin withdrawal increases lambing rate and prolificacy in sheep. These effects are associated with an increase in circulating concentrations of IGF-I.

  19. “Ménage à Trois”: The Evolutionary Interplay between JSRV, enJSRVs and Domestic Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armezzani, Alessia; Varela, Mariana; Spencer, Thomas E.; Palmarini, Massimo; Arnaud, Frédérick

    2014-01-01

    Sheep betaretroviruses represent a fascinating model to study the complex evolutionary interplay between host and pathogen in natural settings. In infected sheep, the exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) coexists with a variety of highly related endogenous JSRVs, referred to as enJSRVs. During evolution, some of them were co-opted by the host as they fulfilled important biological functions, including placental development and protection against related exogenous retroviruses. In particular, two enJSRV loci, enJS56A1 and enJSRV-20, were positively selected during sheep domestication due to their ability to interfere with the replication of related competent retroviruses. Interestingly, viruses escaping these transdominant enJSRVs have recently emerged, probably less than 200 years ago. Overall, these findings suggest that in sheep the process of endogenization is still ongoing and, therefore, the evolutionary interplay between endogenous and exogenous sheep betaretroviruses and their host has not yet reached an equilibrium. PMID:25502326

  20. Molecular characterization of ureaplasmas isolated from reproductive tract of goats and sheep from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela C. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovine/caprine ureaplasmas have not yet been assigned a species designation, but they have been classified into nine serotypes. Herein ureaplasmas were searched for in 120 samples of vulvo vaginal mucous from sheep and 98 samples from goats at 17 farms. In addition, semen samples were collected from 11 sheep and 23 goats. The recovered ureaplasma were from sheep and goats from animals without any reproductive disorder symptoms, but not all animals presented positive cultures. In sheep, 17 (68% cultures of vulvovaginal mucous were positive for ureaplasma and 11 (27% samples of semen presented positive cultures in animals with clinical signs of orchitis, balanoposthitis or low sperm motility. In goats four ureaplasma isolates were obtained from vulvovaginal mucus, but the semen samples were all negative. The isolates were submitted to Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis methodology and their 16S rRNA genes were sequenced. Fifty percent of ureaplasma recovered from sheep allowed for PFGE typing. Eleven isolates showed eight profiles genetically close to the bovine ureaplasmas. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed differences or similarities of isolates from sheep and goats, and the reference strains of bovine and human ureaplasma. Four clinical isolates from sheep were grouped separately. The studied ureaplasma isolates showed to be a diverse group of mollicutes.

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY OF UDDER MORPHOLOGY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    OpenAIRE

    Prpić, Zoran; Mioč, Boro; Vnučec, Ivan; Pavić, Vesna; Konjačić, Miljenko

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, selection of dairy sheep breeds was focused almost exclusively on increasing the amount of milk produced and so today they produce several times more milk than breeds selected for meat and wool. However, due to the permanent striving for increasing sheep milk production udder weight becomes too great, and suspensory system can not withstand this overweight so it ruptures more often. That significantly shortens the duration of animal’s production life and adversely affects udde...

  2. First report of Taenia ovis infection in Danish sheep (Ovis aries)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Al-Sabi, Mohammad N.S.; Larsen, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    We report Taenia ovis infection in Danish sheep for the first time. In spring 2016, the metocestode stage of T. ovis was at slaughter observed in heart muscles, diaphragm and skeletal muscles from approx. a third of all sheep from one specific farm localised in South Jutland. The diagnosis was co...

  3. COMPARATIVE GROSS AND HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE SPLEEN OF SHEEP AND GOAT OF JAMMU REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Suri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on the histology and micrometry of the spleen of sheep and goat of Jammu region. The spleen of goat was quadrangular whereas that of sheep was triangular. The biometrical measurements of the spleens of sheep and goat revealed that the weight of spleen of sheep was 81.39 ± 12.79 gm while that of goat was 64.48 ± 7.82 gm. The length of the spleen was 12.70 ± 0.81 cm and 11.48 ± 0.73 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. The width of spleen of sheep was recorded to be 9.26 ± 0.38 cm and that of goat was measured as 9.37 ± 0.79 cm and the thickness of spleen was found to be 2.69 ± 0.2 cm and 2.37 ± 0.21 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. Histologically, spleen was covered by thick capsule with thickness 282.27 ± 14.88 µ in goat and 150.13 ± 8.14 µ in sheep. The thickness of trabeculae in goat was 224.67 ± 67 µ and in sheep was 104.35 ± 8.92 µ. Average diameter of white pulp was 478.20 ± 26.88 µ in sheep and 412.22 ± 47.85 µ in goat. Number of white pulps per field at 100 X magnification was 1.30 ± 0.21 in sheep and 1.60 ± 023 in goat. Similarly, number of white pulps per mm2 was 1.32 ± 0.22 in sheep and 1.62 ± 023 in goat. Red pulp consisted of spleenic cords and sinusoids. Sinusoids were lined by endothelial cells with large nuclei bulging into the sinusoidal lumen.

  4. Genetic diversity of Colombian sheep by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ocampo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the sheep production systems are managed under extensive conditions and mainly correspond to peasant production systems so their genetic management has led to increased homozygosity and hence productivity loss. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity in 549 individuals corresponding to 13 sheep breeds in Colombia, using a panel of 11 microsatellite molecular markers. One hundred and fifty seven alleles were found (average of 14.27 alleles/locus, with a range of observed and expected heterozygosity from 0.44 to 0.84 and 0.67 to 0.86, respectively. Thirty-three of 143 Hardy Weinberg tests performed showed significant deviations (p < 0.05 due to a general lack of heterozygous individuals. The Fis ranged from 0.01 in Corriedale to 0.15 for the Persian Black Head breed, suggesting that there are presenting low to moderate levels of inbreeding. Overall, Colombian sheep showed high levels of genetic diversity which is very important for future selection and animal breeding programs.

  5. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR...

  6. Whole genome structural analysis of Caribbean hair sheep reveals quantitative link to west african ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair sheep of Caribbean origin have become an important part of the U.S. sheep industry. Lack of wool eliminates a number of health concerns and drastically reduces the cost of production. More importantly, Caribbean hair sheep demonstrate robust performance even in the presence of drug resistant ga...

  7. EFFECT OF FERMENTED CACAO POD SUPPLEMENTATION ON SHEEP RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wulandari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to improve beneficial value of cacao pod as sheep feedingredients comprising up to 50% total feed. This research was conducted in two stages. Stage 1 wascacao pod fermentation. Completely randomized design with 3x3 factorial patterns was used in thisstage, in which factor I was microbial inoculum dosage of 0%, 0.05% and 0.1% and factor II wasincubation period of 0, 3 and 6 days. Result demonstrated that six-day fermentation with 0.05%microbial inoculum could lower cacao NDF, ADF and theobromine. The optimum inoculum dosage andfermentation time from stage 1 was applied to stage 2. Stage 2 was rumen microbial fermentation test.This research administrated 3x3 of latin square design. In period I sheep were fed with CF0 (nonfermentedcomplete feed, in period II sheep were given CF 1 (complete feed containing fermentedcacao pod and in period III sheep were given CF2 (fermented complete feed based cacao pod. Resultdemonstrated that pH value of sheep microbial liquid in treatment of CF0, CF1 and CF2 was in normalpH range and did not affect volatile fatty acids (VFA and ammonia. In conclusion, supplementing up to 50% of feed with complete feed containing fermented or non-fermented cacao pod did not affect theprocess of rumen microbial fermentation.

  8. Clinical and pathological aspects of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Giaretta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an outbreak of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in grazing sheep in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, causing the death of 10 out of 860 adult sheep. Eight sick ewes were euthanized and necropsied. Cattle from this farm were also affected. Clinical signs included progressive weight loss, apathy and photosensitization. Four out of seven tested sheep had increased gamma-glutamyl transferase serum activity and two of them presented serum elevation of alkaline phosphatase. At necropsy, three out of eight ewes presented slightly irregular toughened livers with multifocal nodules, two out of eight ewes had a whitish liver with thickened fibrotic Glisson's capsule partially adhered to the diaphragm, and three out of eight ewes had smooth and grossly normal livers. Necropsy findings attributed to liver failure included hydropericardium (7/8, ascites (5/8, icterus (2/8, hydrothorax (1/8, and edema of mesentery (1/8. The main hepatic histological findings that allowed the establishment of the diagnosis were megalocytosis, proliferation of bile ducts and fibrosis. Spongy degeneration was observed in the brains of all eight necropsied sheep and was more severe at the cerebellar peduncles, mesencephalon, thalamus, and pons. These are suggested as the portions of election to investigate microscopic lesions of hepatic encephalopathy in sheep with chronic seneciosis. The diagnosis of Senecio spp. poisoning was based on epidemiology, clinical signs, laboratory data, necropsy and histological findings.

  9. Transmission characteristics and optimal diagnostic samples to detect an FMDV infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eble, P.L.; Orsel, K.; Kluitenberg-van Hemert, F.; Dekker, A.

    2015-01-01

    We wanted to quantify transmission of FMDV Asia-1 in sheep and to evaluate which samples would be optimal for detection of an FMDV infection in sheep. For this, we used 6 groups of 4 non-vaccinated and 6 groups of 4 vaccinated sheep. In each group 2 sheep were inoculated and contact exposed to 2

  10. An approach to defining the energy requirements of dairy sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susmel, P.; Cuzzit, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the interaction between nutrition and reproduction in Mediterranean sheep requires knowledge of the energy requirements of animals in different productive and reproductive stages. The available energy systems developed for temperate climates and genotypes are not directly applicable to Mediterranean breeds of dairy sheep. Using already available data, metabolizable energy requirements for these types of animals are proposed. (author). 59 refs, 9 tabs

  11. Identification and Classification of New Transcripts in Dorper and Small-Tailed Han Sheep Skeletal Muscle Transcriptomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianle Chao

    Full Text Available High-throughput mRNA sequencing enables the discovery of new transcripts and additional parts of incompletely annotated transcripts. Compared with the human and cow genomes, the reference annotation level of the sheep genome is still low. An investigation of new transcripts in sheep skeletal muscle will improve our understanding of muscle development. Therefore, applying high-throughput sequencing, two cDNA libraries from the biceps brachii of small-tailed Han sheep and Dorper sheep were constructed, and whole-transcriptome analysis was performed to determine the unknown transcript catalogue of this tissue. In this study, 40,129 transcripts were finally mapped to the sheep genome. Among them, 3,467 transcripts were determined to be unannotated in the current reference sheep genome and were defined as new transcripts. Based on protein-coding capacity prediction and comparative analysis of sequence similarity, 246 transcripts were classified as portions of unannotated genes or incompletely annotated genes. Another 1,520 transcripts were predicted with high confidence to be long non-coding RNAs. Our analysis also revealed 334 new transcripts that displayed specific expression in ruminants and uncovered a number of new transcripts without intergenus homology but with specific expression in sheep skeletal muscle. The results confirmed a complex transcript pattern of coding and non-coding RNA in sheep skeletal muscle. This study provided important information concerning the sheep genome and transcriptome annotation, which could provide a basis for further study.

