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Sample records for healthy persons acute

  1. Transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin in healthy persons: acute effects on skin temperature and hemodynamic orthostatic response

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    Eva Maria Augusta Boeckh Haebisch

    Full Text Available In order to find an explanation for individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN we studied the skin temperature and hemodynamic reactions in 63 healthy persons. The data were obtained before and after the application of GTN and Glycerin (GL placebo patches, during one hour. The skin temperature was measured on both forearms, the local (left sided and systemic (right sided reaction on GTN was related to the skin fold and the calculated body fat content. The bilateral rise of skin temperature and its duration was higher and longer in obese than in lean persons mainly in obese women. The UV induced thermo and the later photothermoreaction (Erythema was reduced on the left forearm after the application of GTN and GL patches. The observed hemodynamic GTN effect confirmed known postural reactions, such as decreased arterial pressure (ΔmAP = -2.9%, increased heart rate (ΔHR = +7,4% and QTc prolongation (ΔQTc = +4,9% in upright position. An adverse drug effect with increased mean blood pressure (ΔmAP = +12% and increased heart rate (ΔHR = + 10.4% mainly in supine position was observed in 11 % of the participants, but only in men. Such a reaction was already described by Murell, 1879. Individual GTN effects were analyzed and related to habits and family history. In male smokers and in persons with hypertensive and diabetic close relatives, the hypotensive GTN effect was accentuated in supine position. In the upright position the group with hypertensives in the family presented a moderate hypotensive reaction without secondary tachycardia and the smokers presented only a slightly increased heart rate. Our observations suggest that individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN with its active component nitric oxide (NO depends on physiological conditions, related to endogenous vasoactive substances, mainly the interaction with EDRF (the endogenous NO and the activity of the Renin-Angiotensin System.

  2. A personalized healthy workplace

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    Timmer, Justin

    2017-01-01

    In February 2017, seven partners signed a contract to collaborate on a project called the Healthy Workplace. Measuremen, Menzis, Health2Work, ENGIE, Planon, and Hanzehogeschool Groningen are dedicated to make the regular workplace a healthy workplace. Health is of primary importance for both the

  3. Influence of Catastrophizing and Personality Traits on Recalled Ratings of Acute Pain Experience in Healthy Young Adults.

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    Pallegama, Ranjith Wasantha; Ariyasinghe, Sajjiv; Perera, Eranthi Dinoka; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether pain catastrophizing and personality traits bias recalled ratings of acute pain in an experimental tonic pain model. Fifty-six undergraduates (14 males) recruited from the University of Peradeniya (mean age 21.7 ± 0.8 SD years). Participants completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. They were subjected to two cold pressor tests (dominant and non-dominant hands) and pain threshold, maximum pain intensity, and pain tolerance were recorded. One-week later, the maximum pain intensities of both hands were recalled and percentage distortions in recalling were calculated. Based on a 180 s cutoff, two participants were considered pain-insensitive during the test and were excluded from the analysis. The maximum pain intensity was recalled with a moderate accuracy (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients = 0.68 for dominant and 0.59 for non-dominant hands). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that maximum pain intensity ( P  personality traits only neuroticism exhibited a weak positive association with the recalled ratings. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Dynamics of personal development on healthy students

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    I.E. Kramida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the effectiveness of different physical training for the relatively healthy students. The study involved 1004 students. The directions of development of the students' positive personal qualities. Found that the positive development of personality of students observed mostly on the first and third year than in the second. Could not find significant differences between the growth estimates of development of personality traits of students in classes in the sample program and the program specializations. Found that the rate of development of students' personality traits minor: the average growth estimates for core positive personal qualities for 3 years does not exceed 10% of the maximum possible level. Recommended in the classroom more emphasis on developing positive personality traits. It is shown that special attention should be paid to the development of emotional stability of students and their tolerance towards other people.

  5. Power law behavior of RR-interval variability in healthy middle-aged persons, patients with recent acute myocardial infarction, and patients with heart transplants

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    Bigger, J. T. Jr; Steinman, R. C.; Rolnitzky, L. M.; Fleiss, J. L.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purposes of the present study were (1) to establish normal values for the regression of log(power) on log(frequency) for, RR-interval fluctuations in healthy middle-aged persons, (2) to determine the effects of myocardial infarction on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), (3) to determine the effect of cardiac denervation on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), and (4) to assess the ability of power law regression parameters to predict death after myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied three groups: (1) 715 patients with recent myocardial infarction; (2) 274 healthy persons age and sex matched to the infarct sample; and (3) 19 patients with heart transplants. Twenty-four-hour RR-interval power spectra were computed using fast Fourier transforms and log(power) was regressed on log(frequency) between 10(-4) and 10(-2) Hz. There was a power law relation between log(power) and log(frequency). That is, the function described a descending straight line that had a slope of approximately -1 in healthy subjects. For the myocardial infarction group, the regression line for log(power) on log(frequency) was shifted downward and had a steeper negative slope (-1.15). The transplant (denervated) group showed a larger downward shift in the regression line and a much steeper negative slope (-2.08). The correlation between traditional power spectral bands and slope was weak, and that with log(power) at 10(-4) Hz was only moderate. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were used to predict mortality and were compared with the predictive value of traditional power spectral bands. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were excellent predictors of all-cause mortality or arrhythmic death. To optimize the prediction of death, we calculated a log(power) intercept that was uncorrelated with the slope of the power law regression line. We found that the combination of slope and zero-correlation log(power) was an outstanding predictor, with a

  6. Personality Plasticity, Healthy Aging, and Interventions

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    Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    This commentary on the special section on conscientiousness and healthy aging focuses on several topics brought up in this collection of articles. One is the promise of personality interventions. Despite skepticism on the part of some, such interventions may ultimately prove successful. This is in part because of similarities between personality…

  7. Career Self-Efficacy and Personality: Linking Career Confidence and the Healthy Personality

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    Borgen, Fred H.; Betz, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This article extends recent work on the relationship between personality and career self-efficacy by examining relationships across two new inventories with scales for identifying human strengths. The Healthy Personality Inventory (HPI) has 17 content scales tapping an array of positive personality measures. The CAPA Confidence Inventory (CCI) has…

  8. Relationships of the Big Five Personality Domains and Facets to Dimensions of the Healthy Personality

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    Betz, Nancy E.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to compare a new inventory measuring concepts of the "healthy personality" with the most widely used inventory of the Big Five personality traits, the NEO personality inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R). Using adjectives as the stimulus materials, Borgen and Betz (2008) developed a 17-scale inventory called the Healthy…

  9. Effect of Acute Exercise on Hunger in Healthy Woman

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    OLCUCU, Burcin; VATANSEVER, Serife; TIRYAKI-SONMEZ, Gul; BURKAN ONER, Seda

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different acute exercise mode on subjective hunger rating. Ten healthy woman subjects participated voluntarily in the study and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before participation. Subjects undertook four, 1,5 h trials (3exercises and 1 control) in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trials subjects were performed three different exercise protocol (resistance, resistance+endurance, endurance). In the control trial, sub...

  10. Comparison of personality beliefs between depressed patients and healthy controls.

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    Yucens, Bengu; Kuru, Erkan; Safak, Yasir; Karadere, Mehmet Emrah; Turkcapar, Mehmet Hakan

    2014-11-01

    According to the cognitive model, the common mechanism underlying all psychological disorders is distorted or dysfunctional thoughts that affect mood and behaviors. Dysfunctional thoughts predispose an individual to depression and are among the processes that form the basis of personality traits. Elucidating the personality beliefs associated with depression and dysfunctional thoughts is important to understanding and treating depression. The aim of the present study is to determine whether depressed patients exhibited pathological personality beliefs compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, we investigated which personality beliefs were more common among such depressed patients. A total of 70 patients who were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry at Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital (Ankara, Turkey) and diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria were included in the study. Additionally, 70 healthy controls matched for age, marital status, and education were included in the study. The Sociodemographic Data Form and Personality Belief Questionnaire-Short form (PBQ-SF) were administered to the participants. A comparison of the depression group with the healthy controls revealed higher scores in dependent, passive-aggressive, obsessive-compulsive, antisocial, histrionic, paranoid, borderline, and avoidant personality subscales in the depressive group. These results suggest that personality beliefs at the pathological level are more common in depressive patients and that the detection of these beliefs would be useful for predicting the prognosis of the disease and determining appropriate treatment methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Personality and Healthy Sleep: The Importance of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism

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    Duggan, Katherine A.; Friedman, Howard S.; McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Mednick, Sara C.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has shown personality and sleep are each substantial predictors of health throughout the lifespan, little is known about links between personality and healthy sleep patterns. This study examined Big Five personality traits and a range of factors related to sleep health in 436 university students (M age = 19.88, SD = 1.50, 50% Male). Valid self-report measures of personality, chronotype, sleep hygiene, sleep quality, and sleepiness were analyzed. To remove multicollinearity between personality factors, each sleep domain was regressed on relevant demographic and principal component-derived personality factors in multiple linear regressions. Results showed that low conscientiousness and high neuroticism were the best predictors of poor sleep (poor sleep hygiene, low sleep quality, and increased sleepiness), consistent with other research on predictors of poor health and mortality risk. In this first comprehensive study of the topic, the findings suggest that personality has a significant association with sleep health, and researchers could profitably examine both personality and sleep in models of health and well-being. PMID:24651274

  12. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population.

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    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Bayón, Camila; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality questionnaires. Positive correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and anti-social personality traits in both genders was observed (r = 0.336 and P traits (r = 0. 376, P trait (r = 0. 544, P trait (r = 0. 485, P trait (r = 0.632, P traits, substance abuse and hypomania. Women with higher basal testosterone levels showed higher scores on personality self-direction traits.

  13. Acute psychosocial stress reduces pain modulation capabilities in healthy men.

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    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Anecdotes on the ability of individuals to continue to function under stressful conditions despite injuries causing excruciating pain suggest that acute stress may induce analgesia. However, studies exploring the effect of acute experimental stress on pain perception show inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological differences. Our aim was to systematically study the effect of acute stress on pain perception using static and dynamic, state-of-the-art pain measurements. Participants were 29 healthy men who underwent the measurement of heat-pain threshold, heat-pain intolerance, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Testing was conducted before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), inducing acute psychosocial stress. Stress levels were evaluated using perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction. Although pain threshold and pain intolerance were unaffected by stress, an increase in temporal summation of pain and a decrease in CPM were observed. These changes were significantly more robust among individuals with stronger reaction to stress ("high responders"), with a significant correlation between the perception of stress and the performance in the pain measurements. We conclude that acute psychosocial stress seems not to affect the sensitivity to pain, however, it significantly reduces the ability to modulate pain in a dose-response manner. Considering the diverse effects of stress in this and other studies, it appears that the type of stress and the magnitude of its appraisal determine its interactions with the pain system. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Emotional Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: Comparison to Borderline Personality Disorder and Healthy Controls.

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    Steenkamp, Maria M; Suvak, Michael K; Dickstein, Benjamin D; Shea, M Tracie; Litz, Brett T

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have investigated emotional functioning in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). To explore the nature and extent of emotion difficulties in OCPD, the authors examined four domains of self-reported emotional functioning--negative affectivity, anger, emotion regulation, and emotion expressivity--in women with OCPD and compared them to a borderline personality disorder (BPD) group and a healthy control group. Data were collected as part of a larger psychophysiological experimental study on emotion regulation and personality. Compared to healthy controls, participants with OCPD reported significantly higher levels of negative affectivity, trait anger, emotional intensity, and emotion regulation difficulties. Emotion regulation difficulties included lack of emotional clarity, nonacceptance of emotional responses, and limited access to effective emotion regulation strategies. Participants with OCPD scored similarly to participants with BPD on only one variable, namely, problems engaging in goal-directed behavior when upset. Results suggest that OCPD may be characterized by notable difficulties in several emotional domains.

  15. Safety pharmacology of acute MDMA administration in healthy subjects.

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    Vizeli, Patrick; Liechti, Matthias E

    2017-05-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) is being investigated in MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. The present study characterized the safety pharmacology of single-dose administrations of MDMA (75 or 125 mg) using data from nine double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies performed in the same laboratory in a total of 166 healthy subjects. The duration of the subjective effects was 4.2 ± 1.3 h (range: 1.4-8.2 h). The 125 mg dose of MDMA produced greater 'good drug effect' ratings than 75 mg. MDMA produced moderate and transient 'bad drug effect' ratings, which were greater in women than in men. MDMA increased systolic blood pressure to >160 mmHg, heart rate >100 beats/min, and body temperature >38°C in 33%, 29% and 19% of the subjects, respectively. These proportions of subjects with hypertension (>160 mmHg), tachycardia, and body temperature >38°C were all significantly greater after 125 mg MDMA compared with the 75 mg dose. Acute and subacute adverse effects of MDMA as assessed by the List of Complaints were dose-dependent and more frequent in females. MDMA did not affect liver or kidney function at EOS 29 ± 22 days after use. No serious adverse events occurred. In conclusion, MDMA produced predominantly acute positive subjective drug effects. Bad subjective drug effects and other adverse effects were significantly more common in women. MDMA administration was overall safe in physically and psychiatrically healthy subjects and in a medical setting. However, the risks of MDMA are likely higher in patients with cardiovascular disease and remain to be investigated in patients with psychiatric disorders.

  16. Acute partial sleep deprivation increases food intake in healthy men.

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    Brondel, Laurent; Romer, Michael A; Nougues, Pauline M; Touyarou, Peio; Davenne, Damien

    2010-06-01

    Acute partial sleep deprivation increases plasma concentrations of ghrelin and decreases those of leptin. The objective was to observe modifications in energy intake and physical activity after acute partial sleep deprivation in healthy men. Twelve men [age: 22 +/- 3 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.30 +/- 1.83] completed a randomized 2-condition crossover study. During the first night of each 48-h session, subjects had either approximately 8 h (from midnight to 0800) or approximately 4 h (from 0200 to 0600) of sleep. All foods consumed subsequently (jam on buttered toast for breakfast, buffet for lunch, and a free menu for dinner) were eaten ad libitum. Physical activity was recorded by an actimeter. Feelings of hunger, perceived pleasantness of the foods, desire to eat some foods, and sensation of sleepiness were also evaluated. In comparison with the 8-h sleep session, subjects consumed 559 +/- 617 kcal (ie, 22%) more energy on the day after sleep restriction (P < 0.01), and preprandial hunger was higher before breakfast (P < 0.001) and dinner (P < 0.05). No change in the perceived pleasantness of the foods or in the desire to eat the foods was observed. Physical activity from 1215 to 2015 was higher after sleep restriction than after 8 h of sleep (P < 0.01), even though the sensation of sleepiness was more marked (P < 0.01). One night of reduced sleep subsequently increased food intake and, to a lesser extent, estimated physical activity-related energy expenditure in healthy men. These experimental results, if confirmed by long-term energy balance measurements, suggest that sleep restriction could be a factor that promotes obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00986492.

  17. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

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    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  18. Effects of age and acute muscle fatigue on reactive postural control in healthy adults.

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    Papa, Evan V; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-12-01

    Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-min (T15) and 30-min (T30) of rest. Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 min of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting Personality Disorder Functioning Styles by the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in Healthy Volunteers and Personality Disorder Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qianqian; Ma, Guorong; Zhu, Qisha; Fan, Hongying; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Detecting personality disorders in the illiterate population is a challenge, but nonverbal tools measuring personality traits such as the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FFNPQ) might help. We hypothesized that FFNPQ traits are associated with personality disorder functioning styles in a predictable way, especially in a sample of personality disorder patients. We therefore invited 106 personality disorder patients and 205 healthy volunteers to answer the FFNPQ and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) which measures 11 personality disorder functioning styles. Patients scored significantly higher on the FFNPQ neuroticism and conscientiousness traits and all 11 PERM styles. In both groups, the 5 FFNPQ traits displayed extensive associations with the 11 PERM styles, respectively, and the associations were more specific in patients. Associations between neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness traits and most PERM styles were less exclusive, but conscientiousness was associated with antisocial (-) and obsessive-compulsive styles, and openness to experience with schizotypal and dependent (-) styles. Our study has demonstrated correlations between FFNPQ traits and PERM styles, and implies the nonverbal measure of personality traits is capable of aiding the diagnoses of personality disorders in the illiterate population. Enlarging sample size and including the illiterate might make for more stable results. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Intestinal Microbial Community Differs between Acute Pancreatitis Patients and Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi Mei; Zhang, Zheng Yu; Zhang, Chen Huan; Wu, Jing; Wang, You Xin; Zhang, Guo Xin

    2018-01-01

    A case control study including 45 acute pancreatitis and 44 healthy volunteers was performed to investigate the association between intestinal microbial community and acute pancreatitis. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to profile the microbiological composition of the samples. In total, 27 microbial phyla were detected and the samples of pancreatitis patients contained fewer phyla. Samples from acute pancreatitis patients contained more Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria and fewer Firmicutes and Actinobacteria than those from healthy volunteers. PCoA analyses distinguished the fecal microbial communities of acute pancreatitis patients from those of healthy volunteers. The intestinal microbes of acute pancreatitis patients are different from those of healthy volunteers. Modulation of the intestinal microbiome may serve as an alternative strategy for treating acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Personalizing mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngard, S Clark; Beitler, Jeremy R; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-03-01

    Lung-protective ventilation with low tidal volumes remains the cornerstone for treating patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Personalizing such an approach to each patient's unique physiology may improve outcomes further. Many factors should be considered when mechanically ventilating a critically ill patient with ARDS. Estimations of transpulmonary pressures as well as individual's hemodynamics and respiratory mechanics should influence PEEP decisions as well as response to therapy (recruitability). This summary will emphasize the potential role of personalized therapy in mechanical ventilation.

  2. Acute effects of smoking on QT dispersion in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Akbarzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking increases the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD. QT dispersion (QTD is an important predictor of cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effect of smoking a single standard cigarette containing 1.7 mg nicotine on QT interval and QTD in healthy smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: The study sample population consisted of 40 healthy male hospital staff, including 20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers. They were asked to refrain from smoking at least 6 h before attending the study. A 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG, recorded at paper speed of 50 mm/s, was obtained from all participants before and 10 min after smoking of a single complete cigarette. QT interval, corrected QT interval, QTD, and corrected QT dispersion (QTcD were measured before and after smoking. RESULTS: Smokers and nonsmokers did not have any significant differences in heart rate (HR (before smoking = 67.35 ± 5.14 vs. 67.70 ± 5.07, after smoking = 76.70 ± 6.50 vs. 76.85 ± 6.50, respectively, QTD (before smoking = 37.75 ± 7.16 vs. 39.15 ± 6.55, after smoking = 44.75 ± 11.97 vs. 45.50 ± 9.58, respectively, and QTcD (before smoking = 39.85 ± 7.40 vs. 41.55 ± 6.57, after smoking = 50.70 ± 14.31 vs. 51.50 ± 11.71, respectively. However, after smoking a single cigarette, HR, mean QTD, and QTcD significantly increased (all had P value <0.001 in comparison to the measures before smoking. CONCLUSION: Smoking of a single complete cigarette in both smokers and nonsmokers results in significant QTD increase, which can cause arrhythmia and SCD.   Keywords: Cardiac, Death, Electrocardiography, Smoking, Sudden  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  3. [EEG-markers of vertical postural organization in healthy persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhavoronkova, L A; Zharikova, A V; Kushnir, E M; Mikhalkova, A A

    2012-01-01

    In 10 healthy persons (22.8 +/- 0.67 years) spectral-coherence parameters of EEG were analyzed in different steps of verticalizations--from gorizontal position to seat and stand one. Maximal changes of all EEG parameters were observed in state with absence of visual control. We observed an increase of power for fast spectral bands of EEG (beta- and gamma-bands) in all conditions and additional increase of these EEG parameters was observed at situation of complication of conditions of vertical pose supporting. Results of EEG coherent analysis in conditions of human verticalization showed specific increase of coherence for the majority of rhythm ranges in the right hemisphere especially in the central-frontal and in occipital-parietal areas and for interhemispheric pairs for these leads. This fact can reflect participation of cortical as well as subcortical structures in these processes. In conditions of complicate conditions of vertical pose supporting the additional increase of EEG coherence in fast bands (beta-rhythm) was observed at the frontal areas. This fact can testify about increasing of executive functions in this conditions.

  4. The power of personality in discriminating between healthy aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

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    Duchek, Janet M; Balota, David A; Storandt, Martha; Larsen, Randy

    2007-11-01

    This study examined differences in personality in the earliest stages of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) relative to healthy aging, and the power of personality in discriminating healthy aging from early-stage DAT. Four groups of participants (middle-aged controls, older controls, persons with very mild DAT, and persons with mild DAT) and their families were administered Costa and McCrae's NEO Five-Factor Inventory. On the basis of both self-report and informant report, there was an increase in neuroticism and a decrease in conscientiousness in persons with very mild DAT relative to healthy individuals without it, and in persons with mild DAT relative to those with very mild DAT. Moreover, informant reports of neuroticism and conscientiousness capture substantial unique variance in discriminating healthy aging and very mild DAT, above and beyond standard neuropsychological tests. Discussion focuses on the importance of personality traits as a noncognitive indicator of early-stage DAT.

  5. Personalizing mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Berngard, S. Clark; Beitler, Jeremy R.; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Lung-protective ventilation with low tidal volumes remains the cornerstone for treating patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Personalizing such an approach to each patient's unique physiology may improve outcomes further. Many factors should be considered when mechanically ventilating a critically ill patient with ARDS. Estimations of transpulmonary pressures as well as individual's hemodynamics and respiratory mechanics should influence PEEP decisions as well as response ...

  6. The relationship between personality and the response to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, André; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-12-04

    The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular reactivity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity, and subjective affect (including positive affect, negative affect and subjective controllability) in healthy individuals. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approach was applied to account for the relationship between personality traits and stress responses. Results suggested that higher neuroticism predicted lower heart rate stress reactivity, lower cortisol stress response, more decline of positive affect and lower subjective controllability. Individuals higher in extraversion showed smaller cortisol activation to stress and less increase of negative affect. In addition, higher openness score was associated with lower cortisol stress response. These findings elucidate that neuroticism, extraversion and openness are important variables associated with the stress response and different dimensions of personality trait are associated with different aspects of the stress response.

  7. On the Comparison of Impulsivity between HIV Positive Persons, Drug-Dependent Persons, and Healthy Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nikoogoftar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to compare impulsive decision-making between AIDS sufferers, people suffering substance abuse, and nonclinical populations. Method: This was a causal-comparative study which was conducted within the six months of 2011. In this study, 30 AIDS sufferers, 30 drug abusers, and 30 healthy subjects from nonclinical population in the 15-67 age range were selected through convenience sampling. The selected participants were matched in terms of age, education, and gender. Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (1997 were administered to the three groups. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference among the three groups in impulsivity subscales. Conclusion: The results showed that there existed some degree of deficiency in decision-making processes in AIDS sufferers and drug dependent persons. It may be rooted in a number of personality traits neurological damage drug use the insufficiency of appropriate training in life skills, problem-solving, and decision-making the availability of emotions at paly and personal and cultural thoughts and beliefs around protective behaviors in sexual relationships.

  8. Distinction of leukemia patients' and healthy persons' serum using FTIR spectroscopy

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    Sheng, Daping; Liu, Xingcun; Li, Weizu; Wang, Yuchan; Chen, Xianliang; Wang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, FTIR spectroscopy was applied to compare the serum from leukemia patients with the serum from healthy persons. IR spectra of leukemia patients' serum were similar with IR spectra of healthy persons' serum, and they were all made up of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, etc. In order to identify leukemia patients' serum and healthy persons' serum, the H1075/H1542, H1045/H1467, H2959/H2931 ratios were measured. The H2959/H2931 ratio had the highest significant difference among these ratios and might be a useful factor for identifying leukemia patients' serum and healthy persons' serum. Furthermore, from curve fitting, the RNA/DNA (A1115/A1028) ratios were observed to be lower in leukemia patients' serum than those in healthy persons' serum. The results indicated FTIR spectroscopic study of serum might be a useful tool in the field of leukemia research and diagnosis.

  9. Healthy Persons with Intellectual Disabilities in an Inclusive Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) have twice as many health problems than the general public. The author discusses evidence-based research on prevalence and best treatment of primary and secondary health problems in persons with ID. Citing the pan-European Pomona project, European data were collected on training for health professionals…

  10. Psychoneurological character of persons who had acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Khalyavka, I.G.; Loganovskij, K.N.; Plachinda, Yu.I.; Yur'ev, K.L.; Loganovskaya, T.K.

    1996-01-01

    Survivors of the Chernobyl accident who had an acute radiation syndrome (ARS,110 persons) were observed for 8 years after Chernobyl accident. It has been found that the cerebrovascular pathology and vertebral osteochondrosis rate increase as well as abnormal psychoorganic changes in personality and endogenic-like psychoorganic process, their rate being in proportion to the ARS heaviness. The EEG and evoked potentials have confirmed the dyscirculatory and toxic-metabolic organic disorders of the central nervous system as a result of irradiation in the remote period of the ARS consequences. It is necessary for early and differential diagnostic of the psychoneurological disorders after ARS to carry out the neuro- and psychophysiological examination as well as computer tomography, nucleic magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography of the brain

  11. Autobiographical memory after acute stress in healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.

    2009-01-01

    Autobiographical memories have been found to be less specific after hydrocortisone administration in healthy men, resembling memory deficits in, for example, depression. This is the first study to investigate the effects of stress-induced elevated cortisol levels on autobiographic memory specificity

  12. Promoting a healthy lifestyle: towards an improved personalized feedback approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterkamp, Reinoud; Cabrita, M.; op den Akker, Harm; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2013-01-01

    Technology supported services for achieving a healthy lifestyle have shown their short term effects and are receiving increasing interest from the research community. However, long term adherence to these services is poor. This paper describes research-in-progress regarding the implementation of

  13. Acute Hepatitis and Pancytopenia in Healthy Infant with Adenovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Matoq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are a common cause of respiratory infection, pharyngitis, and conjunctivitis in infants and young children. They are known to cause hepatitis and liver failure in immunocompromised patients; they are a rare cause of hepatitis in immunocompetent patients and have been known to cause fulminant hepatic failure. We present a 23-month-old immunocompetent infant who presented with acute noncholestatic hepatitis, hypoalbuminemia, generalized anasarca, and pancytopenia secondary to adenovirus infection.

  14. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2013-10-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both cortisol and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity were measured at rest and in response to a psychological stress protocol comprising 5min each of a Stroop task, mirror tracing, and a speech task. Participants subsequently completed the Big Five Inventory to assess neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Those with higher neuroticism scores exhibited smaller cortisol and cardiovascular stress reactions, whereas participants who were less agreeable and less open had smaller cortisol and cardiac reactions to stress. These associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for a range of potential confounding variables. Thus, a negative personality disposition would appear to be linked to diminished stress reactivity. These findings further support a growing body of evidence which suggests that blunted stress reactivity may be maladaptive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effective Resources Supporting Healthy Sexual Behavior in Formerly Incarcerated Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senteio, Charles; Collins, Summer Wright; Jackson, Rachael; Welk, Stacy; Zhang, Shun

    2010-01-01

    The sexual health behavior of formerly incarcerated persons (FIPs) not only affects the FIP, their sex partners, and their significant others, but also affects their families and the communities in which they live. Certain health conditions, which are overrepresented in incarcerated populations, are directly impacted by sexual health behavior.…

  16. CT evaluation of cerebellar atrophy with aging in healthy persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimiya, Jin

    1988-01-01

    In a retrospective analysis of CT scans available from 2,102 neurologically normal persons, dilatations of the cerebellar vermis fissures (CVF), cerebellar hemispheric fissures (CHF), subarachnoid space (SAS) around the cerebellum and the fourth ventricle (FV) were examined according the age groups of persons younger than one year, one to four, five to nine, 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 years and older. An dilatation of both the CVF and CHF was associated with aging, with statistically significant differences among age groups of persons older than 20 years. This was especially noted in age groups of 60 years or older. There was a significant enlargement in the SAS around the cerebellum in age groups 60 years or more compared with age groups less than 60 years. For age groups of persons 20 years or older, both the FV transverse width and the radio of the FV transverse width to the inside diameter of the posterior fossa (PF) increased with aging. This was significant in age groups 60 years or older. For age groups younger than 10 years, however, there was inverse correlation between the ratio of the FV transverse width to the PF inside diameter and aging. Plotted curve of the ratio of the FV to the PF was U-shaped with smallest value in persons in their twenties. Since changes in the FV might reflect the volume of the cerebellar medullary substance, the cerebellar medullary substance should increase up to the age of 20. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Acute psychosocial stress and everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men: The impact of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Nina; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Zänkert, Sandra; Wüst, Stefan; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2017-07-01

    In everyday life, moral decisions must frequently be made under acute stress. Although there is increasing evidence that both stress and cortisol affect moral judgment and behavior as well as decision-making in various domains unrelated to morality, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the effects of stress on everyday moral decision-making. Therefore, in the present study, we exposed 50 young healthy men to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its non-stressful placebo version (PTSST). We investigated the impact of acute stress exposure and stress-related cortisol levels on decision-making, decision certainty, and emotions in 28 everyday moral conflict situations with altruistic versus egoistic response alternatives. Results showed that the TSST-exposed group made more altruistic decisions than the non-stress control group, while groups did not differ in decision certainty and emotion ratings. Moreover, in correlational as well as regression analyses, additionally controlling for confounding variables, we observed significant positive associations between cortisol levels and altruistic decision-making. Further analyses revealed that altruistic decisions came along with significantly higher decision certainty and significantly more positive emotion ratings than egoistic decisions. Notably, our data also raise the idea that the personality trait agreeableness plays an important role in everyday moral decision-making. In sum, our findings provide initial evidence that both acute stress exposure and cortisol levels have prosocial effects on everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute and chronic effects of dinner with alcoholic beverages on nitric oxide metabolites in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    1. The present study investigated the acute and chronic effect of dinner with alcoholic beverages on serum nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, namely nitrate and nitrite (NOx), in 11 healthy, non-smoking middle-aged men. 2. In a randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over trial, subjects consumed dinner with

  19. Acute flaccid myelitis associated with enterovirus-D68 infection in an otherwise healthy child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Susanna; Chidini, Giovanna; Cinnante, Claudia; Napolitano, Luisa; Giannini, Alberto; Terranova, Leonardo; Niesters, Hubert; Principi, Nicola; Calderini, Edoardo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reporting new cases of enterovirus (EV)-D68-associated acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is essential to understand how the virus causes neurological damage and to characterize EV-D68 strains associated with AFM. Case presentation: A previously healthy 4-year-old boy presented with sudden

  20. Healthy eating in persons with serious mental illnesses: understanding and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, Laura K; Ferron, Joelle C; Davis, Kristin E; Whitley, Rob

    2011-01-01

    To explore the understanding of a healthy diet and the barriers to healthy eating in persons with serious mental illnesses. In-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews about health behaviors were conducted in 31 individuals with serious mental illnesses. Participants were recruited from a mental health center in Chicago, Illinois, and ranged in age from 30 to 61 years old. Most participants described healthy eating as consuming fruits and vegetables, using low fat cooking methods, and limiting sweets, sodas, fast food, and/or junk food. Internal barriers to nutritional change included negative perceptions of healthy eating, the decreased taste and satiation of healthy foods, difficulty changing familiar eating habits, eating for comfort, and the prioritization of mental health. External barriers were the reduced availability and inconvenience of healthy foods, social pressures, and psychiatric medication side effects. This study revealed several modifiable barriers to healthy eating. Interventions that addressed these could aid in improving the diet and lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population. Recommendations are to provide healthy eating education that is individualized, emphasizes the health consequences of poor eating, and provides opportunities to prepare and taste healthy foods. Family and friends should be included in all educational efforts. At community mental health centers and group homes, only healthy foods should be offered. Lastly, practitioners should encourage eating a healthy diet, inquire about eating in response to emotions, and explore the impact of psychiatric medications on eating behaviors.

