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Sample records for healthy population comparison

  1. A comparison of somatic mutational spectra in healthy study populations from Russia, Sweden and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noori, P; Hou, S; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Lambert, B

    2004-10-27

    Comparison of mutation spectra at the hypoxanthine-phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene of peripheral blood T lymphocytes may provide insight into the aetiology of somatic mutation contributing to carcinogenesis and other diseases. To increase knowledge of mutation spectra in healthy people, we have analyzed HPRT mutant T-cells of 50 healthy Russians originally recruited as controls for a study of Chernobyl clean-up workers (Jones et al. Radiation Res. 158, 2002, 424). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions and DNA sequencing identified 161 independent mutations among 176 thioguanine resistant mutants. Forty (40) mutations affected splicing mechanisms and 27 deletions or insertions of 1 to 60 nucleotides were identified. Ninety four (94) single base substitutions were identified, including 62 different mutations at 55 different nucleotide positions, of which 19 had not previously been reported in human T-cells. Comparison of this base substitution spectrum with mutation spectra in a USA (Burkhart-Schultz et al. Carcinogenesis 17, 1996, 1871) and two Swedish populations (Podlutsky et al, Carcinogenesis 19, 1998, 557, Podlutsky et al. Mutation Res. 431, 1999, 325) revealed similarity in the type, frequency and distribution of mutations in the four spectra, consistent with aetiologies inherent in human metabolism. There were 15-19 identical mutations in the three pair-wise comparisons of Russian with USA and Swedish spectra. Intriguingly, there were 21 mutations unique to the Russian spectrum, and comparison by the Monte Carlo method of Adams and Skopek (J. Mol. Biol. 194, 1987, 391) indicated that the Russian spectrum was different from both Swedish spectra (P=0.007, 0.002) but not different from the USA spectrum (P=0.07), when Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was made (p < 0.008 required for significance). Age and smoking did not account for these differences. Other factors causing mutational differences need to be explored.

  2. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in South African healthy populations: a global comparison.

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    Esau, Luke; Kaur, Mandeep; Adonis, Lucinda; Arieff, Zainunisha

    2008-05-01

    The serotonin transporter promoter length polymorphism (5-hydroxytryptamine transporter length polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR) in serotonin transporter gene has been implicated in numerous psychiatric disorders. Having a high affinity for the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), serotonin transporter controls the duration, availability and signaling capacity of 5-HT in the synapse. Association studies have focused extensively on this polymorphic region as the frequencies of long- and short-alleles of this gene differ greatly amongst populations and association studies have either reported conflicting results or nothing significant at all. In this study, the genotype and allele frequencies of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were determined in the healthy South African (SA) individuals belonging to diverse ethnic backgrounds. Cheek cell samples were collected from the three major ethnic groups namely: Caucasians, Africans and coloreds/Mixed population. The DNA was extracted and genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR. Genotypes were compared amongst the three major ethnic groups from SA as well as to that of other studies around the world. This is the first study to report significant differences in the 5-HTTLPR genotype and allelic frequencies among various ethnic groups in SA. Future studies will target larger population groups and the estimation of frequency of these alleles in individuals with autism.

  3. Comparison of age-related changes in anti-Müllerian hormone levels and other ovarian reserve tests between healthy fertile and infertile population.

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    Bozkurt, Banu; Erdem, Mehmet; Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Ahmet; Guler, Ismail; Mutlu, Ilknur; Oktem, Mesut

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels vary between fertile and infertile populations and compare them with basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and antral follicle count (AFC). This was a prospective study that included 177 primarily infertile patients who underwent IVF treatment and 162 healthy fertile patients admitted to our clinic for benign diseases. FSH and AMH levels and the AFC of the infertile and fertile populations were compared between the age categories age were evaluated. AFC and AMH levels did not differ between the fertile and infertile groups in all age categories. AMH was inversely correlated with age in both the fertile and infertile populations. However, AFC revealed a stronger correlation with age in both the fertile and infertile populations compared with basal FSH and AMH. Age was positively correlated with basal FSH and inversely correlated with AMH and AFC. In conclusion, there was no significant difference between the fertile and infertile populations in terms of AMH or AFC. The decrease in ovarian reserve in infertile patients is directly related to age, not infertility.

  4. Refining population health comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Jørgensen, Mette Møller; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2016-01-01

    How to determine if a population group has better overall (multidimensional) health status than another is a central question in the health and social sciences. We apply a multidimensional first order dominance concept that does not rely on assumptions about the relative importance of each...

  5. Measurement of Bed Turning and Comparison with Age, Gender, and Body Mass Index in a Healthy Population: Application of a Novel Mobility Detection System

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    Shang-Lin Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a mobility detection system to analyze pressure changes over time during side-turns in 29 healthy volunteers (17 males and 12 females with a mean age of 46.1 ± 19.64 years (ranging from 23 to 86 years in order to determine the effect of gender, age, and BMI on performance during bed postural change. Center of gravity (COG location, peak pressure of counteraction, and time to reach peak pressure were the main outcomes used to gauge the ability to make a spontaneous side-turn. Men exhibited significantly higher side-turning force (P=0.002 and back-turning force (P=0.002 compared with women. Subjects with BMI ≥27 kg/m2 had significantly higher side-turning force (P=0.007 and back-turning force (P=0.007 compared with those with BMI < 27 kg/m2. After adjusting for other covariates, age positively correlated with back-turning time (P=0.033 and negatively correlated with side-turning speed (P=0.005, back-turning speed (P=0.014, side-turning force (P=0.010, and back-turning force (P=0.016, respectively. Turning times negatively correlated with time to reach peak pressure (P=0.008. Our system was effective in detecting changes in turning swiftness in the bed-ridden subject.

  6. [Healthy lifestyles of the university population].

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    Sánchez-Ojeda, María Angustias; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira

    2015-05-01

    The lifestyle is defined as the set of behavioral patterns and daily habits of a person, which maintained over time may become dimensions of risk or safety depending on their nature. The aim of this study was to know the lifestyles of university students in the following dimensions: diet, exercise, consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, sex and road safety. We made a literature review in electronic databases: PubMed, SCIELO and CUIDEN, between 2002-2014; using as keywords habits, lifestyle, health behaviors, young adult and university students. From articles found, stand out as most relevant data that university students have a high presence of favorable beliefs about healthy lifestyles and nevertheless not put into practice. We could conclude that according to different authors, university students in general have not a good eating habits, eating unbalanced diets high in calories. Besides the physical exercise is null, knowing that a good diet and doing exercise have beneficial effects on health. To this must be added the high consumption of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana among university students.

  7. Population pharmacokinetics of olprinone in healthy male volunteers

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    Kunisawa T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hidefumi Kasai,2 Makoto Suda,2 Manabu Yoshimura,3 Ami Sugawara,3 Yuki Izumi,3 Takafumi Iida,3 Atsushi Kurosawa,3 Hiroshi Iwasaki3 1Surgical Operation Department, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Clinical Study Management Division, Bell Medical Solutions Inc, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido, Japan Background: Olprinone decreases the cardiac preload and/or afterload because of its vasodilatory effect and increases myocardial contractility by inhibiting phosphodiesterase III. Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of olprinone after a single continuous infusion in healthy male volunteers. Methods: We used 500 plasma concentration data points collected from nine healthy male volunteers for the study. The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM® software. Results: The time course of plasma concentration of olprinone was best described using a two-compartment model. The final pharmacokinetic parameters were total clearance (7.37 mL/minute/kg, distribution volume of the central compartment (134 mL/kg, intercompartmental clearance (7.75 mL/minute/kg, and distribution volume of the peripheral compartment (275 mL/kg. The interindividual variability in the total clearance was 12.4%, and the residual error variability (exponential and additive were 22.2% and 0.129 (standard deviation. The final pharmacokinetic model was assessed using a bootstrap method and visual predictive check. Conclusion: We developed a population pharmacokinetic model of olprinone in healthy male adults. The bootstrap method and visual predictive check showed that this model was appropriate. Our results might be used to develop the population pharmacokinetic model in patients. Keywords: phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, men, pharmacokinetic model

  8. The Healthy Worker Survivor Effect: Target Parameters and Target Populations.

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    Brown, Daniel M; Picciotto, Sally; Costello, Sadie; Neophytou, Andreas M; Izano, Monika A; Ferguson, Jacqueline M; Eisen, Ellen A

    2017-07-15

    We offer an in-depth discussion of the time-varying confounding and selection bias mechanisms that give rise to the healthy worker survivor effect (HWSE). In this update of an earlier review, we distinguish between the mechanisms collectively known as the HWSE and the statistical bias that can result. This discussion highlights the importance of identifying both the target parameter and the target population for any research question in occupational epidemiology. Target parameters can correspond to hypothetical workplace interventions; we explore whether these target parameters' true values reflect the etiologic effect of an exposure on an outcome or the potential impact of enforcing an exposure limit in a more realistic setting. If a cohort includes workers hired before the start of follow-up, HWSE mechanisms can limit the transportability of the estimates to other target populations. We summarize recent publications that applied g-methods to control for the HWSE, focusing on their target parameters, target populations, and hypothetical interventions.

  9. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population

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    Duque-López María

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI, body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf, waist to hip ratio (WHR, elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the associations between health and BMI, waist circumference and WHR in the elderly.

  10. Peak Bone Mass Measurement in Iranian Healthy Population

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    B Larijani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a disabling disease characterized by compromised bone strength, which predisposes a patient to increased risk of fracture. The aim of this study was evaluation the pattern of bone mass in Iranian healthy population. Methods: The study was performed between December 2000 and May 2001 on one thousand three healthy Iranian sub¬jects who currently live in Tehran. They were selected randomly by cluster random sampling among men and women of 10-76 yr from 50 clusters. The volunteer people were referred to the Bone Mineral Density BMD unit of EMRC. The partici¬pants were recalled for three times and the response rate was 83%. BMD was measured by DXA using Lunar DPX-MD device. Results: Females achieved maximum lumbar BMD up to 25-35. Femur BMD maximized in 30 to 35 and after 45 the inten¬sity of bone loss increased. Female peak bone mass in lumbar region was 1.19 ± 0.12 g/cm2and in femur was 1.02±0.12 g/cm2. Male peak bone mass in lumbar region occurred between ages 25-40 yr, Male's femur BMD maximized in 20-30. In male peak lumbar bone mass was 1.22±0.16 g/cm2 and femur was 1.08±0.15 g/cm2. Osteopenia was recog¬nized in 50% and 48.8% of women above 50 in spine and total femur, respectively, however these percentages were 37.1% and 34.8% among male subjects. Conclusion: Iranian BMD values sufficiently different from other countries to warrant a separate reference sample with which to compare individuals for the purpose of diagnosing osteoporosis and osteopenia according to the WHO criteria.

  11. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population

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    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; Duque-López, María Ximena; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cortés-Núñez, Alma Rosa; Reyes-Beaman, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf), waist to hip ratio (WHR), elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p < 0.05), and the mean heights were 1.52 m for women and 1.63 m for men (p < 0.05). Age related changes in anthropometric values were identified. BMI values indicated that 62.3% of the population was overweight, and 73.6% of women and 16.5% of men had high fat tissue distribution. Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the

  12. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

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    Dianat, Iman; Feizi, Hossein; Hasan-khali, Kosar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for designing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population. Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females) aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis. Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively. Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population. PMID:26000246

  13. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

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    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  14. Reference values of electrocardiogram repolarization variables in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Graff, Claus; Andersen, Mads P

    2010-01-01

    Reference values for T-wave morphology analysis and evaluation of the relationship with age, sex, and heart rate are lacking in the literature. In this study, we characterized T-wave morphology in a large sample of healthy individuals....

  15. Cortisol response patterns in depressed women and their healthy daughters at risk: Comparison with healthy women and their daughters.

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    Gonul, Ali Saffet; Cetinkalp, Sevki; Tunay, Sebnem; Polat, Irmak; Simsek, Fatma; Aksoy, Burcu; Kizilates, Gozde; Erdogan, Yigit; Coburn, Kerry L

    2017-02-01

    A dysfunctional hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is widely accepted as a significant pathophysiological aspect of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Despite studies suggesting that a dysfunctional HPA axis might be present before the clinical syndrome becomes apparent, the functioning of the HPA axis in high-risk populations has not been well defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the HPA axis functioning of mothers suffering from MDD and their healthy daughters compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. This design allowed a comparison of HPA axis functional differences among daughter and mother groups. HPA axis function was evaluated with a modified dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test, which was performed after obtaining the diurnal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values at 8:00, 16:00, and 23:00 h. We found that MDD mothers and their daughters had low morning cortisol and the MDD mothers additionally had low-morning ACTH compared with controls. Dexamethasone suppressed both cortisol and ACTH in all groups and subsequent HPA axis stimulation by CRH-evoked a lower cortisol response but a higher ACTH response among subjects with MDD mothers. Although high-risk daughters had comparable cortisol levels after CRH infusion, the AUC for ACTH was greater than those of controls. These patterns of results suggest that multiple level HPA dysfunctions are present in both MDD patients and their high-risk carrying daughters. However, insufficient cortisol secretion was only present in MDD mothers, while the daughters could compensate cortisol levels during CRH challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuhiro Tajima-Pozo; Camila Bayón; Marina Díaz-Marsá; Jose Luis Carrasco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality question...

  17. Putamen volume correlates with obsessive compulsive characteristics in healthy population.

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    Kubota, Yasutaka; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sawada, Reiko; Sakihama, Morimitsu; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-03-30

    Obsessions and compulsions (OCs) are frequent in healthy subjects; however neural backgrounds of the subclinical OCs were largely unknown. Results from recent studies suggested involvement of the putamen in the OC traits. To investigate this issue, 49 healthy subjects were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). Anatomical delineation on MRI yielded the global volume and local shape of the putamen. Other striatal structures (the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) were also examined for exploratory purpose. The relationship between volume/shape of each structures and MOCI measure was analyzed, with sex, age, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and full-scale Intelligence Quotient regressed out. The volume analysis revealed a positive relationship between the MOCI total score and the bilateral putamen volumes. The shape analysis demonstrated associations between the higher MOCI total score and hypertrophy of the anterior putamen in both hemispheres. The present study firstly revealed that the volume changes of the putamen correlated with the manifestation of subclinical OC traits. The dysfunctional cortico-anterior striatum networks seemed to be one of the neuronal subsystems underlying the subclinical OC traits.

  18. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Ward, Leigh Cordwin;

    2014-01-01

    Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent....

  19. Issue statement : 'Healthy' populations of elk and bison on the National Elk Refuge

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an attempt to define the concept of a 'healthy population' of wildlife because is important to evaluating the management direction for the National...

  20. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

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    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  1. Cephalometric norms for the upper airway in a healthy North Indian population

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    Dipti Shastri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to obtain normative data for cephalometric measurements of the upper airway in the North Indian population. Design: Observational study. Setting: University department and teaching hospital out-patient clinic. Subjects and Methods: A total of 180 healthy patients were included out of which 90 were males (age range, 8-16 years, and 90 were females (age range, 8-16 years, with normal skeletal facial profile, no history of snoring, sleep apnea, upper airway disease, tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, obesity, or pathology in the pharynx. Twenty cephalometric airway measurements, including size of the tongue, soft palate, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and relative position of the hyoid bone and valleculae were obtained. Landmarks on cephalometric radiographs were digitized and measurements were made using a specially designed computer program. Error analysis of measurements was performed and comparison of measurements according to sex was made. Results: Significant sex dimorphism was seen for the majority of measurements, with the exception of minimal depth of the airway, oropharyngeal depth of the airway, and the soft palate angle with the hard palate. Conclusion: A minimum sagittal dimension of the upper airway was evident despite differences in measurements between sexes. Findings from this study should be a useful reference for the assessment of sleep apnea in the North Indian population.

  2. Distribution of the Val108/158Met polymorphism of the COMT gene in healthy Mexican population.

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    González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos; Juárez-Rojop, Isela; Pool García, Sherezada; Genis, Alma; Nicolini, Humberto; López Narváez, Lilia

    2013-09-10

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates the catecholamines adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine. On the other hand, some studies have reported that the enzymatic activity of COMT is partly genetically determined. With regard to the COMT gene, the most studied polymorphism is the functional variant Val108/158Met (rs4680), which results in substantial three- to four-fold variations in enzyme activity. To date, the rs4680 polymorphism of COMT has been associated with a number of disorders. In addition, this polymorphism has been found to have important differences in frequency according to the studied population. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Val108/158Met of the COMT gene in the Mexican population. Accordingly, we recruited 431 healthy volunteers. Our sample consisted of 111 healthy individuals from Mexico City and 320 individuals from the state of Tabasco, Mexico. We observed that Met was the most common allele, ranging from 57% (Tabasco) to 85% (Mexico City). In addition, we analyzed the frequency of Val108/158Met polymorphism of Caucasian (54% Met allele), Asian (29% Met allele) and African (34% Met allele) populations separately and also in comparison with Mexican (63% Met allele) population. In conclusion, the distribution of the Val108/158Met polymorphism distinguishes the Mexican population studied from other populations, but it is necessary to increase the size of the sample to get more conclusive results.

  3. Extending healthy ageing: nutrient sensitive pathway and centenarian population

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    Davinelli Sergio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ageing is a challenge for any living organism and human longevity is a complex phenotype. With increasing life expectancy, maintaining long-term health, functionality and well-being during ageing has become an essential goal. To increase our understanding of how ageing works, it may be advantageous to analyze the phenotype of centenarians, perhaps one of the best examples of successful ageing. Healthy ageing involves the interaction between genes, the environment, and lifestyle factors, particularly diet. Besides evaluating specific gene-environment interactions in relation to exceptional longevity, it is important to focus attention on modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition to achieve extension of health span. Furthermore, a better understanding of human longevity may assist in the design of strategies to extend the duration of optimal human health. In this article we briefly discuss relevant topics on ageing and longevity with particular focus on dietary patterns of centenarians and nutrient-sensing pathways that have a pivotal role in the regulation of life span. Finally, we also discuss the potential role of Nrf2 system in the pro-ageing signaling emphasizing its phytohormetic activation.

  4. Sleep, mood and sociability in a healthy population.

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    Moturu, Sai T; Khayal, Inas; Aharony, Nadav; Pan, Wei; Pentland, Alex Sandy

    2011-01-01

    Sleep and mood problems have a considerable public health impact with serious societal and significant financial effects. In this work, we study the relationship between these factors in the everyday life of healthy young adults. More importantly, we look at these factors from a social perspective, studying the impact that couples have on each other and the role that face-to-face interactions play. We find that there is a significant bi-directional relationship between mood and sleep. More interestingly, we find that the spouse's sleep and mood may have an effect on the subject's mood and sleep. Further, we find that subjects whose sleep is significantly correlated with mood tend to be more sociable. Finally, we observe that less sociable subjects show poor mood more often than their more sociable contemporaries. These novel insights, especially those involving sociability, measured from quantified face-to-face interaction data gathered through smartphones, open up several avenues to enhance public health research through the use of latest wireless sensing technologies.

  5. Lipid profile in an apparently healthy Nigerian population.

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    Emma-Okon, B O; Onayade, A A; Adegoke, A O; Soyinka, J O; Ademigbuji, E A

    2014-12-01

    To describe the pattern of lipid profile of members of staff of a tertiary education institution in South-West Nigeria with a view to assessing risk of cardiovascular disease among them. One hundred and ninety three (193) members of staff of the Institution were involved in the study. Questionnaires were administered to obtain information on demographic characteristics and medical history of respondents. Weight, height and blood pressure of participants were measured and the Body Mass Index (BMI) calculated. Fasting plasma lipid profile parameters--Total cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) , Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and Triglycerides (TG)) were also determined in all the participants using standard assay methods. Mean TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and TG were 4.04 mmol/L, 1.63 mmol/L, 1.98 mmol/L and 0.92 mmol/L respectively . Mean BMI was 25.98 kg/m2. Twenty-eight (14.5%) participants had mean cholesterol values e" 5.2 mM/L, 19 men had HDL valueslipid parameters within reference range while 62 (32.8%) had abnormality in 1 or more of the parameters. Sixty two participants (32.1%) were overweight while 45 (23.3%) were obese. Statistically significant differences were found when TG and BMI levels of male participants were compared with those of their female counterparts. Abnormalities in lipid profile parameters were found mostly in participants who were 40 years and above. Age of participants correlated positively with total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels while LDL-C levels correlated negatively with HDL levels. A significant proportion of the population had abnormality in one or more Lipid profile parameters, the most common being low HDL cholesterol levels. A considerable number of participants were also either overweight or obese. Most of the abnormalities in lipid profile were found in participants e" 40 years. The study underscores a need to sensitise members of the community to regular lipid profile check up .

  6. Multidimensional first-order dominance comparisons of population wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    In this paper, we convey the concept of first-order dominance (FOD) with particular focus on applications to multidimensional population welfare comparisons. We give an account of the fundamental equivalent definitions of FOD, illustrated with simple numerical examples. An implementable method...... for detecting dominances is explained along with a bootstrapping procedure that yields additional information relative to what can be obtained from dominance comparisons alone. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of FOD, compared to other multidimensional population comparison concepts, and describe practical...

  7. [Live longer and better? Estimates of healthy life expectancy in the Brazilian population].

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    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Gonzaga, Marcos Roberto

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed differences in healthy life expectancy in the elderly based on three health dimensions in Brazil from 1998 to 2008: disability-free life expectancy, healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health, and chronic disease-free life expectancy. The Sullivan method was used, combining life tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and interval estimates of the prevalence of functional disability, self-rated health, and chronic diseases according to the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD, 1998 and 2008). Besides the increase in life expectancy, the study showed significant and similar increases in disability-free life expectancy and healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health at almost all ages. Women had higher life expectancies than men, but expected to live longer with poor health, regardless of the indicator used to measure health. Although the studies measured health differently (making comparisons difficult), women showed a consistent disadvantage in healthy life expectancy.

  8. Cognitive-enhancing drugs in the healthy population: Fundamental drawbacks and researcher roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsee Leng Choy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of pharmacological cognitive enhancers (PCEs in the healthy population is a controversial topic with numerous and expansive repercussions. By outlining common proponent arguments on the current PCE state of affairs, the definition of normality, and the complex regulation of PCEs, this article addresses why the mainstream use of PCEs in the healthy population is still disadvantageous overall. In this respect, the influence and roles of researchers to the society are emphasized in bringing the focus back to the fundamental issues, which is crucial in deciphering its controversy and avoiding costly societal, research credibility and ethical implications.

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm: comparisons among four healthy men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandriff, B.; Gordon, L.; Ashworth, L.; Watchmaker, G.; Carrano, A.; Wyrobek, A.

    1984-01-01

    The human-sperm/hamster-egg system has been used to compare the frequencies of structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in 909 sperm karyotypes from four normal healthy men. The frequency of structural aberrations was 1.3, 4.8, 9.0, and 10.4% respectively in the four donors. Certain specific breakpoints were seen twice or even three times in three of the donors. The incidence of aneuploidy was 1.3, 1.4, 1.4, and 1.9%. In three donors the frequencies of structural aberrations were significantly higher in sperm than in lymphocytes from the same man. X-to-Y ratios did not differ significantly from the expected 50:50. 37 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  10. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  11. Comparison of Biomarkers in Blood and Saliva in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williamson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers measure biomarkers as a reflection of patient health status or intervention outcomes. While blood is generally regarded as the best body fluid for evaluation of systemic processes, substitution of saliva samples for blood would be less invasive and more convenient. The concentration of specific biomarkers may differ between blood and saliva. The objective of this study was to compare multiple biomarkers (27 cytokines in plasma samples, passive drool saliva samples, and filter paper saliva samples in 50 healthy adults. Demographic data and three samples were obtained from each subject: saliva collected on filter paper over 1 minute, saliva collected by passive drool over 30 seconds, and venous blood (3 mL collected by venipuncture. Cytokines were assayed using Bio-Rad multiplex suspension array technology. Descriptive statistics and pairwise correlations were used for data analysis. The sample was 52% male and 74% white. Mean age was 26 (range = 19–63 years, sd = 9.7. The most consistent and highest correlations were between the passive drool and filter paper saliva samples, although relationships were dependent on the specific biomarker. Correlations were not robust enough to support substitution of one collection method for another. There was little correlation between the plasma and passive drool saliva samples. Caution should be used in substituting saliva for blood, and relationships differ by biomarker.

  12. PREVALENCE OF MARKERS OF VIRAL HEPATITIS B AND D FROM HEALTHY POPULATION IN REPUBLIC TYVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Kozhanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to estimate prevalence of markers, genetic diversity, risk factors of HBV and HDV infections in all age groups among healthy population in Republic Tyva. Serum samples obtained from healthy population in Republic Tyva (N = 1086 were tested (aged from birth to older 60 years. The markers of HBV and HDV infections were determined by enzyme immunoassay and PCR. HBsAg was detected in 7,7% (84/1086, anti-HBc — in 47,8% (519/1086 and HBeAg — in 0,3% (3/1086 cases. Prevalence of HBsAg in children under 9 years was 1,3%, no positive results of anti-HDV were determined among children aged up to 9 year. Prevalence of anti-HDV among HBsAg-positive individuals of healthy population was 32,1% (27/84. HBV DNA was detected in 2,9% (31/1086 cases; HDV RNA — in 32,1% (14/84 HBsAg-positive individuals. The obtained data showed high prevalence of HBV ang HDV infections among healthy population of Republic Tyva. Thus, it is necessary to extend screening program in this region to improve viral hepatitis surveillance and diagnostics. The sharp decline in the prevalence of these infections in children up to 9 years in the surveyed endemic region is an evidence of effective protection against HBV and HDV with vaccination against hepatitis B. 

  13. Healthy Ageing: tackling the burden of disease and disability in an ageing population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Klijs (Bart)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHealthy ageing of individuals is crucial to prevent strong increases in the burden of disease and disability due to population ageing. We aimed to quantify the current burden of disease and disability and assessed which determinants explain the burden of disability. The occurrence of

  14. Fish consumption, not fatty acid status, is related to quality of life in a healthy population

    OpenAIRE

    Schiepers, Olga; de Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; VAN BOXTEL Martin

    2010-01-01

    Schiepers, O. J., De Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., & Van Boxtel, M. P. J. (2010). Fish consumption, not fatty acid status, is related to quality of life in a healthy population. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 83(1), 31-35.

  15. Healthy Ageing: tackling the burden of disease and disability in an ageing population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Klijs (Bart)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHealthy ageing of individuals is crucial to prevent strong increases in the burden of disease and disability due to population ageing. We aimed to quantify the current burden of disease and disability and assessed which determinants explain the burden of disability. The occurrence of dis

  16. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  17. Effects of Temperature on Photosynthetic Rates in Korean Fir (Abies koreana) between Healthy and Dieback Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Young Woo; Jong-Hwan Lim; Don Koo Lee

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out on natural Korean fir forests (Abies koreana) growing In Mount Halla in Jeju Island, Korea (33°13-36′ N and 126° 12-57′ E). Mount Halla is the highest mountain (1950 m a.s.l.) in South Korea. On the Korean fir forests near the top of Mount Halla in Korea, we established permanent plots between dieback and healthy population. Each permanent plot includes both dieback and relatively healthy Korean fir individuals. Three sites in this study showed similar altitude, topographic position, aspects, slope, diameter at breast height, average height and ages. Net photosynthetic rates (PN) on different temperature regimes were evaluated to explain the forest dieback phenomenon on Korean fir populations. Light response curves were determined on three different temperature regimes: 15℃, 20℃and 25℃. The Irradiance response curve showed higher values in lower air temperatures. Generally, Irradiance response curves of healthy Korean fir populations were higher than the dieback population at all sites.

  18. Comparative morphometry of facial surface models obtained from a stereo vision system in a healthy population

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Leticia; Gastélum, Alfonso; Chan, Yuk Hin; Delmas, Patrice; Escorcia, Lilia; Márquez, Jorge

    2014-11-01

    Our goal is to obtain three-dimensional measurements of craniofacial morphology in a healthy population, using standard landmarks established by a physical-anthropology specialist and picked from computer reconstructions of the face of each subject. To do this, we designed a multi-stereo vision system that will be used to create a data base of human faces surfaces from a healthy population, for eventual applications in medicine, forensic sciences and anthropology. The acquisition process consists of obtaining the depth map information from three points of views, each depth map is obtained from a calibrated pair of cameras. The depth maps are used to build a complete, frontal, triangular-surface representation of the subject face. The triangular surface is used to locate the landmarks and the measurements are analyzed with a MATLAB script. The classification of the subjects was done with the aid of a specialist anthropologist that defines specific subject indices, according to the lengths, areas, ratios, etc., of the different structures and the relationships among facial features. We studied a healthy population and the indices from this population will be used to obtain representative averages that later help with the study and classification of possible pathologies.

  19. Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Cancer Chemoprevention With Sulindac in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Alexander K.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Ziegler, Katie L. Allen; Carlson, Elsa C.; Szabo, Eva; Ames, Mathew M.; Boring, Daniel; Limburg, Paul J.; Reid, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Sulindac is a prescription-based non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that continues to be actively investigated as a candidate cancer chemoprevention agent. To further current understanding of sulindac bioavailability, metabolism, and disposition, we developed a population pharmacokinetic model for the parent compound and its active metabolites, sulindac sulfide, and exisulind. This analysis was based on data from 24 healthy subjects who participated in a bioequivalence study compari...

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gallbladder Polypoid Lesions in a Healthy Population

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yoo Shin; Do, Jae Hyuk; Seo, Suk Won; Lee, Seung Eun; Oh, Hyoung-Chul; Min, Yun Joo; Kang, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of and investigate the risk factors for gallbladder (GB) polypoid lesions in a healthy population. Materials and Methods A total of 23827 subjects who underwent abdominal ultrasonography in conjunction with health screening examinations were retrospectively analyzed. The prevalence of risk factors for GB polypoid lesions were evaluated. In addition, risk factors according to the number of polypoid lesions and the presence of stones with polypoid lesions wer...

  1. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls in a...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3)...

  2. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3) Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  3. The Comparison of Risky Decision Making in Opium Abuser and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risky decision making is one of the most basic mechanisms of impulsive and addictive behaviors. The purpose of present study was the comparison of risky decision making in opium abuser and healthy matched individuals. Method: In present cross sectional study, 50 opium abusers compared to 50 healthy who were matched on age and gender. Balloon Analogue Risk Taking Task was used for evaluation of risk taking in participant of both groups. Results: The results showed that opium abusers have had higher scores on number of plumbing balloon and exploded balloon in BART task than normal individuals. Conclusion: Opium abusers have higher risk taking than normal individuals.

  4. Total and Segmental Colon Transit Time Study in Functional Constipation: Comparison With Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, Prasad A.; Patel, Jatin A.; Parikh, Pathik; Ingle, Meghraj A.; Phadke, Anniruddha; Sawant, Prabha D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Constipation is a common problem worldwide. Constipation can be primary or secondary. Primary constipation is subdivided in slow transit constipation, normal transit constipation, and dyssynergic defecation. Colon transit time (CTT) is the most basic and primary tool in evaluating disorders of colonic motility. CTT helps to differentiate between types of constipation and plan the treatment. Methods Fifty functional constipation patients and 25 healthy controls were asked to ingest four gelatin capsules (each containing five radio-opaque markers) at 0, 12 and 24 hours. An abdominal X-ray was taken at 36 hours. Total or segmental CTT was measured after calculating the number of markers remaining in each segment at 36 hours on abdominal X-ray. Results Mean CTT in healthy controls in our study was 15.4 hours which is shorter than western population. Total CTT is significantly higher in constipation group (23 hours) compared to healthy subjects (15.4 hours). Transit time in right segment was significantly high in constipation group than healthy population (14.2 vs. 8.3 hours). Total as well as segmental transit times are slightly higher in females as compared to males in both the groups, however not statistically significant. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies from India that compared the CTTs in functional constipation and healthy controls. Conclusion Radio-opaque marker study for CTT is a simple and reliable technique for evaluation of constipation. Patients with functional constipation have significantly longer CTT than healthy population. Total CTT is much less in this study population compared to west. There is need to establish standards for slow colon transit. PMID:27785288

  5. Multidimensional First-Order Dominance Comparisons of Population Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Arndt, Channing

    2017-01-01

    This chapter conveys the concept of first-order dominance (FOD) with particular focus on applications to multidimensional population welfare comparisons. It gives an account of the fundamental equivalent definitions of FOD both in the one-dimensional and multidimensional setting, illustrated...... with simple numerical examples. An implementable method for detecting dominances that relies on linear programming is explained along with a bootstrapping procedure that yields additional information relative to what can be obtained from dominance comparisons alone. The chapter discusses strengths...

  6. Healthy eating habits among the population of Serbia: gender and age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovičić, Ana Đ

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks' Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the 'knowledge' variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia.

  7. Population pharmacokinetic model for cancer chemoprevention with sulindac in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Alexander K; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Ziegler, Katie L Allen; Carlson, Elsa C; Szabo, Eva; Ames, Mathew M; Boring, Daniel; Limburg, Paul J; Reid, Joel M

    2013-04-01

    Sulindac is a prescription-based non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that continues to be actively investigated as a candidate cancer chemoprevention agent. To further current understanding of sulindac bioavailability, metabolism, and disposition, we developed a population pharmacokinetic model for the parent compound and its active metabolites, sulindac sulfide, and exisulind. This analysis was based on data from 24 healthy subjects who participated in a bioequivalence study comparing two formulations of sulindac. The complex disposition of sulindac and its metabolites was described by a seven-compartment model featuring enterohepatic recirculation and is the first reported population pharmacokinetic model for sulindac. The derived model was used to explore effects of clinical variables on sulindac pharmacokinetics and revealed that body weight, creatinine clearance, and gender were significantly correlated with pharmacokinetic parameters. Moreover, the model quantifies the relative bioavailability of the sulindac formulations and illustrates the utility of population pharmacokinetics in bioequivalence assessment. This novel population pharmacokinetic model provides new insights regarding the factors that may affect the pharmacokinetics of sulindac and the exisulind and sulindac sulfide metabolites in generally healthy subjects, which have implications for future chemoprevention trial design for this widely available agent.

  8. Comparison of Subjective and Objective Sleep Estimations in Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Cathrin; Pfeiffer, Steffi; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several studies have described but not formally tested discrepancies between subjective and objective measures of sleep. Study Objectives. To test the hypothesis that patients with bipolar disorder display a systematic bias to underestimate sleep duration and overestimate sleep latency. Methods. Actimetry was used to assess sleep latency and duration in 49 euthymic participants (bipolar = 21; healthy controls = 28) for 5–7 days. Participants simultaneously recorded estimated sleep duration and sleep latency on a daily basis via an online sleep diary. Group differences in the discrepancy between subjective and objective parameters were calculated using t-tests and corrected for multiple comparisons. Results. Patients with bipolar disorder significantly underestimated their sleep duration but did not overestimate their sleep latency compared to healthy controls. Conclusions. Studies utilizing diaries or questionnaires alone in patients with bipolar disorders may systematically underestimate sleep duration compared to healthy controls. The additional use of objective assessment methods such as actimetry is advisable. PMID:27891255

  9. Benefits of regular aerobic exercise for executive functioning in healthy populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiney, Hayley; Machado, Liana

    2013-02-01

    Research suggests that regular aerobic exercise has the potential to improve executive functioning, even in healthy populations. The purpose of this review is to elucidate which components of executive functioning benefit from such exercise in healthy populations. In light of the developmental time course of executive functions, we consider separately children, young adults, and older adults. Data to date from studies of aging provide strong evidence of exercise-linked benefits related to task switching, selective attention, inhibition of prepotent responses, and working memory capacity; furthermore, cross-sectional fitness data suggest that working memory updating could potentially benefit as well. In young adults, working memory updating is the main executive function shown to benefit from regular exercise, but cross-sectional data further suggest that task-switching and post error performance may also benefit. In children, working memory capacity has been shown to benefit, and cross-sectional data suggest potential benefits for selective attention and inhibitory control. Although more research investigating exercise-related benefits for specific components of executive functioning is clearly needed in young adults and children, when considered across the age groups, ample evidence indicates that regular engagement in aerobic exercise can provide a simple means for healthy people to optimize a range of executive functions.

  10. Ultrastructural Comparison of the Nasal Epithelia of Healthy and Naturally Affected Rabbits with Pasteurella multocida A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Esquinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultrastructural comparison between the nasal cavities of healthy rabbits and those suffering from two forms of spontaneous infection with Pasteurella multocida was undertaken. Twelve commercially produced rabbits of different ages and respiratory health status were divided into four groups: healthy from 0 to 21 days (G1, n=2; healthy from 23 to 49 days (G2, n=2; healthy from 51 to 69 days (G3, n=2; diseased rabbits with septicemia and the rhinitic form of P. multocida infection (G4, n=3. The main ultrastructural changes observed were a widening of the interepithelial spaces, increased activity and number of goblet cells, the formation of two types of vacuoles in epithelial cells, the degranulation and migration of heterophils between the epithelial cells, and the association of this migration with some of the other changes. No bacteria were observed adhering to the epithelium, and very few were observed free in the mucus. Scant inter-epithelial spaces were found in healthy rabbits, but they were not as large and numerous as those found in diseased animals. We discuss the origin and meaning of these changes but, we focus on the significance of the inter-epithelial spaces and goblet cells for the defense of the upper respiratory airways against the bacterium and its lipopolysaccharide.

  11. Determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy and hypertensive subjects: A population-based study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liyuan; Liu, Yanfen; Wang, Changyi; Tang, Linlin; Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Wen, Qi; Duan, Donghui; Lu, Nanjia; Xu, Guodong; Wang, Kaiyue; Zhang, Lu; Gu, Kaibo; Chen, Sihan; Ma, Jianping; Zhang, Tao; You, Dingyun; Duan, Shiwei

    2017-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is known to increase the risk of many diseases. Factors influencing HHcy in healthy and hypertensive subjects remain under-researched. A large population-based study was conducted in 60 communities from Shenzhen, China. Responses to standardized questions on lifestyle factors and blood samples were collected from all participants after a 12-h overnight fast. Multiple linear and multivariate logistic regressions were used to explore risk factors for HHcy. Results were then compared to those from a systematic review of English-language articles listed in Pubmed, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane libraries that investigated HHcy risk factors in healthy and hypertensive subjects. A total of 1586 healthy (Male/Female = 642/944) and 5935 hypertensive subjects (Male/Female = 2928/3007) participated in our population-based study. In logistic regression analyses, age, BMI and creatinine (Cr) were risk factors, while being female, fruit intake and physical activity were protective factors for HHcy in healthy subjects. In hypertensive subjects, seven [age, smoking, salt intake, systolic blood pressure (SBP), uric acid, triglycerides (TG), and Cr] and four [female, fruit intake, total cholesterol (TC), and glucose] factors were associated with higher and lower HHcy respectively. The review of 71 studies revealed that potential risk factors for Hcy included nutritional, physiologic, lifestyle habits, ethnicity, genetics, interactions between gene-environment, gene-gene, gene-nutritional, environment-environment, nutritional-nutritional. Our study indicates the potential importance of increasing folic acid and vitamin B supplementation, daily fruit and vegetable intake, regular exercise and refraining from tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption as preventive strategies for Hcy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Multidimensional first-order dominance comparisons of population wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    In this paper, we convey the concept of first-order dominance (FOD) with particular focus on applications to multidimensional population welfare comparisons. We give an account of the fundamental equivalent definitions of FOD, illustrated with simple numerical examples. An implementable method fo...

  13. Genotype and allele frequency of CYP2C19*17 in a healthy Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan, Maryam; Tajik, Nader; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) is important in metabolism of wide range of drugs. CYP2C19*17 is a novel variant allele which increases gene transcription and therefore results in ultra-rapid metabolizer phenotype (URM). Distribution of this variant allele has not been well studied worldwide. The aim of present study was to investigate allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2C19*17 in a healthy Iranian population and compare them with other ethnic groups. One hundred eighty healthy unrelated Iranian volunteer took part in this study and were genotyped for CYP2C19 *2, *3, *17 (-3402) by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and CYP2C19*17 (-806) by a nested-PCR assays. The distribution of CYP2C19*17 polymorphism in Iranian population was then compared with other ethnic groups. The CYP2C19*17 allele frequency was 21.6% in Iranian population. Among studied subjects 5.5% were homozygous for CYP2C19*17 and phenotyped as ultra-rapid metabolizers; 28.8% were genotyped as CYP2C19*1*17 (extensive metabolizers) and 3.3% as CYP2C19*2*17 (intermediate metabolizers). The CYP2C19*17 genetic distribution in Iranian population is similar to Middle East or European countries. The high frequency of CYP2C19*17 in Iranian population highlights the importance of this new variant allele in metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates. Thus, future association studies are required to reveal clinical consequence of this genetic polymorphism in carrier individuals.

  14. Standardisation of bioelectrical impedance analysis for the estimation of body composition in healthy paediatric populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brantlov, Steven; Jødal, Lars; Lange, Aksel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) requires a high degree of standardisation in order to ensure valid and reproducible impedance measurements. The overall aim of this review was to study the degree to which BIA papers conducted in healthy paediatric populations (aged 0-17 years......) were standardised. METHODS: Literature was identified on the basis of a systematic search of internationally-recognised electronic databases and hand searching of the reference lists of the included papers in order to identify additional relevant papers. The review was limited to lead-type BIA devices...

  15. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in an adult healthy population: serosurvey and risk factors in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Negri

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: The results of this study reinforce the necessity in promoting preventive public health measures, even for healthy adult individual, particularly those related to the deworming of pets to avoid the soil contamination, and hygiene education of the population.

  16. Nasal carriage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among healthy population of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Fomda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasal colonisation with community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is being increasingly reported, especially in places where people are in close contact and where hygiene is compromised. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA colonising anterior nares of healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Nasal swabs of healthy subjects were collected aseptically and cultured using standard microbiological protocols. Antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Methicillin resistance was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion method and confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and amplification of mecA gene by PCR. Strain typing of MRSA strains was done by PFGE. Results: Out of 820 samples, S.aureus was isolated from 229 (27.92% subjects. Of the 229 isolates, 15 were methicillin resistant. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Nasal carriage of MRSA was found to be 1.83% among healthy population. The isolates were found to be polyclonal by PFGE analysis. Conclusion: High prevalence of MRSA is a cause of concern and strategies to interrupt transmission should be implemented.

  17. A comparison of healthy human and swine articular cartilage dynamic indentation mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronken, S; Arnold, M P; Ardura García, H; Jeger, A; Daniels, A U; Wirz, D

    2012-05-01

    Articular cartilage is a multicomponent, poroviscoelastic tissue with nonlinear mechanical properties vital to its function. A consequent goal of repair or replacement of injured cartilage is to achieve mechanical properties in the repair tissue similar to healthy native cartilage. Since fresh healthy human articular cartilage (HC) is not readily available, we tested whether swine cartilage (SC) could serve as a suitable substitute for mechanical comparisons. To a first approximation, cartilage tissue and surgical substitutes can be evaluated mechanically as viscoelastic materials. Stiffness measurements (dynamic modulus, loss angle) are vital to function and are also a non-destructive means of evaluation. Since viscoelastic material stiffness is strongly strain rate dependent, stiffness was tested under different loading conditions related to function. Stiffness of healthy HC and SC specimens was determined and compared using two non-destructive, mm-scale indentation test modes: fast impact and slow sinusoidal deformation. Deformation resistance (dynamic modulus) and energy handling (loss angle) were determined. For equivalent anatomic locations, there was no difference in dynamic modulus. However, the HC loss angle was ~35% lower in fast impact and ~12% higher in slow sinusoidal mode. Differences seem attributable to age (young SC, older HC) but also to species anatomy and biology. Test mode-related differences in human-swine loss angle support use of multiple function-related test modes. Keeping loss angle differences in mind, swine specimens could serve as a standard of comparison for mechanical evaluation of e.g. engineered cartilage or synthetic repair materials.

  18. Widespread nasal carriage of Mycobacterium lepraeamong a healthy population in a hyperendemic region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Frota, Cristiane Cunha; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Almeida, Rosa Livia Freitas; Pontes, Maria Araci de Andrade; Gonçalves, Heitor de Sá; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia

    2015-11-01

    A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence ofMycobacterium lepraeDNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive prevalence, an external group (EG) (n = 121), a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. Polymerase chain reaction for the RLEP sequence was conducted for all participants. Prevalence of RLEP positivity for cases and Co were 69.2% and 66.9%, respectively, significantly higher than for EG (28.1%), and reported elsewhere. Male sex, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status (D/E), history of a previous contact with a case and being older, were associated with being a leprosy case. Our geographical analysis demonstrated that the bacillus is widespread among the healthy population, with clusters of RLEP positive multibacillary cases concentrated in distinct areas of the city. Our results suggest that in endemic areas, as in Fortaleza, surveillance for both nonhousehold leprosy contacts and members of the general population living in cluster areas should be implemented.

  19. Vitamin D status and its relationship with bone mineral density in a healthy Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Khashayar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: Considering the controversial results regarding the relationship between vitamin D levels and bone mineral density in different populations, the present study was designed to evaluate this correlation in a healthy Iranian population. METHODS: Using a random cluster sample of apparently healthy men and women, this multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out among 4450 individuals living in urban areas of five major cities in Iran. Bone mineral density (BMD values at different sites were analyzed along with the serum levels of 25(OHD and PTH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to estimate the main effects, through comparing the mean values of these markers based on the bone mineral density status of the study group in each sex. RESULTS: 25(OHD levels were inversely correlated with BMD values at total hip (r = -0.062 in men and r = -0.057 in women and spine (r = -0.076 in men and r = -0.107 in women. After adjusting the data for age, the inverse correlation was no longer statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Serum 25(OHD levels are inversely correlated with bone mass values in both sexes.

  20. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  1. Distribution of serum prostate-specific antigen in Chinese healthy men: a population-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xiao-dong; L(U) Jia-ju; DONG Zhi-gang; ZHANG Hui; LIN Hai-yan; SONG Xin-hong; NIU Zhi-hong; FU Qiang; LIU Shuai; SUN Zhi-jian

    2011-01-01

    Background The morbidity and mortality of prostate cancer have been increasing rapidly in recent China. There were few studies investigating prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values ranges in the healthy Chinese population. We performed this study to determine the distribution of serum PSA in a large healthy Chinese population.Methods From January 2001 to May 2008, 11 150 healthy Chinese men aged 30-79 years came to our hospital for routine health check-up. All subjects without a previous diagnosis of prostate cancer, a history of prostate surgery, or urogenital tract infection were proposed to undergo systematic serum PSA measurement and digital rectal examination (DRE). Men with normal DRE and PSA ≤4.0 ng/ml and those PSA >4.0 ng/ml or abnormal DRE but without adverse findings on prostate biopsy were included (n=9358). Age and serum PSA concentration were recorded and correlated through Logistic regression analysis.Results The 95th percentile serum PSA concentration was 1.89 ng/ml for men aged 30 to 39 years, 2.19 ng/ml for men aged 40 to 49 years, 2.88 ng/ml for men aged 50 to 59 years, 4.42 rng/ml for men aged 60 to 69 years, and 6.52 ng/ml for men aged 70 to 79 years. The serum PSA concentration correlated with age (P <0.0001) with an annual increase of 0.97% for men in 40 years, 1.58% for men in 50 years, 3.04% for men in 60 years, and 3.99% for men in 70 years.Conclusions The serum PSA level correlates directly with age in Chinese men older than 40 years, not in Chinese men younger than 40 years old. Chinese men have lower PSA level compared with white men above 60 years of age, not in those under 60 years of age.

  2. Tissue distribution comparison between healthy and fatty liver rats after oral administration of hawthorn leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jingjing; Qu, Jianguo; Zhang, Wenjie; Lu, Dongrui; Gao, Yucong; Ying, Xixiang; Kang, Tingguo

    2014-05-01

    Hawthorn leaves, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, have been widely used for treating cardiovascular and fatty liver diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic basis treating fatty liver disease by comparing the tissue distribution of six compounds of hawthorn leaf extract (HLE) in fatty liver rats and healthy rats after oral administration at first day, half month and one month, separately. Therefore, a sensitive and specific HPLC method with internal standard was developed and validated to determine chlorogenic acid, vitexin-4''-O-glucoside, vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin and hyperoside in the tissues including heart, liver, spleen, kidney, stomach and intestine. The results indicated that the six compounds in HLE presented some bioactivity in treating rat fatty liver as the concentrations of the six compounds varied significantly in inter- and intragroup comparisons (healthy and/or fatty liver group).

  3. Population pharmacokinetics of blonanserin in Chinese healthy volunteers and the effect of the food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yu-Guan; Shang, De-Wei; Xie, He-Zhi; Wang, Xi-Pei; Ni, Xiao-Jia; Zhang, Ming; Lu, Wei; Qiu, Chang; Liu, Xia; Li, Fang-Fang; Li, Xuan; Luo, Fu-Tian

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the study was to better understand blonanserin population pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics in Chinese healthy subjects. Data from two studies with 50 subjects were analyzed to investigate the population PK characteristics of blonanserin at single dose (4, 8, and 12 mg) under fasting, multidose (4 mg bid or 8 mg qd for 7 days) and under food intake condition (single dose, 8 mg). Blonanserin plasma concentrations were detected using the high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A nonlinear mixed-effects model was developed to describe the blonanserin concentration-time profiles. A two compartment model with first-order absorption was built to describe the time-course of blonanserin. The population-predicted system apparent clearance (CL/F), volume of apparent distribution in center (V(1)/F), and the first-order absorption rate constant (Ka) of blonanserin under fasting was 1230 L/h, 9500 L, and 3.02 h(-1), respectively. Food intake decreased Ka of blonanserin to 0.78 h(-1). The relative bioavailability between fasting and food intake estimated by the final model was 55%. No clinically significant safety issues were identified. This is the first study assessing the PK profile of blonanserin with population PKs method. The results can be used for simulation in further clinical trial and optimize individual dosage regimens using a Bayesian methodology in patients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Association between blood lead levels and blood pressures in a non-smoking healthy Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Rae; Ko, Ki Dong; Hwang, In Cheol; Suh, Heuy Sun; Kim, Kyoung Kon

    2017-09-01

    The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) has been performed every 3 years in Korea to help prevent cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Previous studies showed an association between blood lead levels and cardiovascular mortality. In order to assess the relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in the healthy general population, we investigated whether blood lead levels were related to blood pressure in a non-smoking healthy population without any known medical diseases in the 2013 KNHANES. 896 (mean age 40.55±13.83 years; body mass index 23.06±3.33 kg/m(2)) subjects who had no known diseases were included among 8018 subjects. Exclusion criteria were: hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, cerebrovascular events, renal insufficiency, liver cirrhosis, thyroid dysfunction, any cardiovascular or renal disease, and any malignancy. Blood pressures were measured three times by sphygmomanometers, 5 min apart. Blood pressures were then expressed as the average between the second and third values. Height, weight, waist circumferences and blood pressure, as well as total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), white blood cell count and blood lead levels were measured. In addition, dietary components were analysed by 24 hour recall. The association between log blood lead levels and systolic/diastolic pressure was stronger after it was controlled for age, sex, education, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (p=0.048, 0.002). Furthermore, the association between log blood lead levels and systolic pressure (p=0.048) and diastolic pressure (p=0.002) was more evident when controlled for age, sex, education, BMI, waist circumference, FPG, AST and ALT. Blood lead levels are significant determinants of systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  5. Smell training increases cognitive smell skills of wine tasters compared to the general healthy population. The WINECAT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño-Sanchez, F S; Alobid, I; Cantellas, S; Alberca, C; Guilemany, J M; Canals, J M; De Haro, J; Mullol, J

    2010-09-01

    Wine experts show higher accuracy than novices in selecting a wine that matches a sample. Only one study has compared wine experts with non-trained healthy controls on smell. The aim of this study was to compare the smell characteristics, both sensorial and cognitive, of wine tasters with Spanish healthy population using the Barcelona Smell Test-24. Wine tasters were tested for smell and compared with a control group of healthy volunteers, by tasting 20 odours and scoring smell detection, identification, intensity, irritability, freshness, pleasure and forced choice. Wine tasters performed significantly better on identification and forced choice than healthy controls. In addition, wine tasters perceived more odours as intense, but fewer as irritating than controls. Probably linked to smell education, wine tasters show better cognitive but not sensorial smell skills than a non-trained healthy population.

  6. Comparison of population-based association study methods correcting for population stratification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    Full Text Available Population stratification can cause spurious associations in population-based association studies. Several statistical methods have been proposed to reduce the impact of population stratification on population-based association studies. We simulated a set of stratified populations based on the real haplotype data from the HapMap ENCODE project, and compared the relative power, type I error rates, accuracy and positive prediction value of four prevailing population-based association study methods: traditional case-control tests, structured association (SA, genomic control (GC and principal components analysis (PCA under various population stratification levels. Additionally, we evaluated the effects of sample sizes and frequencies of disease susceptible allele on the performance of the four analytical methods in the presence of population stratification. We found that the performance of PCA was very stable under various scenarios. Our comparison results suggest that SA and PCA have comparable performance, if sufficient ancestral informative markers are used in SA analysis. GC appeared to be strongly conservative in significantly stratified populations. It may be better to apply GC in the stratified populations with low stratification level. Our study intends to provide a practical guideline for researchers to select proper study methods and make appropriate inference of the results in population-based association studies.

  7. Perfusion Neuroimaging Abnormalities Alone Distinguish National Football League Players from a Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Daniel G; Willeumier, Kristen; Omalu, Bennet; Newberg, Andrew; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Raji, Cyrus A

    2016-04-25

    National Football League (NFL) players are exposed to multiple head collisions during their careers. Increasing awareness of the adverse long-term effects of repetitive head trauma has raised substantial concern among players, medical professionals, and the general public. To determine whether low perfusion in specific brain regions on neuroimaging can accurately separate professional football players from healthy controls. A cohort of retired and current NFL players (n = 161) were recruited in a longitudinal study starting in 2009 with ongoing interval follow up. A healthy control group (n = 124) was separately recruited for comparison. Assessments included medical examinations, neuropsychological tests, and perfusion neuroimaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Perfusion estimates of each scan were quantified using a standard atlas. We hypothesized that hypoperfusion particularly in the orbital frontal, anterior cingulate, anterior temporal, hippocampal, amygdala, insular, caudate, superior/mid occipital, and cerebellar sub-regions alone would reliably separate controls from NFL players. Cerebral perfusion differences were calculated using a one-way ANOVA and diagnostic separation was determined with discriminant and automatic linear regression predictive models. NFL players showed lower cerebral perfusion on average (p NFL players from controls with 90% sensitivity, 86% specificity, and 94% accuracy (95% CI 95-99). Automatic linear modeling achieved similar results. Inclusion of age and clinical co-morbidities did not improve diagnostic classification. Specific brain regions commonly damaged in traumatic brain injury show abnormally low perfusion on SPECT in professional NFL players. These same regions alone can distinguish this group from healthy subjects with high diagnostic accuracy. This study carries implications for the neurological safety of NFL players.

  8. Prevalence of viral hepatitis (B and C serological markers in healthy working population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Calleja-Panero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: prevalence of viral hepatitis (B and C changes geographically. Our aim was to determinate the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV serological markers in healthy working population and to describe the epidemiological characteristics associated to its presence. Methods: blood samples and epidemiological data of 5,017 healthy workers from Murcia and Madrid were recorded prospectively. Results: a total of 5,017 healthy volunteers participated. Mean age 39 ± 11 years, men predominance (73 %. Prevalence of serological markers of HCV and HBV was 0.6 % and 0.7 %. Age of patients with HCV antibody was significantly higher (43 ± 9 years vs. 39 ± 11 years; p = 0.03. We observed significant differences in liver test values (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] 64 ± 56 IU/L vs. 28 ± 20 IU/L; p < 0.001; aspartate aminotransferase [AST] (51 ± 45 IU/L vs. 23 ± 12 IU/L; p < 0.001 and in gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT value (104 ± 122 IU/L vs. 37 ± 46 IU/L; p < 0.001. The presence of HCV antibody was related significantly to previous transfusion (13 % vs. 5 %; p = 0.03, tattoos (29 % vs. 13 %; p < 0.01, intravenous drug addiction (13 % vs. 0.2 %; p < 0.001 and coexistence with people with positive HCV antibody (16 % vs. 4 %; p < 0.001. In HBV no differences in basal characteristics were observed with exception in AST values (29 ± 15 IU/L vs. 23 ± 12 IU/L; p < 0.01. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg was related significantly to previous transfusion (15 % vs. 5 %; p < 0.01, tattoos (26 % vs. 14 %; p = 0.04 and coexistence with people with positive HBsAg (17 % vs. 4 %; p < 0.001. Conclusions: prevalence of serological markers in healthy working population is low. Risk factors for infection were previous transfusion and tattoos. Intravenous drug addiction was only a risk factor in HCV.

  9. Comparison of 24-hour urinary citrate excretion in stone formers and healthy volunteers

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    Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low urinary citrate excretion is a risk factor in stone formers (SF. This study aimed to measure the urinary citrate excretion in SF and healthy volunteers at our center from 12 June 2008 to 20 August 2009. There were 28 SF patients (18 males and ten females and 27 (18 males and nine females age-matched healthy adult volunteers who participated in this study. Both groups had a similar living environment, extrinsic factors, diet and genetic descent. After collecting 24-h urine, citrate was measured using an enzymatic kit. Routine urinalysis and 24-h creatinine and uric acid were also performed. There was a significant difference in urinary citrate excretion level among SF (mean 310, SD 260 mg/L and normal volunteer subjects (mean 800, SD 300 mg/L. By applying the previously defined normal values (320 mg/24 h of urinary citrate in the local population, 43% of the SF in our study group was hypocitric, and none among the controls. We conclude that prevalence of hypocitraturia in stone formers was higher than that in healthy volunteers in our population.

  10. Comparison of androgenic alopecia distribution among type 2 diabetes and healthy women in Isfahan city: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Jafari

    2014-09-01

    Methods: This is a case-control study. Case and control groups were selected from type II diabetes and healthy women respectively that were refered to clinics of Alzahra, Noor and Amin Hospitals in Isfahan City, Iran in 2011. Participants were selected based on random sampling. Sample size was estimated 141 subjects in each group. Participants were visited by doctor and severity of androgenic alopecia was determined based on Ludwish criteria. Data were analyzed with SPSS software and 2 test. P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Mean age and body mass index were 58.96±12.8 year and 25.6±4.15 kg/m2 respectively in whole population. Findings not show any significant association between type II diabetes and androgenic alopecia (P<0.05. Comparison of distribution of alopecia severity according to Ludwish criteria separately showed similar result. In addition to, there was not any significant relationship between diabetes and alopecia after adjusting with body mass index as confounding factor (P<0.05. Conclusion: In the present study, there was not any significant relationship between type II diabetes and androgenic alopecia among diabetes and healthy women. However, more researches need to investigate this relationship in both gender and assess insulin resistant indices as homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance and androgenic alopecia.

  11. The comparison of intelligence levels of children born to kidney or liver transplant women with children of healthy mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociszewska-Najman, Bozena; Szpotanska-Sikorska, Monika; Mazanowska, Natalia; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Pietrzak, Bronislawa

    2017-08-16

    Pregnancy after transplantation is associated with high risk of complications and prenatal exposure to immunosuppressants. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the intellectual development of children born to women after organ transplantation. A comparison of intelligence levels in 78 children of kidney or liver transplant women of 78 children born to healthy mothers. The assessment of intellectual level in children was conducted by psychologists and evaluated using age-adjusted intelligence tests (Psyche Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale, Terman-Merril Intelligence Scale or the Scales of Raven's Progressive Matrices). No significant differences in the distribution of the quotient of intelligence between children born to kidney and liver transplant women were noted (Chi(2) = 5.037; p = .284). Also no differences in the distribution of intelligence levels were noted between the children of transplanted and healthy mothers in infants and toddlers (Chi(2) = 3.125; p = .537); preschool (Chi(2) = 1.440; p = .692), and school age children (Chi(2) = 4.079; p = .395). The intellectual development of children of post-transplant women is similar to the general population. These results provide information on the low risk of intellectual disability in children of transplanted mothers and may improve counseling on the planning of pregnancy in this group of women.

  12. Cognitive complaints in cancer: The French version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog), normative data from a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Marie; Heutte, Natacha; Morel, Nastassja; Eustache, Francis; Joly, Florence; Giffard, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    Cancer patients often report cognitive changes after chemotherapy. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses these changes. The aims of the present study were (1) to establish normative data, and (2) to compare the scores of patients and healthy controls to assess whether or not the questionnaire is able to discriminate between these populations. The normative sample included 213 healthy participants. The patient group included 63 cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, who were compared to a subsample of 63 matched healthy controls. The questionnaire had good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alphas = .74-.91). The oldest patients had significantly more cognitive complaints (p < .001). Cognitive complaints were significantly related with Trail Making Test scores (p < .001). Furthermore, the FACT-Cog subscales correlated significantly with anxiety and depression. Patients had more complaints than matched controls on the subscales Perceived Cognitive Impairments (p = .01), Impact on Quality of Life (p = .001) and Perceived Cognitive Abilities (p = .027). The reference values from the healthy population reported here could be used for comparison with the values measured in French-speaking cancer patients. The values provide a benchmark against which clinicians can evaluate the impact of the disease and/or the treatments on cognitive complaints and help to improve quality of life by providing appropriate care.