  12. Sheep monitoring programme January - September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1989-02-01

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during the first nine months of 1988, and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat.(author)

  13. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of sheep in Sherpur, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prianka Rani Poddar

    2017-09-01

    Results: Out of 106 samples, 67.9% (n=72/106 revealed the presence of ova of different helminths. The prevalence of helminth infection was associated with Fasciola gigantica (11.3%; n=12/106, Paramphistomes (13.2%; n=14/106, Schistosoma indicum (3.8%; n=4/106, Moniezia sp. (3.8%; n=4/106, Strongyle-type (24.5%; n=26/106, hook worm (6.6%; n=7/106, Strongyloides sp. (12.3%; n=13/106 and Trichuris sp. (1.9%; n=2/106. Egg count per gram (EPG was calculated which was ranged between 100 and 600. Parasitic counts in lambs, young and adult showed no significant variations (P=0.511 from one other. Infection was significantly (P=0.04 higher in poor body conditioned sheep (76.3 % as contrasted to normal body conditioned sheep (57.4%. No significant variation (P=0.601 was noticed in infection rates between sexes. Females displayed a higher infection (70.0% as compared to males (65.2%. In rearing system, the result was found statistically insignificant (P=0.247. Conclusion: Utterly, GI helminths are endemic at great levels among sheep in the study area. Also, their infestation differs within various age groups, sexes, nutritional condition and rearing system of sheep. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 274-280

  14. Study of gastrointestinal nematodes in Sicilian sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, A; Dara, S; Marino, A M F; Sparagano, O A E; Vitale, F; Reale, S; Caracappa, S

    2004-10-01

    Parasitic gastroenteritis is one of the major causes of productivity loss in sheep and goats. This report records two studies of the helminth fauna from post-mortem examination. The first study, performed on the digestive tract of 72 sheep from a central part of Sicily in a high hill village (1,360 meters above sea level), between April 1996 and March 1997, showed an infection rate of 78%. The second study targeted goats from the western part of Sicily and showed an infection rate of 90%. For sheep, a total of 23 species of helminths were identified belonging to the family of Trichostrongyloidea, with the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia (Teladorsagia), Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, and Nematodirus; Strongilolidea with the genera Oesophagostomum and Chabertia: Ancylostomidea with Bunostomum; and Tricuridea with Tricuris. Teladorsagia circumcincta was the most common in the sheep abomasum, Bunostomum trigonocephalum and Trichostrongylus spp. in the small intestine, and Chabertia ovina and Trichuris ovis in the large intestine. For goats, a total of 12 species were isolated in the abomasum with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus axei the most common species. In the small intestine, five species were isolated and Trichostrongylus capricola was the dominant species. T. ovis and O. venulosum were dominant in large intestine and in the cecum. We also found species belonging to other ruminants such as O. ostertagi (in cattle) and S. kolchida and O. leptospicularis (in wild ruminants).

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1:16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution.

  16. Acute coenurosis of dairy sheep from 11 flocks in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giadinis, N D; Psychas, V; Polizopoulou, Z; Papadopoulos, E; Papaioannou, N; Komnenou, A Th; Thomas, A-L; Petridou, E J; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, M; Lafi, S Q; Brellou, G D

    2012-07-01

    A syndrome of acute neurological dysfunction with increased mortality was observed in lambs of 10 dairy sheep flocks and adult animals in one flock in Central and Northern Greece. Each farmer completed a questionnaire regarding the management and feeding of their flocks. In seven of the 11 flocks the affected animals were grazing pasture, while in the remaining four flocks (5, 8, 9, 10) the animals were fed alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) and concentrates indoors. A follow-up study of the affected flocks was conducted during the next 12 months. Of 42 sheep with acute coenurosis that were examined, the most prominent neurological abnormalities were ataxia, depression, blindness, scoliosis, coma and dysmetria. Except for the four sheep that were comatose, all other animals had normal body temperatures and their appetites remained normal or were slightly decreased. Haematological findings of 15 examined sheep were within normal limits. The affected sheep were subject to euthanasia. A histopathological examination was performed in 13 cases. Faecal samples from dogs associated with these flocks were negative for taeniid infections. During the following 12 months cases of chronic coenurosis in these flocks were observed. In the 42 animals that were necropsied, the main gross findings were cystic formations between 0.5-1 cm in diameter with translucent walls that were seen lying free on the leptomeninges or partly penetrating the brain tissue, sterile microabscecess and brain necrosis. Histopathological evaluation of tissue sections of 13 brains showed multifocal purulent or pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis, accompanied by eosinophilic infiltrations. No bacteria were isolated following bacterial culture of brain tissue Parasitological examination of the cysts from five cases revealed whitish specks on the transparent cyst wall and germination membrane representing the scolices. Acute coenurosis was diagnosed in all cases studied. Acute coenurosis can be one of the

  17. Consumer sensory and hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa under blind and informed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Juliana Cunha; Nalério, Elen Silveira; Giongo, Citieli; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ares, Gastón; Deliza, Rosires

    2018-03-01

    The development of air-dried cured sheep meat products represents an interesting option to add value to the meat of adult animals. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate consumer sensory and hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa, an innovative product. Four sheep meat coppa samples were formulated by varying smoking (smoked vs. non-smoked) and salt content (4.5% vs. 3.4%), and compared with two commercial samples of regular pork meat coppa. Samples were evaluated under blind or informed conditions by 202 consumers, who had to rate their liking and to answer a check-all-that-apply question. Sheep and pork meat coppa samples did not largely differ in their overall liking in both experimental conditions. Smoking and high salt content significantly increased consumers' hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa. The information included in the labels did not modify consumer hedonic perception but influenced their sensory description, particularly for the terms related to the type of meat used in their manufacture. Results indicate positive market opportunities for sheep meat coppa in the Brazilian market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent studies on Dictyocaulus filaria and other lungworms of sheep and goats in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, D.N.

    1982-01-01

    Additional areas of the country were surveyed for lungworm infections in sheep and goats. More sheep than goats and more sheep of the private breeders in comparison to Government flocks were found infected. Infection with Dictyocaulus filaria and un-identified species of Varestrongylus and Protostrongylus were reported from sheep and goats and Muellerius spp, only from sheep. About 0.36 million lambs have been successfully immunized against D. filaria in the endemic areas with the radiation-attenuated vaccine produced at the Srinagar laboratory. It has been shown that lambs infected with D. filaria at the time of vaccination develop a poor protection following vaccination in comparison to lambs free from the infection. This has posed a problem in the field of stimulating a satisfactory protection in lambs found infected with D. filaria at the time of vaccination. In consequence, very young lambs, aged 6-10 week have been effectively protected against D. filaria by vaccination under field conditions. Goats are more succeptible hosts to D. filaria than sheep. Laboratory studies have shown that young kids, like lambs, can be effectively immunized against D. filaria by double vaccination with 50 Krad gamma irradiated larvae. (author)

  19. Trypanosoma melophagium from the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus on the island of St Kilda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, W; Pilkington, J G; Pemberton, J M

    2010-10-01

    SUMMARYThe sheep ked has been largely eradicated in the UK but persists in the feral Soay sheep of St Kilda in the Outer Hebrides. Sheep keds transmit Trypanosoma melophagium, but parasitaemias are typically cryptic and this trypanosome has not been recorded in the St Kilda sheep. Trypanosomes were detected by PCR in preserved keds and were also found in gut smears from live keds; one infected gut was used to establish the trypanosome in vitro. Examination of the morphology of bloodstream forms from culture confirmed its identity as T. melophagium. Most keds were found to harbour the trypanosome, particularly those collected from lambs. DNA was extracted from preserved keds and from trypanosomes grown in vitro. Sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene and the spliced leader transcript showed the T. melophagium sequences to be very similar to those from T. theileri. A partial sequence of the ked SSU rRNA gene was also obtained. The close genetic relationship of T. melophagium and T. theileri suggests that T. melophagium represents a lineage of T. theileri that adapted to transmission by sheep keds and hence became a specific parasite of sheep.

  20. Diagnose of the ingestion of Asclepias mellodora St. Hil. by sheep through microhistological analysis of their digestive contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Silvia Cid

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Asclepias mellodora St. Hil. is a native acute toxic species frequent in the grasslands of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina, whose toxicity had not been assessed until now. This study evaluates the minimal lethal dose of this species for sheep, and the possibility of microscopically recognizing its fragments in gastrointestinal contents as a complementary diagnostic tool in necropsies. Three Frisona sheep (average LW=55±4.5 kg were dosed via an esophageal tube with each one of the following doses of asclepias: 8.0, 5.0, 2.0 and 0.8 g DM.kg LW-1. Sheep poisoned with the three higher doses died between 10 and 85 h after intoxication, but those receiving the lower dose did not. During necropsies we: 1 determined the dry weight of the contents of rumen+reticulum, omasum+abomasum, and large intestine, 2 estimated the percentages of asclepias fragments by microanalysis correcting for digestion effects on fragment recognition, and 3 calculated the total mass of asclepias in the digestive tract of each animal. For the three higher doses, the mass of asclepias identified in the total ingesta was 12.3±3.4% of the amount supplied, possibly because of the strong diarrhea its ingestion produced. The percentages of asclepias in rumen+reticulum did not differ from the average quantified for the entire tract. The results of this study indicate that the minimal lethal doses of asclepias for sheep is between 2.0 and 0.8g DM·kg LW-1, and that the microhistological analysis of the rumen+reticulum, the easiest region to sample, can be used to confirm the ingestion of this toxic species, although the estimated percentage will be not a good estimator of the ingested percentage.

  1. Computed tomography and treatment of chronic temporomandibular joint arthritis in a sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmerdam, E.P.L.; Weeren, P.R. van

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging and treatment of destructive right temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis in a sheep are discussed. Computed tomography (CT) appears to be an attractive technique for imaging TMJ lesions in sheep. Surgical curettage of a deformed TMJ can result in functional recovery

  2. Antenatal dexamethasone before asphyxia promotes cystic neural injury in preterm fetal sheep by inducing hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Christopher A; Davidson, Joanne O; Mackay, Georgia R; Drury, Paul P; Galinsky, Robert; Quaedackers, Josine S; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura

    2018-04-01

    Antenatal glucocorticoid therapy significantly improves the short-term systemic outcomes of prematurely born infants, but there is limited information available on their impact on neurodevelopmental outcomes in at-risk preterm babies exposed to perinatal asphyxia. Preterm fetal sheep (0.7 of gestation) were exposed to a maternal injection of 12 mg dexamethasone or saline followed 4 h later by asphyxia induced by 25 min of complete umbilical cord occlusion. In a subsequent study, fetuses received titrated glucose infusions followed 4 h later by asphyxia to examine the hypothesis that hyperglycemia mediated the effects of dexamethasone. Post-mortems were performed 7 days after asphyxia for cerebral histology. Maternal dexamethasone before asphyxia was associated with severe, cystic brain injury compared to diffuse injury after saline injection, with increased numbers of seizures, worse recovery of brain activity, and increased arterial glucose levels before, during, and after asphyxia. Glucose infusions before asphyxia replicated these adverse outcomes, with a strong correlation between greater increases in glucose before asphyxia and greater neural injury. These findings strongly suggest that dexamethasone exposure and hyperglycemia can transform diffuse injury into cystic brain injury after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep.