  1. Exercise testing and hemodynamic performance in healthy elderly persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitzhusen, J.C.; Hickler, R.B.; Alpert, J.S.; Doherty, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the effect of age on cardiovascular performance, 39 healthy elderly men and women, 70 to 83 years old, underwent treadmill thallium-201 exercise perfusion imaging and radionuclide equilibrium angiography at rest and during supine bicycle exercise. Five volunteers who had a positive exercise thallium test response were excluded from the study. Radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction, regional wall abnormalities, relative cardiac output, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume were measured. Seventy-four percent of the subjects maintained or increased their ejection fraction with exercise. With peak exercise, mean end-diastolic volume did not change, end-systolic volume decreased and cardiac output and stroke volume increased. Moreover, in 35% of the subjects, minor regional wall motion abnormalities developed during exercise. There was no significant difference in the response of men and women with regard to these variables. However, more women than men had difficulty performing bicycle ergometry because they had never bicycled before. Subjects who walked daily performed the exercise tests with less anxiety and with a smaller increase in heart rate and systolic blood pressure

  2. The Comparison between Conceived Stress and Personality traits, in People Suffering from Migraine and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Peymannia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Migraine is a common familial disease and is diagnosed with recurring throbbing headache. Investigation of biological and psychological factors in the initiation and aggravation of migraine headaches have shown that there is a relationship between the psychological factors, personality, and migraine headache. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the conceived stress and Personality traits between ill persons suffering from Migraine and healthy people. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study which involves a sample including 30 migrainours and 30 healthy people. The migraine-suffering participants were chosen among the people who referred to specialized clinic of migraine in Ardabil in the first half of 2012. The study participants filled the Eysenck's personality questionnaire and Kohen' s Perceived stress scale. Descriptive statistics as well as MANOVA were utilized to analyze the research data. Results: The results showed that migraine-suffering participants conceived the stress negatively (P<0.01, F=11 compared to healthy participants. Moreover, migrainours scored significantly higher in regard to Neuroticism score compared to healthy people (P<0.05, F=5.91. Also, there was a significant difference between migrainours and healthy people in their extroversion score (P<0.05, F=6.57. Conclusion: According to the study findings, it appears that migraine patients are more vulnerable to the neurotic disease. Therefore, considering the psychological and personality characteristics may impact on the prognosis of disease.

  3. Exogenous cortisol acutely influences motivated decision making in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Peter; Antypa, Niki; Crysovergi, Panagiota; van der Does, Willem A J

    2010-02-01

    The glucocorticoid (GC) hormone cortisol is the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). Acute psychological stress increases HPA activity and GC release. In humans, chronic disturbances in HPA activity have been observed in affective disorders and in addictive behaviour. Recent research indicates that acute effects of GCs may be anxiolytic and increase reward sensitivity. Furthermore, cortisol acutely influences early cognitive processing of emotional stimuli. In order to extend such findings to more complex emotional-cognitive behaviour, the present study tested acute effects of 40 mg cortisol on motivated decision making in 30 healthy young men. Results showed that cortisol indeed increased risky decision making, as predicted. This effect occurred for decisions where making a risky choice could potentially yield a big reward. These results are discussed with respect to currently proposed mechanisms for cortisol's potential anxiolytic effect and GCs' involvement in reward systems.

  4. Preliminary study of relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and personality disorder functioning styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypnotic susceptibility is one of the stable characteristics of individuals, but not closely related to the personality traits such as those measured by the five-factor model in the general population. Whether it is related to the personality disorder functioning styles remains unanswered. Methods In 77 patients with personality disorders and 154 healthy volunteers, we administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM tests. Results Patients with personality disorders showed higher passing rates on SHSSC Dream and Posthypnotic Amnesia items. No significant correlation was found in healthy volunteers. In the patients however, SHSSC Taste hallucination (β = 0.26 and Anosmia to Ammonia (β = -0.23 were significantly correlated with the PERM Borderline style; SHSSC Posthypnotic Amnesia was correlated with the PERM Schizoid style (β = 0.25 but negatively the PERM Narcissistic style (β = -0.23. Conclusions Our results provide limited evidence that could help to understand the abnormal cognitions in personality disorders, such as their hallucination and memory distortions.

  5. Predicting personality disorder functioning styles by the Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality: a preliminary trial in healthy people and personality disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongying; Zhu, Qisha; Ma, Guorong; Shen, Chanchan; Zhang, Bingren; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-30

    Cultural and personality factors might contribute to the clinical differences of psychiatric patients all over the world including China. One cultural oriented Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality (CADP) designed to measure normal personality traits, might be specifically associated with different personality disorder functioning styles. We therefore have invited 201 healthy volunteers and 67 personality disorder patients to undergo CADP, the Parker Personality Measure (PERM), and the Plutchik-van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP) tests. Patients scored significantly higher on PVP scale and all 11 PERM personality disorder functioning styles, as well as CADP Emotional and Unsocial traits. The PVP was significantly correlated with some CADP traits and PERM styles in both groups. In healthy volunteers, only one CADP trait, Unsocial, prominently predicted 11 PERM styles. By contrast in patients, CADP Intelligent predicted the PERM Narcissistic and Passive-Aggressive styles; CADP Emotional the PERM Paranoid, Borderline, and Histrionic styles; CADP Conscientious the PERM Obsessive-Compulsive style; CADP Unsocial the PERM Schizotypal, Antisocial, Narcissistic, Avoidant, Dependent, and Passive-Aggressive styles; CADP Agreeable the PERM Antisocial style. As a preliminary study, our results demonstrated that, in personality disorder patients, all five CADP traits were specifically associated with almost all 11 personality disorder functioning styles, indicating that CADP might be used as an aid to diagnose personality disorders in China.

  6. Comparison of serum from gastric cancer patients and from healthy persons using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Daping; Wu, Yican; Wang, Xin; Huang, Dake; Chen, Xianliang; Liu, Xingcun

    2013-12-01

    Since serum can reflect human beings' physiological and pathological conditions, FTIR spectroscopy was used to compare gastric cancer patients' serum with healthy persons' serum in this study. The H2959/H2931, H1646/H1550, H1314/H1243, H1453/H1400 and H1080/H1550 ratios were calculated, among these ratios, the H2959/H2931 ratio might be a standard for distinguishing gastric cancer patients from healthy persons. Then curve fitting was processed using Gaussian curves in the 1140-1000 cm-1 region, and the result showed that the RNA/DNA ratios of gastric cancer patients' serum were obviously lower than those of healthy persons' serum. The results suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be a potentially useful tool for diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  7. Comparing Personality Traits , Coping Strategies, and Attributional Styles of Opioid-Dependent Patients and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Moradi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is carried on to compare personality traits, coping strategies, and attributional styles of opiate-dependent patients and healthy people. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sctional and comparative research, three scales Eysenk Personality Questionaire RS (EPQ-RS, Coping Response Inventory (CRI, and Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ are used to measure the mentioned variables on 158 people (78 opiate-dependent patient and 80 healthy people selected by accessible sampling method. Research data were examined on the basis of T-test for independent groups and logistic regression. Results: Results of T-test showed that there were significant differences between healthy and patient group in Coping Response Inventory and Personality Traits Subscale(except Lying subscale and attribution styles for negative events (P<0.001. Logistic regression results showed that all of these variables which entered in model, are able to predict distinction one group from other patient group and healthy one in a meaningful way(P<0.001. Conclusion: opiate-dependent patients when they face problems significantly use problem-solving strategies, social support seeking, and cognitive evaluation significantly less than healthy group and use physical inhibition and emotional inhibition significantly more than the healthy group. Also, drug-dependent patients in terms of tendency to Neuroticism, psychoticism and introversion were significantly higher than the healthy group, and they had more pessimistic attributional style towards negative events. On the other hand it became apparent that some aspects of personality characteristics, coping strategies, and attributional style considerably were able to distinguish healthy people from opiate-dependent patients.

  8. When Personal Tracking Becomes Social: Examining the Use of Instagram for Healthy Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Chia-Fang; Agapie, Elena; Schroeder, Jessica; Mishra, Sonali; Fogarty, James; Munson, Sean A.

    2017-01-01

    Many people appropriate social media and online communities in their pursuit of personal health goals, such as healthy eating or increased physical activity. However, people struggle with impression management, and with reaching the right audiences when they share health information on these platforms. Instagram, a popular photo-based social media platform, has attracted many people who post and share their food photos. We aim to inform the design of tools to support healthy behaviors by unde...

  9. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between personality traits and CCK-4-induced panic attacks in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõru, Innar; Aluoja, Anu; Võhma, Ulle; Raag, Mait; Vasar, Veiko; Maron, Eduard; Shlik, Jakov

    2010-07-30

    In this study we examined how personality disposition may affect the response to cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4; 50 microg) challenge in healthy volunteers (n=105). Personality traits were assessed with the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP). Statistical methods employed were correlation analysis and logistic regression. The results showed that the occurrence of CCK-4-induced panic attacks was best predicted by baseline diastolic blood pressure, preceding anxiety and SSP-defined traits of lack of assertiveness, detachment, embitterment and verbal aggression. Significant interactions were noted between the above mentioned variables, modifying their individual effects. For different subsets of CCK-4-induced symptoms, the traits of physical aggression, irritability, somatic anxiety and stress susceptibility also appeared related to panic manifestations. These findings suggest that some personality traits and their interactions may influence vulnerability to CCK-4-induced panic attacks in healthy volunteers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcineurin inhibitors acutely improve insulin sensitivity without affecting insulin secretion in healthy human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzbay, Aygen; Møller, Niels; Juhl, Claus

    2012-01-01

    and tacrolimus has been attributed to both beta cell dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: This is the first trial to investigate beta cell function and insulin sensitivity using gold standard methodology in healthy human volunteers treated with clinically relevant doses...... of ciclosporin and tacrolimus. We document that both drugs acutely increase insulin sensitivity, while first phase and pulsatile insulin secretion remain unaffected. This study demonstrates that ciclosporin and tacrolimus have similar acute effects on glucose metabolism in healthy humans. AIM The introduction...... of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) ciclosporin (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) has improved the outcome of organ transplants, but complications such as new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) cause impairment of survival rates. The relative contribution of each CNI to the pathogenesis and development...

  12. Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, F.; Lenz, C.; Dolder, P. C.; Harder, S.; Schmid, Y.; Lang, U. E.; Liechti, M. E.; Borgwardt, S.

    2017-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces profound changes in various mental domains, including perception, self-awareness and emotions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the acute effects of LSD on the neural substrate of emotional processing in humans. Using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over study design, placebo or 100 μg LSD were orally administered to 20 healthy subjects before the fMRI scan, taking into account the subjective and pharmacological pea...

  13. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals.Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions.Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have harmful effects on vascular

  14. Antibodies against Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Healthy Persons, China, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Jimin; Yan, Jie; Lv, Huakun; Chai, Chengliang; Sun, Yi; Shao, Bin; Jiang, Jianmin; Chen, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    In June 2013, a subclinical infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was detected in Zhejiang Province, China, prompting seroprevalence studies in 6 districts within the province. Of 986 healthy persons tested, 71 had IgG antibodies against SFTSV. This finding suggests that most natural infections with SFTSV are mild or subclinical. PMID:25061813

  15. Antibodies against severe fever with Thrombocytopenia syndrome Virus in healthy persons, China, 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang Lei, Lei; Sun, J.; Yan, J.; Huakun, L.; Chai, C.Y.; Sun, Y.; Shao, B.; Jiang, J.D.; Chen, Z.; Kortekaas, J.A.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In June 2013, a subclinical infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) was detected in Zhejiang Province, China, prompting seroprevalence studies in 6 districts within the province. Of 986 healthy persons tested, 71 had IgG antibodies against SFTSV. This finding

  16. The Comparison of Defense Mechanism Styles and Personality Characteristics in Addicts and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to comprise of psychological defense mechanism styles and personality characteristics in addicts and healthy individuals. Method: In this causal-comparative study, 70 addicts person (with an average age of 37.29±9.81and the age range 23 to 58 years were selected via accessible sampling method of clinics and Hamadan’s addicted self-representing center during the Autumn of 2011, The number of 70 relatives of these people that demographic variables were matched as possible with the comparison group were selected. Both groups were asked to respond to the defense mechanism style and Eysenk personality Questionnaires. Results: The result of this study showed that the scores mean of addicts were higher than healthy people on immature defense mechanism style, neourotism, and neurotic and extraversion personality characteristics and lower than in mature defense style variables. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study there was a significant difference between addict individuals and healthy people in defense mechanism and personality characteristics.

  17. Personality styles in patients with fibromyalgia, major depression and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiles Tore C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is suggested to be a manifestation of depression or affective spectrum disorder. We measured the cognitive style of patients with FMS to assess personality styles in 44 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS by comparing them with 43 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and 41 healthy controls (HC. Methods Personality styles were measured by the Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale (SAS and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS. The Structured Clinical interview for DSM Axis I was applied to Axis I disorders, while the Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression severity. Results Patients with FMS in general have a sociotropic personality style similar to patients with MDD, and different from HC, but FMS patients without a lifetime history of MDD had a cognitive personality style different from patients with MDD and similar to HC. Conclusion These findings suggest that a depressotypic personality style is related to depressive disorder, but not to FMS.

  18. Individual differences in error monitoring in healthy adults: psychological symptoms and antisocial personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and personality traits and error monitoring measured by error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) components, yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the collective simultaneous effects of psychological symptoms and personality traits on error monitoring. This present study, therefore, examined whether measures of hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, anxiety and antisocial personality characteristics could collectively account for significant interindividual variability of both ERN and Pe amplitudes, in 29 healthy adults with no known disorders, ages 18-30 years. The bivariate zero-order correlation analyses found that only the anxiety measure was significantly related to both ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, multiple regression analyses that included all four characteristic measures while controlling for number of segments in the ERP average revealed that both depression and antisocial personality characteristics were significant predictors for the ERN amplitudes whereas antisocial personality was the only significant predictor for the Pe amplitude. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms and personality traits are associated with individual variations in error monitoring in healthy adults, and future studies should consider these variables when comparing group difference in error monitoring between adults with and without disabilities. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Relationship between leukocyte telomere length and personality traits in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadahiro, R; Suzuki, A; Enokido, M; Matsumoto, Y; Shibuya, N; Kamata, M; Goto, K; Otani, K

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown that certain personality traits are related to mortality and disease morbidity, but the biological mechanism linking them remains unclear. Telomeres are tandem repeat DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes, and shorter telomere length is a predictor of mortality and late-life disease morbidity. Thus, it is possible that personality traits influence telomere length. In the present study, we examined the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with personality traits in healthy subjects. The subjects were 209 unrelated healthy Japanese who were recruited from medical students at 4th-5th grade. Assessment of personality traits was performed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Leukocyte relative telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method for a ratio of telomere/single copy gene. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, shorter telomere length was related to lower scores of neuroticism (Ppersonality traits, and this association may be implicated in the relationship between personality traits and mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in Healthy Individuals: A Compensation for Cognitive Deficits or a Question of Personality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa J Maier

    Full Text Available The ongoing bioethical debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE in healthy individuals is often legitimated by the assumption that PCE will widely spread and become desirable for the general public in the near future. This assumption was questioned as PCE is not equally save and effective in everyone. Additionally, it was supposed that the willingness to use PCE is strongly personality-dependent likely preventing a broad PCE epidemic. Thus, we investigated whether the cognitive performance and personality of healthy individuals with regular nonmedical methylphenidate (MPH use for PCE differ from stimulant-naïve controls. Twenty-five healthy individuals using MPH for PCE were compared with 39 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls regarding cognitive performance and personality assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery including social cognition, prosocial behavior, decision-making, impulsivity, and personality questionnaires. Substance use was assessed through self-report in an interview and quantitative hair and urine analyses. Recently abstinent PCE users showed no cognitive impairment but superior strategic thinking and decision-making. Furthermore, PCE users displayed higher levels of trait impulsivity, novelty seeking, and Machiavellianism combined with lower levels of social reward dependence and cognitive empathy. Finally, PCE users reported a smaller social network and exhibited less prosocial behavior in social interaction tasks. In conclusion, the assumption that PCE use will soon become epidemic is not supported by the present findings as PCE users showed a highly specific personality profile that shares a number of features with illegal stimulant users. Lastly, regular MPH use for PCE is not necessarily associated with cognitive deficits.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging versus Acute Physiology And Chronic Healthy Evaluation II score in predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Wei; Zhang Xiaoming; Xiao Bo; Zeng Nanlin; Pan Huashan; Feng Zhisong; Xu Xiaoxue

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between established magnetic resonance (MR) imaging criteria of disease severity in acute pancreatitis and the Acute Physiology And Chronic Healthy Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, and to assess the utility of each prognostic indicators in acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: In this study there were 94 patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), all had abdominal MR imaging. MR findings were categorized into edematous and necrotizing AP and graded according to the MR severity index (MRSI). The APACHE II score was calculated within 24 h of admission, and local complications, death, duration of hospitalization and ICU were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed to determine their correlation. Results: In patients with pancreatitis, no significant correlation can be found between the APACHE II score and the MRSI score (P = 0.196). The MRSI score correlated well with morbidity (P = 0.006) but not with mortality (P = 0.137). The APACHE II score correlated well with mortality (P = 0.002) but not with the morbidity (P = 0.112). The MRSI score was superior to the APACHE II score as a predictor of the length of hospitalization (r = 0.52 vs. r = 0.35). A high MRSI and APACHE II score correlated with the need for being in the intensive care unit (ICU) (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: In patients with pancreatitis, MRSI is superior to APACHE II in assessing local complications from pancreatitis but has a limited role in determining systemic complications in which the APACHE II score excels.

  2. The relationship between personality and the response to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, Andre; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular

  3. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincks, John; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. METHODS:Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. RESULTS:In general, no differences were found between speed......-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant...... correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. CONCLUSION:In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest...

  4. Conceptions of Healthy Aging Held by Relatives of Older Persons in Isan-Thai Culture: A Phenomenographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2018-01-01

    In Thailand, family nurses are expected to provide support for older persons and their family members to promote healthy aging. Family bonds are strong, and relatives are expected to take care of their older family members. However, there is limited research on how older persons' family members perceive healthy aging. This study aimed to describe the conceptions of healthy aging held by the children and grandchildren of older persons in northeast Thailand. In a phenomenographic study, 14 interviews were performed to qualitatively analyze different conceptions of healthy aging. Four descriptive categories emerged: being independent, not being afflicted by diseases or illnesses, being a giver and a receiver, and being wise. The conceptions of healthy aging entail both autonomy and interdependence. The relative's perspective needs to be considered when policies relating to healthy aging are implemented in the community and when family nurses provide support to families to promote healthy aging.

  5. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Phillips, Anna C.; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2013-01-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both

  6. Alteration of T cell function in healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, C.H.L.; Kraft, S.C.; Rothberg, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    The possible late effects of x irradiation to the infantile thymus were investigated by studying immune functions in 12 healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation and healthy control subjects. No differences were found in serum immunoglobulin values, humoral antibody levels, lymphocyte counts, and lymphocyte reactivity to phytohemagglutinin, vaccinia virus, purified protein derivative (PPD), and allogeneic cells. The irradiation group exhibited cellular hyperresponsiveness to streptokinase-streptodornase (SK-SD). In contrast, mean skin and in vitro lymphocyte responses to Candida albicans were depressed in the patients with thymic irradiation. A dissociation of these two Candida responses was found in only 1 of 14 healthy control subjects but in 7 of 12 irradiated individuals. While thymic irradiation did not result in impaired immunologic defenses leading to clinical disease, it caused alterations in T cell responses similar to those reported in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

  7. Alteration of T cell function in healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, C.H.L.; Kraft, S.C.; Rothberg, R.M.

    1975-10-01

    The possible late effects of x irradiation to the infantile thymus were investigated by studying immune functions in 12 healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation and healthy control subjects. No differences were found in serum immunoglobulin values, humoral antibody levels, lymphocyte counts, and lymphocyte reactivity to phytohemagglutinin, vaccinia virus, purified protein derivative (PPD), and allogeneic cells. The irradiation group exhibited cellular hyperresponsiveness to streptokinase-streptodornase (SK-SD). In contrast, mean skin and in vitro lymphocyte responses to Candida albicans were depressed in the patients with thymic irradiation. A dissociation of these two Candida responses was found in only 1 of 14 healthy control subjects but in 7 of 12 irradiated individuals. While thymic irradiation did not result in impaired immunologic defenses leading to clinical disease, it caused alterations in T cell responses similar to those reported in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

  8. Lymphocyte subsets are influenced by positivity levels in healthy subjects before and after mild acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Nisini, Roberto; Castellani, Valeria; Vittorio, Pasquali; Alessandri, Guido; Vincenzo, Ziparo; Claudia, Ferlito; Valentina, Germano; Andrea, Picchianti Diamanti; Biondo, Michela Ileen; Milanetti, Francesca; Salerno, Gerardo; Vincenzo, Visco; Mario, Pietrosanti; Aniballi, Eros; Simonetta, Salemi; Angela, Santoni; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    In the current study, the possible association of positivity (POS), recently defined as general disposition to view life under positive outlook, with immune markers and post-stress modifications, was analyzed. Circulating lymphocyte subsets and serum cytokine levels were evaluated before and after a standard mild acute stress test, in 41 healthy students, previously selected by a questionnaire for their level of POS (high [POS-H] and low [POS-L]). The CD3 + and CD4 + cell frequency was higher in the POS-H students before and after acute stress. CD4 + subpopulation analysis revealed baseline higher terminally differentiated frequency in the POS-H, whereas higher effector memory frequency was present in the POS-L students. Moreover, the frequency of post-stress B cells was higher in the POS-H students. The mild-stress test was associated to an increase of the IL-10 mean values, while mean values of the other cytokines tested did not change significantly. It is tempting to speculate that IL-10 may work as biomarker of response to acute mild stress and that POS-H may be associated to a better capacity of the immune system to contrast the disturbing effects of mild acute stress. Yet further studies on lymphocyte subset absolute number and function of larger and different populations are needed to definitively prove these preliminary observations. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gastic content evacuation rate in healthy persons and in patients (a radionuyclide study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablyazov, A.A.; Dudurev, A.L.; Yakovleva, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    A method is proposed for the determination of differences in the rate of evacuation of 3 types of test brakfast: boiled semolina, boiled semolina with proteins or fat. Evacuatory function of food mass mixed with RP of the gastroduodenal system was investigated in healthy persons and in 44 patients using a gamma-camera. The results obtained indicate the complex nature of gastric content evacuatory disorders in gastroenterologic patients, and it should be taken into account in differential diagnosis and therapy

  10. When Personal Tracking Becomes Social: Examining the Use of Instagram for Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chia-Fang; Agapie, Elena; Schroeder, Jessica; Mishra, Sonali; Fogarty, James; Munson, Sean A

    2017-05-02

    Many people appropriate social media and online communities in their pursuit of personal health goals, such as healthy eating or increased physical activity. However, people struggle with impression management, and with reaching the right audiences when they share health information on these platforms. Instagram, a popular photo-based social media platform, has attracted many people who post and share their food photos. We aim to inform the design of tools to support healthy behaviors by understanding how people appropriate Instagram to track and share food data, the benefits they obtain from doing so, and the challenges they encounter. We interviewed 16 women who consistently record and share what they eat on Instagram. Participants tracked to support themselves and others in their pursuit of healthy eating goals. They sought social support for their own tracking and healthy behaviors and strove to provide that support for others. People adapted their personal tracking practices to better receive and give this support. Applying these results to the design of health tracking tools has the potential to help people better access social support.

  11. When Personal Tracking Becomes Social: Examining the Use of Instagram for Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chia-Fang; Agapie, Elena; Schroeder, Jessica; Mishra, Sonali; Fogarty, James; Munson, Sean A.

    2017-01-01

    Many people appropriate social media and online communities in their pursuit of personal health goals, such as healthy eating or increased physical activity. However, people struggle with impression management, and with reaching the right audiences when they share health information on these platforms. Instagram, a popular photo-based social media platform, has attracted many people who post and share their food photos. We aim to inform the design of tools to support healthy behaviors by understanding how people appropriate Instagram to track and share food data, the benefits they obtain from doing so, and the challenges they encounter. We interviewed 16 women who consistently record and share what they eat on Instagram. Participants tracked to support themselves and others in their pursuit of healthy eating goals. They sought social support for their own tracking and healthy behaviors and strove to provide that support for others. People adapted their personal tracking practices to better receive and give this support. Applying these results to the design of health tracking tools has the potential to help people better access social support. PMID:28516174

  12. Toddler's Paralysis: An Acute Case of Leg Stiffening in a Previously Healthy 2-Year-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahne, Kimberly Renee; Tay, Ee Tein

    2018-05-14

    Vegetarian and vegan diets are gaining popularity in the United States. Although appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including vegan diets, are healthful and nutritionally adequate and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, not all families are aware of the nutritional supplements that may be required for their children. We describe a case of a 2-year-old previously healthy child consuming a vegan diet who presented to the pediatric emergency department with an acute inability to move her legs. Ionized calcium was found to be 0.89 mmol/L, and symptoms completely resolved within 2 hours of calcium gluconate infusion.

  13. Emotional intelligence in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Katrin; Driessen, Martin; Behnia, Behnoush; Wingenfeld, Katja; Roepke, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    Emotional intelligence as a part of social cognition has, to our knowledge, never been investigated in patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), though the disorder is characterized by aspects of emotional dysfunctioning. PTSD often occurs with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) as a common comorbidity. Studies about social cognition and emotional intelligence in patients with BPD propose aberrant social cognition, but produced inconsistent results regarding emotional intelligence. The present study aims to assess emotional intelligence in patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD, PTSD with comorbid BPD, and BPD patients without comorbid PTSD, as well as in healthy controls. 71 patients with PTSD (41 patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD, 30 patients with PTSD with comorbid BPD), 56 patients with BPD without PTSD, and 63 healthy controls filled in the Test of Emotional Intelligence (TEMINT). Patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD showed impairments in emotional intelligence compared to patients with BPD without PTSD, and compared to healthy controls. These impairments were not restricted to specific emotions. Patients with BPD did not differ significantly from healthy controls. This study provides evidence for an impaired emotional intelligence in PTSD without comorbid BPD compared to BPD and healthy controls, affecting a wide range of emotions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of the "affectionless control" parenting style on personality traits in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Oshino, Shingo; Ishii, Genki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-30

    The effects of the affectionless control (AC) parenting style on personality traits were studied in 414 Japanese healthy subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which comprises care and protection factors, and personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory, which has seven dimensions. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and AC (low care/high protection). Males with maternal AC showed significantly higher harm avoidance (HA) scores and lower scores of persistence and cooperativeness than those with maternal optimal parenting. Females with maternal AC showed significantly higher HA scores and lower self-directedness scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. Paternal AC was not significantly related to any personality score. In females, the interaction between paternal rearing and maternal rearing was significant; the effect of maternal AC on HA scores was strongest when combined with paternal neglectful parenting. The present study suggests that the AC type parenting by mothers is associated with specific personality traits, especially high HA, in healthy subjects.