  13. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Disposition in Plasma, Saliva and Urine of Scopolamine after Intranasal Administration to Healthy Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND) protocol. The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trials with INSCOP. Methods: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min and 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on the likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. Results: The best structural model for INSCOP (minimal -2LL= 502.8) was established. It consisted of one compartment each for plasma, saliva and urine, respectively, which were connected with linear transport processes except the nonlinear PK process from plasma to saliva compartment. The best-fit estimates of PK parameters from individual PK compartmental analysis and Population PK model analysis were shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: A population PK model that could predict population and individual PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after dosing was developed and validated. Incorporating a non-linear transfer from plasma to saliva compartments resulted in a significantly improved model fitting. The model could be used to predict scopolamine plasma concentrations from salivary and urinary drug levels, allowing non-invasive therapeutic monitoring of scopolamine in space and other remote environments.

  14. Volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath in a healthy population: effect of tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jareño-Esteban, José Javier; Muñoz-Lucas, M Ángeles; Carrillo-Aranda, Belén; Maldonado-Sanz, José Ángel; de Granda-Orive, Ignacio; Aguilar-Ros, Antonio; Civera-Tejuca, Concepción; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Carlos; Callol-Sánchez, Luis Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Tobacco smoke is a source of free radicals and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which are the main causes of oxidative stress. The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath is an indirect method of measuring the level of oxidative stress that occurs in the airways caused by tobacco consumption. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking influences the production of VOC, in a clinically healthy population. Exhaled breath from 89 healthy volunteers, divided into three groups (non-smokers, ex-smokers and smokers) was analysed. Samples were collected using Bio-VOC® devices and transferred to universal desorption tubes. Chemical compounds were analysed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. We analysed hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, nonanoic acid and propanoic acid, all identified by retention time and mass spectra referenced in the NIST 08 mass spectral library; confirmation was carried out using reference standards of the pure chemical compound. These VOC were found in very low concentrations. Only nonanal showed significant quantitative and qualitative statistical differences among the study groups. Nonanal concentration is dependent on smoking, but is independent of the amount of tobacco consumed, age and gender. Nonanal in exhaled breath is associated with tobacco consumption, current or previous. Nonanal is a sub-product of the destruction of the cell membrane, and its finding may be indicative of cell damage in smokers. This result appears in many farmers who smoke. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment.

  16. The Comparison of Defense Mechanism Styles and Personality Characteristics in Addicts and Healthy Individuals

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    Mohsen Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to comprise of psychological defense mechanism styles and personality characteristics in addicts and healthy individuals. Method: In this causal-comparative study, 70 addicts person (with an average age of 37.29±9.81and the age range 23 to 58 years were selected via accessible sampling method of clinics and Hamadan’s addicted self-representing center during the Autumn of 2011, The number of 70 relatives of these people that demographic variables were matched as possible with the comparison group were selected. Both groups were asked to respond to the defense mechanism style and Eysenk personality Questionnaires. Results: The result of this study showed that the scores mean of addicts were higher than healthy people on immature defense mechanism style, neourotism, and neurotic and extraversion personality characteristics and lower than in mature defense style variables. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study there was a significant difference between addict individuals and healthy people in defense mechanism and personality characteristics.

  17. Dietary Guidelines for the Spanish population (SENC, diciembre 2016); the new graphic icon of healthy food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta Bartrina, Javier; Arija Val, Victoria; Maíz Aldalur, Edurne; Martínez de Victoria Muñoz, Emilio; Ortega Anta, Rosa María; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Quiles Izquierdo, Joan; Rodríguez Martín, Amelia; Román Viñas, Blanca; Salvador Castell, Gemma; Tur Marí, Josep Antoni; Varela Moreira, Gregorio; Serra Majem, Lluis

    2016-12-07

    Objective: The Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) designed in 1994 a food guide for the Spanish population, updated in 2001. This report presents a new updated edition based on the best scientific evidence available. Methods: From a health in all policies approach, a group of experts in nutrition and public health associated with SENC was convened to review the evidence on diet-health, nutrition intake and food consumption in the Spanish population, as well as food preparation and consumption habits, determinants and impact of diet on environmental sustainability. Existing systematic reviews, updates, reports, meta-analysis and the latest quality studies have been considered. The collaborative group contributed to draft the document and design the graphic icon, then subject of a consultation process, discussion and qualitative evaluation, particularly relevant through the Advisory Group for the SENC-December 2016 Dietary Guidelines. Results: The new recommendations and its graphical representation highlights as basic considerations the practice of physical activity, emotional balance, energy balance to maintain body weight at adequate levels, healthy cooking procedures and adequate water intake. The recommendations promote a balanced, varied and moderate diet that includes whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, varying amounts of dairy and alternating consumption of fi sh, eggs and lean meats, along with the preferential use of extra virgin olive oil for cooking and seasoning. Reinforce the interest in a healthy, sympathetic, supportive, sustainable diet, based on seasonal and local products, axis for conviviality, devoting adequate time and encourage the use of nutrition labelling information. Conclusions: The analysis of the evidence available and updated information on food consumption in Spain highlights the need to strengthen and implement the recommendations contained in this document to progressively achieve a greater adherence.

  18. Sonographic evaluation of spleen size and prevalence of accessory spleen in a healthy male Turkish population

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    Selim Serter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is known that the measurement of splenic length in routine clinical practice is a very good indicator of actual splenic size. Knowledge of the normal range of spleen size in the population being examined is a prerequisite. Racial differences in splenic length could result in incorrect interpretation of splenic measurements. The purpose of this study was to establish the range of spleen length in a young male Turkish population.Material and Methods: A total of 2179 volunteers, healthy men aged 17-42 years, from the annual Army Reserve Officer Training Corps training camp at Manisa were included in the study. Sonographic measurements of spleen length were performed on 2179 military personnel. Presence of accessory spleen was also determined. In addition, the height, weight, and age of each volunteer were recorded. Using linear regression analysis, the relation of spleen length and body height, weight and body mass index (BMI was evaluated. Additionally, the prevalence of accessory spleen detected on ultrasound was calculated.Results: The mean±SD height was 173,1±6,5 cm, mean weight 69,1±9,7 kg, and mean BMI 22,62±2,87. Mean spleen length was 10,76±1,8 cm. The length of the spleen was below 12,80 cm in 95% of the subjects. No statistically significant correlation (p<0.01 between spleen length and body height, weight and BMI was found. The prevalence of accessory spleen was determined as 2.5% on ultrasound screening.Conclusion: It was found that in healthy Turkish men, mean spleen length was 10,76±1,8 cm. This data should be taken into consideration when the diagnosis of splenomegaly is established in Turkish males.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF GAZE STABILITY EXERCISES ON BALANCE IN HEALTHY ELDERLY POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Bhardwaj

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine whether gaze stability exercises are effective in improving the balance disturbance and related confidence in healthy elderly population. Design: Randomized pre-test and post-test experimental design. Setting: Superspeciality hospital setup. Participants: 30 subjects without any definite balance disorder but with history of subjective apprehension attending the outpatient physiotherapy department of BLK Superspeciality hospital, New Delhi, were selected for the study. Intervention: The experimental group (n=15 performed gaze stability exercises (GSE, and the control group (n=15 performed placebo eye movements. Weekly progression of exercise was done as per the designed exercise protocol. Total time for placebo eye exercises was matched to the time the GSE group spent performing gaze stability exercises. The participants performed the exercises 3 times daily over a 6-week period. Outcome measures: Participants were evaluated at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS and the activities-specific balance confidence scale (ABC outcome measures for assessing the balance and subjective confidence of balance respectively. Result: There were no baseline differences (P ≤ .05 between the GSE and CON groups in age and sex, or any outcome measures. GSE group improved significantly in both the outcome measures compared with the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest us that vestibular-specific gaze stability exercises leads to improvement of balance and subjective confidence to carry out the activities of daily life due to adaptation of VOR reflex in age related vestibulo-ocular reflex degeneration (VOR found in healthy elderly population.

  20. Dietary guidelines for the Spanish population (SENC, December 2016); the new graphic icon of healthy nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta Bartrina, Javier; Arija Val, Victoria; Maíz Aldalur, Edurne; Martínez de la Victoria Muñoz, Emilio; Ortega Anta, Rosa María; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Quiles Izquierdo, Joan; Rodríguez Martín, Amelia; Román Viñas, Blanca; Salvador Castell, Gemma; Tur Marí, Josep Antoni; Varela Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra Majem, Lluis

    2016-12-07

    Objective: The Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) designed in 1994 a food guide for the Spanish population, updated in 2001. This report presents a new updated edition based on the best scientifi c evidence available. Methods: From a health in all policies approach, a group of experts in nutrition and public health associated with SENC was convened to review the evidence on diet-health, nutrition intake and food consumption in the Spanish population, as well as food preparation and consumption habits, determinants and impact of diet on environmental sustainability. Existing systematic reviews, updates, reports, meta-analysis and the latest quality studies have been considered. The collaborative group contributed to draft the document and design the graphic icon, then subject of a consultation process, discussion and qualitative evaluation, particularly relevant through the Advisory Group for the SENC-December 2016 Dietary Guidelines. Results: The new recommendations and its graphical representation highlights as basic considerations the practice of physical activity, emotional balance, energy balance to maintain body weight at adequate levels, healthy cooking procedures and adequate water intake. The recommendations promote a balanced, varied and moderate diet that includes whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, varying amounts of dairy and alternating consumption of fi sh, eggs and lean meats, along with the preferential use of extra virgin olive oil for cooking and seasoning. Reinforce the interest in a healthy, sympathetic, supportive, sustainable diet, based on seasonal and local products, axis for conviviality, devoting adequate time and encourage the use of nutrition labelling information. Conclusions: The analysis of the evidence available and updated information on food consumption in Spain highlights the need to strengthen and implement the recommendations contained in this document to progressively achieve a greater adherence.

  1. Frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in healthy Bosniak population.

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    Grażyna Adler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has demonstrated the role of CCR5Δ32 in a variety of human diseases: from infectious and inflammatory diseases to cancer. Several studies have confirmed that genetic variants in chemokine receptor CCR5 gene are correlated with susceptibility and resistance to HIV infection. A 32-nucleotide deletion within the CCR5 reading frame is associated with decreased susceptibility to HIV acquisition and a slower progression to AIDS. Mean frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in Europe is approximately 10%. The highest allele frequency is observed among Nordic populations (about 12% and lower in the regions of Southeast Mediterranean (about 5%. Although the frequency of CCR5Δ32 was determined in numerous European populations, there is a lack of studies on this variant in the Bosnia and Hercegovina population. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in the cohort of Bosniaks and compare the results with European reports. CCR5Δ32 was detected by sequence-specific PCR in a sample of 100 healthy subjects from Bosnia and Herzegovina (DNA collected 2011-2013.  Mean age of the cohort being 58.8 (±10.7 years, with 82% of women. We identified 17 heterozygotes and one mutant homozygote in study group, with mean ∆32 allele frequency of 9.5%. CCR5∆32 allele frequency among Bosniaks is comparable to that found in Caucasian populations and follows the pattern of the north-southern gradient observed for Europe. Further studies on larger cohorts with adequate female-to-male ratio are necessary. 

  2. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  3. Population data of five genetic markers in the Turkish population: comparison with four American population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtuluş-Ulküer, M; Ulküer, U; Kesici, T; Menevşe, S

    2002-09-01

    In this study, the phenotype and allele frequencies of five enzyme systems were determined in a total of 611 unrelated Turkish individuals and analyzed by using the exact and the chi 2 test. The following five red cell enzymes were identified by cellulose acetate electrophoresis: phosphoglucomutase (PGM), adenosine deaminase (ADA), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), adenylate kinase (AK), and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD). The ADA, PGM and AK enzymes were found to be polymorphic in the Turkish population. The results of the statistical analysis showed, that the phenotype frequencies of the five enzyme under study are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Statistical analysis was performed in order to examine whether there are significant differences in the phenotype frequencies between the Turkish population and four American population groups. This analysis showed, that there are some statistically significant differences between the Turkish and the other groups. Moreover, the observed phenotype and allele frequencies were compared with those obtained in other population groups of Turkey.

  4. Comparison of Vitamin D levels in cases with preeclampsia, eclampsia and healthy pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Ercan, Onder; Köstü, Bülent; Avci, Fazıl; Kılınç, Metin; Kıran, Hakan; Kiran, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess vitamin D levels in eclampsia, preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women and the role of vitamin D deficiency in the etiology of preeclampsia (PE). Forty healthy pregnant women, 83 preeclamptic and 32 eclamptic pregnant women were included. Maternal and infant medical records were reviewed. Blood samples were obtained from all groups. Demographics and serum vitamin D levels were compared between the groups. No statistical differences were observed in age, gravidity, parity, weight, height and BMI between the three groups. Week of pregnancy and weight at birth in eclamptic and preeclamptic patients were lower compared to the healthy patients (Ppregnant group. The rate of cesarean section was found to be higher in preeclamptic and eclamptic patients (Ppregnant women (P<0.001). Preeclamptic and eclamptic women were similar in terms of the data compared. Vitamin D supplementation is considered to decrease the risk of both preeclampsia and eclampsia in the patient population at risk for vitamin D deficiency.

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk stratification and comparison in a California population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z; Meng, Y-Y; Leung, K-M; Jatulis, D E; Welsh, N J; Zaher, C A; Legorreta, A P

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the need for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in an HMO population and to develop appropriate interventions for individuals in different risk groups, based on risk stratification and comparison. The analysis is based on a cross-sectional survey of the HMO members of a large employer group. Respondents (n=17,878) were stratified based on the Framingham model; 34% of respondents without cardiovascular disease were classified as moderate to high attributable risk for the disease, and 66% were classified as low attributable risk. Results of logistic regression analyses suggest that, compared with respondents with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, moderate- to high-risk respondents are more likely to smoke, have unhealthy diets, and be overweight, hypertensive, and hypercholesterolemic. More low-risk respondents had unhealthy diets than did those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. There were no differences between these groups for physical activity and stress. Respondents had fewer modifiable risk factors and healthier lifestyles than did those who were at risk. These findings suggest that primary prevention should be enhanced, especially among those with significantly increased risk for the disease. Moreover, the approaches of this project-population-based risk assessment, stratification, and comparison-were instrumental in identifying the target population and designing appropriate interventions. (c) 2001 by CHF, Inc.

  6. Determinants of Blood Pressure Response to Low Salt Intake in a Healthy Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, May E.; Douglas, Julie A.; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hèlène; Van Hout, Cristopher V.; Weir, Matthew R.; Vogel, Robert; Parsa, Afshin; Steinle, Nanette I.; Snitker, Soren; Brereton, Nga Hong; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.

    2011-01-01

    Although the beneficial effects of lowering salt intake in hypertensives are widely appreciated, the impact of promoting dietary salt restriction for BP reduction at the population level remains controversial. We used 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to characterize the determinants of systolic blood pressure (SBP) response to low salt intake in a large, relatively healthy Amish population. Subjects received a high and low sodium diet for 6 days each, separated by a 6–14 day washout period. Variance component analysis was used to assess the association of several variables with SBP response to low salt diet. Mean SBP was 0.7 ± 5.8 and 1.3 ± 6.1 mmHg lower on the low salt compared to the high salt diet during daytime (p=0.008) and nighttime (p<0.0001) respectively. SBP response to low salt diet was significantly associated with increasing age and pre-intervention SBP, in both daytime and nighttime, while the association with female gender and SBP response to cold pressor test (CPT) was significant only during nighttime. Our results suggest that salt reduction may have greater BP-lowering effects on females, older individuals, individuals with higher SBP, and individuals with higher SBP response to CPT. PMID:22051423

  7. Species distribution and physiological characterization of Acinetobacter genospecies from healthy human skin of tribal population in India

    OpenAIRE

    Yavankar S; Pardesi K; Chopade B

    2007-01-01

    Background: Various reports on distribution of Acinetobacter spp. from healthy human skin restricted to urban population. However, no such data is available from healthy human skin of tribal population not exposed to modern antibiotics during their life time. Purpose: Isolation, biotyping, distribution and physiological characterisation of Acinetobacter spp. from healthy human skin of tribal population. Methods: Tribal population of Toranmal area of Satpuda Ranges, Maharashtra, India...

  8. Population-based evaluation of the 'LiveLighter' healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B; Niven, P; Dixon, H; Swanson, M; Szybiak, M; Shilton, T; Pratt, I S; Slevin, T; Hill, D; Wakefield, M

    2016-04-01

    The Western Australian (WA) 'LiveLighter' (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ('why' change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier ('how' to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25-49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N= 2012) and following the two media waves (N= 2005 and N= 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The 'why' message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than 'how' messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour.

  9. Comparison of Serum CRP in Migraine Sufferers and Normal Population

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    Mohammad Aminianfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: CRP (C-reactive protein is one of the known inflammatory markers in the body. Studies claim that the level of this marker in patients with migraine is higher than normal peoples. Despite the result of various studies, even the relation between serum CRP and migraine is not detected thoroughly and is in a halo of ambiguity, therefore in this study, we intended to assess the relation between migraine and serum CRP levels. Materials and Methods: The present study was performed as a case-control on 47 migraine suffers that presented Besat hospital on year 2011, at intervals between their attacks and 50 normal individuals. Serum CRP level was measured at interval between attacks or at least 72 hour after the completion of the last attack and was compared with obtained results from normal population. Results: The comparison of CRP level in two groups, indicated that the median CRP at case group was 16.40 mg/dl and at control group 9.76 mg/dl (p≤0.05. The comparison of CRP median between the sufferers of classic migraine, migraine without aura and individuals without migraine, indicated that the CRP median difference at without aura migraine sufferers and normal population was not meaningful, but classic migraine suffers had higher serum CRP level than the other two groups. Conclusion: Finally, we should stay that the present study demonstrate that CRP inflammatory marker was higher at migraine suffers in comparison with normal general population and could explained the role of inflammation in creation and progression of this type of headache.

  10. Hallucinations and aberrant perceptions are prevalent among the young healthy adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ptacek, S; García Azorín, D; Sanchez Salmador, R; Cuadrado, M L; Porta-Etessam, J

    2013-01-01

    Hallucinations are frequent in clinical practice, with an incidence of up to 38.7% in the general population. We aim to determine the prevalence of hallucinations among healthy young adults in our environment. We designed an observational study, using as subjects 3rd to 6th year medical students at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid who complete clinical rotations in the Hospital Clínico San Carlos. After a screening questionnaire, an individual interview was conducted via telephone or e-mail to those students who reported hallucinations. We obtained clinical and epidemiological data through a semi-structured clinical interview performed by a third year neurology resident. N=134 (average age was 22.1 years; 77.6% were women). 74 respondents answered affirmatively to one or more screening questions, and 54 completed the follow-up interview. 22.2% described visual phenomena and 64.8%, auditory. The majority reported sleep-related experiences and auditory perceptions related to hyper vigilance, such as hearing the telephone or the doorbell ring when in fact it had not (38.8%). All subjects had good insight into their experiences and none had psychotic symptoms. Two cases were associated with substance abuse. Hallucinations are frequent among the general population. Traditionally, auditory phenomena have been associated with psychotic pathology, and other studies show a low population incidence (0.6%). However, in our sample, short auditory perceptions with immediate analysis were frequent and not pathological. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolically Healthy Obesity and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, Chantal M.; van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Hofman, Albert; Kavousi, Maryam; Franco, Oscar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether being metabolically healthy obese (MHO)—defined by the presence of obesity in the absence of metabolic syndrome—is associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear and may depend on the participants’ age. We examined the association of being MHO with CVD risk in the elderly. Methods and Findings This study included 5,314 individuals (mean age 68 years) from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. We categorized our population in groups according to body mass index (BMI) and presence and absence of metabolic syndrome, and estimated the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for every group by using Cox proportional hazard models. Among 1048 (19.7%) obese individuals we identified 260 (24.8%) MHO subjects. Over 14 years of follow-up there were 861 incident CVD cases. In the multivariable adjusted analysis, we did not observe an increased CVD risk in MHO individuals (HR 1.07, 95%CI 0.75–1.53), compared to normal weight individuals without metabolic syndrome. CVD risk was increased by the presence of metabolic syndrome in normal weight (HR 1.35, 95%CI 1.02–1.80), overweight (HR 1.32, 95%CI 1.09–1.60) and obese (HR 1.33, 95%CI 1.07–1.66) individuals, compared to those with normal weight without metabolic syndrome. In a mediation analysis, 71.3% of the association between BMI and CVD was explained by the presence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions In our elderly population, we found that the presence of obesity without metabolic syndrome did not confer a higher CVD risk. However, metabolic syndrome was strongly associated with CVD risk, and was associated with an increased risk in all BMI categories. Therefore, preventive interventions targeting cardiometabolic risk factors could be considered in elderly, regardless of weight status. PMID:27100779

  12. Trace element reference intervals in the blood of healthy green sea turtles to evaluate exposure of coastal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, C A; Flint, M; Bell, I; Hof, C; Limpus, C J; Gaus, C

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to essential and non-essential elements may be elevated for green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) that forage close to shore. Biomonitoring of trace elements in turtle blood can identify temporal trends over repeated sampling events, but any interpretation of potential health risks due to an elevated exposure first requires a comparison against a baseline. This study aims to use clinical reference interval (RI) methods to produce exposure baseline limits for essential and non-essential elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) using blood from healthy subadult turtles foraging in a remote and offshore part of the Great Barrier Reef. Subsequent blood biomonitoring of three additional coastal populations, which forage in areas dominated by agricultural, urban and military activities, showed clear habitat-specific differences in blood metal profiles relative to the those observed in the offshore population. Coastal turtles were most often found to have elevated concentrations of Co, Mo, Mn, Mg, Na, As, Sb, and Pb relative to the corresponding RIs. In particular, blood from turtles from the agricultural site had Co concentrations ranging from 160 to 840 μg/L (4-25 times above RI), which are within the order expected to elicit acute effects in many vertebrates. Additional clinical blood biochemistry and haematology results indicate signs of a systemic disease and the prevalence of an active inflammatory response in a high proportion (44%) of turtles from the agricultural site. Elevated Co, Sb, and Mn in the blood of these turtles significantly correlated with elevated markers of acute inflammation (total white cell counts) and liver dysfunction (alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin). The results of this study support the notion that elevated trace element exposures may be adversely affecting the health of nearshore green sea turtles.

  13. A new model for the population pharmacokinetics of didanosine in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Velasque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Didanosine (ddI is a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy drug combinations, used especially in resource-limited settings and in zidovudine-resistant patients. The population pharmacokinetics of ddI was evaluated in 48 healthy volunteers enrolled in two bioequivalence studies. These data, along with a set of co-variates, were the subject of a nonlinear mixed-effect modeling analysis using the NONMEM program. A two-compartment model with first order absorption (ADVAN3 TRANS3 was fitted to the serum ddI concentration data. Final pharmacokinetic parameters, expressed as functions of the co-variates gender and creatinine clearance (CL CR, were: oral clearance (CL = 55.1 + 240 x CL CR + 16.6 L/h for males and CL = 55.1 + 240 x CL CR for females, central volume (V2 = 9.8 L, intercompartmental clearance (Q = 40.9 L/h, peripheral volume (V3 = 62.7 + 22.9 L for males and V3 = 62.7 L for females, absorption rate constant (Ka = 1.51/h, and dissolution time of the tablet (D = 0.43 h. The intraindividual (residual variability expressed as coefficient of variation was 13.0%, whereas the interindividual variability of CL, Q, V3, Ka, and D was 20.1, 75.8, 20.6, 18.9, and 38.2%, respectively. The relatively high (>30% interindividual variability for some of these parameters, observed under the controlled experimental settings of bioequivalence trials in healthy volunteers, may result from genetic variability of the processes involved in ddI absorption and disposition.

  14. Population cardiovascular health and urban environments: the Heart Healthy Hoods exploratory study in Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Usama; Díez, Julia; Alfayate, Silvia; Gullón, Pedro; Del Cura, Isabel; Escobar, Francisco; Sandín, María; Franco, Manuel

    2016-08-22

    Our aim is to conduct an exploratory study to provide an in-depth characterization of a neighborhood's social and physical environment in relation to cardiovascular health. A mixed-methods approach was used to better understand the food, alcohol, tobacco and physical activity domains of the urban environment. We conducted this study in an area of 16,000 residents in Madrid (Spain). We obtained cardiovascular health and risk factors data from all residents aged 45 and above using Electronic Health Records from the Madrid Primary Health Care System. We used several quantitative audit tools to assess: the type and location of food outlets and healthy food availability; tobacco and alcohol points of sale; walkability of all streets and use of parks and public spaces. We also conducted 11 qualitative interviews with key informants to help understanding the relationships between urban environment and cardiovascular behaviors. We integrated quantitative and qualitative data following a mixed-methods merging approach. Electronic Health Records of the entire population of the area showed similar prevalence of risk factors compared to the rest of Madrid/Spain (prevalence of diabetes: 12 %, hypertension: 34 %, dyslipidemia: 32 %, smoking: 10 %, obesity: 20 %). The food environment was very dense, with many small stores (n = 44) and a large food market with 112 stalls. Residents highlighted the importance of these small stores for buying healthy foods. Alcohol and tobacco environments were also very dense (n = 91 and 64, respectively), dominated by bars and restaurants (n = 53) that also acted as food services. Neighbors emphasized the importance of drinking as a socialization mechanism. Public open spaces were mostly used by seniors that remarked the importance of accessibility to these spaces and the availability of destinations to walk to. This experience allowed testing and refining measurement tools, drawn from epidemiology, geography, sociology and

  15. [Drink consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the general population in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Ministry of Health with the aim of drafting evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has documented that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages in six categories. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage. Ranges included healthier (level 1) to least healthy (level 6) options as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1%) milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks), and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea). The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category together with healthy consumption patterns for men and women.

  16. [Beverage consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Secretary of Health for the purpose of developing evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has found that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including the health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages into six levels. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage and range from the healthier (level 1) to least healthy (level 6) options, as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1%) milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks), and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea). The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category and healthy consumption patterns for men and women are illustrated.

  17. Semen quality in relation to antioxidant intake in a healthy male population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zareba, Piotr; Colaci, Daniela S; Afeiche, Myriam;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males.......To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males....

  18. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes N. Pedersen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1, B (n=18, or C (n=4. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than

  19. Errorless learning and spaced retrieval: how do these methods fare in healthy and clinical populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Catherine; Hodder, Kathryn I; Yates, Philip J

    2011-04-01

    While errorless learning and spaced retrieval have both proved effective in helping many patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) and dementia learn novel information, it is not clear which of these principles we should apply to target treatment most effectively. To address this issue we conducted a systematic comparison of these principles in three experiments, comparing their effectiveness in healthy controls (N = 60), patients with ABI (N = 30), and patients with dementia (N = 15). Participants were asked to learn face-name associations, and the relative effectiveness of the principles over and above trial-and-error learning was investigated. The results were remarkably consistent across experiments: Both errorless learning and spaced retrieval produced greater accuracy in name recall than did trial-and-error learning, but recall under conditions of spaced retrieval was significantly better than that under errorless learning. We discuss the implications of these findings and suggest that spaced retrieval may be the stronger memory rehabilitation principle when it comes to learning face-name associations in people with mild to moderate memory impairment.

  20. Species-level core oral bacteriome identified by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing in a healthy young Arab population

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    Nezar Noor Al-hebshi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reports on the composition of oral bacteriome in Arabs are lacking. In addition, the majority of previous studies on other ethnic groups have been limited by low-resolution taxonomic assignment of next-generation sequencing reads. Furthermore, there has been a conflict about the existence of a ‘core’ bacteriome. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the healthy core oral bacteriome in a young Arab population at the species level. Methods: Oral rinse DNA samples obtained from 12 stringently selected healthy young subjects of Arab origin were pyrosequenced (454's FLX chemistry for the bacterial 16S V1–V3 hypervariable region at an average depth of 11,500 reads. High-quality, non-chimeric reads ≥380 bp were classified to the species level using the recently described, prioritized, multistage assignment algorithm. A core bacteriome was defined as taxa present in at least 11 samples. The Chao2, abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE, and Shannon indices were computed to assess species richness and diversity. Results: Overall, 557 species-level taxa (211±42 per subject were identified, representing 122 genera and 13 phyla. The core bacteriome comprised 55 species-level taxa belonging to 30 genera and 7 phyla, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Saccharibacteria, and SR1. The core species constituted between 67 and 87% of the individual bacteriomes. However, the abundances differed by up to three orders of magnitude among the study subjects. On average, Streptococcus mitis, Rothia mucilaginosa, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Neisseria flavescence/subflava group, Prevotella melaninogenica, and Veillonella parvula group were the most abundant. Streptococcus sp. C300, a taxon never reported in the oral cavity, was identified as a core species. Species richness was estimated at 586 (Chao2 and 614 (ACE species, whereas diversity (Shannon index averaged at 3.99. Conclusions

  1. β-Thalassemia Patients Revealed a Significant Change of Untargeted Metabolites in Comparison to Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Iqbal, Ayesha; Ansari, Saqib Hussain; Parveen, Sadia; Khan, Ishtiaq Ahmad; Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar

    2017-01-01

    β-Thalassemia is one of the most prevalent forms of congenital blood disorders characterized by reduced hemoglobin levels with severe complications, affecting all dimensions of life. The mechanisms underlying the phenotypic heterogeneity of β-thalassemia are still poorly understood. We aimed to work over metabolite biomarkers to improve mechanistic understanding of phenotypic heterogeneity and hence better management of disorder at different levels. Untargeted serum metabolites were analyzed after protein precipitation and SPE (solid phase extraction) from 100 β-thalassemia patients and 61 healthy controls using GC-MS. 40 metabolites were identified having a significance difference between these two groups at probability of 0.05 and fold change >1.5. Out of these 40 metabolites, 17 were up-regulated while 23 were down-regulated. PCA and PLS-DA model was also created that revealed a fine separation with a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 100% on external validation of samples. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed alteration in multiple pathways including glycolysis, pyruvate, propanoate, glycerophospholipid, galactose, fatty acid, starch and sucrose metabolism along with fatty acid elongation in mitochondria, glycerolipid, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism pointing towards the shift of metabolism in β-thalassemia patients in comparison to healthy individuals. PMID:28198811

  2. Cross-cultural comparison of perspectives on healthy eating among Chinese and American undergraduate students.

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    Banna, Jinan C; Gilliland, Betsy; Keefe, Margaret; Zheng, Dongping

    2016-09-26

    Understanding views about what constitutes a healthy diet in diverse populations may inform design of culturally tailored behavior change interventions. The objective of this study was to describe perspectives on healthy eating among Chinese and American young adults and identify similarities and differences between these groups. Chinese (n = 55) and American (n = 57) undergraduate students in Changsha, Hunan, China and Honolulu, Hawai'i, U.S.A. composed one- to two-paragraph responses to the following prompt: "What does the phrase 'a healthy diet' mean to you?" Researchers used content analysis to identify predominant themes using Dedoose (version 5.2.0, SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC, Los Angeles, CA, 2015). Three researchers independently coded essays and grouped codes with similar content. The team then identified themes and sorted them in discussion. Two researchers then deductively coded the entire data set using eight codes developed from the initial coding and calculated total code counts for each group of participants. Chinese students mentioned physical outcomes, such as maintaining immunity and digestive health. Timing of eating, with regular meals and greater intake during day than night, was emphasized. American students described balancing among food groups and balancing consumption with exercise, with physical activity considered essential. Students also stated that food components such as sugar, salt and fat should be avoided in large quantities. Similarities included principles such as moderation and fruits and vegetables as nutritious, and differences included foods to be restricted and meal timing. While both groups emphasized specific foods and guiding dietary principles, several distinctions in viewpoints emerged. The diverse views may reflect food-related messages to which participants are exposed both through the media and educational systems in their respective countries. Future studies may further examine themes that may

  3. STUDY ON SEROPREVALENCE OF MUMPS - SPECIFIC IgG ANTIBODIES IN A HEALTHY POPULATION

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    Milena Karcheva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mumps is a vaccine preventable viral infection. Its typical clinical manifestations are characterized by pain and swelling of the salivary glands, fever, and fatigue. Often other organs are affected - testes in males after puberty (orchitis, ovaries in women (ooforitis, pancreas (pancreatitis, central nervous system (meningities. The use of specific immune prophylaxis led to a significant success in the fight against mumps, but there are still unresolved issues related to the immunological and epidemiological effectiveness of the vaccines. The disease continues to interest researchers today. The main issues being tackled are related to the conduct of virological, clinical and sero-epidemiological studies in different countries. Objectives of the study is to determine the frequency distribution of mumps-specific IgG antibodies in healthy populations in the region of Pleven, Bulgaria. Methods: a cross-sectional sero - epidemiological representative population - based survey in the area was made. Enzyme immunoassay method was used for an indirect proof of mumps - specific IgG serum antibodies. 410 people were examined at an average age of 25 (1 to 84. Of these, 250 (61 % were women and 160 (39 % - men. Results: Of all test results, the negative were 72 (19 %, the borderline were 12 (3 %, the positive were 182 (44 %, and highly positive were 144 (35 %. The vaccination status showed that 242 (69 % of all surveyed were immunized with a vaccine against mumps. According to the immunization schedule in Bulgaria, 132 (33 % people were immunized with monovaccine during the years - 1 intake, 80 (20 % with trivaccine - 1 intake, and 64 (16 % - 2 doses. Conclusion: We believe that despite the specific immunprophylaxis carried out against mumps decades on end, the necessary level of protection leading to its elimination has not yet been reached.

  4. Range of Motion of the Upper Extremity in a Healthy Pediatric Population: Introduction to Normative Data.

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    Da Paz, Stephanie Nunes; Stalder, Andreas; Berger, Steffen; Ziebarth, Kai

    2016-10-01

    Objective In the pediatric population traumatic injuries of the upper extremity are common. After therapy a decision has to be made if the mobility of the joint lies within a normal range. The purpose of this study was to give an introduction to normative data. We investigate if there is a significant difference in the range of motion (ROM) between male and female probands and furthermore, if an effect of the age can be detected. Methods We performed an institutional review board-approved study of healthy girls and boys aged between 2 and 16 years without any medical history of an upper extremity fracture. We investigated the active ROM of the elbow, wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and interphalangeal joints. Furthermore, age, handedness, weight, and height were recorded. A total of 171 adolescents with a mean age of 10.6 years were included and separated into four cohorts by age: 2 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 13, and 14 to 16 years. Results We found significant differences between the genders in the age group from 11 to 13 years for the flexion of the elbow, the pronation, the flexion of the interphalangeal joint of the thumb, as well as the flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joints of digitus II to V. Furthermore, a significant difference in the same joints except from the elbow flexion could be demonstrated between the genders. Conclusion Our study contributes normative data for upper extremity ROM in the pediatric population and presents a gender-related difference in certain joints. Clinical Relevance Normative data for the ROM of upper extremity joints in children is helpful for the evaluation of pediatric orthopedic patients and provides the framework for therapeutic resolution. Since a great number of traumatic injuries in children affect the upper extremity, this information may help the physician to estimate the impact of the injury and decide on the therapeutic management.

  5. [Hemostatic coronary risk factors in a healthy population of Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Ewald, María; Campos, Gilberto; Rivero, Francisco; Alvarez, Luis; Torres, Enrique; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Ryder, Elena; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis; Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Fernández, Nelson

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) as well as platelet aggregation, in an apparently healthy population of 306 men and 41 women, 33 to 65 years of age, workers of the national oil industry (PDVSA, Maracaibo), as a base investigation in a 5-year prospective national collaborative study. The participants were previously subjected to a thorough clinical examination with cardiovascular evaluation and laboratory tests. Clottable fibrinogen and VWF concentrations were determined in platelet poor plasma, the last one by immunoclectrophoresis, and a multimeric analysis of VWF was performed on those plasmas with concentrations higher than 150 U/dL by SDS agarose electrophoresis, followed by cellulose membrane transference. Platelet aggregation was studied in platelet rich plasma with no addition of stimulants and after collagen and ristocetin were added. Forty per cent of men and 65.8% of women, showed fibrinogen concentrations above 300 mg/dL (p < 0.01) and 12.2% of men and 15.4% of women had VWF values higher than 150 U/dL, with normal multimeric distribution. Fourteen individuals presented spontancous platelet aggregation and increased aggregation in 12 and 13 of them, after induction with collagen and ristocetin respectively. Comparing these findings with those of previous collaborative studies from other countries, the present results could mean that an important proportion of the population here studied, could be at risk for a future coronary event; however, as these are the base findings in Maracaibo, the significance of our results will be better evaluated at the end of the five year study.

  6. Compression or expansion of morbidity? Trends in healthy-life expectancy in the elderly Austrian population between 1978 and 1998.

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    Doblhammer, G; Kytir, J

    2001-02-01

    The aim of our study is to test the theories of compression or expansion of morbidity on the basis of data on the elderly population of Austria. Our data come from four microcensus surveys for the years 1978, 1983, 1991, and 1998. We use self-perceived health ratings to calculate healthy-life expectancy for the elderly population aged 60-89. Because our data are based on four cross-sectional surveys, we devote the first part of the paper to the consequences of possible sampling and non-sampling errors in our analysis of time trends. We come to the conclusion that, although the absolute number of years lived in good health may be overestimated, the time trend in healthy-life expectancy over the 20 years most probably is unbiased. The second part of the paper describes trends in healthy-life expectancy for the Austrian population. Our results suggest that both healthy-life expectancy and the ratio of healthy years to life expectancy increased between 1978 and 1998. Thus, in Austria ill health seems to be more and more compressed into the later years of life. Contrary to Fries's hypothesis, however, life expectancy does not seem to be approaching a maximum average life span in Austria, as mortality rates at older ages have been continuously decreasing over the last 20 years.

  7. The Effect of a Diving Mask on Intraocular Pressure in a Healthy Population

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    Catherina Josephine Goenadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Swimming goggles increase the intraocular pressure (IOP via the periorbital frame pressure and suction effect. In comparison, diving masks have a larger frame rim and incorporate the nose. The exact effect(s of diving masks on IOP is unknown. This study evaluates the influence of diving masks on IOP in normal, healthy subjects. Methods: Tonometry was performed in both eyes of all subjects with an AVIA®Tono-Pen by a single investigator. Measurements were taken at baseline without the diving mask and with the subjects wearing a small-volume, double-window diving mask, but with the mask lenses removed. Two IOP readings in each eye were measured, and an additional reading was measured if the difference between the initial 2 was ≥2 mm Hg. Central corneal thickness (CCT was also measured in each eye, using a contact pachymeter (OcuScan®Alcon. Results: Forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (age 29.7 ± 9.3 years; range 21–52 were included. The mean CCT was 544.4 ± 43.5 µm. The mean IOP before the diving mask was worn had been 17.23 ± 2.18 mm Hg (n = 40. The IOP decreased by 0.43 mm Hg (p < 0.05 to 16.80 ± 2.57 mm Hg after the diving mask had been put on. There was no correlation between IOP change and age (r = 0.143, p = 0.337, gender (r = –0.174, p = 0.283 or CCT (r = –0.123, p = 0.445. Conclusion: There was no increase in IOP after the diving mask had been worn. A small but statistically significant decrease in IOP was observed. This study demonstrates that unlike swimming goggles, the strap tension and frame pressure on the periorbital tissue from a diving mask does not increase IOP. Diving masks may be a suitable alternative to swimming goggles for patients with advanced glaucoma or glaucoma filtration surgery.

  8. Prevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in healthy population, livestock and ticks in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajs, Luka; Humolli, Isme; Saksida, Ana; Knap, Nataša; Jelovšek, Mateja; Korva, Miša; Dedushaj, Isuf; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute, tick borne disease often associated with hemorrhagic presentations and high case fatality rate. Kosovo is a highly endemic area for CCHF, with a significant case fatality rate. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of CCHF in Kosovo. We tested 1105 serum samples from healthy population in both endemic and non-endemic areas in the country. Our results revealed a seroprevalence of 4.0% (range 0-9.3%) which is comparable to the seroprevalence in other countries. We show that seroprevalence is correlated to the disease incidence in each studied municipality. We also tested 401 animal sera (353 cow, 30 sheep, 10 goat and 8 chicken) in four endemic municipalities in Kosovo. We detected specific antibodies in all animals except in chicken. Seroprevalence in cows is comparable to other endemic areas and correlates to the seroprevalence in humans. No CCHF RNA could be detected in 105 tick samples obtained in 2012 and 2013. Sequencing of CCHFV positive ticks from 2001 revealed that the virus is most closely related to viral strains that were detected in CCHF patients from Kosovo. Results suggest that mild CCHF cases are most probably underdiagnosed and consequently that the burden of disease is higher than reported. Our study provides key information for CCHF surveillance and raises awareness for possible imported cases in CCHF non-endemic countries.

  9. Epitope specific T-cell responses against influenza A in a healthy population.

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    Savic, Miloje; Dembinski, Jennifer L; Kim, Yohan; Tunheim, Gro; Cox, Rebecca J; Oftung, Fredrik; Peters, Bjoern; Mjaaland, Siri

    2016-02-01

    Pre-existing human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immunity may be a useful correlate of protection against severe influenza disease. Identification and evaluation of common epitopes recognized by T cells with broad cross-reactivity is therefore important to guide universal influenza vaccine development, and to monitor immunological preparedness against pandemics. We have retrieved an optimal combination of MHC class I and class II restricted epitopes from the Immune Epitope Database (www.iedb.org), by defining a fitness score function depending on prevalence, sequence conservancy and HLA super-type coverage. Optimized libraries of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell epitopes were selected from influenza antigens commonly present in seasonal and pandemic influenza strains from 1934 to 2009. These epitope pools were used to characterize human T-cell responses in healthy donors using interferon-γ ELISPOT assays. Upon stimulation, significant CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses were induced, primarily recognizing epitopes from the conserved viral core proteins. Furthermore, the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were phenotypically characterized regarding functionality, cytotoxic potential and memory phenotype using flow cytometry. Optimized sets of T-cell peptide epitopes may be a useful tool to monitor the efficacy of clinical trials, the immune status of a population to predict immunological preparedness against pandemics, as well as being candidates for universal influenza vaccines.

  10. Characterization of immune cell populations in oral mucosal tissue of healthy adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the leucocyte subsets present in the oral mucosa of healthy cats. Immunohistochemical labelling and computer-assisted morphometric analysis was used to identify expression of MHC class II, CD3, CD79a, IgG, IgM, IgA, and leucocyte antigen L1 (L1) by cells in sections from 19 cats, and expression of CD4 and CD8 by cells in sections from 17 cats. Mast cells were detected by toluidine blue staining. In the epithelial compartment, CD3(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes were detected, and CD8(+) cells were more common than CD4(+) cells. MHC class II labelling revealed intraepithelial and subepithelial cells with a characteristic dendritic morphology. In some sections these dendritic cells were closely associated with subepithelial clusters of CD3(+) T cells containing both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells. In the lamina propria and submucosal compartments, the cells most commonly identified were mast cells. CD3(+) T-lymphocytes were also observed, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were detected in similar numbers. L1(+) and CD79(+) cells were detected least frequently. The few plasma cells present were generally found to be either IgG(+) or IgA(+). Within the stroma surrounding the salivary glands, CD79a(+) and IgA(+) cells predominated. Slight epithelial labelling for L1 was seen in some sections. The normal feline oral mucosa clearly contains a range of immune cell populations.

  11. Comparison of four software packages for CT lung volumetry in healthy individuals

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    Nemec, Stefan F. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Molinari, Francesco [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Lille, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Dufresne, Valerie [CHU de Charleroi - Hopital Vesale, Pneumologie, Montigny-le-Tilleul (Belgium); Gosset, Natacha [CHU Tivoli, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, La Louviere (Belgium); Silva, Mario; Bankier, Alexander A. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    To compare CT lung volumetry (CTLV) measurements provided by different software packages, and to provide normative data for lung densitometric measurements in healthy individuals. This retrospective study included 51 chest CTs of 17 volunteers (eight men and nine women; mean age, 30 ± 6 years), who underwent spirometrically monitored CT at total lung capacity (TLC), functional residual capacity (FRC), and mean inspiratory capacity (MIC). Volumetric differences assessed by four commercial software packages were compared with analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measurements and benchmarked against the threshold for acceptable variability between spirometric measurements. Mean lung density (MLD) and parenchymal heterogeneity (MLD-SD) were also compared with ANOVA. Volumetric differences ranged from 12 to 213 ml (0.20 % to 6.45 %). Although 16/18 comparisons (among four software packages at TLC, MIC, and FRC) were statistically significant (P < 0.001 to P = 0.004), only 3/18 comparisons, one at MIC and two at FRC, exceeded the spirometry variability threshold. MLD and MLD-SD significantly increased with decreasing volumes, and were significantly larger in lower compared to upper lobes (P < 0.001). Lung volumetric differences provided by different software packages are small. These differences should not be interpreted based on statistical significance alone, but together with absolute volumetric differences. (orig.)

  12. Healthy gestational weight gain prevalence and associated risk factors: A population-based study in the far South of Brazil

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    Luana Patricia MARMITT

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To measure and identify the factors associated with healthy weight gain during pregnancy in the municipality of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods This was a population-based, cross-sectional study that included all parturient women from the municipality who gave birth at its maternity hospitals in 2013. Information was collected by interview with the mothers in the first 48 hours following parturition and from the prenatal care cards. Healthy weight gain was evaluated according to the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Data analysis used Poisson regression with robust variance using previous hierarchical model. Results Among the 1,784 pregnant participants, 89% attended at least six prenatal care visits, and 32% had healthy weight gain during pregnancy. Higher education level and fewer children resulted in a higher prevalence ratio for healthy weight gain (p=0.003 and p=0.029, respectively. Underweight women at conception had a higher proportion of healthy weight gain (p<0.001. Despite extensive coverage, prenatal care did not affect healthy weight gain during pregnancy (p=0.104. Conclusion The low proportion of women with healthy gestational weight gain suggests a need of better prenatal care services. Women who are overweight, have lower education levels, and had had multiple pregnancies at conception need special attention.

  13. The effect of geographical indices on left ventricular structure in healthy Han Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Minyi; Ge, Miao; Liu, Yonglin; Wang, Congxia; Yang, Shaofang

    2016-07-01

    The left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT) and interventricular septum thickness (IVST) are generally regarded as the functional parts of the left ventricular (LV) structure. This paper aims to examine the effects of geographical indices on healthy Han adults' LV structural indices and to offer a scientific basis for developing a unified standard for the reference values of adults' LV structural indices in China. Fifteen terrain, climate, and soil indices were examined as geographical explanatory variables. Statistical analysis was performed using correlation analysis. Moreover, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) and a support vector regression (SVR) were applied to developing models to predict the values of two indices. After the prediction models were built, distribution maps were produced. The results show that LV structural indices are characteristically associated with latitude, longitude, altitude, average temperature, average wind velocity, topsoil sand fraction, topsoil silt fraction, topsoil organic carbon, and topsoil sodicity. The model test analyses show the BPNN model possesses better simulative and predictive ability in comparison with the SVR model. The distribution maps of the LV structural indices show that, in China, the values are higher in the west and lower in the east. These results demonstrate that the reference values of the adults' LV structural indices will be different affected by different geographical environment. The reference values of LV structural indices in one region can be calculated by setting up a BPNN, which showed better applicability in this study. The distribution of the reference values of the LV structural indices can be seen clearly on the geographical distribution map.

  14. The effect of geographical indices on left ventricular structure in healthy Han Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Minyi; Ge, Miao; Liu, Yonglin; Wang, Congxia; Yang, Shaofang

    2017-02-01

    The left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT) and interventricular septum thickness (IVST) are generally regarded as the functional parts of the left ventricular (LV) structure. This paper aims to examine the effects of geographical indices on healthy Han adults' LV structural indices and to offer a scientific basis for developing a unified standard for the reference values of adults' LV structural indices in China. Fifteen terrain, climate, and soil indices were examined as geographical explanatory variables. Statistical analysis was performed using correlation analysis. Moreover, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) and a support vector regression (SVR) were applied to developing models to predict the values of two indices. After the prediction models were built, distribution maps were produced. The results show that LV structural indices are characteristically associated with latitude, longitude, altitude, average temperature, average wind velocity, topsoil sand fraction, topsoil silt fraction, topsoil organic carbon, and topsoil sodicity. The model test analyses show the BPNN model possesses better simulative and predictive ability in comparison with the SVR model. The distribution maps of the LV structural indices show that, in China, the values are higher in the west and lower in the east. These results demonstrate that the reference values of the adults' LV structural indices will be different affected by different geographical environment. The reference values of LV structural indices in one region can be calculated by setting up a BPNN, which showed better applicability in this study. The distribution of the reference values of the LV structural indices can be seen clearly on the geographical distribution map.

  15. Comparison of Positive Youth Development for Youth With Chronic Conditions With Healthy Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N; Pollock, McLean D

    2016-12-01

    Adolescents with childhood-onset chronic condition (COCC) are at increased risk for physical and psychological problems. Despite being at greater risk and having to deal with traumatic experiences and uncertainty, most adolescents with COCC do well across many domains. The Positive Youth Development (PYD) perspective provides a framework for examining thriving in youth and has been useful in understanding positive outcomes for general populations of youth as well as at-risk youth. This study aimed to compare levels of PYD assets between youth with COCC and youth without illness. Participants with COCC were recruited from specialty pediatric clinics while healthy participants were recruited from a large pediatric primary care practice. Inclusion criteria for participants included being (1) English speaking, (2) no documented intellectual disability in electronic medical record, and (3) aged between 13 and 18 years during the recruitment period. Univariate and bivariate analyses on key variables were conducted for adolescents with and without COCC. Finally, we performed multivariable linear regressions for PYD and its subdomains. There were no significant differences between overall PYD or any of the subdomains between the two groups. Multivariable linear regression models showed no statistically significant relationship between chronic condition status and PYD or the subdomains. The findings from this study support the application of the PYD perspective to this population of youth. The results of this study suggest that approaches shown to benefit healthy youth, could be used to promote positive outcomes for youth with COCC. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Canagliflozin in Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeben, Eef; De Winter, Willem; Neyens, Martine; Devineni, Damayanthi; Vermeulen, An; Dunne, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Canagliflozin is an orally active, reversible, selective sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor. A population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model of canagliflozin, including relevant covariates as sources of inter-individual variability, was developed to describe phase I, II, and III data in healthy volunteers and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The final analysis included 9061 pharmacokinetic (PK) samples from 1616 volunteers enrolled in nine phase I, two phase II, and three phase III studies and was performed using NONMEM(®) 7.1. Inter-individual variability was evaluated using an exponential model and the residual error model was additive in the log domain. The first-order conditional estimation method with interaction was applied and the model was parameterized in terms of rate constants. Covariate effects were explored graphically on empirical Bayes estimates of PK parameters, as shrinkage was low. Clinical relevance of statistically significant covariates was evaluated. The predictive properties of the model were illustrated by prediction-corrected visual predictive checks. A two-compartment PK model with lag-time and sequential zero- and first-order absorption and first-order elimination best described the observed data. Sex, age, and weight on apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment, body mass index on first-order absorption rate constant, and body mass index and over-encapsulation on lag-time, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, by MDRD equation), dose, and genetic polymorphism (carriers of UGT1A9*3 allele) on elimination rate constant were identified as statistically significant covariates. The prediction-corrected visual predictive checks revealed acceptable predictive performance of the model. The popPK model adequately described canagliflozin PK in healthy volunteers and in patients with T2DM. Because of the small magnitude of statistically significant covariates, they were not considered clinically

  17. Population cardiovascular health and urban environments: the Heart Healthy Hoods exploratory study in Madrid, Spain

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    Usama Bilal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim is to conduct an exploratory study to provide an in-depth characterization of a neighborhood’s social and physical environment in relation to cardiovascular health. A mixed-methods approach was used to better understand the food, alcohol, tobacco and physical activity domains of the urban environment. Methods We conducted this study in an area of 16,000 residents in Madrid (Spain. We obtained cardiovascular health and risk factors data from all residents aged 45 and above using Electronic Health Records from the Madrid Primary Health Care System. We used several quantitative audit tools to assess: the type and location of food outlets and healthy food availability; tobacco and alcohol points of sale; walkability of all streets and use of parks and public spaces. We also conducted 11 qualitative interviews with key informants to help understanding the relationships between urban environment and cardiovascular behaviors. We integrated quantitative and qualitative data following a mixed-methods merging approach. Results Electronic Health Records of the entire population of the area showed similar prevalence of risk factors compared to the rest of Madrid/Spain (prevalence of diabetes: 12 %, hypertension: 34 %, dyslipidemia: 32 %, smoking: 10 %, obesity: 20 %. The food environment was very dense, with many small stores (n = 44 and a large food market with 112 stalls. Residents highlighted the importance of these small stores for buying healthy foods. Alcohol and tobacco environments were also very dense (n = 91 and 64, respectively, dominated by bars and restaurants (n = 53 that also acted as food services. Neighbors emphasized the importance of drinking as a socialization mechanism. Public open spaces were mostly used by seniors that remarked the importance of accessibility to these spaces and the availability of destinations to walk to. Conclusion This experience allowed testing and refining

  18. A surface based approach for cortical thickness comparison between PiB+ and PiB- healthy control subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Vincent; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen; Acosta, Oscar; Chetelat, Gael; Szoeke, Cassandra; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Martins, Ralph N.; Villemagne, Victor; Masters, Colin L.; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C.; Salvado, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    β-amyloid has been shown to play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vivo β-amyloid imaging using [11C]Pittsburgh compound Β (PiB) positron emission tomography has made it possible to analyze the relationship between β-amyloid deposition and different pathological markers involved in AD. PiB allows us to stratify the population between subjects which are likely to have prodromal AD, and those who don't. The comparison of the cortical thickness in these different groups is important to better understanding and detect the first symptoms of the disease which may lead to an earlier therapeutic care to reduce neurone loss. Several techniques have been developed to compare the cortical volume and/or thickness between AD and HC groups. However due to the noise introduced by the cortical thickness estimation and by the registration, these methods do not allow to unveil any major different when comparing prodromal AD groups with healthy control subjects group. To improve our understanding of where initial Alzheimer neurodegeneration occurs in the cortex we have developed a surface based technique, and have applied it to the discrimination between PIB-positive and PiB-negative HCs. We first identify the regions where AD patients show high cortical atrophy by using an AD/PiB- HC vertex-wise T-test. In each of these discriminating regions, comparison between PiB+ HC, PiB- HC and AD are performed. We found some significant differences between the two HC groups in the hippocampus and in the temporal lobe for both hemisphere and in the precuneus and occipital regions only for the left hemisphere.

  19. Assessment of Corneal Biomechanical Properties and Intraocular Pressure in Myopic Spanish Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. del Buey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine biomechanical parameters of the cornea in myopic eyes and their relationship with the degree of myopia in a western healthy population. Methods. Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (IOP, and corneal compensated IOP (IOPcc were measured using the ocular response analyzer (ORA in 312 eyes of 177 Spanish subjects aged between 20 and 56 years. Refraction was expressed as spherical equivalent (SE, which ranged from 0 to −16.50 diopters (D (mean: −3.88±2.90 D. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their refractive status: group 1 or control group: emmetropia (-0.50≤SE0.05; nevertheless, IOPcc was significantly higher in the moderately myopic (15.47±2.47 mmHg and highly myopic (16.14±2.59 mmHg groups than in the emmetropia (15.15±2.06 mmHg and low myopia groups (14.53±2.37 mmHg. No correlation between age and the measured parameters was found. CH and IOPcc were weakly but significantly correlated with SE (r=0.171, P=0.002 and r=-0.131, P=0.021, resp.. Conclusions. Present study showed only a very weak, but significant, correlation between CH and refractive error, with CH being lower in both moderately and highly myopic eyes than that in the emmetropic and low myopic eyes. These changes in biomechanical properties of the cornea may have an impact on IOP measurement, increasing the risk of glaucoma.

  20. Serum Lipid Fractions and Cerebral Microbleeds in a Healthy Japanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaki, Shingo; Nagai, Atsushi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are associated with focal hemosiderin deposits and represent a form of cerebral small vessel disease. To date, indefinite and inconsistent reports are available regarding the association between serum lipid fractions and CMBs. In addition, these previous studies did not include Asian populations, who may have a higher risk of cerebral hemorrhage. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between serum lipid fractions and CMBs in healthy Japanese subjects. We performed a cross-sectional study involving 4,024 neurologically normal Japanese subjects (mean age 61.6 years). All the participants underwent 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan, and CMBs were classified into 3 groups based on their locations. The concentrations of lipid fractions were categorized into quartiles and the association between the lipid fractions and CMBs were investigated using logistic regression analysis. CMBs were observed in 164 (4.1%) of participants. Of these participants with CMBs, 33 (20.1%) had lobar CMBs and 91 (55.5%) had deep CMBs. Subjects with deep CMBs had lower total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. After adjusting for confounding factors, lower TC and HDL-C levels were still associated with the presence of deep CMBs (OR for the highest vs. the lowest quartiles of TC and HDL-C was 2.28 [95% CI 1.05-4.94], and 1.93 [95% CI 1.02-3.65], respectively). The presence of subcortical infarcts and periventricular hyperintensities was more frequently observed in deep CMBs, whereas white matter hyperintensities were more frequently observed in lobar CMBs. Our results suggest that low serum TC and HDL-C levels are closely associated with deep CMBs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. IQ Score of Children with Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Comparison with Healthy Children

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    Javad GHAFFARI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghaffari J, Abbaskhanian A, Jalili M, Yazdani Charati Y. IQ Score of Children With Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: Comparison with Healthy Children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer; 8(3: 44-48. AbstractObjectivePrevalence of allergies is different around the world. Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in children.Intelligence quotient (IQ is an indicator of efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may affect it. This study compares the IQs of children diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis with healthy children.Material & MethodsThis was a comparative study that was conducted from June 2011–May 2013 in an academic referral clinic. In this study, 90 patients aged 6- to 14-yearsold who were diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis and were compared to 90 age and gender match healthy patients from their respective families. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for hildren was used to divide and calculate overall IQ, verbal IQ, and practical IQ. The t-test and chi square were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively.Results In this study, out of total 180 children, 90 (50% in the case group and 90 children (50%, the control group participated for IQ comparison. One hundred (57% were male and 80 (43% were female. The overall IQ for allergic rhinitis patients and healthy patients was 109.2 and 107.5, respectively. This difference was not considered significant. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the IQ scores of males and females.ConclusionAlthough allergic rhinitis is a chronic disease and effects quality of life, there were no identifiable negative effects on IQ.  ReferencesGhaffari J, Mohammadzadeh I, Khaliian A, Rafatpanah H, Mohammadjafari H, Davoudi A. Prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in elementary schools in Sari(Iran. Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine

  2. Establishment of reference interval for liver specific biochemical parameters in apparently healthy north Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dharamveer; Mishra, Sandhya; Gupta, Monika; John, P J; Sharma, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Reference intervals (RI) are the most common decision support tool used for interpretation of numerical laboratory reports. The quality of the RI can play as large a role in result interpretation as the quality of the result itself. As such there is hardly any study examining RI for liver specific biochemical parameters in Indian population especially north Indians having drastically different food habits as compared to rest of the India. So there is a need to establish the RI for north Indian population. Present study was conducted on 2,021 apparently healthy individuals of north Indian origin ranging in age from 15-60 years, were selected randomly using defined criteria. Lipemic, hemolysed, icteric and stored samples were also excluded adopting preanalytical criteria for rejection of sample. Non parametric methodology for determination of RI was adopted as most of the biochemical parameters included revealed non Gaussian distribution. Data were analyzed for middle 95 percentile (2.5th-97.5th percentile), median and 95 % confidence interval using SPSS software package version 10.0. The upper and the lower limit of RI (reported Vs observed) for bilirubin (0-1.2 Vs 0.30-1.30 mg/dL), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transferase (SGOT) (0-41 Vs 13-52.80 IU/L), serum glutamate pyruvate transferase (SGPT) (0-50 Vs 10-68 IU/L) showed wide variation as compared to reported standard RI however Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) (0-50 Vs 5.00-50.60 IU/L) remained within the reported standard RI. Further gender wise evaluation revealed higher cutoff in males (AST 14-55, ALT 11-70.35, GGT 6.76-51.09 in IU/L, bilirubin (0.40-1.34 mg/dL) as compared to females (SGOT 13-50.43, SGPT 9-63.43, GGT 3.92-48.70 in IU/L, Bilirubin 0.30-1.20 mg/dL) for both enzymatic and non enzymatic biochemical parameters. The variations may be attributed to dietary pattern smoking and alcoholism.

  3. Human third molars development: Comparison of 9 country specific populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-09-10

    The majority of age estimation models based on third molar development are constructed on samples from populations with described and outlined origin. Due to unlike research protocols these studies can rarely be compared for the evaluation of possible geographical or ethnical influences on third molar development. The aim of this study is to evaluate country specific third molar development on standardized collected and analyzed data. On panoramic radiographs selected from subjects out of 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India) the four third molar scores were registered, according to a modified Gleiser and Hunt methodology. To obtain for each subject a (factor) score which represents the degree of third molar development, a generalized linear mixed model for multivariate ordinal data was fitted on the repeated third molar scores. Differences between countries are analyzed using gender-specific regression models for these factor scores with age and country as predictors. Comparisons between countries revealed differences in speed and onset of development. However, although reaching statistical significance, differences in actual value were small and not constant over the considered age range. In all countries, at all ages, males were ahead in third molar development compared to females.