  3. Rituals Cows or just another flock of Sheep?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Pernille

    or body-parts and any special treatment of the bones, such as cutting, skinning and painting. In order to contextualise the faunal deposits I have also included information concerning the cemeteries, the graves, the small finds and the gender and age of the deceased. In the SJE assemblages three types...... of deposits could be identified, these include complete sheep deposited next to the dead, cut cattle skulls as well as large deposits of decorated sheep and goat skulls, the two latter located on or near the original surface of the cemetery. In the following fifth chapter information regarding from a number...

  4. Faecal shedding and strain diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in healthy ruminants and swine in Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes is among the most important foodborne bacterial pathogens due to the high mortality rate and severity of the infection. L. monocytogenes is a ubiquitous organism occasionally present in the intestinal tract of various animal species and faecal shedding by asymptomatically infected livestock poses a risk for contamination of farm environments and raw food at the pre-harvest stages. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and strain diversity of L. monocytogenes in healthy ruminants and swine herds. Results Faecal samples from 30 animals per herd were collected from 343 herds (120 sheep, 124 beef cattle, 82 dairy cattle and 17 swine in the Basque Country and screened in pools by an automated enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay (VIDAS® to estimate the prevalence of positive herds. Positive samples were subcultured onto the selective and differential agar ALOA and biochemically confirmed. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 46.3% of dairy cattle, 30.6% beef cattle and 14.2% sheep herds, but not from swine. Within-herd prevalence investigated by individually analysing 197 sheep and 221 cattle detected 1.5% of faecal shedders in sheep and 21.3% in cattle. Serotyping of 114 isolates identified complex 4b as the most prevalent (84.2%, followed by 1/2a (13.2%, and PFGE analysis of 68 isolates showed a highly diverse L. monocytogenes population in ruminant herds. Conclusion These results suggested that cattle represent a potentially important reservoir for L. monocytogenes in the Basque Country, and highlighted the complexity of pathogen control at the farm level.

  5. Acute and chronic disease associated with naturally occurring T-2 mycotoxicosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras, M C; Benavides, J; García-Pariente, C; Delgado, L; Fuertes, M; Muñoz, M; García-Marín, J F; Pérez, V

    2013-02-01

    A flock of approximately 1,000 sheep were exposed intermittently to food contaminated with T-2 toxin (T-2), a potent type-A trichothecene mycotoxin produced primarily by Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae. In the acute stage of the intoxication, affected sheep developed anorexia, decreased water consumption, ruminal atony, soft faeces and apathy. One hundred and ninety of the exposed sheep died. The main gross lesions observed in animals dying during the acute disease were rumenitis and ulcerative abomasitis, depletion of lymphocytes in lymphoid organs, necrosis of the exocrine pancreas, myocarditis and intense oedema of the skin and brain. Sheep developing the chronic stage of disease showed weight loss and reproductive inefficiency and the main pathological features observed in animals dying during this stage were gastrointestinal inflammation, myocardial fibrosis and necrotic and suppurative lesions in the oral cavity. Opportunistic infections (e.g. mycotic mastitis or parasitic pneumonia) were also identified in these animals. Increased serum concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase were observed, most likely related to heart lesions. T-2 toxins were detected in all samples of the diet of these animals that were analyzed. The changes in the sheep reported here are similar to those described previously in experimental studies. Lesions observed in the present animals suggest an additional cardiotoxic effect of T-2 in sheep. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-genetic factors influencing growth and fleece traits in Afrino sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since selection in Afrino sheep is partially based on body weights ... The offi- cial grazing capacity is 5.5 ha/small stock unit. Animals ..... Selection criteria for intensive market lamb poduction: Growth traits. J. Anim. 5ci.43,78-89. SCHOEMAN, S.i., 1990. Production parameters for Dohne Merino sheep under an accelerated ...

  7. Adult Neurogenesis in Sheep: Characterization and Contribution to Reproduction and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Frederic; Batailler, Martine; Meurisse, Maryse; Migaud, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Sheep have many advantages to study neurogenesis in comparison to the well-known rodent models. Their development and life expectancy are relatively long and they possess a gyrencephalic brain. Sheep are also seasonal breeders, a characteristic that allows studying the involvement of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the control of seasonal reproduction. Sheep are also able to individually recognize their conspecifics and develop selective and lasting bonds. Adult olfactory neurogenesis could be adapted to social behavior by supporting recognition of conspecifics. The present review reveals the distinctive features of the hippocampal, olfactory, and hypothalamic neurogenesis in sheep. In particular, the organization of the subventricular zone and the dynamic of neuronal maturation differs from that of rodents. In addition, we show that various physiological conditions, such as seasonal reproduction, gestation, and lactation differently modulate these three neurogenic niches. Last, we discuss recent evidence indicating that hypothalamic neurogenesis acts as an important regulator of the seasonal control of reproduction and that olfactory neurogenesis could be involved in odor processing in the context of maternal behavior. PMID:29109674

  8. Clinical and microbiological study of otitis externa in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study one hundred Awassi sheep were examined clinically and bacteriologically for isolation and identification of the bacterial agents of otitis externa in sheep. The main clinical signs appeared included weakness, pale mucus membrane, auricular discharge, cough, anorexia, emaciation, and nasal discharge. Results revealed isolation of bacteria from (45% examined swabs. The most being from right ear. Younger animals were more frequently infected than older animals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Staph. epidermidis, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus spp., Acintobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated. The results revealed that the most bacterial isolates were resistance to the bactericidal effect of the normal serum included Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica. While the most bacterial isolates were produced hydroxymate siderophore included Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pneumonia. The obtained results indicated to the importance of determination of serum resistance as a bacterial virulence factor in otitis externa in sheep.

  9. Reducing methane emissions and the methanogen population in the rumen of Tibetan sheep by dietary supplementation with coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuezhi; Long, Ruijun; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Xiaodan; Guo, Xusheng; Mi, Jiandui

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of dietary coconut oil on methane (CH(4)) emissions and the microbial community in Tibetan sheep. Twelve animals were assigned to receive either a control diet (oaten hay) or a mixture diet containing concentrate (maize meal), in which coconut oil was supplemented at 12 g/day or not for a period of 4 weeks. CH(4) emissions were measured by using the 'tunnel' technique, and microbial communities were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. Daily CH(4) production for the control and forage-to-concentrate ratio of 6:4 was 17.8 and 15.3 g, respectively. Coconut oil was particularly effective at reducing CH(4) emissions from Tibetan sheep. The inclusion of coconut oil for the control decreased CH(4) production (in grams per day) by 61.2%. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the number of methanogens and the daily CH(4) production (R = 0.95, P coconut oil supplemented at 12 g/day decreases the number of methanogens by 77% and a decreases in the ruminal fungal population (85-95%) and Fibrobacter succinogenes (50-98%) but an increase in Ruminococcus flavefaciens (25-70%). The results from our experiment suggest that adding coconut oil to the diet can reduce CH(4) emissions in Tibetan sheep and that these reductions persist for at least the 4-week feeding period.

  10. Lactic acid bacteria from Sheep's Dhan, a traditional butter from sheep's milk: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoui, T.; Boudjerda, J.; Leghouchi, E.; Karam, N. E.

    2009-07-01

    Twenty six lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sheep's Dhan, a traditional butter made from sheep's milk in Jijel (East of Algeria). These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. The results showed that Lactococcus lactic ssp diacetylactis was the predominant species in this traditional butter. The results of the assessment of the technological aptitude indicate that a major strain has a good acidification aptitude, some of them show good proteolytic activity and only Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum isolates were able to produce exo polysaccharide. (Author) 42 refs.

  11. Laboratory experimental infection of sheep to Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum and its confirmation using post-mortem examination and histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gholamreza karimi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum from genus Ornithobilharzia genus and family Schistosomatidae is an important agent of parasitological infection in sheep. This parasite has been reported from Russia, China, Turkestan (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Turkey and Iran. Parasitological infection due to this agent could be one of the important factors of decreasing the production rate of livestock in Iran. The purpose of this study, was to experimentally infect sheep with this parasite and confirm the infection by post-mortem examination and Histopathology which was done successfully. Twenty five sheep were used in the study of which 10 sheep were experimentally infected by Ornithobilharzia turkestanikum using subcutaneous injection and 10 sheep by skin contact method and the other 5 sheep were kept as control. Result of post-mortem and Histopathology during a one year period confirmed that all of sheep were infected and adult worm, were seen in their mesentery. Mean number of cercaria used for inducing the infection was 6425 and 462 adult worms were collected post-mortem. There was no significant relationship between the number of cercaria and adult worms collected. Male sheep were more infected than female.

  12. The treatment and eradication of sheep lice and ked with cyhalothrin--a new synthetic pyrethroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J C; Forsyth, B A

    1984-12-01

    A new synthetic pyrethroid, cyhalothrin, has been evaluated as both a sheep dip and a jetting fluid for the control of body lice (Damalinia ovis), face lice (Linognathus ovillus), foot lice (Linognathus pedalis) and the sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus). A dip wash concentration of 1.25 ppm cyhalothrin eradicated D. ovis from sheep. A jetting fluid at a concentration of 20 ppm also eradicated D. ovis. In the field cyhalothrin was evaluated at 20 ppm as a dip wash and at 50 ppm as a jetting fluid. These field trials confirmed the ability of cyhalothrin to eradicate D. ovis from short and long-woolled sheep. The sucking lice, L. ovillus and L. pedalis, were also found to be very susceptible to cyhalothrin at a dip wash concentration of 20 ppm, but it was necessary to treat the predilection sites infested by these parasites twice within a 3-week period to achieve their eradication. Sheep ked (M. ovinus) were eradicated from an infected flock of sheep after plunge dipping in cyhalothrin at 20 ppm.