  15. Clinical, psychophysiological and psychological aspects of risk factors of periodontal disease development in clinically healthy persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Nikulina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine risk factors of periodontal disease development, psychophysiological personal types and their interrelations in clinically healthy persons. 47 first-year cadets of St.-Petersburg Military School of radio electronics have been examined. This group of respondents has been chosen by presence of such social stressor as change of place of living (97,9% cadets have arrived in St.-Petersburg from other cities and republics of the Russian Federation and strict disciplinary conditions. The research has revealed a low level of oral hygiene, cases of mild gingivitis in most respondents. The general mental state of group under study is characterized by raised level of personal anxiety and low indices of reactive anxiety. The examined group has demonstrated anxiety, tension, indecision and lowered stress stability. Clinically healthy persons are more liable to develop inflammatory and inflammatory-destructive periodontal diseases. It was possible to determine psychophysiological features correlated with physiological parameters of risk degree of periodontal diseases. It may have a great significance in defining of periodontal disease etiology and pathogenesis

  16. Regular exercise is associated with emotional resilience to acute stress in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eChilds

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has long been considered beneficial to health and regular exercise is purported to relieve stress. However empirical evidence demonstrating these effects is limited. In this study, we compared psychophysiological responses to an acute psychosocial stressor between individuals who did, or did not, report regular physical exercise. Healthy men and women (N=111 participated in two experimental sessions, one with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and one with a non-stressful control task. We measured heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol and self-reported mood before and at repeated times after the tasks.Individuals who reported physical exercise at least once per week exhibited lower heart rate at rest than non-exercisers, but the groups did not differ in their cardiovascular responses to the TSST. Level of habitual exercise did not influence self-reported mood before the tasks, but non-exercisers reported a greater decline in positive affect after the TSST in comparison to exercisers. These findings provide modest support for claims that regular exercise protects against the negative emotional consequences of stress, and suggest that exercise has beneficial effects in healthy individuals. These findings are limited by their correlational nature, and future prospective controlled studies on the effects of regular exercise on response to acute stress are needed.

  17. Specificity of Affective Instability in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder Compared to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Bulimia Nervosa, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Philip; Mussgay, Lutz; Sawitzki, Günther; Trull, Timothy J.; Reinhard, Iris; Steil, Regina; Klein, Christoph; Bohus, Martin; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Affective instability is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The use of advanced assessment methodologies and appropriate statistical analyses has led to consistent findings that indicate a heightened instability in patients with BPD compared with healthy controls. However, few studies have investigated the specificity of affective instability among patients with BPD with regard to relevant clinical control groups. In this study, 43 patients with BPD, 28 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 20 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28 healthy controls carried e-diaries for 24 hours and were prompted to rate their momentary affective states approximately every 15 minutes while awake. To quantify instability, we used 3 state-of-the-art indices: multilevel models for squared successive differences (SSDs), multilevel models for probability of acute changes (PACs), and aggregated point-by-point changes (APPCs). Patients with BPD displayed heightened affective instability for emotional valence and distress compared with healthy controls, regardless of the specific instability indices. These results directly replicate earlier studies. However, affective instability did not seem to be specific to patients with BPD. With regard to SSDs, PACs, and APPCs, patients with PTSD or BN showed a similar heightened instability of affect (emotional valence and distress) to that of patients with BPD. Our results give raise to the discussion if affective instability is a transdiagnostic or a disorder-specific mechanism. Current evidence cannot answer this question, but investigating psychopathological mechanisms in everyday life across disorders is a promising approach to enhance validity and specificity of mental health diagnoses. PMID:24661176

  18. Conceptions of Healthy Aging Held by Relatives of Older Persons in Isan-Thai Culture: A Phenomenographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpun Manasatchakun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, family nurses are expected to provide support for older persons and their family members to promote healthy aging. Family bonds are strong, and relatives are expected to take care of their older family members. However, there is limited research on how older persons’ family members perceive healthy aging. This study aimed to describe the conceptions of healthy aging held by the children and grandchildren of older persons in northeast Thailand. In a phenomenographic study, 14 interviews were performed to qualitatively analyze different conceptions of healthy aging. Four descriptive categories emerged: being independent, not being afflicted by diseases or illnesses, being a giver and a receiver, and being wise. The conceptions of healthy aging entail both autonomy and interdependence. The relative’s perspective needs to be considered when policies relating to healthy aging are implemented in the community and when family nurses provide support to families to promote healthy aging.

  19. Acute binge drinking increases serum endotoxin and bacterial DNA levels in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Bala

    Full Text Available Binge drinking, the most common form of alcohol consumption, is associated with increased mortality and morbidity; yet, its biological consequences are poorly defined. Previous studies demonstrated that chronic alcohol use results in increased gut permeability and increased serum endotoxin levels that contribute to many of the biological effects of chronic alcohol, including alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we evaluated the effects of acute binge drinking in healthy adults on serum endotoxin levels. We found that acute alcohol binge resulted in a rapid increase in serum endotoxin and 16S rDNA, a marker of bacterial translocation from the gut. Compared to men, women had higher blood alcohol and circulating endotoxin levels. In addition, alcohol binge caused a prolonged increase in acute phase protein levels in the systemic circulation. The biological significance of the in vivo endotoxin elevation was underscored by increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-6, and chemokine, MCP-1, measured in total blood after in vitro lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Our findings indicate that even a single alcohol binge results in increased serum endotoxin levels likely due to translocation of gut bacterial products and disturbs innate immune responses that can contribute to the deleterious effects of binge drinking.

  20. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this species....... Reference intervals established were as follows: SAA, 29.5–87.7 mg/L; CRP, 0–17.5 mg/L; haptoglobin, 354.3–2,414.7 mg/L; albumin, 36.1–53.0 g/L; and iron, 13.3–40.2 lmol/L. Furthermore, changes in the acute-phase reactants were studied in two additional groups of animals: eight rhesus macaques suffering...... from acute traumatic injuries and nine rhesus macaques experimentally infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis reflecting a chronic active inflammation. In animals with inflammation, SAA and haptoglobin concentrations were moderately increased, while CRP increased more than 200-fold. In addition, marked...

  1. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture--A phenomenographic study based on older persons' lived experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people.

  2. Acute Liver Impairment in a Young, Healthy Athlete: Hypoxic Hepatitis and Rhabdomyolysis following Heat Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville Azzopardi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Any process that substantially diminishes arterial blood flow or arterial oxygen content to the liver can result in hypoxic (ischaemic hepatitis. 90% of hypoxic hepatitis occurs in unstable patients in intensive care units with haemodynamic failure secondary to heart failure, respiratory failure and toxic shock. The rate of in-hospital mortality in hypoxic hepatitis is very high with studies recording mortalities of 61.5%. It tends to be very uncommon in healthy, young patients with no underlying medical problems. We report here the case of a young healthy athlete who developed heat stroke associated with rhabdomyolysis and hypoxic hepatitis while he was running the final stages of a marathon. The patient required intensive care admission and inotropic support for a few hours after he was admitted with heat stroke. He underwent a rapid recovery after he was resuscitated with fluids. N-acetyl cysteine was also given during the acute stage of the hepatitis. This case highlights an uncommon case of hypoxic hepatitis in a young, healthy patient secondary to hypotension and heat stroke. Inotropic support might have precipitated the hypoxic hepatitis in this young patient.

  3. Recognition of facial emotion and perceived parental bonding styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Leilei; Chai, Hao; Chen, Wanzhen; Yu, Rongrong; He, Wei; Jiang, Zhengyan; Yu, Shaohua; Li, Huichun; Wang, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Early parental bonding experiences play a role in emotion recognition and expression in later adulthood, and patients with personality disorder frequently experience inappropriate parental bonding styles, therefore the aim of the present study was to explore whether parental bonding style is correlated with recognition of facial emotion in personality disorder patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the Matsumoto and Ekman Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE) photo set tests were carried out in 289 participants. Patients scored lower on parental Care but higher on parental Freedom Control and Autonomy Denial subscales, and they displayed less accuracy when recognizing contempt, disgust and happiness than the healthy volunteers. In healthy volunteers, maternal Autonomy Denial significantly predicted accuracy when recognizing fear, and maternal Care predicted the accuracy of recognizing sadness. In patients, paternal Care negatively predicted the accuracy of recognizing anger, paternal Freedom Control predicted the perceived intensity of contempt, maternal Care predicted the accuracy of recognizing sadness, and the intensity of disgust. Parenting bonding styles have an impact on the decoding process and sensitivity when recognizing facial emotions, especially in personality disorder patients. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  4. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brincks, John; Christensen, Lars Ejsing; Rehnquist, Mette Voigt; Petersen, Jesper; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    To improve walking in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of walking. This study examined strategies in net joint power generated or absorbed by hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors, and plantar flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. In general, no differences were found between speed-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest that mildly disabled persons with MS used similar kinetic strategies as healthy controls to increase walking speed.

  5. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  6. Differentiation between early rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy persons by conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Mette Bjørndal; Ejbjerg, B J; Hetland, M L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameter that best differentiates healthy persons and patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigated responsiveness to treatment of various MRI parameters. METHOD: Conventional MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE...

  7. Hypercapnic evaluation of vascular reactivity in healthy aging and acute stroke via functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Ryan V; Nair, Veena A; Sattin, Justin A; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is well-established for the study of brain function in healthy populations, although its clinical application has proven more challenging. Specifically, cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), which allows the assessment of the vascular response that serves as the basis for fMRI, has been shown to be reduced in healthy aging as well as in a range of diseases, including chronic stroke. However, the timing of when this occurs relative to the stroke event is unclear. We used a breath-hold fMRI task to evaluate CVR across gray matter in a group of acute stroke patients (< 10 days from stroke; N = 22) to address this question. These estimates were compared with those from both age-matched (N = 22) and younger (N = 22) healthy controls. As expected, young controls had the greatest mean CVR, as indicated by magnitude and extent of fMRI activation; however, stroke patients did not differ from age-matched controls. Moreover, the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres of stroke patients did not differ with respect to any of these measures. These findings suggest that fMRI remains a valid tool within the first few days of a stroke, particularly for group fMRI studies in which findings are compared with healthy subjects of similar age. However, given the relatively high variability in CVR observed in our stroke sample, caution is warranted when interpreting fMRI data from individual patients or a small cohort. We conclude that a breath-hold task can be a useful addition to functional imaging protocols for stroke patients.

  8. Hypercapnic evaluation of vascular reactivity in healthy aging and acute stroke via functional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan V. Raut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI is well-established for the study of brain function in healthy populations, although its clinical application has proven more challenging. Specifically, cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR, which allows the assessment of the vascular response that serves as the basis for fMRI, has been shown to be reduced in healthy aging as well as in a range of diseases, including chronic stroke. However, the timing of when this occurs relative to the stroke event is unclear. We used a breath-hold fMRI task to evaluate CVR across gray matter in a group of acute stroke patients (<10 days from stroke; N = 22 to address this question. These estimates were compared with those from both age-matched (N = 22 and younger (N = 22 healthy controls. As expected, young controls had the greatest mean CVR, as indicated by magnitude and extent of fMRI activation; however, stroke patients did not differ from age-matched controls. Moreover, the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres of stroke patients did not differ with respect to any of these measures. These findings suggest that fMRI remains a valid tool within the first few days of a stroke, particularly for group fMRI studies in which findings are compared with healthy subjects of similar age. However, given the relatively high variability in CVR observed in our stroke sample, caution is warranted when interpreting fMRI data from individual patients or a small cohort. We conclude that a breath-hold task can be a useful addition to functional imaging protocols for stroke patients.

  9. The Comparison of Healthy and Unhealthy Perfectionism and Type A Personality in The Perceived Parenting Styles in University Students

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    مریم جهان بخش

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is to study healthy and unhealthy perfectionism as well as type A personality based on different parenting styles. With a ex-post-facto method, a sample of undergraduate students at Shahid Beheshti University was selected through random multistage cluster sampling with at least 80 students in every parenting style. This sample consists of 407 students: 235 girls and 172 boys. The subjects completed three questionnaires of perceived parenting style, positive and negative perfectionism scale and type A personality. The collected data was analyzed by statistical tests MANOVA and ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test. Results indicated that healthy perfectionism in the authoritative parenting style is more and in negligent parenting style is lower than the other parenting styles. The unhealthy perfectionism of the boys was more than girls. The interactive effect of the two variables namely parenting styles and gender upon healthy perfectionism was significant. Healthy­ perfectionism in authoritative parenting style in girls was more than boys and in permissive parenting style healthy perfectionism in boys was more than girls. The general effect of parenting styles and general effect of gender in score of type A personality did not show significant difference; however, the interactive effect of parenting styles and gender upon type A personality was supported. Here in permissive parenting style the type A personality in boys is higher than girls and in authoritarian parenting style the type A personality in girls is higher than boys. Conclusion: Due to the crucial role of parents' parenting styles in creating healthy and unhealthy perfectionism and also due to interactive effect of parenting style and gender on the healthy perfectionism and type A personality, educating parents on parenting styles and also giving instruction to the families for raising healthy persons in the society is a high priority.

  10. What factors influence healthy aging? A person-centered approach among older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Su, Pei-Fang

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to identify the health profiles of older adults by using latent class analysis to investigate health heterogeneity and to determine what factors predicted healthy aging among an oldest-old sample cohort that was followed up for 14 years in Taiwan. Data were drawn from five waves (carried out in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003 and 2007) of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to examine the changes in health heterogeneity in a nationally representative oldest-old cohort of Taiwanese. Overall, data from a total of 11 145 observations of 3155 older adults were considered. The influential factors predicting health changes were analyzed by using a generalized estimating equation. The results showed that four health profiles were identified among the aging population observed in the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. With increasing age, the combined effects of the physical functioning, cognitive and emotional health, and comorbidities of older adults significantly impact their health changes. Apart from health deteriorating with age and sex disparities, educational and economic status, health behaviors, and social participation at the individual level were found to be the robust factors in predicting healthy aging. In considering what factors impact healthy aging, we suggest that a person-centered approach would be useful and critical for policy makers to understand the compositions of health profiles and the influencing factors in view of a life-course perspective. Based on the factors identified as influencing healthy aging at the individual level, it is imperative from a policy-making perspective to maximize opportunities for healthy aging. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 697-707. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Acute Demyelination in a Person with Amphetamine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Weis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 31-year-old woman, admitted to the hospital for chest pain, dying a few days later from septic multiorgan failure, and showing at autopsy foci of acute demyelination in the occipital lobe. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of amphetamine in the demyelinated area, which might be considered as the pathogenic agent, since other causes for demyelination could be excluded. This case represents the first report showing a demyelinating process due to a street drug.

  12. Ocular effects of acute ingestion of Cola nitida(Linn on healthy adult volunteers

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    S. A. Igwe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cola nitida Linn (Sterculiaceae is an economic plant widely distributed throughout West Africa and possibly other parts of Africa.Members are malvalves because of their lobular nature. Because of its ubiquity, the plant plays an important role in commerce, and in social activities where it is casually eaten without prescription or restriction. The ethnopharmacological effects of bolus ingestion of 30g of Cola nitida was investigated on visually acute and healthy volunteers in order to determine its ocular implications or effects. Results showed that Cola nitida had no effecton the pupil diameter, visual acuity and intraocular pressure but improved the near point of convergence by 43% and increased the amplitude of accommodation by 11% while existing heterophorias are ameliorated. The stimulating effect of Cola nitida might overcome asthenopic symptoms with convergence insufficiency and allows near work to be donewithout stress. Somnolence and ocular muscle imbalance common features of the elderly canbe ameliorated or relieved.

  13. Motor performance during and following acute alcohol intoxication in healthy non-alcoholic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Buch; Jakobsen, Johannes Klitgaard; Andersen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has adverse effects on skeletal muscle, and reduced muscle strength is frequently seen in chronic alcoholics. In this study the acute effects of moderate alcohol intoxication on motor performance was evaluated in 19 non-alcoholic healthy subjects (10 women, 9 men......). A randomised double-blinded placebo controlled design was applied to subjects receiving alcohol in juice and pure juice at two separate test periods. Isokinetic and isometric muscle strength and endurance were determined before, during, 24 and 48 h after the ingestion of alcohol in juice and juice (placebo......). To detect a reduced activation of the central motor pathways superimposed external electrical stimulations during voluntary contractions were applied. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured to detect any alcohol-induced changes in sarcolemmal integrity. No change was seen in isokinetic as well as in isometric...

  14. Management of acute gastroenteritis in healthy children in Lebanon - A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Aouni; Mourad, Sawsan; Rifai, Nahida

    2010-11-01

    Acute gastroenteritis remains a common condition among infants and children throughout the world. In 1996, The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) revised its recommendations for the treatment of infants and children with acute gastroenteritis. The purpose of this survey was to determine how closely current treatment among Lebanese pediatricians compares with the AAP recommendations and to determine the impact of such management on the healthcare system. The outline of the study was based on a telephone questionnaire that addressed the management of healthy infants and children below five years of age with acute gastroenteritis complicated by mild to moderate dehydration. In addition, the costs of medical treatment and requested laboratory studies were calculated. A total of 238 pediatricians completed the questionnaire. Most pediatricians prescribed Oral Rehydration Solutions (ORS) for rehydration (92.4%), advised breastfeeding during acute gastroenteritis (81.5%), and avoided parenteral rehydration for mild to moderate dehydration (89.1%). In addition to ORS, oral fluids such as soda, juices, and rice water were allowed for rehydration by 43.7% of pediatricians. Thirty-one percent of pediatricians delayed re-feeding for more than 6 hours after initiation of rehydration. Only 32.8% of pediatricians kept their patients on regular full-strength formulas, and only 21.8% permitted full-calorie meals for their patients. 75.4% of pediatricians did not order any laboratory studies in cases of mild dehydration and 50.4% did not order any laboratory studies for moderate dehydration. Stool analysis and culture were ordered by almost half of the pediatricians surveyed. Seventy-seven percent prescribed anti-emetics, 61% prescribed probiotics, 26.3% prescribed antibiotics systematically and local antiseptic agents, 16.9% prescribed zinc supplements, and 11% percent prescribed antidiarrheal agents. Pediatricians in Lebanon are aware of the importance of ORS and the positive

  15. Update: Acute coronary syndromes (V). Personalized antiplatelet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbel, Paul A; Rafeedheen, Rahil; Tantry, Udaya S

    2014-06-01

    It is well established that high on-treatment platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate during clopidogrel therapy is an independent risk factor for ischemic event occurrences in a postpercutaneous coronary intervention patients. However, the precise role of platelet function testing remains debated. Platelet function testing to ensure optimal platelet inhibition has been recommended by some authorities to improve outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel. Recent prospective, randomized trials of personalized antiplatelet therapy have failed to demonstrate a benefit of platelet function testing in improving outcomes. In this review article, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for clopidogrel nonreponsiveness, recent trials of platelet function testing, and other new developments in the field of personalized antiplatelet therapy. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytokine Changes following Acute Ethanol Intoxication in Healthy Men: A Crossover Study

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    Sudan Prasad Neupane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a known modulator of the innate immune system. Owing to the absence of human studies, alcohol’s effect on circulating cytokine profile remains unclear. We investigated the effect of acute high dose alcohol consumption on systemic cytokine release. After an overnight fasting, alcohol-experienced healthy male volunteers (N=20 aged 25–45 years were given oral ethanol in the form of vodka (4.28 mL/kg which they drank over a period of 30 minutes reaching peak blood alcohol concentration of 0.12% (SD 0.028. Blood samples were obtained prior to alcohol intake as well as 2, 7, and 12 hours thereafter. Serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and TNF-α were determined by the multibead-based assay. Baseline cytokine levels were not related to BMI, hepatic parameters, electrolytes, glucose, or morning cortisol levels. Within 2 hours of alcohol intake, levels of IL-1Ra were elevated and remained so throughout the assessment period (p for trend = 0.015. In contrast, the levels of the chemokine MCP-1 dropped acutely followed by steadily increasing levels during the observation period (p<0.001. The impact of sustained elevated levels of MCP-1 even after the clearance of blood alcohol content deserves attention.

  17. Comparison of Serum Leptin Levels in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients with Acute Pneumonia Patients and Healthy Individuals

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    M. Naderi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Leptin is one of the most important fat-derived hormones. Several studies have shown that serum leptin levels in systemic inflammatory diseases are reduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum leptin levels in three groups: patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB, patients with non-pulmonary infections (acute pneumonia and normal people. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, in 2010, 40 patients with active pulmonary TB (case group and 40 patients with non-pulmonary infections (positive control group admitted to Boo-Ali hospital in Zahedan and 40 healthy subjects (negative control group were selected using easy access and serum leptin levels were evaluated by ELISA. Data were analyzed by SPSS 18 software and one-way ANOVA. Findings: The mean of serum leptin levels in patients with non-pulmonary infections (p=0.030 and in patients with active pulmonary TB (p=0.004 were significantly lower than normal group, but the mean of serum leptin levels in patients with active pulmonary TB and patients with non-pulmonary infections were not significantly different (p=0.555. Conclusion: Serum leptin levels are lower in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and in patients with non-pulmonary infections than in normal people, but there is no difference between patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and patients with non-pulmonary infections. Therefore, serum leptin levels are not an appropriate marker for the differentiation of active pulmonary tuberculosis from pulmonary infections (acute pneumonia.

  18. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella W. Yeung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively and peak torque production (p = 0.483 measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults.

  19. Evaluation of anti-tuberculosis antibodies in healthy contact and non-contacts persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N; Bukhari, M.H; Muneer, M; Tayyab, M; Chaudhry, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to see the presence of the antimycobacterial antibodies in healthy household contacts of tuberculosis patients and healthy normal subjects who have never been in contact with tuberculosis patients. A total of 200 subjects, 120 with history of household contact and 80 without such history were included in the study. Routine Haematological investigations were performed and all the sera of 200 subjects were tested who 19M, 19G and IgA anti tuberculosis antibodies using ELISA technique. There was no difference in the average age of the household contacts and non-contacts. The complaints of pyrexia, night sweats and loss of weight was more in house hold contacts as compared to non-contacts. The awareness about BCG vaccination was equal among the household contacts and non-contacts. The combined serological positivity of the household contacts was 65.8% and the combined serological positivity for non-contacts was 34.1%. There was no statistically significant difference in the presence of 19M among household contacts as compared to non-contacts. However both IgG and 19A were present in significantly higher number of household contacts as compared to non contacts. This study concludes that the persons living in the house with a patient suffering from active pulmonary tuberculosis (household contact) have more chances of being infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis as compared to the healthy non-contacts. (author)

  20. Acute effects of interval versus continuous endurance training on pulse wave reflection in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Henner; Nussbaumer, Monique; Moor, Christoph; Cordes, Mareike; Schindler, Christian; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-02-01

    Our aim was to investigate the acute and 24-hour (h) effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (MCT) on arterial pulse wave reflection, an established marker of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular risk. In a randomized cross-over design, 21 young healthy male participants performed a HIIT or a MCT on separate visits. Before and 5 (t5), 20 (t20), 35 (t35), and 50 (t50) minutes after the acute exercise bouts, the crude augmentation index (AIx) and the AIx at a set heart rate (AIx@75) were analysed by applanation tonometry. Starting 1 h post-exercise, both indices were captured over 24-h with an oscillometric monitoring device. AIx did not change significantly after MCT but declined progressively after HIIT, reaching significantly lower values compared to MCT at t35 (P = 0.045) and t50 (P = 0.008). AIx@75 increased after both acute exercise types but was higher after HIIT at t5 (P HIIT (P = 0.007) but not after MCT (P = 0.813). Exercise intensity affects pulse wave reflection, with different time courses for AIx and AIx@75 post-exercise. Although initially higher after HIIT, AIx@75 declines in the 24-h recovery period indicating more favourable effects on pulse wave reflection compared to MCT. This may result in substantial positive chronic training effects on arterial stiffness in health and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute effects of donepezil in healthy young adults underline the fractionation of executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginani, G E; Tufik, S; Bueno, O F A; Pradella-Hallinan, M; Rusted, J; Pompéia, S

    2011-11-01

    The cholinergic system is involved in the modulation of both bottom-up and top-down attentional control. Top-down attention engages multiple executive control processes, but few studies have investigated whether all or selective elements of executive functions are modulated by the cholinergic system. To investigate the acute effects of the pro-cholinergic donepezil in young, healthy volunteers on distinct components of executive functions we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, independent-groups design study including 42 young healthy male participants who were randomly assigned to one of three oral treatments: glucose (placebo), donepezil 5 mg or donepezil 7.5 mg. The test battery included measures of different executive components (shifting, updating, inhibition, dual-task performance, planning, access to long-term memory), tasks that evaluated arousal/vigilance/visuomotor performance, as well as functioning of working memory subsidiary systems. Donepezil improved sustained attention, reaction times, dual-task performance and the executive component of digit span. The positive effects in these executive tasks did not correlate with arousal/visuomotor/vigilance measures. Among the various executive domains investigated donepezil selectively increased dual-task performance in a manner that could not be ascribed to improvement in arousal/vigilance/visuomotor performance nor working memory slave systems. Other executive tasks that rely heavily on visuospatial processing may also be modulated by the cholinergic system.

  2. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  3. Using Personal Sensors to Assess the Exposome and Acute Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The exposome encompasses the totality of human environmental exposures. Recent developments in sensor technology have made it possible to better measure personal exposure to environmental pollutants and other factors. We aimed to discuss and demonstrate the recent developments in personal sensors to measure multiple exposures and possible acute health responses, and discuss the main challenges ahead. Methods: We searched for a range of sensors to measure air pollution, noise, temperature, UV, physical activity, location, blood pressure, heart rate and lung function and to obtain information on green space and emotional status/mood and put it on a person. Results and Conclusions: We discussed the recent developments and main challenges for personal sensors to measure multiple exposures. We found and put together a personal sensor set that measures a comprehensive set of personal exposures continuously over 24 h to assess part of the current exposome and acute health responses. We obtained data for a whole range of exposures and some acute health responses, but many challenges remain to apply the methodology for extended time periods and larger populations including improving the ease of wear, e.g., through miniaturization and extending battery life, and the reduction of costs. However, the technology is moving fast and opportunities will come closer for further wide spread use to assess, at least part of the exposome.

  4. Attributional style in healthy persons: its association with 'theory of mind' skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Im Hong; Kim, Kyung Ran; Kim, Hwan Hee; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Mikyung; Jo, Hye Hyun; Koo, Se Jun; Jeong, Yu Jin; Song, Yun Young; Kang, Jee In; Lee, Su Young; Lee, Eun; An, Suk Kyoon

    2013-03-01

    Attributional style, especially external personal attribution bias, was found to play a pivotal role in clinical and non-clinical paranoia. The study of the relationship of the tendency to infer/perceive hostility and blame with theory of mind skills has significant theoretical importance as it may provide additional information on how persons process social situations. The aim of this study was whether hostility perception bias and blame bias might be associated with theory of mind skills, neurocognition and emotional factors in healthy persons. Total 263 participants (133 male and 130 female) were recruited. The attributional style was measured by using the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ). Participants were requested to complete a Brüne's Theory of Mind Picture Stories task, neurocognitive task including Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and digit span, and other emotional dysregulation trait scales including Rosenberg's self-esteem, Spielberg's trait anxiety inventory, and Novaco anger scale. Multiple regression analysis showed that hostility perception bias score in ambiguous situation were found to be associated with theory of mind questionnaire score and emotional dysregulation traits of Novaco anger scale. Also, composite blame bias score in ambiguous situation were found to be associated with emotional dysregulation traits of Novaco anger scale and Spielberg's trait anxiety scale. The main finding was that the attributional style of hostility perception bias might be primarily contributed by theory of mind skills rather than neurocognitive function such as attention and working memory, and reasoning ability. The interpretations and implications would be discussed in details.

  5. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, P.A.; Kvacheva, Yu.E.

    1993-01-01

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  6. Karolinska Scales of Personality, cognition and psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Björn Mikael; Holm, Gunnar; Ekselius, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Studies on both personality dimensions and cognition in schizophrenia are scarce. The objective of the present study was to examine personality traits and the relation to cognitive function and psychotic symptoms in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In total 23 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). A broad cognitive test programme was used, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, the Finger-Tapping Test, the Trail Making Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Benton Visual Retention Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test . Compared with controls, the patients exhibited prominent elevations on KSP scales measuring anxiety proneness and neuroticism (P = 0.000005-0.0001), on the Detachment scale (P < 0.00009) and lower value on the Socialization scale (P < 0.0002). The patients also scored higher on the Inhibition of Aggression, Suspicion, Guilt and Irritability scales (P = 0.002-0.03) while the remaining five scales did not differ between patients and controls. KSP anxiety-related scales correlated with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) general psychopathology subscale. Cognitive test results were uniformly lower in the patient group and correlated with PANSS negative symptoms subscale. There was no association between KSP scale scores and PANSS positive or negative symptoms. The patients revealed a highly discriminative KSP test profile with elevated scores in neuroticism- and psychoticism-related scales as compared to controls. Results support previous findings utilizing other personality inventories in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive test performance correlated inversely with negative symptoms.