  4. Comparisons of neurodegeneration over time between healthy ageing and Alzheimer's disease cohorts via Bayesian inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengersen, Kerrie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In recent years, large-scale longitudinal neuroimaging studies have improved our understanding of healthy ageing and pathologies including Alzheimer's disease (AD). A particular focus of these studies is group differences and identification of participants at risk of deteriorating to a worse diagnosis. For this, statistical analysis using linear mixed-effects (LME) models are used to account for correlated observations from individuals measured over time. A Bayesian framework for LME models in AD is introduced in this paper to provide additional insight often not found in current LME volumetric analyses. Setting and participants Longitudinal neuroimaging case study of ageing was analysed in this research on 260 participants diagnosed as either healthy controls (HC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI) or AD. Bayesian LME models for the ventricle and hippocampus regions were used to: (1) estimate how the volumes of these regions change over time by diagnosis, (2) identify high-risk non-AD individuals with AD like degeneration and (3) determine probabilistic trajectories of diagnosis groups over age. Results We observed (1) large differences in the average rate of change of volume for the ventricle and hippocampus regions between diagnosis groups, (2) high-risk individuals who had progressed from HC to MCI and displayed similar rates of deterioration as AD counterparts, and (3) critical time points which indicate where deterioration of regions begins to diverge between the diagnosis groups. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of Bayesian LME models to neuroimaging data which provides inference on a population and individual level in the AD field. The application of a Bayesian LME framework allows for additional information to be extracted from longitudinal studies. This provides health professionals with valuable information of neurodegeneration stages, and a potential to provide a better understanding of disease pathology

  5. A comparison of photoplethysmography and ECG recording to analyse heart rate variability in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G; Yang, F; Taylor, J A; Stein, J F

    2009-01-01

    Measures of heart rate variability (HRV) are widely used to assess autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. The signal from which they are derived requires accurate determination of the interval between successive heartbeats; it can be recorded via electrocardiography (ECG), which is both non-invasive and widely available. However, methodological problems inherent in the recording and analysis of ECG traces have motivated a search for alternatives. Photoplethysmography (PPG) constitutes another means of determining the timing of cardiac cycles via continuous monitoring of changes in blood volume in a portion of the peripheral microvasculature. This technique measures pulse waveforms, which in some instances may prove a practical basis for HRV analysis. We investigated the feasibility of using earlobe PPG to analyse HRV by applying the same analytic process to PPG and ECG recordings made simultaneously. Comparison of 5-minute recordings demonstrated a very high degree of correlation in the temporal and frequency domains and in nonlinear dynamic analyses between HRV measures derived from PPG and ECG. Our results confirm that PPG provides accurate interpulse intervals from which HRV measures can be accurately derived in healthy subjects under ideal conditions, suggesting this technique may prove a practical alternative to ECG for HRV analysis. This finding is of particular relevance to the care of patients suffering from peripheral hyperkinesia or tremor, which make fingertip PPG recording impractical, and following clinical interventions known to introduce electrical artefacts into the electrocardiogram.

  6. Species distribution and physiological characterization of Acinetobacter genospecies from healthy human skin of tribal population in India

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    Yavankar S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various reports on distribution of Acinetobacter spp. from healthy human skin restricted to urban population. However, no such data is available from healthy human skin of tribal population not exposed to modern antibiotics during their life time. Purpose: Isolation, biotyping, distribution and physiological characterisation of Acinetobacter spp. from healthy human skin of tribal population. Methods: Tribal population of Toranmal area of Satpuda Ranges, Maharashtra, India were sampled for ten body sites. Tentative Acinetobacter isolates were confirmed to the genus level by chromosomal DNA transformation assay and to species level using Bouvet and Grimont system. Novel physiological characteristics like pH, temperature and salt tolerance were studied. All strains were screened for production of various enzymes. Results: One hundred and eighteen strains were isolated, which belonged to nine Acinetobacter genospecies. A. haemolyticus was most abundant followed by A. calcoaceticus and A. genospecies 1-3. Higher percentage of Acinetobacter was recovered from skin of nose, Pawara tribe and female volunteers. They showed wide variation in temperature, salt and pH tolerance. Most of the strains could produce enzymes viz, lipase, esterase, urease and amylase. Conclusions: Acinetobacter spp. belonging to nine genospecies were obtained in the present study. Physiological characteristics including high salt, temperature and acidic pH tolerance were helpful to differentiate between the commensal and pathogenic species of Acinetobacter genus.

  7. Plasma YKL-40 levels in healthy subjects from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Stig E; Johansen, Julia S; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Plasma YKL-40 is a new biomarker in patients with cancer and inflammatory diseases. High plasma YKL-40 is associated with poor prognosis. Our aim was to determine reference levels in healthy subjects....

  8. Reference Ranges for Exhaled Nitric Oxide Fraction in Healthy Japanese Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuto Matsunaga; Tsunahiko Hirano; Tomotaka Kawayama; Takahiro Tsuburai; Hiroyuki Nagase; Hisamichi Aizawa; Kazuo Akiyama; Ken Ohta; Masakazu Ichinose

    2010-01-01

    Background: The measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FEno) is proposed as a useful marker of airway inflammation. In healthy adults, there have been a few studies of the reference ranges for FEno in Caucasians. A community study in other regions may reveal any possible ethnic differences in the FEno levels. Methods: A total of 240 healthy adults aged between 18 to 74 years were recruited from four medical centers in Japan. Current smokers and subjects having a history of atopi...

  9. Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammou, Samira; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana; Barceló, Carla; Hamdan, May; Rivas, Ana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima; Monteagudo, Celia

    2016-12-01

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Construction of a short form of the healthy eating behaviour inventory for the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Iio, Misa; Lee, Ying-Hua; Suzuki, Akiko; Konuma, Kayo; Teshima, Yoko; Takenaka, Koji

    2016-09-01

    The present study constructed a short form of the Healthy Eating Behavior Inventory suitable for use in the Japanese culture (HEBI-J) and confirmed the scale's preliminary reliability and validity. In Study 1, Japanese adults (N=75) completed a free-response questionnaire about healthy eating behaviours. Thematic analysis was used to identify three factors-balance, pattern, and restriction-associated with healthy eating behaviours and 12 items related to these healthy eating behaviours. In Study 2, Japanese office workers (N=784) completed two questionnaires regarding 12 items of healthy eating behaviours and the dietary stages of change. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model was appropriate (GFI=.94, AGFI=.90, CFI=.90, RMSEA=.08, SRMR=.53). Reliability was confirmed by alpha coefficients and the Spearman-Brown formula. Concurrent validity was confirmed by the relationship between the healthy eating stages. This study demonstrated the preliminary reliability and validity of the HEBI-J. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adherence to Heart-Healthy Behaviors in a Sample of the U.S. Population

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    Stephan D. Fihn, MD, MPH

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Following national recommendations for physical activity, diet, and nonsmoking can reduce both incident and recurrent coronary heart disease. Prevalence data about combinations of behaviors are lacking. This study describes the prevalence of full adherence to national recommendations for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and nonsmoking among individuals with and without coronary heart disease and examines characteristics associated with full adherence. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a national population-based survey. We included respondents to the cardiovascular disease module and excluded individuals with poor physical health or activity limitations. Results Subjects were most adherent to smoking recommendations (approximately 80% and less adherent to fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity (approximately 20% for both. Only 5% of those without coronary heart disease and 7% of those with coronary heart disease were adherent to all three behaviors (P < .01. Among those without a history of coronary heart disease, female sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23–1.76, highest age quintile (OR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.28–2.19, more education (OR 2.48; 95% CI, 1.69–3.64, and more income (OR 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04–1.36 were associated with full adherence. Among those with coronary heart disease, mid-age quintile (OR 3.79; 95% CI, 1.35–10.68, good general health (OR 2.05; 95% CI, 1.07–3.94, and more income (OR 1.51; 95% CI, 1.06–2.16 were associated with full adherence. Conclusions These data demonstrate the lack of a heart-healthy lifestyle among a sample of U.S. adults with and without coronary heart disease. Full adherence to combined behaviors is far below adherence to any of the individual behaviors.

  12. Symposium on cross national comparisons: Youth population surveys about child maltreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    Cross National Comparisons: Youth Population Surveys About Child Maltreatment In this multi-session track, researchers will present the results concerning the epidemiology of child maltreatment from over one dozen general population surveys of youth, covering four continents and portions...

  13. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol after subcutaneous administration in a critically ill population and in a healthy cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tramadol is an atypical centrally acting analgesic agent available as both oral and parenteral preparations. For patients who are unable to take tramadol orally, the subcutaneous route of administration offers an easy alternative to intravenous or intramuscular routes. This study aimed to characterise the absorption pharmacokinetics of a single subcutaneous dose of tramadol in severely ill patients and in healthy subjects. Methods/design Blood samples (5 ml) taken at intervals from 2 minutes to 24 hours after a subcutaneous dose of tramadol (50 mg) in 15 patients (13 male, two female) and eight healthy male subjects were assayed using high performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived using a non-compartmental approach. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the following parameters (mean ± SD): maximum venous concentration 0.44 ± 0.18 (patients) vs. 0.47 ± 0.13 (healthy volunteers) mcg/ml (p = 0.67); area under the plasma concentration-time curve 177 ± 109 (patients) vs. 175 ± 75 (healthy volunteers) mcg/ml*min (p = 0.96); time to maximum venous concentration 23.3 ± 2 (patients) vs. 20.6 ± 18.8 (healthy volunteers) minutes (p = 0.73) and mean residence time 463 ± 233 (patients) vs. 466 ± 224 (healthy volunteers) minutes (p = 0.97). Conclusions The similar time to maximum venous concentration and mean residence time suggest similar absorption rates between the two groups. These results indicate that the same dosing regimens for subcutaneous tramadol administration may therefore be used in both healthy subjects and severely ill patients. Trial registration ACTRN12611001018909 PMID:24914400

  14. Exercise-induced hypertension among healthy firefighters-a comparison between two different definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiba, Adi; Baur, Dorothee M; Kales, Stefanos N

    2013-01-01

    Different studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the association of hypertensive response to exercise and cardiovascular morbidity. We compared two different definitions of exaggerated hypertensive response to exercise and their association with cardio-respiratory fitness in a population of healthy firefighters. We examined blood pressure response to exercise in 720 normotensive male career firefighters. Fitness was measured as peak metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) achieved during maximal exercise treadmill tests. Abnormal hypertensive response was defined either as systolic blood pressure ≥ 200 mm Hg; or alternatively, as responses falling in the upper tertile of blood pressure change from rest to exertion, divided by the maximal workload achieved. Using the simple definition of a 200 mm Hg cutoff at peak exercise less fit individuals (METs ≤ 12) were protected from an exaggerated hypertensive response (OR 0.45, 95%CI 0.30-0.67). However, using the definition of exercise-induced hypertension that corrects for maximal workload, less fit firefighters had almost twice the risk (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.3-2.47). Blood pressure change corrected for maximal workload is better correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Systolic blood pressure elevation during peak exercise likely represents an adaptive response, whereas elevation out of proportion to the maximal workload may indicate insufficient vasodilation and a maladaptive response. Prospective studies are needed to best define exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise.

  15. ECG-derived Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing in healthy and hospitalized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Adelita; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao; Mortara, David; Cooper, Bruce A; Pelter, Michele M

    2017-06-15

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) has been investigated primarily in outpatients with heart failure. In this study we compare CSR and periodic breathing (PB) between healthy and cardiac groups. We compared CSR and PB, measured during 24 hr of continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) Holter recording, in a group of 90 hospitalized patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to a group of 100 healthy ambulatory participants. We also examined CSR and PB in the 90 patients presenting with ACS symptoms, divided into a group of 39 (43%) with confirmed ACS, and 51 (57%) with a cardiac diagnosis but non-ACS. SuperECG software was used to derive respiration and then calculate CSR and PB episodes from the ECG Holter data. Regression analyses were used to analyze the data. We hypothesized SuperECG software would differentiate between the groups by detecting less CSR and PB in the healthy group than the group of patients presenting to the emergency department with ACS symptoms. Hospitalized patients with suspected ACS had 7.3 times more CSR episodes and 1.6 times more PB episodes than healthy ambulatory participants. Patients with confirmed ACS had 6.0 times more CSR episodes and 1.3 times more PB episodes than cardiac non-ACS patients. Continuous 12-lead ECG derived CSR and PB appear to differentiate between healthy participants and hospitalized patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparison of quality of life measures in a depressed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Stephen R; Rush, A John; Bryan, Charlene; Shelton, Richard; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Marcus, Sheila; Husain, Mustafa M; Hollon, Steven D; Fava, Maurizio

    2007-03-01

    Measures of quality of life have been increasingly used in clinical trials. When designing a study, researchers must decide which quality of life measure to use. Some literature provides guidance through general recommendations, though lacks quantitative comparisons. In this report, 2 general quality of life measures, the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), are compared in a depressed population. STAR*D data were used to analyze the associations among the SF-12 and the Q-LES-Q. Each measure covers 6 domains, overlapping on 5 (health, self-esteem/well-being, community/productivity, social/love relationships, leisure/creativity), with the SF-12 addressing family and the Q-LES-Q addressing living situations. Strong item-by-item associations exist only between the Q-LES-Q and the SF-12 physical health items. The 2 measures overlap on the domains covered while the lack of correlation between the 2 measures may be attributed to the perspective of each question as the Q-LES-Q measures satisfaction while the SF-12 measures the patient's perception of function.

  17. Comparison of citrated native and kaolin-activated samples for thrombelastographic analysis in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Sarah K; Wood, R Darren; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Kruth, Stephen A; Bersenas, Alexa

    2012-06-01

    Thrombelastographic (TEG) analysis is a test of global hemostasis in veterinary medicine; however, there have been limited comparisons of analysis of citrated native and kaolin-activated samples. The purpose of this study was to determine the variation in TEG variables between citrated native and kaolin-activated whole blood samples and to establish reference intervals for both sample types. Citrated whole blood samples were obtained from 40 healthy dogs. Thirty minutes after collection, TEG analysis was performed simultaneously on samples with and without kaolin-activation. Reaction time (R), clotting time (K), angle (α), maximum amplitude (MA), global clot strength (G), and clot lysis at 30 minutes (LY30) were recorded, and the concordance correlation coefficient (ρ(c)) was calculated for each sample type. Significant differences between results obtained for kaolin-activated and native samples were obtained for R (mean difference -1.3 minute, P = .0009), K (-0.7 minute, P = .0003), α (+5.1º, P = .002), MA (+2.4 mm, P = .002), and G (+568 dyn/cm(2), P = .0009). LY30 was not different between methods. There was substantial agreement between methods for G (ρ(c) = .69) and MA (ρ(c) = .65), moderate agreement for R (ρ(c) = .45) and α (ρ(c) = .44), fair agreement for K (ρ(c) = .29), and slight agreement for LY30 (ρ(c) = .04). The TEG variables were significantly altered by kaolin activation; however, some agreement between sample types suggests a consistent bias. In citrated whole blood activated with kaolin, clot formation time is shortened and the amplitude of the tracing is increased, resulting in a TEG tracing that appears to indicate relative hypercoagulability compared with that obtained using native citrated whole blood samples. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. Comparison of bone mineral density in young patients with breast cancer and healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Kolahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Almost 1 in 8 women will have breast cancer during their lifetime. Several risk factors were identified; however, 70% of females with breast cancer have no risk factors. Many risk factors are associated with sex steroid hormones. Some studies have been focused on identification of the indices of cumulative exposures to estrogen during the patients’ life. One of these indicators is bone mineral density (BMD. Our aim was the comparison of BMD in young patients with and without breast cancer, and finding a relationship between breast cancer and bone density. METHODS: In this case-control study, 120 people were enrolled; 40 patients with breast cancer and 80 normal healthy persons as control group. Measurement of BMD was performed in both groups and compared. RESULTS: Both groups were matched in age, weight, age at menarche, age at first marriage and first pregnancy, number of pregnancies over 32 weeks and lactation period, and taking supplemental calcium and vitamin D. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of estrogen intake, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast masses (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, P ≤ 0.01, respectively. A significant difference was found between BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and t-scores of lumbar spine of the two groups; they were higher in the control group (P = 0.08, P ≤ 0.01, P = 0.06, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that bone mineral density of young patients with breast cancer is not higher than normal similar age females; thus, BMD is not directly a risk factor for breast cancer.

  19. A Population Health Approach to System Transformation for Children's Healthy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Paul H; Sood, Aradhana Bela

    2016-04-01

    What if the goal of child health services was not "merely" treating, or even preventing, childhood diseases and disorders, but was expanded to that of promoting children's optimal healthy development? Pediatrics has evolved from an exclusive focus on the treatment of illness to the opportunity to promote children's healthy development. This evolution has profound implications for the content of child health services and programs, for system transformation, and for public policy. Enhanced understanding of the impact of social determinants on children's health and developmental outcomes underscores the importance of an evolving framework for system transformation with key policy implications.

  20. Maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviours: A comparison of mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore differences between mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity in a wide range of their reported child feeding practices and their reports of their children's eating behaviours. Mothers (N = 437) with a 2-6-year-old child participated. They comprised two groups, based on their BMI: healthy weight (BMI of 18.0-24.9, inclusive) or overweight/obese (BMI of 25.0 or more). All mothers provided demographic information and completed self-report measures of their child feeding practices and their child's eating behaviour. In comparison to mothers with healthy weight, mothers with overweight/obesity reported giving their child more control around eating (p healthy home food environment (p = 0.021) and demonstrated less modelling of healthy eating in front of their children (p eat or restriction, based on their own weight status. Mothers with overweight/obesity reported their children to have a greater desire for drinks (p = 0.003), be more responsive to satiety (p = 0.007), and be slower eaters (p = 0.034). Mothers with overweight/obesity appear to engage in generally less healthy feeding practices with their children than mothers with healthy weight, and mothers with overweight/obesity perceive their children as more avoidant about food but not drinks. Such findings are likely to inform future intervention developments and help health workers and clinicians to better support mothers with overweight/obesity with implementing healthful feeding practices and promoting healthy eating habits in their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral-diadochokinetic rates for Hebrew-speaking healthy ageing population: non-word versus real-word repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Icht, Michal

    2017-05-01

    Oral-diadochokinesis (oral-DDK) tasks are extensively used in the evaluation of motor speech abilities. Currently, validated normative data for older adults (aged 65 years and older) are missing in Hebrew. The effect of task stimuli (non-word versus real-word repetition) is also non-clear in the population of older adult Hebrew speakers. (1) To establish a norm for oral-DDK rate for older adult (aged 65 years and older) Hebrew speakers, and to investigate the possible effect of age and gender on performance rate; and (2) to examine the effects of stimuli (non-word versus real word) on oral-DDK rates. In experiment 1, 88 healthy older Hebrew speakers (60-95 years, 48 females and 40 males) were audio-recorded while performing an oral-DDK task (repetition of /pataka/), and repetition rates (syllables/s) were coded. In experiment 2, the effect of real-word repetition was evaluated. Sixty-eight older Hebrew speakers (aged 66-95 years, 43 females and 25 males) were asked to repeat 'pataka' (non-word) and 'bodeket' (Hebrew real word). Experiment 1: Oral-DDK performance for older adult Hebrew speakers was 5.07 syllables/s (SD = 1.16 syllables/s), across age groups and gender. Comparison of this data with Hebrew norms for younger adults (and equivalent data in English) shows the following gradient of oral-DDK rates: ages 15-45 > 65-74 > 75-86 years. Gender was not a significant factor in our data. Experiment 2: Repetition of real words was faster than that of non-words, by 13.5%. The paper provides normative values for oral-DDK rates for older Hebrew speakers. The data show the large impact of ageing on oro-motor functions. The analysis further indicates that speech and language pathologists should consider separate norms for clients of 65-74 years and those of 75-86 years. Hebrew rates were found to be different from English norms for the oldest group, shedding light on the impact of language on these norms. Finally, the data support using a dual-protocol (real- and non

  2. Prevalence of restless legs syndrome and associated factors in an otherwise healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Maria; Rigas, Andreas S.; Allen, Richard P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological sensorimotor disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensations in the legs. RLS often occurs as a comorbid condition. Besides an increased risk of iron deficiency, blood donors are considered to be generally healthy. Blood donors are there...

  3. A healthier approach to clinical trials evaluating resveratrol for primary prevention of age‐related diseases in healthy populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliga, James M; Colombo, E Sage; Campen, Matthew J

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, the wealth of basic science research supporting resveratrol's potential to treat, delay, and even prevent age-related chronic diseases has led to a number of human clinical trials. While such translational research has yielded promising results in clinical populations, recently published conflicting results from studies evaluating resveratrol's potential for primary prevention of chronic disease in healthy / asymptomatic individuals have generated considerable controversy and do not initially appear consistent with findings from animal models. We argue that trials targeting healthy humans are often fundamentally flawed owing to inappropriate use of paradigms only applicable to populations with overt clinical disease and the consequent misleading (typically negative) results can severely retard advancement of drug development. To appropriately perform translational research centered on resveratrol as a primary prevention agent in non-clinical populations, it is critical to utilize study designs which can provide adequate information on clinically relevant outcome measures, avoid paradigms and assumptions from interventions which are specific to clinical populations, and maintain realistic expectations compared to interventions which provide the theoretical maximal response (e.g., caloric restriction and aerobic exercise training).

  4. Comparison of Populations of Pratylenchus brachyurus Based on Isozyme Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Payan, L. A.; Dickson, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Enzymes from females of five Pratylenchus brachyurus populations and one P. scribneri population were analyzed by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Of the 18 enzyme systems investigated, only malate dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) were detected from all five P. brachyurus populations and P. scribneri. Faint bands were detected for isocitrate dehydrogenase and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from one P. brachyurus population. Three distinct ...

  5. A Comparison of Quality of Life between Adolescences with Beta Thalassemia Major and their Healthy Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Baraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The chronic genetic blood disorder, thalassemia, affects Quality of life (QOL negatively. Regarding this, if adolescences with thalassemia are treated well, they will grow into an adult who will have a good potential for participating in society. Objectives: to determine the strongest predictor of QOL, compare QOL between the adolescents with beta-type major and their peers in Abadan city. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study; the population consisted of 65 beta thalassemia major patients and 65  healthy peers with the same ages as the witness group. The data collection tools included SF-36 questionnaire and a questionnaire for demographic information. Data analysis was performed using independent t-test, correlation and linear regression by SPSS-16. Results The results of the study revealed that there is a significant difference (P < 0.05 in the average quality of life between the two groups of the study. On the other hand, the results showed that there was a meaningful relation between different aspects of life quality and family history of thalassemia            (P< 0.05. Also, there was a negative correlation between quality of life and the frequency of blood transfusion per year (P< 0.05. Conclusion Adolescences with beta thalassemia major do not have a desirable quality of life, therefore, this fact shows the necessity of serious reforming in various fields of health care, treatment, family, social and financial support, and rehabilitation that need more attention from health care policymakers.

  6. Significant association of periodontal disease with anti-citrullinated peptide antibody in a Japanese healthy population - The Nagahama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Chikashi; Asai, Keita; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Toru; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Takahashi, Katsu; Takei, Noriko; Ishii, Takanori; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Meiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Fujii, Takao; Yamada, Ryo; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2015-05-01

    Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) is a highly specific autoantibody to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have revealed that periodontal disease (PD) is closely associated with RA and production of ACPA in RA. Analyses of associations between PD and ACPA production in a healthy population may deepen our understandings. Here, we analyzed a total of 9554 adult healthy subjects. ACPA and IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) was quantified and PD status was evaluated using the number of missing teeth (MT), the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LA) for these subjects. PD status was analyzed for its association with the positivity and categorical levels of ACPA and RF conditioned for covariates which were shown to be associated with PD, ACPA or RF. As a result, all of MT, CPI and LA showed suggestive or significant associations with positivity (p = 0.024, 0.0042 and 0.037, respectively) and levels of ACPA (p ≤ 0.00031), but none of the PD parameters were associated with those of RF. These association patterns were also observed when we analyzed 6206 non-smokers of the participants. The significant associations between PD parameters and positivity and levels of ACPA in healthy population support the fundamental involvement of PD with ACPA production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating and attitudes toward regulatory measures: A Denmark-Hong Kong comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Grønhøj, Alice

    This study explores cross cultural differences in the perceptions of healthy eating, contexts where healthy or unhealthy eating are practiced, and consumer evaluation of regulatory measures that discourage the consumption of unhealthy foods such as soft drinks. A survey was conducted of 386 Danish...... and Chinese adolescents using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that perceptions of healthy eating were generally based on concepts such as balance and moderation. Unhealthy eating was most frequently practiced at parties and in festive periods. Hong Kong respondents were more likely to associate...... eating habits with healthy eating than Danish respondents. Danish respondents were more likely to practice healthy eating at schools than Hong Kong respondents. Making tanks of cold water freely available everywhere was perceived to be most effective in discouraging the consumption of soft drink. Danish...

  8. Vitamin-D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms (Taq-I & Apa-I) in Syrian healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Shaden

    2014-12-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system regulates bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis as well as cellular proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates Vit-D activity, thus VDR gene polymorphisms may correlate with different diseases. This study aimed to determine the distribution of VDR gene (Taq-I and Apa-I) polymorphisms using a RFLP in unrelated normal healthy individuals of Syrian population. Allelic frequencies were 65% vs 35% and 66% vs 34% for T vs t and A vs a alleles, respectively. Genotype distribution was 36%, 58% and 6% for TT, Tt and tt and 42%, 47% and 10% for AA, Aa and aa, respectively. These results demonstrate that the frequency and distribution of the VDR polymorphisms in Syrian population are different from other populations worldwide.

  9. Frequency of rs731236 (Taql), rs2228570 (Fok1) of Vitamin-D Receptor (VDR) gene in Emirati healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Enas; Al Anouti, Fatme; El Ghazali, Gehad; Haq, Afrozul; Mirgani, Rajaa; Al Safar, Habiba

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin D is getting more attention everyday due to its importance in maintaining bone and calcium homeostasis, cellular proliferation, differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D is derived from diet or elicited in the skin by the activation of 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is an inert molecule that must be activated by ultraviolet light to form pre-vitamin D3. Recent studies connected the gene encoding for vitamin D (VDR) to the genetic control of bone mass and other diseases. As VDR SNPs have been associated with several disorders and diseases, it's important to investigate the allelic and genotypic distribution among populations. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) variants in healthy Emirati individuals and compare their genotype and allele distribution with other populations. In this study 282 (female, 187; male, 95) unrelated healthy UAE nationals were involved. Two hundreds and eight two DNA samples been collected to genotype rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) VDR SNPs. Our results indicate that the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) vary considerably in different populations. In the Emirati population the distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) were AA 38%, AG 42%, GG 20% and AA 27%, AG 42%, GG 31% respectively. The Emirati population genotype and allele distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) had no difference with Caucasians from USA and France. However, there was significant difference with Asian populations.

  10. Genetic and environmental interrelations between measurements of thyroid function in a healthy Danish twin population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pia Skov; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Iachine, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    in healthy euthyroid twins and to determine the extent to which the same genes influence more than one of these biochemical traits; 1,380 healthy euthyroid Danish twins (284 monozygotic, 286 dizygotic, 120 opposite-sex twin pairs) were recruited. Genetic and environmental associations between thyroid...... function measurements were examined using quantitative genetic modeling. In bivariate genetic models, the phenotypic relation between two measurements was divided into genetic and environmental correlations. Free T4 and free T3 levels were positively correlated (r=0.32, P... between serum free T4 and free T3 levels was rg=0.25 (95% CI 0.14-0.35), suggesting that a set of common genes affect both phenotypes (pleiotropy). The correlation between the environmental effects was re=0.41 (0.32-0.50). From this we calculated that the proportion of the correlation between free T4...

  11. Determination of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) reference values in healthy Thai population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksawat, Yiwa; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong

    2017-09-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) level is directly correlated with airway inflammation in asthma patients. The objective of this study was to define normal FENO levels in healthy Thai volunteers. This prospective cohort study was conducted in healthy Thai volunteers aged ≥5 years. Demographic and clinical data were recorded and pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed. FENO was measured using a chemiluminescence nitric oxide analyzer. Seventy-nine healthy Thai volunteers with normal lung function test were included. Mean age of participants was 13 (6-47) years and 58.2% were female. All subjects had no history of allergic respiratory diseases. Mean FENO level increased with age, and the differences between age groups were statistically significant (p=0.001). The highest mean FENO level was 13.6 ppb in the 11-15 year age group, and then the FENO level gradually declined with age. The highest mean FENO level was found in the 18-24.9 body mass index (BMI) group. Significant differences were observed for FENO levels between different height groups (p=0.005) but not between different BMI groups (p=0.46). Fair correlations between FENO levels and body weight, height, FEV1, and FVC were observed. A fair correlation between FENO level and age, FENO level and FEF25%-75% was found only in volunteers ≤15 years of age. FENO level in healthy Thais increased with age until reaching maximum level (mean FENO 13.6 ppb) in the 11-15 year age group. Significant differences were observed for FENO levels between different age groups and different height groups.

  12. How healthy are the rhinoceros populations in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Fatti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arising from a study conducted in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park by the author in the late nineties, a method is proposed for improving the estimate of the size of a wildlife population by combining data from current and past surveys. The method is based on a simple state space model which takes into account the (unknown birth rate in the population and all known losses (mortalities and relocations and gains (introductions in the population between successive surveys, as well as the errors in the survey estimates. The method is applied to the White- and Black Rhinoceros populations in the Hluhluwe-iMfolosi Park and tentative conclusions are drawn on the health of these two populations.

  13. Healthy food availability in small urban food stores: a comparison of four US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa Nelson; Borradaile, Kelley E; Tester, June; Foster, Gary D; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2010-07-01

    Given that small food stores may be important retail food sources in low-income urban communities, our objective was to examine cross-city comparative data documenting healthy food availability within such facilities, particularly those located in low-income areas and nearby schools. Food stores in Baltimore, Maryland; Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota; Oakland, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania were selected for assessment based on proximity to low-income schools. Stores were defined as: (i) single-aisle (n 45); (ii) small (2-5 aisles; n 52); and (iii) large (> or = 6 aisles; n 8). Staff conducted in-store audits to assess the presence/absence of twenty-eight healthy items, organized within five categories: (i) fresh fruits/vegetables, (ii) processed fruits/vegetables, (iii) healthy beverages/low-fat dairy, (iv) healthy snacks and (v) other healthy staple foods. The availability of healthy food items was low, particularly in single-aisle and small stores, and there was significant cross-site variability in the availability of healthy snacks (P store size for nearly all food/beverage categories (P stores need to be developed and tailored for use in urban areas across the USA.

  14. Total body water estimations in healthy men and women using bioimpedance spectroscopy: a deuterium oxide comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemben Michael G

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total body water (TBW estimations have been used to estimate body composition, particularly fat-free mass, to aid in nutritional interventions, and to monitor hydration status. In the past, bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS devices have been used to estimate TBW. Previous investigations have examined the validity of the XiTRON 4000B (XiTRON Technologies BIS device for estimating TBW. Recently, a new BIS device (Imp™ SFB7 has become available, claiming greater precision when estimating TBW. The Imp™ SFB7 (SFB7 is based on similar BIS principles, while offering increased portability and a greater range of frequencies when compared to older devices, such as the XiTRON 4000B (4000B. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the SFB7 for estimating total body water in healthy college-age men and women compared to the 4000B and deuterium oxide (D2O. Methods Twenty-eight Caucasian men and women (14 men, 14 women; 24 ± 4 yrs; 174.6 ± 8.7 cm; 72.80 ± 17.58 kg had their TBW estimated by the SFB7, the 4000B, and D2O. Results Both BIS devices produced similar standard error of estimate (SEE and r values (SFB7, SEE = 2.12L, r = 0.98; 4000B, SEE = 2.99L, r = 0.96 when compared to D2O, though a significant constant error (CE was detected for the 4000B (2.26L, p ≤ 0.025. The 4000B produced a larger total error (TE and CE (TE = 3.81L, CE = 2.26L when compared to the SFB7 (TE = 2.21L, CE = -0.09L. Additionally, the limits of agreement were larger for the 4000B (-3.88 to 8.39L than the SFB7 (-4.50 to 4.31L. These results were consistent when sex was analyzed separately, though women produced lower SEE and TE values for both devices. Conclusion The 4000B and SFB7 are valid BIS devices when compared to D2O to estimate TBW in college-age Caucasian men and women. Furthermore, the new SFB7 device displayed greater precision in comparison to the 4000B, which may decrease the error when estimating TBW on an individual basis.

  15. Comparison of motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among low medium income consumers in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Machín, Leandro; Girona, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana

    2017-05-18

    Interventions aimed at changing dietary patterns should be designed based on the main motives underlying the food choices of specific target populations. The aim of the present study was to identify motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among consumers in two socioeconomic levels in Uruguay. Eleven focus groups were carried out with a total of 76 participants. Six of the groups involved low income participants and the others were conducted with middle income participants. Discussions were held around frequently consumed products, motives underlying food choices and barriers to healthy eating. Results confirmed the strong influence of income level on motives underlying food choice and barriers to the adoption of healthy eating. Low income participants described their choices as mainly driven by economic factors and satiety, whereas convenience was the main determinant of food selection for middle income participants. Implications for the design of public policies targeted at each group are discussed.

  16. Comparison of motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among low medium income consumers in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Ares

    Full Text Available Abstract: Interventions aimed at changing dietary patterns should be designed based on the main motives underlying the food choices of specific target populations. The aim of the present study was to identify motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among consumers in two socioeconomic levels in Uruguay. Eleven focus groups were carried out with a total of 76 participants. Six of the groups involved low income participants and the others were conducted with middle income participants. Discussions were held around frequently consumed products, motives underlying food choices and barriers to healthy eating. Results confirmed the strong influence of income level on motives underlying food choice and barriers to the adoption of healthy eating. Low income participants described their choices as mainly driven by economic factors and satiety, whereas convenience was the main determinant of food selection for middle income participants. Implications for the design of public policies targeted at each group are discussed.

  17. Adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating and attitudes toward regulatory measures: A Denmark-Hong Kong comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Grønhøj, Alice

    and Chinese adolescents using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that perceptions of healthy eating were generally based on concepts such as balance and moderation. Unhealthy eating was most frequently practiced at parties and in festive periods. Hong Kong respondents were more likely to associate...... eating habits with healthy eating than Danish respondents. Danish respondents were more likely to practice healthy eating at schools than Hong Kong respondents. Making tanks of cold water freely available everywhere was perceived to be most effective in discouraging the consumption of soft drink. Danish...... related with their perception of effectiveness of the regulatory measures. The study can serve as a guideline for social services marketing professionals targeting adolescents....

  18. A comparison of knowledge of diabetes mellitus between patients with diabetes and healthy adults: a survey from north Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lai Shin; Hassan, Yahaya; Aziz, Noorizan Abd; Awaisu, Ahmed; Ghazali, Rozina

    2007-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess and compare the knowledge of diabetes mellitus possessed by patients with diabetes and healthy adult volunteers in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 20 February 2006 to 31 March 2006. We randomly selected 120 patients with diabetes mellitus from a diabetic clinic at the General Hospital Penang, Malaysia and 120 healthy adults at a shopping complex in Penang. Each participant was interviewed face-to-face by a pharmacist using a validated questionnaire, and they were required to answer a total of 30 questions concerning knowledge about diabetes mellitus using Yes, No or Unsure as the only response. The results showed that patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly more knowledgeable than the healthy volunteers about risk factors, symptoms, chronic complications, treatment and self-management, and monitoring parameters. Educational level was the best predictive factor for diabetes mellitus and public awareness. Knowledge about diabetes mellitus should be improved among the general population. This study has major implications for the design of an educational programme for diabetics and a health promotion programme as a primary prevention measure for the healthy population in general, and especially for those at high risk. The results could be useful in the design of future studies for evaluating patients' and the general public's knowledge about diabetes mellitus.

  19. Comparison of serum BDNF levels in deficit and nondeficit chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Amann, Benedikt L; Mármol, Frederic; Oliveira, Cristina; Messeguer, Ana; Lafuente, Amalia; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Bernardo Arroyo, Miguel

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compare serum BDNF levels of chronic schizophrenic patients, with or without deficit syndrome, and healthy controls. A comparative study of serum BDNF levels, determined by ELISA, was performed in 47 chronic patients with schizophrenia matched with 47 healthy controls. A part of the chronic schizophrenic sample was further divided into patients with a deficit (n=14) and a nondeficit syndrome (n=20), according to the Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome Scale. A significant difference was observed in decreased serum BDNF levels between chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls. No statistical significant differences in BDNF levels between deficit and nondeficit chronic schizophrenic patients were found. Our study confirms differences of serum BDNF levels of chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls, which correspond to the clinical progression of the disease. Our results do not support a relation between deficit profile in chronic schizophrenia and lower serum BDNF levels.

  20. The Same or Different? A Phenomenological Comparison of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Healthy and Psychotic Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalman, Kirstin; Boks, Marco P. M.; Diederen, Kelly M. J.; de Weijer, Antoin D.; Blom, Jan Dirk; Kahn, Rene S.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Whereas auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are most characteristic of schizophrenia, their presence has frequently been described in a continuum, ranging from severely psychotic patients to schizotypal personality disorder patients to otherwise healthy participants. It remains unclear

  1. Beverage consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the Mexican population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Secretary of Health for the purpose of developing evidence-based...

  2. Comparison of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Isolated from the Periodontium of Healthy Teeth and Periodontitis-Affected Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soheilifar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stem cell (SC therapy is a promising technique for tissue regeneration. This study aimed to compare the viability and proliferation ability of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs isolated from the periodontium of healthy and periodontitis-affected teeth to obtain an autologous, easily accessible source of SCs for tissue regeneration in periodontitis patients.Materials and Methods: The PDLSCs were isolated from the roots of clinically healthy premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes and periodontally involved teeth with hopeless prognosis (with and without phase I periodontal treatment. Cells were cultured and viability and proliferation ability of third passage cells in each group were evaluated using the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test.Results: No SCs could be obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth without phase I periodontal treatment. The viability of cells was 0.86±0.13 OD/540 in healthy group and 0.4±0.25 OD/540 in periodontitis-affected group (P=0.035. The proliferation ability (population doubling time of cells obtained from healthy teeth was 4.22±1.23 hours. This value was 2.3±0.35 hours for those obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth (P=0.02.Conclusions: Viability and proliferation ability of cells isolated from the periodontium of healthy teeth were significantly greater than those of cells isolated from the periodontitis-affected teeth.Keywords: Stem Cells; Periodontitis; Tooth; Regeneration

  3. Comparison of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Isolated from the Periodontium of Healthy Teeth and Periodontitis-Affected Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheilifar, Sara; Amiri, Iraj; Bidgoli, Mohsen; Hedayatipanah, Morad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Stem cell (SC) therapy is a promising technique for tissue regeneration. This study aimed to compare the viability and proliferation ability of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) isolated from the periodontium of healthy and periodontitis-affected teeth to obtain an autologous, easily accessible source of SCs for tissue regeneration in periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: The PDLSCs were isolated from the roots of clinically healthy premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes and periodontally involved teeth with hopeless prognosis (with and without phase I periodontal treatment). Cells were cultured and viability and proliferation ability of third passage cells in each group were evaluated using the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test. Results: No SCs could be obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth without phase I periodontal treatment. The viability of cells was 0.86±0.13 OD/540 in healthy group and 0.4±0.25 OD/540 in periodontitis-affected group (P=0.035). The proliferation ability (population doubling time) of cells obtained from healthy teeth was 4.22±1.23 hours. This value was 2.3±0.35 hours for those obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth (P=0.02). Conclusions: Viability and proliferation ability of cells isolated from the periodontium of healthy teeth were significantly greater than those of cells isolated from the periodontitis-affected teeth.

  4. Population pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following a two-stage intravenous infusion in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Lykke; Foster, David J.R.; Upton, Richard N.;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following administration of an intravenous (i.v.) infusion. To date, the population kinetics of buprenorphine has been described for bolus administration only.......The aim of this investigation was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following administration of an intravenous (i.v.) infusion. To date, the population kinetics of buprenorphine has been described for bolus administration only....

  5. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following single- and multiple-dosing of oral artesunate in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The population pharmacokinetics of artesunate (AS) and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) were studied in healthy subjects receiving single- or multiple-dosing of AS orally either in combination with pyronaridine (PYR) or as a monotherapy with or without food. Methods Data from 118 concentration-time profiles arising from 91 healthy Korean subjects were pooled from four Phase I clinical studies. Subjects received 2-5 mg/kg of single- and multiple-dosing of oral AS either in combination with PYR or as a monotherapy with or without food. Plasma AS and DHA were measured simultaneously using a validated liquid chromatography- mass spectrometric method with a lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/mL for both AS and DHA. Nonlinear mixed-effect modelling was used to obtain the pharmacokinetic and variability (inter-individual and residual variability) parameter estimates. Results A novel parent-metabolite pharmacokinetic model consisting of a dosing compartment, a central compartment for AS, a central compartment and a peripheral compartment for DHA was developed. AS and DHA data were modelled simultaneously assuming stoichiometric conversion to DHA. AS was rapidly absorbed with a population estimate of absorption rate constant (Ka) of 3.85 h-1. The population estimates of apparent clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V2/F) for AS were 1190 L/h with 36.2% inter-individual variability (IIV) and 1210 L with 57.4% IIV, respectively. For DHA, the population estimates of apparent clearance (CLM/F) and central volume of distribution (V3/F) were 93.7 L/h with 28% IIV and 97.1 L with 30% IIV, respectively. The population estimates of apparent inter-compartmental clearance (Q/F) and peripheral volume of distribution (V4/F) for DHA were 5.74 L/h and 18.5 L, respectively. Intake of high-fat and high-caloric meal prior to the drug administration resulted in 84% reduction in Ka. Body weight impacted CLM/F, such that a unit change in weight resulted in 1

  6. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following single- and multiple-dosing of oral artesunate in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsch Lee E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population pharmacokinetics of artesunate (AS and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA were studied in healthy subjects receiving single- or multiple-dosing of AS orally either in combination with pyronaridine (PYR or as a monotherapy with or without food. Methods Data from 118 concentration-time profiles arising from 91 healthy Korean subjects were pooled from four Phase I clinical studies. Subjects received 2-5 mg/kg of single- and multiple-dosing of oral AS either in combination with PYR or as a monotherapy with or without food. Plasma AS and DHA were measured simultaneously using a validated liquid chromatography- mass spectrometric method with a lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/mL for both AS and DHA. Nonlinear mixed-effect modelling was used to obtain the pharmacokinetic and variability (inter-individual and residual variability parameter estimates. Results A novel parent-metabolite pharmacokinetic model consisting of a dosing compartment, a central compartment for AS, a central compartment and a peripheral compartment for DHA was developed. AS and DHA data were modelled simultaneously assuming stoichiometric conversion to DHA. AS was rapidly absorbed with a population estimate of absorption rate constant (Ka of 3.85 h-1. The population estimates of apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V2/F for AS were 1190 L/h with 36.2% inter-individual variability (IIV and 1210 L with 57.4% IIV, respectively. For DHA, the population estimates of apparent clearance (CLM/F and central volume of distribution (V3/F were 93.7 L/h with 28% IIV and 97.1 L with 30% IIV, respectively. The population estimates of apparent inter-compartmental clearance (Q/F and peripheral volume of distribution (V4/F for DHA were 5.74 L/h and 18.5 L, respectively. Intake of high-fat and high-caloric meal prior to the drug administration resulted in 84% reduction in Ka. Body weight impacted CLM/F, such that a unit change in

  7. Timed Up and Go test: Comparison of kinematics between patients with chronic stroke and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnyaud, Céline; Pradon, Didier; Vaugier, Isabelle; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Bensmail, Djamel; Roche, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Understanding locomotor behavior is important to guide rehabilitation after stroke. This study compared lower-limb kinematics during the walking and turning sub-tasks of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test in stroke patients and healthy subjects. We also determined the parameters which explain TUG sub-task performance time in healthy subjects. Biomechanical parameters were recorded during the TUG in standardized conditions in 25 healthy individuals and 29 patients with chronic stroke using a 3D motion-analysis system. Parameters were compared between groups and a stepwise regression was used to indicate parameters which explained performance time in the healthy subjects. The percentage difference in step length between the last and first steps was calculated, during walking sub-tasks for each group. Speed, cadence, step length, percentage paretic single support phase, percentage non-paretic swing phase, peak hip extension, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion were significantly reduced in the Stroke group compared to the Healthy group (pGo and 86% for Return (walking sub-tasks), and none of the parameters explained the Turn. Previous study in patients with stroke showed that the same parameters explained the variance during the walking sub-tasks and balance-related parameters explained the Turn. The present results showed that step length was differently modulated in each group. Thus the locomotor behavior of patients with stroke during obstacle circumvention is quite specific in light of the results obtained in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among apparently healthy adult Nigerian population - a cross sectional study

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    Gbadamosi Maruf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains a major cause of morbidity and a leading contributor to mortality worldwide. Over the next 2 decades, it is projected that there will be a rise in CVD mortality rates in the developing countries, linked to demographic changes and progressive urbanization. Nigeria has witnessed tremendous socio-economic changes and rural-urban migration which have led to the emergence of non-communicable diseases. We set out to determine the prevalence of modifiable CVD risk factors among apparently healthy adult Nigerians. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out at Katsina, northwestern Nigeria from March to May 2006. Subjects for the study were recruited consecutively from local residents, hospital staff and relations of in-patients of the Federal Medical Centre, Katsina using convenience sampling. Socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were obtained from the subjects in a standardized manner. Venous samples were collected for necessary investigations and analyzed at the hospital central laboratory. Findings Three hundred subjects (129 males and 171 females with a mean age of 37.6 ± 10.6 (range 18-75 years were studied. Prevalence of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors screened for were as follows: generalized obesity 21.3% (males 10.9%, females 29.2%, p 0.05, type 2 diabetes mellitus 5.3% (males 5.4%, females 5.3%, p > 0.05, hypercholesterolaemia 28.3% (males 23.3%, females 32.2%, p 0.05, low HDL-cholesterol 59.3% (males 51.9%, females 65%, p 0.05 and metabolic syndrome 22% (males 10.9%, females 30.4%, p Conclusions We found high prevalence of CVD risk factors among apparently healthy adult Nigerians. In order to reduce this high prevalence and prevent subsequent cardiovascular events, encouragement of a healthy lifestyle is suggested.

  9. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China

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    Yang Wei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality.

  10. Linear and nonlinear analysis of base lung sound in extrinsic allergic alveolitis patients in comparison to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston-Villalobos, S; Albuerne-Sanchez, L; Gonzalez-Camarena, R; Mejia-Avila, M; Carrillo-Rodriguez, G; Aljama-Corrales, T

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary disorders are frequently characterized by the presence of adventitious sounds added to the breathing or base lung sound (BLS). The aim of this work was to assess the features of BLS in extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) patients in comparison to healthy subjects, applying linear and nonlinear analysis techniques. We investigated the multichannel lung sounds on the posterior chest of 16 females, 8 healthy and 8 EAA patients, when breathing at 1.5 L/s. BLS linear features were obtained from the power spectral density (PSD) while nonlinear features were extracted by the concepts of irregularity and complexity, i.e., spectral, sample and multiscale entropy. The results demonstrated that spectral percentiles of BLS were lower in EAA patients than in healthy subjects but statistical significance (p<0.05) was obtained only for expiration at the left apical and both basal regions. Also, the maximum amplitude of the PSD in patients reached statistical significance ( p < 0.05) for the expiratory phase at basal regions. In the case of nonlinear techniques, significant lower values ( p < 0.05) were obtained for EAA patients during both respiratory phases at left apical and both basal regions. In conclusion, we found that BLS in chronic EAA patients is characterized by lower spectral percentiles, lower irregularity and lower complexity than in healthy subjects suggesting the feasibility of its clinical usefulness by screening its temporal alteration.

  11. Approaches in methodology for population-based longitudinal study on neuroprotective model for healthy longevity (TUA) among Malaysian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Suzana; Omar, Azahadi; Vanoh, Divya; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Mukari, Siti Zamratol Mai-Sarah; Din, Normah Che; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Mohammed, Zainora; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Loo, Won Hui; Meramat, Asheila; Kamaruddin, Mohd Zul Amin; Bagat, Mohamad Fazdillah; Razali, Rosdinom

    2016-12-01

    A number of longitudinal studies on aging have been designed to determine the predictors of healthy longevity, including the neuroprotective factors, however, relatively few studies included a wide range of factors and highlighted the challenges faced during data collection. Thus, the longitudinal study on neuroprotective model for healthy longevity (LRGS TUA) has been designed to prospectively investigate the magnitude of cognitive decline and its risk factors through a comprehensive multidimensional assessment comprising of biophysical health, auditory and visual function, nutrition and dietary pattern and psychosocial aspects. At baseline, subjects were interviewed for their status on sociodemographic, health, neuropsychological test, psychosocial and dietary intake. Subjects were also measured for anthropometric and physical function and fitness. Biospecimens including blood, buccal swap, hair and toenail were collected, processed and stored. A subsample was assessed for sensory function, i.e., vision and auditory. During follow-up, at 18 and 36 months, most of the measurements, along with morbidity and mortality outcomes will be collected. The description of mild cognitive impairment, successful aging and usual aging process is presented here. A total 2322 respondents were recruited in the data analysis at baseline. Most of the respondents were categorized as experiencing usual aging (73 %), followed by successful aging (11 %) and mild cognitive impairment (16 %). The LRGS TUA study is the most comprehensive longitudinal study on aging in Malaysia, and will contribute to the understanding of the aging process and factors associated with healthy aging and mental well-being of a multiethnic population in Malaysia.

  12. Bone Mineral Density in 10 to75 Year-Old Iranian Healthy Women: Population Base Study

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    M Pajouhi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in Iran. Bone densitometry is used to diagnose osteopenia and osteoporosis and if necessary, prevent bone fractures, especially that of femoral neck. Bone density is related to several factors including race, age, sex, environmental factors and nutrition. No comprehensive study has been performed in Iran, yet. Among the 10 to 75 year-old population living in Tehran, after excluding those who suffered from conditions affecting bone metabolism, 600 people were randomly selected from 50 clusters. All participants underwent a clinical examination and lumbar and spinal densitometry using DXA method. Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in women older than 50, was 28.1% and 53.3%, respectively. Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was higher in our study population. Peak bone density in the 25-35 -year-old population could be useful in policy-making for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  13. Bone Mineral Density in 10 to75 Year-Old Iranian Healthy Women: Population Base Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pajouhi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in Iran. Bone densitometry is used to diagnose osteopenia and osteoporosis and if necessary, prevent bone fractures, especially that of femoral neck. Bone density is related to several factors including race, age, sex, environmental factors and nutrition. No comprehensive study has been performed in Iran, yet. Among the 10 to 75 year-old population living in Tehran, after excluding those who suffered from conditions affecting bone metabolism, 600 people were randomly selected from 50 clusters. All participants underwent a clinical examination and lumbar and spinal densitometry using DXA method. Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in women older than 50, was 28.1% and 53.3%, respectively. Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was higher in our study population. Peak bone density in the 25-35 -year-old population could be useful in policy-making for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  14. Population Pharmacokinetic Modelling of FE 999049, a Recombinant Human Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, in Healthy Women After Single Ascending Doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Trine Høyer; Röshammar, Daniel; Erichsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for a novel recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (FE 999049) expressed from a human cell line of foetal retinal origin (PER.C6) developed for controlled ovarian stimulation prior to assisted...... reproductive technologies. Methods: Serum FSH levels were measured following a single subcutaneous FE 999049 injection of 37.5, 75, 150, 225 or 450 IU in 27 pituitary-suppressed healthy female subjects participating in this first-in-human single ascending dose trial. Data was analysed by nonlinear mixed...... effects population pharmacokinetic modelling in NONMEM 7.2.0. Results: A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination rates was found to best describe the data. A transit model was introduced to describe a delay in the absorption process. The apparent clearance (CL/F) and apparent...

  15. ANTHROPOMETRIC COMPARISON OF WORLD-CLASS SPRINTERS AND NORMAL POPULATIONS

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    Niels Uth

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the anthropometry of sprinters and people belonging to the normal population. The height and body mass (BM distribution of sprinters (42 men and 44 women were statistically compared to the distributions of American and Danish normal populations. The main results showed that there was significantly less BM and height variability (measured as standard deviation among male sprinters than among the normal male population (US and Danish, while female sprinters showed less BM variability than the US and Danish normal female populations. On average the American normal population was shorter than the sprinters. There was no height difference between the sprinters and the Danish normal population. All female groups had similar height variability. Both male and female sprinters had lower body mass index (BMI than the normal populations. It is likely that there is no single optimal height for sprinters, but instead there is an optimum range that differs for males and females. This range in height appears to exclude people who are very tall or very short in stature. Sprinters are generally lighter in BM than normal populations. Also, the BM variation among sprinters is less than the variation among normal populations. These anthropometric characteristics typical of sprinters might be explained, in part, by the influence the anthropometric characteristics have on relative muscle strength and step length

  16. The Comparison between Conceived Stress and Personality traits, in People Suffering from Migraine and Healthy People

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    B Peymannia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Migraine is a common familial disease and is diagnosed with recurring throbbing headache. Investigation of biological and psychological factors in the initiation and aggravation of migraine headaches have shown that there is a relationship between the psychological factors, personality, and migraine headache. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the conceived stress and Personality traits between ill persons suffering from Migraine and healthy people. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study which involves a sample including 30 migrainours and 30 healthy people. The migraine-suffering participants were chosen among the people who referred to specialized clinic of migraine in Ardabil in the first half of 2012. The study participants filled the Eysenck's personality questionnaire and Kohen' s Perceived stress scale. Descriptive statistics as well as MANOVA were utilized to analyze the research data. Results: The results showed that migraine-suffering participants conceived the stress negatively (P<0.01, F=11 compared to healthy participants. Moreover, migrainours scored significantly higher in regard to Neuroticism score compared to healthy people (P<0.05, F=5.91. Also, there was a significant difference between migrainours and healthy people in their extroversion score (P<0.05, F=6.57. Conclusion: According to the study findings, it appears that migraine patients are more vulnerable to the neurotic disease. Therefore, considering the psychological and personality characteristics may impact on the prognosis of disease.

  17. Pathways to similar executive impairment: comparison of schizophrenia patients and healthy aging individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2013-12-30

    Executive impairment is prominent in schizophrenia, in conditions such as Parkinson's disease and dementia and in healthy aging. Identifying processes that critically constrain executive function can advance investigation of their biological basis and treatment planning. Recent findings that elderly healthy individuals showed similar impairment on conditional exclusion task as schizophrenia patients raised the question whether similar processes are impaired. To test this we compared 56 schizophrenia patients, 57 elderly and 77 young healthy individuals on three executive tests: conditional exclusion, abstraction and inhibition and tests of working memory and psychomotor speed. Schizophrenia patients performed worse than elderly healthy on abstraction, inhibition and verbal working memory. They were similarly impaired on Penn Conditional Exclusion Test (PCET) outcome measures but differed in performance characteristics. Schizophrenia patients needed relatively more trials to learn the first PCET category than the second or the third. This correlated with other cognitive impairments, particularly in working memory. Elderly healthy individuals found it most difficult to learn the last category. The two groups showed different error patterns. We propose that schizophrenia patients have particular difficulty in early (probabilistic) learning ("what to do") while aging individuals have selective impairment in executive integration. These constitute distinct targets for customized treatment in the two conditions.

  18. [Comparative study of the volume difference vs. healthy limb, morphological and population description in transfemoral amputees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe; Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of the general characteristics and physical condition that keeps the transfemoral amputation stump to select and adapt appropriate type of prosthesis to restore a walking pattern amputee patient acceptable and useful design parameters set to propose new prosthetic systems. In this paper, the degree of difference between the volumes of the limb stump and healthy as well as morphological features occurred more frequently in the stumps of transfemoral amputees who were treated at the Laboratory of Orthotics and Prosthetics (LOP), Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (INR) in 2008. It captured all patients with unilateral transfemoral amputation left and right, over 18 years old, both sexes, use of hearing candidates were evaluated clinically and took three measurements of the circumferences at different wavelengths and the limb stump healthy, were calculated volumes of both sides using the mathematical model of the truncated cone and analyzed in three groups according to the level of amputation (proximal, middle and distal third). We obtained 49 patients, 39 men and 10 women, the difference stump volume compared to healthy limb volume per group were: 44.9% proximal third, middle third and distal 26.5%, 21.1%, the frequency of diagnostic data showed a stump right transfemoral amputees, due to metabolic, without use of prostheses, the most common morphological features indicate that the stump has a conical shape and size distal third, whose tissue is semi-flaccid consistency, the scar is not adhered to deep planes and shows a negative tinel, the mattress soft tissue is 2.15 ± 1.3 cm and physically presents a force level 4 in the clinical rating scale Daniels. The data are consistent with other studies comparing the percentage of the volume change with the percentages of reduced diameters transfemoral stump muscle, likewise agrees most amputees incidence of diabetes mellitus with other studies, cataloging it eat first cause amputation. The general description

  19. COMPARISON OF THE CONCENTRIC TORQUE OF KNEE MUSCLES AND TIMED-WALKING TEST IN HEALTHY AND LOW GRADE TIBIOFEMORAL OSTEOARTHRITIS

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    H. Bagheri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate and compare the concentric torque of Quadriceps and Hamstring muscles and Timed-Walking test in two groups. Thus, one group of healthy subjects and one group of patients with low grade of tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (OA were selected. Concentric torque of Quadriceps and Hamstring were measured in both groups. Besides, pain measurement, Timed-Walking test, range of motion and the muscle bulk of thigh were assessed in both groups. The independent t-test revealed significant differences between the two groups with regard to concentric torques and Timed-Walking test. However, no significant difference in range of motion and the muscle bulk was seen. In conclusion, patients with low grade of osteoarthritis and minimum clinical signs had weaker muscles and functional limitation in comparison with the matched healthy individuals.

  20. Common epigenetic variation in a European population of mentally healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnik, Annette; Vogler, Christian; Demougin, Philippe; Egli, Tobias; Freytag, Virginie; Hartmann, Francina; Heck, Angela; Peter, Fabian; Spalek, Klara; Stetak, Attila; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Vukojevic, Vanja

    2016-12-01

    DNA methylation represents an important link between structural genetic variation and complex phenotypes. The study of genome-wide CpG methylation and its relation to traits relevant to psychiatry has become increasingly important. Here, we analyzed quality metrics of 394,043 CpG sites in two samples of 568 and 319 mentally healthy young adults. For 25% of all CpGs we observed medium to large common epigenetic variation. These CpGs were overrepresented in open sea and shore regions, as well as in intergenic regions. They also showed a strong enrichment of significant hits in association analyses. Furthermore, a significant proportion of common DNA methylation is at least partially genetically driven and thus may be observed similarly across tissues. These findings could be of particular relevance for studies of complex neuropsychiatric traits, which often rely on proxy tissues.

  1. Comparison of red blood cells from gastric cancer patients and healthy persons using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Su, Qinglong; Sheng, Daping; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, FTIR spectroscopy was used to compare gastric cancer patients' red blood cells (RBCs) with healthy persons' RBCs. IR spectra were acquired with high resolution. The A1653/A1543 (the protein secondary structures), A1543/A2958 (the relative content of proteins and lipids), A1106/A1166 (the structure and content changes of sugars) and A1543/A1106 (the relative content of proteins and sugars) ratios of gastric cancer patients' RBCs were significantly different from those of healthy persons' RBCs. Curve fitting results showed that the protein secondary structures and sugars' structures had differences between gastric cancer patients' and healthy persons' RBCs. Additionally, FTIR spectroscopy could obtain 95% sensitivity, 70% specificity, 84.2% accuracy and 80.9% positive predictive value in combination with canconical discriminant analysis. The above results indicate FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for diagnosing gastric cancer.

  2. Nanofiltration in Transforming Surface Water into Healthy Water: Comparison with Reverse Osmosis

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    L. D. Naidu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural surface water, especially available through rivers, is the main source of healthy water for the living beings throughout the world from ancient days as it consists of all essential minerals. With the advent of industrialization, gradually even the most prominent rivers have been polluted in all parts of the world. Although there are lots of technologies, nanofiltration (NF has been chosen to transform river water into healthy water due to its unique advantages of retaining optimum TDS (with essential minerals required for human body, consuming of lower energy, and no usage of any chemicals. The prominent parameters of surface water and macro/microminerals of treated water have been analyzed. It is shown that NF is better in producing healthy water with high flux by consuming low energy.

  3. Comparison of Periodontal Status in Gingival Oral Lichen Planus Patients and Healthy Subjects

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    Arash Azizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Oral lichen planus (OLP is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease. OLP can occur in different oral sites such as gingiva. The purpose of study was to evaluate the periodontal status of OLP patients with desquamative gingivitis (DG and compare it with that of healthy control. Methods. This study was case-control. 32 patients with gingival OLP as a case group and 32 healthy subjects as a control group were selected. The periodontal status of all subjects including plaque index (PI, bleeding on probing (BOP, and clinical attachment level (CAL was evaluated in both groups. Finally data were analyzed by t-test. Results. The mean values of periodontal parameters were observed to be higher in case group compared with control group, and this was significant (<0.05. Conclusion. Our results showed that periodontal status is worse in gingival OLP if compared with healthy controls.

  4. Comparison of Emotion Recognition and Mind Reading Abilities in Opium Abusers and Healthy Matched Individuals

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    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare the emotion recognition and mind reading in opium abusers and healthy individuals. Method: In this causative-comparative study, with a non probability sampling method, 30 opium abusers compared with 30 healthy individuals that were matched in sex and education. Neurocognitive tests of reading mind from eyes and emotion recognition from face were used for evaluation. Independent T-Test was used for analysis. Findings: The results showed that opium abusers had significantly lower abilities in mind reading than healthy matched individuals. Also opium abusers had significantly lower performance in recognition of emotional experience of happy, sad and angry faces. Conclusion: Based on weak performance of mind reading and emotion recognition in addicts, it is advised that social cognition evaluation considered in drug abusers evaluation. Future interventional study could propose social cognition rehabilitation programs for addicts.