  13. Determining the value of Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep for the conservation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous Pramenka (Zackel sheep has been recognized as an important element of regional agro-biodiversity, relevant to the tradition that encompasses the cultural heritage of Serbia. The recognition that locally adapted animal breeds gained genetic resistance and adaptability through evolution; modern sustainable farming practices are far more attuned to the need for preserving and utilizing Zackel sheep types. The risk factors leading to rapid and severe decline in Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep population have been described in the paper. The objective of the study was to obtain the data necessary for development of conservation and sustainable use strategies of Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep. Determination of the conservation value upon characteristics of the breed was performed, in aim to identify priorities in accordance with the criteria of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO. The positive and negative characteristics of the Vlashko-Vitoroga Zackel sheep, opportunities for utilization, as well as ambiental challenges that affect the breed were analyzed in the paper. The importance of this breed for maintenance of cultural tradition, landscape preservation and longterm rural development by in-situ conservation through utilization is also discussed in the paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31085

  14. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersissa Kumsa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7% than in both the lowland (0% and midland (1.9% was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011 and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000 than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191 amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep

  15. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Beyecha, Kebede; Geloye, Mesula

    2012-10-23

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7%) than in both the lowland (0%) and midland (1.9%) was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011) and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000) than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191) amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult

  16. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy sheep and goats mixed stock farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakoua, Anastasia; Anastasia, Diakou; Papadopoulos, Elias; Elias, Papadopoulos; Panousis, Nikolaos; Nikolaos, Panousis; Karatzias, Charilaos; Charilaos, Karatzias; Giadinis, Nektarios; Nektarios, Giadinis

    2013-12-06

    Toxoplasma and Neospora infections are important causes of abortions and economic losses in animal production. Mixed stock farming of sheep and goats is a common practice in Mediterranean countries and could serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of differences between the two animal species regarding parasitic infections. In order to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum among flocks of small ruminants in Greece and to evaluate any prevalence difference between sheep and goats kept in mixed flocks, 833 sera samples (458 sheep and 375 goats) from 50 mixed flocks in different areas of the country were examined by ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies. Specific IgG against T. gondii were detected in 53.71% and 61.3% and against N. caninum in 16.8% and 6.9% of the sheep and goats, respectively. Goats had higher Toxoplasma seroprevalence than sheep (pgoats (pgoats that are kept together in mixed flocks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interactions between Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep Ovis canadensis canadensis and Domestic Sheep Ovis aries and the Biological, Social, Economic, and Legal Implications of these Interactions on USDA Forest Service Lands in the Evanston/Mt. View Ranger District

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Ashly Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence exists indicating domestic sheep (Ovis aries) can infect Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), a United States Forest Service (USFS) Region 4 sensitive species, with pneumonia (Callan 1991; Foreyt 1989, 1992, 1994; Foreyt and Lagerquist 1996; George et al 2008; Wehausen et al. 2011). Since the transmission of the pneumonic bacteria between the domestic and wild sheep is a result of bighorn sheep coming into contact with the bacteria carried in the mucous m...

  18. Local Extinction and Unintentional Rewilding of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a Desert Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Epps, Clinton W.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Mead, Jim I.; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ∼500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476–1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ∼1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct. PMID:24646515

  19. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis on a desert island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T Wilder

    Full Text Available Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ∼500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476-1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ∼1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  20. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Benjamin T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Epps, Clinton W.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Mead, Jim I.; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ~500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476–1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ~1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  1. Molecular identification of Theileria and Babesia in sheep and goats in the Black Sea Region in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2013-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate presence and distribution of Theileria and Babesia species via microscopic examination and reverse line blotting (RLB) techniques in sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey. For this purpose, 1,128 blood samples (869 sheep and 259 goats) were collected by active surveillance from sheep and goats in different provinces of various cities in the region in the years 2010 and 2011. Smears were prepared from the blood samples, stained with Giemsa, and examined under the light microscope for Theileria and Babesia piroplasms. The genomic DNAs were extracted from blood samples. The length of 360-430-bp fragment in the variable V4 region of 18S SSU rRNA gene of Theileria and Babesia species was amplified using the gDNAs. The polymerase chain reaction products were hybridized to the membrane-connected species-specific probes. A total of 38 animals (3.37%) including 34 sheep (3.91%) and 4 goats (1.54%) were found to be positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in microscopic examination of smears while Babesia spp. piroplasm could not detected. Infection rates were 34.64% in sheep, 10.04% in goats, and totally 28.99% for Theileria ovis while 0.58% in sheep and totally 0.44% for Babesia ovis. However, Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in 2.65% of sheep and 2.04% of all animals; besides Theileria sp., MK had 0.58% prevalence in sheep and 0.77% in goats, with a total 0.62% with RLB. Although T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK were determined in both sheep and goats, B. ovis and Theileria sp. OT3 were observed only in the sheep. These results provide the first detailed molecular data for sheep and goat theileriosis and babesiosis in the region.

  2. Genome-wide analysis reveals signatures of selection for important traits in domestic sheep from different ecoregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaohua; Ji, Zhibin; Wang, Guizhi; Chao, Tianle; Hou, Lei; Wang, Jianmin

    2016-11-03

    Throughout a long period of adaptation and selection, sheep have thrived in a diverse range of ecological environments. Mongolian sheep is the common ancestor of the Chinese short fat-tailed sheep. Migration to different ecoregions leads to changes in selection pressures and results in microevolution. Mongolian sheep and its subspecies differ in a number of important traits, especially reproductive traits. Genome-wide intraspecific variation is required to dissect the genetic basis of these traits. This research resequenced 3 short fat-tailed sheep breeds with a 43.2-fold coverage of the sheep genome. We report more than 17 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and 2.9 million indels and identify 143 genomic regions with reduced pooled heterozygosity or increased genetic distance to each other breed that represent likely targets for selection during the migration. These regions harbor genes related to developmental processes, cellular processes, multicellular organismal processes, biological regulation, metabolic processes, reproduction, localization, growth and various components of the stress responses. Furthermore, we examined the haplotype diversity of 3 genomic regions involved in reproduction and found significant differences in TSHR and PRL gene regions among 8 sheep breeds. Our results provide useful genomic information for identifying genes or causal mutations associated with important economic traits in sheep and for understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to different ecological environments.

  3. Clinicopathological studies on facial eczema outbreak in sheep in Southwest Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Ozlem; Sahinduran, Sima; Haligur, Mehmet; Albay, Metin Koray

    2008-10-01

    After very hot summer, 22 sheep from 5 different flocks consisting of approximately 150-200 animals each were diagnosed with facial eczema in September 2005, in southwest Turkey. Photophobia, corneal opacity, severe ulcers of the facial skin, especially localized around the eyes and mouth, and 3% mortality were the most prominent clinical symptoms. GGT levels of the animals were very high and varying between 261- 328 U/l. While the activities of ALT and total bilirubin were elevated and AST was normal in affected sheep. Total bilirubin level was higher than normal. Seven of the 22 sheep were euthanatized and necropsy was performed on all of these animals. Severe icterus, hepatomegaly, enlarged gallbladder, congestion of mesenteric vessels were the common necropsy findings. Histopathological changes of the liver included necrosis of the hepatocytes, cholangiohepatitis characterized by mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate in the portal area and mild to severe fibrosis around bile ducts. A diagnosis of sporidesmin toxicosis was made based on the histopathology of the livers, the elevation in liver enzymes, and the development of cutaneous lesions consistent with photosensitization and high spore counts in the ruminal contents. Surviving sheep were treated with procaine penicillin + dihidrostreptomycin sulfate, multivitamin complexes and flunixin meglumine. Additionally, zinc sulphate was also given at a dose of 6 gr per 100 lt drinking water for 28 days. All treated sheep recovered. Pasture spore counts were between 96,300- 267,500 spores/g grass.

  4. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chenxi [College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi (China); Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China); Ge, Yubin [The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Liu, Mingjun, E-mail: xjlmj2004@yahoo.com.cn [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  5. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chenxi; Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng; Ge, Yubin; Liu, Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. ► Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. ► shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. ► MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. ► Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  6. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65% samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1 : 16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05. Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution.

  7. Risk assessment of the risk of introduction and distribution of Sheep and goat pox in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorova, Krasimira

    2014-01-01

    Sheep pox and Goat pox (Variola ovina; Variola caprina; Sheep pox, Goat pox) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants. The disease can take place with moderate clinical presentations of local breeds, but for animals that have met for the first time the virus ends with death. Caused by a virus of Sheep pox and a virus of Goat pox, genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae. Economic losses come from reduced milk production, lowering the quality of the leather, wool and more. Sheep...

  8. Investigation of FecB Mutation in Four Romanian Sheep Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Emil Georgescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperprolific phenotype of Booroola sheep was first discovered in the Australian Merino breed. This phenotype is due to the action of a single autosomal gene that influences the number of ovulations per estrogenic cycle. Recent discoveries have revealed that high prolificacy in Booroola Merino sheep is the result of a mutation (FecB in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR-1B gene. This mutation is located in the highly conserved kinase domain of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB, and is characterized by precocious differentiation of ovarian follicles, leading to the production of large numbers of ovulatory follicles. Our objective was to develop an easy method to identify the FecB mutation in order to screen sheep populations in terms of prolificacy. We designed primers to amplify a 190 bp fragment from the BMPR-1B gene containing or lacking the mutation. The PCR product was cut with AvaII endonuclease and the restriction products were analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the PCR-RFLP technique, we established an easy and efficient method that can be used to screen the FecB mutation. Therefore, these new methods increase the panel of molecular tools available for sheep breeders to choose the most prolific genotypes for improving artificial selection.

  9. EARLY USAGE OF SHEEP AND GOAT YOUTH FOR THE REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ANA PIVODA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Female lambs and kids at the age of 9-10 months were used for early reproduction and it was noticed that the medium values of the weight of the lambs calved by female sheep and the kids calved by female kids are close to the medium values of the weight of the lambs and kids calved by adult sheep and goats. The main index of reproduction accomplished by the youth female situated at he level of the values characteristic to the sheep and goats breeds or populations belonging to Carpatina breed, registering lower values. By the early usage of sheep and goats male youth the following were noticed: Palas Merino male lambs, capable for reproduction 80%; the male lambs from Palas prolific population, capable for reproduction 88,8; out of the he-goats lots of Carpatina breed, at the age of 7-10 months, 83.33% the males manifested a normal sexual behaviour; the males which did not have sexual reflexes at the age of 7-10 months and at the age of 19-22 months they were not capable for reproduction, and the ones that had the seminal material of low quality continued to be so.

  10. Measures of the sheep-goat variable, transliminality, and their correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalbourne, M A

    2001-04-01

    In this study a battery of pencil-and-paper tests was given to 125 first-year psychology students (27% men). This battery included as measures of belief in the paranormal (the so-called "sheep-goat variable") the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale, Tobacyk's Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (comprised of two scales--New Age Philosophy and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs), and the Anomalous Experience Inventory (comprised of five scales: Anomalous/Paranormal Experience, Belief, Ability, Fear, and Drug Use). Also included were the 29-item Transliminality Scale, a 35-item Kundalini Scale, an experimental 13-item Determinism/Free Will scale, and a number of single-question items aimed specifically at transliminality. The results were, first, that virtually all the measures of the sheep-goat variable were intercorrelated with each other (range, .34 to .77), thereby providing support for their convergent validity. Second, scores on the Kundalini Scale and Drug Use correlated significantly with scores on the sheep-goat variable, replicating previous findings. And, finally, many correlates of transliminality were found, again including scores on the Kundalini Scale and Drug Use (prescribed and illicit) as well as certain determinism-related beliefs. Beliefs, experiences, and behaviors associated with transliminality and the Kundalini experience may reflect a desire to escape a negative state of being.