  7. Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylphenidate on circulating steroid levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Julia; Hysek, Cédric M; Penno, Carlos A; Schmid, Yasmin; Kratschmar, Denise V; Liechti, Matthias E; Odermatt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate are widely used psychoactive substances. MDMA primarily enhances serotonergic neurotransmission, and methylphenidate increases dopamine but has no serotonergic effects. Both drugs also increase norepinephrine, resulting in sympathomimetic properties. Here we studied the effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on 24-hour plasma steroid profiles. 16 healthy subjects (8 men, 8 women) were treated with single doses of MDMA (125 mg), methylphenidate (60 mg), MDMA + methylphenidate, and placebo on 4 separate days using a cross-over study design. Cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, and testosterone were repeatedly measured up to 24 h using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. MDMA significantly increased the plasma concentrations of cortisol, corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, and 11-deoxycorticosterone and also tended to moderately increase aldosterone levels compared with placebo. MDMA also increased the sum of cortisol + cortisone and the cortisol/cortisone ratio, consistent with an increase in glucocorticoid production. MDMA did not alter the levels of cortisone, DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, or testosterone. Methylphenidate did not affect any of the steroid concentrations, and it did not change the effects of MDMA on circulating steroids. In summary, the serotonin releaser MDMA has acute effects on circulating steroids. These effects are not observed after stimulation of the dopamine and norepinephrine systems with methylphenidate. The present findings support the view that serotonin rather than dopamine and norepinephrine mediates the acute pharmacologically induced stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the absence of other stressors. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The Acute Risks of Exercise in Apparently Healthy Adults and Relevance for Prevention of Cardiovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jack M; Burr, Jamie F; Banks, Laura; Thomas, Scott G

    2016-04-01

    Increased physical activity (PA) is associated with improved quality of life and reductions in cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and all-cause mortality in the general population in a dose-response manner. However, PA acutely increases the risk of adverse CV event or sudden cardiac death (SCD) above levels expected at rest. We review the likelihood of adverse CV events related to exercise in apparently healthy adults and strategies for prevention, and contextualize our understanding of the long-term risk reduction conferred from PA. A systematic review of the literature was performed using electronic databases; additional hand-picked relevant articles from reference lists and additional sources were included after the search. The incidence of adverse CV events in adults is extremely low during and immediately after PA of varying types and intensities and is significantly lower in those with long-standing PA experience. The risk of SCD and nonfatal events during and immediately after PA remains extremely low (well below 0.01 per 10,000 participant hours); increasing age and PA intensity are associated with greater risk. In most cases of exercise-related SCD, occult CV disease is present and SCD is typically the first clinical event. Exercise acutely increases the risk of adverse CV events, with greater risk associated with vigorous intensity. The risks of an adverse CV event during and immediately after exercise are outweighed by the health benefits of vigorous exercise performed regularly. A key challenge remains the identification of occult structural heart disease and inheritable conditions that increase the chances of lethal arrhythmias during exercise. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Variability of pudendal and median nerve sensory perception thresholds in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    Normative current perception thresholds (CPTs) are used for the evaluation of sensory function in a variety of diseases. To evaluate the reproducibility of CPT measurements with sinusoidal current in healthy volunteers. Neuroselective CPT evaluations of the median and pudendal nerve in healthy volunteers were repeated with 1 week interval (T1 and T2). In the study group (N = 41) no difference between genders for age (MW-U: P = 0.91) and BMI (t-test: P = 0.18) were found. No significant difference between T1 and T2 was found (Paired t-test: all P-values > 0.05), although the intraclass correlation for each person was low. The variability of measures for the pudendal nerve was: ICC 2 kHz: 0.41; 250 Hz: 0.30; 5 Hz: 0.38, and for the median nerve respectively: 0.58; 0.46; 0.40. Normal CPTs were shown for the pudendal nerve: 2 kHz: 51%; 250 Hz: 76%; 5 Hz: 71%, and median nerve respectively: 78%; 98%; 80%. The pudendal nerve showed more deviating values compared to the median nerve. Both nerves showed deviating values. CPT values with sinusoidal current assessed with 1 week interval, showed a weak intraclass correlation. This finding limits the use of CPT values with this current for longitudinal studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sleep spindles are related to schizotypal personality traits and thalamic glutamine/glutamate in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Pugin, Fiona; Tüshaus, Laura; Wehrle, Flavia; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Yet, schizophrenia-like experiences (schizotypy) are very common in the healthy population, indicating a continuum between normal mental functioning and the psychosis found in schizophrenic patients. A continuum between schizotypy and schizophrenia would be supported if they share the same neurobiological origin. Two such neurobiological markers of schizophrenia are: (1) a reduction of sleep spindles (12-15 Hz oscillations during nonrapid eye movement sleep), likely reflecting deficits in thalamo-cortical circuits and (2) increased glutamine and glutamate (Glx) levels in the thalamus. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether sleep spindles and Glx levels are related to schizotypal personality traits in healthy subjects. Twenty young male subjects underwent 2 all-night sleep electroencephalography recordings (128 electrodes). Sleep spindles were detected automatically. After those 2 nights, thalamic Glx levels were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subjects completed a magical ideation scale to assess schizotypy. Sleep spindle density was negatively correlated with magical ideation (r = -.64, P .1). The common relationship of sleep spindle density with schizotypy and thalamic Glx levels indicates a neurobiological overlap between nonclinical schizotypy and schizophrenia. Thus, sleep spindle density and magical ideation may reflect the anatomy and efficiency of the thalamo-cortical system that shows pronounced impairment in patients with schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Food as people: Teenagers' perspectives on food personalities and implications for healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene

    2014-11-01

    In light of its influence on food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns, food marketing-particularly for unhealthy foods-has been increasingly recognized as a problem that affects the health of young people. This has prompted both a scrutiny of the nutritional quality of food products and various interventions to promote healthy eating. Frequently overlooked by the public health community, however, is the symbolic and social meaning of food for teenagers. Food has nutritive value, but it has symbolic value as well-and this qualitative study explores the meaning of non-branded foods for teenagers. Inspired by the construct of brand personality, we conduct focus groups with 12-14 year olds in to probe their perspectives on the "food personalities" of unbranded/commodity products and categories of food. Despite the lack of targeted marketing/promotional campaigns for the foods discussed, the focus groups found a remarkable consensus regarding the characteristics and qualities of foods for young people. Teenagers stigmatize particular foods (such as broccoli) and valorize others (such as junk food), although their discussions equally reveal the need to consider questions beyond that of social positioning/social status. We suggest that public health initiatives need to focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of food, since a focus on nutritional qualities does not unveil the other significant factors that may make foods appealing, or distasteful, to young people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of disease duration on personality type in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy individual

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    Sahar Vesal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis may have profound emotional consequences. The relation between psychological and physical factors could lead patients toward unforeseen disease. This study focuses on multiple sclerosis (MS disease duration on personality type A and B in relation to individuals' behaviors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Isfahan Alzahra hospital in 2013. Three hundred MS patients and 100 healthy individuals were determined. The distributed questionnaires related to MS patients and considering the descriptive statistics such as demographic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18 based on Chi-square test and independent T-test. Results: Disease duration varied between 1 to 38 years: 30% (1-4 years, 38% (5-10 years, 20% (10-20 years, and 12% (more than 20 years. Significant relationship was observed between disease duration and tendency to type A (higher stress. This relation was positive and significant in Relapsing Remitting MS patients; but negative correlation was seen in Secondary Progressive MS patients. These patients tended to type B (lower stress when disease duration increased. Conclusions: Individuals with disease duration of one year and less than one year tend to type A personality, while patients with increment of disease duration have tendency to type B.

  13. Attributional Style in Healthy Persons: Its Association with 'Theory of Mind' Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Im Hong; Kim, Kyung Ran; Kim, Hwan Hee; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Mikyung; Jo, Hye Hyun; Koo, Se Jun; Jeong, Yu Jin; Song, Yun Young; Kang, Jee In; Lee, Su Young; Lee, Eun

    2013-01-01

    Objective Attributional style, especially external personal attribution bias, was found to play a pivotal role in clinical and non-clinical paranoia. The study of the relationship of the tendency to infer/perceive hostility and blame with theory of mind skills has significant theoretical importance as it may provide additional information on how persons process social situations. The aim of this study was whether hostility perception bias and blame bias might be associated with theory of mind skills, neurocognition and emotional factors in healthy persons. Methods Total 263 participants (133 male and 130 female) were recruited. The attributional style was measured by using the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ). Participants were requested to complete a Brüne's Theory of Mind Picture Stories task, neurocognitive task including Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and digit span, and other emotional dysregulation trait scales including Rosenberg's self-esteem, Spielberg's trait anxiety inventory, and Novaco anger scale. Results Multiple regression analysis showed that hostility perception bias score in ambiguous situation were found to be associated with theory of mind questionnaire score and emotional dysregulation traits of Novaco anger scale. Also, composite blame bias score in ambiguous situation were found to be associated with emotional dysregulation traits of Novaco anger scale and Spielberg's trait anxiety scale. Conclusion The main finding was that the attributional style of hostility perception bias might be primarily contributed by theory of mind skills rather than neurocognitive function such as attention and working memory, and reasoning ability. The interpretations and implications would be discussed in details. PMID:23482524

  14. Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P C; Harder, S; Schmid, Y; Lang, U E; Liechti, M E; Borgwardt, S

    2017-04-04

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces profound changes in various mental domains, including perception, self-awareness and emotions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the acute effects of LSD on the neural substrate of emotional processing in humans. Using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over study design, placebo or 100 μg LSD were orally administered to 20 healthy subjects before the fMRI scan, taking into account the subjective and pharmacological peak effects of LSD. The plasma levels of LSD were determined immediately before and after the scan. The study (including the a priori-defined study end point) was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov before study start (NCT02308969). The administration of LSD reduced reactivity of the left amygdala and the right medial prefrontal cortex relative to placebo during the presentation of fearful faces (PLSD-induced amygdala response to fearful stimuli and the LSD-induced subjective drug effects (PLSD modulates the engagement of brain regions that mediate emotional processing.

  15. Cerebrovascular blood oxygenation level dependent pulsatility at baseline and following acute exercise among healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theyers, Athena E; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Metcalfe, Arron Ws; Robertson, Andrew D; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2018-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is linked to cerebral small vessel damage and neurodegeneration, but barriers to accessing deep cerebrovascular anatomy limit our ability to assess the brain. This study describes an adaptation of a cardiac-related scrubbing method as a means of generating blood oxygenation level-dependent pulsatility maps based on the cardiac cycle. We examine BOLD pulsatility at rest, based on the non-parametric deviation from null metric, as well as changes following acute physiological stress from 20 min of moderate-intensity cycling in 45 healthy adolescents. We evaluate the influence of repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE) using simulated and multi-echo empirical data, respectively. There were tissue-specific and voxel-wise BOLD pulsatility decreases 20 min following exercise cessation. BOLD pulsatility detection was comparable over a range of TR and TE values when scan volumes were kept constant; however, short TRs (≤500 ms) and TEs (∼14 ms) acquisitions would yield the most efficient detection. Results suggest cardiac-related BOLD pulsatility may represent a robust and easily adopted method of mapping cerebrovascular pulsatility with voxel-wise resolution.

  16. Acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary function in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal, Mustafa

    2016-06-15

    The acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary functions were examined in 26 healthy male subjects using the pulmonary function test (PFT) in three different trials. The control trial (CON) did not involve inspiratory muscle warm-up, while the placebo (IMWp) and experimental (IMW) trials involved inspiratory muscle warm-up. There were no significant changes between the IMWp and CON trials (p>0.05). All the PFT measurements, including slow vital capacity, inspiratory vital capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and maximal inspiratory pressure were significantly increased by 3.55%, 12.52%, 5.00%, 2.75%, 2.66%, and 7.03% respectively, in the subjects in the IMW trial than those in the CON trial (pcooperation of the upper thorax, neck, and respiratory muscles, and increased level of reactive O2 species in muscle tissue, and potentially improvement of muscle O2 delivery-to-utilization. However, further investigation is required to determine the precise mechanisms responsible from among these candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of acute hypoventilation and hyperventilation on exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Donato Michele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO are a marker of airway or lung inflammation. We investigated whether hypo- or hyperventilation can affect measured values. Methods Ten healthy volunteers were trained to achieve sustained end-tidal CO2 (etCO2 concentrations of 30 (hyperventilation, 40 (normoventilation, and 50 mmHg (hypoventilation. As soon as target etCO2 values were achieved for 120 sec, exhaled breath was analyzed for eCO with a photoacoustic spectrometer. At etCO2 values of 30 and 40 mmHg exhaled breath was sampled both after a deep inspiration and after a normal one. All measurements were performed in two different environmental conditions: A ambient CO concentration = 0.8 ppm and B ambient CO concentration = 1.7 ppm. Results During normoventilation, eCO mean (standard deviation was 11.5 (0.8 ppm; it decreased to 10.3 (0.8 ppm during hyperventilation (p 2 changes (hyperventilation: 10% Vs 25% decrease; hypoventilation 3% Vs 25% increase. Taking a deep inspiration before breath sampling was associated with lower eCO values (p Conclusions eCO measurements should not be performed during marked acute hyperventilation, like that induced in this study, but the influence of less pronounced hyperventilation or of hypoventilation is probably negligible in clinical practice

  18. Health Care Seeking Behavior of Persons with Acute Chagas Disease in Rural Argentina: A Qualitative View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Llovet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD is a tropical parasitic disease largely underdiagnosed and mostly asymptomatic affecting marginalized rural populations. Argentina regularly reports acute cases of CD, mostly young individuals under 14 years old. There is a void of knowledge of health care seeking behavior in subjects experiencing a CD acute condition. Early treatment of the acute case is crucial to limit subsequent development of disease. The article explores how the health outcome of persons with acute CD may be conditioned by their health care seeking behavior. The study, with a qualitative approach, was carried out in rural areas of Santiago del Estero Province, a high risk endemic region for vector transmission of CD. Narratives of 25 in-depth interviews carried out in 2005 and 2006 are analyzed identifying patterns of health care seeking behavior followed by acute cases. Through the retrospective recall of paths for diagnoses, weaknesses of disease information, knowledge at the household level, and underperformance at the provincial health care system level are detected. The misdiagnoses were a major factor in delaying a health care response. The study results expose lost opportunities for the health care system to effectively record CD acute cases.

  19. Effect of chronic escitalopram versus placebo on personality traits in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The serotonergic neurotransmitter system is closely linked to depression and personality traits. It is not known if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have an effect on neuroticism that is independent of their effect on depression. Healthy individuals with a genetic liability...... for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects personality. The present trial is the first to test the hypothesis that escitalopram may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MD)....

  20. Frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding in healthy subjects is associated with personality risk factors for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2008-01-01

    Background: Serotonergic dysfunction has been associated with affective disorders. High trait neuroticism, as measured on personality inventories, is a risk factor for major depression. In this study we investigated whether neuroticism is associated with serotonin 2A receptor binding in brain...... regions of relevance for affective disorders. Methods: Eighty-three healthy volunteers completed the standardized personality questionnaire NEO-PI-R (Revised NEO Personality Inventory) and underwent [F-18]altanserin positron emission tomography imaging for assessment of serotonin 2A receptor binding...... remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons (r = .35, p = .009). Conclusions: In healthy subjects the personality dimension neuroticism and particularly its constituent trait, vulnerability, are positively associated with frontolimbic serotonin 2A binding. Our findings point...

  1. Personality self-reports are concurrently reliable and valid during acute depressive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paul T; Bagby, R Michael; Herbst, Jeffrey H; McCrae, Robert R

    2005-12-01

    It is alleged that depression distorts the assessment of general personality traits. To test that hypothesis, we examined scores on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) administered to acutely depressed patients at baseline and 14 to 26 weeks after treatment with antidepressant medication. Two hundred and fifty patients completed the NEO-PI-R at baseline, 109 patients after 14 to 26 weeks of antidepressant pharmacotherapy. 48 patients (49.5%) were identified as responders while 49 (50.5%) were identified as non-responders. The remaining 12 patients were excluded because they met HRSD response criteria but not the SCID-I MDD criteria at treatment completion. At baseline, NEO-PI-R scales showed high internal consistency and replicated the normative factor structure, suggesting that psychometric properties were preserved. Among non-responders, retest correlations were uniformly high (rs=.50 to .88) and mean levels showed little change, providing evidence for the consistency of personality self-reports during an acute depressive episode. NEO-PI-R scales showed construct validity in the concurrent prediction of a number of clinical criteria. Effective treatment had significant effects on the mean levels of neuroticism, which decreased, and extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness, which increased. The participants were from a clinical database and were not randomly assigned for the treatment. The results suggest that the effect of acute depression is to amplify somewhat the personality profile of people prone to depression. Rather than regard these depression-caused changes in assessed personality trait levels as a distortion, we interpret them as accurate reflections of the current condition of the individual. Personality traits have biological bases, and when they are changed (by disease or therapeutic interventions) trait levels change.

  2. Risk factors for acute care hospital readmission in older persons in Western countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Kyndi; Meyer, Gabriele; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    related to socio-demographics, health characteristics and clinical and organizational factors related to the care pathway. TYPES OF STUDIES: The current review considered analytical and descriptive epidemiological study designs that evaluated risk factors for acute care hospital readmission. OUTCOMES......: The outcome was readmission to an acute care hospital within one month of discharge. SEARCH STRATEGY: A three-step search was utilized to find published and unpublished studies in English, French, German, Norwegian, Swedish or Danish. Five electronic databases were searched from 2004 to 2013, followed...... summary and metasynthesis of the quantitative findings was conducted. RESULTS: Based on a review of nine studies from ten Western countries, we found several significant risk factors pertaining to readmission to an acute care hospital within one month of discharge in persons aged 65 years and over...

  3. Clinical chemistry reference values for 75-year-old apparently healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Klaus Roland; Mostafaie, Nazanin; Stangl, Gerhard; Worofka, Brigitte; Kittl, Eva; Hofmann, Jörg; Hejtman, Milos; Michael, Rainer; Weissgram, Silvia; Leitha, Thomas; Jungwirth, Susanne; Fischer, Peter; Tragl, Karl-Heinz; Bauer, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Clinical chemistry reference values for elderly persons are sparse and mostly intermixed with those for younger subjects. To understand the links between metabolism and aging, it is paramount to differentiate between "normal" physiological processes in apparently healthy elderly subjects and metabolic changes due to long-lasting diseases. The Vienna Transdanube Aging (VITA) study, which began in 2000 and is continuing, will allow us to do just that, because more than 600 male and female volunteers aged exactly 75 years (to exclude any influence of the "aging" factor in this cohort) are participating in this study. Extensive clinical, neurological, biochemical, psychological, genetic, and radiological analyses, with a special emphasis on consumption of medication and abuse of drugs, were performed on each of the probands. The multitude of data and questionnaires obtained made possible an a posteriori approach to select individuals fulfilling criteria for a reference sample group of apparently healthy 75-year-old subjects for our study. Specific analytes were quantified on automated clinical analyzers, while manual methods were used for hormonal analytes. All clinical chemistry analytes were evaluated using in-depth statistical analyses with SPSS for Windows. In all, reference intervals for 45 analytes could be established. These include routine parameters for the assessment of organ functions, as well as hormone concentrations and hematological appraisals. Because all patients were reevaluated after exactly 30 months in the course of this study, we had the opportunity to reassess their health status at the age of 77.5 years. This was very useful for validation of the first round data set. Data of the second round evaluation corroborate the reference limits of the baseline analysis and further confirm our inclusion and exclusion criteria. In summary, we have established a reliable set of reference data for hormonal, hematological, and clinical chemistry analytes for

  4. Posturography and risk of recurrent falls in healthy non-institutionalized persons aged over 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, Séverine; Gueguen, René; Gauchard, Gérome C; Benetos, Athanase; Perrin, Philippe P

    2006-01-01

    A poor postural stability in older people is associated with an increased risk of falling. The posturographic tool has widely been used to assess balance control; however, its value in predicting falls remains unclear. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the predictive value of posturography in the estimation of the risk of recurrent falls, including a comparison with standard clinical balance tests, in healthy non-institutionalized persons aged over 65. Two hundred and six healthy non-institutionalized volunteers aged over 65 were tested. Postural control was evaluated by posturographic tests, performed on static, dynamic and dynamized platforms (static test, slow dynamic test and Sensory Organization Test [SOT]) and clinical balance tests (Timed 'Up & Go' test, One-Leg Balance, Sit-to-Stand-test). Subsequent falls were monitored prospectively with self-questionnaire sent every 4 months for a period of 16 months after the balance testing. Subjects were classified prospectively in three groups of Non-Fallers (0 fall), Single-Fallers (1 fall) and Multi-Fallers (more than 2 falls). Loss of balance during the last trial of the SOT sensory conflicting condition, when visual and somatosensory inputs were distorted, was the best factor to predict the risk of recurrent falls (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3-10.11). Multi-Fallers showed no postural adaptation during the repetitive trials of this sensory condition, contrary to Non-Fallers and Single-Fallers. The Multi-Fallers showed significantly more sway when visual inputs were occluded. The clinical balance tests, the static test and the slow dynamic test revealed no significant differences between the groups. In a sample of non-institutionalized older persons aged over 65, posturographic evaluation by the SOT, especially with repetition of the same task in sensory conflicting condition, compared to the clinical tests and the static and dynamic posturographic test, appears to be a more sensitive tool to

  5. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Kido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into

  6. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  7. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Ströhle, Andreas; Westrin, Asa

    2011-01-01

    that patients with depression would have an attenuated N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP) response to acute exercise compared to healthy controls. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of antidepressants on NT-proANP response to acute exercise. METHODS: We examined 132 outpatients with mild to moderate depression......BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depression includes hyperactivity and reduced feedback inhibition. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is able to reduce the HPA-axis response to stress and has an anxiolytic effect in rodents and humans. We hypothesized...... (ICD-10) and 44 healthy controls, group matched for age, sex, and BMI. We used an incremental bicycle ergometer test as a physical stressor. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at exhaustion, and 15, 30, and 60min post-exercise. RESULTS: The NT-proANP response to physical exercise differed between...

  8. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Ströhle, Andreas; Westrin, Asa

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depression includes hyperactivity and reduced feedback inhibition. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is able to reduce the HPA-axis response to stress and has an anxiolytic effect in rodents and humans. We hypothesized...... that patients with depression would have an attenuated N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP) response to acute exercise compared to healthy controls. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of antidepressants on NT-proANP response to acute exercise. METHODS: We examined 132 outpatients with mild to moderate depression...... (ICD-10) and 44 healthy controls, group matched for age, sex, and BMI. We used an incremental bicycle ergometer test as a physical stressor. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at exhaustion, and 15, 30, and 60min post-exercise. RESULTS: The NT-proANP response to physical exercise differed between...

  9. Quantitative Autofluorescence Intensities in Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy vs Healthy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault, Katherine; Schuerch, Kaspar; Zhao, Jin; Lee, Winston; Cabral, Thiago; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.; Tsang, Stephen H.; Sparrow, Janet R.

    2018-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) remains a challenging diagnosis. Early recognition of the disease depends on advances in imaging modalities that can improve phenotyping and contribute to the understanding of the underlying pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES To expand the range of approaches available to assist in the identification of AZOOR by multimodal imaging and to analyze the fundus lesions by quantifying short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (quantitative fundus autofluorescence [qAF]) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this observational study, patients underwent imaging at Columbia University Medical Center between November 2010 and March 2016 and were analyzed between September 2015 and August 2016. Six patients diagnosed as having AZOOR were studied by qAF and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and were compared with 30 age and race/ethnicity–matched controls from a database of 277 healthy control eyes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES In unaffected regions of the macula, qAF was calculated within predetermined circularly arranged segments (qAF8). In addition, qAF was measured within specified regions of interest positioned at the autofluorescent lesion border (AZOOR line). Electroretinograms and electro-oculograms were recorded in 5 of 6 patients. RESULTS Among 6 patients (age range, 26–61 years; 4 female; 4 of white race/ethnicity, 1 Asian, and 1 Hispanic), 5 exhibited an autofluorescent AZOOR line in short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence images, delineating the peripapillary lesion. The mean (SD) region-of-interest qAF measured on the AZOOR line was 60 (26) times higher than in healthy control eyes (P = .03) at equivalent fundus locations. The qAF8 within nondiseased macular regions were within the normal range. At the lesion border, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed a loss of outer retinal integrity in all patients. Single-flash cone b-wave latency and

  10. Differences in Facial Emotion Recognition between First Episode Psychosis, Borderline Personality Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catalan

    Full Text Available Facial emotion recognition (FER is essential to guide social functioning and behaviour for interpersonal communication. FER may be altered in severe mental illness such as in psychosis and in borderline personality disorder patients. However, it is unclear if these FER alterations are specifically related to psychosis. Awareness of FER alterations may be useful in clinical settings to improve treatment strategies. The aim of our study was to examine FER in patients with severe mental disorder and their relation with psychotic symptomatology.Socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected. Alterations on emotion recognition were assessed in 3 groups: patients with first episode psychosis (FEP (n = 64, borderline personality patients (BPD (n = 37 and healthy controls (n = 137, using the Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Structured Interview for Schizotypy Revised and Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences scales were used to assess positive psychotic symptoms. WAIS III subtests were used to assess IQ.Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed a significant difference between groups on the FER of neutral faces score between FEP, BPD patients and controls and between FEP patients and controls in angry face recognition. No significant differences were found between groups in the fear or happy conditions. There was a significant difference between groups in the attribution of negative emotion to happy faces. BPD and FEP groups had a much higher tendency to recognize happy faces as negatives. There was no association with the different symptom domains in either group.FEP and BPD patients have problems in recognizing neutral faces more frequently than controls. Moreover, patients tend to over-report negative emotions in recognition of happy faces. Although no relation between psychotic symptoms and FER alterations was found, these deficits could contribute to a patient's misinterpretations in daily life.

  11. Combined exercise circuit session acutely attenuates stress-induced blood pressure reactivity in healthy adults

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    Sérgio R. Moreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the blood pressure (BP responses to cardiovascular stress test after a combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity. Method: Twenty individuals (10 male/10 fem; 33.4± 6.9 years; 70.2± 15.8 kg; 170.4± 11.5 cm; 22.3± 6.8% body fat were randomized in a different days to control session with no exercise or exercise session consisting of 3 laps of the following circuit: knee extension, bench press, knee flexion, rowing in the prone position, squats, shoulder press, and 5 min of aerobic exercise at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate and/or 13 on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion [scale of 6 to 20]. The sets of resistance exercise consisted of 15 repetitions at ~50% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum test. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured at rest and during 1h of recovery in both experimental sessions. After that, blood pressure reactivity (BPR was evaluated using the Cold Pressor Test. Results: During 1h of exercise recovery, there was a reduction in SBP (3-6 mmHg and DBP (2-5 mmHg in relation to pre-session rest (p<0.01, while this reduction was not observed in the control session. A decline in BPR (4-7 mmHg; p<0.01 was observed 1h post-exercise session, but not in the control session. Post-exercise reductions in SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BPR reductions (r=0.50-0.45; p<0.05. Conclusion: A combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity promoted subsequent post-exercise hypotension and acutely attenuated BPR in response to a cardiovascular stress test. In addition, the post-exercise BP reduction was correlated with BPR attenuation in healthy adults of both genders.

  12. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

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    Jacobs, Lotte [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Buczynska, Anna [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Walgraeve, Christophe [Research group EnVOC, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, UGent, Gent (Belgium); Delcloo, Andy [Royal Meteorological Institute, Brussels (Belgium); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Van Grieken, Rene [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman [Research group EnVOC, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, UGent, Gent (Belgium); De Backer, Hugo [Royal Meteorological Institute, Brussels (Belgium); Nemery, Benoit, E-mail: ben.nemery@med.kuleuven.be [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Nawrot, Tim S. [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 {mu}m) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 {mu}m) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 {mu}g/m Superscript-Three in 24-h mean outdoor PM{sub 2.5} was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM{sub 2.5} were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  13. Acute stress in residents during emergency care: a study of personal and situational factors.

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    Dias, Roger Daglius; Scalabrini Neto, Augusto

    2017-05-01

    Providing care for simulated emergency patients may induce considerable acute stress in physicians. However, the acute stress provoked in a real-life emergency room (ER) is not well known. Our aim was to assess acute stress responses in residents during real emergency care and investigate the related personal and situational factors. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out at an emergency department of a tertiary teaching hospital. All second-year internal medicine residents were invited to voluntarily participate in this study. Acute stress markers were assessed at baseline (T1), before residents started their ER shift, and immediately after an emergency situation (T2), using heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, salivary α-amylase activity, salivary interleukin-1 β, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s and STAI-t). Twenty-four residents were assessed during 40 emergency situations. All stress markers presented a statistically significant increase between T1 and T2. IL-1 β presented the highest percent increase (141.0%, p stress in residents. Resident experience, trait anxiety, and number of emergency procedures were independently associated with acute stress response.

  14. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-11-01

    Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.

  15. Comparison of intraocular pressure measurements with different contact tonometers in young healthy persons

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    Saulius Galgauskas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the correlation of Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT, I-Care tonometer and Tono-Pen tonometer results in young healthy persons, and to investigate the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT on intraocular pressure (IOP measurements recorded with these tonometers. METHODS: We conducted a pilot clinical study in 78 eyes of 78 subjects aged 22-28 years old (44 women and 34 men; mean age 23.8±1.19y. IOP was measured using GAT, I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometers, followed by measurements of CCT. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. RESULTS: The mean IOPs and standard deviation (±SD for GAT, I-Care and Tono-Pen were 15.62±2.281 mm Hg, 16.29±2.726 mm Hg and 16.32±2.393 mm Hg, respectively. The mean CCT was 555.15±29.648 μm. Clear positive correlations between GAT and I-Care, GAT and Tono-Pen, and I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometers were found (r=0.867, P0.05. Both non-gold standard tonometers were affected by CCT; that is, both I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometer values were significantly higher with higher CCT means (>555 μm; MD=−1.282, P555 μm were associated with overestimated IOP values.

  16. Comorbidity, family history and personality traits in pathological gamblers compared with healthy controls.

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    Mann, K; Lemenager, T; Zois, E; Hoffmann, S; Nakovics, H; Beutel, M; Vogelgesang, M; Wölfling, K; Kiefer, F; Fauth-Bühler, M

    2017-05-01

    While DSM-5 classified pathological gambling as an addictive disorder, there is debate as to whether ICD-11 should follow suit. The debate hinges on scientific evidence such as neurobiological findings, family history of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, and personality variables. In the "Baden-Württemberg Study of Pathological Gambling", we compared a group of 515 male pathological gamblers receiving treatment with 269 matched healthy controls. We studied differences in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling-related variables, psychiatric comorbidity (lifetime), family history of psychiatric conditions, as well as personality traits such as impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), sensation seeking (Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale) and the NEO-FFI big five. Personality traits were validated in an age- and ethnicity-matched subsample of "pure" gamblers without any psychiatric comorbidity (including nicotine dependence). Data were analyzed using two-sample t-tests, Chi 2 analyses, Fisher's exact test and Pearson correlation analysis, as appropriate. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for multiple comparisons. Only 1% of the gamblers had been diagnosed with an impulse control disorder other than gambling (ICD-10). Notably, 88% of the gamblers in our sample had a comorbid diagnosis of substance dependence. The highest axis I comorbidity rate was for nicotine dependence (80%), followed by alcohol dependence (28%). Early age of first gambling experience was correlated with gambling severity. Compared to first-degree relatives of controls, first-degree relatives of pathological gamblers were more likely to suffer from alcohol dependence (27.0% vs. 7.4%), pathological gambling (8.3% vs. 0.7%) and suicide attempts (2.7% vs. 0.4%). Significant group differences were observed for the NEO-FFI factors neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Gamblers were also more impulsive than controls, but did not differ from controls in terms of

  17. Investigating structure and function in the healthy human brain: validity of acute versus chronic lesion-symptom mapping.