  5. Comparison of serum from gastric cancer patients and from healthy persons using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Daping; Wu, Yican; Wang, Xin; Huang, Dake; Chen, Xianliang; Liu, Xingcun

    2013-12-01

    Since serum can reflect human beings' physiological and pathological conditions, FTIR spectroscopy was used to compare gastric cancer patients' serum with healthy persons' serum in this study. The H2959/H2931, H1646/H1550, H1314/H1243, H1453/H1400 and H1080/H1550 ratios were calculated, among these ratios, the H2959/H2931 ratio might be a standard for distinguishing gastric cancer patients from healthy persons. Then curve fitting was processed using Gaussian curves in the 1140-1000 cm-1 region, and the result showed that the RNA/DNA ratios of gastric cancer patients' serum were obviously lower than those of healthy persons' serum. The results suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be a potentially useful tool for diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  6. Vertebral fractures in patients with inflammatory bowel disease COMPARED with a healthy population: a prospective case-control study

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    Vázquez Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective study was performed to compare the prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures (MVF between patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and healthy subjects and to identify predictive factors of fracture. Methods A total of 107 patients with IBD (53 with Crohn’s disease and 54 with ulcerative colitis and 51 healthy subjects participated in the study. Information about anthropometric parameters, toxins, previous fractures, and parameters related to this disease were evaluated. The index of vertebral deformity, bone mass density (BMD, and biochemical parameters were calculated. Results A total of 72 fractures were detected in 38.32% of patients with IBD, and 10 fractures were detected in 13.73% of healthy subjects; the risk of fracture in patients with IBD was higher than that in control subjects (OR, 4.03; 95% CI, 1.652–9.847; p p = 0.17 and femoral neck, r = −0.138, p = 0.07. Corticosteroid treatment was not associated with prevalent vertebral fractures nor with taking corticosteroids (r = 0.135, p = 0.14 or the duration for which they were taken (r = 0.08, p = 0.38, whereas this relationship was present in the controls (r = −0.365, p = 0.01. In the multivariate analysis, none of the measured parameters were significantly predictive of fracture, only to manifested IBD. Hypovitaminosis D was observed in 55.14% of patients with IBD. Conclusions The prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures is higher in patients with IBD than in the healthy population, without association with BMD or corticoid treatment. Simply having IBD was proven to be a predictive factor of fracture. We observed a high incidence of hypovitaminosis D in patients with IBD.

  7. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in an adult healthy population:serosurvey and risk factors in Southeast Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaine Cristina Negri; Vamilton Alvares Santarm; Guita Rubinsky-Elefant; Rogrio Giuffrida

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in an adult healthy population. Methods: The study was performed by interviewing 253 blood donors, from 19 to 65 years of age, in a hematological centre in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, southeast Brazil. A survey was applied to blood donors in order to evaluate the possible factors associated to the presence of antibodies, including individual (gender and age), socioeconomic (scholarship, familial income and sanitary facilities) and habit information (contact with soil, geophagy, onycophagy and intake of raw/undercooked meat) as well as the presence of dogs or cats in the household. ELISA test was run for detection of the anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies. Bivariate analysis followed by logistic regression was performed to evaluate the potential risk factors associated to seropositivity. Results: The overall prevalence observed in this study was 8.7%(22/253). Contact with soil was the unique risk factor associated with the presence of antibodies (P=0.017 8;OR=3.52; 95%CI=1.244-9.995). Conclusions: The results of this study reinforce the necessity in promoting preventive public health measures, even for healthy adult individual, particularly those related to the deworming of pets to avoid the soil contamination, and hygiene education of the population.

  8. Widespread nasal carriage of Mycobacterium leprae among a healthy population in a hyperendemic region of northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Frota, Cristiane Cunha; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Almeida, Rosa Livia Freitas; Pontes, Maria Araci de Andrade; Gonçalves, Heitor de Sá; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia

    2015-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence of Mycobacterium leprae DNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive prevalence, an external group (EG) (n = 121), a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. Polymerase chain reaction for the RLEP sequence was conducted for all participants. Prevalence of RLEP positivity for cases and Co were 69.2% and 66.9%, respectively, significantly higher than for EG (28.1%), and reported elsewhere. Male sex, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status (D/E), history of a previous contact with a case and being older, were associated with being a leprosy case. Our geographical analysis demonstrated that the bacillus is widespread among the healthy population, with clusters of RLEP positive multibacillary cases concentrated in distinct areas of the city. Our results suggest that in endemic areas, as in Fortaleza, surveillance for both nonhousehold leprosy contacts and members of the general population living in cluster areas should be implemented. PMID:26560980

  9. Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with insulin resistance and β-cell function in a healthy Chinese female population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-fang TAO; Zeng ZHANG; Yao-hua KE; Jin-wei HE; Wen-zhen FU; Chang-qing ZHANG; Zhen-lin ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To assess associations of the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with insulin resistance and β-cell function in a healthy Chinese female population.Methods:This cross-sectional study included 1382 female participants free of type 2 diabetes who were recruited in Shanghai.Blood samples were collected within a winter season and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D,fasting plasma glucose and insulin,and other biochemical parameters were determined.Insulin resistance and β-cell function were assessed using the homeostasis model assessments of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-B),respectively.Results:Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age,parathyroid hormone,Ca2+ and BMI revealed that independent inverse associations existed between the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and HOMA-IR (P<0.001) and between the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and HOMA-B (P=0.001).Conclusion:Serum vitamin D level is significantly and independently associated with insulin resistance and β-cell function in a healthy Chinese female population.

  10. Investigation of the effects of solid lipid curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Katherine H M; Pipingas, Andrew; Scholey, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    Curcumin possesses many properties which may prevent or ameliorate pathological processes underlying age-related cognitive decline, dementia or mood disorders. These benefits in preclinical studies have not been established in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the acute (1 and 3 h after a single dose), chronic (4 weeks) and acute-on-chronic (1 and 3 h after single dose following chronic treatment) effects of solid lipid curcumin formulation (400 mg as Longvida®) on cognitive function, mood and blood biomarkers in 60 healthy adults aged 60-85. One hour after administration curcumin significantly improved performance on sustained attention and working memory tasks, compared with placebo. Working memory and mood (general fatigue and change in state calmness, contentedness and fatigue induced by psychological stress) were significantly better following chronic treatment. A significant acute-on-chronic treatment effect on alertness and contentedness was also observed. Curcumin was associated with significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol and had no effect on hematological safety measures. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the effects of curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population or to examine any acute behavioral effects in humans. Results highlight the need for further investigation of the potential psychological and cognitive benefits of curcumin in an older population.

  11. Quality of life and sexuality comparison between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Yumi; Joo, Jungnam; Park, KiByung; Lee, Dong Ock; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective compare quality of life (QoL) and sexual functioning between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 103 successfully treated ovarian cancer survivors and 220 healthy women. All women had engaged in sexual activity within the previous 3 months, and ovarian cancer survivors were under surveillance after primary treatment without evidence of disease. QoL and sexual functioning were assessed using three questionnaires; the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), Ovarian Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-OV28), and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Propensity score matching was used to adjust covariates between the ovarian cancer survivor and healthy women groups. In total, 73 ovarian cancer survivors and 73 healthy women were compared. Results Poorer social functioning (mean, 82.4 vs. 90.9; p=0.010) and more financial difficulties (mean, 16.4 vs. 7.8; p=0.019) were observed among ovarian cancer survivors than among healthy women. Sexuality, both in terms of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain and in terms of interest in sex, sexual activity, and enjoyment of sex (EORTC QLQ-OV28) were similar between the groups. However, vaginal dryness was more problematic in ovarian cancer survivors, with borderline statistical significance (p=0.081). Conclusion Sexuality was not impaired in ovarian cancer survivors who were without evidence of disease after primary treatment and having sexual activities, compared with healthy women, whereas social functioning and financial status did deteriorate. Prospective cohort studies are needed. PMID:25686396

  12. Quantification of MRI measured myocardial perfusion reserve in healthy humans: a comparison with positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Hove, Jens D; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To validate a noninvasive quantitative MRI technique, the K(i) perfusion method, for myocardial perfusion in humans using (13)N-ammonia PET as a reference method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten healthy males (64 +/- 8 years) were examined with combined PET and MRI perfusion imaging at rest...... and during stress induced by dipyridamole in order to determine the myocardial perfusion reserve. Myocardial and blood time concentration curves obtained by Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI and (13)N-ammonia PET were fitted by a two-compartment perfusion model. RESULTS: Mean perfusion values (+/-SD) derived from the MRI...... as a quantitative marker for myocardial perfusion in healthy humans....

  13. Comparison between visual assessment of MTA and hippocampal volumes in an elderly, non-demented population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallin, Lena; Axelsson, Rimma [CLINTEC, Div. of Medical Imaging and Technology, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Dept. of Radiology, Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)], e-mail: lena.cavallin@karolinska.se; Bronge, Lena [CLINTEC, Div. of Medical Imaging and Technology, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Aleris Diagnostics, Stockholm (Sweden); Zhang, Yi [NVS, Novum, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Oeksengaard, Anne-Rita [NVS, Novum, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ulleval Univ. Hospital and Asker and Baerum Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Wahlund, Lars-Olof [NVS, Novum, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Swedish Brain Power, Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Fratiglioni, Laura [ARC Karolinska Inst. Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    Background: It is important to have a replicable easy method for monitoring atrophy progression in Alzheimer's disease. Volumetric methods for calculating hippocampal volume are time-consuming and commonly used in research. Visual assessments of medial temporal lobe atrophy (vaMTA) is a rapid method for clinical use. This method has not been tested in a large non-demented population in comparison with volumetry measurements. Since hippocampal volume decreases with time even in normal aging there is also a need to study the normal age differences of medial temporal lobe atrophy. Purpose: To compare visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (vaMTA) with hippocampal volume in a healthy, non-demented elderly population. To describe normal ageing using vaMTA. Material and Methods: Non-demented individuals aged 60, 66, 72, 78, 81, 84, and {>=}87 years old were recruited from the Swedish National study on Ageing and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K), Sweden. Standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, vaMTA, and calculations of hippocampal volumes were performed in 544 subjects. Results: Significant correlation (rs = -0.32, P < 0.001, sin; and rs = -0.26, P < 0.001, dx) was found between hippocampal volume measurements and vaMTA. In normal ageing, almost 95% of {<=}66-year-olds had a medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) score {<=}1, with possible scores ranging from 0 to 4. Subjects aged 72, 78, and 81 years scored {<=}2, while the two oldest age groups had scores {<=}3. Conclusion: There was a highly significant correlation between volumetric measurements of the hippocampus and MTA scoring. In normal ageing, there is increasing MTA score. For non-demented elderly individuals {<=}70 years, an MTA score of 0-1 may be considered normal, compared with MTA {<=}2 for 70-80-years and MTA 3 for >80-year-old individuals.

  14. Choroidal changes in pre-eclampsia during pregnancy and the postpartum period: comparison with healthy pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati Duru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT in patients with pre-eclampsia using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT. Methods: A sample of 73 pregnant women was studied over 28 weeks of gestation. The sample was divided into two groups: one comprising pre-eclamptic pregnant women (n=32, and the other comprising healthy pregnant women (n=41. The SFCT was determined for all patients using EDI-OCT during pregnancy and at the third month of the postpartum period. Results: The SFCTs in pre-eclamptic pregnant women were 351.97 ± 22.44 and 332.28 ± 20.32 µm during the pregnancy and postpartum periods (p<0.001, respectively, whereas these values in healthy pregnant women were 389.73 ± 49.64 and 329.78 ± 22.36 µm (p<0.001, respectively. During pregnancy SFCT in pre-eclamptic pregnant women was significantly thinner than that in healthy pregnant women (p<0.001. However, there was no statistically significant difference during the postpartum period (p=0.623. Conclusions: The results suggest that SFCT is significantly decreased in pre-eclamptic pregnant women than in healthy pregnant women, despite no statistically significant difference in SFCT existing between the groups during the postpartum period.

  15. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Riahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder.

  16. Absorption capacity of fructose in healthy adults. Comparison with sucrose and its constituent monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1986-01-01

    The capacity to absorb fructose in 10 healthy adults was investigated by means of hydrogen breath analysis. Fructose absorption was quantified with lactulose standards. Significant hydrogen production (greater than or equal to 20 ppm rise of breath hydrogen) was found after challenge with 10...

  17. Comparison of Lumbo-Pelvic Stability between Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosseinifar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of lumbo-pelvic stability as one of the suggested factors to prevent low back pain and since to date no study accomplished to compare lumbo-pelvic stability between chronic low back pain (CLBP and healthy subjects, the aim of this study was to determine and to compare lumbo-pelvic stability, lumbar lordosis, and lumbar mobility between CLBP and healthy subjects. Thirty CLBP patients and thirty healthy subjects through simple non-probability sampling participated in this cross-sectional analytical study. Lumbar lordosis, lumbar flexion and extension range of motion, lumbo-pelvic stability was measured through flexible ruler, modified modified schober test, and Pressure Biofeedback Unit (PBU respectively. ANCOVA test were used for statistical analysis (p0.05. Also lumbar lordosis, and lumbar flexion and extension range of motion did not significantly differ between two groups (p>0.05. There is no difference between CLBP and healthy subjects in terms of the lumbo-pelvic stability, lumbar lordosis, lumbar flexion and extension range of motion. The present study supported that lumbar lordosis, lumbar mobility, and lumbo-pelvic stability not affected by CLBP.

  18. Comparison of Corneal Topographical and Biomechanical Properties in Cases with Atopic Dermatitis and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yıldırım

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To compare the topographic, biomechanical, and thickness properties of corneas of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD and of healthy individuals. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this prospective, cross-sectional, and comparative study, 28 healthy individuals (control group and 28 patients with AD (study group were enrolled. Corneal topographical measurements using Scheimpflug camera with a Placido disc topographer (Sirius, corneal biomechanical properties using Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA, and central corneal thickness (CCT using ultrasonic pachymeter were obtained for each participant. Re sults: Topographic parameters were not significantly different between both groups (p>0.05. Corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF were found same in both groups. CCT measured with ultrasonic pachymeter was significantly lower in patients with AD compared to health controls (p<0.05. Dis cus si on: No significant difference was found between patients with AD and age-matched healthy individuals regarding the corneal topographic findings and corneal biomechanical parameters. CCT was found to be lower in cases with AD than in healthy controls. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 140-4

  19. Gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-12-01

    Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.

  20. Motor performance and disability in Dutch children with haemophilia : a comparison with their healthy peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, MAGC; Gulmans, VAM; Helders, PJM; Van den Berg, HM

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether haemophilic children who are on prophylactic therapy differ from their healthy peers in terms of motor performance and disability. Thirty-nine children, aged 4-12 years, with moderate (eight) and severe (31) haemophilia were included. Patients with severe haemophilia received

  1. A comparison of physical fitness in patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Sienaert, Pascal; Wyckaert, Sabine; De Hert, Marc; Soundy, Andrew; Probst, Michel

    2016-10-01

    To compare the physical fitness of inpatients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and healthy controls. Twenty-two inpatients with bipolar disorder, and 22 age-, gender- and body mass index-matched inpatients with schizophrenia and healthy controls were included. All participants performed the Eurofit test battery and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. One way analyses of variance with post hoc Scheffe were applied to examine differences. Both patient groups were significantly more physically inactive and had a significantly impaired speed of limb movement, explosive muscle strength and abdominal muscular endurance compared to the healthy controls. No significant differences between the patient groups were found. The results suggest that physical fitness and physical activity participation are similar among inpatients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia but markedly lower than healthy controls. Chronic inpatients with lower levels of physical activity may particularly benefit from rehabilitation interventions aimed at increasing physical fitness. Implications for Rehabilitation Physical fitness should receive similar attention in the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Sedentary patients with a longer duration of illness need additional support in changing lifestyle behaviours. Rehabilitation should not only consider cardio-respiratory fitness but also muscular endurance, muscular strength and balance.

  2. Comparison of main lactobacillus species between healthy women and women with bacterial vaginosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Dong-hui; L(U) Zhi; SU Jian-rong

    2009-01-01

    Background The normal microbial flora of the vagina plays an important role in preventing genital and urinary tract infections in women. Thus an accurate understanding of the composition and ecology of the ecosystem is important to understanding the etiology of these diseases. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of main lactobacillus species between healthy women and women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) by quantitative culture and PCR methods.Main lactobacillus species include L. Crispatus , L. Gassed, L. Jensenii and L. Iners.Methods A total of 150 Women attending Gynecology Outpatient Clinic of Beijing Friendship Hospital, were diagnosed as having BV because three or more of the following criteria were met (standard of Amsel's composite criteria):homogeneous discharge, elevated vaginal pH (pH >4.5), production of amines, and presence of "clue" cells. Those with less than three of the criteria were considered as healthy. Simultaneously, smears were made of vaginal fluid and Gram stained, then were assessed qualitatively as normal (grade Ⅰ), intermediate (grade Ⅱ), or consistent with BV (grade Ⅲ).Gardnerella vaginalis were identified by using Vitek 2 Compact and PCR methods. Lactobacillus species were identified by PCR methods. Gardnerella vaginalis and lactobacilli colony counts were determined by calculating the most number of colonies of each species in the appropriate plates (colonies between 10 and 300), corrected by the dilution of the sample in the plates, and multiplied by 10 (to account for plating 100 μl), in order to get colony forming units per milliliter of vaginal secretion.Results BV was diagnosed in 31% (46/150) patients using the composite criteria, the remainder being regarded as healthy. The majority of patients with BV had a smear assessed as grade Ⅲ (91%, 42/46) and minority of them had a smear assessed as grade Ⅱ (9%, 4/46). The majority of healthy women had a smear assessed as grade Ⅰ (64%, 67/104).Smears assessed as

  3. Comparison of Serum Apolipoprotein Levels of Diabetic Children and Healthy Children with or without Diabetic Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association of diabetes and atherosclerosis with disorders of lipids and lipoproteins, notably high apolipoprotein B (apoB and low apolipoprotein A1(apoA1 is well established. Because of the beginning of the atherosclerosis' process from early life, in this study, the plasma levels of apoA1 and apoB were compared in diabetic children with type I diabetes mellitus(DM, healthy children with diabetic parents (HDPs,and healthy children with nondiabetic parents (HNDPs. Methods. This case-control study was conducted among 90 children aged 9–18 years. Serum levels of apoA and apoB were compared among 30 diabetic children (DM, 30 healthy children with diabetic parents (HDPs, and 30 healthy children with nondiabetic parents (HNDP. Results. The mean serum apoA1 was higher in DM (153±69 mg/dL followed by HNDPs (138±58 mg/dL and HDPs (128±56 mg/dl, but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean apoB value in HNDPs was significantly lower than DM and HDPs (90±21 mg/dL versus 127±47 and 128±38 mg/dL, P0.05. Conclusions. Diabetic children and healthy children with diabetic parent(s are at higher risk of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Thus for primordial and primary prevention of atherosclerosis, we suggest screening these children for low plasma apoA1 and high plasma apoB levels.

  4. A Comparison of Selenium Concentrations Between Congestive Heart Failure Patients and Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghaemian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selenium (Se is an essential trace element mainly obtained from seafood, meat, and cereals. Se deficiency has been identified as a major contributing factor in the pathogenesis of certain congestive heart failure (CHF syndromes. Since there is controversy over the prevalence of Se deficiency among patient with CHF, the aim of this study was to assess the serum Se concentrations in patients with CHF and compared them with the Se status of healthy controls.Methods: The study included 77 patients (age, 68.4 ± 10.4 years old; 40.3% female and 73 healthy volunteers (64.9 ± 4.7 years old; 35.6% female. A complete medical/drug history and physical examination were performed for all patients and healthy volunteers. All patients had symptoms and signs of CHF and had a left ventricular ejection fraction (EF of < 40% obtained by echocardiography. The Se concentration was assessed by atomic absorption spectrometer with the Graphite Tube Atomizer. The limit of measurement was 5 μg/L. Results: The Se concentrations in CHF patients did not show a significant difference from those of healthy controls (185.9 ± 781.2 μg/L vs. 123.3 ± 115.5 μg/L, respectively; p value = 0.499. There was no correlation between serum Se concentrations and EF in both the normal group and the patients with heart failure (p value = 0.96 and 0.99; r = 0.006 and 0.002 for patients and healthy volunteers, respectively.Conclusion: In this study, serum Se levels in CHF patients were similar to those of controls and the Se concentrations did not correlate with the degree of left ventricular dysfunction.

  5. Comparison of the Levels of Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness of Patients with Epilepsy and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Rabia Koç

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is characterized by sudden seizures and loss of control in patients; it leads to constantly be under stress. Psychiatric disorders, particularly depressive disorders are more frequent in patients with epilepsy than in the whole of society. In this study; we aimed to compare depression,anxiety and desperation levels between epileptic patients and healthy ones. METHODS: 34 patients and 34 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. Demographic features of all subjects were also recorded. Neurologic examination, Electroencephalography (EEG and cranial magnetic resonance imaging(MRI of patients were also evaluated. State-Trait Anxety Inventory (STAI is for anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDE is for depression, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BUO is for hopelessness were evaluated. RESULTS: Epileptic patients were with mean age of 24.56 ± 8.49, healthy subjects were with the mean age 27.44 ± 5.66 years. 13 of patients were female(38.2% and 21 patients were male(%38.2 in all groups.There was no significant difference about demographic features(p>0.05. When continuous and instant anxiety levels of epileptic and healthy groups were compared, no significant difference was observed between instant anxiety levels(p> 0.05; but there was difference between continuous anxiety levels (p <0.05. Also, hopelessness and depression levels were similar between groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed that depression, anxiety and hopelessness levels were higher in epileptic patients when compared to healthy people. In addition, patients with seizure control with less drug use will reduce the level of trait anxiety was concluded.

  6. POPCORN: A comparison of binary population synthesis codes

    CERN Document Server

    Claeys, J S W; Mennekens, N

    2012-01-01

    We compare the results of three binary population synthesis codes to understand the differences in their results. As a first result we find that when equalizing the assumptions the results are similar. The main differences arise from deviating physical input.

  7. POPCORN: A comparison of binary population synthesis codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, J. S. W.; Toonen, S.; Mennekens, N.

    2013-01-01

    We compare the results of three binary population synthesis codes to understand the differences in their results. As a first result we find that when equalizing the assumptions the results are similar. The main differences arise from deviating physical input.

  8. Current Scenario of Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Ostensibly Healthy Indian Population: A Hospital Based Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Sharma, Shikha; Gupta, Aditi; Raizada, Arun; Vinayak, Kamini

    2016-10-01

    25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vit D] deficiency is a serious public health problem, particularly in the Indian sub-continent. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of 25(OH) vit D in different age groups. The data of 25(OH) vit D assay of 26,346 ostensibly healthy individuals, enrolled under executive health checkup at Medanta The Medicity, Gurgaon, over a period of 3 years, were extracted from the hospital information system and reviewed extensively. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD) was defined as 25(OH) vit D D between 20 and 40 ng/ml and 25(OH) vit D sufficiency (VDS) as 25(OH) D > 40 ng/mL. 25(OH) vit D deficiency (VDD + VDI) was observed in 93 % of the subject population. Maximum number of the subjects belonged to the age group of 41-60 years. 59 % had frank 25(OH) vit D deficiency when cut off level was D in our subjects was 21.4 ± 14.4 ng/mL. Significant difference in 25(OH) vit D level was observed in between male and female subjects. Simultaneously 25(OH) vit D levels were significantly lower in the patient visited hospital in winter-spring season than the summer-autumn season (p > 0.001). Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of 25(OH) vit D deficiency in an ostensibly healthy Indian population. There is a need for redefining our reference ranges according to our population and extensively improving the status of vitamin D.

  9. Cardiovascular health among healthy population of Northeast region of India: a cross-sectional study comparing urban-tribal difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soma; Gupta, Kinnari; Kumar, Soumitra

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of adult mortality in India but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors are scarce, especially from North-east region of India. This study aims to assess the prevalence and the urban/tribal gradient of cardiovascular disease risk factors among healthy population of Tripura. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 238 healthy individuals (140 urban and 98 tribal) in one urban and five tribal areas of Tripura. Data was collected on sociodemographic profile, medical history, anthropometry, dietary patterns and addiction. Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and short-term cardiovascular disease risk score was calculated. The association of independent variables with 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score were examined by using multiple regression model. Prevalence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and short-term cardiovascular disease risk score were higher in urban group. Urban people had higher salt, calories and fat intake. No difference was found in the addiction patterns of tobacco and alcohol but frequency and quantity being higher in tribal area. Dyslipidaemia and alcohol consumption showed significant positive association with 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score in both groups. While the non-sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits (low salt, low fat, carbohydrate predominant) of tribal population need to be promoted as a whole across the nation, they need to be protected from the adverse effects of rampant prevalence of tobacco and alcohol addiction among them. Urban population need to be extricated from adverse effects of sedentary lifestyle, modern food habits (high salt, high fat) and tobacco-alcohol addiction.

  10. Cardiac safety of Modified Vaccinia Ankara for vaccination against smallpox in a young, healthy study population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Zitzmann-Roth

    Full Text Available Conventional smallpox vaccines based on replicating vaccinia virus (VV strains (e.g. Lister Elstree, NYCBOH are associated with a high incidence of myo-/pericarditis, a severe inflammatory cardiac complication. A new smallpox vaccine candidate based on a non-replicating Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA poxvirus has been assessed for cardiac safety in a large placebo-controlled clinical trial.Cardiac safety of one and two doses of MVA compared to placebo was assessed in 745 healthy subjects. Vaccinia-naïve subjects received either one dose of MVA and one dose of placebo, two doses of MVA, or two doses of placebo by subcutaneous injection four weeks apart; vaccinia-experienced subjects received a single dose of MVA. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AE and cardiac safety parameters (recorded as Adverse Events of Special Interest, AESI were monitored after each injection.A total of 5 possibly related AESI (3 cases of palpitations, 2 of tachycardia were reported during the study. No case of myo- or pericarditis occurred. One possibly related serious AE (SAE was reported during the 6-month follow-up period (sarcoidosis. The most frequently observed AEs were injection site reactions.Vaccination with MVA was safe and well tolerated and did not increase the risk for development of myo-/pericarditis.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316524.

  11. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. Objective: We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Results: Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Conclusion: Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. PMID:27509093

  12. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and diet in a healthy elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, P L; Garry, P J; Goodwin, J S; Hooper, E M; Leonard, A G

    1982-01-01

    This study examined how high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) correlated with a 3-day food record of fat, protein, carbohydrate, and alcohol consumption in a group of 270 healthy subjects over age 60. HDL-C concentrations correlated with alcohol consumption (expressed as grams/day) (r = + .25, P less than .001), and inversely with total carbohydrate (r = - .18, P less than .01) and refined carbohydrate (r = - .17, P less than .01) ingestion (expressed as a percent of total caloric intake). Subjects consuming diets low in either total carbohydrate or refined carbohydrate had 10 to 20% higher HDL-C levels than did those consuming diets high in these food substances. The relationships between HDL-C levels and alcohol and carbohydrate ingestion were independent of other variables which correlated with HDL-C levels. Dietary fat (total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and cholesterol) did not correlate with HDL-C. LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not correlate with any dietary variable measured.

  13. Effects of liquid stimuli on dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals in a healthy population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdić Ervin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual-axis swallowing accelerometry has recently been proposed as a tool for non-invasive analysis of swallowing function. Although swallowing is known to be physiologically modifiable by the type of food or liquid (i.e., stimuli, the effects of stimuli on dual-axis accelerometry signals have never been thoroughly investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate stimulus effects on dual-axis accelerometry signal characteristics. Signals were acquired from 17 healthy participants while swallowing 4 different stimuli: water, nectar-thick and honey-thick apple juices, and a thin-liquid barium suspension. Two swallowing tasks were examined: discrete and sequential. A variety of features were extracted in the time and time-frequency domains after swallow segmentation and pre-processing. A separate Friedman test was conducted for each feature and for each swallowing task. Results Significant main stimulus effects were found on 6 out of 30 features for the discrete task and on 5 out of 30 features for the sequential task. Analysis of the features with significant stimulus effects suggested that the changes in the signals revealed slower and more pronounced swallowing patterns with increasing bolus viscosity. Conclusions We conclude that stimulus type does affect specific characteristics of dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals, suggesting that associated clinical screening protocols may need to be stimulus specific.

  14. Effects of respiratory manoeuvres on hepatic vein Doppler waveform and flow velocities in a healthy population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinkaya, Naime, E-mail: naimeto@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Koc, Zafer, E-mail: koczafer@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Ulusan, Serife, E-mail: sulusan@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Demir, Senay, E-mail: drsenaydemir@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Gurel, Kamil, E-mail: kamilgurel@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey)

    2011-07-15

    Objective: This study was performed to determine the variations in Doppler waveforms and flow velocity during respiratory manoeuvres in healthy individuals with no liver disease. Materials and methods: In total, 100 individuals (75 women and 25 men) without known cardiac or liver disease were examined prospectively with duplex Doppler ultrasonography (US). We recorded the Doppler waveforms and peak systolic velocities (V{sub max}) of the middle hepatic vein during normal respiration, during breath-holding after quiet expiration and also during deep inspiration. Doppler waveforms are categorised as triphasic, biphasic or monophasic. Results: During normal respiration, hepatic venous waveforms were triphasic in 93% of subjects, monophasic in 6% and biphasic in 1%. During breath-holding after quiet expiration, the percentages were 91%, 6% and 3%, respectively. During deep inspiration, they were 80%, 18% and 2%, respectively. Although significant differences were noted between rates during deep inspiration and normal respiration, they were quite similar during normal respiration and breath-holding after quiet expiration (P < 0.05). The values of V{sub max} were significantly higher during normal respiration compared to quiet expiration and during quiet expiration compared to deep inspiration (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The velocities and waveforms of hepatic veins varied during respiratory manoeuvres. The status of respiration must be taken into consideration whilst examining the hepatic vein waveforms and velocities with duplex Doppler US.

  15. Cardiovascular responses to energy drinks in a healthy population: The C-energy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Teri M; Shah, Sachin; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi; Franklin, Teresa T; Connolly, Therese Farrell; Chien, Walter; Charos, George S; Pelter, Michele M

    2016-07-01

    Energy drink consumption has increased significantly over the past decade and is associated with greater than 20,000 emergency department visits per year. Most often these visits are due to cardiovascular complaints ranging from palpitations to cardiac arrest. To determine if energy drinks alter; blood pressure, electrolytes, activated bleeding time (ACT), and/or cardiac responses measured with a 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) Holter. Continuous ECG data was collected for five hours (30 minutes baseline and 4 hours post consumption [PC]). Subjects consumed 32 ounces of energy drink within one hour and data (vital signs and blood samples) was collected throughout the study period. Paired students t-test and a corresponding non-parametric test (Wilcoxon signed rank) were used for analysis of the data. Fourteen healthy young subjects were recruited (mean age 28.6 years). Systolic blood pressure (baseline=132, ±7.83; PC=151, ±11.21; P=.001); QTc interval (baseline=423, ±22.74; PC=503, ±24.56; P500 milliseconds PC. Other T-wave changes were noted in 9/14 (64.3%) subjects PC. Energy drinks increased systolic blood pressure, altered electrolytes, and resulted in repolarization abnormalities. These physiological responses can lead to arrhythmias and other abnormal cardiac responses highlighting the importance that emergency room personnel assess for energy drink consumption and potential toxicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Risk of Anaemia in Population of Healthy Young People Inhabiting a Region in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Szczuko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is quite unbelievable but significant percentage of young healthy women is at risk of anaemia despite proper nutritional state. In this study we decided to determine the lack or excess of which nutrients in a diet can lead to any effects. The major cause of anaemia is not, as in many studies on nutritional status, the deficiency in iron in a diet. Iron intake in women with anaemia exceeded AI (Adequate Intake level. 120 people took part in the study. Average HGB concentration in female group amounted to 12.45 g/dL and in male group to 14.35 g/dL. Anaemia was determined in 29% women and 4.2% men. In group of women with anaemia a statistically higher intake of SFA, cholesterol, and sucrose and lower intake of pyridoxine, folacin, niacin, and vitamin E, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mg were determined. In a group of men with low haemoglobin concentration a statistically higher intake of sucrose but lower intake of fat, especially SFA and MUFA, vitamin C and zinc were observed. Therefore, together with anaemia in the group of women there are coexisting deficiencies in other nutrients, as compared to the group of men. Prevention in both groups should include various supplements.

  17. Multiple OPR genes influence personality traits in substance dependent and healthy subjects in two American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xingguang; Zuo, Lingjun; Kranzler, Henry; Zhang, Huiping; Wang, Shuang; Gelernter, Joel

    2008-10-05

    Personality traits are among the most complex quantitative traits. Certain personality traits are associated with substance dependence (SD); genetic factors may influence both. Associations between opioid receptor (OPR) genes and SD have been reported. This study investigated the relationship between OPR genes and personality traits in a case-control sample. We assessed dimensions of the five-factor model of personality in 556 subjects: 250 with SD [181 European-Americans (EAs) and 69 African-Americans (AAs)] and 306 healthy subjects (266 EAs and 40 AAs). We genotyped 20 OPRM1 markers, 8 OPRD1 markers, and 7 OPRK1 markers, and 38 unlinked ancestry-informative markers in these subjects. The relationships between OPR genes and personality traits were examined using MANCOVA, controlling for gene-gene interaction effects and potential confounders. Associations were decomposed by Roy-Bargmann Stepdown ANCOVA. We found that personality traits were associated as main or interaction effects with the haplotypes, diplotypes, alleles and genotypes at the three OPR genes (0.002 CAC/TAC had interaction effects on Openness (P = 0.010) after conservative correction for multiple testing. The present study demonstrates that the genes encoding the mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors may contribute to variation in personality traits. Further, the three OPR genes have significant interaction effects on personality traits. This work provides additional evidence that personality traits and SD have a partially overlapping genetic basis.

  18. New clustering methods for population comparison on paternal lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Z; Fehér, T; Bárány, G; Zalán, A; Németh, E; Pádár, Z; Pamjav, H

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study is to show two new clustering and visualising techniques developed to find the most typical clusters of 18-dimensional Y chromosomal haplogroup frequency distributions of 90 Western Eurasian populations. The first technique called "self-organizing cloud (SOC)" is a vector-based self-learning method derived from the Self Organising Map and non-metric Multidimensional Scaling algorithms. The second technique is a new probabilistic method called the "maximal relation probability" (MRP) algorithm, based on a probability function having its local maximal values just in the condensation centres of the input data. This function is calculated immediately from the distance matrix of the data and can be interpreted as the probability that a given element of the database has a real genetic relation with at least one of the remaining elements. We tested these two new methods by comparing their results to both each other and the k-medoids algorithm. By means of these new algorithms, we determined 10 clusters of populations based on the similarity of haplogroup composition. The results obtained represented a genetically, geographically and historically well-interpretable picture of 10 genetic clusters of populations mirroring the early spread of populations from the Fertile Crescent to the Caucasus, Central Asia, Arabia and Southeast Europe. The results show that a parallel clustering of populations using SOC and MRP methods can be an efficient tool for studying the demographic history of populations sharing common genetic footprints.

  19. Accuracy of Helicobacter pylori serology in two peptic ulcer populations and in healthy controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rolv-Ole Lindsetmo; Roar Johnsen; Tor Jac Eide; Tore Gutteberg; Hanne Haukland Husum; Arthur Revhaug

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the test characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) serology and of C14-urea breath test (C14-UBT) in two different peptic ulcer populations and in community controls. Second, the aim was to explore the association between the level of Hpylori IgG antibodies and severity of inflammation as to active peptic ulceration in the same populations.METHODS: Vagotomized (n = 83), medically treated peptic ulcer patients (n = 73) and one reference group of community controls (n = 88) were gastroscoped.H pylori status was determined by histology, bacterial growth, C14-UBT and serology. Based on the updated Sydney System, cumulative scores from biopsies from the prepyloruos, incisura angularis, corpus and fundus were calculated.RESULTS: The prevalence of Hpylori infection varied from 70% to 79%. The C14-UBT had high accuracy compared to the serology test. The sensitivity of the serology test was good, but the specificity was low (41%-71%). The association between H pylori IgG antibodies and scores of gastric mucosal inflammation and current or previous peptic ulcer were weak.CONCLUSION: The accuracy of C14-UBT to diagnose Hpylori infection was good, and the clinical utility of a negative H pylori serology test was substantial, while the gain in clinical information of a positive test was meagre. Positive H pylori titres could not distinguish between subjects with or those without active peptic ulceration.

  20. "Prevalence and criteria of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Yazd Healthy Heart Project "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrbafoghi SM

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is a complex of metabolic disorders that contemporary occurrence in a person is more than the risk of occurrence of each one separately. this syndrome has gained researcher's attention because of its relationship with cardiovascular disease and diabetes type II and its high prevalence in populations Methods: A cross-sectional study performed on 1110 participants, 20-74 years old with cluster sampling. All of them had interview and special questionnaire were filled. Epidemiologic and demographic data were about hypertention cardio vascular disease and related lab data. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 32.1% that it was significantly more in women than men .this prevalence increased with age and BMI in both sexes .the most common metabolic disorder was TG>=150. 19.2% have none, 21.1% have one, 27.6% have two, 20.8% have three,9% have four and 2.3% have all criteria of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Approximately one third of population of Yazd have metabolic syndrome and according to other statistics of Iran, this prevalence is more than U.S and Europe. It seems there is an urgent need for a national multicenter program for determinding risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

  1. Comparison of Hemoglobin Transmition Spectrums of Healthy Persons and Patients with Schizophrenia Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vlokh R.; Marsel L.; Vlokh I.; Moroz O.; Dudok K.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to the study of human hemoglobin transmission spectrums that were divided into four groups: hemoglobin of healthy persons, patients with schizophrenia, persons and people with and without the prodrome of schizophrenia that are in genetic susceptibility with patients. The change of absorption spectrums of hemoglobin of these groups was determined. The shifting of transmission minimums of the hemoglobin that correspond to electronic transitions in the hemoglobin mol...

  2. Comparison of pharmacokinetics of two fenofibrate tablet formulations in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachad, Siddharth S; Gole, Milind; Malhotra, Geena; Naidu, Raghu

    2014-06-01

    Fenofibrate is a serum lipid-lowering agent used as an adjunct to diet in patients with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The new fenofibrate tablet formulation was developed as a pharmaceutical equivalent to the marketed tablet formulation containing 145 mg. The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and safety of 2 tablet formulations containing 145 mg of fenofibrate (CAS number 49562-28-9) in healthy human subjects. The study was a randomized, 2-treatment, 3-period, 3-sequence, single-dose, 3-way crossover, partial replicate bioequivalence study in healthy human subjects under fasting conditions. Eligible subjects received each treatment in a crossover manner according to the randomization schedule. Replicate dosing was conducted for the reference formulation to determine its intrasubject variability. The predose blood sample was taken within 1 hour before dosing, and serial blood sampling was performed up to 72.0 hours' postdose. The analysis of plasma samples for concentrations of fenofibric acid, the active metabolite of fenofibrate, was conducted by using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Bioequivalence was to be concluded if the 90% CIs as constructed were within the range of 80% to 125% for Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ for fenofibric acid. Subjects were monitored for safety and tolerability throughout the study. 15 healthy human subjects between 18 and 45 years of age and having body mass index between 18.5 and 30 kg/m(2) were recruited into the study. The 90% CIs for the test/reference mean ratios of the ln-transformed pharmacokinetic variables Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were within the conventional bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%. Both formulations were well tolerated after a single oral dose in these healthy male subjects. Both fenofibrate tablet formulations demonstrated equivalent rates and extent of systemic absorption, and hence were considered bioequivalent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights

  3. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Hugues; Detilleux, Johann; Lebreton, Pascal; Garnier, Catherine; Bonvoisin, Marie; Rollin, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    Background Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. Hypothesis/Objectives The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows. Animals A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows. Methods Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium), thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS) was assessed. Results Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices (“Homeostasis Model Assessment” HOMA, “Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index” RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB) were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation. Conclusion and clinical importance Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin. PMID:28107442

  4. Comparison of Lifestyles of Women With Gestational Diabetes and Healthy Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Javid, Fatereh Momeni; Simbar, Masoumeh; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes is the most common medical condition in pregnancy and can be a predisposing factor in incidence of type II diabetes in future. Incorrect lifestyles can predispose people to various diseases, including diabetes, which is a serious health risk. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare lifestyles of women with gestational diabetes and healthy pregnant women attending the health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU) in 2...

  5. Nitric oxide synthase genotype modulation of impulsivity and ventral striatal activity in adult ADHD patients and healthy comparison subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogman, Martine; Aarts, Esther; Zwiers, Marcel; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Naber, Marlies; Onnink, Marten; Cools, Roshan; Kan, Cornelis; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable disorder. The NOS1 gene encoding nitric oxide synthase is a candidate gene for ADHD and has been previously linked with impulsivity. In the present study, the authors investigated the effect of a functional variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in NOS1 (NOS1 exon 1f-VNTR) on the processing of rewards, one of the cognitive deficits in ADHD. A sample of 136 participants, consisting of 87 adult ADHD patients and 49 healthy comparison subjects, completed a reward-related impulsivity task. A total of 104 participants also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a reward anticipation task. The effect of the NOS1 exon 1f-VNTR genotype on reward-related impulsivity and reward-related ventral striatal activity was examined. ADHD patients had higher impulsivity scores and lower ventral striatal activity than healthy comparison subjects. The association between the short allele and increased impulsivity was confirmed. However, independent of disease status, homozygous carriers of the short allele of NOS1, the ADHD risk genotype, demonstrated higher ventral striatal activity than carriers of the other NOS1 VNTR genotypes. The authors suggest that the NOS1 genotype influences impulsivity and its relation with ADHD is mediated through effects on this behavioral trait. Increased ventral striatal activity related to NOS1 may be compensatory for effects in other brain regions.

  6. Eye lens membrane junctional microdomains: a comparison between healthy and pathological cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzhynskyy, Nikolay; Scheuring, Simon [Institut Curie, Equipe Inserm Avenir, UMR168-CNRS, 26 Rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Sens, Pierre [ESPCI, CNRS-UMR 7083, 75231 Paris (France); Behar-Cohen, Francine, E-mail: simon.scheuring@curie.fr [UMRS Inserm 872, Universite Paris Descartes, Centre de Recherches des Cordeliers, 15 rue de l' Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France)

    2011-08-15

    The eye lens is a transparent tissue constituted of tightly packed fiber cells. To maintain homeostasis and transparency of the lens, the circulation of water, ions and metabolites is required. Junctional microdomains connect the lens cells and ensure both tight cell-to-cell adhesion and intercellular flow of fluids through a microcirculation system. Here, we overview membrane morphology and tissue functional requirements of the mammalian lens. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has opened up the possibility of visualizing the junctional microdomains at unprecedented submolecular resolution, revealing the supramolecular assembly of lens-specific aquaporin-0 (AQP0) and connexins (Cx). We compare the membrane protein assembly in healthy lenses with senile and diabetes-II cataract cases and novel data of the lens membranes from a congenital cataract. In the healthy case, AQP0s form characteristic square arrays confined by connexons. In the cases of senile and diabetes-II cataract patients, connexons were degraded, leading to malformation of AQP0 arrays and breakdown of the microcirculation system. In the congenital cataract, connexons are present, indicating probable non-membranous grounds for lens opacification. Further, we discuss the energetic aspects of the membrane organization in junctional microdomains. The AFM hence becomes a biomedical nano-imaging tool for the analysis of single-membrane protein supramolecular association in healthy and pathological membranes.

  7. Comparison of lifestyle in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Sedigheh; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Afrakhteh, Maryam; Esteki, Taraneh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Mahmoodi, Zohreh

    2014-08-31

    Given the high prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and that a lifestyle is recognized effective in development of many diseases, this study aimed to compare lifestyle of women with PCOS and healthy women. Nor are there sufficient studies on the difference between lifestyle of these people with that of healthy people. Furthermore, studies show that changes in lifestyle improve this disease. This descriptive-comparative study was conducted on 65 women with PCOS and 65 healthy women of 18 to 45 years old who presented to hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2013. The subjects were selected using multi stage random sampling method. The data were collected using questionnaires for diet, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and unhealthy behaviors and were analyzed in SPSS v. 17, using descriptive statistics, Man-Whitney, independent t, Chi-square and logistic regression tests. The results showed there was a significant relationship between PCOS and inappropriate diet (p=0.009), low physical activity (p=0.009), but no relationship was observed between PCOS and unhealthy behaviors. Given the results obtained, training and awareness raising is necessary for women and girls especially about appropriate diet and regular physical activity.

  8. Eye lens membrane junctional microdomains: a comparison between healthy and pathological cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzhynskyy, Nikolay; Sens, Pierre; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Scheuring, Simon

    2011-08-01

    The eye lens is a transparent tissue constituted of tightly packed fiber cells. To maintain homeostasis and transparency of the lens, the circulation of water, ions and metabolites is required. Junctional microdomains connect the lens cells and ensure both tight cell-to-cell adhesion and intercellular flow of fluids through a microcirculation system. Here, we overview membrane morphology and tissue functional requirements of the mammalian lens. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has opened up the possibility of visualizing the junctional microdomains at unprecedented submolecular resolution, revealing the supramolecular assembly of lens-specific aquaporin-0 (AQP0) and connexins (Cx). We compare the membrane protein assembly in healthy lenses with senile and diabetes-II cataract cases and novel data of the lens membranes from a congenital cataract. In the healthy case, AQP0s form characteristic square arrays confined by connexons. In the cases of senile and diabetes-II cataract patients, connexons were degraded, leading to malformation of AQP0 arrays and breakdown of the microcirculation system. In the congenital cataract, connexons are present, indicating probable non-membranous grounds for lens opacification. Further, we discuss the energetic aspects of the membrane organization in junctional microdomains. The AFM hence becomes a biomedical nano-imaging tool for the analysis of single-membrane protein supramolecular association in healthy and pathological membranes.

  9. Comparison of mercury burdens in chronically debilitated and healthy loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Rusty D; Keller, Jennifer M; Harms, Craig A; Segars, Al L; Cluse, Wendy M; Godfrey, Matthew H; Lee, A Michelle; Peden-Adams, Margie; Thorvalson, Kelly; Dodd, Mark; Norton, Terry

    2010-01-01

    An increase in the incidence of debilitated loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) strandings in the southeastern United States has been observed in recent years. These turtles are characterized by emaciation and heavy burdens of external and internal parasites, and bacterial infections, but the underlying cause of their condition is unknown. To investigate further the causes of these strandings, a health assessment was performed on stranded, debilitated loggerhead turtles, and contaminant concentrations in various tissues were compared to those from healthy turtles. This portion of the study investigated the potential role of mercury (Hg) toxicity in the debilitated condition described above. Hematocrit, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, calcium, lymphocyte counts, heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid, sodium, and chloride were altered in debilitated loggerheads relative to healthy animals. However, none of the aforementioned health indicators correlated with Hg concentrations in either red blood cells (RBCs) or plasma. The Hg concentration in RBCs was 129+/-72 (mean+/-standard deviation) times higher than in plasma, causing a significant dilution of Hg in whole blood due to extreme anemia. Mercury concentrations in RBCs (73.7+/-21.2 ng/g) and scutes (455+/-57 ng/g) from debilitated turtles were similar to or lower than those reported for healthy animals, indicating no elevation in Hg exposure before and during the progression of this condition. These findings suggest that Hg toxicity does not play a role in the debilitated loggerhead condition observed in the southeastern United States.

  10. Measles epidemiology and survey of measles immunity level among healthy population in Baoji City, Shaanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Kou, Guangping; Du, Hongzhong; Ju, Zhoufeng; Zhong, Li; Cui, Xiuling; Ling, Hongbing

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the epidemiology of measles cases from January 2004 to December 2011 and measles immunity levels among a healthy population from January to June 2012, in Baoji, Shaanxi Province. This study aimed to identify susceptible populations to measles and to establish methods of measles prevention and control. Measles incidence was at the lowest level in 2011 (0.32 per 100,000 populations). Among these patients, the proportion of those younger than 8 months and those older than 27 years of age was relatively high. The overall antibody positive rate was 78.90%, and the average antibody geometric mean concentration was 562.15 mIU/ml. Measles immunity level was high among children aged 8 months to 6 years and low among infants aged 1-7 months. To reduce the incidence of measles among infants younger than 8 months, implementation of measles vaccine (MV) for women of childbearing age is recommended. Measles immunity level was low among some individuals vaccinated with aqueous MV and lyophilized MV. Supplementary immunization will be recommended for freshmen in universities and colleges, where many students are recruited from various parts of China.

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of brodalumab in healthy adults and adults with psoriasis from single and multiple dose studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Christopher J; Salinger, David H; Köck, Kathleen; Gastonguay, Marc R; Martin, David A; Klekotka, Paul; Nirula, Ajay; Gibbs, Megan A

    2014-11-01

    Brodalumab, a human monoclonal IgG2-antibody, acts as a potent antagonist at the interleukin-17 receptor A, which is important in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of brodalumab and assess the effects of covariates, brodalumab concentrations from Phase 1a and Phase 2 clinical studies in healthy adults and subjects with psoriasis were used to construct a population PK model. The final two-compartment model with parallel linear and non-linear elimination pathways fit the data well. The population typical values for PK parameters CL, V, and V(max) were 0.223 L/day, 4.62 L, and 5.40 mg/day with between-subject-variability of 69.2, 69.6, and 25.9%CV, respectively. Body weight (BW) was an important covariate on CL (and Q), V (and V(2)) and V(max), with estimated effect exponents of 0.598, 0.849, and 1.12, respectively. Based on simulations from the final model, for doses between 140 and 210 mg, AUC was predicted to be greater than two fold higher in subjects weighing less than 75 kg compared to reference subjects. Age and diagnosis had smaller influence on exposure and was not clinically significant. These data suggest that BW is an important covariate explaining some of the variability in population PK observed in human clinical trials with brodalumab.

  12. [Critical analysis of the diet quality of the Brazilian population according to the Healthy Eating Index: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Patrícia Regina Silva; Rocha, Naruna Pereira; Milagres, Luana Cupertino; de Novaes, Juliana Farias

    2015-12-01

    In light of the importance of studying instruments that assess the food quality of the population, this study sought to conduct a systematic review of the quality of the diet of the Brazilian population using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and duly analyzing its methodology and results. The major electronic databases were used for the selection of studies. After the searches with the key words, 32 articles were included in this review. The growing interest of the scientific community in addressing this issue was observed, with recent studies using this instrument in Brazil. Methodological issues of articles were evaluated and discussed taking into consideration the revised versions and adaptations of the HEI. Some common results were highlighted among the studies such as low consumption of fruit, vegetables and/or dairy products, and the wider consumption of meat and eggs, cholesterol, total fat and saturated fat. Among the articles that address the HEI and socioeconomic aspects it was seen that quality of diet improves both in accordance with the increasing level of education of parents and with the family income in the population studied. The HEI can be used to monitor changes in dietary patterns and also as a nutrition education and health promotion tool.

  13. Comparison of dentine hypersensitivity in selected occidental and oriental populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, D G; Seo, H S; Newman, H N; Bulman, J S

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological data on dentine hypersensitivity (DH) prevalence are limited. Few studies have compared prevalence between populations. The aim of this investigation, therefore, was to compare the perception and prevalence of DH in two distinct non-periodontal practice populations, one U.K. and one Korean. Completed questionnaires from 557 patients (230 males and 327 females, comprising 115 males and 162 females, mean age 41.7 years (s.d.=14.36), U.K. and 115 males and 165 females, mean age 29.7 years (s.d.=11.86), Korean) were collected. Analysis was by frequency distribution and cross-tabulation (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)). DH prevalence was similar and at levels comparable with those reported previously. Prevalence was higher in the third and fourth decades in both populations. Although there were no differences between U.K. or Korean males and U.K. or Korean females, there was a significant difference between gender reporting of DH, with more females complaining of DH than males (standard normal deviation (SND)=4.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.1134-0.2736). DH appeared to be regarded by patients as not severe in most cases, so treatment was not generally sought. Of those who claimed to have sought treatment, a significant number had received restorative treatment. Of those patients, only 23.3% of U.K. and or=7 days in either population. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between U.K.- and Korean-based populations in their perception of DH, with the exception that more females complained of sensitivity than males in both groups. Overall, DH was not considered a major dental problem by most patients in either of the populations.

  14. Comparison of Salivary Biochemical Composition between End Stage Renal Disease and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Bakhshi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Following the renal disease involvement, some variations may occur in the flow, pH and biochemical components of the saliva; therefore, saliva possibly would be a useful tool for diagnosis and monitoring of the renal disease through evaluation of the components. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biochemical composition of the saliva in patients undergone haemodialysis for the end-stage renal disease (ESRD in Imam Khomeini Hospital. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 64 haemodialysis patients and 67 healthy individuals were selected and their salivary samples were obtained by spitting method. Salivary biochemical factors were determined by serum kits and auto-analyzer while the samples’ pH was determined by an automatic pH meter. Then, Creatinine, Ca, Mg, urea, α-amylase parameters as well as the salivary flow rate were measured. The saliva biochemical compositions were analyzed using Student t test. Results: The mean (± standard deviation of the salivary flow rate was statistically lower in ESRD patients than healthy ones (0.34±0.22 ml/min vs. 0.57±0.29 ml/min: P<0.001. Salivary pH (7.87±0.72 vs. 6.99±0.4: P<0.001 and concentrations of urea (134.4±40.8 vs. 40.8±15.1 mg/dl: P<0.001; Cr (1.1±0.9 vs. 0.4±0.1 mg/dl: P<0.001 and α-amylase (1107.4±788.4 vs. 568.3±437.0 mg/dl: P<0.001 were statistically higher in ESRD patients than healthy controls. Ca was significantly lower in ESRD patients than healthy ones (2.8±2.8 vs. 3.6±2.0 mg/dl: P<0.05.. No significant differences were noted between both groups regarding salivary Mg. The mean (± standard deviation age was statistically higher in ESRD patients than healthy ones (63.2±15.4 years vs. 48.2±15.3 years: P<0.001. No significant differences were noted between both groups regarding weight and gender. Conclusion: Due to the significant alternations of the salivary biochemical concentrations in ESRD patients; saliva can be used

  15. Gait comparison of unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasties with healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. G.; Kotti, M.; Wiik, A. V.; Collins, R.; Brevadt, M. J.; Strachan, R. K.; Cobb, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare the gait of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients with healthy controls, using a machine-learning approach. Patients and Methods 145 participants (121 healthy controls, 12 patients with cruciate-retaining TKA, and 12 with mobile-bearing medial UKA) were recruited. The TKA and UKA patients were a minimum of 12 months post-operative, and matched for pattern and severity of arthrosis, age, and body mass index. Participants walked on an instrumented treadmill until their maximum walking speed was reached. Temporospatial gait parameters, and vertical ground reaction force data, were captured at each speed. Oxford knee scores (OKS) were also collected. An ensemble of trees algorithm was used to analyse the data: 27 gait variables were used to train classification trees for each speed, with a binary output prediction of whether these variables were derived from a UKA or TKA patient. Healthy control gait data was then tested by the decision trees at each speed and a final classification (UKA or TKA) reached for each subject in a majority voting manner over all gait cycles and speeds. Top walking speed was also recorded. Results 92% of the healthy controls were classified by the decision tree as a UKA, 5% as a TKA, and 3% were unclassified. There was no significant difference in OKS between the UKA and TKA patients (p = 0.077). Top walking speed in TKA patients (1.6 m/s; 1.3 to 2.1) was significantly lower than that of both the UKA group (2.2 m/s; 1.8 to 2.7) and healthy controls (2.2 m/s; 1.5 to 2.7; p < 0.001). Conclusion UKA results in a more physiological gait compared with TKA, and a higher top walking speed. This difference in function was not detected by the OKS. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(10 Suppl B):16–21. PMID:27694511

  16. Prevalence of oral Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in patients with periodontal disease and healthy population in Shiraz, southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghabanchi J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It was shown that two parasites of Entamoeba gingivalis (E. gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax (T. tenax may be responsible for oral parasitic infection. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of these parasites in oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease and in healthy population in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients with periodontal disease (case group and 50 subjects with healthy gingiva (control group entered in the present study. A questionnaire recorded general health, smoking habits, and any history of antibiotic consumption during the last six months for each patient. In the case group, saliva was collected by sterile swab and the gingival crevicular fluid by the paper point. The plaque and calculi were collected by sterile curette and scaler. In the control group, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid were collected and sent to laboratory for further studies. Results: In the case group, nine patients were infected, six with E. gingivalis and three with T. tenax. Seven patients had mobility of the teeth, one patient was smoker and five had previous history of antibiotic consumption. In the control group, only one subject was infected with E. gingivalis without any history of smoking and antibiotic consumption. Conclusion: Parasitic infections are relatively common in patients with periodontal disease. It seems that follow-up of instructions are essential in control of parasitic infection in Southern Iran.

  17. Prevalence of oral Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in patients with periodontal disease and healthy population in Shiraz, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabanchi, J; Zibaei, M; Afkar, M Daghigh; Sarbazie, A H

    2010-01-01

    It was shown that two parasites of Entamoeba gingivalis (E. gingivalis) and Trichomonas tenax (T. tenax) may be responsible for oral parasitic infection. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of these parasites in oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease and in healthy population in Shiraz, Southern Iran. A total of 50 patients with periodontal disease (case group) and 50 subjects with healthy gingiva (control group) entered in the present study. A questionnaire recorded general health, smoking habits, and any history of antibiotic consumption during the last six months for each patient. In the case group, saliva was collected by sterile swab and the gingival crevicular fluid by the paper point. The plaque and calculi were collected by sterile curette and scaler. In the control group, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid were collected and sent to laboratory for further studies. In the case group, nine patients were infected, six with E. gingivalis and three with T. tenax. Seven patients had mobility of the teeth, one patient was smoker and five had previous history of antibiotic consumption. In the control group, only one subject was infected with E. gingivalis without any history of smoking and antibiotic consumption. Parasitic infections are relatively common in patients with periodontal disease. It seems that follow-up of instructions are essential in control of parasitic infection in Southern Iran.

  18. Hypovitaminosis D in a healthy female population, aged from 40 to 85 years, in the west of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lardner, E

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Increasing attention has been focused on diseases associated with ageing, as the mean age of the population in developed countries increases. Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone play key roles in calcium homeostasis, which is integral to skeletal health. AIMS: To assess the vitamin D status of healthy, community dwelling, middle-aged and older females. METHODS: General biochemistry and bone profiles, including ALP, PTH and 25(OH)D, were determined. RESULTS: Of 143 healthy white women receiving no supplementation or bone modifying treatments, 47% were vitamin D insufficient (<50 nmol\\/L) and only 4% were sufficient for the time of year. There was no statically significant correlation between age and 25(OH)D concentrations; neither was there a statistically significant seasonal variation in 25(OH)D levels noted. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D status should be assessed more often in middle-aged and older females. Expected age-related and seasonal variations in 25(OH)D levels were not confirmed in this study.

  19. A lack of correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum level and verbal memory performance in healthy Polish population

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    Monika eWilkosc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain derived neurotrophic factor is considered to be connected with memory and learning through the processes of long term synaptic potentiation and synaptic plasticity. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between precursor BDNF (proBNDF and mature BDNF (mBDNF serum levels and performance on Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT in 150 healthy volunteers. In addition, we have verified the relationships between serum concentration of both forms of BDNF and RAVLT with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. We found no strong evidence for the correlation of proBDNF and mBDNF serum levels with performance on RAVLT in healthy Polish population in early and middle adulthood. We observed the mBDNF serum concentration to be higher in women compared with men. Moreover, we revealed higher mBDNF level to be connected with lower Body Mass Index (BMI. In turn, the results of RAVLT correlated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, such as: age, education, gender, BMI and smoking.

  20. DNA methylation changes separate allergic patients from healthy controls and may reflect altered CD4+ T-cell population structure.

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    Colm E Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered DNA methylation patterns in CD4(+ T-cells indicate the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in inflammatory diseases. However, the identification of these alterations is complicated by the heterogeneity of most inflammatory diseases. Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR is an optimal disease model for the study of DNA methylation because of its well-defined phenotype and etiology. We generated genome-wide DNA methylation (N(patients = 8, N(controls = 8 and gene expression (N(patients = 9, Ncontrols = 10 profiles of CD4(+ T-cells from SAR patients and healthy controls using Illumina's HumanMethylation450 and HT-12 microarrays, respectively. DNA methylation profiles clearly and robustly distinguished SAR patients from controls, during and outside the pollen season. In agreement with previously published studies, gene expression profiles of the same samples failed to separate patients and controls. Separation by methylation (N(patients = 12, N(controls = 12, but not by gene expression (N(patients = 21, N(controls = 21 was also observed in an in vitro model system in which purified PBMCs from patients and healthy controls were challenged with allergen. We observed changes in the proportions of memory T-cell populations between patients (N(patients = 35 and controls (N(controls = 12, which could explain the observed difference in DNA methylation. Our data highlight the potential of epigenomics in the stratification of immune disease and represents the first successful molecular classification of SAR using CD4(+ T cells.

  1. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-06-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= -0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance.

  2. Population plasma and urine pharmacokinetics of ivabradine and its active metabolite S18982 in healthy Korean volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Youn; Bae, Kyun-Seop; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Choe, Sangmin; Jung, Jin Ah; Lim, Hyeong-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Ivabradine, a selective inhibitor of the pacemaker current (If ), is used for heart failure and coronary heart disease and is mainly metabolized to S18982. The purpose of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetics (PK) of ivabradine and S18982 in healthy Korean volunteers. Subjects in a phase I study were randomized to receive 2.5, 5, or 10 mg of ivabradine administered every 12 hours for 4.5 days, and serial plasma and urine concentrations of ivabradine and S18982 were measured. The plasma PK of ivabradine was best described by a 2-compartment model with mixed 0- and first-order absorption, linked to a 2-compartment model for S18982. The introduction of interoccasional variabilities and period as covariate into absorption-related parameters improved the model fit. Urine data have been applied to estimate renal and nonrenal clearance, enabling a more detailed description of the elimination process. We developed a population PK model describing the plasma and urine PK of ivabradine and S18982 in healthy Korean adult males. This model might be useful for predicting the plasma and urine PK of ivabradine, potentially helping to identify the optimal dosing regimens in various clinical situations.