  11. Measurement of bone blood flow in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.S.; Lehner, C.E.; Pearson, D.W.; Kanikula, T.; Adler, G.; Venci, R.; Lanphier, E.H.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Bone blood flow in sheep tibia has been estimated via the measurement of the perfusion limited clearance of 41 Ar from the bone mineral matrix following fast neutron activation of 44 Ca. Tibia blood flows were estimated for the intact sheep, and after the installation of an intramedullary pressure tap to elevate bone marrow pressure by saline infusion. The results indicate that normal blood flow in the tibia is in the range of 1.1 to 3.7 ml/100ml-min in the intact animal and at normal marrow pressure. With an elevated intramedullary pressure of approximately 100 mmHg, the bone blood flow measured varied around 0.5 to 1.1 ml/100ml-min. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Urea recycling from the renal pelvis in sheep: A study with [14C]urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirio, A.; Boivin, R.

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that urea can be recycled from the renal pelvis, [14C]urea diluted in native urine (1 microCi/ml) was perfused (0.5 ml/min) into one of the pelvises of sheep fed either normal (NP) or low (LP)-protein diets. Blood samples were obtained from the ipsilateral renal vein and from the carotid artery throughout the perfusions. 14C activity determinations in urine and plasma demonstrated a flux of [14C]urea from the pelvis to renal vein blood (40,000 in NP and 130,000 disintegrations/min in LP sheep, P less than 0.01). The corresponding flux of native urea was only 1.5 times higher in NP than in LP sheep (6.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 4.7 +/- 2.9 mumol/min, not significant) despite their 8 times higher urinary concentration of urea. The fraction of filtered urea that was reabsorbed in the pelvis was larger in LP sheep (7.5 +/- 3.7 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7% in NP sheep, P less than 0.05). A fraction of urea is thus actually recycled from the renal pelvis in sheep, and this pelvic retention is enhanced in LP animals. The importance of this phenomenon in the nitrogen economy is discussed

  13. Characterization of toxicosis in sheep dosed with blossoms of sacahuiste (Nolina microcarpa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, D L; Smith, G S; Ross, T T; Caton, J S; Kloppenburg, P

    1993-09-01

    To characterize more fully sacahuiste (Nolina microcarpa Watson) toxicosis in sheep and to evaluate benefits of supplemental Zn, sheep were dosed intraruminally with sacahuiste blossoms. In Trial 1, eight fine-wool sheep (47 +/- 2 kg BW) were fed alfalfa hay at 1% of BW daily and dosed intraruminally with inflorescences amounting to 1% of BW daily, in three portions per day, for 10 d. Four sheep were dosed intraruminally with aqueous ZnSO4 (30 mg of Zn/kg BW) daily for 3 d before initial sacahuiste dosing and on alternate days thereafter, and four sheep were untreated with Zn. Toxicosis was evident within 24 h after initial sacahuiste dosage, involving inappetence, depression, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated serum enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase). One sheep (untreated with Zn) died on d 3. Aqueous ZnSO4 alleviated inappetence and suppressed elevation of serum urea N and creatinine but did not suppress other changes in serum clinical profiles. In Trial 2, sacahuiste inflorescences were ruminally dosed into 12 fine-wool wethers (29 +/- 2 kg BW) in amounts equalling 0, .25, .50, .75% of BW per day, and chopped alfalfa hay was provided at 1.75% of BW per day for 14 d. Sacahuiste inflorescenses dosed at .75% of BW elicited severe toxicosis within 24 h, and dosage at .50 or .25% of BW per day increased (P = .12) serum bilirubin. Ruminal fluid pH, mean particle retention time, and particulate passage rate were not affected (P > .10) by sacahuiste, but ruminal fluid passage rate increased 1.6-fold (P < .10) and ruminal fluid volume decreased by 60% (P < .10) in sheep given inflorescenses amounting to .50% of BW daily. Sacahuiste inflorescenses dosed intraruminally at .75% of BW per day elicited ruminal impaction with severe hepatotoxicosis, and dosages amounting to .50% or .25% of BW per day caused similar trends.

  14. Genetic Testing for TMEM154 Mutations Associated with Lentivirus Susceptibility in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Dustin T.; Simpson, Barry; Kijas, James W.; Clawson, Michael L.; Chitko-McKown, Carol G.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Leymaster, Kreg A.

    2013-01-01

    In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV) elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal’s health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E) at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V) and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T) of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes). The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks. PMID:23408992

  15. Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Heaton

    Full Text Available In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal's health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154 has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes. The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks.

  16. Transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to horse and sheep milk and meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semioshkina, N.; Voigt, G.; Savinkov, A.; Mukusheva, M.

    2004-01-01

    Over a period of 40 years the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS) located in the Republic of Kazakhstan was the most important site for testing atomic bombs and other civil and military nuclear devices of the former Soviet Union resulting in a total of 456 nuclear tests. Until 1989 access to the STS was restricted and the area was not used for agriculture, but since closure of the test site agricultural activities have restarted. Herds of sheep and horses belonging to collective farms around the STS are grazing without any restriction including the areas of Ground Zero, Lake Balapan and the Degelen mountains identified as potential high contaminated sites. In the literature there is no information available on the transfer of radionuclides from vegetation to meat and milk of horses, representing a major component of the diet of the local population of the STS. As a consequence, the transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to horse meat and milk has been studied in the laboratory and under field conditions representative for the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan by us to be included in site specific dose calculation models for dose estimates. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to sheep has been well investigated and quantified in the consequence of the Chernobyl accident and many laboratory studies mainly in the EC. However, few information on the behaviour on these radionuclides in non-European environments is available. In order to better and more reliable predict doses received by the local population of the STS experimental transfer studies in the field and in laboratory have been conducted. In this contribution the results of experiments on site-specific transfer behaviour of two important radionuclides to major diet components (sheep and horse milk and meat) to the local population in Kazakhstan is presented. It has been realized in this work for the first time under field and laboratory conditions. (author)

  17. Transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to horse and sheep milk and meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semioshkina, N.; Voigt, G.; Savinkov, A.; Mukusheva, M. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg, (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Over a period of 40 years the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS) located in the Republic of Kazakhstan was the most important site for testing atomic bombs and other civil and military nuclear devices of the former Soviet Union resulting in a total of 456 nuclear tests. Until 1989 access to the STS was restricted and the area was not used for agriculture, but since closure of the test site agricultural activities have restarted. Herds of sheep and horses belonging to collective farms around the STS are grazing without any restriction including the areas of Ground Zero, Lake Balapan and the Degelen mountains identified as potential high contaminated sites. In the literature there is no information available on the transfer of radionuclides from vegetation to meat and milk of horses, representing a major component of the diet of the local population of the STS. As a consequence, the transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to horse meat and milk has been studied in the laboratory and under field conditions representative for the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan by us to be included in site specific dose calculation models for dose estimates. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to sheep has been well investigated and quantified in the consequence of the Chernobyl accident and many laboratory studies mainly in the EC. However, few information on the behaviour on these radionuclides in non-European environments is available. In order to better and more reliable predict doses received by the local population of the STS experimental transfer studies in the field and in laboratory have been conducted. In this contribution the results of experiments on site-specific transfer behaviour of two important radionuclides to major diet components (sheep and horse milk and meat) to the local population in Kazakhstan is presented. It has been realized in this work for the first time under field and laboratory conditions. (author)

  18. Schmallenberg Virus in Belgium: Estimation of Impact in Cattle and Sheep Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskin, A; Méroc, E; Behaeghel, I; Riocreux, F; Couche, M; Van Loo, H; Bertels, G; Delooz, L; Quinet, C; Dispas, M; Van der Stede, Y

    2017-02-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged during summer 2011. SBV induced an unspecific syndrome in cattle and congenital signs (abortions, stillbirths and malformations) in domestic ruminants. To study the impact of SBV in Belgium, a phone survey was conducted upon September 2012. Hereto two groups of cattle farmers (A and B) and two groups of sheep farmers (C and D) were randomly selected. Farms from groups A (n = 53) and C (n = 42) received SBV-positive result at RT-PCR in the Belgian National Reference Laboratory (NRL). Farms from groups B (n = 29) and D (n = 44) never sent suspected samples to NRL for SBV analysis but were however presumed seropositive for SBV after the survey. Questionnaires related to reproduction parameters and clinical signs observed in newborn and adult animals were designed and addressed to farmers. As calculated on a basis of farmers' observations, 4% of calves in group A and 0.5% in group B were reported aborted, stillborn or deformed due to SBV in 2011-2012. The impact as observed by sheep farmers was substantially higher with 19% of lambs in group C and 11% in group D that were reported aborted, stillborn or deformed due to SBV in 2011-2012. Interestingly, abortions or stillbirths were not clear consequences of SBV outbreak in cattle farms, and the birth of a deformed animal was an essential condition to suspect SBV presence in cattle and sheep farms. This study contributes to a better knowledge of the impact of the SBV epidemic. The results suggest that SBV impacted Belgian herds mostly by the birth of deformed calves, stillborn lambs and deformed lambs. This work also demonstrates that the birth of a deformed calf or lamb was a trigger for the farmer to suspect the presence of SBV and send samples to NRL for further analyses. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Morphometric changes in the spinal cord during prenatal life: a stereological study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Zadsar, Narges; Hasanzadeh, Beal

    2018-03-01

    This study describes the volumetric changes in the spinal cord during prenatal life in sheep using quantitative stereological methods. Twenty healthy sheep fetuses were included in the present study, divided into four groups representing 9-11, 12-14, 15-17, and 18-20 weeks of gestation. In each group, the spinal cord was dissected out and sampled according to the unbiased systematic random sampling method then used for stereological estimations. The total volume of spinal cord, volume of gray matter (GM), volume of white matter (WM), ratio of GM volume to WM volume, and volume of central canal (CC) were estimated in the whole spinal cord and its various regions using Cavalieri's principle. The total volume of the spinal cord increased 8 times from week 9 to week 20. The cervical region showed the greatest (9.7 times) and the sacral region the least (6.3 times) volumetric change. The CC volume of the whole spinal cord increased 5.8 times from week 9 to week 20. The cervical region developed faster (8.2 times) and the thoracic region slower (4.4 times) than the total spinal cord. During development, the volume ratio of GM to WM decreased from lower toward upper regions. The greatest volume changes occurred mostly in weeks 9-11 and 12-14. The cervical region showed the greatest volume changes in comparison with other regions of the spinal cord.