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    Karnath, Hans-Otto; Rennig, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    Modern voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analyses techniques provide powerful tools to examine the relationship between structure and function of the healthy human brain. However, there is still uncertainty on the type of and the appropriate time point of imaging and of behavioral testing for such analyses. Here we tested the validity of the three most common combinations of structural imaging data and behavioral scores used in VLSM analyses. Given the established knowledge about the neural substrate of the primary motor system in humans, we asked the mundane question of where the motor system is represented in the normal human brain, analyzing individual arm motor function of 60 unselected stroke patients. Only the combination of acute behavioral scores and acute structural imaging precisely identified the principal brain area for the emergence of hemiparesis after stroke, i.e., the corticospinal tract (CST). In contrast, VLSM analyses based on chronic behavior-in combination with either chronic or acute imaging-required the exclusion of patients who had recovered from an initial paresis to reveal valid anatomical results. Thus, if the primary research aim of a VLSM lesion analysis is to uncover the neural substrates of a certain function in the healthy human brain and if no longitudinal designs with repeated evaluations are planned, the combination of acute imaging and behavior represents the ideal dataset.

  18. Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study

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    Crawford David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.

  19. Exposed persons at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station accident: acute radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kova, A.K.; Baranov, A.E.; Barabanova, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Observation made over 115 patients with acute radiation sickness due to exposure external γ- and β-rays confirmed high efficiency of the earlier proposed principles of prognostication of the degree of severity by clinical manifestations of the primary disease response and those of separate syndromes, using the methods of hematological and cytogenetic analyses. Out of 115 victims, 56 persons had radiation burns (RB), 17 intestinal syndrome (IS), 80 - oropharengeal syndrome (ORS), 7 - interstitial radiation pneumonitis (IRP). In thanatogenesis, of prime importance were: RB (more than 40% of the body surface) - 19 persons and IRP - 7 persons. A severe course of intestinal and oropharengeal syndromes was combined with other fatal manifestations of radiation injury. Early isolation of patients (2-4 stages), selective decontamination of the intestine, prescription of a wide spectrum antibiotics, antimycotic and antiviral drugs, as well as γ-globulin could practically remove the risk of the development of fatal infectious complications during a medullary andtransitory forms of radiation sickness

  20. Modified extracorporeal photopheresis with cells from a healthy donor for acute graft-versus-host disease in a mouse model.

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    Holger Budde

    Full Text Available Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD is a major challenge after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but treatment options for patients are still limited. In many cases first-line treatment with glucocorticoids is not successful. Among second-line therapies the extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP is frequently performed, due to induction of selective tolerance instead of general immunosuppression. However, for some patients with severe acute GvHD the leukapheresis step of the ECP procedure is physically exhausting and limits the number of ECP cycles.We hypothesized that leukocytes from healthy cell donors could be used as a replacement for ECP leukocytes gained from the GvHD patient. For this purpose we used a well established mouse model of acute GvHD. The ECP therapy was based on cells with the genetic background of the initial donor of the stem cell transplantation. As a precondition we developed a protocol representing conventional ECP in mice equivalent to clinical used ECP setup.We could demonstrate that conventional, clinically derived ECP setup is able to alleviate acute GvHD. By using leukocytes obtained from healthy mice with the bone marrow donor's genetic background we could not observe a statistically significant therapeutic effect.Conventional human ECP setup is effective in the mouse model of severe acute GvHD. In addition we could not prove that ECP cells from healthy mice with bone marrow donor's genetic background are as effective as ECP cells derived from GvHD mice. Based on our findings, new questions arise for further studies, in which the cellular characteristics for ECP mediated immune tolerance are a matter of investigation.

  1. Comparison of Personality Trait, Negative Experienced Emotions and Coping Styles Between Healthy Women and Those Suffering From Cancer

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    S Hamzeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the importance of cancer as one of the main causes of mortality in the world and the role of various factors, including psychological ones in its onset. In this study we compared some of these factors such as personality traits, negative experienced emotions and coping styles in healthy women and those with cancer. Methods: In this study, 83 women with cancer(referred to Imam Khomeini hospital of Tehran in a one- month period and 85 healthy subjects(selected by using available sampling method and matched with the first group. Then Personality inventory of Eysenck and inventory type D(DS14 and Folkman and Lazarus coping styles on were studied in both groups. Data analysis was performed by T Hoteling test and multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA. Results: Two groups of women(cancer- healthy were significantly different for personality trait of extraversion, negative emotion experiences and emotional-oriented coping and problem-oriented coping. Conclusion: Women with cancer compared to healthy women experienced more negative emotions and had lower score in extraversion and used more emotion-oriented coping styles and less problem-oriented styles

  2. Comparison between metalloproteinases-2 and -9 in healthy subjects, diabetics, and subjects with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Angela; Scalise, Filippo; Avanzini, Maria A; Tinelli, Carmine; Peros, Emmanouil; Fogari, Elena; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2007-11-01

    We hypothesized that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1, -2 (TIMP-1, -2) would be abnormal in diabetes and in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We measured MMP-2, -9, and TIMP-1, -2 plasma levels in healthy subjects (controls), in type 2 diabetic patients, in nondiabetic patients with ACS (ACS) and in diabetic patients with ACS (DACS). We enrolled 165 controls, 181 diabetic patients, 78 ACS, and 46 DACS. We measured also BMI (body mass index), HbA(1c) (glycated hemoglobin) FPG (fasting plasma glucosa), FPI (fasting plasma insulin), HOMA index (homeostasis model assessment index), SBP (systolic blood pressure), DBP (diastolic blood pressure), TC (total cholesterol), LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), Tg (triglycerides), Lp(a) (lipoprotein(a)) PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), Hct (homocysteine), Fg (fibrinogen), and hs-CRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). A significant increase of BMI was observed in the diabetic group, in ACS and DACS patients compared to controls. A significant increase of SBP and DBP resulted in the diabetic and DACS groups, while only SBP improvement was present in ACS patients with respect to controls. A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed in the ACS group, while SBP variation was present in DACS patients compared to diabetics, and DBP increase was obtained in the DACS group with respect to ACS patients. TC, LDL-C, Tg, and Lp(a) increase was present in diabetics, while TC, Tg, and Lp(a) improvement was present in ACS and DACS patients with a significant decrease of HDL-C levels in diabetic, ACS, and DACS groups compared to controls. A decrease in LDL-C was obtained in ACS and DACS groups, while HDL-C increase was observed in these patients with respect to diabetics. Tg levels were higher in the DACS group compared to diabetics and ACS patients, respectively. Increases in PAI-1, Hct, Fg, and hs-CRP were present in diabetic and DACS

  3. Comparison of intraocular pressure measurements with different contact tonometers in young healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgauskas, Saulius; Strupaite, Rasa; Strelkauskaite, Ernesta; Asoklis, Rimvydas

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the correlation of Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), I-Care tonometer and Tono-Pen tonometer results in young healthy persons, and to investigate the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT) on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements recorded with these tonometers. We conducted a pilot clinical study in 78 eyes of 78 subjects aged 22-28 years old (44 women and 34 men; mean age 23.8±1.19y). IOP was measured using GAT, I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometers, followed by measurements of CCT. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. The mean IOPs and standard deviation (±SD) for GAT, I-Care and Tono-Pen were 15.62±2.281 mm Hg, 16.29±2.726 mm Hg and 16.32±2.393 mm Hg, respectively. The mean CCT was 555.15±29.648 µm. Clear positive correlations between GAT and I-Care, GAT and Tono-Pen, and I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometers were found (r=0.867, P0.05). Both non-gold standard tonometers were affected by CCT; that is, both I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometer values were significantly higher with higher CCT means (>555 µm; MD=-1.282, Ptonometers overestimated IOP compared with the GAT values. Either the I-Care or Tono-Pen tonometer could be used instead of GAT because there was no significant difference between their results. Higher CCT values (>555 µm) were associated with overestimated IOP values.

  4. Can healthy, young adults uncover personal details of unknown target individuals in their dreams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carlyle

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that undergraduate college students could incubate dreams containing information about unknown target individuals with significant life problems. In Experiment 1, students provided two baseline dreams. They were then exposed to a photo of an individual and invited to dream about a health problem (unknown to them and the experimenter) of that individual and asked to provide two more dreams. From a class of 65 students, 12 dreamers volunteered dreams about the unknown target. In Experiment 2, 66 students were asked to dream about the life problems of a second individual, simply by looking at the photo (experimental group). Another 56 students were exposed to this same paradigm, but the photo that they examined was computer generated and the target individual was fictitious (control group). The dream elements were objectively scored with categories devised using the Hall-Van de Castle system as a model. Data were ordinal, and the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to examine preincubation (baseline) versus postincubation (photo examination and incubation) dream content in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a Z score for proportions was used to compare differences in frequency of devised categories between experimental and control groups. In Experiment 1, the comparison of postincubation dreams (all categories combined) was significant compared with the preincubation dreams (Z = 2.09, P = .036). The postincubation dreams reflected the health problem of the target. In Experiment 2, the proportion of scored categories in experimental and control groups were compared at the preincubation and postincubation conditions. The proportions of "Combined" (all categories) was very significantly larger at the postincubation condition (Z = 6.27, P dreams of the experimental group were related to the problems of the target individual. Young, healthy adults are capable of dreaming details about the personal problems of an unknown individual

  5. Effect of Acute Hypoxia on Post-Exercise Parasympathetic Reactivation in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Haddad, Hani; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Bourdon, Pitre C.; Buchheit, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In this study we assessed the effect of acute hypoxia on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation inferred from heart rate (HR) recovery (HRR) and HR variability (HRV) indices. Ten healthy males participated in this study. Following 10 min of seated rest, participants performed 5 min of submaximal running at the speed associated with the first ventilatory threshold (Sub) followed by a 20-s all-out supramaximal sprint (Supra). Both Sub and Supra runs were immediately followed by 15 min of seated passive recovery. The resting and exercise sequence were performed in both normoxia (N) and normobaric hypoxia (H; FiO2 = 15.4%). HRR indices (e.g., heart beats recovered in the first minute after exercise cessation, HRR60s) and vagal-related HRV indices [i.e., natural logarithm of the square root of the mean of the sum of the squared differences between adjacent normal R–R intervals (Ln rMSSD)] were calculated for both conditions. Difference in the changes between N and H for all HR-derived indices were also calculated for both Sub and Supra. HRR60s was greater in N compared with H following Sub only (60 ± 14 vs. 52 ± 19 beats min−1, P = 0.016). Ln rMSSD was greater in N compared with H (post Sub: 3.60 ± 0.45 vs. 3.28 ± 0.44 ms in N and H, respectively, and post Supra: 2.66 ± 0.54 vs. 2.65 ± 0.63 ms, main condition effect P = 0.02). When comparing the difference in the changes, hypoxia decreased HRR60s (−14.3% ± 17.2 vs. 5.2% ± 19.3; following Sub and Supra, respectively; P = 0.03) and Ln rMSSD (−8.6% ± 7.0 vs. 2.0% ± 13.3, following Sub and Supra, respectively; P = 0.08, Cohen’s effect size = 0.62) more following Sub than Supra. While hypoxia may delay parasympathetic reactivation following submaximal exercise, its effect is not apparent following supramaximal exercise. This may suggest that the effect of blood O2 partial pressure on parasympathetic reactivation is limited

  6. Cytokine Responses to Acute Exercise in Healthy Older Adults: The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T. Windsor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Markers of chronic inflammation increase with aging, and are associated with cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality. Increases in fitness with exercise training have been associated with lower circulating concentrations of cytokines known to have pro-inflammatory actions (such as interleukin-6 [IL-6] and higher circulating concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-10 [IL-10]. However, the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on acute cytokine responses to a single bout of exercise in healthy older individuals is unknown. We compared the response of plasma cytokines IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and IL-10 to a bout of moderate-intensity continuous and higher-intensity interval exercise between older individuals with higher and lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Sixteen lower-fit (VO2peak: 22.6±2.8 mL.kg−1.min−1 and fourteen higher-fit participants (VO2peak: 37.4±5.9 mL.kg−1.min−1 completed three 24 min experimental protocols in a randomized order: (1 moderate-intensity continuous exercise (40% of peak power output [PPO]; (2 higher-intensity interval exercise (12 × 1 min intervals at 70% PPO separated by 1 min periods at 10% PPO; or (3 non-exercise control. Plasma cytokines were measured at rest, immediately after, and during 90 min of recovery following exercise or control. Plasma IL-6 concentrations at baseline were greater in the higher-fit compared to the lower-fit group (P = 0.02, with no difference in plasma IL-10 or TNF-α concentrations at baseline between groups. Plasma IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations in both groups increased immediately after all protocols (IL-6: P = 0.02, IL-10: P < 0.01. However, there was no difference in the IL-6 and IL-10 response between the exercise and non-exercise (control protocols. After all protocols, no changes in plasma TNF-α concentrations were observed in either the higher- or lower-fit groups. In this study, basal concentrations of circulating IL-6

  7. Plasma homovanillic acid correlates inversely with history of childhood trauma in personality disordered and healthy control adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Royce; Coccaro, Emil F

    2010-11-01

    Studies of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA), suggest a relationship between CSF HVA concentration and history of childhood trauma. In this study, the authors test the hypothesis that this relationship is also present using peripheral levels of HVA in healthy volunteers and in personality disordered subjects. 68 personality disordered (PD) and healthy control (HC) subjects were chosen, in whom morning basal plasma HVA (pHVA) concentrations and an assessment of childhood trauma were obtained. History of childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). A significant inverse correlation was found between CTQ Total scores and pHVA concentration across all subjects. In addition, pHVA was lower, and CTQ scores were higher, in PD as compared with HC subjects. Correlations with other personality and behavioral measures were not statistically significant. The data suggest that pHVA concentrations are inversely correlated with history of childhood trauma and that variability in this index of dopamine function may be affected by the history of childhood trauma in healthy and personality disordered subjects.

  8. Determination of muscle microcirculation of the limbs of healthy persons and patients with scleroderma by means of /sup 133/Xe clearance. 1. Examination of patients with healthy vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemers, U.; Poenitzsch, I.; Schneider, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1984-01-01

    By means of /sup 133/Xe muscle clearance the blood flow of the musculus tibialis anterior and the musculus opponens pollicis was determined during nonischemic work and also after 3 minutes ischemia in 53 patients with healthy vessels. Additionally /sup 133/Xe muscle clearance of the musculus opponens pollicis after influence of heat, cold as well as arterial flow reduction. The flow values after ischemia were higher than during nonischemic work. In relation to the functional test the reactive hyperemia after 3 minutes ischemia proved to be more favorable in realization and standardization. In persons under the age of 30 little increased flow values of the musculus tibialis anterior compared to persons over 30 were determined.

  9. The treatment of iron deficiency without anaemia (in otherwise healthy persons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clénin, German E

    2017-06-21

    Iron deficiency is the most widespread and frequent nutritional disorder in the world. It affects a high proportion of children and women in developing countries and is also significantly prevalent in the industrialised world, with a clear predominance in adolescents and menstruating females. Iron is essential for optimal cognitive function and physical performance, not only as a binding site of oxygen but also as a critical constituent of many enzymes. Therefore iron deficiency at all its levels - nonanaemic iron deficiency, iron deficiency with microcytosis or hypochromia and iron deficiency anaemia - should be treated. In the presence of normal stores, however, preventative iron administration is inefficient, has side effects and seems to be harmful. In symptomatic patients with fatigue or in a population at risk for iron deficiency (adolescence, heavy or prolonged menstruation, high performance sport, vegetarian or vegan diet, eating disorder, underweight), a baseline set of blood tests including haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin, percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes and serum ferritin levels are important to monitor iron deficiency. To avoid false negative results (high ferritin levels in spite of iron deficiency), an acute phase reaction should be excluded by history and measurement of C-reactive protein. An algorithm leads through this diagnostic process and the decision making for a possible treatment. For healthy males and females aged >15 years, a ferritin cut-off of 30 µg/l is appropriate. For children from 6-12 years and younger adolescents from 12-15 years, cut-offs of 15 and 20 µg/l, respectively, are recommended. As a first step in treatment, counselling and oral iron therapy are usually combined. Integrating haem and free iron regularly into the diet, looking for enhancers and avoiding inhibitors of iron uptake is beneficial. In order to prevent reduced compliance, mainly as a result of

  10. Moderate Champagne consumption promotes an acute improvement in acute endothelial-independent vascular function in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauzour, David; Houseman, Emily J; George, Trevor W; Corona, Giulia; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jackson, Kim G; Sellier, Christelle; Gillery, Philippe; Kennedy, Orla B; Lovegrove, Julie A; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse correlation between red wine consumption and the incidence of CVD. However, Champagne wine has not been fully investigated for its cardioprotective potential. In order to assess whether acute and moderate Champagne wine consumption is capable of modulating vascular function, we performed a randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention trial. We show that consumption of Champagne wine, but not a control matched for alcohol, carbohydrate and fruit-derived acid content, induced an acute change in endothelium-independent vasodilatation at 4 and 8 h post-consumption. Although both Champagne wine and the control also induced an increase in endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity at 4 h, there was no significant difference between the vascular effects induced by Champagne or the control at any time point. These effects were accompanied by an acute decrease in the concentration of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9), a significant decrease in plasma levels of oxidising species and an increase in urinary excretion of a number of phenolic metabolites. In particular, the mean total excretion of hippuric acid, protocatechuic acid and isoferulic acid were all significantly greater following the Champagne wine intervention compared with the control intervention. Our data suggest that a daily moderate consumption of Champagne wine may improve vascular performance via the delivery of phenolic constituents capable of improving NO bioavailability and reducing matrix metalloproteinase activity.

  11. Acute Effects of Morning Light on Plasma Glucose and Triglycerides in Healthy Men and Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Ruth I.; Stenvers, Dirk J.; Visintainer, Dana; Linnenbank, Andre; Tanck, Michael W.; Zwanenburg, Gooitzen; Smilde, Age K.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; Serlie, Mireille J.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Bisschop, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Ambient light intensity is signaled directly to hypothalamic areas that regulate energy metabolism. Observational studies have shown associations between ambient light intensity and plasma glucose and lipid levels, but human data on the acute metabolic effects of light are scarce. Since light is the main signal indicating the onset of the diurnal phase of physical activity and food intake in humans, we hypothesized that bright light would affect glucose and lipid metabolism. Therefore, we determined the acute effects of bright light on plasma glucose and lipid concentrations in 2 randomized crossover trials: (1) in 8 healthy lean men and (2) in 8 obese men with type 2 diabetes. From 0730 h, subjects were exposed to either bright light (4000 lux) or dim light (10 lux) for 5 h. After 1 h of light exposure, subjects consumed a 600-kcal mixed meal. Primary endpoints were fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels. In healthy men, bright light did not affect fasting or postprandial plasma glucose levels. However, bright light increased fasting and postprandial plasma triglycerides. In men with type 2 diabetes, bright light increased fasting and postprandial glucose levels. In men with type 2 diabetes, bright light did not affect fasting triglyceride levels but increased postprandial triglyceride levels. We show that ambient light intensity acutely affects human plasma glucose and triglyceride levels. Our findings warrant further research into the consequences of the metabolic effects of light for the diagnosis and prevention of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. PMID:28470119

  12. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.; Niewold, T.A.; Heegaard, P.M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were

  13. GLP-1 does not not acutely affect insulin sensitivity in healthy man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, L; Holst, J J; Møller, J

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (7-36 amide) may have the direct effect of increasing insulin sensitivity in healthy man. To evaluate this hypothesis we infused GLP-1 in seven lean healthy men during a hyper insulinaemic (0.8 mU.kg-1.min-1), euglycaemic (5 mmo...

  14. Personalized Proteome Profiles of Healthy and Tumor Human Colon Organoids Reveal Both Individual Diversity and Basic Features of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristobal, Alba; van den Toorn, Henk W P; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans; Heck, Albert J R; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2017-01-03

    Diseases at the molecular level are complex and patient dependent, necessitating development of strategies that enable precision treatment to optimize clinical outcomes. Organoid technology has recently been shown to have the potential to recapitulate the in vivo characteristics of the original individual's tissue in a three-dimensional in vitro culture system. Here, we present a quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis and a comparative transcriptomic analysis of human colorectal tumor and healthy organoids derived, in parallel, from seven patients. Although gene and protein signatures can be derived to distinguish the tumor organoid population from healthy organoids, our data clearly reveal that each patient possesses a distinct organoid signature at the proteomic level. We demonstrate that a personalized patient-specific organoid proteome profile can be related to the diagnosis of a patient and with future development contribute to the generation of personalized therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of personal values in Chinese consumers' food consumption decisions. A case study of healthy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pui Yee; Lusk, Karen; Mirosa, Miranda; Oey, Indrawati

    2014-02-01

    Differences in culture, language, and behavior between Chinese and Western consumers make entering the Chinese market a challenge. Chinese consumers may desire similar product features (e.g. brand name, quality, and flavor) to Western consumers but the value that consumers attach to the same product may differ cross-nationally. Besides values, an understanding of desired product attributes and the consequences linking to these values is also important. To the authors' knowledge, there is no published scientific research that investigates how personal values influence Chinese consumers' food consumption decisions. The aim of this research was to identify the links among product attributes, consequences of these attributes, and personal values associated with healthy drink consumption decisions within the Chinese market. Specifically, this research employed means-end chain theory and used association pattern technique (APT) as the main data collection technique to identify these links. Focus groups (n=6) were held in Hangzhou, China to identify the important attributes and consequences involved in the consumption decisions of healthy drinks. These attributes and consequences along with Schwartz's 10 basic values were used to construct the matrices included in the APT survey. A total of 600 APT surveys were administered in six different companies in Hangzhou, with 570 returned. Construction of the hierarchical value map (HVM) identified four of Schwartz's personal values influencing Chinese consumers' healthy drink consumption decisions: security, hedonism, benevolence, and self-direction. Food safety was the foremost concern for Chinese consumers when choosing healthy drinks. Chinese consumers also sought a good tasting and nutritious drink that was good value for money. Results from this study provide food marketers with an in-depth understanding of Chinese consumers' healthy drink consumption decisions. Implications and recommendations are provided that will assist

  16. The Comparison of Healthy and Unhealthy Perfectionism and Type A Personality in The Perceived Parenting Styles in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    مریم جهان بخش; ابوالقاسم خوش کنش; محمود حیدری

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is to study healthy and unhealthy perfectionism as well as type A personality based on different parenting styles. With a ex-post-facto method, a sample of undergraduate students at Shahid Beheshti University was selected through random multistage cluster sampling with at least 80 students in every parenting style. This sample consists of 407 students: 235 girls and 172 boys. The subjects completed three questionnaires of perceived parenting style, positive...

  17. Acute interleukin-6 administration does not impair muscle glucose uptake or whole-body glucose disposal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian P; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    adrenaline (epinephrine). IL-6 infusion, irrespective of dose, did not result in any changes to endogenous glucose production, whole-body glucose disposal or leg- glucose uptake. These data demonstrate that acute IL-6 administration does not impair whole-body glucose disposal, net leg-glucose uptake......The cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 has recently been linked with type 2 diabetes mellitus and has been suggested to affect glucose metabolism. To determine whether acute IL-6 administration affects whole-body glucose kinetics or muscle glucose uptake, 18 healthy young men were assigned to one of three...... the cessation of infusion (recovery) to determine endogenous glucose production and whole-body glucose disposal. Infusion with HiIL-6 and LoIL-6 resulted in a marked (P

  18. Relationship between personality and gray matter volume in healthy young adults: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengmei Lu

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the neurostructural foundations of the human personality in young adults. High-resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 71 healthy young individuals were processed using voxel-based morphometric (VBM approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify the associations between personality traits and gray matter volume (GMV. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Short Scale for Chinese was chosen to assess the personality traits. This scale includes four dimensions, namely, extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie. Particularly, we studied on two dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism of Eysenck's personality. Our results showed that extraversion was negatively correlated with GMV of the bilateral amygdala, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus, all of which are involved in emotional and social cognitive processes. These results might suggest an association between extraversion and affective processing. In addition, a positive correlation was detected between neuroticism and GMV of the right cerebellum, a key brain region for negative affect coordination. Meanwhile, a negative association was revealed between GMV of the left superior frontal gyrus and neuroticism. These results may prove that neuroticism is related to several brain regions involved in regulating negative emotions. Based on those findings, we concluded that brain regions involved in social cognition and affective process accounted for modulation and shaping of personality traits among young individuals. Results of this study may serve as a basis for elucidating the anatomical factors of personality.

  19. An Analysis of Total Personality as Advocated by Holistic Theorists and Its Effect upon Healthy Personality. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Willard B.

    This conceptual work is concerned with the development of a holistic theory of personality. The following were selected for their strong orientation in this direction: Gordon Allport, Andras Angyal, Kurt Goldstein, Prescott Lecky, Abraham Maslow, Bardner Murphy, and Carl Rogers. The four themes which emerged from an analysis of their writings are…

  20. Management of acute gastroenteritis in healthy children in Lebanon - A national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Alameddine, Aouni; Mourad, Sawsan; Rifai, Nahida

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute gastroenteritis remains a common condition among infants and children throughout the world. In 1996, The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) revised its recommendations for the treatment of infants and children with acute gastroenteritis. Aim: The purpose of this survey was to determine how closely current treatment among Lebanese pediatricians compares with the AAP recommendations and to determine the impact of such management on the healthcare system. Patients and Methods...

  1. The Role of GAD65 Autoantibody in Diabetes Mellitus and their First-Degree Relatives and Comparison with Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nakhjavani

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The diabetes is an autoimmune disease, in which the role of autoantibodies is of a specific importance. The appearance of these autoantibodies can be the first symptom in the serum of type I diabetic patients, which may appear ten years before onset of the disease. The most important autoantibodies include Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GAD65-Ab. This can be used as a good tool for prediction in screening tests in type I diabetic patients. In the present study with prosedure RIA, we investigated the level of GAD65-Ab in patients with diabetes type I and their close relatives, and compared them with healthy persons. From the type I diabetic patients who have been suffering from the disease for periods of one week to twenty years, 63.3% of them had positive Anti-GAD65. This ratio was 8% in their close trelatives, and 0% in healthy persons. The difference in Anti-GAD65 between the healthy persons and close relative of patients was significant. This test may be employed in diabetes type I, as a screening test, and confirms the results of studies which have been conducted so far outside this country.

  2. Acute personalized habitual caffeine doses improve attention and have selective effects when considering the fractionation of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanini, Juliana; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes; Pompéia, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is widely used, often consumed with food, and improves simple and complex/executive attention under fasting conditions. We investigated whether these cognitive effects are observed when personalized habitual doses of caffeine are ingested by caffeine consumers, whether they are influenced by nutriments and if various executive domains are susceptible to improvement. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 60 young, healthy, rested males randomly assigned to one of four treatments: placebo fasting, caffeine fasting, placebo meal and caffeine meal. Caffeine doses were individualized for each participant based on their self-reported caffeine consumption at the time of testing (morning). The test battery included measures of simple and sustained attention, executive domains (inhibiting, updating, shifting, dual tasking, planning and accessing long-term memory), control measures of subjective alterations, glucose and insulin levels, skin conductance, heart rate and pupil dilation. Regardless of meal intake, acute habitual doses of caffeine decreased fatigue, and improved simple and sustained attention and executive updating. This executive effect was not secondary to the habitual weekly dose consumed, changes in simple and sustained attention, mood, meal ingestion and increases in cognitive effort. We conclude that the morning caffeine "fix" has positive attentional effects and selectively improved executive updating whether or not caffeine is consumed with food. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Human paraoxonase and HDL-cholesterol in pakistan patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.P.; Khan, A.H.; Mehboobali, N.

    2007-01-01

    Human serum paraoxonase is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound enzyme exhibiting antiatherogenic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate any relationship between serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to normal healthy subjects and to examine possible association between serum paraoxonase activity and AMI in Pakistani population. In a case-control study, serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were monitored in 164 Pakistani patients with AMI and 106 normal healthy adults matched for gender, BMI and age within 10 years. Mean serum concentration of HDL-cholesterol and mean serum paraoxonase activity in AMI patients were not significantly different from the corresponding values in normal healthy subjects. Mean serum paraoxonase activity value was significantly lower in normal healthy subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (serum levels < 40mg/dl) compared to the value in those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol (P=0.04). In AMI patients, paraoxonase activity was lower in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol compared to those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol, however, the decrease was not statistically significant. Correlation analyses of the data revealed a moderate association of paraoxonase activity with HDL-cholesterol (Pearson's r= 0.225, P<0.01 for AMI patients and r=0.281, P<0.01 for normal healthy controls). Seventy three percent of normal healthy subjects and 65% of AMI patients in this study had low HDL-cholesterol. Low serum paraoxonase activity and high prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani population could be contributing to the high rates of coronary heart disease in this population. (author)

  4. The Effect of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Myostastin in Healthy Elderly Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Gholamali

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion Plasma Myostatin decreased significantly in the response to endurance exercise, in healthy elderly men. Presumably, according to the results of this study, prescription of endurance exercise may decrease Myostatin and subsequently sarcopenia in elderly people.