  3. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  4. Study on the Frequent Expression of Rodgers and Chido, Red Blood Cell Antigens, in Iranian Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Yari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rodgers (Rg and Chido (Ch are blood-group antigens and they determine the fourthcomponentof human complement C4. Rodgers and Chido are associated with two C4isotypes (C4A and C4B. In addition to genotype determination, study on expression ofRg and Chido could be useful in disease studies.DNA was extracted from the whole blood of 60 normal individuals. Then, PCR amplificationof C4d gene fragment was followed by restriction digestion. This studydemonstrated that the frequency of Ch and Rg in Iranian healthy population was98.3 and 93.4 percent, respectively. Additionally, 6.6 percent of the studied populationshowed Chido-positive, Rodger-negative and 1.7 percent showed Rodger-positive,Chido-negative genotype. It may be concluded that upon receiving blood transfusion,6.6 and 1.7 percent of individuals could produce anti-Rg and anti-Ch antibodies, respectively.

  5. Colonic mucosal immune activity in irritable bowel syndrome: comparison with healthy controls and patients with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Yong; Lee, Kyung Hun; Choi, Chang Hwan; Kim, Ju Wan; Lee, Hyun Woong; Kim, Jeong Wook; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kwon, Gui Young; Han, Seungbong; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Sung Min; Chang, Sae Kyung

    2014-05-01

    Mucosal immune activity may participate in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathogenesis. Mast- and T cell numbers from patients with IBS or ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy controls were determined. Between November 2007 and May 2012, patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS, n = 83), 49 patients with UC, and 25 healthy controls were recruited. Of the UC group, 28 were in remission and 21 had mildly active UC. Biopsies from each colon segment were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. The mast cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), and lamina proprial lymphocytes (LPLs) were counted. Compared to the healthy controls, the patients with D-IBS, UC in remission, and mildly active UC had significantly higher mean colorectal mucosal mast-cell, IEL, and LPL counts. Comparison with the colon segments (ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments) that had once been involved in UC (in the patients with remission) revealed that the D-IBS colons had similar immune-cell counts. However, they had significantly fewer immune cells than the colon segments that presently showed involvement in the patients with mildly-activated UC. The mast-cell and IEL counts were similar in the D-IBS rectums and once-involved UC rectums but significantly higher in the presently-involved UC rectums. However, both the once-involved and presently-involved UC rectums had significantly higher LPL counts than the D-IBS rectums. Patients with D-IBS had significantly higher colonic mucosal immune-cell counts than healthy controls but had similar counts to patients with UC in remission. The symptoms in both conditions may originate from low-grade inflammation in the colonic mucosa.

  6. Comparison of jugular and transverse facial venous sinus blood analytes in healthy and critically ill adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascola, Kara M; Vander Werf, Karie; Freese, Stephanie; Morgera, Alison; Schaeffer, David J; Wilkins, Pamela

    2017-03-01

    To compare blood gas, electrolyte, and metabolic analysis results between blood obtained by jugular and transverse facial venous sinus (TFVS) venipuncture in healthy adult horses and sick adult horses presented for emergency evaluation. Prospective, experimental study, from June 2012 to October 2013. Large animal university teaching hospital. Ten healthy adult University-owned horses and 48 client-owned adult horses (≥2 years old) presenting to the large animal hospital emergency service for medical or surgical evaluation of systemic illness. Venipunctures (jugular vein [JV] and TFVS) were performed using preheparinized syringes and obtained prior to institution of medical therapy. Samples were analyzed in random order within a 10-minute interval using a point-of-care blood gas analyzer (NOVA Critical Care Xpress) that also reports electrolyte and metabolite results. Comparisons between venipuncture sites were analyzed using the Student's paired t-test for normally distributed data and the Wilcoxon paired test for nonnormally distributed data. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess agreement between venipuncture sites. There were no statistically significant differences found between variables for JV and TFVS in healthy horses. In sick horses, JV measurements were greater than TFVS for ionized calcium (P = 0.002) and glucose (P = 0.001), and less than TFVS for hematocrit (P = 0.015). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated small biases but overall agreement between sites. The TFVS can be used interchangeably with JV for venous blood gas analysis in healthy horses. In sick horses, identified differences were small and likely not clinically important. The reliability of this point-of-care blood gas analyzer for measurement of hematocrit remains to be determined. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  7. Comparison of exhaled breath condensate pH using two commercially available devices in healthy controls, asthma and COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogelmeier Claus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC is a non-invasive method for studying the acidity (pH of airway secretions in patients with inflammatory lung diseases. Aim To assess the reproducibility of EBC pH for two commercially available devices (portable RTube and non-portable ECoScreen in healthy controls, patients with asthma or COPD, and subjects suffering from an acute cold with lower-airway symptoms. In addition, we assessed the repeatability in healthy controls. Methods EBC was collected from 40 subjects (n = 10 in each of the above groups using RTube and ECoScreen. EBC was collected from controls on two separate occasions within 5 days. pH in EBC was assessed after degasification with argon for 20 min. Results In controls, pH-measurements in EBC collected by RTube or ECoScreen showed no significant difference between devices (p = 0.754 or between days (repeatability coefficient RTube: 0.47; ECoScreen: 0.42 of collection. A comparison between EBC pH collected by the two devices in asthma, COPD and cold patients also showed good reproducibility. No differences in pH values were observed between controls (mean pH 8.27; RTube and patients with COPD (pH 7.97 or asthma (pH 8.20, but lower values were found using both devices in patients with a cold (pH 7.56; RTube, p Conclusion We conclude that pH measurements in EBC collected by RTube and ECoScreen are repeatable and reproducible in healthy controls, and are reproducible and comparable in healthy controls, COPD and asthma patients, and subjects with a common cold.

  8. Serum aflatoxin levels of the healthy adult population living in the north and south regions of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevtap; Sabuncuoglu, Suna; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Sahin, Gönül; Giray, Belma Kocer

    2014-11-01

    To determine the serum concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) in the healthy adult population living in both the Black Sea and Mediterranean regions of Turkey and to investigate the regional, seasonal and gender variability in aflatoxins (AF) exposure in these regions. Serum AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 concentrations were analysed by HPLC. Settings In total, four hundred and eighty-four serum samples were analysed. Four hundred and eighty-four healthy adult volunteers living in rural areas of the Black Sea and Mediterranean regions of Turkey were studied. The mean serum concentration of total AF in the Black Sea region was 1·33 ppb (min-max 0·15-3·38 ppb) and 0·90 ppb (min-max 0·18-2·48 ppb) for summer and winter, respectively. In the Mediterranean region, the mean serum concentration of total AF was determined as 0·55 ppb (range 0·04-1·72 ppb) for summer and 0·45 ppb (range 0·12-1·43 ppb) for winter. The total AF concentrations in serum samples were statistically higher in summer compared with winter for the two regions. The differences between the regions were statistically significant concerning all samples, with higher total AF concentrations in the Black Sea region. The overall results suggest that the Turkish population living in these two regions is continuously exposed to AF, particularly in the summer, and that mycotoxin contamination in food should be monitored routinely for food safety and human health.

  9. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-09-01

    Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. A gordura epicárdica é um depósito de gordura visceral na parte superior do organismo que pode desempenhar um papel importante no desenvolvimento de perfis cardiovasculares e metabólicos adversos. Há uma relação direta significativa entre a quantidade de gordura epicárdica e a adiposidade corporal geral (índice de massa corporal, IMC), mas dados sobre a adiposidade

  10. Comparison of serum Concentration of Se, Pb, Mg, Cu, Zn, between MS patients and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Anahita; Mehrpour, Omid; Nikkhah, Karim; Bayat, Golnaz; Espandani, Mahsa; Golzari, Alireza; Jarahi, Lida; Foroughipour, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is defined as one of the inflammatory autoimmune disorders and is common. Its exact etiology is unclear. There are some evidences on the role of environmental factors in susceptible genetics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible role of Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Lead and Magnesium metals in Multiple Sclerosis patients. Methods In the present analytical cross-sectional study, 56 individuals including 26 patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the evaluation. The serum level of Se, Zn, Cu, Pb were quantified in graphite furnace conditions and flame conditions by utilizing an atomic absorption Perkin Elmer spectrophotometer 3030. The serum levels of Mg were measured by auto analyzer 1500 BT. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls by using independent-samples t-test for normal distribution and Mann-Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 11.0. Results As well as the Zn, Cu, and Se, there was no significant difference between MS patients and healthy individuals in Pb concentrations (p-value = 0.11, 0.14, 0.32, 0.20 respectively) but the level of Mg was significantly different (p= 0.001). Conclusion All serum concentrations of Zn, Pb, Se, Cu in both groups were in normal ranges and there was no difference in MS patients compared with the healthy group who were matched in genetics. Blood level of Mg was significantly lower in MS patients. But it should be noted that even with the low level of serum magnesium in MS patients, this value is still in the normal range. PMID:27757186

  11. Comparison of body composition between professional sportswomen and apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.

  12. Comparison of whole saliva flow rates and mucin concentrations in healthy Caucasian young and aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Mulligan, R A; Kipnis, V; Denny, P A; Denny, P C

    1992-06-01

    Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 42 healthy Caucasians; 21 were between 18 and 35 years of age, and 21 between 65 and 83 years of age. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the aged group, but the stimulated flow rate was significantly higher in the aged than in the young group. Both groups showed significantly increased flow during salivary stimulation. MG1 and MG2 concentrations in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples were significantly lower in the aged group. There were no significant correlations between salivary flow rates and MG1 and MG2 concentrations.

  13. Phenotypic and functional profiling of CD4 T cell compartment in distinct populations of healthy adults with different antigenic exposure.

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    Sophie Roetynck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiparameter flow cytometry has revealed extensive phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of CD4 T cell responses in mice and humans, emphasizing the importance of assessing multiple aspects of the immune response in correlation with infection or vaccination outcome. The aim of this study was to establish and validate reliable and feasible flow cytometry assays, which will allow us to characterize CD4 T cell population in humans in field studies more fully. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed polychromatic flow cytometry antibody panels for immunophenotyping the major CD4 T cell subsets as well as broadly characterizing the functional profiles of the CD4 T cells in peripheral blood. We then validated these assays by conducting a pilot study comparing CD4 T cell responses in distinct populations of healthy adults living in either rural or urban Kenya. This study revealed that the expression profile of CD4 T cell activation and memory markers differed significantly between African and European donors but was similar amongst African individuals from either rural or urban areas. Adults from rural Kenya had, however, higher frequencies and greater polyfunctionality among cytokine producing CD4 T cells compared to both urban populations, particularly for "Th1" type of response. Finally, endemic exposure to malaria in rural Kenya may have influenced the expansion of few discrete CD4 T cell populations with specific functional signatures. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that environmentally driven T cell activation does not drive the dysfunction of CD4 T cells but is rather associated with greater magnitude and quality of CD4 T cell response, indicating that the level or type of microbial exposure and antigenic experience may influence and shape the functionality of CD4 T cell compartment. Our data confirm that it is possible and mandatory to assess multiple functional attributes of CD4 T cell response in the

  14. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population: a prospective cohort study.

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    Nikoline Nygård Knudsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between the proportion of total body water that is extracellular water and subsequent development of non-fatal or fatal cardiovascular disease in a healthy population. METHOD: Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is an easy-to-use, non-invasive and relatively inexpensive technique to evaluate changes in body water distribution. A random subset (n = 2120 of Danes aged 41-71 years, examined in 1993-1994 for body water distribution by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy was included. Cox-proportional hazard models and linear splines were performed. The ratio between resistance estimates from an infinite-frequency and from no-frequency (R∞/R0 was used as a surrogate measure of ratio between extracellular water and total body water. The outcome was 13.5 years of follow-up for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: A high proportion of total body water that is extracellular water was associated with increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease. A threshold effect was evident, with greatly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality above R∞/R0 = 0.68. Below the threshold there seemed to be no additional benefit of having a low ratio. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that non-clinically evident oedema, measured as an increased proportion of total body water that is extracellular, above a threshold of 0.68, may be an early marker of pre-clinical cardiovascular disease. This simple, safe, cheap and easily obtainable measure of R∞/R0 from bioelectrical impedance may help the early identification of these otherwise clinically healthy individuals who are at an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease

  15. Comparison of association mapping methods in a complex pedigreed population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Janss, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Association mapping methods were compared using a simulation with a complex pedigree structure. The pedigree was simulated while keeping the present Danish Holstein population pedigree in view. A total of 15 quantitative trait loci (QTL) with varying effect sizes (10%, 5% and 2% of total genetic...... to collect SNP signals in intervals, to avoid the scattering of a QTL signal over multiple neighboring SNPs. Methods not accounting for genetic background (full pedigree information) performed worse, and methods using haplotypes were considerably worse with a high false-positive rate, probably due...... to the presence of low-frequency haplotypes. It was necessary to account for full relationships among individuals to avoid excess false discovery. Although the methods were tested on a cattle pedigree, the results are applicable to any population with a complex pedigree structure...

  16. Extrasolar planet population synthesis II: Statistical comparison with observation

    CERN Document Server

    Mordasini, Christoph; Benz, Willy; Naef, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series of papers showing the results of extrasolar planet population synthesis calculations. In the companion paper (Paper I), we have presented in detail our methods. By applying an observational detection bias for radial velocity surveys, we identify the potentially detectable synthetic planets. The properties of these planets are compared in quantitative statistical tests with the properties of a carefully selected sub-population of actual exoplanets. We use a two dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to compare the mass-distance distributions of synthetic and observed planets, as well as 1D KS tests to compare the mass, the semimajor axis and the [Fe/H] distributions. We find that some models can account to a reasonable degree of significance for the observed properties. We concurrently account for many other observed features, e.g. the "metallicity effect". This gives us confidence that our model captures several essential features of giant planet formation. Our simulations al...

  17. ORDEM2010 and MASTER-2009 Modeled Small Debris Population Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Flegel, S.

    2010-01-01

    The latest versions of the two premier orbital debris engineering models, NASA s ORDEM2010 and ESA s MASTER-2009, have been publicly released. Both models have gone through significant advancements since inception, and now represent the state-of-the-art in orbital debris knowledge of their respective agencies. The purpose of these models is to provide satellite designers/operators and debris researchers with reliable estimates of the artificial debris environment in near-Earth orbit. The small debris environment within the size range of 1 mm to 1 cm is of particular interest to both human and robotic spacecraft programs. These objects are much more numerous than larger trackable debris but are still large enough to cause significant, if not catastrophic, damage to spacecraft upon impact. They are also small enough to elude routine detection by existing observation systems (radar and telescope). Without reliable detection the modeling of these populations has always coupled theoretical origins with supporting observational data in different degrees. This paper details the 1 mm to 1 cm orbital debris populations of both ORDEM2010 and MASTER-2009; their sources (both known and presumed), current supporting data and theory, and methods of population analysis. Fluxes on spacecraft for chosen orbits are also presented and discussed within the context of each model.

  18. Survey and comparison of major intestinal flora in captive and wild ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villers, Lynne M; Jang, Spencer S; Lent, Cheryl L; Lewin-Koh, Sock-Cheng; Norosoarinaivo, Jeanne Aimée

    2008-02-01

    A survey to identify the major intestinal species of aerobic bacteria, protozoa and helminths was conducted on captive and wild populations of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Samples were collected from 50 captive lemurs at 11 zoological institutions in the United States. In Madagascar, 98 aerobic bacteria samples and 99 parasite samples were collected from eight sites chosen to cover a variety of populations across the species range. Identical collection, preservation and lab techniques were used for captive and wild populations. The predominant types of aerobic bacteria flora were identified via five separate tests. The tests for parasites conducted included flotation, sedimentation and FA/GC. Twenty-seven bacteria unique to either the captive or wild populations were cultured with eight of these being statistically significantly different. Fourteen bacteria common to both populations were cultured, of which six differed significantly. Entamoeba coli was the only parasite common to both the captive and wild populations. Giardia spp., Isospora spp., strongyles-type ova, Entamoeba spp. and Entamoeba polecki were found only in captive samples. Cryptosporidium, Balantidium coli, pinworm-type ova, and two fluke-like ova were seen only in wild samples. In addition, samples were compared for both bacteria and parasites from three unique field sites in Madagascar. In this three-site comparison, six types of bacteria were statistically significantly different. No significant differences regarding parasites were seen. Significant differences were found between the captive and wild populations, whereas fewer differences were found between sites within Madagascar. Although we isolated Campylobacter and Giardia, all animals appeared clinically healthy. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. The Recline Exercise: Comparisons with the Head Lift Exercise in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Avinash; Rajappa, Akila; Tipton, Elizabeth; Malandraki, Georgia A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the comparative effectiveness of the new Recline Exercise (RE) and the traditional Head Lift Exercise (Shaker Exercise) on submental muscle activity, tongue strength, and perceived exertion in 40 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.5 years, SD 2.6 years). Both groups participated in a 6-week exercise regimen. Outcome variables evaluated pre- and post-exercise included: duration and peak amplitude of submental muscle activity during swallowing measured via surface electromyography (sEMG); anterior and posterior isometric lingual pressures measured with the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument; and perceived exertion levels measured with the Borg category-ratio scale of perceived exertion. Results indicated no significant pre-post differences within or between groups in swallow duration and peak amplitude. In addition, the RE group demonstrated significant post-treatment increases in anterior and posterior tongue strength [p = 0.009; p swallow duration or amplitude gains, most likely due to the reduced need for such gains in the healthy head/neck musculature for submaximal tasks. Furthermore, the significant lingual strength gains seen with the RE indicate that additional musculature is being engaged during its completion. These results are encouraging; however, future research in older adults and patients with dysphagia with examination of swallowing biomechanics is needed to determine its full potential as a rehabilitative regimen.

  20. Comparison of Anterior Segment Measurements Obtained by Three Different Devices in Healthy Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lopez de la Fuente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the normal values and the repeatability of the Galilei Dual Scheimpflug Analyzer (GDSA, the biometer IOL Master, and the autokerato/refractometer WAM 5500 in anterior segment examinations. Methods. Eighty-eight eyes from 88 healthy volunteers were prospectively and consecutively recruited. The repeatability was assessed, calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results. The correlations among the repeated measurements showed nearly perfect reliability (ICC > 0.81 for all of the parameters, except corneal astigmatism Galilei (0.79 and WAM (0.68. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.001 between the values of the flat simulated keratometry (SimK and the steep SimK measured by GDSA and the other methods; however, there were no statistically significant differences for the values obtained with the IOL Master and WAM 5500 (P=0.302 and P=0.172, resp. or between the values of the ACD (P<0.001 and WTW (P=0.007 measured by the IOL Master and GDSA. Conclusions. The anterior segment measurements from the IOL Master and WAM 5500 were highly repeatable, comparable, and well correlated. In healthy young persons, the evaluated parameters had very good repeatability, although significant differences were found between the GDSA and IOL Master and between the GDSA and WAM 5500.

  1. Peer-facilitated cognitive dissonance versus healthy weight eating disorders prevention: A randomized comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Wilson, Chantale; Williams, Allison; Kelly, Mackenzie; McDaniel, Leda; Elmquist, Joanna

    2010-09-01

    Research supports the efficacy of both cognitive dissonance (CD) and healthy weight (HW) eating disorders prevention, and indicates that CD can be delivered by peer-facilitators, which facilitates dissemination. This study investigated if peer-facilitators can deliver HW when it is modified for their use and extended follow-up of peer-facilitated CD as compared to previous trials. Based on pilot data, we modified HW (MHW) to facilitate peer delivery, elaborate benefits of the healthy-ideal, and place greater emphasis on consuming nutrient dense foods. Female sorority members (N=106) were randomized to either two 2-h sessions of CD or MHW. Participants completed assessment pre- and post-intervention, and at 8-week, 8-month, and 14-month follow-up. Consistent with hypotheses, CD decreased negative affect, thin-ideal internalization, and bulimic pathology to a greater degree post-intervention. Both CD and MHW reduced negative affect, internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and bulimic pathology at 14 months. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison between two models of experimental anxiety in healthy volunteers and panic disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, F G; Silva, M; Del Ben, C M; Zuardi, A W; Hetem, L A; Guimarães, F S

    2001-12-01

    To further investigate the role of serotonin (5-HT) in anxiety, two tests were used in human subjects. The first was the conditioning of skin conductance response (CSCR) that associates a tone to a loud noise. The second was simulated public speaking (SPS), which is believed to represent unconditioned fear. In healthy volunteers the 5-HT(2A) receptor blocker and 5-HT reuptake inhibitor nefazodone reduced subjective anxiety and the number of spontaneous fluctuations of skin conductance during CSCR, but enhanced anxiety induced by SPS. Opposite effects had been reported with the 5-HT releasing and uptake-inhibiting agent D-fenfluramine. Panic patients behaved like controls in the CSCR. However, they had a higher level of baseline anxiety and were insensitive to SPS. This profile resembles the reported effect of the non-selective 5-HT receptor blocker metergoline in healthy volunteers. Therefore, panic patients seem to process unconditioned fear abnormally, which may be due to lack of 5-HT inhibition in brain structures commanding flight from proximal danger stimuli.

  3. Comparison of the Amount of IL-1ß in Periodontally Involved Patients’ Saliva and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Periodontitis is a chronic multi-factorial infectious disease,characterized by irreversible destruction of collagen fibers and other matrix constituents of the gingival tissues, periodontal ligament and resorption of the alveolar bone around the teeth with formation of periodontal pocket. Cytokines such as IL-1β are one of the components of host’s immune system and seem to play an important role in periodontitisPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of IL-1β as a per-inflammatory cytokine in the saliva of periodontally involved patients (generalized aggressive periodontitis and mild to moderate periodontitis and subjects with normal periodontium.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, unstimulated saliva of 24 patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis, 15 patients with aggressive periodontitis, and 23 subjects with healthy periodontium was collected. The concentration of IL-1β was measured in the saliva samples by ELISA. Mann-Whitney test was used for analysis of data.Results: The results of this study showed that there was a significant difference between mean level of IL-1ß in generalized aggressive periodontitis vs. control groups and chronic mild to moderate periodontitis vs. control groups ( p <0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that the mean concentration of IL-1ß in the saliva of periodontally involved patients was greater than that of healthy subjects and this cytokine can be agood marker for determining the status of periodontal tissues.

  4. ERIC-PCR fingerprinting-based community DNA hybridization to pinpoint genome-specific fragments as molecular markers to identify and track populations common to healthy human guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guifang; Pan, Li; Du, Huimin; Chen, Junyi; Zhao, Liping

    2004-10-01

    Bacterial populations common to healthy human guts may play important roles in human health. A new strategy for discovering genomic sequences as markers for these bacteria was developed using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR fingerprinting. Structural features within microbial communities are compared with ERIC-PCR followed by DNA hybridization to identify genomic fragments shared by samples from healthy human individuals. ERIC-PCR profiles of fecal samples from 12 diseased or healthy human and piglet subjects demonstrated stable, unique banding patterns for each individual tested. Sequence homology of DNA fragments in bands of identical size was examined between samples by hybridization under high stringency conditions with DIG-labeled ERIC-PCR products derived from the fecal sample of one healthy child. Comparative analysis of the hybridization profiles with the original agarose fingerprints identified three predominant bands as signatures for populations associated with healthy human guts with sizes of 500, 800 and 1000 bp. Clone library profiling of the three bands produced 17 genome fragments, three of which showed high similarity only with regions of the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron genome, while the remainder were orphan sequences. Association of these sequences with healthy guts was validated by sequence-selective PCR experiments, which showed that a single fragment was present in all 32 healthy humans and 13 healthy piglets tested. Two fragments were present in the healthy human group and in 18 children with non-infectious diarrhea but not in eight children with infectious diarrhea. Genome fragments identified with this novel strategy may be used as genome-specific markers for dynamic monitoring and sequence-guided isolation of functionally important bacterial populations in complex communities such as human gut microflora.

  5. Conceptual Comparison of Population Based Metaheuristics for Engineering Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole Adekanmbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaheuristic algorithms are well-known optimization tools which have been employed for solving a wide range of optimization problems. Several extensions of differential evolution have been adopted in solving constrained and nonconstrained multiobjective optimization problems, but in this study, the third version of generalized differential evolution (GDE is used for solving practical engineering problems. GDE3 metaheuristic modifies the selection process of the basic differential evolution and extends DE/rand/1/bin strategy in solving practical applications. The performance of the metaheuristic is investigated through engineering design optimization problems and the results are reported. The comparison of the numerical results with those of other metaheuristic techniques demonstrates the promising performance of the algorithm as a robust optimization tool for practical purposes.

  6. Sodium intake of special populations in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span (HANDLS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Marie; Fanelli-Kuczmarksi, Marie; Clymer, Julie; Hotchkiss, Lawrence; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2013-10-01

    The sodium intake of participants of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study who were in three of the special population groups identified by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 (those with hypertension, African Americans, and those ≥51years) was analyzed to determine if they met sodium recommendations. The sample included 2152 African American and White subjects, aged 30-64years. Major dietary sources of sodium for each group were determined from two 24-hour dietary recalls, and dietary intakes were compared with sodium recommendations. Dietary potassium was also evaluated. The intakes of the groups studied exceeded 1500mg of sodium while their potassium intakes were lower than the Adequate Intake of 4700mg. The major contributors of sodium included "cold cuts, sausage, and franks," "protein foods," and yeast breads. Excessive sodium intake characterized the diet of an urban, socioeconomically diverse population who are hypertensive or at risk for having hypertension. These findings have implications for health professionals and the food industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioavalaibility and pharmacokinetic comparison of two formulations of metformin 850 mg tablets in healthy Colombian volunteers

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    Gloria Holguín

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability of two formulations of metformin 850 mg tablets: Glucophage® from Merck Santè laboratories (reference product and Metformin from Winthrop Pharmaceuticals de Colombia SA (test product in healthy Colombian volunteers.Methods: A random, double blind, two-period, two-week wash out period, crossover study was performed in 24 healthy male and female volunteers for a single 850-mg dose of metformin tablets administrated with 240 ml of water after 12 hours of fasting. Once the drug was administrated, blood samples were collected before and within 24 hour, and plasma metformin concentration was determined by using a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, AUC0-96h, AUC0-∞, and Tmax were determined. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the logarithmic mean ratios of ln-transformed Cmax and AUC0-∞ values were within the equivalence range of 80%-125%.Results: ANOVA analysis of the ln-transformed Cmax and AUC0-∞ indicated that none of the effects examined (formulation, period, within and between-subjet variances and carry over was statistically significant. The mean (±SD of Cmax 1217.38 (± 251.72 ng/ml vs. 1305.25 (± 301.06 ng/ml, AUC0-96h 1363.49 (± 315.51 ng.h/ml vs. 1584.82 (± 368.75 ng.h/ml, AUC0-∞, 7155.75 (± 1440.74 ng.h/ml vs. 7777.08 (± 1896.49 ng.h/ml, and Tmax 2.57 (± 0.93 h vs. 2.22 (± 0.94 h were obtained with test and reference formulations, respectively. These pharmacokinetic parameters presented differences with the results from other published papers. The 90% confidence interval of the logarithmic ratio of AUC0-∞ and Cmax was within the range of 80-125%.Conclusions: In this study in healthy Colombian volunteers, a single 850-mg dose of metformin tablet test formulation met the criteria for bioequivalence to the reference formulation based on pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0-∞ and Cmax.

  8. Bioavalaibility and pharmacokinetic comparison of two formulations of metformin 850 mg tablets in healthy Colombian volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Holguín

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available urpose: The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability of two formulations of metformin 850 mg tablets: Glucophage® from Merck Santè laboratories (reference product and Metformin from Winthrop Pharmaceuticals de Colombia SA (test product in healthy Colombian volunteers. Methods: A random, double blind, two-period, two-week wash out period, crossover study was performed in 24 healthy male and female volunteers for a single 850-mg dose of metformin tablets administrated with 240 ml of water after 12 hours of fasting. Once the drug was administrated, blood samples were collected before and within 24 hour, and plasma metformin concentration was determined by using a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, AUC0-96h, AUC0-∞, and Tmax were determined. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the logarithmic mean ratios of ln-transformed Cmax and AUC0-∞ values were within the equivalence range of 80%-125%. Results: ANOVA analysis of the ln-transformed Cmax and AUC0-∞ indicated that none of the effects examined (formulation, period, within and between-subjet variances and carry over was statistically significant. The mean (±SD of Cmax 1217.38 (± 251.72 ng/ml vs. 1305.25 (± 301.06 ng/ml, AUC0-96h 1363.49 (± 315.51 ng.h/ml vs. 1584.82 (± 368.75 ng.h/ml, AUC0-∞, 7155.75 (± 1440.74 ng.h/ml vs. 7777.08 (± 1896.49 ng.h/ml, and Tmax 2.57 (± 0.93 h vs. 2.22 (± 0.94 h were obtained with test and reference formulations, respectively. These pharmacokinetic parameters presented differences with the results from other published papers. The 90% confidence interval of the logarithmic ratio of AUC0-∞ and Cmax was within the range of 80-125%. Conclusions: In this study in healthy Colombian volunteers, a single 850-mg dose of metformin tablet test formulation met the criteria for bioequivalence to the reference formulation based on pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0-∞ and Cmax.

  9. Quantification of MRI measured myocardial perfusion reserve in healthy humans: A comparison with positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz-Hansen, T.; Hove, J.D.; Kofoed, K.F.;

    2008-01-01

    and during stress induced by dipyridamole in order to determine the myocardial perfusion reserve. Myocardial and blood time concentration curves obtained by Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI and N-13-ammonia PET were fitted by a two-compartment perfusion model. Results: Mean perfusion values (+/- SD) derived from the MRI......Purpose: To validate a noninvasive quantitative MRI technique, the K-i perfusion method, for myocardial perfusion in humans using N-13-ammonia PET as a reference method. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy males (64 +/- 8 years) were examined with combined PET and MRI perfusion imaging at rest...... method at rest and at hyperemia were 80 +/- 20 and 183 +/- 56 mL/min/100 g, respectively. The same data for PET were 71 +/- 16 and 203 +/- 67 mL/min/100 g. A linear relationship was observed between MRI and PET-derived myocardial perfusion reserve for regional and global data. Linear regression...

  10. The Comparison of Malocclusion Prevalence Between Children with Cerebral Palsy and Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakarcić, Danko; Lajnert, Vlatka; Maricić, Barbara Mady; Jokić, Nataga Ivancić; Vrancić, Zlatka Roksandić; Grzić, Renata; Prpić, Igor

    2015-09-01

    This study sets out to examine the prevalence of malocclusion and habits in a group of children with cerebral palsy and to compare it with a control group of healthy children. The presence of an anterior open bite was statistically significantly higher in the cerebral palsied group. The presence of aposterior crossbite was not significantly different between the examined groups, as was the case for a lingual crossbite. The occurrence of visceral swallowing, incompetent lips and oral respiration was significantly higher in the cerebral palsied group. The current study cannot satisfactorily sustain the issue of a higher prevalence of posterior and lingual crossbite in children with cerebral palsy because of no significant differences between groups, but it certainly can for an anterior openbite. The present study also adds to the evidence that there is an increased prevalence of oral breathing, visceral swallowing and lip incompetence in children with cerebral palsy.

  11. [Comparison of swallowing surface electromyography in globus patients and healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Li, Jinrang

    2015-02-01

    To study the surface electromyography (sEMG) changes of globus patients during swallowing and to discuss the cause of the globus. The sEMG during swallowing was recorded in 126 healthy volunteers (control group) and 34 globus patients (globus group).Swallow included dry swallow and 20 ml water swallow. The durations and amplitudes of muscle activities during every swallow were recorded. The durations and amplitudes of the sEMG in two groups were compared using t test. The durations of sEMG at dry swallow and 20 ml water swallow were (1.128 ± 0.191)s and (1.091 ± 0.208)s, while the amplitudes were (0.313 ± 0.110) mV and (0.286 ± 0.106) mV in control group. The durations of sEMG at dry swallow and 20 ml water swallow were (1.178 ± 0.252)s and (1.127 ± 0.178)s, while the amplitudes were (0.341 ± 0.116) mV and (0.316 ± 0.094) mV in globus group. There were no significant differences between globus patients and healthy volunteers in the durations and amplitudes of sEMG at dry swallow and 20 ml water swallow (P > 0.05).Furthermore, there were also no significant differences in the durations and amplitudes of the sEMG between the two groups in the same gender (P > 0.05). The results of swallowing sEMG suggested that the swallowing function in globus patients has not been damaged and psychological intervention should be considered in the treatment.

  12. Respiratory inductance plethysmography in healthy infants: a comparison of three calibration methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, K A; Thompson, J R; Hallinan, H M; Beardsmore, C S

    2000-12-01

    Respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) measures respiration from body surface movements. Various techniques have been proposed for calibration in order that RIP may be used quantitatively. These include calculation of the proportionality constant of ribcage to abdominal volume change (K). The aims of this study were to 1) establish whether a fixed value of K could be used for calibration, and 2) compare this technique with multiple linear regression (MLR) and qualitative diagnostic calibration (QDC) in normal healthy infants. Recordings of pneumotachograph (PNT) flow and RIP were made during quiet (QS) and active sleep (AS) in 12 infants. The first 5 min in a sleep state were used to calculate calibration factors, which were applied to subsequent validation data. The absolute percentage error between RIP and PNT tidal volumes was calculated. The percentage error was similar over a wide range of K during QS. However, K became more critical when breathing was out of phase. A standard for K of 0.5 was chosen. There was good agreement between calibration methods during QS and AS. In the first minute following calibration during QS, the mean absolute errors were 3.5, 4.1 and 5.3% for MLR, QDC and fixed K respectively. The equivalent errors in AS were 11.5, 13.1 and 13.7% respectively. The simple fixed ratio method can be used to measure tidal volume with similar accuracy to multiple linear regression and qualitative diagnostic calibration in healthy unsedated sleeping infants, although it remains to be validated in other groups of infants, such as those with respiratory disease.

  13. Comparison of serum calcium and magnesium levels between preeclamptic and normotensive healthy pregnant women

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    Shilpa Mittal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is idiopathic multisystem disorder specific to human pregnancy. Its incidence is 8-10% of total pregnancies in India. It is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alterations in serum calcium and magnesium levels have been suggested as effective factors in causing preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to compare serum calcium and magnesium levels in preeclamptic and normal pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: The study was conducted in the department of biochemistry in collaboration with department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Sri Aurobindo medical college and P. G. institute, Indore during the period January 2012 to January 2013. Subjects were divided into two groups: group-I included 100 preeclamptic women group-II included 100 age matched, healthy pregnant women. Serum calcium and magnesium was estimated by Arsenazo III method and by Calmagite method in ERBA CHEM-5 respectively (Enzymatic kit method. Results: Serum levels of calcium (8.27 +/- 0.37 mg/dL vs. 9.06 +/- 0.27 mg/dL and magnesium (1.99 +/- 0.13 mEq/L vs. 2.03 +/- 0.13 mEq/L were significantly lower in preeclamptic women than the control group (i.e. healthy pregnant women. Conclusions: Hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia are seen in the preeclamptic women may be responsible for the vascular pathology associated with onset of preeclampsia. Hence it can be concluded that adjuvant supplementation of calcium and magnesium may prevent further progression of preeclampsia. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 959-962

  14. Comparison of radiographic and computed tomographic images of the lungs in healthy neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliewert, Eva-Christina; Lascola, Kara M; O'Brien, Robert T; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Wilkins, Pamela A; Foreman, Jonathan H; Mitchell, Mark A; Hartman, Susan K; Kline, Kevin H

    2015-01-01

    To compare CT and radiographic images of the lungs in sedated healthy foals positioned in sternal recumbency and to investigate whether a relationship exists between CT-derived measurements of lung attenuation and Paco2 and Pao2. 6 healthy Standardbred foals < 14 days of age. Thoracic CT images were acquired followed by radiographic views with each foal sedated and positioned in sternal recumbency. For each foal, both CT and radiographic images were evaluated for severity and extent of changes by lung regions on the basis of a subjective scoring system by 3 investigators. Quantitative analysis of CT images was also performed. Assessments of Pao2 and Paco2 were performed before sedation, following sedation prior to CT, and after CT prior to radiography. Interobserver agreement for CT and radiographic image scoring was strong (0.73) and fair (0.65), respectively; intraobserver agreement was near perfect for CT (0.97) and radiographic (0.94) image scoring. Increased CT attenuation and radiographic changes were identified for all foals and were preferentially distributed in the caudoventral portion of the lungs. Radiographic scores were significantly lower than CT image scores. A positive correlation (r = 0.872) between lung attenuation and CT image score was identified. A significant increase in Paco2 was not considered clinically relevant. Significant changes in Pao2 were not observed. Results suggested that interpretation of CT images may be less subjective, compared with interpretation of radiographic images. These findings may aid in the evaluation of CT and radiographic images of neonatal foals with respiratory tract disease.

  15. Comparison of Neutrophil Apoptosis by the Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Exotoxins between Healthy Individuals and Term Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Khazaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be colonized in different human tissues and result in some infections potentially. Thus, considering that these bacteria are resistance to most of the current antibiotics, an examination on pathogenesis mechanisms of such bacteria can be effective in controlling the infections developed by it.Materials and Methods: In this project, among 40 blood samples (20 healthy persons, 20 infants, an amount of 5 ml (2 ml in the infants heparinized blood was collected form each and then neutrophils were isolated by a standard method and were counted by neubauer lam. After culturing Pseudomonas bacteria in broth medium, some tubes with densities of 1, 2, 3 and 4 McFarland were prepared and the bacteria were isolated by centrifuge method with 3000rpm for 10 minutes and then its exotoxin were exposed to neutrophils of the groups under study. The effect of time and the bacteria count on the amount of the secreted toxin and in adjacency to neutrophils was measured.Results: There were 11 men and 9 women in the health group and the infants group consisted of 12 boys and 8 girls. Death cell percentage of neutrophils was 100% in the health group and 8.90% in the infants group. Percentage of bacterial growth in the medium 1 and 2 McFarland was zero; in the medium 3 McFarland, it was 12.5% in the healthy group and 1% in the infants group (p<0.10. The average rate of cell death in the minute 15th was different in two groups (68.5% in health group vs. 92.5% in the infants (p<0.0005. Conclusion: This study showed the effect of Pseudomonas bacteria on the development of early cell death in the infants very well. As it was shown, this effect is time-dependent and this cell death (apoptosis is occurred in the infants earlier than health people.

  16. A comparison of the biological activity of 2 formulations of enoxaparin in 12 healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vineeta; Madhu, Sirisha; Natarajan, Parthiban; Muniyandi, Ganesan; Jaiswal, Vijaya; Saxena, Renu

    2010-08-01

    India is one of the few countries where biosimilar enoxaparin is available for clinical use. Despite availability since past 4 to 5 years, there is a paucity of published literature regarding their biological activity. The aim of the current study is to compare the biological activity of an endogenously developed formulation of enoxaparin with the branded formulation. Twelve healthy male volunteers received 1 subcutaneous injection of 2 different formulations of enoxaparin in a randomized, open-label, balanced, 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence, cross-over study. The test formulation was Injection Troynoxa (enoxaparin sodium 40 mg/0.4 mL, Troikaa Pharmaceuticals Ltd., India) and reference formulation was Injection Clexane (enoxaparin sodium 40 mg/ 0.4 mL, Sanofi-Aventis, UK). The plasma anti-Xa activity and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were estimated on fully automated coagulometer predose and at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours following dosing with 40 mg/0.4 mL of enoxaparin. The results of mixed model analysis of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for estimating difference between least square means of test and reference formulations, at all time points, showed no significant differences in anti-Xa activity and plasma aPTT levels. Both formulations were well tolerated and there were no bleeding episodes. After a single-dose injection in healthy participants, anti-Xa activities of 2 formulations of LMWH enoxaparin were comparable. No significant difference was observed in the mean plasma aPTT. It remains to be seen whether the 2 formulations would show comparable clinical efficacy.

  17. VEP characteristics in children with achiasmia, in comparison to albino and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecelj, Jelka; Sustar, Maja; Pečarič-Meglič, Nuška; Skrbec, Miha; Stirn-Kranjc, Branka

    2012-04-01

    Achiasmia is a rare disorder of visual pathway maldevelopment that can show diverse clinical and magnetic resonance imaging spectra. The aim of this study was to define the characteristics of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) that differentiate abnormal optic-nerve-fibre decussation in children with achiasmia versus children with albinism and healthy children. In four children with achiasmia, the following VEP characteristics were studied and compared to children with ocular albinism and with healthy control children: (a) flash and pattern onset VEP interhemispheric asymmetry; (b) flash N2, P2 and onset C1 amplitudes and latencies; (c) interocular polarity differences in interhemisphere potentials; and (d) chiasm coefficients (CCs). In the children with achiasmia, VEPs were related to an absence of or reduced optic-nerve-fibre decussation at the chiasm and showed: ipsilateral asymmetry, significantly higher VEP amplitudes over the ipsilateral hemisphere (p VEP features (uncrossed asymmetry and positive CC) were also seen if additional visual pathway maldevelopment (such as severe optic nerve hypoplasia and/or absence of the optic tractus on one side) were associated with achiasmia. In the children with albinism, the VEPs were related to excess optic-nerve-fibre decussation at the chiasm and showed: contralateral asymmetry, significantly higher VEP amplitudes over the contralateral hemisphere (p VEPs to flash stimulation were more robust and more clearly distinguished between the conditions compared with the VEPs to pattern onset stimulation. VEPs in achiasmia are associated with absent or reduced optic-nerve-fibre decussation, where ipsilateral interhemispheric asymmetry is associated with interocular inverse polarity and a negative CC.

  18. The effects of fatigue and the post-concussion syndrome on executive functioning in traumatic brain injury and healthy comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enid Schutte

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, behavioural manifestations of compromised executive control, including perseveration and reduced inductive reasoning, on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST were investigated.Performance was affected by fatigue in both a head-injured and matched population, which has implications for health care professionals involved in rehabilitation and assessment. A fatigue condition was manipulated for 15 moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI individuals through the course of a three-hour neuropsychological testing session. A comparison sample of 15 participants in a group of ‘no history of TBI’ was fatigued through the same approach. All fatigued participants (with and without TBI displayed trends towards increased levels of perseveration and reduced inductive reasoning on the WCST. Thus, the effects of fatigue on high-level functioning are pervasive even when not head-injured. This finding supports the sub-optimal performance in cognitive skills, specifically in executive control, that is often found in fatigued people. These findings are relevant for the manner in which rehabilitation interventions and medico-legal assessments are structured. Importantly, the order of tests, their interpretation and rest sessions should be clearly indicated and interpreted in assessment reports and rehabilitation sessions.

    Opsomming

    In hierdie studie is gedragsmanifestering in individue met gekompromitteerde uitvoerende funksionering, met inbegrip van perseverasie en verminderde induktiewe redenering, op die Wisconsin-kaartsorteringstoets (WCST, bestudeer. Die waarneming dat prestasie deur uitputting beïnvloed word in sowel normale populasies as dié met kopbeserings het implikasies vir gesondheidsorgpersoneel wat by rehabilitasie en assessering betrokke is. ’n Uitputtingstoestand is gemanipuleer vir 15 matig ernstige individue met traumatiese kopbeserings (TKB vir die duur van ’n drie uur lange toetssessie.

  19. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli-induced pneumonia in three kittens and fecal prevalence in a clinically healthy cohort population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Margaret A; Byrne, Barbara A; Debroy, Chitrita; Samitz, Eileen M; Peterson, Tracy S; Oslund, Karen L

    2009-09-01

    Three kittens, ages 5, 9, and 17 weeks, were found dead by separate caregivers and were submitted for necropsy. At gross necropsy, each kitten had hemorrhagic or bloody fibrinoserous thoracic fluid and differing distributions of pulmonary consolidation. On histologic examination, the pulmonary lesion in each kitten was similar and was characterized by acute necrotizing and hemorrhagic pneumonia and pleuritis, with numerous intralesional small Gram-negative rods. A pure culture of a distinct serotype of Escherichia coli was identified in lung tissue from each kitten (O4H5, O6H7, O6H5). Lung isolates, genotyped by polymerase chain reaction, carried genes that are characteristic of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), including cnf-1, papG allele I, papA, papC, sfa, fim, hlyD, malX, iroN, fyuA, kpsMII, and ompT. Escherichia coli isolates from the intestines of 2 of the kittens were 100% related to the respective lung isolate, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Cultures of fecal samples collected from a clinically healthy cohort population of kittens revealed 16 of 19 tested kittens (84%) to be shedding hemolytic E. coli. Ten different serotypes were identified from 43 hemolytic E. coli fecal isolates from the cohort population, each of which had a genetic profile consistent with that typical of ExPEC. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report to describe a cluster of isolated cases of pneumonia in kittens caused by distinct serotypes of ExPEC and to evaluate the prevalence of hemolytic E. coli carrying ExPEC-associated genes in the feces of a cohort population of kittens.

  20. COMPARISON OF LISINOPRIL AND BISOPROLOL INFLUENCES ON REGULATORY SYSTEMS OF THE ORGANISM IN BIOFEEDBACK SERIES IN HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS

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    E. O. Nazarenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 15 conditionally healthy volunteers aged from 18 to 22 years influence of Lisinopril and Bisoprolol on the biofeedback in the loop of paced breathing under control of heart rate variability parameters was compared. Every volunteer underwent 3 everyday biofeedback series with 5 session in each with a 5 months gap between the series, adding oral drugs application to the 2nd and 3rd series. During the 2nd series biofeedback sessions was conducted one hour after oral application of 2,5 mg Lisinopril. During the 3rd series biofeedback sessions was conducted one hour after oral application of 2,5 mg Bisoprolol. In used protocol, it was found that Bisoprolol promotes earlier and more substantial optimization of regulatory systems in comparison with Lisinopril.

  1. Prevalence of Fracture in Healthy Iranian Children Aged 9–18 Years and Associated Risk Factors; A Population Based Study

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    Marjan Jeddi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of fractures and associated risk factors in healthy Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, 478 healthy Iranian children and adolescents aged 9–18 years old participated. Baseline data and bone mineral content and density have been determined. One questionnaire was completed for all individuals including previous history of fracture, its location, and level of trauma. Albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D levels were measured. Results: We found a prevalence of 12.9% for fracture. (34.5% for girls and 65.5% for boys; about 71% suffered long bone fracture with distal forearm as the most common site. Totally 58% of the boys and 54% of the girls had fracture with low-energy trauma. The fracture group had lower bone mineral apparent density in the lumbar spine (0.19±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.03, p=0.04, lower serum albumin (4.6±0.5 vs 4.8±0.4, p=0.02, and higher serum alkaline phosphatase level (446±174 vs. 361±188, p=0.02 compared with non-fracture subjects. By logistic regression analysis, we found a significant association for sex, and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine with fracture (p=0.003, p=0.039. Conclusion: Compared to other studies, our subjects had lower rate of fracture. We found an association between low bone density and fracture in children and adolescents. This finding has important implications for public health. Further research may contribute to recognition of preventive measures.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging for lung cancer detection: Experience in a population of more than 10,000 healthy individuals

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    Ko James S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent refinements of lung MRI techniques have reduced the examination time and improved diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We conducted a study to assess the feasibility of MRI for the detection of primary lung cancer in asymptomatic individuals. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed on images of lung parenchyma, which were extracted from whole-body MRI examinations between October 2000 and December 2007. 11,766 consecutive healthy individuals (mean age, 50.4 years; 56.8% male were scanned using one of two 1.5-T scanners (Sonata and Sonata Maestro, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany. The standard protocol included a quick whole-lung survey with T2-weighted 2-dimensional half Fourier acquisition single shot turbo spin echo (HASTE and 3-dimensional volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE. Total examination time was less than 10 minutes, and scanning time was only 5 minutes. Prompt referrals and follow-ups were arranged in cases of suspicious lung nodules. Results A total of 559 individuals (4.8% had suspicious lung nodules. A total of 49 primary lung cancers were diagnosed in 46 individuals: 41 prevalence cancers and 8 incidence cancers. The overall detection rate of primary lung cancers was 0.4%. For smokers aged 51 to 70 years, the detection rate was 1.4%. TNM stage I disease accounted for 37 (75.5%. The mean size of detected lung cancers was 1.98 cm (median, 1.5 cm; range, 0.5-8.2 cm. The most histological types were adenocarcinoma in 38 (77.6%. Conclusion Rapid zero-dose MRI can be used for lung cancer detection in a healthy population.

  3. Comparison of seropositivity of HCV between oral lichen planus and healthy control group in Hamedan province (west of Iran

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    Ahmad Reza Mobaien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the skin, nail, hair and mucous membranes. Oral lichen planus (LP is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the oral mucous membranes with a variety of clinical presentations. Various etiologies include HCV suggested for LP, and the aim of this study was comparison of seropositivity of HCV in LP patients and control group. Methods: All oral LP patients that were referred to dermatology clinic of farshchian hospitalwere entered in the study. Five cc of clot blood was taken from each patient and tested for anti-HCVand when anti-HCV tested positive another 2cc clot bloodwas taken for HCV-Rt-PCR test. The results were analyzed with SPSS 16. Results: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 oral lichen planus patients [males 13(43.3% females 17(56.7%] with mean ages of 46±13.7years and 60 healthy individual [males 26(43.3% females 34(56.7%]. There was no oral lichen planus patients who had anti-HCV positive whiles 2 males(3.3% of healthy group had anti-HCV positive which was confirmed by HCV-Rt-PCR. Conclusions: This study showed that there is no correlation between seropositivity of HCV and oral lichen planus in our patients in the west of Iran.

  4. Time perception in narcolepsy in comparison to patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls - an exploratory study.

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    Poryazova, Rositsa; Mensen, Armand; Bislimi, Fatime; Huegli, Gordana; Baumann, Christian R; Khatami, Ramin

    2013-12-01

    The striatum and the prefrontal cortex play an important role in cognitive time processing, and time perception depends on sustained attention. Narcolepsy patients are unable to maintain sustained attention, due probably to deficient hypocretin signalling. Impaired time perception has been found in Parkinson's disease (PD) and attributed to a dysfunctional dopaminergic striatal pacemaker. We aimed to assess time perception in patients with narcolepsy and PD and to compare the outcome to healthy control participants. Seventeen narcolepsy patients, 12 PD patients and 15 healthy controls performed a short time production task, where they had to produce an interval of 1, 2 or 5 s. The accuracy of time production differed significantly according to task target duration, and there was a trend towards a group difference with narcolepsy patients tending to overproduce all target durations. Absolute variability was significantly different between groups, with narcolepsy patients showing higher absolute variability in comparison to controls and PD patients. The analysis of the temporal course of time estimation showed more pronounced overproduction of each target duration at the end of each trial in narcolepsy patients, whereas performance was more or less stable in controls and PD patients. Overproduction and higher variability of all time durations in narcolepsy indicate impaired short interval timing in the seconds range, while the scalar property of timing was preserved. The time-course of accuracy and variability of time production within sessions indicate an attention-related mechanism of impaired interval timing.

  5. Haematological and CD4+ T cells reference ranges in healthy adult populations in Gojjam zones in Amhara region, Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wondemagegn Mulu; Bayeh Abera; Zewdie Mekonnen; Yesuf Adem; Mulat Yimer; Yohannes Zenebe; Asmare Amuamuta; Wondimu Gebeyehu

    2017-01-01

    ...(246 females and 235 males) healthy adults enrolled in the study. Healthy adults were defined by medical history, physical examination and laboratory screening for HIV, HBV, HCV and intestinal parasitosis...

  6. Adapting the Healthy Eating Index 2010 for the Canadian Population: Evidence from the Canadian National Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Ng, Alena Praneet; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-08-21

    The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a diet quality index shown to be associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Older versions of the HEI have been adapted for Canadian populations; however, no Canadian modification of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) has been made. The aims of this study were: (a) to develop a Canadian adaptation of the HEI-2010 (i.e., Healthy Eating Index-Canada 2010 (HEI-C 2010)) by adapting the recommendations of the HEI-2010 to Canada's Food Guide (CFG) 2007; (b) to evaluate the validity and reliability of the HEI-C 2010; and (c) to examine relationships between HEI-C 2010 scores with diet quality and the likelihood of being obese. Data from 12,805 participants (≥18 years) were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to test the association between compliance to the HEI-C 2010 recommendations and the likelihood of being obese, adjusting for errors in self-reported dietary data. The total mean error-corrected HEI-C 2010 score was 50.85 ± 0.35 out of 100. Principal component analysis confirmed multidimensionality of the HEI-C 2010, while Cronbach's α = 0.78 demonstrated internal reliability. Participants in the fourth quartile of the HEI-C 2010 with the healthiest diets were less likely to consume refined grains and empty calories and more likely to consume beneficial nutrients and foods (p-trend < 0.0001). Lower adherence to the index recommendations was inversely associated with the likelihood of being obese; this association strengthened after correction for measurement error (Odds Ratio: 1.41; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.17-1.71). Closer adherence to Canada's Food Guide 2007 assessed through the HEI-C 2010 was associated with improved diet quality and reductions in the likelihood of obesity when energy intake and measurement errors were taken into account. Consideration of energy requirements and energy density in future updates of Canada's Food Guide are

  7. Endocrine correlates of personality traits: a comparison between emotionally stable and emotionally labile healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, L; Wedekind, D; Pilz, J; Weniger, G; Huether, G

    1997-01-01

    An initial sample of 120 healthy young men was screened by a personality questionnaire and 15 subjects each with highest and lowest scores respectively on emotionality (emotionally labile, EL subjects and emotionally stable, ES subjects) were recruited for a study on the relationship between the degree of emotionality and the basal secretion of stress-sensitive hormones during night-time. The nocturnal urinary excretion of cortisol, testosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and melatonin was measured over a period of 5 consecutive nights. The average amounts of each hormone excreted per night were not different between the two extreme groups. The variability of the excretion during the 5 nights of cortisol and testosterone, but not of adrenaline, noradrenaline and melatonin, was significantly higher in EL compared to ES subjects. The larger fluctuations in the nocturnal secretion of these two (and no other) hormones in EL subjects indicate that emotional lability is associated with a more labile regulation of cortisol and testosterone secretion. The observed intraindividual variability of basal stress hormone secretion may contribute to the vast interindividual variability noticed in psychoneuroendocrine stress research, especially in emotionally labile subjects.

  8. Comparison of Sleep Disorder in Myocardial Infarction Patients with Their Healthy Relatives

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    AR Javan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Cardiovascular diseases are among the most common causes of mortality and sleep disturbances are common in today society. The purpose of the present study is to determine relationship between wide spectrum of sleep disorders including dyssomnias and parasomnias and occurrence of myocardial infarction. Materials & Methods: This is a prospective case control study which was performed on 65 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 65 cases of their healthy relatives. Data were collected by Epworth sleepiness scale and analyzed with SPSS software and using chi square, t-test and variance analysis. Results: For dyssomnias, frequency of early awakening in the morning, sleep duration at night, difficulty in falling asleep, sleep disruption and restless leg syndrome in case group were significantly higher than control group. For parasomnias, frequency of sleep paralysis, nightmare and sleep walking in case group were significantly higher than control group. Conclusion: Sleep disorders are more frequent among patients with myocardial infraction and can be considered as a risk factor for this disorder.

  9. Comparison of prevalence of periodontal disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controls

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    Mohammad Ehsan Rahiminejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, affecting 4-18% of them. Previous studies also showed that periodontal diseases are associated with different components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the association between PCOS and periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 196 women (98 with PCOS and 98 healthy controls were enrolled. PCOS diagnosis was confirmed by history, clinical signs, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and ultrasound studies. Both cases and controls were examined by the same periodontist. Periodontal parameters including bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth, clinical attachment loss (CAL, plaque index, and tooth loss were investigated in all participants. Pregnant women, smokers, individuals with a history of malignancy or osteoporosis, and those taking prophylactic antibiotics for dental procedures or receiving periodontal treatment during the 6-month period before examination were excluded. Data were analyzed using t-test, Chi-square test, and linear regression. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: CAL and sites with BOP were significantly higher in women with PCOS (P < 0.05. However, no significant difference was observed in the tooth loss rate between PCOS and non-PCOS participants (P = 0.384. Conclusion: The prevalence of periodontal disease seems to be higher in women with PCOS. This may be related to the role of chronic systemic inflammation in the pathophysiology of both PCOS and periodontal diseases.

  10. Strategic Variations in Fitts’ Task: Comparison of Healthy Older Adults and Cognitively Impaired Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Céline; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita; Decker, Leslie Marion; Retornaz, Frédérique; Lemaire, Patrick; Temprado, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating how healthy older adults (HOA) and cognitively impaired patients (CIP) differ in a discrete Fitts’ aiming task. Four levels of task difficulty were used, resulting from the simultaneous manipulation of the size of the target and its distance from home position. We found that movement times (MTs) followed Fitts’ law in both HOA and CIP, with the latter being significantly slower and more affected by increased task difficulty. Moreover, correlation analyses suggest that lower information processing speed (IPS) and deficits in executive functions (EFs) are associated with decline of sensorimotor performance in Fitts’ task. Analyses of strategic variations showed that HOA and CIP differed in strategy repertoire (which strategies they used), strategy distribution (i.e., how often they used each available strategy), and strategy execution (i.e., how quick they were with each available strategy). These findings further our understanding of how strategic variations used in a sensorimotor task are affected by cognitive impairment in older adults. PMID:28163682

  11. Comparison of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 bioavailability in healthy women

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    Sato Toshiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin K2 contributes to bone and cardiovascular health. Therefore, two vitamin K2 homologues, menaquinone-4 (MK-4 and menaquinone-7 (MK-7, have been used as nutrients by the food industry and as nutritional supplements to support bone and cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the bioavailability of nutritional MK-4. To investigate MK-4 and MK-7 bioavailability, nutritional doses were administered to healthy Japanese women. Findings Single dose administration of MK-4 (420 μg; 945 nmol or MK-7 (420 μg; 647 nmol was given in the morning together with standardized breakfast. MK-7 was well absorbed and reached maximal serum level at 6 h after intake and was detected up to 48 h after intake. MK-4 was not detectable in the serum of all subjects at any time point. Consecutive administration of MK-4 (60 μg; 135 nmol or MK-7 (60 μg; 92 nmol for 7 days demonstrated that MK-4 supplementation did not increase serum MK-4 levels. However, consecutive administration of MK-7 increased serum MK-7 levels significantly in all subjects. Conclusions We conclude that MK-4 present in food does not contribute to the vitamin K status as measured by serum vitamin K levels. MK-7, however significantly increases serum MK-7 levels and therefore may be of particular importance for extrahepatic tissues.

  12. Comparison of Resting Energy Expenditure Between Cancer Subjects and Healthy Controls: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Yen Vi; Batterham, Marijka J; Edwards, Cheree

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence surrounding the extent of changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) in cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to establish the mean difference in REE, as kilojoules per kilogram fat-free mass, among cancer patients when compared to healthy control subjects. The secondary aim was to determine differences among different cancer types. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and ProQuest Central were searched from the earliest records until March 2014. Studies were included if measured REE was reported as kilojoules or kilocalories per kilogram fat-free mass (FFM) in adult subjects with cancer. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Fourteen studies included both cancer (n = 1453) and control (n = 1145) groups. The meta-analysis shows an average increase in REE of 9.66 (95% confidence interval: 3.34, 15.98) kJ/kgFFM/day in cancer patients when compared to control subjects. Heterogeneity was detected (P < 0.001) which suggest variations in REE among cancer types. Elevations are most noticeable in patients with cancers of metabolically demanding organs.

  13. Comparison of pulsed wave and color Doppler myocardial velocity imaging in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wess, G; Killich, M; Hartmann, K

    2010-01-01

    Tissue velocity imaging (TVI) is increasingly used in small animal cardiology. Tissue velocity of the myocardial wall can be measured by pulsed wave (PW) or color Doppler (CD) imaging methods. Currently, the same reference ranges are used for PW TVI and CD TVI methods. However, if and how both methods correlate, and whether they can be used interchangeably, have not been assessed in small animals. To compare the results of PW TVI and CD TVI measurements. Seventy-one healthy dogs. Longitudinal myocardial velocity profiles were recorded from the 4-chamber left apical view. Peak maximal systolic (S), early (E), and late diastolic (A) velocities were measured off-line in a blinded fashion in the septal and lateral left ventricular wall by PW TVI and CD TVI. Differences between peak PW TVI and CD TVI waves were analyzed by a paired t-test. Regression analysis and Bland-Altman difference plots also were used to assess agreement between methods. There was a significant correlation between PW TVI and CD TVI (P Theses differences are clinically relevant. These methods should not be used interchangeably, and different reference ranges for PW TVI and CD TVI should be used.

  14. Daily physical activities and sports in adult survivors of childhood cancer and healthy controls: a population-based questionnaire survey.