  20. Human mesenchymal stem cells reduce the severity of acute lung injury in a sheep model of bacterial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmussen, Sven; Ito, Hiroshi; Traber, Daniel L; Lee, Jae W; Cox, Robert A; Hawkins, Hal K; McAuley, Daniel F; McKenna, David H; Traber, Lillian D; Zhuo, Hanjing; Wilson, Jennifer; Herndon, David N; Prough, Donald S; Liu, Kathleen D; Matthay, Michael A; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2014-09-01

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (hMSCs) improve survival in mouse models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and reduce pulmonary oedema in a perfused human lung preparation injured with Escherichia coli bacteria. We hypothesised that clinical grade hMSCs would reduce the severity of acute lung injury (ALI) and would be safe in a sheep model of ARDS. Adult sheep (30-40 kg) were surgically prepared. After 5 days of recovery, ALI was induced with cotton smoke insufflation, followed by instillation of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.5×10(11) CFU) into both lungs under isoflurane anaesthesia. Following the injury, sheep were ventilated, resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution and studied for 24 h. The sheep were randomly allocated to receive one of the following treatments intravenously over 1 h in one of the following groups: (1) control, PlasmaLyte A, n=8; (2) lower dose hMSCs, 5×10(6) hMSCs/kg, n=7; and (3) higher-dose hMSCs, 10×10(6) hMSCs/kg, n=4. By 24 h, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly improved in both hMSC treatment groups compared with the control group (control group: PaO2/FiO2 of 97±15 mm Hg; lower dose: 288±55 mm Hg (p=0.003); higher dose: 327±2 mm Hg (p=0.003)). The median lung water content was lower in the higher-dose hMSC-treated group compared with the control group (higher dose: 5.0 g wet/g dry [IQR 4.9-5.8] vs control: 6.7 g wet/g dry [IQR 6.4-7.5] (p=0.01)). The hMSCs had no adverse effects. Human MSCs were well tolerated and improved oxygenation and decreased pulmonary oedema in a sheep model of severe ARDS. NCT01775774 for Phase 1. NCT02097641 for Phase 2. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. 1988 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during 1988 and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butcher's shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat

  2. 1989 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1990-06-01

    This report details the work undertaken by the Board during 1989 and includes the results of on-farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat (author)

  3. A Two Years Study of Ticks infesting Goats and Sheep in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlKhalifa, Mohamed S.; Khalil, Galila M.; Diab, Fathi M.

    2007-01-01

    The weather in Abha was characterized by a temperature of 11.7-23.7 degree C, a relative humidity 0f 40-92% and rainfall of 0.2-275mm during a study period of 1990 and 1991. More ticks infested the goats in 1990 than in 1991 while more ticks infested sheep in 1991 than in 1990. The tick species collected monthly from 10 goats during these years were, respectively, Rhipicephalus turanicus (95.1 and 67.1%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (4.0 and 25.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (0.2 and 1.0%) and H. impeltatum (0.7 and 6.1%). Goat infestation rate with R. turanicus was 60-100% in 1990 with peaks in January, April, July, November and December when 90-100% of the goats were infested with 6.3-8.3 ticks/goat. In 1991, goat infestation rate was 10-100% with peaks in April, July and December when all goats were infested with 5.6-9.0 ticks/goat, with a sex ratio of 0.40:1-2.00:1 in both years, respectively. The ticks collected monthly from 10 sheep during these years were, respectively, R. turanicus (89.2 and 86.2%), Haem. sulcata (5.7 and 4.9%), H. a. anatolicum (1.2 and 1.0%), H. a. excavatum (0.7 and 1.2%), H. dromedarii (0.9 and 0.4%), H. marginatum rufipes (1.4 and 4.1%), H. m. turanicum (0.0 and 1.2%) and H. impeltatum (0.9 and 1.0%). Sheep infestation rate with R. turanicus was 30-100% in both years with a peak in June in 1990 when all sheep were infested with 13.8 ticks/sheep and 2 peaks in April and June in 1991 when all sheep were infested with 25.0-29.6 ticks/sheep, with a sex ratio of 0.2:1-2.6:1 and 0.6:1-4.5:1 in these years, respectively. The change in R. turanicus infestation in goats and sheep was not correlated with temperature, relative humidity or rainfall during both years except for the infestation in sheep in 1991, which was positively correlated with rainfall. With the exception of R. turanicus and Haem. sulcata, the other tick species infest primarily animals other than sheep and goats. It is recommended that control measures be directed toward the

  4. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Wang

    Full Text Available Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed.We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality and EDAR (associated with hair thickness were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9 were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study.Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding.

  5. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Zhang, Li; Cao, Jiaxve; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Xiaomeng; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Ruizao; Zhao, Fuping; Wei, Caihong; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed. We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality) and EDAR (associated with hair thickness) were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9) were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study. Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding.

  6. Co-expression analysis and identification of fecundity-related long non-coding RNAs in sheep ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao; Zhao, Huijing; Qin, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-16

    Small Tail Han sheep, including the FecB B FecB B (Han BB) and FecB + FecB + (Han++) genotypes, and Dorset sheep exhibit different fecundities. To identify novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with sheep fecundity to better understand their molecular mechanisms, a genome-wide analysis of mRNAs and lncRNAs from Han BB, Han++ and Dorset sheep was performed. After the identification of differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs, 16 significant modules were explored by using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) followed by functional enrichment analysis of the genes and lncRNAs in significant modules. Among these selected modules, the yellow and brown modules were significantly related to sheep fecundity. lncRNAs (e.g., NR0B1, XLOC_041882, and MYH15) in the yellow module were mainly involved in the TGF-β signalling pathway, and NYAP1 and BCORL1 were significantly associated with the oxytocin signalling pathway, which regulates several genes in the coexpression network of the brown module. Overall, we identified several gene modules associated with sheep fecundity, as well as networks consisting of hub genes and lncRNAs that may contribute to sheep prolificacy by regulating the target mRNAs related to the TGF-β and oxytocin signalling pathways. This study provides an alternative strategy for the identification of potential candidate regulatory lncRNAs.

  7. Characterization of agroecosystems with sheep production in the eastern side of Yucatán, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Candelaria-Martínez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and group agroecosystems with sheep production in the eastearn side of Yucatan, Mexico. This study was held from August 2012 to April 2013. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied while interviewing 93% of producers from seven municipalities that have sheep within their agroecosystems. Random sampling, cluster analysis, ANOVA using GLM and comparison of means by Tukey (P>0.05 were performed. Four different groups of agroecosystems with sheep production were obtained: GA (elderly people in charge, middle schooling, and high amount of land, large herds or more years practicing sheep farming, GB middle age people in charge, higher schooling, intermediate amount of land, and intermediate herd size, GC (elderly people in charge, less schooling, low amount of land and reduced herd size, and GD (younger people in charge, high schooling, low amount of land, small herd size and less time performing the activity. Sheep farming was the first, second, and third productive option for 12%, 75% and 11,8% of producers. In some cases, sheep production in the region has been practiced for over 15 years; however it is the economic priority only of a small group of producers. Access to resources determined their level of development and lack of organization among sheep producers is evident.

  8. Analysis of DNA polymorphism of CAST gene in Local Karnobat and Stara Zagora sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hristova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Considered calpastatin as a candidate gene for meat and growth traits in sheep production it is important to understand the genetic variability in this locus. The present work was oriented to identification of calpastatin gene polymorphism and analysis of genetic structure of the populations representing two bulgarian sheep breeds – Local Karnobat and Stara Zagora.The material involved 96 sheep of breeds and genomic DNA was isolated by commersial purified kit and used in order to estimate calpastatin genotypes by PCR-RFLP method. The PCR products were digested with MspI restriction enzyme as a result were detected two different genotypes in the observed locus – homozygous MM and heterozygous MN in Stara Zagora sheep population with frequencies 0.937 and 0.063, respectively. M and N allele frequencies were identified with 0.968 and 0.032. The observed heterozygosity in Stara Zagora sheep population was 0.063 and the chi-square test confirmed the existence of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in this population (P>0.05. In the total population of Local Karnobat sheep was detected homozygous MM only. The results presented in this study show polymorphism of the calpastatin gene in the population of Stara Zagora sheep. Therefore,we could be confirm the importance of this gene as a potential DNA marker in marker-assisted selection with respect to meat production.

  9. Matthew's Messianic Shepherd-king: In search of “the lost sheep of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    , the son of David, the ... Messianism – that is, the view that the future among other things will involve the restoration of the Davidic ... “sheep without a shepherd” (9:36), and the “lost sheep of the house of Israel”. (10:6) are to be understood as ...

  10. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Mexico...

  11. Environmental conditions associated with lesions in introduced free-ranging sheep in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jenny G.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Spraker, Terry R.; Schuler, Bridget A.; Hess, Steven C.; Faford, Jonathan K.J.; Sin, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife species which have been translocated between temperate and tropical regions of the world provide unique opportunities to understand how disease processes may be affected by environmental conditions. European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon) from the Mediterranean Islands were introduced to the Hawaiian Islands for sport hunting beginning in 1954 and were subsequently hybridized with feral domestic sheep (O. aries), which had been introduced in 1793. Three isolated mouflon populations have become established in the Hawaiian Islands but diseases in these populations have been little studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare gross and histologic lesions in respiratory, renal, and hepatic systems of free-ranging sheep in two isolated volcanic environments on Hawai‘i Island. Tissue and fecal samples were collected in conjunction with population reductions during February 2011. We found gross or histologic evidence of lungworm infection in 44/49 sheep from Mauna Loa which were exposed to gaseous emissions from Kīlauea Volcano. In contrast, only 7/50 sheep from Mauna Kea had lesions consistent with lungworm, but Mauna Kea sheep had significantly more upper respiratory tract inflammation and hyperplasia consistent with chronic antigenic stimulation, possibly associated with exposure to fine airborne particulates during extended drought conditions. We hypothesize that gasses from Kīlauea Volcano contributed to severity of respiratory disease principally associated with chronic lungworm infections at Mauna Loa; however, there were numerous other potentially confounding environmental factors and interactions that merit further investigation.

  12. In vivo degradation of processed dermal sheep collagen evaluated with transmission electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Koerten, H.K.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde-Damink, L.; ten Hoopen, Hermina W.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could

  13. The paths to last in pastoral sheep farming in the Cevennes in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dedieu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a context of uncertainty of future conditions, which are the sustainable paths? We described the long-term action logics relied upon by the farmers to develop their farms or adapt them to their environment. These logics are based on choices related to increasing the farm size, specializing, the techniques used, marketing, production project debts, and technology incorporation. The data comes from sheep farms in the Cevennes, a pastoral Mediterranean region of Southern France, based on trajectory surveys of families, farming, and sheep management over 30 years (1982–2012. Although sheep farming hardly changed over this period, three different long-term action logics were identified: a clannish logic that gives the opportunity for the children to settle on the farm or nearby; a logic centered on sheep tradition with a focus on increasing the herd size; a multiphase logic, i.e. two or three successive sheep management types or combined household activities are explored. The identified action logics were similar to those described in other studies, except that they did not include logics based on increasing herd productivity by use of technologies, an option too removed from the kind of pastoralism practiced in the Cevennes.