  5. Neuronal correlates of the five factor model (FFM) of human personality: Multimodal imaging in a large healthy sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnebekk, Astrid; Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B; Grydeland, Håkon; Torgersen, Svenn; Westlye, Lars T

    2013-01-15

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques have recently provided glimpse into the neurobiology of complex traits of human personality. Whereas some intriguing findings have connected aspects of personality to variations in brain morphology, the relations are complex and our current understanding is incomplete. Therefore, we aimed to provide a comprehensive investigation of brain-personality relations using a multimodal neuroimaging approach in a large sample comprising 265 healthy individuals. The NEO Personality Inventory was used to provide measures of core aspects of human personality, and imaging phenotypes included measures of total and regional brain volumes, regional cortical thickness and arealization, and diffusion tensor imaging indices of white matter (WM) microstructure. Neuroticism was the trait most clearly linked to brain structure. Higher neuroticism including facets reflecting anxiety, depression and vulnerability to stress was associated with smaller total brain volume, widespread decrease in WM microstructure, and smaller frontotemporal surface area. Higher scores on extraversion were associated with thinner inferior frontal gyrus, and conscientiousness was negatively associated with arealization of the temporoparietal junction. No reliable associations between brain structure and agreeableness and openness, respectively, were found. The results provide novel evidence of the associations between brain structure and variations in human personality, and corroborate previous findings of a consistent neuroanatomical basis of negative emotionality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring Parental Bonding in BED and Non-BED Obesity Compared with Healthy Controls: Clinical, Personality and Psychopathology Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2016-05-01

    Early inadequate attachment experiences are relevant co-factors in the development of obesity and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), which often concurs with obesity. The relationship of parental bonding with personality and psychopathology may influence treatment strategies for obese subjects, either affected or not with BED. In this study, 443 obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), including 243 with and 200 without BED, and 158 female controls were assessed with regards to attachment, personality and eating psychopathology measures. Clusters obtained using the scores of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were compared with each other and with a control subjects' group. Lower scores of parental bonding distinguished obese subjects with respect to healthy controls. The cluster analysis revealed two clusters of parenting among obese subjects. The larger one displayed intermediate care and overprotection between controls and the smaller cluster, with the exception of paternal overprotection which is similar to controls. This larger cluster was characterized by low persistence and levels of psychopathology which are intermediate between healthy controls and the smaller cluster. The smaller cluster displayed lower care and higher overcontrol from both parents. It also displays more extreme personality traits (high novelty seeking and harm avoidance, and lower self-directedness and cooperativeness) and more severe eating and general psychopathology. Different parenting dynamics relate to different personality patterns and eating psychopathology of obese subjects, but not to binge eating conducts. Personality differences between parenting clusters are more extensive than those between BED and non-BED subgroups. The two different typologies of obese subjects based on parenting may be relevant for treatment personalization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. Effect of self-administered foot reflexology for symptom management in healthy persons: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Jin; Son, Heejeong; Seo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Heeyoung; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Sanghun

    2015-02-01

    Self-administered foot reflexology is unrestricted by time and space, economical, and practical because it is easy to learn and apply. This study estimated the effectiveness of self-foot reflexology for symptom management in healthy persons through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The participants were healthy persons not diagnosed with a specific disease. The intervention was foot reflexology administered by participants, not by practitioners or healthcare providers. The comparative studies either between groups or within group comparison were included. Our search utilized core databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and CINAHL). We also searched Chinese (CNKI), Japanese (J-STAGE), and Korean databases (KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, NDSL, KISTI, and OASIS). The search was used MeSH terminology and key words (foot reflexology, foot massage, and self). Analysis of three non-randomized trials and three before-and-after studies showed that self-administered foot reflexology resulted in significant improvement in subjective outcomes such as perceived stress, fatigue, and depression. However, there was no significant improvement in objective outcomes such as cortisol levels, blood pressure, and pulse rate. We did not find any randomized controlled trial. This study presents the effectiveness of self-administered foot reflexology for healthy persons' psychological and physiological symptoms. While objective outcomes showed limited results, significant improvements were found in subjective outcomes. However, owing to the small number of studies and methodological flaws, there was insufficient evidence supporting the use of self-performed foot reflexology. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the effect of self-administered foot reflexology in healthy people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Personal Context-Aware Multi-Device Coaching Service that Supports a Healthy Lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Klaassen, Randy; Lavrysen, Tine; Geleijnse, Gijs; van Halteren, Aart; Schwietert, Henk; van der Hout, Marloes

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes work in progress in the European Artemis project Smarcos. Smarcos focuses on interusability of multi-device embedded and networked services. The work presented here is devoted to the development of context-aware personal coaching service systems that give users personalized

  9. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  10. The association between Colombian medical students' healthy personal habits and a positive attitude toward preventive counseling: cross-sectional analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperly, John; Lobelo, Felipe; Segura, Carolina; Sarmiento, Francisco; Herrera, Deisy; Sarmiento, Olga L; Frank, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Background Physician-delivered preventive counseling is important for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Data from the U.S. indicates that medical students with healthy personal habits have a better attitude towards preventive counseling. However, this association and its correlates have not been addressed in rapidly urbanized settings where chronic disease prevention strategies constitute a top public health priority. This study examines the association between personal health practices and attitudes toward preventive counseling among first and fifth-year students from 8 medical schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods During 2006, a total of 661 first- and fifth-year medical students completed a culturally adapted Spanish version of the "Healthy Doctor = Healthy Patient" survey (response rate = 78%). Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between overall personal practices on physical activity, nutrition, weight control, smoking, alcohol use (main exposure variable) and student attitudes toward preventive counseling on these issues (main outcome variable), stratified by year of training and adjusting by gender and medical training-related factors (basic knowledge, perceived adequacy of training and perception of the school's promotion on each healthy habit). Results The median age and percentage of females for the first- and fifth-year students were 21 years and 59.5% and 25 years and 65%, respectively. After controlling for gender and medical training-related factors, consumption of ≥ 5 daily servings of fruits and/or vegetables, not being a smoker or binge drinker were associated with a positive attitude toward counseling on nutrition (OR = 4.71; CI = 1.6–14.1; p = 0.006 smoking (OR = 2.62; CI = 1.1–5.9; p = 0.022), and alcohol consumption (OR = 2.61; CI = 1.3–5.4; p = 0.009), respectively. Conclusion As for U.S. physician and medical students, a positive association was found between the personal health habits of

  11. Cortisol acutely reduces selective attention for erotic words in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Peter; Berling, Sylvia

    2011-10-01

    Psychological stress prompts activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis resulting in increased release of cortisol. Long-term HPA aberrations have been observed for stress-related affective disorders but research into acute effects of cortisol on affect-regulation has only recently begun. Previous studies reported that exogenous cortisol acutely attenuated automatic attentional processing of task-irrelevant threatening information. This has been taken to suggest that cortisol may have acute anxiolytic properties, possibly through facilitating inhibition of threatening information. However, the role of cortisol in attentional inhibition of non-threatening arousing stimuli remained unclear. Therefore acute effects of 40 mg cortisol on performance of a masked and unmasked emotional Stroop task (EST) were assessed. Results for only the unmasked task demonstrated EST interference (interpreted as increased automatic attention) for erotic stimuli which was abolished by cortisol administration. This implies that effects of cortisol may not be restricted to attenuation of specifically anxiogenic information processing, as previously suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin concentration in healthy overweight and lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Rosenzweig, Mary; Dela, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    -) plasma concentration did not change during exercise in any of the groups, but SCAAT TNF- mRNA increased after exercise in both groups. Furthermore, exercise decreased SCAAT leptin mRNA with no change in resistin mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin...

  13. Acute Effects of the Ampakine Farampator on Memory and Information Processing in Healthy Elderly Volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ampakines act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA-type glutamate receptors and facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a mechanism associated with memory storage and consolidation. The present study investigated the acute effects of farampator, 1-(benzofurazan-5-ylcarbonyl)

  14. Acute effects of the ampakine farampator on memory and information processing in healthy elderly volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ampakines act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA-type glutamate receptors and facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a mechanism associated with memory storage and consolidation. The present study investigated the acute effects of farampator, 1-(benzofurazan-5-ylcarbonyl)

  15. Acute psychomotor effects of MDMA and ethanol (co-) administration over time in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G J H; Schoemaker, R C; Touw, D J; Sweep, F C G J; Buitelaar, J K; van Gerven, J M A; Verkes, R J

    In Western societies, a considerable percentage of young people use 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy'). The use of alcohol (ethanol) in combination with ecstasy is common. The aim of the present study was to assess the acute psychomotor and subjective effects of (co-)

  16. ACUTE ZONAL OCCULT OUTER RETINOPATHY: Structural and Functional Analysis Across the Transition Zone Between Healthy and Diseased Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Tobias; Lee, Winston; Jiang, Fan; Ramachandran, Rithambara; Hood, Donald C; Tsang, Stephen H; Sparrow, Janet R; Greenstein, Vivienne C

    2018-01-01

    To assess structure and function across the transition zone (TZ) between relatively healthy and diseased retina in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. Six patients (6 eyes; age 22-71 years) with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy were studied. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance, color fundus photography, and fundus perimetry were performed and images were registered to each other. The retinal layers of the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scans were segmented and the thicknesses of two outer retinal layers, that is, the total receptor and outer segment plus layers, and the retinal nerve fiber layer were measured. All eyes showed a TZ on multimodal imaging. On spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, the TZ was in the nasal retina at varying distances from the fovea. For all eyes, it was associated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band, significant thinning of the two outer retinal layers, and in three eyes with thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer. On fundus autofluorescence, all eyes had a clearly demarcated peripapillary area of abnormal fundus autofluorescence delimited by a border of high autofluorescence; the latter was associated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band and with a change from relatively normal to markedly decreased or nonrecordable visual sensitivity on fundus perimetry. The results of multimodal imaging clarified the TZ in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. The TZ was outlined by a distinct high autofluorescence border that correlated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. However, in fundus areas that seemed healthy on fundus autofluorescence, thinning of the outer retinal layers and thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer were observed near the TZ. The TZ was also characterized by a decrease in visual sensitivity.

  17. Ten-year stability of self-reported schizotypal personality features in patients with psychosis and their healthy siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Izco, Lucía; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Lorente-Omeñaca, Ruth; Fañanás, Lourdes; Rosa, Araceli; Salvatore, Paola; Peralta, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-06-30

    Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) symptoms or features are common in patients with psychosis and their healthy relatives. However, the long-term stability of these SPD features and therefore their constituting enduring traits underlying vulnerability to psychosis remain to be clarified. Thirty-two patients with psychotic disorders and 29 of their healthy siblings were included from the long-term follow-up study of 89 nuclear families. Participants were clinically assessed by means of a semi-structured diagnostic interview, whereas the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) was applied for the self-assessment of SPD symptoms. The assessments were carried out upon admission to the study and at follow-up, about 10 years later. The patients had higher scores than their siblings on the SPQ-B both at baseline and follow-up. In addition, self-reported SPD symptoms remained stable over time in total scores and in all the SPQ-B subscores, except for the SPQ-B Disorganization subscale. Self-reported SPD symptoms were stable over the long term among patients with psychotic disorders and their healthy siblings. This finding provides new support for including the SPD construct as a trait measure for studies addressing both vulnerability to psychosis in first-degree relatives of patients with psychosis and long-term persistence of symptoms in patients suffering from psychosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EDUCATION OF RELIGIOUS VALUES IN BUILDING HEALTHY PERSONALITY (Analytical Descriptive Study in Madrasah Aliyah Darul Arqam Garut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sadiah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Educational value as a teaching or counseling leads students to realize the values of truth, goodness, and beauty, through the process of the correct value judgments and habituation to act consistently. This study aims at identifying goals and assessment of religious values education in building healthy characters, and adopts an analytical descriptive method and qualitative approach. People with healthy personalities are those who are judged to be well adjusted. They are so judged because they are able to function efficiently in the word of people. They experience a kind of “inner harmony” in the sense that they are at peace with other as well as with themselves. The teacher expected goals is in line with the vision and mission of Darul Arqam Madrasah Aliyah equipped with extra-curricular activities and school discipline. Someone with a healthy personality can give happiness to her needs through behaviors (adjusted with the environmental norms and needs of his conscience, thus forming the character of the students become independent, accomplished, happy, sholeh, honest, faithful and pious to Allah SWT.

  19. Impact of novelty and type of material on recognition in healthy older adults and persons with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleville, Sylvie; Ménard, Marie-Claude; Lepage, Emilie

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of novelty on correct recognition (hit minus false alarms) and on recollection and familiarity processes in normal aging and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Recognition tasks compared well-known and novel stimuli in the verbal domain (words vs. pseudowords) and in the musical domain (well-known vs. novel melodies). Results indicated that novel materials associated with lower correct recognition and lower recollection, an effect that can be related to its lower amenability to elaborative encoding in comparison with well-known items. Results also indicated that normal aging impairs recognition of well-known items, whereas MCI impairs recognition of novel items only. Healthy older adults showed impaired recollection and familiarity relative to younger controls and individuals with MCI showed impaired recollection relative to healthy older adults. The recollection deficit in healthy older adults and persons with MCI and their impaired recognition of well-known items is compatible with the difficulty both groups have in encoding information in an elaborate manner. In turn, familiarity deficit could be related to impaired frontal functioning. Therefore, novelty of material has a differential impact on recognition in persons with age-related memory disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The acute (immediate) effects of reflexology on arterial compliance in healthy volunteers: A randomised study.

    OpenAIRE

    Rollinson, K; Jones, J; Scott, N; Megson, IL; Leslie, SJ

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reflexology is a widely used complementary therapy. The effects of reflexology on the cardiovascular system are not well characterised. Arterial stiffness (compliance) is a marker of vascular health. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of reflexology on arterial compliance in healthy volunteers. METHODS: 12 healthy volunteers (1 male; 11 female; mean age 44.8 ± 10.8 yrs) received 10 min of reflexology on each foot in a single-blind randomised study. The main outcome measures ...

  1. Left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Rao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to observe left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young males.A prospective trial was conducted in Szechwan and Tibet from June to August, 2012. By Doppler echocardiography, left ventricular function was examined in 139 healthy young Chinese men at sea level; within 24 hours after arrival in Lhasa, Tibet, at 3700 m; and on day 7 following an ascent to Yangbajing at 4400 m after 7 days of acclimatization at 3700 m. The resting oxygen saturation (SaO2, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were also measured at the above mentioned three time points.Within 24 hours of arrival at 3700 m, the HR, ejection fraction (EF, fractional shortening (FS, stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and left ventricular (LV Tei index were significantly increased, but the LV end-systolic dimension (ESD, end-systolic volume (ESV, SaO2, E/A ratio, and ejection time (ET were significantly decreased compared to the baseline levels in all subjects. On day 7 at 4400 m, the SV and CO were significantly decreased; the EF and FS Tei were not decreased compared with the values at 3700 m; the HR was further elevated; and the SaO2, ESV, ESD, and ET were further reduced. Additionally, the E/A ratio was significantly increased on day 7 but was still lower than it was at low altitude.Upon acute high-altitude exposure, left ventricular systolic function was elevated with increased stroke volume, but diastolic function was decreased in healthy young males. With higher altitude exposure and prolonged acclimatization, the left ventricular systolic function was preserved with reduced stroke volume and improved diastolic function.

  2. Normalizing Electrocardiograms of Both Healthy Persons and Cardiovascular Disease Patients for Biometric Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Miaomiao; Li, Fan; Wang, Guoqing; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2013-01-01

    Although electrocardiogram (ECG) fluctuates over time and physical activity, some of its intrinsic measurements serve well as biometric features. Considering its constant availability and difficulty in being faked, the ECG signal is becoming a promising factor for biometric authentication. The majority of the currently available algorithms only work well on healthy participants. A novel normalization and interpolation algorithm is proposed to convert an ECG signal into multiple template cycles, which are comparable between any two ECGs, no matter the sampling rates or health status. The overall accuracies reach 100% and 90.11% for healthy participants and cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients, respectively. PMID:23977063

  3. DIFFERENT ACUTE METABOLISM OF FRUCTOSE IN DIALYSIS PATIENTS COMPARED TO HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Anderstam

    2012-06-01

    We conclude that a fatty meal is associated with a delayed post-prandial fructose absorption and/or metabolism, as well as increased uric acid levels in HD patients. In an ongoing new study, the fructose metabolism will be further studied in CKD patients, diabetics and healthy controls.

  4. TOWARDS HEALTHY ORGANISATIONIN CORRECTIONAL SETTING: CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS’WELLNESS, OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ahmad Marzuki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Correctional officers always confronted with two interrelated issues: wellness andstress at work. Correctional officers’ wellness wasirrefutable due to intensepressure conditions at the workplace that continuously faltered their wellness.Gradual wellness fluctuation due to excessive stress would severely tarnishperformance of correctional officers and prison department. Nevertheless, theirpersonality played an important role in conservingtheir wellness level despitecontinuous overrun of stress during work. Thereforethis paper elaborated oncorrectional officers’ personality and occupationalstress in order to maintain theirwellness at work. This research examined the relationship between correctionalofficers’ wellness, their personality and occupational stress in Prison Departmentof Malaysia. Pertinent question of the study was tolook at influence ofcorrectional officers’ personality and occupationalstress on their wellness degree.These findings were significant since correctionalofficers’ wellness, theirpersonality and occupational stress remained looseissue particularly in Malaysia.Findings revealed that personality and occupationalstress influenced correctionalofficers’ health and wellbeing.

  5. Validity of the Type D personality construct in Danish post-MI patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with increased risk of depression, vital exhaustion, social alienation, a higher number of reinfarctions, and higher mortality rates in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) independent of traditional biomedical risk factors. The construct ...

  6. Art, music, story: The evaluation of a person-centred arts in health programme in an acute care older persons' unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Karen; Tesch, Leigh; Dawborn, Jacqueline; Courtney-Pratt, Helen

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of an arts in health programme delivered by a specialised artist within an acute older person's unit. Acute hospitals must meet the increasingly complex needs of older people who experience multiple comorbidities, often including cognitive impairment, either directly related to their admission or longer term conditions, including dementia. A focus on physical illness, efficiency and tasks within an acute care environment can all divert attention from the psychosocial well-being of patients. This focus also decreases capacity for person-centred approaches that acknowledge and value the older person, their life story, relationships and the care context. The importance of arts for health and wellness, including responsiveness to individual need, is well established: however, there is little evidence about its effectiveness for older people in acute hospital settings. We report on a collaborative arts in health programme on an acute medical ward for older people. The qualitative study used collaborative enquiry underpinned by a constructivist approach to evaluate an arts programme that involved participatory art-making activities, customised music, song and illustration work, and enlivening the unit environment. Data sources included observation of art activities, semi-structured interviews with patients and family members, and focus groups with staff. Data were transcribed and thematically analysed using a line by line approach. The programme had positive impacts for the environment, patients, families and staff. The environment exhibited changes as a result of programme outputs; patients and families were engaged and enjoyed activities that aided recovery from illness; and staff also enjoyed activities and importantly learnt new ways of working with patients. An acute care arts in health programme is a carefully nuanced programme where the skills of the arts health worker are critical to success. Utilising such skill, continued focus on person

  7. EXPLORING PERSONALITY DIAGNOSIS STABILITY FOLLOWING ACUTE PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR CHRONIC POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John C; Petkova, Eva; Biyanova, Tatyana; Ding, Ke; Suh, Eun Jung; Neria, Yuval

    2015-12-01

    Axis I comorbidity complicates diagnosing axis II personality disorders (PDs). PDs might influence Axis I outcome. No research has examined psychotherapy effects on PDs of treating Axis I comorbidity. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial examined PD diagnostic stability after brief psychotherapy of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients with chronic PTSD were randomly assigned to 14 weeks of prolonged exposure, interpersonal psychotherapy, or relaxation therapy. Assessments included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Patient Version (SCID-P) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) at baseline, week 14, and for treatment responders (≥30% clinician-administered PTSD scale improvement, defined a priori) at week 26 follow-up. We hypothesized patients whose PTSD improved would retain fewer baseline PD diagnoses posttreatment, particularly with personality traits PTSD mimics, e.g. paranoid and avoidant. Forty-seven (47%) of 99 SCID-II patients evaluated at baseline received a SCID-II diagnosis: paranoid (28%), obsessive-compulsive (27%), and avoidant (23%) PDs were most prevalent. Among 78 patients who repeated SCID-II evaluations posttreatment, 45% (N = 35) had baseline PD diagnoses, of which 43% (N = 15/35) lost at week 14. Three (7%) patients without baseline PDs acquired diagnoses at week 14; 10 others shifted diagnoses. Treatment modality and PTSD response were unrelated to PD improvement. Of treatment responders reevaluated at follow-up (N = 44), 56% with any baseline Axis II diagnosis had none at week 26. This first evaluation of Axis I psychotherapy effects on personality disorder stability found that acutely treating a chronic state decreased apparent trait-across most PDs observed. These exploratory findings suggest personality diagnoses may have limited prognostic meaning in treating chronic PTSD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Acute chest pain after bench press exercise in a healthy young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smereck, Janet A; Papafilippaki, Argyro; Sudarshan, Sawali

    2016-01-01

    Bench press exercise, which involves repetitive lifting of weights to full arm extension while lying supine on a narrow bench, has been associated with complications ranging in acuity from simple pectoral muscle strain, to aortic and coronary artery dissection. A 39-year-old man, physically fit and previously asymptomatic, presented with acute chest pain following bench press exercise. Diagnostic evaluation led to the discovery of critical multivessel coronary occlusive disease, and subsequently, highly elevated levels of lipoprotein (a). Judicious use of ancillary testing may identify the presence of "high-risk" conditions in a seemingly "low-risk" patient. Emergency department evaluation of the young adult with acute chest pain must take into consideration an extended spectrum of potential etiologies, so as to best guide appropriate management.

  9. Taste at first (person) sight: Visual perspective modulates brain activity implicitly associated with viewing unhealthy but not healthy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Frédéric; Petit, Olivia; Le Bellu, Sophie; Lahlou, Saadi; Cancel, Aïda; Anton, Jean-Luc

    2018-06-12

    Every day, people are exposed to images of appetizing foods that can lead to high-calorie intake and contribute to overweight and obesity. Research has documented that manipulating the visual perspective from which eating is viewed helps resist temptation by altering the appraisal of unhealthy foods. However, the neural basis of this effect has not yet been examined using neuroimaging methods. Moreover, it is not known whether the benefits of this strategy can be observed when people, especially overweight, are not explicitly asked to imagine themselves eating. Last, it remains to be investigated if visual perspective could be used to promote healthy foods. The present work manipulated camera angles and tested whether visual perspective modulates activity in brain regions associated with taste and reward processing while participants watch videos featuring a hand grasping (unhealthy or healthy) foods from a plate during functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI). The plate was filmed from the perspective of the participant (first-person perspective; 1PP), or from a frontal view as if watching someone else eating (third-person perspective; 3PP). Our findings reveal that merely viewing unhealthy food cues from a 1PP (vs. 3PP) increases activity in brain regions that underlie representations of rewarding (appetitive) experiences (amygdala) and food intake (superior parietal gyrus). Additionally, our results show that ventral striatal activity is positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) during exposure to unhealthy foods from a 1PP (vs. 3PP). These findings suggest that unhealthy foods should be promoted through third-person (video) images to weaken the reward associated with their simulated consumption, especially amongst overweight people. It appears however that, as such, manipulating visual perspective fails to enhance the perception of healthy foods. Their promotion thus requires complementary solutions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Method for Assigning Priority Levels in Acute Care (MAPLe-AC predicts outcomes of acute hospital care of older persons - a cross-national validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljunggren Gunnar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although numerous risk factors for adverse outcomes for older persons after an acute hospital stay have been identified, a decision making tool combining all available information in a clinically meaningful way would be helpful for daily hospital practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Method for Assigning Priority Levels for Acute Care (MAPLe-AC to predict adverse outcomes in acute care for older people and to assess its usability as a decision making tool for discharge planning. Methods Data from a prospective multicenter study in five Nordic acute care hospitals with information from admission to a one year follow-up of older acute care patients were compared with a prospective study of acute care patients from admission to discharge in eight hospitals in Canada. The interRAI Acute Care assessment instrument (v1.1 was used for data collection. Data were collected during the first 24 hours in hospital, including pre-morbid and admission information, and at day 7 or at discharge, whichever came first. Based on this information a crosswalk was developed from the original MAPLe algorithm for home care settings to acute care (MAPLe-AC. The sample included persons 75 years or older who were admitted to acute internal medical services in one hospital in each of the five Nordic countries (n = 763 or to acute hospital care either internal medical or combined medical-surgical services in eight hospitals in Ontario, Canada (n = 393. The outcome measures considered were discharge to home, discharge to institution or death. Outcomes in a 1-year follow-up in the Nordic hospitals were: living at home, living in an institution or death, and survival. Logistic regression with ROC curves and Cox regression analyses were used in the analyses. Results Low and mild priority levels of MAPLe-AC predicted discharge home and high and very high priority levels predicted adverse outcome at discharge both in the Nordic

  11. Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylphenidate on circulating steroid levels in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Seibert Julia; Hysek Cédric M; Penno Carlos A; Schmid Yasmin; Kratschmar Denise V; Liechti Matthias E; Odermatt Alex

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate are widely used psychoactive substances. MDMA primarily enhances serotonergic neurotransmission, and methylphenidate increases dopamine but has no serotonergic effects. Both drugs also increase norepinephrine, resulting in sympathomimetic properties. Here we studied the effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on 24-h plasma steroid profiles. Sixteen healthy subjects (eight men, eight women) were treated with single doses of M...

  12. Validity indices of the Rorschach test and Personality Assessment Inventory: a comparison in pathological and healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo F. Di Nuovo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The debate about the validity of the Rorschach test, compared with psychometric inventories, is particularly relevant in the forensic evaluation. The aim of the study is to present an overview on the control indices proposed in Rorschach (e.g. R,  F%, Lambda Index and in a personality inventory (Personality Assessment Inventory: e.g., openness, desirability, inconsistency, infrequency, negative and positive impression, malingering and defensiveness, treatment rejection and to cross-correlate these indices. The sample consisted of 50 adult inpatients with diagnosis of severe depression or psychosis, and a control group of healthy subjects, matched by gender, age and educational level. The results show that the analytic style, as opposed to the global one, is related to greater openness to psychological assessment, less social desirability and defensive tendency. The Rorschach Lambda index demonstrates good validity in detecting tendency to defensiveness, social desirability and dissimulation, both in normal and pathological protocols.

  13. The acute (immediate) effects of reflexology on arterial compliance in healthy volunteers: A randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Kirsty; Jones, Jenny; Scott, Norma; Megson, Ian L; Leslie, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Reflexology is a widely used complementary therapy. The effects of reflexology on the cardiovascular system are not well characterised. Arterial stiffness (compliance) is a marker of vascular health. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of reflexology on arterial compliance in healthy volunteers. 12 healthy volunteers (1 male; 11 female; mean age 44.8 ± 10.8 yrs) received 10 min of reflexology on each foot in a single-blind randomised study. The main outcome measures were measurements of cardiovascular parameters including heart rate, blood pressure and arterial compliance (augmentation index). Reflexology had no significant effect on heart rate, blood pressure or augmentation index (all p > 0.05). In healthy volunteers, there were no consistent changes in haemodynamic parameters with a single brief reflexology treatment. Thus from a cardiovascular point of view, reflexology (as delivered) would appear to have a limited (if any) effect on the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute administration of cyclosporine A does not impair attention or memory performance in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Anna L; Kirchhof, Julia; Füting, Anna; Hütter, Bernd-Otto; Wilde, Benjamin; Witzke, Oliver; Benson, Sven; Hadamitzky, Martin; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2017-06-01

    There is clinical and experimental evidence that treatment with immunosuppressive and antiproliferative drugs such as the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) is associated with mental health problems and neuropsychological disturbances in patients. However, it remains unclear whether and to what extent cognitive functions such as memory and attention processes are affected by the pharmacological treatment. This is partly because of the fact that it is difficult to refer the observed neuropsychological disturbances in patients to the drug itself, to drug-induced immune suppression, or to interaction with other medication or comorbidities. Thus, in a double-blind study with healthy male participants (n=30), we investigated whether short-term intake of therapeutic doses of CsA (4×2.5 mg/kg) affects attention, working memory performance, and anxiety levels, measured with the Tests of Attentional Performance and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The data indicate that short-term CsA-administration and subsequent suppression in interleukin-2 production are accompanied neither by a decrease in attention or memory performance nor by increased anxiety levels in healthy male volunteers, suggesting that the short-term intake of CsA does not impair cognitive functioning. Further studies in healthy humans are needed to determine neurocognitive functions and mood states after short-term or subchronic treatment with different immunosuppressive and antiproliferative drugs.

  15. Healthy aging persons and their brains: promoting resilience through creative engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Susan H; Basting, Anne D

    2010-02-01

    Creative engagement, as an expression of and a support for resilience, may have a neuroprotective effect among older adults, contributing to retention of cognitive capacity. Recent research on creative activities shows that they strengthen social networks and give persons a sense of control; both outcomes have been associated with brain health. The authors cite evidence suggesting that positive social interactions can nurture resilience and creative engagement among older persons, including those living with dementia. The motivational, attentional, affective, and social components of creative activities combine to offer older persons meaningful opportunities to express and strengthen their resilience, regardless of their cognitive status, despite the biopsychosocial challenges of aging. The article addresses implications for future research, clinical practice, and public policy, and suggests how gaps in current research on resilience and creativity might be addressed.