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    Corina S Rueegg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy lifestyle including sufficient physical activity may mitigate or prevent adverse long-term effects of childhood cancer. We described daily physical activities and sports in childhood cancer survivors and controls, and assessed determinants of both activity patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a questionnaire survey including all children diagnosed with cancer 1976-2003 at age 0-15 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived ≥5 years and reached adulthood (≥20 years. Controls came from the population-based Swiss Health Survey. We compared the two populations and determined risk factors for both outcomes in separate multivariable logistic regression models. The sample included 1058 survivors and 5593 controls (response rates 78% and 66%. Sufficient daily physical activities were reported by 52% (n = 521 of survivors and 37% (n = 2069 of controls (p<0.001. In contrast, 62% (n = 640 of survivors and 65% (n = 3635 of controls reported engaging in sports (p = 0.067. Risk factors for insufficient daily activities in both populations were: older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.5, 95CI 1.2-2.0, female gender (OR 1.6, 95CI 1.3-1.9, French/Italian Speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.7, and higher education (OR for university education: 2.0, 95CI 1.5-2.6. Risk factors for no sports were: being a survivor (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.1-1.6, older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.8, migration background (OR 1.5, 95CI 1.3-1.8, French/Italian speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.2-1.7, lower education (OR for compulsory schooling only: 1.6, 95CI 1.2-2.2, being married (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.0, having children (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.4-1.9, obesity (OR 2.4, 95CI 1.7-3.3, and smoking (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.1. Type of diagnosis was only associated with sports. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Physical activity levels in survivors were lower than recommended, but comparable to controls and

  15. Daily physical activities and sports in adult survivors of childhood cancer and healthy controls: a population-based questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueegg, Corina S; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Rebholz, Cornelia E; Michel, Gisela; Zwahlen, Marcel; Grotzer, Michael; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2012-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle including sufficient physical activity may mitigate or prevent adverse long-term effects of childhood cancer. We described daily physical activities and sports in childhood cancer survivors and controls, and assessed determinants of both activity patterns. The Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a questionnaire survey including all children diagnosed with cancer 1976-2003 at age 0-15 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived ≥5 years and reached adulthood (≥20 years). Controls came from the population-based Swiss Health Survey. We compared the two populations and determined risk factors for both outcomes in separate multivariable logistic regression models. The sample included 1058 survivors and 5593 controls (response rates 78% and 66%). Sufficient daily physical activities were reported by 52% (n = 521) of survivors and 37% (n = 2069) of controls (psports (p = 0.067). Risk factors for insufficient daily activities in both populations were: older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.5, 95CI 1.2-2.0), female gender (OR 1.6, 95CI 1.3-1.9), French/Italian Speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.7), and higher education (OR for university education: 2.0, 95CI 1.5-2.6). Risk factors for no sports were: being a survivor (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.1-1.6), older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.8), migration background (OR 1.5, 95CI 1.3-1.8), French/Italian speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.2-1.7), lower education (OR for compulsory schooling only: 1.6, 95CI 1.2-2.2), being married (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.0), having children (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.4-1.9), obesity (OR 2.4, 95CI 1.7-3.3), and smoking (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.1). Type of diagnosis was only associated with sports. Physical activity levels in survivors were lower than recommended, but comparable to controls and mainly determined by socio-demographic and cultural factors. Strategies to improve physical activity levels could be similar as for the general population.

  16. Body-Related Social Comparison and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Females with an Eating Disorder, Depressive Disorder, and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Le Grange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC and eating disorders (EDs by: (a comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD, and no psychiatric history; and (b investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12–18 (25 per diagnostic group. To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others’. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001. Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01, and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.

  17. Extinction of Fear Generalization: A Comparison Between Fibromyalgia Patients and Healthy Control Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulders, Ann; Meulders, Michel; Stouten, Iris; De Bie, Jozef; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2017-01-01

    Fear learning deficiencies might contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain disability. Fear is often not restricted to movements (conditioned stimulus [CS+]) originally associated with pain (unconditioned stimulus), but expands to similar movements (generalization stimuli [GSs]). This spreading of fear becomes dysfunctional when overgeneralization to safe stimuli occurs. More importantly, persistence of pain-related fear to GSs despite corrective feedback might even be more debilitating and maintain long-term chronic pain disability. Yet, research on this topic is lacking. Using a voluntary joystick movement paradigm, we examined (extinction of) pain-related fear generalization in fibromyalgia patients (FM) and healthy control participants (HC). During acquisition, one movement (CS+) predicted pain; another did not (CS-). We tested (extinction of) fear generalization to 5 GSs varying in similarity with the CS+ and CS-. Results revealed flatter pain expectancy generalization gradients in FM than in HC due to elevated responses to GSs more similar to the CS-; the fear generalization gradients did not differ. Although pain-related fear and expectancy to the GSs decreased during extinction, responses to the GSs remained higher for FM than HC, suggesting that extinction of generalization is impaired in chronic pain patients. Persistence of excessive protective responses may contribute to maintaining long-term chronic pain disability. Pain-related fear and expectancy to movements-varying in similarity with the original painful and nonpainful movement-decrease during extinction in HC and FM. Yet, conditioned responses remain elevated in patients despite corrective feedback, indicating impaired extinction of generalization. Persistent excessive protective responses may contribute to preserving pain disability. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of anaerobic threshold determined by visual and mathematical methods in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Higa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Several methods are used to estimate anaerobic threshold (AT during exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare AT obtained by a graphic visual method for the estimate of ventilatory and metabolic variables (gold standard, to a bi-segmental linear regression mathematical model of Hinkley's algorithm applied to heart rate (HR and carbon dioxide output (VCO2 data. Thirteen young (24 ± 2.63 years old and 16 postmenopausal (57 ± 4.79 years old healthy and sedentary women were submitted to a continuous ergospirometric incremental test on an electromagnetic braking cycloergometer with 10 to 20 W/min increases until physical exhaustion. The ventilatory variables were recorded breath-to-breath and HR was obtained beat-to-beat over real time. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric Friedman test and Spearman correlation test with the level of significance set at 5%. Power output (W, HR (bpm, oxygen uptake (VO2; mL kg-1 min-1, VO2 (mL/min, VCO2 (mL/min, and minute ventilation (VE; L/min data observed at the AT level were similar for both methods and groups studied (P > 0.05. The VO2 (mL kg-1 min-1 data showed significant correlation (P < 0.05 between the gold standard method and the mathematical model when applied to HR (r s = 0.75 and VCO2 (r s = 0.78 data for the subjects as a whole (N = 29. The proposed mathematical method for the detection of changes in response patterns of VCO2 and HR was adequate and promising for AT detection in young and middle-aged women, representing a semi-automatic, non-invasive and objective AT measurement.

  19. Body composition in severe refractory asthma: comparison with COPD patients and healthy smokers.

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    Markos Minas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body composition is an important parameter for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD whereas the association between asthma and obesity is not fully understood. The impact of severe refractory asthma (SRA on fat free mass (FFM has not been investigated. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 213 subjects (70 healthy smokers, 71 COPD patients and 72 asthma patients without significant comorbidities were included in the study. In all patients, body composition assessment (using bioelectrical impendance analysis, skinfold and anthropometric measurements and spirometry were performed. Differences in fat free mass index (FFMI between groups were assessed and determinants of FFMI in asthma were evaluated. Patients with SRA had lower values of FFMI compared to patients with mild-to-moderate asthma [18.0(17.3-18.3-19.5(18.4-21.5, p<0.001], despite the fact that they were more obese. The levels of FFMI in SRA were lower than those of GOLD stage I-III COPD and comparable to those of stage IV COPD patients [18.0(17.3-18.3-18.8(17.8-20.1, p = ns]. These differences were present even after proper adjustments for sex, age, smoking status, daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and daily use of oral corticosteroids (OCS. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of FFMI in asthmatic patients were age, use of OCS and the presence of SRA, but not smoking, sex or cumulative dose of ICS used. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: SRA is related to the presence of low FFMI that is comparable to that of GOLD stage IV COPD. The impact of this observation on asthma mechanisms and outcomes should be further investigated in large prospective studies.

  20. Comparison of the immune microenvironment of the oral cavity and cervix in healthy women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry, Carole; Marks, Morgan A.; Gilman, Robert H.; Cabrerra, Lilia; Yori, Pablo; Kosek, Margaret; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite similar frequencies of exposure, the low prevalence of certain sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia, HPV and HIV-1 in the oral cavity relative to the cervix is poorly understood. This could be explained in part by differences in host immune microenvironments between these two anatomic sites. Objective We compared the concentration and correlation of 27 different immune markers in paired secretion specimens collected from the oral and cervical mucosa of healthy women. Methods Paired oral and cervical secretion specimens were collected from thirty-nine women. The concentration of twenty-seven different immune markers was estimated using a Luminex multiplex assay. Marker concentration was normalized to total protein present in the specimen. Median immune marker concentrations were compared across anatomic sites. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis was utilized to identify groups of markers that shared similar patterns of relative concentrations across anatomic sites. Results The oral cavity had significantly higher concentrations of eotaxin, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, PDGF-BB, TNF-α, (p < 0.01 for each) while the cervix had higher concentrations of proinflammatory markers such as FGF-basic, IL-1ra, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1β, VEGF (p < 0.01 for each). Hierarchical cluster analysis identified two groups of immune markers comprised of T-cell related immune markers with significantly higher concentrations in the oral cavity relative to the cervix, and a third cluster consisting of mostly inflammatory immune markers which were higher concentrations in the cervix. The oral cavity had a larger number of significant inter-marker correlations as compared to the cervix. Conclusions The oral cavity and cervix have significantly different immune marker profiles, which may in part explain the significantly lower burden of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia, HPV, and

  1. Antibiotic prescribing in paediatric populations: a comparison between Viareggio, Italy and Funen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusini, Gaia; Lapi, Francesco; Sara, Benocci

    2009-01-01

    High rates of antibiotic prescribing in paediatric populations represent a major issue because of the problem of antibiotic resistance. North European countries reported an appropriate use of antibiotics in general population; few studies on this issue have been conducted until now, especially in...... in Italy. Therefore a comparison concerning paediatric antibiotic prescribing rates between an Italian administrative area in Tuscany (Viareggio) and the county of Funen (Denmark) was conducted....

  2. Quantitative traits correlative analysis and growth comparison among different populations of bay scallop,Argopecten irradians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUBaozhong; LIANGYubo; LIUXiaolin; DONGBo; XIANGJianhai

    2004-01-01

    The shell traits and weight traits are measured in cultured populations of bay scallop, Argopecten irradians. The results of regression analysis show that the regression relationships for all the traits are significant (P0.05). The multiple regression equation is obtained to estimate live body weight and tissue weight. The above traits except anterior and posterior auricle length are used for the growth and production comparison among three cultured populations, Duncan's new multiple range procedure analysis shows that all the traits in the Lingshuiqiao (LSQ) population are much more significant than those of the other two populations (P0.05). The results indicate that the LSQ population has a higher growth rate and is expected to be more productive than the other two populations.

  3. Blood selenium concentration in various populations of healthy and sick people – review of literature fromthe years 2005–2010

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    Paweł Gać

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its significant biological functions, as well as slight diversity between the dose essential for proper functioning of the organism and its toxic dosage, during the recent years selenium concentration constituted a subject of considerable interest as far as toxicology specialists and researchers from other branches are concerned. This thesis reviews 55 articles published between 2005 and 2010 and focuses on the analysis concerning blood selenium concentration in various populations. Methodology related with various manners of marking blood selenium level, scope of blood selenium concentrations in healthy people, as well as dependence between blood selenium concentration and the occurrence of various diseases, such as malignant tumours, diseases of circulatory system, diabetes and viral infections. According to the authors, what seems important is the elaboration and standardisation of the method used to mark selenium concentration and indication of preferred biological material for marking the above. What is more, further follow up of the study focusing on significance of selenium on people health is recommended, as this would resolve all doubts within this field.

  4. Fecal Microbiota in Healthy Subjects Following Omnivore, Vegetarian and Vegan Diets: Culturable Populations and rRNA DGGE Profiling.

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    Ilario Ferrocino

    Full Text Available In this study, the fecal microbiota of 153 healthy volunteers, recruited from four different locations in Italy, has been studied by coupling viable counts, on different microbiological media, with ribosomal RNA Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (rRNA-DGGE. The volunteers followed three different diets, namely omnivore, ovo-lacto-vegetarian and vegan. The results obtained from culture-dependent and -independent methods have underlined a high level of similarity of the viable fecal microbiota for the three investigated diets. The rRNA DGGE profiles were very complex and comprised a total number of bands that varied from 67 to 64 for the V3 and V9 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Only a few bands were specific in/of all three diets, and the presence of common taxa associated with the dietary habits was found. As far as the viable counts are concerned, the high similarity of the fecal microbiota was once again confirmed, with only a few of the investigated groups showing significant differences. Interestingly, the samples grouped differently, according to the recruitment site, thus highlighting a higher impact of the food consumed by the volunteers in the specific geographical locations than that of the type of diet. Lastly, it should be mentioned that the fecal microbiota DGGE profiles obtained from the DNA were clearly separated from those produced using RNA, thus underlining a difference between the total and viable populations in the fecal samples.

  5. Fecal Microbiota in Healthy Subjects Following Omnivore, Vegetarian and Vegan Diets: Culturable Populations and rRNA DGGE Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Turroni, Silvia; Vannini, Lucia; Bancalari, Elena; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Neviani, Erasmo; Cocolin, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the fecal microbiota of 153 healthy volunteers, recruited from four different locations in Italy, has been studied by coupling viable counts, on different microbiological media, with ribosomal RNA Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (rRNA-DGGE). The volunteers followed three different diets, namely omnivore, ovo-lacto-vegetarian and vegan. The results obtained from culture-dependent and -independent methods have underlined a high level of similarity of the viable fecal microbiota for the three investigated diets. The rRNA DGGE profiles were very complex and comprised a total number of bands that varied from 67 to 64 for the V3 and V9 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Only a few bands were specific in/of all three diets, and the presence of common taxa associated with the dietary habits was found. As far as the viable counts are concerned, the high similarity of the fecal microbiota was once again confirmed, with only a few of the investigated groups showing significant differences. Interestingly, the samples grouped differently, according to the recruitment site, thus highlighting a higher impact of the food consumed by the volunteers in the specific geographical locations than that of the type of diet. Lastly, it should be mentioned that the fecal microbiota DGGE profiles obtained from the DNA were clearly separated from those produced using RNA, thus underlining a difference between the total and viable populations in the fecal samples.

  6. Nonlinear population receptive field changes in human area V5/MT+ of healthy subjects with simulated visual field scotomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Amalia; Keliris, Georgios A; Lee, Sangkyun; Logothetis, Nikos K; Smirnakis, Stelios M

    2015-10-15

    There is extensive controversy over whether the adult visual cortex is able to reorganize following visual field loss (scotoma) as a result of retinal or cortical lesions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods provide a useful tool to study the aggregate receptive field properties and assess the capacity of the human visual cortex to reorganize following injury. However, these methods are prone to biases near the boundaries of the scotoma. Retinotopic changes resembling reorganization have been observed in the early visual cortex of normal subjects when the visual stimulus is masked to simulate retinal or cortical scotomas. It is not known how the receptive fields of higher visual areas, like hV5/MT+, are affected by partial stimulus deprivation. We measured population receptive field (pRF) responses in human area V5/MT+ of 5 healthy participants under full stimulation and compared them with responses obtained from the same area while masking the left superior quadrant of the visual field ("artificial scotoma" or AS). We found that pRF estimations in area hV5/MT+ are nonlinearly affected by the AS. Specifically, pRF centers shift towards the AS, while the pRF amplitude increases and the pRF size decreases near the AS border. The observed pRF changes do not reflect reorganization but reveal important properties of normal visual processing under different test-stimulus conditions.

  7. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan

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    Mohammadreza Lashkari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae, vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB, is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida. The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1, Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1, and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6, to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran—Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida—Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan—Punjab were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks’ lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001. The body length (BL, circumanal ring length (CL, antenna length (AL, forewing length (WL and Rs vein length of forewing (RL were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1 Iran, (2 USA (Florida and (3 Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations.

  8. Cimetidine Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Subjects: A Comparison of Tablets and Suspension

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    ABR Thomson

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effect of cimetidine 200 mg tablet with that of cimetidine suspension (200 mg/10 mL, a 20 mL suspension of 800 mg magnesium hydroxide and 912 mg aluminum hydroxide, and matching placebo on intragastric pH of healthy volunteers. There were 13 males and seven females, mean age 23 years (range 20 to 32 and mean weight 72 kg (range 55 to 89. The intragastric pH of each subject was measured over 6 h starting immediately before dosing on each of five study days. Cimetidine plasma levels were measured for 6 h after dosing on each of the cimetidine study days. Cimetidine tablet and suspension were superior to placebo tablet or suspension or to the magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide suspension in the area under the pH time curve from 0 to 6 h, percentage time pH of at least 3.5, change from pretreatment pH area under the pH time curve (0 to 6 h and maximum increase in pH. Mean plasma cimetidine levels were significantly and positively correlated to mean intragastric pH for both cimetidine tablets and cimetidine suspension. Comparing cimetidine concentration (Cmax and lower percentage time plasma cimetidine concentration was at least 0.5 μg/mL (the minimum therapeutic level. These pharmacokinetic variations between cimetidine suspension and tablets may have partially explained the pharmacodynamic differences of the lower area under the pH time curve (0 to 6 h. The results indicate that both cimetidine tablets and cimetidine suspension significantly increase intragastric pH relative to the magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide suspension, placebo tablets or placebo suspension. Based on the assumption that elevation of intragastric pH is an important factor for alleviation of the symptoms and for the healing of peptic disorders, the results of this study suggest that both cimetidine tablets and cimetidine suspension should be effective treatment.

  9. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  10. Comparison of CT-Determined Pulmonary Artery Diameter, Aortic Diameter, and Their Ratio in Healthy and Diverse Clinical Conditions.

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    Sang Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available The main pulmonary artery diameter (mPA, aortic diameter (Ao, and the mPA/Ao ratio, easily measured using chest computed tomography (CT, provide information that enables the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiopulmonary diseases. Here, we used CT to determine the sex- and age-specific distribution of normal reference values for mPA, Ao, and mPA/Ao ratio in an adult Korean population.Data from non-contrast, ECG-gated, coronary-calcium-scoring CT images of 2,547 individuals who visited the Health Screening Center of the Severance Hospital were analyzed. Healthy individuals (n = 813 included those who do not have hypertension, diabetes, asthma, obstructive lung disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, smoking, obesity, and abnormal CT findings. Both mPA and Ao were measured at the level of bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery.The mean mPA and Ao were 25.9 mm and 30.0 mm in healthy participants, respectively, while the mean mPA/Ao ratio was 0.87. Medical conditions associated with a larger mPA were male, obesity, smoking history, hypertension, and diabetes. A larger mPA/Ao ratio was associated with female, the obese, non-smoker, normotensive, and normal serum level of lipids, while a smaller mPA/Ao ratio was associated with older age. In healthy individuals, the 90th percentile sex-specific mPA, Ao, and mPA/Ao ratio were, 31.3 mm (95% CI 29.9-32.2, 36.8 mm (95% CI 35.7-37.5, and 1.05 (95% CI 0.99-1.07 in males, and 29.6 mm (95% CI 29.1-30.2, 34.5 mm (95% CI 34.1-34.9, and 1.03 (95% CI 1.02-1.06 in females, respectively.In the Korean population, the mean mPA reference values in male and female were 26.5 mm and 25.8 mm, respectively, while the mean mPA/Ao ratio was 0.87. These values were influenced by a variety of underlying medical conditions.

  11. Aberrant levels of natural IgM antibodies in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients in comparison to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tue G; McKelvey, Kelly J; March, Lyn M; Hunter, David J; Xue, Meilang; Jackson, Christopher J; Morris, Jonathan M

    2016-02-01

    Natural IgM antibodies (nIgM) are polyreactive autoantibodies that have diverse roles in regulating autoimmunity, systemic inflammation and removal of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). We hypothesized that aberrant states of nIgM may exist in persons with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, we characterized and compared the levels of nIgM specific for phosphorylcholine (anti-PC), double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), and galactosyl (anti-Gal) in persons with OA, RA and healthy controls (HC). Levels of anti-PC nIgM in OA patients were significantly lower than both HC and RA patients in an age-adjusted analysis (P<0.05). In contrast, anti-Gal nIgM levels were significantly higher in RA patients than OA patients (P<0.05) and markedly increased in comparison to HC. Anti-PC nIgM significantly correlated with anti-dsDNA and anti-Gal nIgM levels in HC and RA (P<0.05) but not in OA patients. Elevated CRP levels were associated with RA conditions and old ages in general. There was no significant correlation between anti-PC nIgM and CRP or oxLDL levels. Our study highlights for the first time the evidence of aberrant state of nIgM in human OA compared to healthy individuals that implicates a deficiency in immune responses to oxLDL which may contribute to the metabolic syndromes in the development of OA.

  12. Predicting (un)healthy behavior: A comparison of risk-taking propensity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szrek, Helena; Chao, Li-Wei; Ramlagan, Shandir; Peltzer, Karl

    2012-11-01

    We compare four different risk-taking propensity measures on their ability to describe and to predict actual risky behavior in the domain of health. The risk-taking propensity measures we compare are: (1) a general measure of risk-taking propensity derived from a one-item survey question (Dohmen et al., 2011), (2) a risk aversion index calculated from a set of incentivized monetary gambles (Holt & Laury, 2002), (3) a measure of risk taking derived from an incentive compatible behavioral task-the Balloon Analog Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2002), and (4) a composite score of risk-taking likelihood in the health domain from the Domain-Specific Risk Taking (DOSPERT) scale (Weber et al., 2002). Study participants are 351 clients of health centers around Witbank, South Africa. Our findings suggest that the one-item general measure is the best predictor of risky health behavior in our population, predicting two out of four behaviors at the 5% level and the remaining two behaviors at the 10% level. The DOSPERT score in the health domain performs well, predicting one out of four behaviors at the 1% significance level and two out of four behaviors at the 10% level, but only if the DOSPERT instrument contains a hypothetical risk-taking item that is similar to the actual risky behavior being predicted. Incentivized monetary gambles and the behavioral task were unrelated to actual health behaviors; they were unable to predict any of the risky health behaviors at the 10% level. We provide evidence that this is not because the participants had trouble understanding the monetary trade-off questions or performed poorly in the behavioral task. We conclude by urging researchers to further test the usefulness of the one-item general measure, both in explaining health related risk-taking behavior and in other contexts.

  13. Comparison of body mass index on children with functional constipation and healthy controls

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    Zohreh Kavehmanesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constipation is one of the most common pediatric disorders, especially in developed population, which categorized to organic or functional (non-organic constipation. Furthermore, obesity is a growing chronic pediatric problem that could cause any compromise in weight and height. The aim of this study is the evaluation of probable relation between obesity and pediatric functional constipation. Methods: This study was conducted as a case-control investigation on 2-14-years-old children those referred to Baqiyatallah University clinic during 2009-2011. The constipated children with organic causes were excluded. The control group of children was those who had not any disorders affecting on height and weight. Quantitative variables were expressed by mean and standard deviation and the correlation was tested with chi2 through SPSS version 17. Results: A total of 259 children (male 51.7% consisting 124 cases and 135 controls were enrolled. The mean age in constipated and normal children was 69.47 ± 35.03 and 74.15 ± 39.68, respectively. BMI over 95% in the control group was 11.9% and in the constipated group was 17.7% that the difference was not statistically significant either (P = 0.188. The only significant association was found between obesity and the duration of constipation and also age (P = 0.008, 0.042, respectively. Conclusion: Although we found a significant relationship between duration of constipation and obesity, there was not a clear association between obesity and presence of constipation. Furthermore, we suggest extended cohort or clinical trial study regarding to the regional nutritional and growth patterns to confirm weight decrease or increase the effect on defecation.

  14. The COLOFOL trial: study design and comparison of the study population with the source cancer population

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    Hansdotter Andersson P

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pernilla Hansdotter Andersson,1 Peer Wille-Jørgensen,2 Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó,3 Sune Høirup Petersen,2 Anna Martling,4 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Ingvar Syk1 On behalf of the COLOFOL Study Group 1Department of Surgery, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; 2Abdominal Disease Center K, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden Introduction: The COLOFOL trial, a prospective randomized multicenter trial comparing two follow-up regimes after curative surgical treatment for colorectal cancer, focuses on detection of asymptomatic recurrences. This paper aims to describe the design and recruitment procedure in the COLOFOL trial, comparing demographic characteristics between randomized patients and eligible patients not included in the study. Materials and methods: COLOFOL was designed as a pragmatic trial with wide inclusion criteria and few exclusion criteria, in order to obtain a sample reflecting the general patient population. To be eligible, patients had to be 75 years or younger and curatively resected for stage II or III colorectal cancer. Exclusion criteria were hereditary colorectal cancer, no signed consent, other malignancy, and life expectancy less than 2 years due to concomitant disease. In four of the 24 participating centers, we scrutinized hospital inpatient data to identify all colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery, in order to ascertain all eligible patients who were not included in the study and to compare them with enrolled patients. Results: Of a total of 4,445 eligible patients, 2,509 patients were randomized (56.4% inclusion rate. A total of 1,221 eligible patients were identified in the scrutinized hospitals, of which 684 (56% were randomized. No difference in age or sex distribution was observed between randomized and nonrandomized

  15. The novel association between red complex of oral microbe and body mass index in healthy Japanese: a population based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kanae; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Toru; Asai, Keita; Yamori, Masashi; Bessho, Kazuhisa; Toda, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2015-09-01

    Microbiota has been thought to be one of important environmental factors for obesity or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among oral microbe, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannellera forsythia are known as risk factors, so called red complex, for periodontitis. Red complex could also be a risk factor for obesity. However, recent study indicated that obesity was not improved by periodontal therapy. Thus, we performed a cross sectional study to reveal the association of oral microbe with body mass index in a healthy population. Healthy individuals were randomly recruited. The infections of oral microbe were identified by Taqman polymerase chain reaction. The relationships between number of red complex and body mass index or waist circumference were analyzed. Two hundred and twenty-two apparently healthy Japanese were enrolled. BMI and waist circumference as well as age, periodontitis, number of brushing teeth were significantly associated with the number of red complex after adjusting covariance. The effect size of body mass index or waist circumference was 0.023 (p = 0.028) or 0.024 (p = 0.024), respectively. Body mass index and waist circumference were independently associated with the number of red complex among apparently healthy Japanese. The current observation implies the possibility that oral microbe was associated with obesity in healthy population.

  16. Hydroxylation index of omeprazole in relation to CYP2C19 polymorphism and sex in a healthy Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan, Maryam; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Tajik, Nader; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Tahvilian, Reza

    2014-12-11

    Polymorphism of CYP2C19 gene is one of the important factors in pharmacokinetics of CYP2C19 substrates. Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor which is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19). The aim of present study was to assess omeprazole hydroxylation index as a measure of CYP2C19 activity considering new variant allele (CYP2C19*17) in Iranian population and also to see if this activity is sex dependent. One hundred and eighty healthy unrelated Iranian individuals attended in this study. Blood samples for genotyping and phenotyping were collected 3 hours after administration of 20 mg omeprazole orally. Genotyping of 2C19 variant alleles *2, *3 and *17 was performed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and semi-nested PCR methods. Plasma concentrations of omeprazole and hydroxyomeprazole were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique and hydxroxylation index (HI) (omeprazole/ hydroxyomeprazole) was calculated. The CYP2C19*17 was the most common variant allele in the studied population (21.6%). Genotype frequencies of CYP2C19*17*17, *1*17, and *2*17 were 5.5%, 28.8% and 3.3% respectively. The lowest and the highest median omeprazole HI was observed in *17*17 and *2*2 genotypes respectively (0.36 vs. 13.09). The median HI of omeprazole in subjects homozygous for CYP2C19*1 was 2.16-fold higher than individuals homozygous for CYP2C19*17 (P < 0.001) and the median HI of CYP2C19*1*17 genotype was 1.98-fold higher than CYP2C19 *17*17 subjects (P < 0.001). However, subjects with CYP2C19*2*17 (median HI: 1.74) and CYP2C19*1*2 (median HI: 1.98) genotypes and also CYP2C19*1*17 (median HI: 0.71) and CYP2C19*1*1 (mean HI: 0.78) did not show any significantly different enzyme activity. In addition, no statistically significant difference was found between women and men in distribution of CYP2C19 genotypes. Furthermore, the hydroxylation index of Omeprazole was not different

  17. Characterisation of Population Pharmacokinetics and Endogenous Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Levels after Multiple Dosing of a Recombinant Human FSH, FE 999049, in Healthy Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Trine Høyer; Roshammer, Daniel; Erichsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to characterise the population pharmacokinetics of FE 999049, a novel recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), after multiple dosing in healthy women, taking into account endogenous FSH levels and the reproductive hormone dynamics. Methods......: Longitudinal measurements of FSH, luteinising hormone, progesterone, estradiol, and inhibin B levels were collected after repeated subcutaneous dosing with 225 IU of FE 999049 in 24 gonadotropin downregulated healthy women. The FSH data were described using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Results...

  18. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging of healthy paediatric ankles and knees: a baseline for comparison with haemophilic joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshava, S N; Gibikote, S V; Mohanta, A; Poonnoose, P; Rayner, T; Hilliard, P; Lakshmi, K M; Moineddin, R; Ignas, D; Srivastava, A; Blanchette, V; Doria, A S

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to document cartilage and soft tissue changes/findings in ankles and knees of normal children of different age groups to be used for comparison in the assessment of children with haemophilia. Cartilage thickness and soft tissue changes were recorded at predetermined sites of ankles/knees on both US and MRI in healthy boys in three age groups: 7-9; 10-14; and 15-18 years. To assess the validity of the ultrasound and MRI measurements, an ex vivo study was done using agar phantoms with techniques and scanners similar to those applied in vivo. Twenty (48%) knees and 22 (52%) ankles of 42 boys, were evaluated. There was a reduction in the thickness of joint cartilage with age. A difference in cartilage measurements was noted in most sites between the age groups on both US and MRI (P ankles or knees (P = 0.20, P = 0.68 or P = 0.75, P = 0.63 for US, MRI, respectively). Although cartilage measurements were smaller on US than on MRI for both ankles and knees (P US measurements were smaller than corresponding phantom's measurements, P = 0.02. Age-related measurements were noted for cartilage thickness on US and MRI in ankles and knees. US measurements were smaller than corresponding MRI measurements at most joint sites, which were supported by results on small-diameter phantoms.

  19. COMPARISON BETWEEN POST ISOMETRIC RELAXATION AND RECIPROCAL INHIBITION MANUEVERS ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY IN YOUNG HEALTHY ADULTS: RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Sonal S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: Variations in the application of muscle energy technique (MET for increasing the extensibility of muscles have been advocated, but little evidence exists to support the relative merit of a particular approach. This study investigated two types of muscle energy techniques that have been advocated in the osteopathic literature that differ primarily in the muscle group targeted. Aim: To compare the efficacy of Post Isometric Relaxation (PIR and Reciprocal Inhibition (RI on hamstring length in young healthy adults Methodology: Randomized clinical trial 100 college students aged between 18-25 years were included. The subjects were randomly assigned to PIR and RI group. Each group consisted of 50 subjects (25 male, 25 female. Knee extension limitation was measured by using active knee extension test (AKET pre & post-intervention, i.e. after 3 weeks of stretching regimen, with the help of universal full circle goniometer. Results: There was significant improvement in hamstrings flexibility (p=0.000 in both PIR and RI groups. Statistical comparison of the results of both the technique showed that PIR group had greater improvement than the RI group (p=0.000 Conclusion: PIR and RI were both found to be effective in improving hamstring flexibility but, PIR is more effective therapeutic maneuver.

  20. Chromosome 4q;10q translocations; Comparison with different ethnic populations and FSHD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Cheng

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the weakness of facial, shoulder-girdle and upper arm muscles. Most patients with FSHD have fewer numbers of tandem repeated 3.3-kb KpnI units on chromosome 4q35. Chromosome 10q26 contains highly homologous KpnI repeats, and inter-chromosomal translocation has been reported. Methods To clarify the influence on the deletion of the repeats, we surveyed three different ethnic populations and FSHD patients using the BglII/BlnI dosage test. Results The frequency of translocation in 153 Japanese, 124 Korean, 114 Chinese healthy individuals and 56 Japanese 4q35-FSHD patients were 27.5%, 29.8%, 19.3%, and 32.1%, respectively. The ratio of '4 on 10' (trisomy and quatrosomy of chromosome 4 was higher than that of '10 on 4' (nullsomy and monosomy of chromosome 4 in all populations. Conclusions The inter-chromosomal exchange was frequently observed in all four populations we examined, and no significant difference was observed between healthy and diseased groups.

  1. Profile of individuals who are metabolically healthy obese using different definition criteria. A population-based analysis in the Spanish population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Martínez-Larrad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with numerous metabolic complications such as diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and several forms of cancer. Our goal was to compare different criteria to define the metabolically healthy obese (MHO with metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO subjects. We applied Wildman (W, Wildman modified (WM with insulin resistance (IR with cut-off point ≥ 3.8 and levels of C- Reactive Protein (CRP ≥ 3 mg/l; and Consensus Societies (CS criteria. In these subjects cardiovascular-risk (CV-risk was estimated by Framingham score and SCORE for MHO and MUHO. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spanish Caucasian adults. A total of 3,844 subjects completed the study, 45% males, aged 35-74 years. Anthropometric/biochemical variables were measured. Obesity was defined as BMI: ≥ 30 Kg/m(2. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of obesity in our population was 27.5%, (23.7%/males and 30.2%/females. MHO prevalence according to W, WM, and CS definition criteria were: 9.65%, 16.29%, 39.94% respectively in obese participants. MHO has lower waist circumference (WC measurements than MUHO. The estimated CV-risks by Framingham and SCORE Project charts were lower in MHO than MUHO subjects. WC showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting high estimated CV risk by Framingham. However, WHR showed high specificity and sensitivity in detecting CV risk according to SCORE Project. MHO subjects as defined by any of the three criteria had higher adiponectin levels after adjustment by sex, age, WC, HOMA IR and Framingham or SCORE risks. This relationship was not found for CRP circulating levels neither leptin levels. CONCLUSIONS: MHO prevalence is highly dependent on the definition criteria used to define those individuals. Results showed that MHO subjects had less WC, and a lower estimated CV-risk than MUHO subjects. Additionally, the high adiponectin circulating levels in MHO may suggest a

  2. A Comparison of Recruitment Methods for an mHealth Intervention Targeting Mothers: Lessons from the Growing Healthy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Rachel A; Litterbach, Eloise-Kate V; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth A; Russell, Catherine G; Taki, Sarah; Ong, Kok-Leong; Elliott, Rosalind M; Lymer, Sharyn J; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-09-15

    Mobile health (mHealth) programs hold great promise for increasing the reach of public health interventions. However, mHealth is a relatively new field of research, presenting unique challenges for researchers. A key challenge is understanding the relative effectiveness and cost of various methods of recruitment to mHealth programs. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the effectiveness of various methods of recruitment to an mHealth intervention targeting healthy infant feeding practices, and (2) explore factors influencing practitioner referral to the intervention. The Growing healthy study used a quasi-experimental design with an mHealth intervention group and a concurrent nonrandomized comparison group. Eligibility criteria included: expectant parents (>30 weeks of gestation) or parents with an infant Recruitment to the mHealth program consisted of: (1) practitioner-led recruitment through Maternal and Child Health nurses, midwives, and nurses in general practice; (2) face-to-face recruitment by researchers; and (3) online recruitment. Participants' baseline surveys provided information regarding how participants heard about the study, and their sociodemographic details. Costs per participant recruited were calculated by taking into account direct advertising costs and researcher time/travel costs. Practitioner feedback relating to the recruitment process was obtained through a follow-up survey and qualitative interviews. A total of 300 participants were recruited to the mHealth intervention. The cost per participant recruited was lowest for online recruitment (AUD $14) and highest for practice nurse recruitment (AUD $586). Just over half of the intervention group (50.3%, 151/300) were recruited online over a 22-week period compared to practitioner recruitment (29.3%, 88/300 over 46 weeks) and face-to-face recruitment by researchers (7.3%, 22/300 over 18 weeks). No significant differences were observed in participant sociodemographic characteristics

  3. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children

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    Lívia Barboza de Andrade

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:to compare physical performance and cardiorespiratory responses in the six-minute walk test (6MWT in asthmatic children with reference values for healthy children in the same age group, and to correlate them with intervening variables.METHODS:this was a cross-sectional, prospective study that evaluated children with moderate/severe asthma, aged between 6 and 16 years, in outpatient follow-up. Demographic and spirometric test data were collected. All patients answered the pediatric asthma quality of life (QoL questionnaire (PAQLQ and level of basal physical activity. The 6MWT was performed, following the American Thoracic Society recommendations. Comparison of means was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation to analyze the 6MWT with study variables. The significance level was set at 5%.RESULTS:40 children with moderate or severe asthma were included, 52.5% males, 70% with normal weight and sedentary. Mean age was 11.3 ± 2.1 years, mean height was 1.5 ± 0.1 m, and mean weight was 40.8 ± 12.6 Kg. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT was significantly lower, corresponding to 71.9% ± 19.7% of predicted values; sedentary children had the worst values. The difference between the distance walked on the test and the predicted values showed positive correlation with age (r = 0.373, p = 0.018 and negative correlation with cardiac rate at the end of the test (r = -0.518, p < 0.001. Regarding QoL assessment, the values in the question about physical activity limitations showed the worst scores, with a negative correlation with walked distance difference (r = -0.311, p = 0.051.CONCLUSIONS:asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style.

  4. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Lívia Barboza de; Silva, Diogo A R G; Salgado, Taíza L B; Figueroa, José N; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Britto, Murilo C A

    2014-01-01

    to compare physical performance and cardiorespiratory responses in the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in asthmatic children with reference values for healthy children in the same age group, and to correlate them with intervening variables. this was a cross-sectional, prospective study that evaluated children with moderate/severe asthma, aged between 6 and 16 years, in outpatient follow-up. Demographic and spirometric test data were collected. All patients answered the pediatric asthma quality of life (QoL) questionnaire (PAQLQ) and level of basal physical activity. The 6MWT was performed, following the American Thoracic Society recommendations. Comparison of means was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation to analyze the 6MWT with study variables. The significance level was set at 5%. 40 children with moderate or severe asthma were included, 52.5% males, 70% with normal weight and sedentary. Mean age was 11.3±2.1 years, mean height was 1.5±0.1 m, and mean weight was 40.8±12.6 Kg. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT was significantly lower, corresponding to 71.9%±19.7% of predicted values; sedentary children had the worst values. The difference between the distance walked on the test and the predicted values showed positive correlation with age (r=0.373, p=0.018) and negative correlation with cardiac rate at the end of the test (r=-0.518, p<0.001). Regarding QoL assessment, the values in the question about physical activity limitations showed the worst scores, with a negative correlation with walked distance difference (r=-0.311, p=0.051). asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparison of Recruitment Methods for an mHealth Intervention Targeting Mothers: Lessons from the Growing Healthy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litterbach, Eloise-Kate V; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth A; Russell, Catherine G; Taki, Sarah; Ong, Kok-Leong; Elliott, Rosalind M; Lymer, Sharyn J; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) programs hold great promise for increasing the reach of public health interventions. However, mHealth is a relatively new field of research, presenting unique challenges for researchers. A key challenge is understanding the relative effectiveness and cost of various methods of recruitment to mHealth programs. Objective The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the effectiveness of various methods of recruitment to an mHealth intervention targeting healthy infant feeding practices, and (2) explore factors influencing practitioner referral to the intervention. Methods The Growing healthy study used a quasi-experimental design with an mHealth intervention group and a concurrent nonrandomized comparison group. Eligibility criteria included: expectant parents (>30 weeks of gestation) or parents with an infant advertising costs and researcher time/travel costs. Practitioner feedback relating to the recruitment process was obtained through a follow-up survey and qualitative interviews. Results A total of 300 participants were recruited to the mHealth intervention. The cost per participant recruited was lowest for online recruitment (AUD $14) and highest for practice nurse recruitment (AUD $586). Just over half of the intervention group (50.3%, 151/300) were recruited online over a 22-week period compared to practitioner recruitment (29.3%, 88/300 over 46 weeks) and face-to-face recruitment by researchers (7.3%, 22/300 over 18 weeks). No significant differences were observed in participant sociodemographic characteristics between recruitment methods, with the exception that practitioner/face-to-face recruitment resulted in a higher proportion of first-time parents (68% versus 48%, P=.002). Less than half of the practitioners surveyed reported referring to the program often or most of the time. Key barriers to practitioner referral included lack of time, difficulty remembering to refer, staff changes, lack of parental engagement

  6. A comparison of palmar dermatoglyphics in two ethnic Indian populations of north Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Jaydip; Kanchan, Tanuj; Mondal, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Dermatoglyphic print comparisons can be utilized to establish personal identification in forensic cases. The northern part of the state of West Bengal, India, is the home to many ethnic populations. Two such populations are the Rajbanshi and the Mech. Palm prints were collected from 192 adult Rajbanshi (105 men and 87 women) and 100 adult Mech (50 men and 50 women) individuals for print comparison using the standard ink and roll print method. The dermatoglyphic variables studied were mainline formulae, termination of mainline, positional variation of axial triradii, and true pattern of hypothenar and thenar configuration area. There were differences between the Rajbanshi and Mech individuals with respect to these dermatoglyphic variables. The uses of these variables appear to be limited only to ethnic identification, not personal identification. The present investigation further highlights the racial affinity, sex, and bilateral differences among Rajbanshi individuals using dermatoglyphic palmar variables.

  7. Initial assessment of jaundice in otherwise healthy infants--a comparison of methods in two postnatal units.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allen, N M

    2012-02-01

    Transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) has the potential to reduce total serum bilirubin (TS) sampling. The principal aim of this study was to determine and compare the number of initial TSB samples (TSBs) in two postnatal units (hospitals A & B) whereby hospital A used TcB and hospital B did not. A secondary aim was to determine the clinical factors that led to initial TSBs exceeding exchange transfusion level in both hospitals. Results demonstrated both hospitals had similar populations and patient numbers following selection criteria. 1645 neonates (10.4%) had one or more TSBs performed in hospital A, versus 2373 neonates (15.1%) in hospital B (p < 0.01). Fourteen neonates in hospital A and 3 neonates in hospital B had initial TSBs above exchange transfusion level. For neonates with TSBs above exchange, preventable factors related to earlier testing and follow up. In routine clinical practice, TcB is associated with a significantly reduced number of TSB measurements. TSB levels above exchange transfusion are linked to preventable factors, in otherwise healthy neonates.

  8. Do differences in the administrative structure of populations confound comparisons of geographic health inequalities?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jackson, Andrew L

    2010-08-18

    Abstract Background Geographical health inequalities are naturally described by the variation in health outcomes between areas (e.g. mortality rates). However, comparisons made between countries are hampered by our lack of understanding of the effect of the size of administrative units, and in particular the modifiable areal unit problem. Our objective was to assess how differences in geographic and administrative units used for disseminating data affect the description of health inequalities. Methods Retrospective study of standard populations and deaths aggregated by administrative regions within 20 European countries, 1990-1991. Estimated populations and deaths in males aged 0-64 were in 5 year age bands. Poisson multilevel modelling was conducted of deaths as standardised mortality ratios. The variation between regions within countries was tested for relationships with the mean region population size and the unequal distribution of populations within each country measured using Gini coefficients. Results There is evidence that countries whose regions vary more in population size show greater variation and hence greater apparent inequalities in mortality counts. The Gini coefficient, measuring inequalities in population size, ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 between countries; an increase of 0.1 was accompanied by a 12-14% increase in the standard deviation of the mortality rates between regions within a country. Conclusions Apparently differing health inequalities between two countries may be due to differences in geographical structure per se, rather than having any underlying epidemiological cause. Inequalities may be inherently greater in countries whose regions are more unequally populated.

  9. Investigating normal day to day variations in postural control in a healthy young population (age 18-40) using wii balance boards

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, William; Purcell, C.; Duffy, C.; Casey, T; Greene, Barry R; Singleton, D.; Caulfield, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objective me asurements of postural control are frequently used to examine the causes of, features associated with, and therapeutic interventions for ankle instability. However, researchers have typically used single-session measures to represent postural control at one point in time. Recent studies in a healthy elderly population demonstrate significant variations in day-to-day postural control and suggest that single-session measurement may not truly reflect postural control capabilities. A...

  10. The effects of dietary fish oil on cell populations, cytokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors in healthy mice and mice with endotoxin-induced peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hildur Hrönn Arnardóttir 1981

    2011-01-01

    Fish oil, rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, has immunomodulatory properties and may have beneficial effects in several immune related disorders, including sepsis. Chemokines and chemokine receptors play a key role in the recruitment of specific populations of immune cells to the sites of infection or inflammation. The results from the Ph.D. project show that dietary fish oil decreased the proportion of classical monocytes(expressing the chemokine receptor CCR2) in blood from healthy mi...

  11. Pharmacokinetic study of a new oral buffered acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulation in comparison with plain ASA in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, G; Garagiola, U; Gaspari, F

    1991-01-01

    A single-blind, randomized, crossover pharmacokinetic study was carried out to investigate the bioavailability of a new oral buffered 325 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulation (ASPIRINA 03) in comparison with a 325 mg plain tablet. Twelve healthy volunteers of both sexes, aged between 20 and 37 years, received buffered or plain ASA on two separate occasions with a wash-out interval of at least two weeks. ASA and salicylic acid (SA) plasma levels were determined by a chromatographic method. The results showed no difference between the area under concentration time curve (AUC0-infinity) ASA values of both formulations (p = 0.19), and buffered ASA relative bioavailability was 102.49% (= bioequivalence). A significant difference was found between the AUC0-30 min ASA values: 90.5 micrograms. min/ml with buffered and 67.7 micrograms. min/ml with the plain tablet (p less than 0.05). The buffered ASA time of maximum concentration was shorter (28 +/- 8 min) than the plain one (38 +/- 19 min, p less than 0.05). The plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of SA were not significantly different after the administration of the two ASA formulations. The plain ASA tablet had a significantly lower (p less than 0.05) dissolution rate than buffered ASA tablet. Moreover, the buffered ASA tablet significantly (p less than 0.01) increased the pH by 0.5 units. In conclusion, the bioavailability of the new oral buffered ASA was equivalent to that of plain ASA, but the plasma concentration peak was reached in a shorter time.

  12. The Healthy Toddlers Trial Protocol: An Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Populations

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    Auld Garry

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of overweight children in America has doubled to an estimated 10 million in the past 20 years. Establishing healthy dietary behaviors must begin early in childhood and include parents. The Healthy Toddlers intervention focuses on promoting healthy eating habits in 1- to 3-year-old children utilizing the Social Cognitive Theory and a learner-centered approach using Adult Learning principles. This Healthy Toddlers Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers of toddlers. The intervention focuses on: (a promoting healthy eating behaviors in toddlers while dietary habits are forming; and (b providing initial evidence for the potential of Healthy Toddlers as a feasible intervention within existing community-based programs. Methods/Design This describes the study protocol for a randomized control trial, a multi-state project in Colorado, Michigan, and Wisconsin with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-toddler dyads; toddlers are between 12 and 36 months. The Healthy Toddlers intervention consists of eight in-home lessons and four reinforcement telephone contacts, focusing on fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption and parental behaviors, taught by paraprofessional instructors. Healthy Toddlers uses a randomized, experimental, short-term longitudinal design with intervention and control groups. In-home data collection (anthropometric measurements, feeding observations, questionnaires, 3-day dietary records occurs at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Main toddler outcomes include: a increased fruit and vegetable consumption and decreased sweetened beverage consumption; and b improved toddler-eating skills (self-feeding and self-serving. Main parent outcomes include: a improved psychosocial attributes (knowledge

  13. Reference population for international comparisons and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery proportions in three countries

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    Skjærven Rolv

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International comparison and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery rates is complex. New techniques that could facilitate interpretation of such rates are needed. Methods We studied all live births and stillbirths (≥ 28 weeks gestation registered in the medical birth registers in Sweden, Denmark and Norway from 1995 through 2004. Gestational age was determined by best estimate. A reference population of pregnant women was designed using the following criteria: 1 maternal age 20–35, 2 primiparity, 3 spontaneously conceived pregnancy, 4 singleton pregnancy and 5 mother born in the respective country. National preterm delivery rate, preterm delivery rate in the reference population and rate of spontaneous preterm delivery in the reference population were calculated for each country. Results The total national preterm delivery rate ( Conclusion Reference populations can facilitate overview and thereby explanations for changing preterm delivery rates. The model also permits comparisons over time. This model may in its simplicity prove to be a valuable supplement to assessments of national preterm delivery rates for public health surveillance.

  14. Development of normative data of electro photonic imaging technique for healthy population in India: A normative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Kumar Kushwah

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: As compared to EU population, Indian population had different range of Integral Area values and narrower range for values of other variables. EPI Studies in India should also adjust for factors such as age and gender.

  15. Comparison of Lower Extremity Strength, Power and Muscle Area between Healthy Subjects and Mobility-Limited Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared muscle strength, power and cross sectional area (CSA) in healthy middle-aged adults (mean age: 47.3 +/- 5 yrs, n = 26), healthy older adults (73.8 +/- 4 yrs, n = 21), and older adults with mobility impairments (77.1 +/- 5 yrs, n = 21). One repetition maximum strength (1RM) and pe...

  16. High intake of whole grains and beans pattern is inversely associated with insulin resistance in healthy Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, SuJin; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the association between dietary patterns and insulin resistance in the 3871 healthy Korean adults from the 2007 to 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The whole grains and beans pattern was associated with lower prevalence of insulin resistance (OR for highest quintile=0.80, 95% CI=0.61-1.03, P for trend=0.013).

  17. Serum protein fingerprinting coupled with artificial neural network distinguishes glioma from healthy population or brain benign tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian; ZHENG Shu; YU Jie-kai; ZHANG Jian-min; CHEN Zhe

    2005-01-01

    To screen and evaluate protein biomarkers for the detection of gliomas (Astrocytoma grade Ⅰ-Ⅳ) from healthy individuals and gliomas from brain benign tumors by using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) coupled with an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. SELDI-TOF-MS protein fingerprinting of serum from 105 brain tumor patients and healthy individuals, included 28 patients with glioma (Astrocytoma Ⅰ-Ⅳ), 37 patients with brain benign tumor, and 40 age-matched healthy individuals. Two thirds of the total samples of every compared pair as training set were used to set up discriminating patterns, and one third of total samples of every compared pair as test set were used to cross-validate; simultaneously, discriminate-cluster analysis derived SPSS 10.0 software was used to compare Astrocytoma grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ with grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ ones. An accuracy of 95.7%, sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 90% and negative predictive value of 100% were obtained in a blinded test set comparing gliomas patients with healthy individuals; an accuracy of 86.4%, sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 84.6%, positive predictive value of 90% and negative predictive value of 85.7% were obtained when patient's gliomas was compared with benign brain tumor. Total accuracy of 85.7%, accuracy of grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ Astrocytoma was 86.7%, accuracy ofⅢ-Ⅳ Astrocytoma was 84.6% were obtained when grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ Astrocytoma was compared with grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ ones (discriminant analysis). SELDI-TOF-MS combined with bioinformatics tools, could greatly facilitate the discovery of better biomarkers. The high sensitivity and specificity achieved by the use of selected biomarkers showed great potential application for the discrimination of gliomas patients from healthy individuals and glioma from brain benign tumors.

  18. The influence of gender and self-efficacy on healthy eating in a low-income urban population affected by structural changes to the food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Smith, Lisa V; Ponce, Mirna; Piron, Jennifer; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Although U.S. obesity prevention efforts have begun to implement a variety of system and environmental change strategies to address the underlying socioecological barriers to healthy eating, factors which can impede or facilitate community acceptance of such interventions are often poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of subpopulation health data that are available to help guide local planning and decision-making. We contribute to this gap in practice by examining area-specific health data for a population targeted by federally funded nutrition interventions in Los Angeles County. Using data from a local health assessment that collected information on sociodemographics, self-reported health behaviors, and objectively measured height, weight, and blood pressure for a subset of low-income adults (n = 720), we compared health risks and predictors of healthy eating across at-risk groups using multivariable modeling analyses. Our main findings indicate being a woman and having high self-efficacy in reading Nutrition Facts labels were strong predictors of healthy eating (P healthy eating through public education and/or by other means can help prime at-risk groups to accept and take advantage of these food environment changes.

  19. COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR CMSMPR CRYSTALLIZER WITH QMOM POPULATION BALANCE MODELING IN FLUENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wan; Terry A. Ring; Kumar M. Dhanasekharan; Jayanta Sanyal

    2005-01-01

    Fluent version 6.2 computational fluid dynamics environment has been enhanced with a population balance capability that operates in conjunction with its multiphase calculations to predict the particle size distribution within the flow field. The population balance is solved by the quadrature method of moments (QMOM). Fluent's prediction capabilities are tested by using a 2-dimensional analogy of a constantly stirred tank reactor with a fluid flow compartment that mixes the fluid quickly and efficiently using wall movement and has a feed stream and a product stream. The results of these Fluent simulations using QMOM population balance solver are compared to steady state analytical solutions for the population balance in a stirred tank where 1) growth, 2) aggregation, and 3) breakage, take place separately and 4)combined nucleation and growth and 5) combined nucleation, growth and aggregation take place. The results of these comparisons show that the moments of the population balance are accurately predicted for nucleation, growth, aggregation and breakage when the flow field is turbulent. With laminar flow the mixing is not ideal and as a result the steady state well mixed solutions are not accurately simulated.

  20. Comparison of palatal rugae patterns in Kodava and Malayalee populations of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Kiran Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The palatal rugae pattern is unique to humans and may be specific to ethnic groups hence useful in population identification in forensic dentistry. The present study has been carried out to analyze the rugae pattern in two populations in and around Coorg, with objectives to analyze the palatal rugae pattern among Kodavas and Malayalees and to analyze the rugae pattern between sexes within each group. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised two population groups in Coorg namely Kodavas and Malayalees, ( n = 30 from each group, age-range of 18-30 years, equally distributed between the sexes. The rugae pattern were categorized as ′straight,′ ′wavy,′ ′curved′ ′circular′, and ′unification′. Pairwise comparison for two populations was done using non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Mann-Whitney two-tailed test was used to test the difference between sexes. Results: Wavy pattern (100% was highest among Kodavas. There was a significant difference between Malayalees and Kodavas for wavy (Mean = 5.867 and 8.400 and unification patterns (Mean = 2.267and 1.000. Significant difference between sexes for straight rugae pattern (Mean, males = 2.267, females = 1.200 among Malayalees was seen. Conclusion: The differences in rugae shape between the two populations (wavy and unification patterns may be attributed to genetic factors and recent shared ancestry has probably rendered their differences to moderate levels.

  1. Lung nodule detection in a high-risk population: Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and low-dose computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregor, E-mail: gregor.sommer@usb.ch [Department of Radiology (E010), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg (Germany); Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Basel Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Tremper, Jan, E-mail: j.tremper@dkfz.de [Department of Radiology (E010), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg (Germany); Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br [Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Thoraxklinik Heidelberg gGmbH, Amalienstr. 5, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto – University of Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Campus Universitario Monte Alegre, 14048 900 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Delorme, Stefan, E-mail: s.delorme@dkfz.de [Department of Radiology (E010), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg (Germany); Becker, Nikolaus, E-mail: n.becker@dkfz.de [Division of Cancer Epidemiology (C020), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Biederer, Jürgen, E-mail: juergen.biederer@uni-heidelberg.de [Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2014-03-15

    Objective: To investigate the potential of MRI for lung nodule detection in a high-risk population in comparison to low-dose CT. Methods: 49 participants (31 men, 18 women, 51–71 years) of the German Lung Cancer Screening and Intervention Trial (LUSI) with a cancer-suspicious lung lesion in CT were examined with non-contrast-enhanced MRI of the lung at 1.5 T. Data were pseudonymized and presented at random order together with 30 datasets (23 in men, 7 in women, 18–64 years) from healthy volunteers. Two radiologists read the data for the presence of nodules. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Gold standard was either histology or long-term follow-up. Contrast-to-Noise-Ratio (CNR) was measured for all detected lesions in all MRI sequences. Results: Average maximum diameter of the lesions was 15 mm. Overall sensitivity and specificity of MRI were 48% (26/54) and 88% (29/33) compared to low-dose CT. Sensitivity of MRI was significantly higher for malignant nodules (78% (12.5/16)) than for benign ones (36% (13.5/38); P = 0.007). There was no statistically significant difference in sensitivity between nodules (benign and malignant) larger or smaller than 10 mm (P = 0.7). Inter observer agreement was 84% (κ = 0.65). Lesion-to-background CNR of T2-weighted single-shot turbo-spin-echo was significantly higher for malignant nodules (89 ± 27) than for benign ones (56 ± 23; P = 0.002). Conclusion: The sensitivity of MRI for detection of malignant pulmonary nodules in a high-risk population is 78%. Due to its inherent soft tissue contrast, MRI is more sensitive to malignant nodules than to benign ones. MRI may therefore represent a useful test for early detection of lung cancer.

  2. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Healthy Days Measures – Population tracking of perceived physical and mental health over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobau Rosemarie

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To promote the health and quality of life of United States residents, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC – with 54 state and territorial health agencies – has supported population surveillance of health-related quality of life (HRQOL. HRQOL was defined as "perceived physical and mental health over time." Commonly-used measures of health status and activity limitation were identified and a set of "Healthy Days" HRQOL measures was developed and validated. A core set of these measures (the CDC HRQOL-4 asks about self-rated general health and the number of recent days when a person was physically unhealthy, mentally unhealthy, or limited in usual activities. A summary measure combines physically and mentally unhealthy days. From 1993 to 2001, more than 1.2 million adults responded to the CDC HRQOL-4 in each state-based Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS telephone interview. More than one fifth of all BRFSS respondents also responded to a set of related questions – including five items that assess the presence, main cause and duration of a current activity limitation, and the need for activity-related personal and routine care; as well as five items that ask about recent days of pain, depression, anxiety, sleeplessness, and vitality. The Healthy Days surveillance data are particularly useful for finding unmet health needs, identifying disparities among demographic and socioeconomic subpopulations, characterizing the symptom burden of disabilities and chronic diseases, and tracking population patterns and trends. The full set of 14 Healthy Days Measures (the CDC HRQOL-14 has shown good measurement properties in several populations, languages, and settings. The brief standard CDC HRQOL-4 is now often used in surveys, surveillance systems, prevention research, and population health report cards.

  3. Frequency of polymorphic variants in CRHR1, GLCCI1 and FCER2 genes in healthy and asthmatic Tamilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathy N.

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: MAF of rs 242941, rs 28364072 and rs 37972 were 0.51, 0.33 and 0.38, respectively in Tamilian population which were significantly different from various global populations. The frequency distribution found helps to further with ICS response association studies in larger cohorts of asthma patients. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1831-1838

  4. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Bilastine, a Second-Generation Antihistamine, in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Togawa, Michinori; Yamaya, Hidetoshi; Rodríguez, Mónica; Nagashima, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Bilastine is a novel second-generation antihistamine for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of bilastine following single and multiple oral doses in healthy Japanese subjects. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles were compared with those reported in Caucasian subjects. Methods In a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, pa...

  5. Comparison of salivary calcium level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Kambalyal, Preeti; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Hungund, Shital

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare salivary calcium (Ca) level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects were included in the study and were grouped as follows: 12 subjects who were periodontally healthy (Group I), 12 subjects having chronic periodontitis who were non-smokers (Group II), 12 non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis (Group III), 12 smokers with chronic periodontit...

  6. The other-race effect in children from a multiracial population: A cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Diana Su Yun; Bremner, J Gavin; Hay, Dennis

    2017-03-01

    The role of experience with other-race faces in the development of the other-race effect was investigated through a cross-cultural comparison between 5- and 6-year-olds and 13- and 14-year-olds raised in a monoracial (British White, n=83) population and a multiracial (Malaysian Chinese, n=68) population. British White children showed an other-race effect to three other-race faces (Chinese, Malay, and African Black) that was stable across age. Malaysian Chinese children showed a recognition deficit for less experienced faces (African Black) but showed a recognition advantage for faces of which they have direct or indirect experience. Interestingly, younger (Malaysian Chinese) children showed no other-race effect for female faces such that they can recognize all female faces regardless of race. These findings point to the importance of early race and gender experiences in reorganizing the face representation to accommodate changes in experience across development.

  7. Determinants and Regression Equations for the Calculation of z Scores of Left Ventricular Tissue Doppler Longitudinal Indexes in a Healthy Italian Pediatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Fibbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We investigated the predictors of tissue Doppler left ventricular (LV longitudinal indexes in a healthy Italian pediatric population and established normative data and regression equations for the calculation of z scores. Methods and Results. A total of 369 healthy subjects aged 1–17 years (age of 6.4 ± 1.1 years, 49.1% female underwent echocardiography. LV peak longitudinal velocity at systole (s', early diastole (e', and late diastole (a' was determined by tissue Doppler. The ratio of peak early diastolic LV filling velocity to e' was calculated. Age was the only independent determinant of s' (β=0.491, p<0.0001 and the strongest determinant of e' (β=0.334, p<0.0001 and E/e' (β=-0.369, p<0.0001. Heart rate was the main determinant of a' (β=0.265, p<0.0001. Male gender showed no effects except for a weak association with lateral s', suggesting no need of gender-specific reference ranges. Age-specific reference ranges, regression equations, and scatterplots for the calculation of z scores were determined for each index. Conclusion. In a pediatric Italian population, age was the strongest determinant of LV longitudinal dynamics. The availability of age-specific normality data for the calculation of z scores may allow for correctly detecting LV dysfunction in pediatric pathological populations.