  14. the flowpaths taken by ground supplements in the stomachs* of sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About half the contents of the rumen of each mature sheep was removed through the cannula, to per- mit the reticular groove to be observed during the time that each sheep consumed 98 g of maize meal plus 2 g. NaCl (salt). This was repeated daily for 30 days and during the last 14 days the observations were reoorded.

  15. Final State of Ecosystem Containing Grass, Sheep and Wolves with Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingfeng; Pan, Qiu-Hui; Wang, Shuang

    This paper describes a cellular automata model containing movable wolves, sheep and reproducible grass. Each wolf or sheep is characterized by Penna bitstrings. In addition, we introduce the energy rule and the predator-prey mechanism for wolf and sheep. With considering age-structured, genetic strings, minimum reproduction age, cycle of the reproduction, number of offspring, we get three possible states of a predator-prey system: the coexisting one with predators and prey, the absorbing one with prey only, and the empty one where no animal survived. In this paper, we mainly discuss the effect of the number of poor genes, the energy supply (food), the minimum reproduction age, the reproductive cycle and the birth rate on the above three possible final states.

  16. Evaluation the effect of albendazole against nematodes in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Six sheep farms in Mosul city, Iraq randomly selected, were surveyed for gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to Albendazole. On each of 6 sheep farms, 20 lambs were randomly distributed into two equal groups untreated control group, and albendazole (benzimidazole group (10 mg/kg BW. Faecal egg counts and larval cultures were done at 7, 14, and 21 days after anthelmintic treatment. Resistance was apparent for albendazole on 4 farms out of 6 (66.7%. Post-treatment larval cultures indicated: Strongyloides papillosus, Marshalligia marshalli, Nematodirus spathiger and Haemonchus contortus.

  17. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina di Virgilio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets, age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour. Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of

  18. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Virgilio, Agustina; Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals' foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals' space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals' social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by classes

  19. Induction of ovarian cystic follicles in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, S A; Bailey, M T; Head, W A; Wheaton, J E

    2000-10-01

    Cystic follicles are a significant cause of infertility in women, dairy cattle and sheep. Sheep were used as a model to identify factors that may elicit formation of cystic follicles. Insulin resistance and elevated LH activity were tested in overweight ewes because of associations among these factors and the formation of cystic follicles. Sheep were synchronized using a progesterone-releasing pessary and insulin resistance was induced during the synchronization period through administration of bovine somatotropin. Following removal of pessaries follicular growth was stimulated by treatment with eCG or eCG and hCG (PG-600). Follicular growth was monitored via daily transrectal ultrasonography and blood samples were collected for hormonal analyses. Six of 18 ewes had a subnormal or absent preovulatory gonadotropin surge and developed cystic follicles. Neither insulin resistance nor elevated LH activity were associated with formation of cystic follicles. Ewes that developed cystic follicles were heavier (93 +/- 4 kg) than ewes that ovulated (81 +/- 3 kg; P = 0.02). Furthermore, following pessary removal and initiation of daily ultrasonography, ewes that developed cystic follicles lost body weight (-3 +/- 1%), while ovulatory ewes continued to gain body weight (1 +/- 1%; P = 0.005). It is speculated that in heavy ewes metabolic factors associated with acute body weight loss inhibit the positive feedback of estradiol and thereby suppress the preovulatory gonadotropin surge leading to formation of cystic follicles.

  20. Phylogenetic diversity of Pasteurellaceae and horizontal gene transfer of leukotoxin in wild and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Scott T; Cassirer, E Frances; Weiser, Glen C; Safaee, Shirin

    2007-01-01

    Wild and domestic animal populations are known to be sources and reservoirs of emerging diseases. There is also a growing recognition that horizontal genetic transfer (HGT) plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis. We used molecular phylogenetic methods to assess diversity and cross-transmission rates of Pasteurellaceae bacteria in populations of bighorn sheep, Dall's sheep, domestic sheep and domestic goats. Members of the Pasteurellaceae cause an array of deadly illnesses including bacterial pneumonia known as "pasteurellosis", a particularly devastating disease for bighorn sheep. A phylogenetic analysis of a combined dataset of two RNA genes (16S ribosomal RNA and RNAse P RNA) revealed remarkable evolutionary diversity among Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica bacteria isolated from sheep and goats. Several phylotypes appeared to associate with particular host species, though we found numerous instances of apparent cross-transmission among species and populations. Statistical analyses revealed that host species, geographic locale and biovariant classification, but not virulence, correlated strongly with Pasteurellaceae phylogeny. Sheep host species correlated with P. trehalosi isolates phylogeny (PTP test; P=0.002), but not with the phylogeny of M. haemolytica isolates, suggesting that P. trehalosi bacteria may be more host specific. With regards to populations within species, we also discovered a strong correlation between geographic locale and isolate phylogeny in the Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (PTP test; P=0.001). We also investigated the potential for HGT of the leukotoxin A (lktA) gene, which produces a toxin that plays an integral role in causing disease. Comparative analysis of the combined RNA gene phylogeny and the lktA phylogenies revealed considerable incongruence between the phylogenies, suggestive of HGT. Furthermore, we found identical lktA alleles in unrelated bacterial species, some of which had been isolated

  1. Estimates of genetic parameters and genetic trends for live weight and fleece traits in Menz sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Lemma, S.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Menz sheep are indigenous to the highlands of Ethiopia, and highly valued for their meat and wool production. The area is characterized as a low input mixed barley-sheep production system. In 1998, a selection experiment was set up to evaluate the response of Menz sheep to selection for yearling

  2. Role of NETs in the difference in host susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii between sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Kader; Gokpinar, Sami; Gazyagci, Aycan Nuriye; Babur, Cahit; Sursal, Neslihan; Azkur, Ahmet Kursat

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare extracellular traps (NETs) formation by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) of cattle and sheep when exposed to T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro. The effects of parasite concentrations and different incubation periods on NETs development in cattle and sheep PMNs were studied. The effect of NET structures on host cell invasion by tachyzoites was also studied. This is the first report of NETs development by sheep and cattle PMNs against T. gondii in vitro. T. gondii-induced extracellular DNA production from PMNs was dependent on tachyzoite concentrations and incubation time in both sheep and cattle. Many nuclear and cytoplasmic changes were observed in sheep and cattle PMNs after exposure to T. gondii tachyzoites. The typical appearance of NETs, with MPO, NE and histone (H3) attached to extracellular DNA, was observed. Tachyzoites were entrapped within this structure. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was higher in the cattle PMN-tachyzoite co-cultures than sheep. NETs structures released from sheep PMNs caused mechanical immobilisation of T. gondii tachyzoites, however, NET structures released from cattle PMNs may be lethal to tachyzoites. Bovine MPO may have a lethal effect on T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro during a 3h incubation. Besides other mechanisms that effect on host susceptibility to T. gondii in sheep and cattle, extracellular traps formation as a part of immunological reactions may be play a role in host susceptibility to T. gondii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Behaviour of confined sheep fed with different concentrate sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H.H. Minervino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the effects of different feed concentrates on sheep behaviour. Our hypothesis was that citric pulp would stimulate rumination and be capable of replacing other concentrates traditionally used for feeding in confinement, to reduce the risk of urolithiasis. Ten adult Santa Inês sheep were distributed in a Latin square with five different diets, one control diet with 80% hay and 20% commercial feed and four diets containing 30% coast-cross hay and 70% of the following concentrates: pelleted citrus pulp, citrus pulp meal, cornmeal or wheat bran. After 21d of adaptation to each one of the five diets, the sheep were visually monitored for 24 h at 3 min intervals to record the time spent ruminating, time spent eating and time spent resting; the animals' positions (standing or lying down were also noted. Daytime was considered to be from 06:00h to 18:00h. The data were evaluated using ANOVA, with Tukey post-hoc test or throughout Two-sample T test for circadian and position assessment. Citrus pulp diets resulted in time spent ruminating similar to the control diet (601, 590 and 669 min, respectively, but greater (P<0.05 than the cornmeal group (421min, which showed that citrus pulp generated effective rumination. The estimated saliva production in the control diet (26L was greater than in the other groups, and was greater in the citrus pulp groups (24L/d than cornmeal (21L/d. Feeding with cornmeal led to shorter time spent eating and time spent ruminating than all other diets. The sheep had higher time spent resting at night when fed concentrates (P<0.05. For all diets, about 90% of the time spent ruminating occurred with the animals lying down. Pelleted citrus pulp, citrus pulp meal and to a lesser degree wheat bran, led to adequate time spent ruminating. The use of citrus pulp can act as a preventive management measure to reduce the incidence of urolithiasis in sheep flocks.

  4. Pleural liquid clearance rate measured in awake sheep by the volume of dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broaddus, V.C.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Berthiaume, Y.; Staub, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors reported 24h clearance of mock pleural effusions measured terminally in sheep. To measure effusion volume at different times in the same sheep, they injected 111 In-transferrin and measured its dilution. In 5 sheep with effusions of known sizes, the method was accurate to +/-10%. In 5 awake sheep, the authors injected 10 ml/kg of a 1% protein solution via a non-penetrating rib capsule. At 6h, the authors measured the volume by the dilution method and at 24h by direct recovery. The clearance rate in each animal was constant at 2.9-6.0%/h (average 4.8 +/- 1.3%/h). This new method gives a reliable two point clearance rate and requires fewer animals

  5. Establishment of selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model in experimental sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jihai; Gu Xiulian; Chao Shengwu; Zhang Peng; Fan Ruilin; Wang Li'na; Wang Lulu; Wang Ling; Li Bo; Chen Taotao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To establish a selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model in experimental sheep suitable for animal experiment. Methods: By using Seldinger's technique the catheter sheath was placed in both the femoral vein and femoral artery in ten sheep. Under C-arm DSA guidance the catheter was inserted through the catheter sheath into the pulmonary artery. Via the catheter appropriate amount of sheep autologous blood clots was injected into the selected pulmonary arteries. The selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model was thus established. Pulmonary angiography was performed to check the results. The pulmonary arterial pressure, femoral artery pressure,heart rates and partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO 2 ) were determined both before and after the treatment. The above parameters obtained after the procedure were compared with the recorded parameters measured before the procedure, and the sheep model quality was evaluated. Results: The baseline of pulmonary arterial pressure was (27.30 ± 9.58) mmHg,femoral artery pressure was (126.4 ± 13.72) mmHg, heart rate was (103 ± 15) bpm and PaO 2 was (87.7 ± 12.04) mmHg. Sixty minutes after the injection of (30 ± 5) ml thrombotic agglomerates, the pulmonary arterial pressures rose to (52 ± 49) mmHg, femoral artery pressures dropped to (100 ± 21) mmHg. The heart rates went up to (150 ± 26) bpm. The PaO 2 fell to (25.3 ± 11.2) mmHg. After the procedure the above parameters were significantly different from that measured before the procedure in all ten animals (P < 0.01). The pulmonary arteriography clearly demonstrated that the selected pulmonary arteries were successfully embolized. Conclusion: The anatomy of sheep's femoral veins,vena cava system, pulmonary artery and right heart system are suitable for the establishment of the catheter passage, for this reason, selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model can be easily created in experimental sheep. The technique is feasible and the model

  6. Q fever: baseline monitoring of a sheep and a goat flock associated with human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibach, R; Bothe, F; Runge, M; Fischer, S F; Philipp, W; Ganter, M

    2012-11-01

    Animal losses due to abortion and weak offspring during a lambing period amounted up to 25% in a goat flock and up to 18% in a sheep flock kept at an experimental station on the Swabian Alb, Germany. Fifteen out of 23 employees and residents on the farm tested positive for Coxiella burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Ninety-four per cent of the goats and 47% of the sheep were seropositive for C. burnetii by ELISA. Blood samples of 8% of goats and 3% of sheep were PCR positive. C. burnetii was shed by all tested animals through vaginal mucus, by 97% of the goats and 78% of the sheep through milk, and by all investigated sheep through faeces (PCR testing). In this outbreak human and animal infection were temporally related suggesting that one was caused by the other.