  16. Changes in metabolic correlates of personality traits in healthy elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Personality traits are generally known to be stable, although the brain changes with aging. Especially women experience striking alterations in the neuroendocrinergic system at menopause, which may cause considerable changes in personality traits and alter their underlying neural substrates. To investigate changes in the neural substrates underlying personality traits, we investigated metabolic correlates of personality traits in women before and after menopause. We obtained FDG PET images from 13 young (24.0±3.1 y) and 11 elderly females (66.8±3.3 y). Three factors of personality traits (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Characteristic Inventory. Three ANCOVA maps were created in SPM2 (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100), each constructed to assess the metabolic correlates of each temperament factor. In young females NS scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right insula and right cingulate; in elderly females, the right cuneus. In young females HA scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right lingual gyrus; in elderly females, the left anterior cingulate and bilateral hippocampus. Only in elderly females, HA scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right orbital gyrus and bilateral frontal gyri. In young females, RD scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the bilateral frontal gyri and bilateral cingulate; in elderly females, the right middle frontal gyrus. In young females, RD scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right precuneus; in elderly females, the left insula. We found that neural substrates underlying personality traits in females were dissociable across young and elderly women. These results may provide better understanding of differential prevalence and susceptibility to psychiatric illnesses in young and elderly females

  17. Changes in metabolic correlates of personality traits in healthy elderly women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Personality traits are generally known to be stable, although the brain changes with aging. Especially women experience striking alterations in the neuroendocrinergic system at menopause, which may cause considerable changes in personality traits and alter their underlying neural substrates. To investigate changes in the neural substrates underlying personality traits, we investigated metabolic correlates of personality traits in women before and after menopause. We obtained FDG PET images from 13 young (24.0{+-}3.1 y) and 11 elderly females (66.8{+-}3.3 y). Three factors of personality traits (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Characteristic Inventory. Three ANCOVA maps were created in SPM2 (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100), each constructed to assess the metabolic correlates of each temperament factor. In young females NS scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right insula and right cingulate; in elderly females, the right cuneus. In young females HA scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right lingual gyrus; in elderly females, the left anterior cingulate and bilateral hippocampus. Only in elderly females, HA scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right orbital gyrus and bilateral frontal gyri. In young females, RD scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the bilateral frontal gyri and bilateral cingulate; in elderly females, the right middle frontal gyrus. In young females, RD scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right precuneus; in elderly females, the left insula. We found that neural substrates underlying personality traits in females were dissociable across young and elderly women. These results may provide better understanding of differential prevalence and susceptibility to psychiatric illnesses in young and elderly females.

  18. Acute effects on pulmonary function in young healthy adults exposed to traffic-related air pollution in semi-closed transport hub in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Deng, Furong; Wu, Shaowei; Zhao, Yan; Shima, Masayuki; Guo, Bin; Liu, Qichen; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-09-01

    Transport hub is an important part of urban comprehensive transportation system. Traffic-related air pollution can reach high level because of difficulty of diffusion and increase of emission in transport hub. However, whether exposure in this semi-closed traffic micro-environment causes acute changes in pulmonary function of commuters still needs to be explored. Forty young healthy adults participated in this randomized, crossover study. Each participant underwent 2 h exposure in a designated transport hub and, on a separate occasion, in an appointed park. Personal exposures to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were assessed pre-, during and post-exposure. Mixed linear models were used to analyze the pulmonary effects of traffic-related air pollutants. Participants had significantly higher exposures to PM 2.5 , BC and CO in the transport hub than in the park. Exposure in transport hub induced significant reductions in FEV 1 and PEF compared with the park during exposure 1 and 2 h. The reductions were significant associated with traffic-related air pollutants. For instance, per 10 μg/m 3 increment in PM 2.5 was associated with -0.15 % (95 % CI -0.28, -0.02 %) reduction in FEV 1 during exposure 2 h. However, effects became attenuate after 2 h exposure. Short-term exposure in transport hub had acute reduction effects on pulmonary function. More attention should be paid to the health effects of exposure in the semi-closed traffic micro-environment.

  19. Personalized Coaching Systems to support healthy behavior in people with chronic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, Hermanus J.; op den Akker, Harm; Tabak, Monique; Wijsman, J.L.P; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2014-01-01

    Chronic conditions cannot be cured but daily behavior has a major effect on the severity of secondary problems and quality of life. Changing behavior however requires intensive support in daily life, which is not feasible with a human coach. A new coaching approach – so-called Personal Coaching

  20. Investigation the Response of Some Proteins That Involved in Cachexia Syndrome to Acute Resistance Exercise in Healthy Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Gholamali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the response of plasma Myostatin and insulin growth factor like-1 (IGF-1, as two most important proteins that involved in Cachexia syndrome, to acute resistance exercise in healthy elderly people. Methods & Materials: Twelve healthy older men (Age=67±1.3 years, BMI=25±1.4 kg/m2 volunteered for participation in this study. 72 hours after the determination of muscular maximal strength (by 1-RM test, subjects participated in acute resistance exercises via 75% 1-RM. In this research, two blood samples were collected at before and immediately after the exercise from Antecubital vein. Plasma Myostatin and serum levels of IGF-1 were measured by ELISA methods. Paired T-Test used for statical analyses of research data. Significant level was set at P≤0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that plasma Myostatin significantly decreased in response to resistance exercise (P=0.0001. Also the serum levels of IGF-1 increased significantly in response to resistance exercise (P=0.0001. In turn, the results reveled that the IGF-1 to Myostatin ratio increased significantly in response to resistance exercise (P=0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that resistance exercise through increases of IGF-1 and decreases of Myostatin causes increment of IGF-1 to Myostatin ratio. According to the results of this study it seems prescription of resistance exercise could positive changes in proteins that involved in Cachexia syndrome in elderly people. Presumably, through this way we can prevent from Cachexia and its many physiological and physical related dysfunctions in theses people. Although more study is needed to clear its mechanisms.

  1. ADRA2B genotype modulates effects of acute psychosocial stress on emotional memory retrieval in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijia; Weerda, Riklef; Guenzel, Friederike; Wolf, Oliver T; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute psychosocial stress impairs retrieval of declarative memory with emotional material being especially sensitive to this effect. A functional deletion variant of the ADRA2B gene encoding the α2B-adrenergic receptor has been shown to increase emotional memory and neural activity in the amygdala. We investigated the effects of acute psychosocial stress and the ADRA2B allele on recognition memory for emotional and neutral faces. Fourty-two healthy, non-smoker male volunteers (30 deletion carriers, 12 noncarriers) were tested with a face recognition paradigm. During encoding they were presented with emotional and neutral faces. One hour later, participants underwent either a stress ("Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)") or a control procedure which was followed immediately by the retrieval session where subjects had to indicate whether the presented face was old or new. Stress increased salivary cortisol concentrations, blood pressure and pulse and impaired recognition memory for faces independent of emotional valence and genotype. Participants showed generally slower reaction times to emotional faces. Carriers of the ADRA2B functional deletion variant showed an impaired recognition and slower retrieval of neutral faces under stress. Further, they were significantly slower in retrieving fearful faces in the control condition. The findings indicate that a genetic variation of the noradrenergic system may preserve emotional faces from stress-induced memory impairments seen for neutral faces and heighten reactivity to emotional stimuli under control conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular characterization of norovirus GII.17 detected in healthy adult, intussusception patient, and acute gastroenteritis children in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamrin, Pattara; Kumthip, Kattareeya; Yodmeeklin, Arpaporn; Supadej, Kanittapon; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Thongprachum, Aksara; Okitsu, Shoko; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2016-10-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) have been recognized as a leading cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups. During the surveillance of NoVs in Chiang Mai, Thailand, four cases of the novel GII.17 NoVs were sporadically detected by RT-PCR in 2014-2015. The first case of GII.17 was detected in a healthy adult who worked for a restaurant. The second case was found in a pediatric patient who admitted to the hospital with intussusception. The third and fourth cases were found in acute gastroenteritis children. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that GII.17 NoVs detected in this study were genetically closely related with the novel GII.17 Kawasaki reference strains. These four GII.17 NoV positive specimens were also tested by two immunochromatographic test kits in order to evaluate the sensitivity for GII.17 NoV detection. The viral loads in those specimens were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The sensitivity of GII.17 NoV detection varies by individual test kits and also depending on the amount of the viruses contained in the fecal specimens. In summary, our study reported the detection of novel GII.17 NoVs in a wide range of subjects with and without diarrhea. Therefore, continued comprehensive screening and genetic molecular characterization of NoV strains circulating in this area need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Rare Case of Human Coronavirus 229E Associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Healthy Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foula Vassilara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E is one of the first coronavirus strains being described. It is linked to common cold symptoms in healthy adults. Younger children and the elderly are considered vulnerable to developing lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs. In particular, immunocompromised patients have been reported with severe and life-threatening LRTIs attributed to HCoV-229E. We report for the first time a case of LRTI and acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in a healthy adult with no comorbidities and HCoV-229E strain identified as the only causative agent. A 45-year-old female with a clear medical history presented with fever, cough, and headache. Respiratory tract infection was diagnosed, and empirical antibiotics were started. Within two days, she developed bilateral pleural effusions, diffuse consolidations, and ground glass opacities involving all lung fields. She needed immediate oxygen supply, while ABGs deteriorated and chest imaging and PaO2/FiO2 indicated ARDS. Early administration of systemic corticosteroids led to gradual clinical improvement. Multiplex PCR from nasal secretions was positive only for HCoV-229E and negative for multiple other pathogens. It remains to be elucidated how an immunocompetent adult developed a life-threatening LRTI caused by a “benign considered” coronavirus strain, the HCoV-229E.

  4. Natural antioxidant ice cream acutely reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguigni, Valerio; Manco, Melania; Sorge, Roberto; Gnessi, Lucio; Francomano, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of several diseases. Polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial against ROS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a natural antioxidant ice cream on oxidative stress, vascular function, and physical performance. In this controlled, single-blind, crossover study, 14 healthy individuals were randomized to consume 100 g of either antioxidant ice cream containing dark cocoa powder and hazelnut and green tea extracts or milk chocolate ice cream (control ice cream). Participants were studied at baseline and 2 h after ingesting ice cream. Serum polyphenols, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]), nitric oxide (NOx) bioavailability, markers of oxidative stress (determination of reactive oxygen metabolites [d-ROMs] and hydrogen peroxide [H 2 O 2 ]), endothelium function (flow-mediated dilation [FMD] and reactive hyperemia index [RHI]), and exercise tolerance (stress test) were assessed, and the double product was measured. Serum polyphenols (P ice cream ingestion. No changes were found after control ice cream ingestion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a natural ice cream rich in polyphenols acutely improved vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals through a reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Describing Nurse Leaders' and Direct Care Nurses' Perceptions of a Healthy Work Environment in Acute Care Settings, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Penny; Gray, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) Healthy Work Environment Assessment Tool was developed as a simple screening tool to assess the characteristics of a healthy work environment (HWE) in critical care environments. The purposes of these 2 qualitative research studies are to explore the nurse leaders' and direct care nurses' perceptions of the meaning of a HWE, to describe the nurse leaders' and direct care nurses' perceptions of a HWE, and to define the characteristics of a HWE in acute care settings. Exploratory descriptive designs using focus groups and guided questions with tape-recorded interviews were used to define the characteristics of an HWE. The 6 original themes from AACN HWE standards and 2 new themes emerged as a result of the nurse leaders and direct care nurses defining the characteristics of a HWE, which included appropriate staffing, authentic leadership, effective decision making, meaningful recognition, skilled communication, true collaboration genuine teamwork, and physical and psychological safety. The qualitative statements from these 2 studies will be used in future studies to describe and develop HWE scales for nurse leaders and direct care nurses and to assess the psychometric properties of these new tools.

  6. Dose-dependent increases in flow-mediated dilation following acute cocoa ingestion in healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feehan, Robert P.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Preston, Amy G.; Miller, Debra L.; Lott, Mary E. J.

    2011-01-01

    An inverse relation exists between intake of flavonoid-rich foods, such as cocoa, and cardiovascular-related mortality. Favorable effects of flavonoids on the endothelium may underlie these associations. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to test the hypothesis that acute cocoa ingestion dose dependently increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation, as measured by an increase in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), in healthy older adults. Measurements were obtained before (preingestion) and after (1- and 2-h postingestion) ingestion of 0 (placebo), 2, 5, 13, and 26 g of cocoa in 23 adults (63 ± 2 yr old, mean ± SE). Changes in brachial artery FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion compared with preingestion were used to determine the effects of cocoa. FMD was unchanged 1 (Δ−0.3 ± 0.2%)- and 2-h (Δ0.1 ± 0.1%) after placebo (0 g cocoa). In contrast, FMD increased both 1-h postingestion (2 g cocoa Δ0.0 ± 0.2%, 5 g cocoa Δ0.8 ± 0.3%, 13 g cocoa Δ1.0 ± 0.3%, and 26 g cocoa Δ1.6 ± 0.3%: P FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion (r = 0.44–0.48; both P FMD in healthy older humans. These responses may help to explain associations between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular-related mortality in humans. PMID:21903881

  7. Linear and nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability in healthy subjects and after acute myocardial infarction in patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Kunz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the use of linear and nonlinear methods for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV in healthy subjects and in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Heart rate (HR was recorded for 15 min in the supine position in 10 patients with AMI taking β-blockers (aged 57 ± 9 years and in 11 healthy subjects (aged 53 ± 4 years. HRV was analyzed in the time domain (RMSSD and RMSM, the frequency domain using low- and high-frequency bands in normalized units (nu; LFnu and HFnu and the LF/HF ratio and approximate entropy (ApEn were determined. There was a correlation (P < 0.05 of RMSSD, RMSM, LFnu, HFnu, and the LF/HF ratio index with the ApEn of the AMI group on the 2nd (r = 0.87, 0.65, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.64 and 7th day (r = 0.88, 0.70, 0.69, 0.69, and 0.87 and of the healthy group (r = 0.63, 0.71, 0.63, 0.63, and 0.74, respectively. The median HRV indexes of the AMI group on the 2nd and 7th day differed from the healthy group (P < 0.05: RMSSD = 10.37, 19.95, 24.81; RMSM = 23.47, 31.96, 43.79; LFnu = 0.79, 0.79, 0.62; HFnu = 0.20, 0.20, 0.37; LF/HF ratio = 3.87, 3.94, 1.65; ApEn = 1.01, 1.24, 1.31, respectively. There was agreement between the methods, suggesting that these have the same power to evaluate autonomic modulation of HR in both AMI patients and healthy subjects. AMI contributed to a reduction in cardiac signal irregularity, higher sympathetic modulation and lower vagal modulation.

  8. Perceptions of chronically ill and healthy consumers about electronic personal health records: a comparative empirical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Cocosila, Mihail; Archer, Norm

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a model of consumer perceptions of electronic personal health records (PHRs) and validate it in a comparative study between consumers who report having a chronic illness and those who report being well. Materials and methods A model of PHR use motivators and barriers was built and tested through a national survey across Canada. Data were collected from 800 individuals, 18 years or older. Half reported having a chronic illness or disability and half reported being well. An...

  9. Evaluation of the effect of Islamic fasting on lung volumes and capacities in the healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Seyyed-Ali J; Kabir, Ali; Moghimi, Ali; Chehrei, Ali; Rad, Mohammad B

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the changes in pulmonary volumes during and after Islamic fasting. It is a cohort study conducted on 117 healthy subjects selected on a random basis from employees, professors and students of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between December 1999 and January 2000. All of them underwent spirometry 10 days prior to Ramadan, 2 times during Ramadan, and one time 10 days post-Ramadan. In first visit, in addition to spirometry they underwent medical examination to make sure they are healthy. All of their spirometries and background information were collected. Repeated measurements analysis of variance method was used to compare the measurements. Approximately 69% of subjects were male and the mean age was 23.9 years. Mean fasting time was 27.8 days. The mean difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) was significant between the 4 visits (p=0.01). The mean FEV1% increased both during fasting and after Ramadan (p=0.017). The mean vital capacity and peak expiratory flow rate values increased during Ramadan significantly (p=0.043, pvolumes and might improve pulmonary function. This finding seems to be relevant to the changes in weight during Ramadan.

  10. Comparing Cerumen Bacterial Flora in Acute Otitis Externa Patients and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Kiakojori

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In spite of the fact that acute otitis media is a systemic and symptomatic disease with sever otalgia, otitis media with effusion (OME is an asymptomatic and silent disease. OME is the most common cause of conductive hearing loss in children and has adverse effects on speech development and cognitive skills. Results: Among 1001 children under study, 57 subjects (5.7% were diagnosed with OME, more than 50% of which were asymptomatic. Periodic otalgia and turning up television volume were the most common symptoms. Conclusion: Regarding the improved knowledge on diagnosis and treatment of OME especially in younger children, hearing problems or cognitive and linguistic skills retardation may be avoided by promoting general information.

  11. Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Facts School Meals Smart Snacks Celebrations & Rewards Food and Beverage Marketing Water Access Healthy Eating Learning Opportunities Staff ... Services Acute & Emergency Care Care Coordination Chronic Disease Management Family Engagement Chronic ... Allergies Oral Health Local School Wellness Policy Whole ...

  12. Comparison of biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia in relation to healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Fabiane L F Z; Nitsch, Taís M; Vilela, Maria Marluce S; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro C

    2015-01-01

    To compare the biochemical and immunological profiles of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with healthy children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study in which 21 therapy-naïve patients with AML were compared with a group of 24 healthy individuals. The following data were analyzed: serum proteins, leucocytes and subgroups, erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelets, cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures under spontaneous and BCG- or PHA-stimulated conditions, immunoglobulin A, and erythrocytic glutathione. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, considering as significant p-values<0.05. Serum albumin levels were higher (p<0.0001) in the control group, as well as all the parameters related to red blood cells (p<0.0001). For leucocytes and subgroups, no statistical difference was found between the AML and the control groups. For cytokines, the concentrations were significantly higher under spontaneous and BCG-stimulated conditions for TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ in the control group. Under PHA-stimulated conditions, the concentration was higher (p=0.002) only for IL-6. No difference was found between the two groups for the other cytokines and for IgA in the saliva. Erythrocytic glutathione was higher (p<0.0001) in AML patients. It was possible to characterize the biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with AML, as well as highlight some significant differences in these parameters when comparing with healthy children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia in relation to healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane L.F.Z. Sanches

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare the biochemical and immunological profiles of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML with healthy children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which 21 therapy-naïve patients with AML were compared with a group of 24 healthy individuals. The following data were analyzed: serum proteins, leucocytes and subgroups, erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelets, cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures under spontaneous and BCG- or PHA-stimulated conditions, immunoglobulin A, and erythrocytic glutathione. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, considering as significant p-values < 0.05. RESULTS: Serum albumin levels were higher (p < 0.0001 in the control group, as well as all the parameters related to red blood cells (p < 0.0001. For leucocytes and subgroups, no statistical difference was found between the AML and the control groups. For cytokines, the concentrations were significantly higher under spontaneous and BCG-stimulated conditions for TNF-a, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-? in the control group. Under PHA-stimulated conditions, the concentration was higher (p = 0.002 only for IL-6. No difference was found between the two groups for the other cytokines and for IgA in the saliva. Erythrocytic glutathione was higher (p < 0.0001 in AML patients. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to characterize the biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with AML, as well as highlight some significant differences in these parameters when comparing with healthy children and adolescents.

  14. Acute oral administration of lauric acid reduces energy intake in healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feltrin, K. L.; Brennan, I.M.; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    12 would result in a dose-related suppression of appetite and subsequent energy intake at breakfast and lunch. Methods 14 healthy men were studied on four separate occasions in double-blind, randomised fashion. Following ingestion of C12 (2 g (77 kJ), 4 g (153 kJ), or 6 g (230 kJ)) or control, energy...... intake at breakfast (30 min after C12 ingestion), perceptions of appetite, nausea and bloating (for 180 min following breakfast), and energy intake at lunch (180 min after breakfast), were measured. Results C12 ingestion did not induce nausea or bloating. While there was no effect of C12 on energy intake...... at breakfast, energy intake at lunch was reduced significantly after ingestion of both C12(2 g) (by 13.7%, P

  15. Esmolol acutely alters oxygen supply-demand balance in exercising muscles of healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, David N; Luck, J Carter; Maman, Stephan R; Leuenberger, Urs A; Muller, Matthew D

    2018-04-01

    Beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists (β blockers) reduce systemic O 2 delivery and blood pressure (BP) during exercise, but the subsequent effects on O 2 extraction within the active limb muscles are unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of the fast-acting, β 1 selective blocker esmolol on systemic hemodynamics and leg muscle O 2 saturation (near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS) during submaximal leg ergometry. Our main hypothesis was that esmolol would augment exercise-induced reductions in leg muscle O 2 saturation. Eight healthy adults (6 men, 2 women; 23-67 year) performed light and moderate intensity bouts of recumbent leg cycling before (PRE), during (β 1 -blocked), and 45 min following (POST) intravenous infusion of esmolol. Oxygen uptake, heart rate (HR), BP, and O 2 saturation (SmO 2 ) of the vastus lateralis (VL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles were measured continuously. Esmolol attenuated the increases in HR and systolic BP during light (-12 ± 9 bpm and -26 ± 12 mmHg vs. PRE) and moderate intensity (-20 ± 10 bpm and -40 ± 18 mmHg vs. PRE) cycling (all P Exercise-induced reductions in SmO 2 occurred to a greater extent during the β 1 -blockade trial in both the VL (P = 0.001 vs. PRE) and MG muscles (P = 0.022 vs. PRE). HR, SBP and SmO 2 were restored during POST (all P exercising muscles of healthy humans. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. Acute effects of rearfoot manipulation on dynamic standing balance in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassinger, Craig A; Rockett, Ariel; Pitman, Lucas; Murphy, Matthew Matt; Peters, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic standing balance is essential to perform functional activities and is included in the treatment of many lower extremity injuries. Physiotherapists utilize many methods to restore standing balance including stability exercises, functional retraining, and manual therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a rearfoot distraction manipulation on dynamic standing balance. Twenty healthy participants (age: 24.4 ± 2.8 years; height: 162.9 ± 37.7 cm; mass: 68.0 ± 4.8 kg; right leg dominant = 20) completed this study. Following familiarization, dynamic standing balance was assessed during: (1) an experimental condition immediately following a rearfoot distraction manipulation, and (2) a control condition. Dominant leg balance was quantified using the Y-balance test which measures lower extremity reach distances. Reach distances were normalized to leg length and measured in the anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral directions. Overall balance was calculated through the summing of all normalized directions. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon rank tests were used to compare balance scores for parametric and non-parametric data as appropriate. Significance was set at 0.05 a priori. Effect size (ES) was calculated to determine the clinical impact of the manipulation. Increased reach distances (indicating improved balance) were noted following manipulation for overall balance (p = 0.03, ES = 0.26) and in the posteromedial direction (p = 0.01, ES = 0.42). Reach distances did not differ for the anterior (p = 0.11, ES = 0.16) or posterolateral (p = 0.11, ES = 0.25) components. Dynamic standing balance improved after a rearfoot distraction manipulation in healthy participants. It is hypothesized that manual therapy applied to the foot and ankle may be beneficial to augment other therapeutic modalities when working with patients to improve dynamic standing balance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A single night light exposure acutely alters hormonal and metabolic responses in healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S Albreiki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many animal studies have reported an association between melatonin suppression and the disturbance of metabolic responses; yet, few human studies have investigated bright light effects on metabolic and hormonal responses at night. This study investigated the impact of light on plasma hormones and metabolites prior to, and after, an evening meal in healthy participants. Seventeen healthy participants, 8 females (22.2 ± 2.59 years, mean ± s.d. and 9 males (22.8 ± 3.5 years were randomised to a two-way cross-over design protocol; dim light (DL (500 lux sessions, separated by at least seven days. Saliva and plasma samples were collected prior to and after a standard evening meal at specific intervals. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels were significantly higher pre-meal in DL compared to BL (P < 0.01. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were significantly greater post-meal in the BL compared to DL session (P = 0.02, P = 0.001, respectively. Salivary melatonin levels were significantly higher in the DL compared to those in BL session (P = 0.005. BL at night was associated with significant increases in plasma glucose and insulin suggestive of glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. Raised pre-prandial NEFA levels may be due to changes in insulin sensitivity or the presence of melatonin and/or light at night. Plasma triglyceride (TAG levels were the same in both sessions. These results may explain some of the health issues reported in shift workers; however, further studies are needed to elucidate the cause of these metabolic changes.

  18. Effects of low to moderate acute doses of pramipexole on impulsivity and cognition in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidovic, Ajna; Kang, Un Jung; de Wit, Harriet

    2008-02-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine is integrally involved in the rewarding effects of drugs, and it has also been thought to mediate impulsive behaviors in animal models. Most of the studies of drug effects on impulsive behaviors in humans have involved drugs with complex actions on different transmitter systems and different receptor subtypes. The present study was designed to characterize the effect of single doses of pramipexole, a D2/D3 agonist, on measures of cognitive and impulsive behavior, as well as on mood in healthy volunteers. Healthy men and women (N = 10) received placebo and 2 doses of pramipexole, 0.25 and 0.50 mg, in a within-subject, double-blinded study. Outcome measures included changes in cognitive performance, assessed by the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, several behavioral measures related to impulsive behavior, including the Balloon Analogue Risk Task, Delay Discounting Task, Go/No-Go Task, Card Perseveration Task, and subjective ratings of mood assessed by Addiction Research Center Inventory, Profile of Mood States, and Drug Effects Questionnaire. Pramipexole decreased positive ratings of mood (euphoria, intellectual efficiency, and energy) and increased both subjectively reported sedation and behavioral sedation indicated by impaired cognitive performance on several measures of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics. Single low to medium doses of this drug did not produce a decrease in impulsive responding on behavioral measures included in this study. The sedative-like effects observed in this study may reflect presynaptic actions of the drug. Higher doses with postsynaptic actions may be needed to produce either behavioral or subjective stimulant-like effects.

  19. [Antagonistic action of prednisolone and buformin in the carbohydrate metabolism of healthy persons (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottermann, P; Schweigart, U; Ermler, R

    1976-02-13

    Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed and changes of blood glucose and insulin concentration were measured to examine whether the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoides can be compensated by biguanides. Seven standard weight volunteers with a healthy metabolism were given prednisolone and buformin as well as a combination of both. In spite of the reactively higher insulin secretion after treatment with prednisolone the glucose tolerance was reduced. In contrast, treatment with biguanide improved the glucose tolerance while decreasing the insulin secretion. It was nearly possible to compensate the negative effect of prednisolone on the carbohydrate metabolism by biguanides. We, therefore, consider a preventive administration of biguanides to be effective in long term or high dosage administration of glucocorticoides.

  20. Reconciling concepts of space and person-centred care of the older person with cognitive impairment in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Carole; Edvardsson, David

    2017-07-01

    Although a large body of literature exists propounding the importance of space in aged care and care of the older person with dementia, there is, however, only limited exploration of the 'acute care space' as a particular type of space with archetypal constraints that maybe unfavourable to older people with cognitive impairment and nurses wanting to provide care that is person-centred. In this article, we explore concepts of space and examine the implications of these for the delivery of care to older people who are cognitively impaired. Our exploration is grounded in theorisations of space offered by key geographers and phenomenologists, but also draws on how space has been constructed within the nursing literature that refers specifically to acute care. We argue that space, once created, can be created and that nursing has a significant role to play in the process of its recreation in the pursuit of care that is person-centred. We conclude by introducing an alternative logic of space aimed at promoting the creation of more salutogenic spaces that invokes a sense of sanctuary, safeness, and inclusion, all of which are essential if the care provided to the older person with cognitive impairment is apposite to their needs. The concept of 'person-centred space' helps to crystallize the relationship between space and person-centred care and implies more intentional manipulation of space that is more conducive to caring and healing. Significantly, it marks a return to Nightingale's wisdom, that is, to put the person in the best possible conditions for nature to act upon them. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparing the executive function of patients with schizophrenia, acute/chronic type I disorder (manic episode, and healthy controls on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Continuous Performance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zare

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From among various cognitive deficits, deficits in executive processes have an effective role in limiting the patients’ ability to retain, acquire, and re-learn the skills necessary for real-life performance. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the executive function of patients with schizophrenia, acute/chronic type I disorder, and the healthy group. Methods: The present research was an analytical-comparative study. The statistical population consisted of all the outpatients and inpatients with acute/chronic schizophrenia and acute/chronic type I disorder (manic episode visiting Shafa Psychiatric Hospital, Rasht, Iran. Using convenience sampling, 60 male subjects aging 18-49 years old were selected in 2014-2015. They were matched for the variables of sex, age, and education level. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Test, and Raven’s Progressive Matrices were administered, and the data were analyzed using MANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. Results: A significant difference was observed between the acute/chronic schizophrenia group, acute/chronic type I disorder (manic episode, and healthy group on the two tests. Patients with schizophrenia had a weaker executive function and attention deficit compared to those with type I disorder and the healthy group (P0.05. Conclusion: Both schizophrenia and type I disorder patients show deficits in executive function and attention. However, the former group manifests higher impairment in cognitive activities, concept formation, cognitive flexibility, and attention deficit.