  8. Health-related quality of life among adolescents: A comparison between subjects at ultra-high risk for psychosis and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitka, Freya; Richter, Julia; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz; Henze, Romy

    2016-01-30

    At risk status for psychosis has been robustly associated with decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. However, this relationship has not been examined in adolescents with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis in comparison to healthy controls. Twenty-seven subjects with UHR and thirty healthy controls (14-18 years of age) were recruited in a multiphase screening and accessed with a HRQoL scale of KIDSCREEN-27. Comparisons indicated that subjects with UHR had poorer mean scores at a statistically significant level in the following scales: physical well-being, psychological well-being and school environment. In a logistic regression analysis, lower scores in the scale school environment explained at risk status for psychosis. Adolescents with UHR show significantly poorer HRQoL scores than healthy peers, identified predominantly by the evaluation of the school environment. These results might be interpreted as a self-perception of early mental and social functioning impairments, which seem to be recognized initially based on school demands. Considering these findings, institutes of education should be a good starting point to promote the awareness of the psychosis-risk state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sample-size calculations for multi-group comparison in population pharmacokinetic experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for calculating sample size for population pharmacokinetic experiments that involve hypothesis testing based on multi-group comparison detecting the difference in parameters between groups under mixed-effects modelling. This approach extends what has been described for generalized linear models and nonlinear population pharmacokinetic models that involve only binary covariates to more complex nonlinear population pharmacokinetic models. The structural nonlinear model is linearized around the random effects to obtain the marginal model and the hypothesis testing involving model parameters is based on Wald's test. This approach provides an efficient and fast method for calculating sample size for hypothesis testing in population pharmacokinetic models. The approach can also handle different design problems such as unequal allocation of subjects to groups and unbalanced sampling times between and within groups. The results obtained following application to a one compartment intravenous bolus dose model that involved three different hypotheses under different scenarios showed good agreement between the power obtained from NONMEM simulations and nominal power.

  10. Comparison of algorithms to infer genetic population structure from unlinked molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Malavera, Andrea; Bruno, Cecilia; Fernandez, Elmer; Balzarini, Monica

    2014-08-01

    Identifying population genetic structure (PGS) is crucial for breeding and conservation. Several clustering algorithms are available to identify the underlying PGS to be used with genetic data of maize genotypes. In this work, six methods to identify PGS from unlinked molecular marker data were compared using simulated and experimental data consisting of multilocus-biallelic genotypes. Datasets were delineated under different biological scenarios characterized by three levels of genetic divergence among populations (low, medium, and high FST) and two numbers of sub-populations (K=3 and K=5). The relative performance of hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering, as well as model-based clustering (STRUCTURE) and clustering from neural networks (SOM-RP-Q). We use the clustering error rate of genotypes into discrete sub-populations as comparison criterion. In scenarios with great level of divergence among genotype groups all methods performed well. With moderate level of genetic divergence (FST=0.2), the algorithms SOM-RP-Q and STRUCTURE performed better than hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering. In all simulated scenarios with low genetic divergence and in the experimental SNP maize panel (largely unlinked), SOM-RP-Q achieved the lowest clustering error rate. The SOM algorithm used here is more effective than other evaluated methods for sparse unlinked genetic data.

  11. Comparison of lip prints in two different populations of India: Reflections based on a preliminary examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Koneru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental records, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used for a person′s identification, allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, sometimes it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques such as lip prints. The potential of lip prints to determine sex has been well exhibited and documented. However, very few studies have been conducted using lip prints for population identification. Objective: To determine the predominant lip print patterns in males and females in relation to Kerala and Manipuri population and also to compare the lip print patterns between these populations. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of 60 subjects, which included 30 each from Kerala and Manipuri. Lipstick was applied evenly, and the lip print was obtained by dabbing a strip of cellophane. The classification scheme proposed by Tsuchihashi was used to classify the lip print patterns and the data were statistically analyzed using the z-test for proportions. Results: Type 4 and Type 5 lip print patterns were predominant in males, whereas in females it was Type 1 and Type 1′. Type 1 pattern was most common in both the populations, with an incidence of 28.33%. Furthermore, Type 1 pattern was found to be more in Kerala females and Manipuri males when compared to their counterparts. Type 1 was most common in upper right, upper left, and lower left quadrants whereas in lower right quadrant, Type 1′ and Type 4 were predominant in Kerala and Type 5 in Manipuri population. Conclusion: Difference between the lip print patterns in two populations exists, although subtle. However, larger sample size is necessary to derive concrete conclusions.

  12. Comparison of lip prints in two different populations of India: Reflections based on a preliminary examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Anila; Surekha, R; Nellithady, Ganesh Shreekanth; Vanishree, M; Ramesh, DNSV; Patil, Ramesh S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental records, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used for a person's identification, allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, sometimes it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques such as lip prints. The potential of lip prints to determine sex has been well exhibited and documented. However, very few studies have been conducted using lip prints for population identification. Objective: To determine the predominant lip print patterns in males and females in relation to Kerala and Manipuri population and also to compare the lip print patterns between these populations. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of 60 subjects, which included 30 each from Kerala and Manipuri. Lipstick was applied evenly, and the lip print was obtained by dabbing a strip of cellophane. The classification scheme proposed by Tsuchihashi was used to classify the lip print patterns and the data were statistically analyzed using the z-test for proportions. Results: Type 4 and Type 5 lip print patterns were predominant in males, whereas in females it was Type 1 and Type 1’. Type 1 pattern was most common in both the populations, with an incidence of 28.33%. Furthermore, Type 1 pattern was found to be more in Kerala females and Manipuri males when compared to their counterparts. Type 1 was most common in upper right, upper left, and lower left quadrants whereas in lower right quadrant, Type 1’ and Type 4 were predominant in Kerala and Type 5 in Manipuri population. Conclusion: Difference between the lip print patterns in two populations exists, although subtle. However, larger sample size is necessary to derive concrete conclusions. PMID:23960409

  13. Isokinetic and Isometric Muscle Strength in a Healthy Population – with Special Reference to Age and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, B; Bartels, E M; Bülow, P M

    2009-01-01

    was subgrouped according to age and gender. Isometric and isokinetic muscle strength was measured in each subject across the main joints in the body. A statistical model was developed that encompassed the three main muscle groups: upper limbs, trunk and lower limbs. Results: Muscle strength in healthy men...... decreases in a linear fashion from the age of 25 years down to between 54% and 89% at the age of 75 years, and seems not highly dependent on any other parameter than age. For women, the muscle strength is dependent on weight and is only related to age from around 40 years of age. The decrease in muscle...

  14. Healthy babies through infant-centered feeding protocol: an intervention targeting early childhood obesity in vulnerable populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horodynski Mildred A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor feeding practices during infancy contribute to obesity risk. As infants transition from human milk and/or formula-based diets to solid foods, these practices interfere with infant feeding self-regulation and healthy growth patterns. Compared with other socioeconomic groups, lower-income mothers are more likely to experience difficulty feeding their infants. This may include misinterpreting feeding cues and using less-than-optimal feeding styles and practices, such as pressuring infants during mealtimes and prematurely introducing solid food and sweetened beverages. The Healthy Babies trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-infant dyads. The educational intervention is being conducted during the infant's first 6 months of life to promote healthy transition to solids during their first year and is based on the theory of planned behavior. Methods/Design We will describe our study protocol for a multisite randomized control trial being conducted in Colorado and Michigan with an anticipated sample of 372 economically and educationally disadvantaged African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian mothers with infants. Participants are being recruited by county community agency staff. Participants are randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. The intervention consists of six in-home visits by a trained paraprofessional instructor followed by three reinforcement telephone contacts when the baby is 6, 8, and 10 months old. Main maternal outcomes include a maternal responsiveness, b feeding style, and c feeding practices. Main infant outcome is infant growth pattern. All measures occur at baseline and when the infant is 6 and 12 months old. Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes will address whether the home-based early nutrition education intervention is effective

  15. Mutation accumulation and fitness effects in hybridogenetic populations: a comparison to sexual and asexual systems

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    Bagheri Homayoun C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female only unisexual vertebrates that reproduce by hybridogenesis show an unusual genetic composition. They are of hybrid origin but show no recombination between the genomes of their parental species. Instead, the paternal genome is discarded from the germline prior to meiosis, and gametes (eggs only contain solely unrecombined maternal genomes. Hence hybridogens only transmit maternally inherited mutations. Hybridity is restored each generation by backcrossing with males of the sexual parental species whose genome was eliminated. In contrast, recombining sexual species propagate an intermixed pool of mutations derived from the maternal and paternal parts of the genome. If mutation rates are lower in female gametes than males, it raises the possibility for lower mutation accumulation in a hybridogenetic population, and consequently, higher population fitness than its sexual counterpart. Results We show through Monte-Carlo simulations that at higher male to female mutation ratios, and sufficiently large population sizes, hybridogenetic populations can carry a lower mutation load than sexual species. This effect is more pronounced with synergistic forms of epistasis. Mutations accumulate faster on the sexual part of the genome, and with the purifying effects of epistasis, it makes it more difficult for mutations to be transmitted on the clonal part of the genome. In smaller populations, the same mechanism reduces the speed of Muller's Ratchet and the number of fixed mutations compared to similar asexual species. Conclusion Since mutation accumulation can be less pronounced in hybridogenetic populations, the question arises why hybridogenetic organisms are so scarce compared to sexual species. In considering this, it is likely that comparison of population fitnesses is not sufficient. Despite competition with the sexual parental species, hybrid populations are dependent on the maintenance of – and contact with – their

  16. Analysis of the Chaotic Characteristics of Human Colonic Activities and Comparison of Healthy Participants to Costive Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a common yet distressing disease that has high rates of morbidity and impacts patients' quality of life. However, there is no perfect method to distinguish costive patients from healthy subjects. Is there chaos in human colonic activities? Are there any differences for the chaos indicators of colonic activities between healthy and costive subjects? Can these indicators distinguish patients with constipation from healthy subjects? To answer these questions, colonic pressure data from 16 healthy subjects and 48 patients with constipation were analyzed using the chaos theory. Three chaotic indicators [i.e., the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE), correlation dimension (CorDim), and Kolmogorov entropy (KoEn)] were calculated and compared between groups with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. As a result, the LyE was greater than zero and the CorDim was fractioned, which showed that human colonic activities have clear chaotic characteristics. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups for CorDim (p chaotic indicator of CorDim was able to differentiate between patients with constipation and healthy subjects. The chaos theory provides a new method for learning the nonlinear dynamics of human gastrointestinal activities.

  17. Comparisons of european populations of the cerastoderma-glaucum c-lamarcki complex based on reproductive physiology and biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, V; Wolowicz, M.

    1994-01-01

    Five European populations of the Cerastoderma glaucum/C. lamarcki complex were studied to elucidate differences between Mediterranean, Western European and Baltic populations: one from the French Mediterranean; two from the west coast of France; one from the Limfjord, Denmark; and one from the metal contaminated Gdansk Bay, Poland. The biochemical tissue composition related to five reproductive stages was analysed, and the results for the five populations were compared. The comparison showed ...

  18. Assessment and comparison of anemia of chronic disease in healthy subjects and chronic periodontitis patients: A clinical and hematological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashri A Kolte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteremia is associated with periodontal diseases whose extent is related to the severity of inflammation in periodontal tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the various blood parameters in healthy subjects and severe chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: 100 patients with severe chronic periodontitis (test group and 100 periodontally healthy subjects (control group in the age group 35-60 years participated in the study. Blood parameters were recorded with blood samples drawn from the antecubital fossa by venous puncture. Results: Periodontitis group showed lower erythrocyte count and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, and increased total leukocyte count (TLC and neutrophil, lymphocyte, and eosinophil count, compared to the healthy control group. Conclusions: To conclude, periodontitis may tend toward anemia and there is marked leukocytosis due to increased number of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes.

  19. Age-associated differences in cognitive performance in older patients with schizophrenia: a comparison with healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, David A; Czaja, Sara J; Bowie, Christopher R; Harvey, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    There are varying results regarding the conjoint influence of aging and schizophrenia on cognitive abilities. Previous studies have been limited by restricted age ranges among schizophrenia and psychiatrically healthy control samples as well as small numbers of control participants. To quantify the association between age and cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and psychiatrically healthy older adult controls and to determine if age-associated changes in cognitive performance were different in the two groups. People with schizophrenia (n = 226) and psychiatrically healthy individuals (n = 834) ranging in age from 40 to older than 80 years were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tests. To directly compare the impact of age on cognitive performance, age was also regressed on performance in the two samples. The performance of psychiatrically healthy adults age 70 and older was superior to the performance of the youngest patients with schizophrenia (age 40-49) years on measures of working and episodic memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. Regression analyses indicated that age effects on cognition were significantly greater for schizophrenia patients on measures of verbal learning and speed of processing. Within both the schizophrenia group, and psychiatrically healthy adults, the greatest age-related differences in performance seemed to occur for individuals aged more than 70 years. In this cross-sectional study, the present findings underscore the fact that schizophrenia is associated with cognitive impairment across all ages and that older schizophrenia patients experience relatively greater age associated differences in cognitive functioning than healthy individuals. These findings have wide-ranging implications regarding the ability of older patients with schizophrenia to function independently and for the development of treatment strategies.

  20. Population coding of visual space: comparison of spatial representations in the dorsal and ventral pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne B Sereno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the representation of space is as fundamental to visual processing as the representation of shape, it has received relatively little attention from neurophysiological investigations. In this study we characterize representations of space within visual cortex, and examine how they differ in a first direct comparison between dorsal and ventral subdivisions of the visual pathways. Neural activities were recorded in anterior inferotemporal cortex (AIT and lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP of awake behaving monkeys, structures associated with the ventral and dorsal visual pathways respectively, as a stimulus was presented at different locations within the visual field. In spatially selective cells, we find greater modulation of cell responses in LIP with changes in stimulus position. Further, using a novel population-based statistical approach (namely, multidimensional scaling, we recover the spatial map implicit within activities of neural populations, allowing us to quantitatively compare the geometry of neural space with physical space. We show that a population of spatially selective LIP neurons, despite having large receptive fields, is able to almost perfectly reconstruct stimulus locations within a low-dimensional representation. In contrast, a population of AIT neurons, despite each cell being spatially selective, provide less accurate low-dimensional reconstructions of stimulus locations. They produce instead only a topologically (categorically correct rendition of space, which nevertheless might be critical for object and scene recognition. Furthermore, we found that the spatial representation recovered from population activity shows greater translation invariance in LIP than in AIT. We suggest that LIP spatial representations may be dimensionally isomorphic with 3D physical space, while in AIT spatial representations may reflect a more categorical representation of space (e.g., next to or above.

  1. Comparison of SNP variation and distribution in indigenous ethiopian and korean cattle (hanwoo) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2012-09-01

    Although a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified from the bovine genome-sequencing project, few of these have been validated at large in Bos indicus breeds. We have genotyped 192 animals, representing 5 cattle populations of Ethiopia, with the Illumina Bovine 8K SNP BeadChip. These include 1 Sanga (Danakil), 3 zebu (Borana, Arsi and Ambo), and 1 zebu × Sanga intermediate (Horro) breeds. The Hanwoo (Bos taurus) was included for comparison purposes. Analysis of 7,045 SNP markers revealed that the mean minor allele frequency (MAF) was 0.23, 0.22, 0.21, 0.21, 0.23, and 0.29 for Ambo, Arsi, Borana, Danakil, Horro, and Hanwoo, respectively. Significant differences of MAF were observed between the indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations and Hanwoo breed (p < 0.001). Across the Ethiopian cattle populations, a common variant MAF (≥0.10 and ≤0.5) accounted for an overall estimated 73.79% of the 7,045 SNPs. The Hanwoo displayed a higher proportion of common variant SNPs (90%). Investigation within Ethiopian cattle populations showed that on average, 16.64% of the markers were monomorphic, but in the Hanwoo breed, only 6% of the markers were monomorphic. Across the sampled Ethiopian cattle populations, the mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.314 and 0.313, respectively. The level of SNP variation identified in this particular study highlights that these markers can be potentially used for genetic studies in African cattle breeds.

  2. Parental recommendations for population level interventions to support infant and family dietary choices: a qualitative study from the Growing Up in Wales, Environments for Healthy Living (EHL) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanom, Ashrafunnesa; Hill, Rebecca A; Morgan, Kelly; Rapport, Frances L; Lyons, Ronan A; Brophy, Sinead

    2015-03-11

    Childhood obesity presents a challenge to public health. This qualitative study explored the main barriers to dietary choices faced by parents with infants, and the types of interventions and policy level recommendations they would like to see put in place, to promote a healthier food environment. 61 semi-structured interviews with prospective parents and parents of infants (61 mothers and 35 fathers) were conducted. Families were selected according to community deprivation levels using the Townsend Deprivation Index to ensure a representative sample from deprived and affluent neighbourhoods. Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Parents identified triggers which led to unhealthy dietary choices such as reliance on fast food outlets due to; shift work, lack of access to personal transport, inability to cook, their own childhood dietary experiences, peer pressure and familial relationships. Parents who made healthy dietary choices reported learning cooking skills while at university, attending community cooking classes, having access to quality food provided by church and community organisations or access to Healthy Start vouchers. They called for a reduction in supermarket promotion of unhealthy food and improved access to affordable and high-quality fresh produce in the local area and in supermarkets. There was a strong message to policy makers to work with commercial companies (food manufactures) as they have resources to lower costs and target messages at a diverse population. Provision of targeted advice to fathers, minority ethnic parents, and tailored and practical advice and information on how to purchase, prepare, store and cook food was requested, along with community cookery classes and improved school cookery lessons. There is a need for parent directed community/population level interventions that aims to reduce socio-ecological barriers to making healthy dietary choices. Parents desired improvements in meals provided in workplaces

  3. Relationship between maximal fat oxidation and oxygen uptake: comparison between type 2 diabetes patients and healthy sedentary subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Cataldo; Giuseppe Russo; Dario Cerasola; Danila Di Majo; Marco Giammanco; Marcello Traina

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of fat oxidation to energy production during exercise is influenced by intensity of exercise. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the highest value of fat oxidation rate (FATmax) and the oxygen uptake (VO2) in sedentary type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients vs healthy sedentary subjects. Sedentary T2D patients and healthy sedentary subjects were evaluated to a graded exercise test, and oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rate were detected. Data show that in T2D...

  4. Comparative study of IgA VH 3 gene usage in healthy TST(-) and TST(+) population exposed to tuberculosis: deep sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Siang Tean; Ignatius, Joshua; Suraiya, Siti; Tye, Gee Jun; Sarmiento, Maria E; Acosta, Armando; Norazmi, Mohd Nor; Lim, Theam Soon

    2015-02-01

    The acquired immune response against tuberculosis is commonly associated with T-cell responses with little known about the role of B cells or antibodies. There have been suggestions that B cells and humoral immunity can modulate the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the mechanisms involving B-cell responses in M. tuberculosis are not fully understood, in particular the antibody gene preferences. We hypothesized that a preferential use of V genes can be seen associated with resistance to infection mainly in the IgA isotype, which is of prominent importance for infection by pathogens via the mucosal route. We studied healthy individuals with long-term exposure to tuberculosis, infected (TST(+) ) and uninfected TST(-) ) with M. tuberculosis. From a total of 22 V genes analysed, the TST(-) population preferred the VH 3-23 and Vκ1 genes. The VH 3-23 genes were subsequently subjected to 454 amplicon sequencing. The TST(-) population showed a higher frequency of the D3-10 segment compared with the D3-22 segment for the TST(+) population. The J segment usage pattern was similar for both populations with J4 segment being used the most. A preferential pairing of J4 segments to D3-3 was seen for the TST(-) population. The antibodyome difference between both populations suggests a preference for antibodies with VH 3-23, D3-3, JH 4 gene usage by the TST(-) population that could be associated with resistance to infection with M. tuberculosis.

  5. The impact of a TSH receptor gene polymorphism on thyroid-related phenotypes in a healthy Danish twin population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pia Skov; van der Deure, Wendy M; Peeters, Robin P;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Asp727Glu polymorphism in the TSH receptor (TSHR) gene is associated with serum TSH levels. However, the proportion of genetic variation accounted for by this polymorphism is unknown. In this study, we (1) examined the association of the Asp727Glu polymorphism with thyroid size......, serum levels of TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid antibodies in 1241 healthy Danish twin individuals and (2) assessed the contribution of the polymorphism to the trait variation and the genetic variance. MEASUREMENTS: The effect of the genotype on the traits (mean +/- SD) was established; associations...... between the TSHR-Asp727Glu polymorphism and measures of thyroid homeostasis were assessed and the effect of the polymorphism on the trait's phenotypic variability was quantified by incorporating the genotype information in structural equation modelling. RESULTS: The genotype distribution was Asp/Asp 84...

  6. The prevalence of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes in a population of healthy Dutch volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, W.J; Wemer, J; Oosterhuis, B; de Zeeuw, R.A; de Leij, Lou; Jonkman, J.H.G.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: This study was performed in a sample of the Dutch population to estimate the prevalence of noncoding mutations of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 as obtained by genotyping. In addition, the predictability of the genotyping strategy was assessed. Methods: The CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 status of 765 unrelated health

  7. Oral-Diadochokinetic Rates for Hebrew-Speaking Healthy Ageing Population: Non-Word versus Real-Word Repetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Boaz M.; Icht, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral-diadochokinesis (oral-DDK) tasks are extensively used in the evaluation of motor speech abilities. Currently, validated normative data for older adults (aged 65 years and older) are missing in Hebrew. The effect of task stimuli (non-word versus real-word repetition) is also non-clear in the population of older adult Hebrew…

  8. Comparing female-based contraceptive methods in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkilic, Ediz; Tufan, Ayse Nur; Oksuz, Mustafa Ferhat; Sahbazlar, Mustafa; Coskun, Belkis Nihan; Seniz, Nihan; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Inanc, Murat

    2014-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is 10 times more prevalent in women, particularly those of reproductive age. The varying effects of pregnancy on SLE and the differences between available SLE treatments make pregnancy timing and contraceptive methods significant. We aimed to determine the contraceptive methods used by SLE patients in the north-west part of Turkey, and compared them with those used by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls. The study was comprised of 113 SLE patients, and 84 RA patients at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic of Uludag University Medical Faculty. Twenty-three (20.3%) out of 113 SLE patients, 18 (21.4%) out of 84 RA patients and 17 (18.6%) out of 92 healthy controls did not use any contraceptive methods. Use of the withdrawal and condom methods was more common among SLE patients, accounting for 61% (withdrawal 32.7%, condom 28.3%). Moreover, 52% of SLE and 50% of RA patients were neither given information about contraceptive methods nor offered a suggested method, compared to 34% in the health control group. The prevalence of oral contraceptive use is low in Turkey; notwithstanding the withdrawal and condom methods, which are frequently used despite their high failure risk. Although pregnancy timing is of great importance for SLE patients, necessary information and recommendations concerning contraceptive methods have been ignored and the use of effective methods is not a priority. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Development of a population pharmacokinetic model to describe azithromycin whole-blood and plasma concentrations over time in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pene Dumitrescu, T; Anic-Milic, T; Oreskovic, K; Padovan, J; Brouwer, K L R; Zuo, P; Schmith, V D

    2013-07-01

    Azithromycin (AZI), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, accumulates in polymorphonuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The distribution of AZI in proinflammatory cells may be important to the anti-inflammatory properties. Previous studies have described plasma AZI pharmacokinetics. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of AZI in whole blood (concentration in whole blood [Cb]) and plasma (concentration in plasma [Cp]) of healthy subjects. In this study, 12 subjects received AZI (500 mg once a day for 3 days). AZI Cb and Cp were quantified in serial samples collected up to 3 weeks after the last dose and analyzed using noncompartmental and compartmental methods. After the last dose, Cb was greater than Cp. Importantly, Cb, but not Cp, was quantifiable in all but one subject at 3 weeks. The blood area under the curve during a 24-h dosing interval (AUC24) was ∼2-fold greater than the plasma AUC24, but simulations suggested that Cb was not at steady state by day 3. Upon exploration of numerous models, an empirical 3-compartment model adequately described Cp and Cb, but Cp was somewhat underestimated. Intercompartmental clearance (CL; likely representing cells) was lower than apparent oral CL (18 versus 118 liters/h). Plasma, peripheral, and cell compartmental volumes were 439 liters, 2,980 liters, and 3,084 liters, respectively. Interindividual variability in CL was low (26.2%), while the volume of distribution variability was high (107%). This is the first report to describe AZI Cb in healthy subjects, the distribution parameters between Cp and Cb, and AZI retention in blood for up to 3 weeks following 3 daily doses. The model can be used to predict Cb from Cp for AZI under various dosing regimens. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01026064.).

  10. Morphometric Evaluation of Korean Femurs by Geometric Computation: Comparisons of the Sex and the Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Jung Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured 28 parameters of 202 femurs from Koreans by an automated geometric computation program using 3D models generated from computed tomography images. The measurement parameters were selected with reference to physical and forensic anthropology studies as well as orthopedic implant design studies. All measurements were calculated using 3D reconstructions on a computer using scientific computation language. We also analyzed sex and population differences by comparison with data from previous studies. Most parameters were larger in males than in females. The height, head diameter, head center offset, and chord length of the diaphysis, most parameters in the distal femur, and the isthmic width of the medullary canal were smaller in Koreans than in other populations. However, the neck-shaft angle, subtense, and width of the intercondylar notch in the distal femur were larger than those in other populations. The results of this study will be useful as a reference for physical and forensic anthropology as well as the design of medical devices suitable for Koreans.

  11. Heart rate and blood pressure response to ramp exercise and exercise capacity in relation to age, gender, and mode of exercise in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Haruki; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Koike, Akira; Makita, Shigeru; Omiya, Kazuto; Kato, Yuko; Adachi, Hitoshi; Nagayama, Masatoshi; Maeda, Tomoko; Tajima, Akihiko; Harada, Naomi; Taniguchi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The responses of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure to the ramp exercise test are not known and the current understanding of peak oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold (AT) values in the normal Japanese population is insufficient. A total of 749 healthy Japanese subjects aged 20-78 years underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test using a cycle ergometer or treadmill ergometer with ramp protocols. HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and oxygen uptake VO2 at rest, at AT, and at peak exercise were determined. HR and SBP at peak exercise in a cycle ergometer and treadmill ergometer test decreased with age. Work rate at peak exercise in a cycle ergometer increased with body weight and decreased with age. VO2 at AT and at peak exercise were higher in treadmill ergometer testing than in cycle ergometer testing, and were not affected by exercise protocol. Both of these decreased with age. The normal responses of HR and SBP to ramp exercise testing are reported for the first time. AT, peak VO2, and VO2 at each stage are shown for a healthy population. Some of these parameters were influenced by weight, gender, and age, as well as mode of exercise and the protocol used. These results provide useful reference values for interpreting the results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Age- and sex-related reference values for serum insulin concentration and its biological determinants in a French healthy population. The STANISLAS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Aurélie; Maumus, Sandy; Vincent-Viry, Monique; Guéguen, René; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    Insulin is involved in coronary heart disease through diabetes and metabolic syndrome. A great deal is known about insulin and its correlates, as well as factors related to changes in insulin. However, few studies consider the broad variety of correlates simultaneously. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to characterize the main factors of biological variation affecting serum insulin concentration and to establish reference limits of insulinemia in a presumably healthy French population. Insulin was measured using a microparticular enzymatic immunoassay. A total of 646 subjects aged 11-58 years from the STANISLAS cohort and divided into four groups of 162 males, 157 females, 163 boys and 164 girls, were included in the statistical analyses. In the whole population, serum insulin concentration varied from 0.80 to 54.60 microU/ml. Significant factors affecting insulin were age, gender, body mass index and glucose, in addition to alanine aminotransferase and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men, triglycerides and oral contraceptive use in women, and alkaline phosphatase in girls. In summary, we presented biological correlates of insulin in both healthy French male and female adults and children/adolescents and determined reference limits for insulin for each group. These results will contribute to a better interpretation of insulin data in further studies and laboratory investigations.

  13. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Prashanth; Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram Nv; Lakshmanasami, Ravivarman; Prakash, M L; Reddy, Yogesh Nv

    2016-01-01

    This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by the Cockcroft-Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m(2), 18.5-24.99 kg/m(2), 25-29.99 kg/m(2), and ≥30 kg/m(2) were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex.

  14. A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Subhedar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using electronic databases Pub Med, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Research gate, ICMJE, DOAJ, DRJI, IOSR, WAME and many others. In Total 3714, Research papers were reviewed which reported, Age ≥50 years, changes in Body composition in elderly , effects of Diet &Exercises on Body composition and effects of regular Physiotherapy in Geriatric health and obesity. Literature search was restricted to the studies conducted during 1980-2015. Results: Finally 55 papers along with references in research proposal were included. Review shows that ageing, body composition, Physiotherapeutic intervention and nutrition play an interdependent role in providing independent and healthy living among geriatric population. Conclusion: Combined and comprehensive interventions in form of periodic Body Composition Analysis, Physiotherapy interventions with Exercise therapy sessions and Nutritional Supplementation, will be more effective in combating ageing and independent healthy living among Geriatric population. Finally with this review we shall conclude that achieving perfect geriatric health depends upon awareness among the geriatric community to periodically analyze their body composition and regularly comply with exercise therapy sessions, subjective Physiotherapy modality sessions and nutritional supplementation. These principles help in achieving physically fit, healthy, happy and independent geriatric Community.

  15. [Index of Nutritional Purchasing Power Parity: comparison of caloric costs of a healthy versus an unhealthy diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Velázquez, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Develop the Index of Nutritional Purchasing Power Parity (Nut3-CiO) as an instrument to compare the caloric costs of a healthy versus an unhealthy diet between regions or cities in a country over time. Indices of caloric prices were constructed and the "law of one price" was used to derive the Nut3-CiO index. Caloric inflation rates were obtained using basic descriptive statistics. The Nut3-CiO was applied in the major cities of Mexico during the period from January 1996 to December 2010. The statistical behavior of the Nut3-CiO revealed that, in Mexican cities, products for a typical diet are less expensive than products for a healthy diet. The findings showed a cyclical behavior to the index, a high correlation between inflation for the typical diet and inflation for the market basket, and a high persistence of prices. The Nut3-CiO index makes it possible to periodically compare the price differential of two types of diets-typical and healthy-between cities in a single country. This instrument could help health authorities identify the cities where it is easier or more difficult for consumers to access a typical or healthy diet in terms of cost. Furthermore, it makes it possible to estimate the percentage adjustment necessary in each city to attain levels of nutritional purchasing power parity.

  16. Comparison of mesenchymal stromal cells from young healthy donors and patients with severe chronic coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Tina; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Hansen, Susanne Kofoed;

    2011-01-01

    It has been questioned whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from patients with ischemic heart disease are suitable for use in regenerative stem cell therapy. We compared MSCs from patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and MSCs from young healthy donors...

  17. Quality of life in young patients after bone tumor surgery around the knee joint and comparison with healthy controls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, W.P.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.; Koopman, H.M.; Schaap, G.R.; Schreuder, H.W.B.; Beishuizen, A.; Tissing, W.J.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Anninga, J.K.; Taminiau, A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents after malignant bone tumor surgery of the leg with healthy controls. PROCEDURE: Patients between 8 and 25 years old were cross-sectional recruited. Patients under 16 years of age received t

  18. Quality of Life in Young Patients After Bone Tumor Surgery Around the Knee Joint and Comparison With Healthy Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, W. Peter; Vlieland, Theodora P. M. Vliet; Koopman, Hendrik M.; Schaap, Gerard R.; Schreuder, H. W. Bart; Beishuizen, Auke; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Anninga, Jacob K.; Taminiau, Antonie H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to compare the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents after malignant bone tumor surgery of the leg with healthy controls. Procedure. Patients between 8 and 25 years old were cross-sectional recruited. Patients under 16 years of age received t

  19. Comparison of Personality Trait, Negative Experienced Emotions and Coping Styles Between Healthy Women and Those Suffering From Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hamzeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the importance of cancer as one of the main causes of mortality in the world and the role of various factors, including psychological ones in its onset. In this study we compared some of these factors such as personality traits, negative experienced emotions and coping styles in healthy women and those with cancer. Methods: In this study, 83 women with cancer(referred to Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran in a one- month period and 85 healthy subjects(selected by using available sampling method and matched with the first group. Then Personality inventory of Eysenck and inventory type D(DS14 and Folkman and Lazarus coping styles on were studied in both groups. Data analysis was performed by T Hoteling test and multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA. Results: Two groups of women(cancer- healthy were significantly different for personality trait of extraversion, negative emotion experiences and emotional-oriented coping and problem-oriented coping. Conclusion: Women with cancer compared to healthy women experienced more negative emotions and had lower score in extraversion and used more emotion-oriented coping styles and less problem-oriented styles

  20. Comparison of Cognitive Change after Working Memory Training and Logic and Planning Training in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Lawlor-Savage, Linette

    2017-01-01

    Recent attention has focused on the benefits of cognitive training in healthy adults. Many commercial cognitive training programs are available given the attraction of not only bettering one's cognitive capacity, but also potentially preventing age-related declines, which is of particular interest to older adults. The issue of whether cognitive training can improve performance within cognitive domains not trained (i.e., far transfer) is controversial, with meta-analyses of cognitive training both supporting and falsifying this claim. More support is present for the near transfer (i.e., transfer in cognitive domain trained) of cognitive training; however, not in all studies. To date, no studies have compared working memory training to training higher-level processes themselves, namely logic and planning. We studied 97 healthy older adults above the age of 65. Healthy older adults completed either an 8-week web-based cognitive training program on working memory or logic and planning. An additional no-training control group completed two assessments 8-weeks apart. Participants were assessed on cognitive measures of near and far transfer, including working memory, planning, reasoning, processing speed, verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility, and creativity. Participants improved on the trained tasks from the first day to last day of training. Bayesian analyses demonstrated no near or far transfer effects after cognitive training. These results support the conclusion that performance-adaptive computerized cognitive training may not enhance cognition in healthy older adults. Our lack of findings could be due to a variety of reasons, including studying a cohort of healthy older adults that were performing near their cognitive ceiling, employing a training protocol that was not sufficient to produce a change, or that no true findings exist. Research suggests numerous study factors that can moderate the results. In addition, the role of psychological variables, such as

  1. Serum Proteome Changes in Healthy Subjects with Different Genotypes of NOS1AP in the Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Jiang; Congrong Wang; Rongxia Li; Quanhu Sheng; Cheng Hu; Rong Zhang; Qichen Fang; Yuqian Bao; Kunsan Xiang; Rong Zeng; Weiping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and its chronic complications have become a worldwide epidemic nowadays. However, its molecular mechanism is still unknown. We have previously identified a novel variant rs12742393 of NOS1AP for type 2 diabetes susceptibility in the Chinese population. In this study, we analyzed the total serum profiling among three genotypes of rs12742393 to discover potential crosstalk under the variant and the disease through proteomic analyses for the first time. We used OFFGEL peptide fra...

  2. Comparison of Population Pyramid and Demographic Characteristics between People with an Intellectual Disability and the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiu, Tzu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure disparities of age structure between people with an intellectual disability and general population, and to explore the difference of demographic characteristics between these two populations by using data from a population based register in Taiwan. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.…

  3. Comparison of Population Pyramid and Demographic Characteristics between People with an Intellectual Disability and the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiu, Tzu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure disparities of age structure between people with an intellectual disability and general population, and to explore the difference of demographic characteristics between these two populations by using data from a population based register in Taiwan. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.…

  4. Chinese Xibe population genetic composition according to linkage groups of X-chromosomal STRs: population genetic variability and interpopulation comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hao-Tian; Shen, Chun-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Dong, Qian; Guo, Yu-Xin; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Liu, Yao-Shun; Mei, Ting; Shi, Jian-Feng; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The Xibe population is one of China's officially recognised populations and is now distributed separately from west to east in the northern part of China. X-chromosomal short tandem repeats have a special inheritance pattern, and could be used as complements in forensic application, especially for complex or deficiency cases. This study obtained the allelic and haplotypic frequencies of 19 X-STR loci in the Xibe population from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, and studied the genetic differentiations between the Xibe and other populations. The combined power of discrimination in females and males and mean exclusion chances in deficiency cases, normal trios and duo cases was at least 0.999 999 994. In the haplotypic study, the Xibe population showed a more similar pattern of haplotype distribution with Asian populations than populations from other continents, while allelic study also indicated a closer relationship between the Xibe and Asian populations. The 19 X-STR loci would be useful in forensic application in the studied population. The Xibe population showed a closer genetic relationship with Asian populations in the study, and more population data would be necessary for more detailed genetic relationship studies.

  5. An indirect means of assessing potential nutritional effects of dietary olestra in healthy subgroups of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, S J; Dwyer, J; Peters, J C

    1997-08-01

    The potential for olestra to affect the absorption of dietary components was measured in 18- to 44-y-old humans and the weanling pig. Results from the studies were assessed to determine if they were relevant to subgroups of the population not included in the studies. Hypothetrically, two factors that might cause the study results not to be relevant to certain subgroups are dietary pattern and metabolic need. A dietary pattern resulting in olestra-to-nutrient intake ratios greater than those tested in the studies might produce effects greater than those measured. Metabolic needs (i.e., nutrient requirements) among subgroups greater than those of the study population might mean that any effects on nutrient absorption seen in the studies would be larger among subgroups. If olestra-to-nutrient ratios and nutrient requirements of a subgroup were less than those covered in the studies, then the effects of olestra on the nutritional status of the subgroup should be no different than the effects measured in the studies. Subgroups with high olestra-to-nutrient intake ratios were identified by calculating the ratios for those nutrients assessed in the studies [i.e., macronutrients, vitamins A (including beta-carotene), D, E and K, folate, vitamin B12, calcium, iron and zinc]. Subgroups with the greatest olestra-to-nutrient intake ratios for one or more nutrients included children, teenagers and young adults, women from low income families and vegetarians. Subgroups with the greatest metabolic need for one or more nutrients included children, teenagers, and pregnant and lactating women. The olestra-to-nutrient ratios and nutrient requirements of the subgroups having the greatest ratios and requirements were compared with those of the test population. The olestra-to-nutrient intake ratios fed in the studies were greater than those for any subgroup for all nutrients except calcium, which is not affected by olestra. Metabolic needs of the test population were greater than those

  6. Reaching in reality and virtual reality: a comparison of movement kinematics in healthy subjects and in adults with hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldman Anatol G

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual reality (VR is an innovative tool for sensorimotor rehabilitation increasingly being employed in clinical and community settings. Despite the growing interest in VR, few studies have determined the validity of movements made in VR environments with respect to real physical environments. The goal of this study was to compare movements done in physical and virtual environments in adults with motor deficits to those in healthy individuals. Methods The participants were 8 healthy adults and 7 adults with mild left hemiparesis due to stroke. Kinematics of functional arm movements involving reaching, grasping and releasing made in physical and virtual environments were analyzed in two phases: 1 reaching and grasping the ball and 2 ball transport and release. The virtual environment included interaction with an object on a 2D computer screen and haptic force feedback from a virtual ball. Temporal and spatial parameters of reaching and grasping were determined for each phase. Results Individuals in both groups were able to reach, grasp, transport, place and release the virtual and real ball using similar movement strategies. In healthy subjects, reaching and grasping movements in both environments were similar but these subjects used less wrist extension and more elbow extension to place the ball on the virtual vertical surface. Participants with hemiparesis made slower movements in both environments compared to healthy subjects and during transport and placing of the ball, trajectories were more curved and interjoint coordination was altered. Despite these differences, patients with hemiparesis also tended to use less wrist extension during the whole movement and more elbow extension at the end of the placing phase. Conclusion Differences in movements made by healthy subjects in the two environments may be explained by the use of a 2D instead of a 3D virtual environment and the absence of haptic feedback from the VR target

  7. Comprehensive multi-stage linkage analyses identify a locus for adult height on chromosome 3p in a healthy Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Justine A; Scurrah, Katrina J; Duncan, Anna E; Lamantia, Angela; Byrnes, Graham B; Harrap, Stephen B

    2007-04-01

    There have been a number of genome-wide linkage studies for adult height in recent years. These studies have yielded few well-replicated loci, and none have been further confirmed by the identification of associated gene variants. The inconsistent results may be attributable to the fact that few studies have combined accurate phenotype measures with informative statistical modelling in healthy populations. We have performed a multi-stage genome-wide linkage analysis for height in 275 adult sibling pairs drawn randomly from the Victorian Family Heart Study (VFHS), a healthy population-based Caucasian cohort. Height was carefully measured in a standardised fashion on regularly calibrated equipment. Following genome-wide identification of a peak Z-score of 3.14 on chromosome 3 at 69 cM, we performed a fine-mapping analysis of this region in an extended sample of 392 two-generation families. We used a number of variance components models that incorporated assortative mating and shared environment effects, and we observed a peak LOD score of approximately 3.5 at 78 cM in four of the five models tested. We also demonstrated that the most prevalent model in the literature gave the worst fit, and the lowest LOD score (2.9) demonstrating the importance of appropriate modelling. The region identified in this study replicates the results of other genome-wide scans of height and bone-related phenotypes, strongly suggesting the presence of a gene important in bone growth on chromosome 3p. Association analyses of relevant candidate genes should identify the genetic variants responsible for the chromosome 3p linkage signal in our population.

  8. Accuracy and reliability of thyroid volumetry using spiral CT and thyroid volume in a healthy, non-iodine-deficient Chinese adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Jian, E-mail: shujiannc@163.com [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 74 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Zhao Jiannong, E-mail: zhaojiannong@tom.com [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 74 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Guo Dajing, E-mail: guodaj@163.com [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 74 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Luo Yindeng, E-mail: yindengluo_1019@163.com [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 74 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Zhong Weijia, E-mail: zhongweijia2003@eyou.com [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 74 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Xie Weibo, E-mail: radiologycq@163.com [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 74 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of thyroid volumetry using spiral CT and to investigate thyroid volumes for a healthy, non-iodine-deficient adult population in southwestern region of China. Materials and methods: Spiral CT was performed in phantoms and adult subjects with normal thyroid, and the volumes were measured by observers with 5 years or more of CT experience. The phantom volumes and the thyroid volumes of all subjects were noted. Results: For the thyroid phantoms, there was no significant difference between the true and CT calculated volumes (t = 0.862, P = 0.399), and the correlation was excellent (ICC = 0.9995, P = 0.000). In the subjects for reliability analysis, the intraobserver or interobserver differences for CT volumetric measurement of thyroid were not significant (P > 0.05). The intraobserver or interobserver correlations were very high (ICC > 0.99, P < 0.001). In the subjects for population analysis, the median of the thyroid volumes was 11.45 cm{sup 3}. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test showed no significant difference for the thyroid volume between sexes (U = 4388.00, Z = -1.118, P = 0.264). The nonparametric Kruskall-Wallis test showed no significant difference in all age groups ({chi}{sup 2} = 13.466, P = 0.062). There was a slight negative correlation between the thyroid volume and age (r{sub s} = -0.166, P = 0.019). Conclusion: The accuracy and reliability of multi-slice spiral CT in measuring thyroid volume are very high. The thyroid volumes are not significantly difference between genders or among decades for the healthy, non-iodine-deficient adult population in southwestern region of China.

  9. Ultrasonographic measurement of median nerve cross-sectional area reference values in a healthy Han population from Guiyang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Chen; Shan Wu; Jun Ren

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography was used to analyze the nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve at 7 sites: the wrist crease, pisiform bone, hamate bone, 6 cm proximal to the tip of the wrist crease, proximal forearm (where the nerve enters the pronator teres muscle), 4 cm proximal to the tip of the medial epicondyle, and mid-humerus (mid-point between elbow crease and axilla) in 200 healthy volunteers from Guiyang, China. Results showed similar CSA values between the left and right sides, but the CSA 6 cm proximal to the tip of the wrist crease, proximal forearm, 4 cm proximal to tip of the medial epicondyle, and mid-humerus in males was greater than that of females. Moreover, CSA values at the wrist crease, pisiform bone, and hamate bone were greater in the middle-aged and old groups when compared to the young group, and correlated with body mass and height. Thus, reference values of median nerve CSA of the upper limbs can facilitate the analysis of abnormal nerve conditions.

  10. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2016-01-25

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems.

  11. Association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome in a population-based study: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Najafian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent epidemiologic studies have found that self-reported sleep duration is associated with components of metabolic syndrome (MS such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension. This relation may be under influence of regional factors in different regions of the world. The association of sleep duration and MS in a sample of Iranian people in the central region of Iran was investigated in this study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP. A total of 12492 individuals aged over 19 years, 6110 men and 6382 women entered the study. Definition of National Cholesterol Education Program was used to define MS. Sleep duration was reported by participants. Relation between sleep duration with MS was examined using categorical logistic regression in two models; unadjusted and adjusted for age and sex. Results: In our study, 23.5 % of participants had MS. Compared with sleep duration of 7-8 hours per night; sleep duration of less than 5 hours was associated with a higher odds ratio for MS. This association remained significant even after adjustment for age and sex (OR: 1.52; 95%CI: 1.33-1.74. However, sleep duration of 9 hours or more showed a protective association with MS (OR: 0.79; 95%CI: 0.68-0.94. Conclusions: There was a positive relation between sleep deprivation and MS and its components. This relation was slightly affected by sex and age.

  12. Delays in accessing electroconvulsive therapy: a comparison between two urban and two rural populations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    A comparison of the timing, rates and characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy use between urban and rural populations. The medical records of patients who received an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy at two rural and two urban psychiatric hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Main outcome measures were the time from symptom onset, diagnosis and admission to commencing electroconvulsive therapy. Rates of use of electroconvulsive therapy were also compared between rural and urban hospitals using NSW statewide data. There was a significant delay in the time it took for rural patients to receive electroconvulsive therapy compared with urban patients when measured both from the time of symptom onset and from when they received a diagnosis. There were corresponding delays in the time taken for rural patients to be admitted to hospital compared with urban patients. There was no difference in the time it took to commence electroconvulsive therapy once a patient was admitted to hospital. NSW statewide urban-rural comparisons showed rates of electroconvulsive therapy treatment were significantly higher in urban hospitals. Patients in rural areas receive electroconvulsive therapy later in their acute illness due to delays in being admitted to hospital. The rate of use of electroconvulsive therapy also differs geographically. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  13. Comparison of Quantitative Cartilage T2 Measurements and Qualitative MR Imaging between Professional Ballet Dancers and Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jang Gyu; Yi, Ji Sook; Han, Jong Kyu; Lee, Young Koo

    2015-07-01

    To compare qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) images and quantitative T2 measurements of the tibiotalar cartilage between ballerinas and healthy volunteers. Institutional review board approval for this study and informed consent (from all participants) were obtained. MR examinations were performed by using a 3-T MR imaging system with 21 professional female ballet dancers and 20 healthy female volunteers. Two musculoskeletal radiologists qualitatively measured tibiotalar cartilage T2 values in the anterior zones, middle zones, and posterior zones of cartilage. MR findings were also qualitatively analyzed in both groups. The tibial cartilage T2 values measured in the anterior and posterior zones and the talar cartilage T2 values measured in all three zones were significantly higher in the ballerina group than in the control group (P quantitative T2 measurement may potentially be used as a noninvasive imaging tool for early detection of cartilage lesions in the tibiotalar joint.

  14. Relationship between maximal fat oxidation and oxygen uptake: comparison between type 2 diabetes patients and healthy sedentary subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Cataldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of fat oxidation to energy production during exercise is influenced by intensity of exercise. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the highest value of fat oxidation rate (FATmax and the oxygen uptake (VO2 in sedentary type 2 diabetes (T2D patients vs healthy sedentary subjects. Sedentary T2D patients and healthy sedentary subjects were evaluated to a graded exercise test, and oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rate were detected. Data show that in T2D patients fat oxidation rate is not impaired and the positive linear correlation between FATmax and both VO2 and VO2max suggests that even in T2D patients the muscle oxidative capacity might increase in response to aerobic training.

  15. Diabetes, employment and fatigue-related complaints: a comparison between diabetic employees, "healthy" employees, and employees with other chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijman, Iris; Kant, Ijmert; Swaen, Gerard M; Ros, Wynand J G; Rutten, Guy E H M; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Schabracq, Marc J; Winnubst, Jacques A M

    2004-08-01

    The work situation and fatigue-related complaints of employees with diabetes (N = 141) were compared with "healthy" employees (N = 8946) and employees with other chronic diseases (N = 1883). Baseline data from a Dutch Cohort Study on Fatigue at Work were used to test differences in background variables, work characteristics, lifestyle factors, and fatigue-related complaints. Odds ratios were calculated for prolonged fatigue, the need for recovery, burnout, and psychological distress. Results showed that employees with diabetes work more daytime hours and work less overtime than the other groups. If they have no comorbidity, they are no more likely to report fatigue-related complaints than "healthy" employees, except for a depressed mood. Comorbidity (the presence of one or more additional chronic diseases) is associated with increased fatigue-related complaints. Therefore, this group will need special attention from professionals.

  16. Investigation and functional characterization of rare genetic variants in the adipose triglyceride lipase in a large healthy working population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Coassin

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated a strong influence of rare genetic variants on several lipid-related traits. However, their impact on free fatty acid (FFA plasma concentrations, as well as the role of rare variants in a general population, has not yet been thoroughly addressed. The adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL is encoded by the PNPLA2 gene and catalyzes the rate-limiting step of lipolysis. It represents a prominent candidate gene affecting FFA concentrations. We therefore screened the full genomic region of ATGL for mutations in 1,473 randomly selected individuals from the SAPHIR (Salzburg Atherosclerosis Prevention program in subjects at High Individual Risk Study using a combined Ecotilling and sequencing approach and functionally investigated all detected protein variants by in-vitro studies. We observed 55 novel mostly rare genetic variants in this general population sample. Biochemical evaluation of all non-synonymous variants demonstrated the presence of several mutated but mostly still functional ATGL alleles with largely varying residual lipolytic activity. About one-quarter (3 out of 13 of the investigated variants presented a marked decrease or total loss of catalytic function. Genetic association studies using both continuous and dichotomous approaches showed a shift towards lower plasma FFA concentrations for rare variant carriers and an accumulation of variants in the lower 10%-quantile of the FFA distribution. However, the generally rather small effects suggest either only a secondary role of rare ATGL variants on the FFA levels in the SAPHIR population or a recessive action of ATGL variants. In contrast to these rather small effects, we describe here also the first patient with "neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy" (NLSDM with a point mutation in the catalytic dyad, but otherwise intact protein.

  17. Investigation and functional characterization of rare genetic variants in the adipose triglyceride lipase in a large healthy working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coassin, Stefan; Schweiger, Martina; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Erhart, Gertraud; Paulweber, Bernhard; Rahman, Yusof; Olpin, Simon; Wolinski, Heimo; Cornaciu, Irina; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Kronenberg, Florian

    2010-12-09

    Recent studies demonstrated a strong influence of rare genetic variants on several lipid-related traits. However, their impact on free fatty acid (FFA) plasma concentrations, as well as the role of rare variants in a general population, has not yet been thoroughly addressed. The adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is encoded by the PNPLA2 gene and catalyzes the rate-limiting step of lipolysis. It represents a prominent candidate gene affecting FFA concentrations. We therefore screened the full genomic region of ATGL for mutations in 1,473 randomly selected individuals from the SAPHIR (Salzburg Atherosclerosis Prevention program in subjects at High Individual Risk) Study using a combined Ecotilling and sequencing approach and functionally investigated all detected protein variants by in-vitro studies. We observed 55 novel mostly rare genetic variants in this general population sample. Biochemical evaluation of all non-synonymous variants demonstrated the presence of several mutated but mostly still functional ATGL alleles with largely varying residual lipolytic activity. About one-quarter (3 out of 13) of the investigated variants presented a marked decrease or total loss of catalytic function. Genetic association studies using both continuous and dichotomous approaches showed a shift towards lower plasma FFA concentrations for rare variant carriers and an accumulation of variants in the lower 10%-quantile of the FFA distribution. However, the generally rather small effects suggest either only a secondary role of rare ATGL variants on the FFA levels in the SAPHIR population or a recessive action of ATGL variants. In contrast to these rather small effects, we describe here also the first patient with "neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy" (NLSDM) with a point mutation in the catalytic dyad, but otherwise intact protein.

  18. Comparison of spinal alignment, muscular strength, and quality of life between women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, N; Kudo, D; Hongo, M; Kasukawa, Y; Ishikawa, Y; Shimada, Y

    2017-08-07

    This study compared spinal alignment, muscular strength, and quality of life (QOL) between women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and healthy volunteers. The results indicated that lower QOL in osteoporosis patients may be associated with increased thoracic kyphosis, reduced lean muscle mass, and generalized muscle weakness. Increased spinal kyphosis is common in patients with osteoporosis and negatively impacts quality of life (QOL). Muscular strength is also important for QOL in patients with osteoporosis. However, spinal kyphosis and muscle weakness also occur in healthy individuals with advancing age. The purposes of this study were thus to compare spinal alignment, muscular strength, and QOL between women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and healthy volunteers. Participants comprised 236 female patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis (mean age, 68.7 years) and 93 healthy volunteer women (mean age, 71.0 years). Body mass index (BMI), angles of spinal kyphosis, back extensor strength, grip strength, and QOL were compared between groups. BMI, back extensor strength, and grip strength were significantly higher in the volunteer group than in the osteoporosis group (p < 0.01). Both thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were significantly greater in the osteoporosis group than in the volunteer group (p < 0.01). With regard to QOL, the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) subscale scores of role physical, bodily pain, general health, and role emotional were all significantly lower in the osteoporosis group than in the volunteer group (p < 0.05 each). SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) score was significantly lower in the osteoporosis group than in the volunteer group (p < 0.001). SF-36 PCS score correlated positively with thoracic kyphosis and negatively with BMI only in the osteoporosis group (p < 0.05 each). These results indicated that lower QOL in osteoporosis patients may be associated with increased thoracic kyphosis, reduced lean muscle

  19. Comparison of surfactant protein B polymorphisms of healthy term newborns with preterm newborns having respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P.R. Lyra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms and mutations in the surfactant protein B (SP-B gene have been associated with the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The objective of the present study was to compare the frequencies of SP-B gene polymorphisms between preterm babies with RDS and healthy term newborns. We studied 50 preterm babies with RDS (inclusion criteria - newborns with RDS and gestational age between 28 and 33 weeks and 6 days, and 100 healthy term newborns. Four SP-B gene polymorphisms were analyzed: A/C at nucleotide -18, C/T at nucleotide 1580, A/G at nucleotide 9306, and G/C at nucleotide 8714, by PCR amplification of genomic DNA and genotyping by cRFLP. The healthy newborns comprised 42 female and 58 male neonates; 39 were white and 61 non-white. The RDS group comprised 21 female and 29 male preterm neonates; 28 were white and 22 non-white. Weight ranged from 640 to 2080 g (mean: 1273 g; mean gestational age was 31 weeks and 2 days (range: 28-33 weeks and 6 days. When white children were analyzed separately, a statistically significant difference in the G/C polymorphism at 8714 was observed between groups (P = 0.028. All other genotype frequencies were similar for both groups when sex and race were analyzed together. Analysis of the SP-B polymorphism G/C at nucleotide 8714 showed that among white neonates the GG genotype was found only in the RDS group at a frequency of 17% and the GC genotype was more frequently found in healthy term newborns. These data demonstrate an association of GG genotype with RDS.

  20. Comparison of surfactant protein B polymorphisms of healthy term newborns with preterm newborns having respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, P P R; Vaz, F A C; Moreira, P E; Hoffmann, J W; Demello, D E; Diniz, E M A

    2007-06-01

    Polymorphisms and mutations in the surfactant protein B (SP-B) gene have been associated with the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The objective of the present study was to compare the frequencies of SP-B gene polymorphisms between preterm babies with RDS and healthy term newborns. We studied 50 preterm babies with RDS (inclusion criteria - newborns with RDS and gestational age between 28 and 33 weeks and 6 days), and 100 healthy term newborns. Four SP-B gene polymorphisms were analyzed: A/C at nucleotide -18, C/T at nucleotide 1580, A/G at nucleotide 9306, and G/C at nucleotide 8714, by PCR amplification of genomic DNA and genotyping by cRFLP. The healthy newborns comprised 42 female and 58 male neonates; 39 were white and 61 non-white. The RDS group comprised 21 female and 29 male preterm neonates; 28 were white and 22 non-white. Weight ranged from 640 to 2080 g (mean: 1273 g); mean gestational age was 31 weeks and 2 days (range: 28-33 weeks and 6 days). When white children were analyzed separately, a statistically significant difference in the G/C polymorphism at 8714 was observed between groups (P = 0.028). All other genotype frequencies were similar for both groups when sex and race were analyzed together. Analysis of the SP-B polymorphism G/C at nucleotide 8714 showed that among white neonates the GG genotype was found only in the RDS group at a frequency of 17% and the GC genotype was more frequently found in healthy term newborns. These data demonstrate an association of GG genotype with RDS.

  1. Relation of blood pressure to reported intake of salt, saturated fats, and alcohol in healthy middle-aged population.

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, J.T.; Tuomilehto, J; A. Tanskanen

    1983-01-01

    The association of blood pressure with reported intake of salt, saturated fats, and alcohol was studied in a sample of 8479 subjects based on a cross sectional survey in a population aged 30 to 64 years. A consistent association was found between the mean arterial pressure and the intake of alcohol (p less than 0.001) and saturated fats (p less than 0.01). There was also a weak association between blood pressure and dietary salt intake, but this association was mostly explained by the correla...

  2. A population-based lifestyle intervention to promote healthy weight and physical activity in people with cardiac disease: The PANACHE (Physical Activity, Nutrition And Cardiac HEalth study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allman-Farinelli Margaret

    2010-04-01

    . Secondary outcomes include physical activity, sedentary time and nutrition habits. Costs will be compared with outcomes to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of the healthy weight and physical activity interventions. Discussion This study addresses a significant gap in public health practice by providing evidence for the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a low cost, low contact, high reach intervention promoting healthy weight and physical activity among people with CVD in rural and urban areas in Australia. The replication arm of the study, undertaken by the control group, will demonstrate whether the findings of the previously proven physical activity intervention can be generalised to new settings. This population-based approach could potentially improve access to and outcomes of secondary prevention programs, particularly for rural or disadvantaged communities. Trial Registration ACTRN12610000102077

  3. Comparison of virulence factors of oral Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans isolates in healthy people and patients with chronic candidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, J; Saarela, M; Dogan, B; Paatsama, J; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Pirinen, S; Alakomi, H L; Perheentupa, J; Asikainen, S

    2000-08-01

    We determined differences in the expression of certain virulence factors between oral Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans species. In addition, clonal differences were sought among C. albicans isolates recovered from patients with and without compromised immune system. The material comprised 93 clinical yeast isolates originated in 40 subjects (1-5 isolates per subject). All 26 C. dubliniensis isolates and 46 C. albicans isolates originated from healthy routine dental clinic patients. Additionally, 21 C. albicans isolates were collected from patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidosis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), who have chronic candidosis as one manifestation of their immunocompromising disease. Polymerase chain reaction amplification using the random sequence primer OPE-03 enabled grouping of the C. dubliniensis isolates in 2 genotypes (I and II) and C. albicans isolates in 15 genotypes (I-XV). No significant difference was found in the distribution of genotypes between the patients with APECED and the healthy subjects. C. dubliniensis isolates exhibited high-frequency phenotypic switching significantly more frequently than did C. albicans isolates, and vice versa regarding phospholipase and proteinase production. Proteinase production was significantly more frequent among C. albicans genotype V than genotype IX isolates. No significant difference was found in expression of virulence factors of C. albicans isolates between the patients with APECED and the healthy subjects.

  4. Comparison of magnesium status using X-ray dispersion analysis following magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate treatment of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Michael; Saad, Tomer; Shechter, Alon; Koren-Morag, Nira; Silver, Burton B; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2012-03-01

    The magnesium content in food consumed in the Western world is steadily decreasing. Hypomagnesemia is associated with increased incidence of diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, all-cause and coronary artery disease mortality. We investigated the impact of supplemental oral magnesium citrate versus magnesium oxide on intracellular magnesium levels ([Mg2+]i) and platelet function in healthy subjects with no apparent heart disease. In a randomized, prospective, double-blind, crossover study, 41 (20 women) healthy volunteers [mean age 53±8 (range 31-75) years] received either magnesium oxide monohydrate tablets (520 mg/day of elemental magnesium) or magnesium citrate tablets (295.8 mg/day of elemental magnesium) for one month (phase 1), followed by a four-week wash-out period, and then crossover treatment for one month (phase 2). [Mg2+]i was assessed from sublingual cells through x-ray dispersion (normal values 37.9±4.0 mEq/L), serum magnesium levels, platelet aggregation, and quality-of-life questionnaires were assessed before and after each phase. Oral magnesium oxide, rather than magnesium citrate, significantly increased [Mg2+]i (34.4±3 versus 36.3±2 mEq/L, pmagnesium oxide treatment significantly improved [Mg2+]i, total and LDL cholesterol compared with magnesium citrate, while both treatments similarly inhibited platelet aggregation in healthy subjects with no apparent heart disease.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of the H(2) blocker roxatidine acetate hydrochloride in pediatric patients, in comparison with healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidefumi; Kawashima, Hisashi; Azuma, Rieko; Sato, Ikuya; Nagao, Koji; Miyazawa, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride capsules (ALTAT(®) CAPSULES) in children. In a single-dose pharmacokinetic (PK) study in pediatric patients aged between 6 and 14 years with acid-related diseases, 37.5 mg or 75 mg roxatidine capsules were given orally, and blood samples were collected to determine the plasma roxatidine concentrations. Meanwhile, a single-dose PK study in healthy adult volunteers was newly conducted; subjects were given 37.5 mg, 75 mg or 150 mg roxatidine capsules. Differences were present between the PK parameters in pediatric patients and those in healthy adult volunteers. However, the CL/F and Vd/F adjusted by body surface area (BSA) or body weight (BW) were comparable. A close correlation of the C(max) and AUC(0-∞) to the dose per unit BSA (mg/m(2)) or BW (mg/kg) was also shown. In the multiple-dose study in pediatric patients, no roxatidine accumulation in plasma was observed, as was the case with a previous study in adults. These data show that the PK profile of roxatidine in pediatric patients is similar to the profile in healthy adult volunteers when adjusted by BSA or BW.