  7. Salmonella montevideo infection in sheep and cattle in Scotland, 1970-81.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J C; Reilly, W J; Linklater, K A; Inglis, D M; Johnston, W S; Miller, J K

    1983-04-01

    Outbreaks of abortion associated with infection by Salmonella montevideo have affected sheep in the east, especially the south-east, of Scotland each year since 1972. Disease in the north and north-east was usually less severe. Between 1 January 1970 and 31 December 1981, a total of 67 incidents affecting sheep were reported by veterinary laboratories to the Communicable Diseases (Scotland) Unit, 87% of which presented during the main lambing months of February, March and April. Twenty-one episodes of bovine infection were also recorded over the same period, 17 of which involved single animals only, usually an aborted cow or a scouring calf. Despite intensive investigations, neither the origin nor the mode of spread of S. montevideo infection among sheep and cattle in Scotland have been established with any certainty, although there has been considerable evidence indicating the role of scavenging wild birds, particularly seagulls, as vectors transmitting infection to other farms in the same district. Also largely unexplained are the differences in the epidemiology and clinical pattern of disease in the south-east compared to the north and north-east, while sheep in the west of Scotland have remained virtually unaffected throughout.

  8. Carcass and non-carcass characteristics of sheep fed on annatto byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Annatto byproduct is the residue from the extraction of powder dye that covers the seed pericarp; after processing, between 94% and 98% of the original product is considered a byproduct. The aim was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of annatto byproduct on the components of sheep body weight. Thirty-two male sheep, not castrated, with initial weight of 23.17 ± 1.45 kg, without a defined breed, were used in randomized blocks in all four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct in the diet dry matter. The increase to 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct had a negative linear effect (P < 0.05 for hot carcass weight (kg and cold carcass weight (kg. Increasing levels of annatto byproduct resulted in a linear reduction (P < 0.05 for palette weight (kg, leg weight (kg, carcass compactness index (kg cm?1, liver weight (kg and skin weight (kg. The inclusion of annatto byproduct up to 200 g kg?1 of dry matter in sheep diets did not affect the components of sheep body weight.

  9. Clinical, haematological and biochemical responses of sheep undergoing autologous blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Rejane

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, haematological and biochemical responses to autologous blood transfusion and the feasibility of this practice in sheep. Thus, we used eight male, 8 months old sheep, weighing on average 30 kg, from which 15 mL/kg of whole blood was collected and stored in CPDA-1 bags. Blood samples were refrigerated for 8 days and subsequently re-infused. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before blood collection and reinfusion, after 10 minutes of collection and reinfusion, after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours after collection and reinfusion. Results With respect to clinical parameters, we observed a decrease in heart rate after 24, 48 and 196 hours from reinfusion compared to basal values (p p p p  Conclusion Autologous transfusion in sheep slightly altered the physiological, biochemical and haematological responses of sheep, indicating that the technique proposed is safe and can be applied in the clinical practice of this species. The 8 d period was not sufficient for complete recovery of the haematological parameters after blood collection.

  10. Forage selection by teddy goats versus sheep on thal ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasra, A.W.; Hanjra, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Grazing behaviours of Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were studied on rangelands of ThaI. Bite count method was used to determine the dietary composition of both animal species. The overall preference of Teddy goats was higher for Khabble grass (Cynodon dactylon), which was 40.57% of the total number of bite made on different plant species during the study period (March-July). Teddy goats utilized a wide range of browsing plant species like Wan (Salvadora oleoides), Phog (Calligonum polygonoides), Babil (Acacia jacquemontii), Jandi (Prosopis spicigera) etc. Browsing species were major component (>50%) of goat diets dur- ing March through June. Whereas Thalli sheep had been consistent in their heavy use of Khabble grass (overall 89.27%). Browsing plant species were not an important component of their diets. Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were competitive for Khabble grass particularly at its vegetative growth stage. (author)

  11. A report on the levels of radiocaesium activity in mountain sheep October - December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.

    1988-02-01

    This report details the in vivo monitoring of mountain sheep undertaken by the Nuclear Energy Board during the period 5th October to 18th December 1987. A total of 636 farms in upland areas in eight counties were visited and 7,429 sheep were monitored. In addition, monitoring of sheep for the home and export market was undertaken at five slaughterhouses where a further 779 animals were examined. The farm monitoring identified 989 sheep with radiocaesium activities above 600 Bq/kg, of which 162 were above 1000 Bq/kg. Statistical testing was used to identify areas deemed to be 'reserved' and 'cleared' in each of the counties visited. It is concluded that the imposition of restrictions on the movement and slaughter of sheep may not be the most effective means of preventing animals with unacceptably high radiocaesium concentrations reaching the market. A programme of farmer education in stock management, allied to in vivo monitoring at slaughterhouses serving both the domestic and export markets, is put forward as the most effective method of ensuring the protection of the public

  12. The effect of estrus and pregnant sheep serum on in vitro ovine embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mattimena

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to observe the influence of estrus sheep serum (ESS and pregnant sheep serum (PSS on in vitrous ovine embryo development. The research was carried out in Animal Reproduction Laboratory, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran university. Oocyte and ovary of local sheep were collected from slaughter house. Maturation, fertilization and embryo culture media were supplemented with 10, 15 and 20% ESS or PSS respectively. Results show that supplementation of 20% ESS had significantly (P<0.05 better maturation rate than those of 10-20% PSS (79.98% vs 58.89-68.97%. However, increasing ESS into 15-20% did not affect the maturation rate (71.86-74.98%. Therefore, 10% estrus sheep serum (ESS can be used as an alternative serum in the ovine maturation media. The supplementation of ESS or PSS did not significantly increas the fertilization rate and in vitrous ovine embryo development, however, it was suggested to add 10% pregnant sheep serum (PSS at in vitrous ovine embryo culture.

  13. Sodium bicarbonate as prevention of metabolic acidosis in sheep submitted to experimental ruminal acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane M. Laskoski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of sodium bicarbonate on systemic acidosis due to ruminal acidosis, which was induced by ingestion of concentrate after prolonged fasting. Fourteen sheep were divided into three experimental groups: control group (Cg, with four sheep, submitted to fasting without development of ruminal acidosis; no-treated group (NTg, with five sheep with rumen acidosis without preventive treatment; and treated group (Tg, with five sheep with rumen acidosis and preventively treated with sodium bicarbonate. Assessments of ruminal pH and arterial hemogasometry were performed for 48 hours after ingestion of the concentrate. There was a reduction in the ruminal pH in all groups, whereas the Cg showed a reduction only after 24 hours. A reduction in the arterial pH, bicarbonate and base excess in all groups was also noted, indicating systemic metabolic acidosis, but the NTg presented the greatest alteration. It is concluded that sodium bicarbonate prevents systemic metabolic acidosis, reducing its severity in sheep subjected to ruminal acidosis.

  14. Seroepidemiology and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goats in Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Dechassa; Kelifa, Amin; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Yohannes, Moti

    2016-12-09

    T.gondii is a global zoonotic disease and is considered as the most neglected tropical disease in sub-Saharan countries. The exact seroepidemiological distribution and risk factors for the infection of food animals and humans in Ethiopia was less studied although, such studies are important. The objective of the current study was to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors of T. gondii infection in sheep and goats in Southwestern Ethiopia. Cross sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015 in South west Ethiopia in four selected districts of Jimma zone (n = 368). Slide agglutination test (Toxo-latex) was used to detect anti-T.gondii antibodies. Logistic regression was used to determine potential risk factors. An overall seroprevalence of 57.60% (212/368; 95% CI: 52.55-62.6) was detected. 58.18% (148/252; 95% CI: 52.75-64.88) and 55.18% (64/116; 95% CI: 46.13-64.23) sero prevalence was found in sheep and goats respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in adult sheep and goats [(sheep: Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.5, confidence interval (CI): 1.19-5.23; p = 0.015), (goats: OR = 3.9, confidence interval (CI):1.64-9.41: p = 0.002)] than in young sheep and goats, in female [(sheep: OR = 1.93, CI: 1.11-3.36, p = 0.018, (goats: OR = 2.9, CI: 121-6.93, p = 0.002)] than in males sheep and goats, in Highland [(sheep: OR = 4.57, CI: 1.75-12.66, P = 0.000, (goats: OR = 4.4, CI: 1.75-13.66, p = 0.004)] than sheep and goats from lowland. This study indicates that seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in small ruminants is high, therefore, it is decidedly indispensable to minimize risk factors exposing to the infection like consumption of raw meat as source of infection for humans.

  15. Genome-wide detection of CNVs in Chinese indigenous sheep with different types of tails using ovine high-density 600K SNP arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Caiye; Fan, Hongying; Yuan, Zehu; Hu, Shijin; Ma, Xiaomeng; Xuan, Junli; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Li; Wei, Caihong; Zhang, Qin; Zhao, Fuping; Du, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Chinese indigenous sheep can be classified into three types based on tail morphology: fat-tailed, fat-rumped, and thin-tailed sheep, of which the typical breeds are large-tailed Han sheep, Altay sheep, and Tibetan sheep, respectively. To unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic differences among Chinese indigenous sheep with tails of three different types, we used ovine high-density 600K SNP arrays to detect genome-wide copy number variation (CNV). In large-tailed Han sheep, A...

  16. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in sheep. IV. Analysis of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Mary K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0, four significant (2.0 Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays.

  17. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR), representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3%) and 238 goat flocks (52.6%) were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6%) and goat (85.1%) flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year) in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007), whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of anthelmintic resistance

  18. Frontal brain deactivation during a non-verbal cognitive judgement bias test in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldimann, Kathrin; Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-02-01

    Animal welfare concerns have raised an interest in animal affective states. These states also play an important role in the proximate control of behaviour. Due to their potential to modulate short-term emotional reactions, one specific focus is on long-term affective states, that is, mood. These states can be assessed by using non-verbal cognitive