  6. Intake of Nutrients, Fiber, and Sugar in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Comparison to Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Hamid; Askari, Gholamreza; Siassi, Fereydoun; Feizi, Awat; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the world. Although some studies have been conducted about dietary intakes of these patients, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to survey all macronutrients and micronutrients included in dietary intake of these patients for better understanding the factors influencing this disease. Methods: The present study is a case-control conducted in Isfahan city, Iran. The cases were recently diagnosed patients with NAFLD who identified by ultrasonography. The case (159) and control (158) individuals were matched in age and gender. Data of general characteristics and physical activity of individuals were collected through questionnaire. Dietary intake was also collected using 24 h dietary recall questionnaire. Results: Waistline and body mass index for the case group were more than the control group (P < 0.05). Physical activity level in healthy individuals was more than patients with NAFLD. Dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and sugar in patients with NAFLD was more than healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Intake of total dietary fiber, folic acid, Vitamin D, zinc, and potassium in healthy individuals was more than patients with NAFLD (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In total, it seems the type of dietary intake source is associated with NAFLD. Increasing saturated fatty acids and sugar and decreasing fiber, folic acid, Vitamin D, zinc, and potassium intake might play a role in the progression of this disease. PMID:27625763

  7. Comparison of salivary epidermal growth factor levels in patients with gingivitis and advanced periodontitis and healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash Moosavijazi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a polypeptide molecule, with important functions in epithelial growth and wound repair. It exerts its effects on cells by binding to receptors on the cell surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare salivary EGF levels in patients with gingivitis and advanced periodontitis as well as in healthy controls.Unstimulated salivary samples were collected from patients with gingivitis and advanced periodontitis and healthy individuals. The clinical parameters of plaque index (PI, bleeding on probing (BOP, probing pocket depth (PPD and clinical attachment level (CAL were measured and recorded using a Williams probe. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determine salivary levels of EGF. One-way ANOVA was used for data analysis.The mean salivary level of EGF in healthy individuals (99.27 was significantly higher than that in patients with gingivitis (61.53. This value in patients with gingivitis (61.53 was also significantly higher than that in subjects with periodontitis (36.14 (P<0.001.The reduction in salivary level of EGF in patients with periodontal disease may be related to the pathogenesis of periodontitis.

  8. Latent association between low urine pH and low body weight in an apparently healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kei; Oda, Eiji; Kanda, Eiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Low urine pH, a plausible predictor for chronic kidney disease and metabolic disorders, is often observed in obese individuals. However, the association between low urine pH and low body weight is equivocal. We examined clinical parameters including urine pH and body mass index (BMI) in a cross-sectional study of 3629 apparently healthy Japanese adults aged 25-80 years who underwent a health-screening check-up. Urine pH was lower and the prevalence of proteinuria was significantly higher in subjects with BMI of ≥ 27.0 kg/m(2) compared with those with BMI of 21.0-22.9 kg/m(2). By contrast, hematuria was more prevalent in subjects with BMI of ≤ 20.9 kg/m(2). Logistic regression analysis showed that BMI of ≥ 27.0 kg/m(2) was significantly associated with low urine pH (≤ 5.5), which remained significant after adjustment for relevant confounders including age, sex, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, urine density, hematuria, smoking status, and daily alcohol drinking. However, the association disappeared after further adjustment for serum uric acid. In contrast, the association between low urine pH and BMI of ≤ 19.0 kg/m(2) was significant after adjustment for age and sex and rather strengthened by the further adjustment for serum uric acid. In conclusion, low urine pH may be independently associated with low BMI. However, the underlying mechanisms of low urine pH in low body weight may differ from those in high body weight.

  9. Influence of geomagnetic activity and earth weather changes on heart rate and blood pressure in young and healthy population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozheredov, V. A.; Chibisov, S. M.; Blagonravov, M. L.; Khodorovich, N. A.; Demurov, E. A.; Goryachev, V. A.; Kharlitskaya, E. V.; Eremina, I. S.; Meladze, Z. A.

    2017-05-01

    There are many references in the literature related to connection between the space weather and the state of human organism. The search of external factors influence on humans is a multi-factor problem and it is well known that humans have a meteo-sensitivity. A direct problem of finding the earth weather conditions, under which the space weather manifests itself most strongly, is discussed in the present work for the first time in the helio-biology. From a formal point of view, this problem requires identification of subset (magnetobiotropic region) in three-dimensional earth's weather parameters such as pressure, temperature, and humidity, corresponding to the days when the human body is the most sensitive to changes in the geomagnetic field variations and when it reacts by statistically significant increase (or decrease) of a particular physiological parameter. This formulation defines the optimization of the problem, and the solution of the latter is not possible without the involvement of powerful metaheuristic methods of searching. Using the algorithm of differential evolution, we prove the existence of magnetobiotropic regions in the earth's weather parameters, which exhibit magneto-sensitivity of systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate of healthy young subjects for three weather areas (combinations of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity). The maximum value of the correlation confidence for the measurements attributable to the days of the weather conditions that fall into each of three magnetobiotropic areas is an order of 0.006, that is almost 10 times less than the confidence, equal to 0.05, accepted in many helio-biological researches.

  10. High throughput measurement of γH2AX DSB repair kinetics in a healthy human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preety M; Ponnaiya, Brian; Taveras, Maria; Shuryak, Igor; Turner, Helen; Brenner, David J

    2015-01-01

    The Columbia University RABiT (Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool) quantifies DNA damage using fingerstick volumes of blood. One RABiT protocol quantifies the total γ-H2AX fluorescence per nucleus, a measure of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) by an immunofluorescent assay at a single time point. Using the recently extended RABiT system, that assays the γ-H2AX repair kinetics at multiple time points, the present small scale study followed its kinetics post irradiation at 0.5 h, 2 h, 4 h, 7 h and 24 h in lymphocytes from 94 healthy adults. The lymphocytes were irradiated ex vivo with 4 Gy γ rays using an external Cs-137 source. The effect of age, gender, race, ethnicity, alcohol use on the endogenous and post irradiation total γ-H2AX protein yields at various time points were statistically analyzed. The endogenous γ-H2AX levels were influenced by age, race and alcohol use within Hispanics. In response to radiation, induction of γ-H2AX yields at 0.5 h and peak formation at 2 h were independent of age, gender, ethnicity except for race and alcohol use that delayed the peak to 4 h time point. Despite the shift in the peak observed, the γ-H2AX yields reached close to baseline at 24 h for all groups. Age and race affected the rate of progression of the DSB repair soon after the yields reached maximum. Finally we show a positive correlation between endogenous γ-H2AX levels with radiation induced γ-H2AX yields (RIY) (r=0.257, P=0.02) and a negative correlation with residuals (r=-0.521, P=DSB γ-H2AX repair kinetics as measured by RABiT immunofluorescent assay.

  11. Influence of geomagnetic activity and earth weather changes on heart rate and blood pressure in young and healthy population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozheredov, V. A.; Chibisov, S. M.; Blagonravov, M. L.; Khodorovich, N. A.; Demurov, E. A.; Goryachev, V. A.; Kharlitskaya, E. V.; Eremina, I. S.; Meladze, Z. A.

    2016-11-01

    There are many references in the literature related to connection between the space weather and the state of human organism. The search of external factors influence on humans is a multi-factor problem and it is well known that humans have a meteo-sensitivity. A direct problem of finding the earth weather conditions, under which the space weather manifests itself most strongly, is discussed in the present work for the first time in the helio-biology. From a formal point of view, this problem requires identification of subset (magnetobiotropic region) in three-dimensional earth's weather parameters such as pressure, temperature, and humidity, corresponding to the days when the human body is the most sensitive to changes in the geomagnetic field variations and when it reacts by statistically significant increase (or decrease) of a particular physiological parameter. This formulation defines the optimization of the problem, and the solution of the latter is not possible without the involvement of powerful metaheuristic methods of searching. Using the algorithm of differential evolution, we prove the existence of magnetobiotropic regions in the earth's weather parameters, which exhibit magneto-sensitivity of systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate of healthy young subjects for three weather areas (combinations of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and humidity). The maximum value of the correlation confidence for the measurements attributable to the days of the weather conditions that fall into each of three magnetobiotropic areas is an order of 0.006, that is almost 10 times less than the confidence, equal to 0.05, accepted in many helio-biological researches.

  12. Force plate targeting has no effect on spatiotemporal gait measures and their variability in young and healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniba, Dmitry; Vergara, Martin E; Gage, William H

    2015-02-01

    Force plate targeting has been referenced as a confounding factor in gait research, but the literature is sparse. Asking participants to target force plates is a convenient strategy to increase the number of acceptable trials, but may inadvertently alter the motor control of gait and limit external validity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of visual targeting on spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic measures of gait and their variability. Young healthy participants were asked to traverse a walkway with three embedded hidden force plates. Starting from a participant-specific initial position and leading with the same foot each time, participants performed series of natural walking trials (no targeting and unaware of the hidden force plates), followed by targeting walking trials. For the targeting trials, participants were asked to step completely within the bounds of a tape outline (∼50cm×45cm), which coincided with the position of the last hidden force plate. The results demonstrated evidence of targeting during targeting trials; compared to natural walking trials, mean heel-target distance variability for targeting trials decreased progressively for the steps approaching the targeting step, reaching significance (ptarget (41%), and post-target steps (39%). Despite visual targeting, no significant differences between targeting and natural trials were detected in spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic gait measures, or the variability of the measures. When the experimental set-up was tailored to the individual participant's gait variables (step/stride length), visual targeting of the force plates appeared to have no effect on the magnitude or variability of any gait measures.

  13. Association of Animal and Plant Proteins Intake with Hypertension in Iranian Adult Population: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

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    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is evidence regarding the relationship between dietary proteins intake and blood pressure (BP, but they had inconsistent results. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the association between different kinds of protein intake (animal and plant protein and BP. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. We performed a cross-sectional study among 9660 randomly selected Iranian adults aged ≥19-year-old that they were selected from three large Iranian regions in 2007. A simplified validated 48-item-food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake including all kinds of protein. Systolic and diastolic BPs were measured in duplicate by trained personnel using a standard protocol. Multivariable regressions were applied to assess the relationship between protein intake and BP levels and the presence of hypertension (HTN. Results: More frequent consumption of animal, plant, and total protein intake were inversely associated with BP in a crude model (P < 0.001; however, after adjustment for potential confounders this relationship remained only for plant protein (P = 0.04. The risk of HTN occurrence decreased in the highest quintile of total and plant protein consumption by 19% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; confidence interval [CI]: [0.65–0.96]; P for trend = 0.004 and 18% (OR = 0.82; [CI: (0.67–0.94]; P for trend = 0.03, respectively. Conclusions: More frequent protein intake, especially plant protein consumption was inversely associated with BP and risk of HTN among Iranian adults.

  14. Spatial and temporal dynamics of fucoid populations (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus: a comparison between central and range edge populations.

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    Rita M Araújo

    Full Text Available Persistence of populations at range edges relies on local population dynamics and fitness, in the case of geographically isolated populations of species with low dispersal potential. Focusing on spatial variations in demography helps to predict the long-term capability for persistence of populations across the geographical range of species' distribution. The demography of two ecological and phylogenetically close macroalgal species with different life history characteristics was investigated by using stochastic, stage-based matrix models. Populations of Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus were sampled for up to 4 years at central locations in France and at their southern range limits in Portugal. The stochastic population growth rate (λ(s of A. nodosum was lower and more variable in central than in southern sites whilst for F. serratus this trend was reversed with λ(s much lower and more variable in southern than in central populations. Individuals were larger in central than in southern populations for both species, which was reflected in the lower transition probabilities of individuals to larger size classes and higher probability of shrinkage in the southern populations. In both central and southern populations elasticity analysis (proportional sensitivity of population growth rate showed that fertility elements had a small contribution to λ(s that was more sensitive to changes in matrix transitions corresponding to survival. The highest elasticities were found for loop transitions in A. nodosum and for growth to larger size classes in F. serratus. Sensitivity analysis showed high selective pressure on individual growth for both species at both locations. The results of this study highlight the deterministic role of species-specific life-history traits in population demography across the geographical range of species. Additionally, this study demonstrates that individuals' life-transitions differ in vulnerability to environmental

  15. Assessing glomerular filtration rate in healthy adult potential kidney donors in Bangladesh: a comparison of various prediction equations with measured glomerular filtration rate by diethylentriamine pentaacetic acid renogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, F; Chowdhury, M N U; Mahbub, T; Arafat, S M; Jahan, S; Hossain, M; Khan, M F

    2013-08-01

    To ensure that potential kidney donors in Bangladesh have no renal impairment, it is extremely important to have accurate methods for evaluating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We evaluated the performance of serum creatinine based GFR in healthy adult potential kidney donors in Bangladesh to compare GFR determined by DTPA with that determined by various prediction equations. In this study GFR in 61 healthy adult potential kidney donors were measured with 99mTc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) renogram. We also estimated GFR using a four variable equation modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance (CGCrCl), Cockcroft-Gault glomerular filtration rate (CG-GFR). The mean age of study population was 34.31 +/- 9.46 years and out of them 65.6% was male. In this study mean mGFR was 85.4 +/- 14.8. Correlation of estimated GFR calculated by CG-CrCl, CG-GFR and MDRD were done with measured GFR DTPA using quartile. Kappa values were also estimated which was found to be 0.104 for (p = 0.151), 0.336 for (p = 0.001) and 0.125 for (p = 0.091) respectively. This indicates there is no association between estimated GFR calculated by CG-CrCl, CG-GFR, MDRD with measured GFR DTPA. These results show poor performance of these equations in evaluation of renal function among healthy population and also raise question regarding validity of these equations for assessment of renal function in chronic kidney disease in our population.

  16. Quantitative electroencephalography in Alzheimer's disease: comparison with a control group, population norms and mental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, V; Mohr, E; Mahoney, C; Ilivitsky, V

    2001-03-01

    Given that quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) has repeatedly shown excessive slow wave activity in dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) that increases with disease progression, we assessed the clinical utility of this tool by comparing various approaches used to assess slowing. Cross-sectional study comparing quantitative EEG data from patients with DAT with normative data from an elderly control group and from EEG norms derived from a large population. 35 subjects diagnosed with probable DAT and 30 elderly controls. EEG recorded from 21 scalp sites of each patient and elderly control during vigilance-controlled, eyes-closed, resting conditions was spectrally analyzed to yield measures of absolute and relative power in delta, theta, alpha and beta bands and indices of mean alpha band and total band frequency. Group comparisons of raw or age-regressed z-score population normative values yielded different profiles with respect to direction of frequency band changes, regional topography and clinical rating correlations, but both procedures evidenced overall patterns of EEG slowing in DAT. However, both methodologies yielded only modest (75%) classification rates. Quantitative EEG remains a valuable research tool but, as yet, an unproven diagnostic tool, for DAT.

  17. Birth Weight, Physical Morbidity, and Mortality: A Population-based Sibling-Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Rickert, Martin E.; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between low birth weight (≤2,500 g) and increased risk of mortality and morbidity provided the foundation for the “developmental origins of health and disease” hypothesis. Previous between-family studies could not control for unmeasured confounders. Therefore, we compared differentially exposed siblings to estimate the extent to which the associations were due to uncontrolled factors. Our population cohort included 3,291,773 persons born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008. Analyses controlled for gestational age, among other covariates, and considered birth weight as both an ordinal and a continuous variable. Outcomes included mortality after 1 year, cardiac-related death, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, pulmonary circulation problems, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We fitted fixed-effects models to compare siblings and conducted sensitivity analyses to test alternative explanations. Across the population, the lower the birth weight, the greater the risk of mortality (e.g., cardiac-related death (low birth weight hazard ratio = 2.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.05, 3.53)) and morbidity (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus (low birth weight hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 2.14)) outcomes in comparison with normal birth weight. All associations were independent of shared familial confounders and measured covariates. Results emphasize the importance of birth weight as a risk factor for subsequent mortality and morbidity. PMID:24355331

  18. Using mass-media communications to increase population usage of Australia’s Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Hara Blythe J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global obesity prevalence is increasing and population health programs are required to support changes to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Such interventions benefit from mass-communications to promote their use. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service ® (GHS utilised mass-reach media advertising to recruit participants to an Australian state-wide program. Methods A stand alone population survey collected awareness, knowledge and behavioural variables before the first advertising phase, (n = 1,544; August -September 2010, during (n = 1,500; February - March 2011 and after the advertising period (n = 1,500; June-July 2011. GHS usage data (n = 6,375 was collated during July 2010 – June 2011. Results The results showed that television-lead mass-media significantly increased unprompted awareness (0% to 31.8%, p  Conclusions GHS mass-communications campaigns are effective at increasing awareness and usage of the GHS, especially among hard-to-reach population groups. Television advertising provides universal reach, but should be supplemented by health professional referrals and targeted mail-out information to recruit participants to the intensive GHS coaching program.

  19. The retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in glaucomatous hydrophthalmic eyes assessed by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation in comparison with age-matched healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložánek, Martin; Ošmera, Jakub; Ležatková, Pavlína; Sedláčková, Petra; Filouš, Aleš

    2012-12-01

    To compare the thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in hydrophthalmic glaucomatous eyes in children with age-matched healthy controls using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC). Twenty hydrophthalmic eyes of 20 patients with the mean age of 10.64 ± 3.02 years being treated for congenital or infantile glaucoma were included in the analysis. Evaluation of RNFL thickness measured by GDxVCC in standard Temporal-Superior-Nasal-Inferior-Temporal (TSNIT) parameters was performed. The results were compared to TSNIT values of an age-matched control group of 120 healthy children published recently as referential values. The correlation between horizontal corneal diameter and RNFL thickness in hydrophthalmic eyes was also investigated. The mean ± SD values in TSNIT Average, Superior Average, Inferior Average and TSNIT SD in hydrophthalmic eyes were 52.3 ± 11.4, 59.7 ± 17.1, 62.0 ± 15.6 and 20.0 ± 7.8 μm, respectively. All these values were significantly lower compared to referential TSNIT parameters of age-matched healthy eyes (p = 0.021, p = 0.001, p = 0.003 and p = 0.018, respectively). A substantial number of hydrophthalmic eyes laid below the level of 5% probability of normality in respective TSNIT parameters: 30% of the eyes in TSNIT average, 50% of the eyes in superior average, 30% of the eyes in inferior average and 45% of the eyes in TSNIT SD. No significant correlation between enlarged corneal diameter and RNFL thickness was found. The mean values of all standard TSNIT parameters assessed using GDxVCC in hydrophthalmic glaucomatous eyes in children were significantly lower in comparison with referential values of healthy age-matched children. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  20. Fasting insulin at baseline influences the number of cardiometabolic risk factors and R-R interval at 3years in a healthy population: the RISC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Z; Golay, A; Laville, M; Disse, E; Mitrakou, A; Guidone, C; Gabriel, R; Bobbioni-Harsch, E

    2013-09-01

    This was a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of factors contributing to the number of cardiometabolic risk factors, common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) and R-R interval in clinically healthy subjects without diabetes. Anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters were measured in the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease (RISC) Study cohort at baseline (n=1211) and 3years later (n=974). At baseline, insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycaemic clamp technique. The CCA-IMT was echographically measured and the R-R interval was electrocardiographically evaluated at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up. Higher baseline BMI, fasting insulin and tobacco use as well as greater changes in BMI and fasting insulin but lower adiponectin levels, were associated with a greater number of cardiometabolic risk factors at the 3-year follow-up independently of insulin sensitivity (all Pfasting insulin, whereas higher fasting insulinaemia and its 3-year changes were significantly associated with a smaller R-R interval (P=0.005 and P=0.002, respectively). These relationships were independent of baseline age, gender, BMI, adiponectin, insulin sensitivity, tobacco use and physical activity. In clinically healthy subjects, fasting insulinaemia, adiponectin and lifestyle parameters are related to the presence of one or two cardiometabolic risk factors before criteria for the metabolic syndrome are met. These results underline the importance of fasting insulinaemia as an independent cardiometabolic risk factor at an early stage of disease development in a healthy general population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of three different exercise training modalities on cognitive and physical function in a healthy older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetsee, Carla; Terblanche, Elmarie

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are encouraged to participate in regular physical activity to counter the age-related declines in physical and cognitive health. Literature on the effect of different exercise training modalities (aerobic vs resistance) on these health-related outcomes is not only sparse, but results are inconsistent. In general, it is believed that exercise has a positive effect on executive cognitive function, possibly because of the physiological adaptations through increases in fitness. Indications are that high-intensity interval training is a potent stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness, even in older adults; however, its effect on cognitive function has not been studied before. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of resistance training, high-intensity aerobic interval training and moderate continuous aerobic training on the cognitive and physical functioning of healthy older adults. Sixty-seven inactive individuals (55 to 75 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance training (RT) group (n = 22), high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) group (n = 13), moderate continuous aerobic training (MCT) group (n = 13) and a control (CON) group (n = 19) for a period of 16 weeks. Cognitive function was assessed with a Stroop task and physical function with the Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) and submaximal Bruce treadmill tests. No significant GROUP x TIME interaction was found for Stroop reaction time (P > .05). The HIIT group showed the greatest practical significant improvement in reaction time on the information processing task, i.e. Stroop Neutral (ES = 1.11). MCT group participants had very large practical significant improvements in reaction time on the executive cognitive tasks, i.e. Stroop Incongruent and Interference (ES = 1.28 and 1.31, respectively). The HIIT group showed the largest practically significant increase in measures of physical function, i.e. walking endurance (ES = 0.91) and functional mobility

  2. Hand-to-Hand Model for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimate Fat Free Mass in a Healthy Population

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    Hsueh-Kuan Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish a hand-to-hand (HH model for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA fat free mass (FFM estimation by comparing with a standing position hand-to-foot (HF BIA model and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; we also verified the reliability of the newly developed model. A total of 704 healthy Chinese individuals (403 men and 301 women participated. FFM (FFMDXA reference variables were measured using DXA and segmental BIA. Further, regression analysis, Bland–Altman plots, and cross-validation (2/3 participants as the modeling group, 1/3 as the validation group; three turns were repeated for validation grouping were conducted to compare tests of agreement with FFMDXA reference variables. In male participants, the hand-to-hand BIA model estimation equation was calculated as follows: FFMmHH = 0.537 h2/ZHH − 0.126 year + 0.217 weight + 18.235 (r2 = 0.919, standard estimate of error (SEE = 2.164 kg, n = 269. The mean validated correlation coefficients and limits of agreement (LOAs of the Bland–Altman analysis of the calculated values for FFMmHH and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.369–4.343 kg, respectively, for hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for men; the FFM (FFMmHF and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.356–4.375 kg, respectively. The hand-to-hand BIA model estimating equation for female participants was FFMFHH = 0.615 h2/ZHH − 0.144 year + 0.132 weight + 16.507 (r2 = 0.870, SEE = 1.884 kg, n = 201; the three mean validated correlation coefficient and LOA for the hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for female participants (FFMFHH and FFMDXA were 0.929 and −3.880–3.886 kg, respectively. The FFMHF and FFMDXA were 0.942 and −3.511–3.489 kg, respectively. The results of both hand-to-hand and hand-to-foot BIA models demonstrated similar reliability, and the hand-to-hand BIA models are practical for assessing FFM.

  3. High throughput measurement of γH2AX DSB repair kinetics in a healthy human population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preety M Sharma

    Full Text Available The Columbia University RABiT (Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool quantifies DNA damage using fingerstick volumes of blood. One RABiT protocol quantifies the total γ-H2AX fluorescence per nucleus, a measure of DNA double strand breaks (DSB by an immunofluorescent assay at a single time point. Using the recently extended RABiT system, that assays the γ-H2AX repair kinetics at multiple time points, the present small scale study followed its kinetics post irradiation at 0.5 h, 2 h, 4 h, 7 h and 24 h in lymphocytes from 94 healthy adults. The lymphocytes were irradiated ex vivo with 4 Gy γ rays using an external Cs-137 source. The effect of age, gender, race, ethnicity, alcohol use on the endogenous and post irradiation total γ-H2AX protein yields at various time points were statistically analyzed. The endogenous γ-H2AX levels were influenced by age, race and alcohol use within Hispanics. In response to radiation, induction of γ-H2AX yields at 0.5 h and peak formation at 2 h were independent of age, gender, ethnicity except for race and alcohol use that delayed the peak to 4 h time point. Despite the shift in the peak observed, the γ-H2AX yields reached close to baseline at 24 h for all groups. Age and race affected the rate of progression of the DSB repair soon after the yields reached maximum. Finally we show a positive correlation between endogenous γ-H2AX levels with radiation induced γ-H2AX yields (RIY (r=0.257, P=0.02 and a negative correlation with residuals (r=-0.521, P=<0.0001. A positive correlation was also observed between RIY and DNA repair rate (r=0.634, P<0.0001. Our findings suggest age, race, ethnicity and alcohol use influence DSB γ-H2AX repair kinetics as measured by RABiT immunofluorescent assay.

  4. Comparison of Standing Posture Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis with DXA for Body Composition in a Large, Healthy Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Wang, Chia-Wei; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lai, Chung-Liang; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Dwyer, Gregory B.; Chao, Shu-Ping; Shih, Ming-Kuei; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a common method for assessing body composition in research and clinical trials. BIA is convenient but when compared with other reference methods, the results have been inconclusive. The level of obesity degree in subjects is considered to be an important factor affecting the accuracy of the measurements. A total of 711 participants were recruited in Taiwan and were sub-grouped by gender and levels of adiposity. Regression analysis and Bland-Altman analysis were used to evaluate the agreement of the measured body fat percentage (BF%) between BIA and DXA. The BF% measured by the DXA and BIA methods (Tanita BC-418) were expressed as BF%DXA and BF%BIA8, respectively. A one-way ANOVA was used to test the differences in BF% measurements by gender and levels of adiposity. The estimated BF%BIA8 and BF%DXA in the all subjects, male and female groups were all highly correlated (r = 0.934, 0.901, 0.916, all P< 0.001). The average estimated BF%BIA8 (22.54 ± 9.48%) was significantly lower than the average BF%DXA (26.26 ± 11.18%). The BF%BIA8 was overestimated in the male subgroup (BF%DXA< 15%), compared to BF%DXA by 0.45%, respectively. In the other subgroups, the BF%BIA8 values were all underestimated. Standing BIA estimating body fat percentage in Chinese participants have a high correlation, but underestimated on normal and high obesity degree in both male and female subjects. PMID:27467065

  5. Choroidal vascularity index as a measure of vascular status of the choroid: Measurements in healthy eyes from a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Gupta, Preeti; Tan, Kara-Anne; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-02-01

    The vascularity of the choroid has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various eye diseases. To date, no established quantifiable parameters to estimate vascular status of the choroid exists. Choroidal vascularity index (CVI) may potentially be used to assess vascular status of the choroid. We aimed to establish normative database for CVI and identify factors associated with CVI in healthy eyes. In this population-based study on 345 healthy eyes, choroidal enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography scans were segmented by modified image binarization technique. Total subfoveal choroidal area (TCA) was segmented into luminal (LA) and stromal (SA) area. CVI was calculated as the proportion of LA to TCA. Linear regression was used to identify ocular and systemic factors associated with CVI and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT). Subfoveal CVI ranged from 60.07 to 71.27% with a mean value of 65.61 ± 2.33%. CVI was less variable than SFCT (coefficient of variation for CVI was 3.55 vs 40.30 for SFCT). Higher CVI was associated with thicker SFCT, but not associated with most physiological variables. CVI was elucidated as a significant determinant of SFCT. While SFCT was affected by many factors, CVI remained unaffected suggesting CVI to be a more robust marker of choroidal diseases.

  6. Emotion recognition in early Parkinson's disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation or dopaminergic therapy: a comparison to healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Lindsey G; Mannava, Sishir; Camalier, Corrie R; Folley, Bradley S; Albritton, Aaron; Konrad, Peter E; Charles, David; Park, Sohee; Neimat, Joseph S

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally regarded as a neurodegenerative movement disorder, however, nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration is also thought to disrupt non-motor loops connecting basal ganglia to areas in frontal cortex involved in cognition and emotion processing. PD patients are impaired on tests of emotion recognition, but it is difficult to disentangle this deficit from the more general cognitive dysfunction that frequently accompanies disease progression. Testing for emotion recognition deficits early in the disease course, prior to cognitive decline, better assesses the sensitivity of these non-motor corticobasal ganglia-thalamocortical loops involved in emotion processing to early degenerative change in basal ganglia circuits. In addition, contrasting this with a group of healthy aging individuals demonstrates changes in emotion processing specific to the degeneration of basal ganglia circuitry in PD. Early PD patients (EPD) were recruited from a randomized clinical trial testing the safety and tolerability of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in early-staged PD. EPD patients were previously randomized to receive optimal drug therapy only (ODT), or drug therapy plus STN-DBS (ODT + DBS). Matched healthy elderly controls (HEC) and young controls (HYC) also participated in this study. Participants completed two control tasks and three emotion recognition tests that varied in stimulus domain. EPD patients were impaired on all emotion recognition tasks compared to HEC. Neither therapy type (ODT or ODT + DBS) nor therapy state (ON/OFF) altered emotion recognition performance in this study. Finally, HEC were impaired on vocal emotion recognition relative to HYC, suggesting a decline related to healthy aging. This study supports the existence of impaired emotion recognition early in the PD course, implicating an early disruption of fronto-striatal loops mediating emotional function.

  7. Effect of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Body Composition Parameters and Exercise Capacity by Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Controls

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    Mann Randeep

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nutritional abnormalities are frequent systemic manifestation associated with COPD. The purpose of the present study was to compare the body composition parameters and exercise capacity between stable COPD patients and healthy controls, and to find the strength of association between exercise capacity, FMI and FFMI. Methods: 100 subjects were recruited, and divided into two groups. Group I included stable COPD patients, and Group II consisted of age matched healthy controls respectively. The spirometric parameters recorded were FEV1 (Litres, FVC (Litres, FEV1/FVC ratio (% predicted, FEF 25%75% (Litres/sec. Anthrometric measurements included Body Weight, Height and BMI measurements. Body composition was assessed by four-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BODY STAT, QUAD SCAN, USA. The following parameters were calculated: FFM, FFMI, FM and FMI. The exercise capacity was assessed by the six-minute walking distance test (6MWD. All the recordings were compared between groups and correlation was also computed between 6MWD, FMI and FFMI within groups. Results were analyzed using SPSS, version 16 and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: We found that COPD patients showed lower FFM, FFMI and exercise capacity as compared to healthy controls. And, great strength of association was found between FFMI and exercise capacity. Conclusions: Thus, our study indicates that with COPD there is preferential loss of lean body mass evident from lower FFMI leading to decreased walking distance in these patients. Hence, it is prudent to include nutritional and exercise capacity assessment in patients of COPD, to better manage these patients and improve their quality of life. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 53-57

  8. Comparison of biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia in relation to healthy individuals

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    Fabiane L.F.Z. Sanches

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare the biochemical and immunological profiles of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML with healthy children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which 21 therapy-naïve patients with AML were compared with a group of 24 healthy individuals. The following data were analyzed: serum proteins, leucocytes and subgroups, erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelets, cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures under spontaneous and BCG- or PHA-stimulated conditions, immunoglobulin A, and erythrocytic glutathione. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, considering as significant p-values < 0.05. RESULTS: Serum albumin levels were higher (p < 0.0001 in the control group, as well as all the parameters related to red blood cells (p < 0.0001. For leucocytes and subgroups, no statistical difference was found between the AML and the control groups. For cytokines, the concentrations were significantly higher under spontaneous and BCG-stimulated conditions for TNF-a, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-? in the control group. Under PHA-stimulated conditions, the concentration was higher (p = 0.002 only for IL-6. No difference was found between the two groups for the other cytokines and for IgA in the saliva. Erythrocytic glutathione was higher (p < 0.0001 in AML patients. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to characterize the biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with AML, as well as highlight some significant differences in these parameters when comparing with healthy children and adolescents.

  9. Comparison of the lipid properties of captive, healthy wild, and pansteatitis-affected wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, Gernot; Hugo, Arno; Bouwman, Henk; Buss, Peter; Govender, Danny; Joubert, Chris C; Swarts, Jannie C

    2010-01-01

    The results presented describe and compare the fatty acid composition and melting properties of captive, healthy wild, and pansteatitis-affected wild crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). Differences in fatty acid composition between intramuscular and adipose fat is noted in captive crocodiles, and the latter differs from wild crocodiles as a result of different diets. Adipose fat of healthy wild crocodiles differs minimally from diseased ones, respectively with 37.3+/-2.6% vs. 43.2+/-2.3% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 43.2+/-2.9% in dead crocodiles, while polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease from 27.3+/-1.9% to as low as 21.9+/-3.6% respectively. Of the unsaturated fatty acids 18:2n-6 decreased from 6.5+/-2.6% in unaffected crocodiles to 3.5+/-0.6% in highly affected and 3.2+/-0.4% in dead crocodiles, and 22:5n-3 from 2.8+/-0.6% to 1.8+/-0.3% and 2.2+/-0.3% respectively. The melting properties as determined by differential scanning calorimetry show that extracted adipose fat is a small degree softer in pansteatitis-affected tissue, specifically in the temperature range 7-36 degrees C, and does not contribute to the hard texture noted for adipose fat tissue of pansteatitis-affected animals. A high moisture content of 51.0+/-19.7% of the fat tissue of pansteatitis-affected animals vs.17.1+/-8.0% of healthy ones, suggests that physiological changes due to interstitial inflammation may contribute to the hard texture.

  10. Comparison of salivary and calculated free cortisol levels during low and standard dose of ACTH stimulation tests in healthy volunteers.

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    Elbuken, Gulsah; Tanriverdi, Fatih; Karaca, Zuleyha; Kula, Mustafa; Gokahmetoglu, Selma; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2015-03-01

    Salivary cortisol (SC) has been increasingly used as a surrogate biomarker of free cortisol (FC) for the assessment of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but there are not enough data regarding its use during ACTH stimulation tests. Therefore, we aimed to determine the responses of SC, calculated free cortisol (cFC) and free cortisol index (FCI) to ACTH stimulation tests in healthy adults. Forty-four healthy volunteers (24 men and 20 women) were included in the study. Low-dose (1 µg) and standard-dose (250 µg) ACTH stimulation tests were performed on two consecutive days. Basal and stimulated total cortisol (TC) and cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) levels and SC levels were measured during both doses of ACTH stimulation tests. cFC (by Coolens' equation) and FCI levels were calculated from simultaneously measured TC and CBG levels. The minimum SC, cFC, FCI levels after low-dose ACTH stimulation test were 0.21, 0.33, 16.06 µg/dL, and after standard-dose ACTH were 0.85, 0.46, 26.11 µg/dL, respectively, in healthy individuals who all had TC responses higher than 20 µg/dL. Peak CBG levels after both doses of ACTH stimulation tests were found to be higher in women than in men. So, by its effect, peak cFC and FCI levels were found to be lower in female than in male group. Neither TC nor SC levels were affected by gender. cFC and FCI levels depend on CBG levels and they are affected by gender. Cut-off levels for SC, cFC, FCI levels after both low- and standard-dose ACTH stimulation are presented. Studies including patients with adrenal insufficiency would be helpful to see the diagnostic value of these suggested cut-off levels.

  11. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD.

  12. Emotion recognition in early Parkinson's disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation or dopaminergic therapy: a comparison to healthy participants

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    Lindsey G. McIntosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is traditionally regarded as a neurodegenerative movement disorder, however, nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration is also thought to disrupt non-motor loops connecting basal ganglia to areas in frontal cortex involved in cognition and emotion processing. PD patients are impaired on tests of emotion recognition, but it is difficult to disentangle this deficit from the more general cognitive dysfunction that frequently accompanies disease progression. Testing for emotion recognition deficits early in the disease course, prior to cognitive decline, better assesses the sensitivity of these non-motor corticobasal ganglia-thalamocortical loops involved in emotion processing to early degenerative change in basal ganglia circuits. In addition, contrasting this with a group of healthy aging individuals demonstrates changes in emotion processing specific to the degeneration of basal ganglia circuitry in PD. Early PD patients (EPD were recruited from a randomized clinical trial testing the safety and tolerability of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS in early-staged PD. EPD patients were previously randomized to receive optimal drug therapy only (ODT, or drug therapy plus STN-DBS (ODT+DBS. Matched healthy elderly controls (HEC and young controls (HYC also participated in this study. Participants completed two control tasks and three emotion recognition tests that varied in stimulus domain. EPD patients were impaired on all emotion recognition tasks compared to HEC. Neither therapy type (ODT or ODT+DBS nor therapy state (ON/OFF altered emotion recognition performance in this study. Finally, HEC were impaired on vocal emotion recognition relative to HYC, suggesting a decline related to healthy aging. This study supports the existence of impaired emotion recognition early in the PD course, implicating an early disruption of fronto-striatal loops mediating emotional function.

  13. LIFE EXPECTANCY AND THE HEALTHY LIFE OF A POPULATION – A CONSONANT VECTOR OF ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE, PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM AND MORAL VALUES

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    Mihai Luchian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the therapeutical act depends on the personal training and optimum interdisciplinary cooperation of the medical staff involved, representing dynamic elements directly supported by adequate logistic means –medical technique and implements, drugs, procedures, etc. Considered from a dialectic perspective, all such factors of force are made up and are mainly and conjunctly manifested at the level of an elevated (ethic-moral and juridical deontological and normative level. The cooperative vectors of interest may be protected and increased by means of some key factors characteristic to the system of public health assurance, implicitly of the functional medical structures, for attaining the major goal of consolidating general health condition, alongwith the strategic factors for promoting a healthy, really economically and socially performant life of the population to come.

  14. A placebo controlled comparison of the effects of pirenzepine and amitriptyline on the tyramine pressor test in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, M R; Wynne, R D; Kendall, M J

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of an interaction between pirenzepine, an antimuscarinic drug structurally similar to the tricyclic antidepressants, and sympathomimetic agents was investigated in a group of healthy volunteers. The effect of pirenzepine on response to intravenous tyramine was compared with that of placebo and amitriptyline. The mean dose of tyramine required to elevate systolic blood pressure by 30 mm Hg was 5.0 mg (+/- s.d. 0.8) after placebo, 5.1 mg (+/- 1.0) after pirenzepine and 11.3 mg (+/- 1.8) after amitriptyline. These results suggest that pirenzepine will not potentiate the effects of concurrently administered sympathomimetic drugs. PMID:3839679

  15. Comparison of a new blood sampling device with the vacuum tube system for plasma and hematological analyses in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Brice S; Boudet, Karine G; Faucher, Mathieu R; Geffre, Anne; Germain, Claude; Lefebvre, Hervé P

    2008-01-01

    Pediatric devices based on a capillary system may provide an alternative to vacuum tubes for canine blood sampling. The potential advantages are absence of vein collapse, limited blood volume sampled, and improved safety. The aim of this study was to compare routine plasma and hematological variables in seven healthy dogs using both techniques. Five biochemical analytes were measured, and a complete hematological examination and plasma exogenous creatinine clearance test were performed. No clinically relevant difference between the two techniques was observed for any variable or functional test assessed.

  16. Healthy shiftwork, healthy shiftworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    2001-12-01

    Reflecting diversifying shift systems, extensive effort is put into managing shiftwork and reducing safety and health risks. It is accepted that shiftworkers are exposed to particular risks inherent in their irregular work schedules. This raises the question of how and to what extent we can ensure healthy work life for shiftworkers. In answering the question, we need to identify effective measures to improve both shiftworking conditions and the health of shiftworkers. Based on recent experiences in managing shiftwork, we note three directions of such measures: (a) comprehensive action to avoid risk-enhancing conditions based on general guidelines, (b) risk control as to workload, worksite ergonomics and risk reduction, and (c) support for flexible and restful working life. International standards are obviously relevant to these three aspects. Our own experiences in applying a set of ergonomic checkpoints to plant maintenance shiftwork demonstrate the usefulness of focusing on flexible work schedules and on multiple job-related factors such as night workload, ergonomic environment, resting conditions and training. There is a strong need for participatory planning and implementation of multi-area improvements as well as for relying on flexible schedules and autonomic teamwork. We may conclude that healthy shiftwork and healthy shiftworkers are compatible with each other only when certain conditions are met. In achieving this end, we need to combine (a) comprehensive measures to improve work schedules and job life, (b) strict risk management and (c) locally adjusted participatory steps for continual improvement.

  17. Effectiveness of community-based comprehensive healthy lifestyle promotion on cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural Vietnamese population: a quasi-experimental study

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    Nguyen Quang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health promotion is a key component for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This study evaluated the impact of healthy lifestyle promotion campaigns on CVD risk factors (CVDRF in the general population in the context of a community-based programme on hypertension management. Methods A quasi-experimental intervention study was carried out in two rural communes of Vietnam from 2006 to 2009. In the intervention commune, a hypertensive-targeted management programme integrated with a community-targeted health promotion was initiated, while no new programme, apart from conventional healthcare services, was provided in the reference commune. Health promotion campaigns focused on smoking cessation, reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging physical activity and reducing salty diets. Repeated cross-sectional surveys in local adult population aged 25 years and over were undertaken to assess changes in blood pressure (BP and behavioural CVDRFs (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and salty diet in both communes before and after the 3-year intervention. Results Overall 4,650 adults above 25 years old were surveyed, in four randomly independent samples covering both communes at baseline and after the 3-year intervention. Although physical inactivity and obesity increased over time in the intervention commune, there was a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP (3.3 and 4.7 mmHg in women versus 3.0 and 4.6 mmHg in men respectively in the general population at the intervention commune. Health promotion reduced levels of salty diets but had insignificant impact on the prevalence of daily smoking or heavy alcohol consumption. Conclusion Community-targeted healthy lifestyle promotion can significantly improve some CVDRFs in the general population in a rural area over a relatively short time span. Limited effects on a context-bound CVDRF like smoking suggested that higher intensity of intervention

  18. Association of Plasma Heat Shock Protein 70, Interleukin 6, and Creatine Kinase Concentrations in a Healthy, Young Adult Population

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    Carmen Contreras-Sesvold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of baseline plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been reported. We report categorical associations which may influence these protein levels. Methods. Blood was harvested for DNA and plasma protein analysis from 567 adults. Mean protein levels of CK, HSP70, and IL-6 were compared by sex, ethnicity, genetic variants—CKMM Nco1 (rs1803285, HSPA1B +A1538G (rs1061581, and IL6 G-174C (rs1800795—self-reported history of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and dietary supplement use. Results. SNP major allele frequencies for CKMM, HSPA1B, and IL6 were 70% A, 57% A, and 60%. Mean CK statistically differed by sex, ethnicity, oral contraceptives, and caffeine. Plasma HSP70 differed by caffeine and protein. Mean IL-6 concentration differed by sex, ethnicity, and genotype. Plasma IL-6 was significantly lower (29% in males (1.92 ± 0.08 pg/mL and higher (29% among African Americans (2.85 ± 0.50 pg/mL relative to the others. IL6 G-174C GG genotype (2.23 ± 0.14 pg/mL was 19% greater than CG or CC genotypes. Conclusion. Differences in baseline CK and IL-6 plasma protein concentrations are associated with genetics, sex, ethnicity, and the use of oral contraceptives, caffeine, and protein supplements in this young and athletic population.

  19. Serum Proteome Changes in Healthy Subjects with Different Genotypes of NOS1AP in the Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Wang, Congrong; Li, Rongxia; Sheng, Quanhu; Hu, Cheng; Zhang, Rong; Fang, Qichen; Bao, Yuqian; Xiang, Kunsan; Zeng, Rong; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and its chronic complications have become a worldwide epidemic nowadays. However, its molecular mechanism is still unknown. We have previously identified a novel variant rs12742393 of NOS1AP for type 2 diabetes susceptibility in the Chinese population. In this study, we analyzed the total serum profiling among three genotypes of rs12742393 to discover potential crosstalk under the variant and the disease through proteomic analyses for the first time. We used OFFGEL peptide fractionation, LC-MS/MS analysis, and label-free quantification to profile the fasting human serum samples of the genotypes in rs12742393 (n = 4, for CC, AC, and AA, resp.). Four proteins were identified, including apoA4, alpha1-ACT, HABP2, and keratin 10, with blood levels changed significantly between CC and AA homozygotes of rs12742393. Compared with AA group, the levels of apoA4 increased (P = 0.000265), whereas the concentration of alpha1-ACT, HABP2, and keratin 10 decreased in CC group (P = 0.011116, 0.021175, and 0.015661, resp.). Then we selected additional fasting serum samples for ELISA and western blot validation. However, no significant differences were identified by neither ELISA nor western blot (P > 0.05). The protein profiling changes between the genotypes of rs12742393 indicated that this SNP might play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Serum Proteome Changes in Healthy Subjects with Different Genotypes of NOS1AP in the Chinese Population

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    Feng Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and its chronic complications have become a worldwide epidemic nowadays. However, its molecular mechanism is still unknown. We have previously identified a novel variant rs12742393 of NOS1AP for type 2 diabetes susceptibility in the Chinese population. In this study, we analyzed the total serum profiling among three genotypes of rs12742393 to discover potential crosstalk under the variant and the disease through proteomic analyses for the first time. We used OFFGEL peptide fractionation, LC-MS/MS analysis, and label-free quantification to profile the fasting human serum samples of the genotypes in rs12742393 (n=4, for CC, AC, and AA, resp.. Four proteins were identified, including apoA4, alpha1-ACT, HABP2, and keratin 10, with blood levels changed significantly between CC and AA homozygotes of rs12742393. Compared with AA group, the levels of apoA4 increased (P=0.000265, whereas the concentration of alpha1-ACT, HABP2, and keratin 10 decreased in CC group (P=0.011116, 0.021175, and 0.015661, resp.. Then we selected additional fasting serum samples for ELISA and western blot validation. However, no significant differences were identified by neither ELISA nor western blot (P>0.05. The protein profiling changes between the genotypes of rs12742393 indicated that this SNP might play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Comparison of pulmonary function and back muscle strength according to the degree of spinal curvature of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jae Eung; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Kyoung

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] Degree of curvature on the spine is known to affect respiratory function and back muscle activation. We compared pulmonary function and back muscle strength according to the degree of curvature of the spine of healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three healthy volunteers were enrolled. They were divided into two groups according to the degree of curvature of the spine: the below 2° group, and the above 2° group. The degree of curvature was assessed using the Adams forward bending test and a scoliometer. A pulmonary function test (PFT) was conducted, and back muscle strength was measured. [Results] No significant differences in PFT were found between the below 2° group and the above 2° group, in terms of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), or peak expiratory flow (PEF). However, back muscle strength in the below 2 group was significantly higher than that of the above 2 group. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that the degree of curvature of the spine is associated with back muscle strength in subjects who have spinal curvature within the normal range. Therefore, evaluation and treatment of back muscle strength might be helpful for preventing the progress of curvature of the spine in adolescents with potential scoliosis.

  2. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy

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    Angel Fenol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs. We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI, oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL. Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit.

  3. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit.

  4. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. PMID:26464855

  5. Comparison of breast cancer to healthy control tissue discovers novel markers with potential for prognosis and early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Michèl; Green, Ann; Beatty, J David; Karlan, Beth Y; Karlan, Scott; Gross, Jenny; Thornton, Sean; McIntosh, Martin; Urban, Nicole

    2010-02-09

    This study was initiated to identify biomarkers with potential value for the early detection of poor-outcome breast cancer. Two sets of well-characterized tissues were utilized: one from breast cancer patients with favorable vs. poor outcome and the other from healthy women undergoing reduction mammaplasty. Over 46 differentially expressed genes were identified from a large list of potential targets by a) mining publicly available expression data (identifying 134 genes for quantitative PCR) and b) utilizing a commercial PCR array. Three genes show elevated expression in cancers with poor outcome and low expression in all other tissues, warranting further investigation as potential blood markers for early detection of cancers with poor outcome. Twelve genes showed lower expression in cancers with poor outcome than in cancers with favorable outcome but no differential expression between aggressive cancers and most healthy controls. These genes are more likely to be useful as prognostic tissue markers than as serum markers for early detection of aggressive disease. As a secondary finding was that, when histologically normal breast tissue was removed from a distant site in a breast with cancer, 7 of 38 specimens displayed a cancer-like expression profile, while the remaining 31 were genetically similar to the reduction mammaplasty control group. This finding suggests that some regions of ipsilateral histologically 'normal' breast tissue are predisposed to becoming malignant and that normal-appearing tissue with malignant signature might warrant treatment to prevent new primary tumors.

  6. Single whole-body cryostimulation procedure versus single dry sauna bath: comparison of oxidative impact on healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Woźniak, Alina; Rajewski, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS) and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC) environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n = 10; 26.2 ± 4.6 years) and a single WBC procedure (n = 15; 27.5 ± 3.1 years). In the subjects' blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer) and blood plasma (TBARSpl) were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  7. Single Whole-Body Cryostimulation Procedure versus Single Dry Sauna Bath: Comparison of Oxidative Impact on Healthy Male Volunteers

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    Paweł Sutkowy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n=10; 26.2 ± 4.6 years and a single WBC procedure (n=15; 27.5 ± 3.1 years. In the subjects’ blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer and blood plasma (TBARSpl were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  8. Gut microbiome in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs from that in healthy comparison babies and offers an explanation for the risk factor of prone position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, Amanda R; Berry, Anne M; Bettelheim, Karl A; Goldwater, Paul N

    2014-07-01

    clostridial bacterium, or S. aureus, however Cl. innocuum was found to be significantly associated with formula feeding in the comparison cohort. Comparison of breast and formula feeding of SIDS babies with live comparison babies revealed significant differences with regards to some of the clostridial bacteria. Age-specific differences in gut bacterial microbiome were observed in both SIDS and comparison healthy babies. This study gives an insight into differences in the gut bacterial microbiome of SIDS babies compared with healthy babies. These differences could be important in contributing to a baby's susceptibility to infection and therefore to SIDS. The association of S. aureus colonisation with prone sleep position supports the hypothesis that prone sleep position could increase the risk of ingestion/inhalation of bacteria contaminating the sleeping surface and could account for the increased risk of SIDS in babies who are put to sleep prone. The study provides impetus for broader studies into the gut microbiome of babies and could lead to effective approaches to SIDS prevention. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Normative 3D opto-electronic stereo-photogrammetric posture and spine morphology data in young healthy adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Moreno; Kinel, Edyta; Roncoletta, Piero

    2017-01-01

    Observational cross-sectional study. The current study aims to yield normative data: i.e., the physiological standard for 30 selected quantitative 3D parameters that accurately capture and describe a full-skeleton, upright-standing attitude. Specific and exclusive consideration was given to three distinct categories: postural, spine morphology and pelvic parameters. To capture such 3D parameters, the authors selected a non-ionising 3D opto-electronic stereo-photogrammetric approach. This required the identification and measurement of 27 body landmarks, each specifically tagged with a skin marker. As subjects for the measurement of these parameters, a cohort of 124 asymptomatic young adult volunteers was recruited. All parameters were identified and measured within this group. Postural and spine morphology data have been compared between genders. In this regard, only five statistically significant differences were found: pelvis width, pelvis torsion, the "lumbar" lordosis angle value, the lumbar curve length, and the T12-L5 anatomically-bound lumbar angle value. The "thoracic" kyphosis mean angle value was the same in both sexes and, even if, derived from skin markers placed on spinous processes it resulted in perfect agreement with the X-ray based literature. As regards lordosis, a direct comparison was more difficult because methods proposed in the literature differ as to the number and position of vertebrae under consideration, and their related angle values. However, when the L1 superior-L5 inferior end plate Cobb angle was considered, these results aligned strongly with the existing literature. Asymmetry was a standard postural-spinal feature for both sexes. Each subject presented some degree of leg length discrepancy (LLD) with μ = 9.37mm. This was associated with four factors: unbalanced posture and/or underfoot loads, spinal curvature in the frontal plane, and pelvis torsion. This led to the additional study of the effect of LLD equalisation influence on

  10. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

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    Rajagopalan P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prashanth Rajagopalan,1 Georgi Abraham,2 Yuvaram NV Reddy,2 Ravivarman Lakshmanasami,1 ML Prakash,1 Yogesh NV Reddy2 1Department of General Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, 2Department of Nephrology, Madras Medical Mission Hospital, Chennai, India Abstract: This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI, birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. Keywords: eGFR, birth weight, renal volume

  11. Comparison of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 Loci Polymorphism between Kidney Transplants of Uremia Patients and Healthy Individuals in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenjun; Shen, Yuefeng; Gao, Shilin; Feng, Guiwen; Feng, Yonghua; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaobai

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is becoming a global public health problem, which will usually cause uremia at the end stage of chronic kidney failure. So far, kidney transplant is the most effective and proper therapy for uremia, however, the short supply of matched donor kidney has been a persistent bottleneck for transplantation. HLA matching of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci is very important for the allocation of kidney transplants. In this study, we investigated genotypes of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci based on 1,464 uremia patients and 10,000 unrelated healthy individuals in Henan province of China, and compared the frequency distribution of these HLA alleles and corresponding haplotypes between patient and healthy groups. We detected 23 HLA-A, 49 HLA-B and 17 HLA-DRB1 alleles in total. The predominant alleles of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci in patients are the same as those in healthy group. The seven most frequent alleles account for about 87%, 50%, and 77% at HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci, respectively. The haplotypes (combinations of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1) with significantly different frequency between patients and controls mostly account for less than 1%. Overall, this suggests that HLA matching is not a potential difficulty for kidney transplant of uremia patients. However, three of the top seven frequent HLA-DRB1 alleles have a significantly different distribution in patients and controls, while only one alleles for HLA-B and zero for HLA-A loci. These HLA-DRB1 alleles may be closely associated with uremia. This study sheds new lights on the composition and difference of HLA genotypes in uremia patients and healthy populations in Central China that can serve as a guide to HLA matching for kidney transplants and a resource for HLA typing-related studies.

  12. Seroprevalence and genotyping of hepatitis B,hepatitis C and HIV among healthy population and Turkish soldiers in Northern Cyprus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Altindis; Sebahattin Yilmaz; Tansel Dikengil; Hamit Acemoglu; Salih Hosoglu

    2006-01-01

    AIM:To compare the prevalence of hepatitis viral markers among soldiers from Turkey, blood donors from Northern Cyprus, and soldiers from Northern Cyprus.METHODS:Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antiHCV and anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence, HBV DNA, HCV RNA and HCV genotyping among soldiers from Turkey (group Ⅰ ), civil blood donors from Northern Cyprus (group Ⅱ), and soldier candidates from Northern Cyprus (group Ⅲ) were studied and compared to one another. In total, 17 545 cases (13 546 males and 3999 females with a mean age of 34.5 ± 10.3 year, group Ⅰ = 11234, group Ⅱ = 5057, and group Ⅲ =1254) were included into the study.RESULTS:Among all cases, HBsAg positivity rates were 2.46%, anti-HCV was 0.46% and anti-HIV was 0.00%.HBV DNA was 2.25%, HCV RNA was 0.33% in all groups.HBsAg positivity rates were 2.16% in group Ⅰ, 3.00% in group Ⅱ and 2.71% in group Ⅲ. There was a significant difference between group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ (x2 = 6.11, P= 0.047 < 0.05). Anti-HCV positivity rates were 0.45%in group Ⅰ, 0.45% in group Ⅱ, and 0.56% in group Ⅲ.Genotypes of HCV were 1b and 1a in group Ⅰ, 1b, 1a and 2 in group Ⅱ, and 1b, 1a in group Ⅲ. HBsAg carrier rates were 2.20% in females and 2.53% in males. AntiHCV prevalence was 0.38% in females and 0.48% in males. HBsAg positivity rates were 2.53% in individuals younger than 50, and 1.47% in older than 50. There was a significant difference between the two groups (x2=23.48, P = 0.001).CONCLUSION:Prevalences of HBsAg, HCV and HIV infections in Northern Cyprus population are similar to those of Turkey.

  13. Comparison of pollen gene flow among four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations characterized by different management regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotti, A.; Leonardi, S.; Buiteveld, J.; Geburek, T.; Gerber, S.; Kramer, K.; Vettori, C.; Vendramin, G.G.

    2012-01-01

    The study of the dispersal capability of a species can provide essential information for the management and conservation of its genetic variability. Comparison of gene flow rates among populations characterized by different management and evolutionary histories allows one to decipher the role of fac

  14. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ranitidine and famotidine in healthy elderly subjects: a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, C; St-Laurent, M; Michaud, J T; LeBel, M

    1993-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ranitidine and famotidine were studied in 13 healthy elderly volunteers. On 3 mornings separated by a 1-week wash-out period, each subject received a single oral dose of ranitidine 300 mg, famotidine 40 mg, and placebo in a crossover, randomized fashion with double-dummy administration. Plasma and urine concentrations of ranitidine and famotidine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Intragastric pH was measured for 24-hours with an antimony probe. Famotidine's plasma half-life (4.42 hrs) was significantly longer than ranitidine's (3.14 hrs, p 4) was similar for ranitidine and famotidine, 10.3 and 9.9 hours, respectively (p = 0.713, paired Student's t test). Thus both agents exhibited a similar duration of 24-hour antisecretory response under these study conditions.

  15. A comparison of SNP and STR loci for delineating population structure and performing individual genetic assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Technological advances have lead to the rapid increase in availability of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a range of organisms, and there is a general optimism that SNPs will become the marker of choice for a range of evolutionary applications. Here, comparisons between 300 polymorphic SNPs and 14 short tandem repeats (STRs) were conducted on a data set consisting of approximately 500 Atlantic salmon arranged in 10 samples/populations. Results Global FST ranged from 0.033-0.115 and -0.002-0.316 for the 14 STR and 300 SNP loci respectively. Global FST was similar among 28 linkage groups when averaging data from mapped SNPs. With the exception of selecting a panel of SNPs taking the locus displaying the highest global FST for each of the 28 linkage groups, which inflated estimation of genetic differentiation among the samples, inferred genetic relationships were highly similar between SNP and STR data sets and variants thereof. The best 15 SNPs (30 alleles) gave a similar level of self-assignment to the best 4 STR loci (83 alleles), however, addition of further STR loci did not lead to a notable increase assignment whereas addition of up to 100 SNP loci increased assignment. Conclusion Whilst the optimal combinations of SNPs identified in this study are linked to the samples from which they were selected, this study demonstrates that identification of highly informative SNP loci from larger panels will provide researchers with a powerful approach to delineate genetic relationships at the individual and population levels. PMID:20051144

  16. PEAK AND END RANGE ECCENTRIC EVERTOR/CONCENTRIC INVERTOR MUSCLE STRENGTH RATIOS IN CHRONICALLY UNSTABLE ANKLES: COMPARISON WITH HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Komurcu

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the alterations in eccentric evertor/concentric invertor strength ratio and their importance in the chronically unstable ankle. Eight patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI and nine healthy individuals participated in this study. Isokinetic concentric and eccentric invertor and evertor muscle strength measurement was carried out at an angular velocity of 120°·sec-1 by measuring maximal force moments (torque during isokinetic ankle inversion and eversion movements. Functionally, evertor/invertor muscle strength ratios (E/I strength ratio were calculated separately based on peak moment and angle-specific moments obtained at 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20° ankle joint angles. Peak and angle-specific eccentric evertor strength values at 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20° were significantly lower in the chronic ankle instability (CAI group. In spite of this, no differences were obtained for peak and angle-specific concentric invertor torque values. Eccentric evertor/concentric invertor strength (Eecc/Icon ratios were also significantly lower in the CAI group, but only at 15° and 20°. Eccentric evertor muscle torque and end range (15°-20° Eecc/Icon strength ratio for the chronically unstable ankle were significantly different from those for the healthy ankle. For this reason, measurements of end range eccentric/concentric strength ratios are more valuable in monitoring chronic ankle injuries and rehabilitation should include not only concentric muscle strengthening but also eccentric muscle strengthening, particularly for the evertor muscles

  17. Comparison of volatile organic compounds from lung cancer patients and healthy controls-challenges and limitations of an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallschmidt, Kristin; Becker, Roland; Jung, Christian; Bremser, Wolfram; Walles, Thorsten; Neudecker, Jens; Leschber, Gunda; Frese, Steffen; Nehls, Irene

    2016-10-12

    This paper outlines the design and performance of an observational study on the profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath of 37 lung cancer patients and 23 healthy controls of similar age. The need to quantify each VOC considered as a potential disease marker on the basis of individual calibration is elaborated, and the quality control measures required to maintain reproducibility in breath sampling and subsequent instrumental trace VOC analysis using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry over a study period of 14 months are described. Twenty-four VOCs were quantified on the basis of their previously suggested potential as cancer markers. The concentration of aromatic compounds in the breath was increased, as expected, in smokers, while lung cancer patients displayed significantly increased levels of oxygenated VOCs such as aldehydes, 2-butanone and 1-butanol. Although sets of selected oxygenated VOCs displayed sensitivities and specificities between 80% and 90% using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) with leave-one-out cross validation, the effective selectivity of the breath VOC approach with regard to cancer detection is clearly limited. Results are discussed against the background of the literature on volatile cancer marker investigations and the prospects of linking increased VOC levels in patients' breath with approaches that employ sniffer dogs. Experience from this study and the literature suggests that the currently available methodology is not able to use breath VOCs to reliably discriminate between cancer patients and healthy controls. Observational studies often tend to note significant differences in levels of certain oxygenated VOCs, but without the resolution required for practical application. Any step towards the exploitation of differences in VOC profiles for illness detection would have to solve current restrictions set by the low and variable VOC concentrations. Further challenges are the technical