  2. Acute dark chocolate ingestion is beneficial for hemodynamics via enhancement of erythrocyte deformability in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosinska, Jana; Horvathova, Martina; Frimmel, Karel; Muchova, Jana; Vidosovicova, Maria; Vazan, Rastislav; Bernatova, Iveta

    2017-03-01

    Erythrocyte deformability is an important property of erythrocytes that considerably affects blood flow and hemodynamics. The high content of polyphenols present in dark chocolate has been reported to play a protective role in functionality of erythrocytes. We hypothesized that chocolate might influence erythrocytes not only after repeated chronic intake, but also immediately after its ingestion. Thus, we determined the acute effect of dark chocolate and milk (with lower content of biologically active substances) chocolate intake on erythrocyte deformability. We also focused on selected factors that may affect erythrocyte deformability, specifically nitric oxide production in erythrocytes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma. We determined posttreatment changes in the mentioned parameters 2hours after consumption of chocolate compared with their levels before consumption of chocolate. In contrast to milk chocolate intake, the dark chocolate led to a significantly higher increase in erythrocyte deformability. Nitric oxide production in erythrocytes was not changed after dark chocolate intake, but significantly decreased after milk chocolate. The plasma total antioxidant capacity remained unaffected after ingestion of both chocolates. We conclude that our hypothesis was confirmed. Single ingestion of dark chocolate improved erythrocyte deformability despite unchanged nitric oxide production and antioxidant capacity of plasma. Increased deformability of erythrocytes may considerably improve rheological properties of blood and thus hemodynamics in humans, resulting in better tissue oxygenation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute aortic dissection in a young healthy athlete with androgenic anabolic steroid use: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barman M, Djamel B, Mathews J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute aortic dissection can occur at the time of intense physical exertion in strength-trained athletes like weight lifters, bodybuilders, throwers, and wrestlers. Rapid rise in blood pressure and history of hypertension are the most common causes of aortic dissection in athletes. It is a very tragic event because of its high mortality rate of about 32% in young patients. We report a case of aortic dissection in a young weightlifter with a history of anabolic steroid usage with an extensive intimal tear of the aorta at Sino tubular junction and arch. All athletes must be assessed for predisposing factors for aortic dissection, and all patients should be encouraged to undergo appropriate diagnostic studies, like echocardiography and blood pressure monitoring while weightlifting to recognize possible predisposing factors for aortic dissection. Athletes who do have a problem should be encouraged to avoid or limit their exercise or activity by their cardiologist. It is vital that this disastrous event be prevented in young people. In conclusion, although a rare occurrence, AD should be considered in symptomatic patients with any family history of early cardiac deaths, a history suggestive of a connective tissue disorder (that is, multiple joint surgeries or who practice weightlifting.

  4. Acute ingestion of different macronutrients differentially enhances aspects of memory and attention in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emma K; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Wesnes, Keith A

    2012-02-01

    The role of carbohydrates on mood and cognition is fairly well established, however research examining the behavioural effects of the other macronutrients is limited. The current study compared the effects of a 25 g glucose drink to energetically matched protein and fat drinks and an inert placebo. Following a blind, placebo-controlled, randomised crossover design, 18 healthy young adults consumed drinks containing fat, glucose, protein and placebo. Cognitive performance was examined at baseline and again 15- and 60 min post drink. Mood was assessed at baseline and then 10-, 35- and 80 min post drink. Attention and speed were enhanced 15 min following fat or glucose ingestion and working memory was enhanced 15 min following protein ingestion. Sixty minutes post drink memory enhancements were observed after protein and memory impairment was observed following glucose. All drinks increased ratings of alertness. The findings suggest that macronutrients: (i) have different windows of opportunity for effects (ii) target different cognitive domains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A study of glycaemic effects following acute anthocyanin-rich blueberry supplementation in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L; Lamport, D J; Butler, L T; Williams, C M

    2017-09-20

    The postprandial response to ingested carbohydrate is recognised as a marker of metabolic health. Postprandial hyperglycaemia is observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus and is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cognitive deficits are also associated with type 2 diabetes. Therefore interventions which moderate postprandial glucose profiles are desirable. Here we investigated the impact of anthocyanin-rich wild blueberries on postprandial glucose response. Seventeen healthy young adults consumed a range of doses of freeze-dried wild blueberry powder, in smoothie form, in both sugar-matched and no-added-sugar conditions. Plasma glucose was determined by a capillary sampling method at baseline and at regular intervals up to 2.5 hours postprandially. Blueberries were observed to significantly extend the postprandial glucose response beyond the period observed for a sugar-matched control, characteristic of a beneficial glycaemic response. Furthermore, blueberries were observed to reduce peak postprandial glucose levels, although statistical significance was not achieved. The findings suggest a tempering of the postprandial glucose response in the presence of anthocyanin-rich blueberry, and are discussed with reference to likely glucoregulatory mechanisms of action and their implications for cognitive and type 2 diabetes research.

  6. Personality Characteristics Of Teachers Involved In The Delivery Of Primary Healthy Care (Sevagram Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh D

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to study the personality traits influencing the performance of 17 primary school teachers selected under ICMR project in Wardha district, to investigate feasibility and effectiveness of their involvement as primary health care workers vis-Ã -vis the 19 community health volunteers introduced by the State Government in the non-teacher villages of the project at the same time. The results indicated that both the teachers and community health volunteers preferred preventive and promotive health tasks and they showed no significant difference on the motivation and leadership orientation scale. The teachers, because of their job security and promotional avenues were satisfied with their achievements and were full of hopes and aspirations but the same was not true with the community health volunteers. This was due to their comparatively poor economic conditions and unstable sources of livelihood.

  7. Effective personal protective clothing for health care workers attending patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomas K S; Chung, Joanne W Y; Li, Y; Chan, Wai F; Ching, Patricia T Y; Lam, Conita H S; Chow, Chun B; Seto, Wing H

    2004-04-01

    Optimal usability is crucial in providing protection for health care workers who are exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome day and night while taking care of patients with the virus. No research study has yet tested the usability of personal protective clothing (PPC). The study was carried out in 3 stages. PPC available in Hong Kong were sorted by their physical properties in the first stage. The second stage was a single-blinded study examining the different usability aspects of the PPC. The third stage was a simulated viral load test. Four types were identified: good water repellency and water resistance, poor air permeability (Type A PPC); good water repellency and air permeability, poor water resistance (Type B PPC); poor water repellency, poor water resistance, and fair air permeability (Type C PPC); and good water repellency, poor air permeability, and fair water resistance (Type D PPC). Type D PPC had a significantly higher number of contamination sites on the subjects' dorsum and palm. Type C PPC had the highest contamination over the trunk. Findings in the viral load test showed that there was a significant difference in the contamination of the face (t=4.69, df=38, Phand contamination is lowest among the 4 groups in the current study.

  8. Acute ingestion of beetroot juice increases exhaled nitric oxide in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet L Kroll

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in the airways' innate immune response, and the fraction of exhaled NO at a flow rate of 50mL per second (FENO50 has been utilized to capture NO. Deficits in NO are linked to loss of bronchoprotective effects in airway challenges and predict symptoms of respiratory infection. While beetroot juice supplements have been proposed to enhance exercise performance by increasing dietary nitrate consumption, few studies have examined the impact of beetroot juice or nitrate supplementation on airway NO in contexts beyond an exercise challenge, which we know influences FENO50.We therefore examined the influence of a beetroot juice supplement on FENO50 in healthy males and females (n = 38 during periods of rest and in normoxic conditions. FENO50, heart rate, blood pressure, and state affect were measured at baseline, 45 minutes, and 90 minutes following ingestion of 70ml beetroot juice (6.5 mmol nitrate. Identical procedures were followed with ingestion of 70ml of water on a control day.After beetroot consumption, average values of the natural log of FENO50 (lnFENO50 increased by 21.3% (Cohen's d = 1.54, p < .001 45 minutes after consumption and by 20.3% (Cohen's d = 1.45, p < .001 90 min after consumption. On the other hand, only very small increases in FENO50 were observed after consumption of the control liquid (less than 1% increase. A small subset (n = 4 of participants completed an extended protocol lasting over 3 hours, where elevated levels of FENO50 persisted. No significant changes in cardiovascular measures were observed with this small single dose of beetroot juice.As NO serves a key role in innate immunity, future research is needed to explore the potential clinical utility of beetroot and dietary nitrate to elevate FENO50 and prevent respiratory infection.

  9. Acute Disseminated Melioidosis Presenting with Septic Arthritis and Diffuse Pulmonary Consolidation in an Otherwise Healthy Adult: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Sherng Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. It is most prevalent in South-East Asia, northern Australia, and the Indian subcontinent. Septic arthritis is a rare manifestation of melioidosis. Melioidosis is usually found in patients with diabetes, heavy alcohol use, or chronic lung disease. Results: We report a case of melioidosis in an otherwise healthy 44-year-old male, who presented with acute painful left knee swelling, high-grade fever associated with chills, rigors and night sweats, and a productive cough. Examination revealed active synovitis with effusion involving his left knee, ankle and elbow joints and scattered crackles over both lung fields. Chest X-ray showed diffuse pulmonary consolidation. Abdominal ultrasound showed splenic micro-abscesses. The diagnosis was made based on a positive blood culture for Burkholderia pseudomallei. He was started on appropriate antibiotics and responded well, becoming afebrile after 48 hours, while his joint effusions disappeared after one week. A repeat chest X-ray after two weeks of intensive antibiotic therapy showed marked improvement. At the time of writing, he was under uneventful outpatient follow-up and still had 12 weeks to complete his course of antibiotics. Conclusion: Septic arthritis only occurs in 4% of patients with melioidosis. When there is diffuse pulmonary involvement, melioidosis may mimic disseminated tuberculosis, other acute disseminated or focal sepsis syndromes, and systemic vasculitis syndromes. This case is relevant for medical literature as melioidosis is emerging and is expanding its known territories worldwide. It should be considered early in the differential diagnoses of patients presenting with constitutional symptoms in endemic areas, so that treatment can be started early to reduce its high mortality and morbidity.

  10. Effects of Statin on Arrhythmia and Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Persons With 48-Hour Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei Ren; Liu, Hong Bin; Sha, Yuan; Shi, Yang; Wang, Hao; Yin, Da Wei; Chen, Yun Dai; Shi, Xiang Min

    2016-10-31

    It has been reported that sleep deprivation is associated with cardiac autonomic disorder, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Statins have significant cardiovascular protective effects in patients with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of statins on arrhythmia and heart rate variability in young healthy persons after 48-hour sleep deprivation. This study enrolled 72 young healthy participants aged 26.5±3.5 years. All participants received 48-hour continuous ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring. Arrhythmia, time, and frequency domain parameters were analyzed for all participants. The primary end point, low/high frequency ratio, was significantly lower in the statin group than in the control group (2.48±1.12 versus 3.02±1.23, Psleep deprivation, low frequency-the frequency of premature atrial complexes and premature ventricular complexes-was significantly decreased in the statin group compared with the control group (Psleep deprivation in the statin group compared with the control group (Psleep deprivation. This finding should be confirmed by larger scale trials. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02496962. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. Survey of Serum Zinc and Copper Levels in the Patients with Brucellosis and Comparing with Healthy Persons

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    P Eini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection. Metabolism of trace elements such as zinc and copper can influence the response of immunity system and can activate host 's immunochemical mechanisms against the organism. Therefore, this study aimed to determine changes in serum levels of Zn and Cu in patients with brucellosis in pre and post treatment compared with healthy persons. Methods: In this individual matched case-control study, 26 patients participated who were admitted to infectious unit of Farshchian Hospital with brucellosis. Moreover, 26 healthy individuals were included in the control group. 5mL of venous blood was taken from all cases in pre-treatment as well post-treatment. Then, the serum samples were diluted with deionized water, and Cu and Zn levels were measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: In this study, 26 patients with brucellosis were enrolled, who were 13 men (50% and 13 women (50%. No significant difference was observed between the patients and the control group in regard with their age and sex. Serum level of Cu in patients with brucellosis was found to be 100.31µg/dl and 92.81µg/dl, respectively before and after the treatment (P=0.495. Serum level of Cu in healthy individuals was reported to be 97.96µg/dl. In addition, serum level of Zn in the patients and controls was 93 µg/dl and 96.38 µg/dl, respectively (P= 0.625. Patients' Zn Serum level was found to be 90.27µg/dl after the treatment. Conclusion: In this study, no significant changes were observed in serum levels of copper and zinc in the patients with brucellosis in comparison with the control group. Besides, no significant changes were reported in serum levels of these elements in the patients in the end of treatment.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Serum (Antioxidative Status Parаmeters in Healthy Persons

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    Tatjana Ruskovska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Five antioxidant and two oxidative stress assays were applied to serum samples of 43 healthy males. The antioxidant tests showed different inter-assay correlations. A very good correlation of 0.807 was observed between the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and total antioxidant status (TAS assay and also a fair correlation of 0.501 between the biological antioxidant potential (BAP and TAS assay. There was no statistically significant correlation between the BAP and FRAP assay. The anti-oxidant assays have a high correlation with uric acid, especially the TAS (0.922 and FRAP assay (0.869. The BAP assay has a much lower and no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.302, which makes BAP more suitable for the antioxidant status. The total thiol assay showed no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.114. The total thiol assay, which is based on a completely different principle, showed a good and statistically significant correlation with the BAP assay (0.510 and also to the TAS assay, but to a lower and not significant extent (0.279 and not with the FRAP assay (−0.008. The oxy-adsorbent test (OXY assay has no correlation with any of the other assays tested. The oxidative stress assays, reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM and total oxidant status (TOS, based on a different principle, do not show a statistically significant correlation with the serum samples in this study. Both assays showed a negative, but not significant, correlation with the antioxidant assays. In conclusion, the ROM, TOS, BAP and TTP assays are based on different principles and will have an additional value when a combination of these assays will be applied in large-scale population studies.

  13. Substrate Utilization is Influenced by Acute Dietary Carbohydrate Intake in Active, Healthy Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Sara; Wood, Richard; Matthews, Tracey; Vanlangen, Deborah; Sawyer, Jason; Headley, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the metabolic responses between a single low-carbohydrate (LC) and low-fat (LF) meal followed by an aerobic exercise bout in females. Subjects included 8 active, premenopausal females. Subjects completed a LC and LF testing session. Respiratory gas exchange (RER) measurements were taken for 20 min fasted, for 55 min postprandial (PP), and during 30 min of exercise. Blood was collected for assessment of glucose (G), insulin (IN), triglycerides (TG), and free fatty acids (FFA) during the final 10 min of each time period. The LF meal provided 396 kcal (78% carbohydrate, 7% fat, and 15% protein). The LC meal provided 392 kcal (15% carbohydrate, 68% fat, and 18% protein). No significant differences existed between test meals for fasting blood measurements. PP IN (μU·mL(-1)) levels were significantly lower following LC compared to LF [10.7 (6.1) vs. 26.0 (21.0)]. Postexercise (PE) FFA (mEq·L(-1)) levels were significantly greater following LC [1.1 (0.3) vs. 0.5 (0.3)]. PE TG (mg·dL(-1)) levels were significantly greater following LC [152.0 (53.1) vs. 114.4 (40.9)]. RER was significantly lower at all time points following LC compared to LF. In moderately active adult females, ingestion of a single LC meal resulted in greater lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise as compared to a single LF meal. Although macronutrient distribution appears to have dictated substrate utilization in the present study, more research is needed regarding the long-term effects of macronutrient redistribution with and without exercise on substrate utilization. Key pointsThe relative carbohydrate content of a single meal has a significant impact on postprandial metabolism and substrate utilization in healthy, active females.A single bout of aerobic exercise performed within an hour of meal ingestion has the potential to modify the postprandial response.Interventions aimed at improving body composition and preventing chronic disease should focus on dietary

  14. A Comparative Study of Vitamin D Levels in Persons with Hair Loss and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Eshghi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Alopecia or hair loss is defined as the loss of hair on the head or body. Despite the benign prognosis of hair loss, it has a clear impact on the quality of life of the patients who are involved. There are many reasons to explain the pathophysiology of hair loss. Among many nutritional factors, vitamin D deficiency may play a role in hair loss too. Active vitamin D or 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D has an effect on the expression of some genes in normal differentiation of epidermal cells and hair follicles. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of vitamin D in patients with hair loss compared with healthy controls. Materials & Methods: From 2014 to 2015, 70 patients were enrolled in this case-control study. Including 40 women and 30 men, the mean age was 31.2 ± 0.82 years in the case group, 33.8 ± 0.92 years in the control group. Groups were matched by sex, age and season of review. In the both groups, there were 20 women (57.1% and 15 men (42.5%. After the clinical diagno-sis of hair loss by the physician, patient's blood samples were sent for testing vitamin D levels by kits of a laboratory center. Results: Patients, compared with controls, had lower levels of vitamin D and there was signifi-cant relationship between hair loss and low levels of vitamin D (16.188±6.91 vs 20.37±7.47, and P=0.04. Female patients had lower levels of vitamin D, compared with controls and there was significant relationship between hair loss and low levels of vitamin D (14.14±5.8 vs 18.74±7.08 and P=0.03. The group of male patients had lower levels of vitamin D, but in comparison with the control group, no significant relationship was found. Conclusion: This study showed that, there is a relationship between vitamin D levels and hair loss in women. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (1:71-75

  15. Perceptions of chronically ill and healthy consumers about electronic personal health records: a comparative empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocosila, Mihail; Archer, Norm

    2014-07-23

    To develop a model of consumer perceptions of electronic personal health records (PHRs) and validate it in a comparative study between consumers who report having a chronic illness and those who report being well. A model of PHR use motivators and barriers was built and tested through a national survey across Canada. Data were collected from 800 individuals, 18 years or older. Half reported having a chronic illness or disability and half reported being well. Analyses were performed with structural equation modelling techniques. A total of 389 answers from chronically ill and 383 from well participants were collected. Perceived usefulness was the key explanation of the intention to use PHRs for both ill and well people (total effect of 0.601 and 0.565, respectively) followed by security, privacy and trust in PHRs (total effect of 0.377 and 0.479, respectively). Conversely, computer anxiety was perceived as a significant barrier (total effect of -0.327 for ill individuals and -0.212 for well individuals). The model proposed was appropriate in explaining key consumer positive and negative perceptions on electronic PHR use. We found little difference in perceptions of electronic PHRs between chronically ill and well individuals, although self-reporting their health status might have influenced the results. To increase the adoption rate of electronic PHRs among both chronically ill and well consumers it is necessary to reinforce consumer perceptions of the usefulness of and trust in these eHealth technologies while mitigating their anxieties about computer use in general. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Acute effects of Red Bull energy drink on ventricular repolarization in healthy young volunteers: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitok, Ali; Öz, Fahrettin; Panc, Cafer; Sarıkaya, Remzi; Sezikli, Selim; Pala, Yasin; Bugan, Övgü Sinem; Ateş, Müge; Parıldar, Hilal; Ayaz, Mustafa Buğra; Atıcı, Adem; Oflaz, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Energy drinks (EDs) are widely consumed products of the beverage industry and are often chosen by teenagers and young adults. Several adverse cardiovascular events and malignant cardiac arrhythmias following consumption of EDs have been reported in the literature. Several studies have suggested that the interval from the peak to the end of the electrocardiographic T wave (Tp-e) may correspond to the dispersion of repolarization and that an increased Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio are associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias. This study investigated the acute effects of Red Bull ED on ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio. Methods: A prospective, open-label study design was used. After an 8-h fast, 50 young, healthy subjects consumed 355 mL of Red Bull ED. The Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QTc ratio, and several other electrocardiographic parameters were measured at baseline and 2 h after ingestion of Red Bull ED. Results: No significant changes in the Tp-e interval or Tp-e/QTc ratio were observed with Red Bull ED consumption. Red Bull ED consumption led to increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, which were associated with an increased heart rate. Conclusion: Although ingestion of Red Bull ED increases the heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressures, it does not cause alterations in ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QTc ratio. PMID:25868042

  17. Acute effects of Red Bull energy drink on ventricular repolarization in healthy young volunteers: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitok, Ali; Öz, Fahrettin; Panc, Cafer; Sarıkaya, Remzi; Sezikli, Selim; Pala, Yasin; Bugan, Övgü Sinem; Ateş, Müge; Parıldar, Hilal; Ayaz, Mustafa Buğra; Atıcı, Adem; Oflaz, Hüseyin

    2015-11-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are widely consumed products of the beverage industry and are often chosen by teenagers and young adults. Several adverse cardiovascular events and malignant cardiac arrhythmias following consumption of EDs have been reported in the literature. Several studies have suggested that the interval from the peak to the end of the electrocardiographic T wave (Tp-e) may correspond to the dispersion of repolarization and that an increased Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio are associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias. This study investigated the acute effects of Red Bull ED on ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio. A prospective, open-label study design was used. After an 8-h fast, 50 young, healthy subjects consumed 355 mL of Red Bull ED. The Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QTc ratio, and several other electrocardiographic parameters were measured at baseline and 2 h after ingestion of Red Bull ED. No significant changes in the Tp-e interval or Tp-e/QTc ratio were observed with Red Bull ED consumption. Red Bull ED consumption led to increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, which were associated with an increased heart rate. Although ingestion of Red Bull ED increases the heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressures, it does not cause alterations in ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QTc ratio.

  18. Acute Effects of Glucose and Fructose Administration on the Neural Correlates of Cognitive Functioning in Healthy Subjects: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Zanchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present randomized double-blinded cross-over study aims to extensively study the neural correlates underpinning cognitive functions in healthy subjects after acute glucose and fructose administration, using an integrative multimodal neuroimaging approach. Five minutes after glucose, fructose, or placebo administration through a nasogastric tube, 12 participants underwent 3 complementary neuroimaging techniques: 2 task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI sequences to assess working memory (N-back and response inhibition (Go/No-Go and one resting state fMRI sequence to address the cognition-related fronto-parietal network (FPN and salience network (SN. During working memory processing, glucose intake decreased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC relative to placebo, while fructose decreased activation in the ACC and sensory cortex relative to placebo and glucose. During response inhibition, glucose and fructose decreased activation in the ACC, insula and visual cortex relative to placebo. Resting state fMRI indicated increased global connectivity strength of the FPN and the SN during glucose and fructose intake. The results demonstrate that glucose and fructose lead to partially different partially overlapping changes in regional brain activities that underpin cognitive performance in different tasks.

  19. The effect of acute tyrosine phenylalanine depletion on emotion-based decision-making in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Wahlstrom, Dustin; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica

    2013-04-01

    Despite interest in dopamine's role in emotion-based decision-making, few reports of the effects of dopamine manipulations are available in this area in humans. This study investigates dopamine's role in emotion-based decision-making through a common measure of this construct, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), using Acute Tyrosine Phenylalanine Depletion (ATPD). In a between-subjects design, 40 healthy adults were randomized to receive either an ATPD beverage or a balanced amino acid beverage (a control) prior to completing the IGT, as well as pre- and post-manipulation blood draws for the neurohormone prolactin. Together with conventional IGT performance metrics, choice selections and response latencies were examined separately for good and bad choices before and after several key punishment events. Changes in response latencies were also used to predict total task performance. Prolactin levels increased significantly in the ATPD group but not in the control group. However, no significant group differences in performance metrics were detected, nor were there sex differences in outcome measures. However, the balanced group's bad deck latencies speeded up across the task, while the ATPD group's latencies remained adaptively hesitant. Additionally, modulation of latencies to the bad decks predicted total score for the ATPD group only. One interpretation is that ATPD subtly attenuated reward salience and altered the approach by which individuals achieved successful performance, without resulting in frank group differences in task performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial to Assess the Acute Diuretic Effect of Equisetum arvense (Field Horsetail in Healthy Volunteers

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    Danilo Maciel Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 36 healthy male volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups (n=12 that underwent a three-step treatment. For four consecutive days, we alternately administered a standardized dried extract of Equisetum arvense (EADE, 900 mg/day, placebo (corn starch, 900 mg/day, or hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg/day, separated by a 10-day washout period. Each volunteer served as his own control, and the groups’ results were compared. We repeated the same evaluation after each stage of treatment to evaluate the safety of the drug. The diuretic effect of EADE was assessed by monitoring the volunteers’ water balance over a 24 h period. The E. arvense extract produced a diuretic effect that was stronger than that of the negative control and was equivalent to that of hydrochlorothiazide without causing significant changes in the elimination of electrolytes. There was no significant increase in the urinary elimination of catabolites. Rare minor adverse events were reported. The clinical examinations and laboratory tests showed no changes before or after the experiment, suggesting that the drug is safe for acute use. Further research is needed to better clarify the mechanism of diuretic action and the other possible pharmacological actions of this phytomedicine.

  1. Does acute radio-frequency electromagnetic field exposure affect visual event-related potentials in healthy adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Anna; Loughran, Sarah P; Verrender, Adam; Burdon, Catriona A; Taylor, Nigel A S; Croft, Rodney J

    2018-05-01

    To use improved methods to address the question of whether acute exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) affects early (80-200 ms) sensory and later (180-600 ms) cognitive processes as indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirty-six healthy subjects completed a visual discrimination task during concurrent exposure to a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-like, 920 MHz signal with peak-spatial specific absorption rate for 10 g of tissue of 0 W/kg of body mass (Sham), 1 W/kg (Low RF) and 2 W/kg (High RF). A fully randomised, counterbalanced, double-blind design was used. P1 amplitude was reduced (p = .02) and anterior N1 latency was increased (p = .04) during Exposure compared to Sham. There were no effects on any other ERP latencies or amplitudes. RF-EMF exposure may affect early perceptual (P1) and preparatory motor (anterior N1) processes. However, only two ERP indices, out of 56 comparisons, were observed to differ between RF-EMF exposure and Sham, suggesting that these observations may be due to chance. These observations are consistent with previous findings that RF-EMF exposure has no reliable impact on cognition (e.g., accuracy and response speed). Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-perception of aging and acute medical events in chronically institutionalized middle-aged and older persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Yip, Leona C Y; Jim, Olivia T T; Hui, Anna N N

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship between self-perceptions of aging and acute medical events in chronically institutionalized middle-aged and older persons with schizophrenia. Participants were 83 persons with schizophrenia (30% women; mean age = 58.48, SD = 8.14) residing in a long-stay care home, who were without organic mental disorders, mental retardation, serious audiovisual impairment, and serious cognitive and physical impairment. They received assessments in body mass index, functional health, and global mental status, and responded to measures of self-perception of aging at baseline. Acute events that required medical attention were recorded for the next 3 months. 8% of the participants had acute medical events. Bivariate analysis suggested that number of comorbid medical conditions, mobility, Mini-Mental State Examination, and negative self-perception of aging were predictive of acute medical events. However, multivariate analysis (logistic regression) showed that only mobility (OR = 0.78, p = 0.04) and negative self-perception of aging (OR = 3.38, p = 0.02) had independent effects on acute medical events, with the latter being the stronger predictor. Positive aging self-perception, body mass index, and smoking were unrelated to medical events. Physical vulnerabilities may not be sufficient to explain the development of acute medical events in late-life schizophrenia. How individuals perceive their aging process, which is expected to regulate health behavior and help-seeking, may be an even more important factor. Further research should investigate whether such self-perceptions, which are probably rooted in stereotypes about aging socialized early in life, are modifiable in this population. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Technology-Based Innovations to Foster Personalized Healthy Lifestyles and Well-Being: A Targeted Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Silvina; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Teixeira, António; Janssen, Joris H; de Jong, Henri; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-01-01

    Background New community-based arrangements and novel technologies can empower individuals to be active participants in their health maintenance, enabling people to control and self-regulate their health and wellness and make better health- and lifestyle-related decisions. Mobile sensing technology and health systems responsive to individual profiles combined with cloud computing can expand innovation for new types of interoperable services that are consumer-oriented and community-based. This could fuel a paradigm shift in the way health care can be, or should be, provided and received, while lessening the burden on exhausted health and social care systems. Objective Our goal is to identify and discuss the main scientific and engineering challenges that need to be successfully addressed in delivering state-of-the-art, ubiquitous eHealth and mHealth services, including citizen-centered wellness management services, and reposition their role and potential within a broader context of diverse sociotechnical drivers, agents, and stakeholders. Methods We review the state-of-the-art relevant to the development and implementation of eHealth and mHealth services in critical domains. We identify and discuss scientific, engineering, and implementation-related challenges that need to be overcome to move research, development, and the market forward. Results Several important advances have been identified in the fields of systems for personalized health monitoring, such as smartphone platforms and intelligent ubiquitous services. Sensors embedded in smartphones and clothes are making the unobtrusive recognition of physical activity, behavior, and lifestyle possible, and thus the deployment of platforms for health assistance and citizen empowerment. Similarly, significant advances are observed in the domain of infrastructure supporting services. Still, many technical problems remain to be solved, combined with no less challenging issues related to security, privacy, trust, and

  4. Technology-Based Innovations to Foster Personalized Healthy Lifestyles and Well-Being: A Targeted Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakis, Emmanouil G; Santana, Silvina; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Teixeira, António; Janssen, Joris H; de Jong, Henri; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-06-24

    New community-based arrangements and novel technologies can empower individuals to be active participants in their health maintenance, enabling people to control and self-regulate their health and wellness and make better health- and lifestyle-related decisions. Mobile sensing technology and health systems responsive to individual profiles combined with cloud computing can expand innovation for new types of interoperable services that are consumer-oriented and community-based. This could fuel a paradigm shift in the way health care can be, or should be, provided and received, while lessening the burden on exhausted health and social care systems. Our goal is to identify and discuss the main scientific and engineering challenges that need to be successfully addressed in delivering state-of-the-art, ubiquitous eHealth and mHealth services, including citizen-centered wellness management services, and reposition their role and potential within a broader context of diverse sociotechnical drivers, agents, and stakeholders. We review the state-of-the-art relevant to the development and implementation of eHealth and mHealth services in critical domains. We identify and discuss scientific, engineering, and implementation-related challenges that need to be overcome to move research, development, and the market forward. Several important advances have been identified in the fields of systems for personalized health monitoring, such as smartphone platforms and intelligent ubiquitous services. Sensors embedded in smartphones and clothes are making the unobtrusive recognition of physical activity, behavior, and lifestyle possible, and thus the deployment of platforms for health assistance and citizen empowerment. Similarly, significant advances are observed in the domain of infrastructure supporting services. Still, many technical problems remain to be solved, combined with no less challenging issues related to security, privacy, trust, and organizational dynamics. Delivering

  5. In-Person Communication Between Radiologists and Acute Care Surgeons Leads to Significant Alterations in Surgical Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Elliot C; Alam, Hasan B; Brown, Richard K J; Stojanovska, Jadranka; Davenport, Matthew S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if direct in-person communication between an acute care surgical team and radiologists alters surgical decision making. Informed consent was waived for this institutional review board-exempt, HIPAA-compliant, prospective quality improvement study. From January 29, 2015 to December 10, 2015, semiweekly rounds lasting approximately 60 min were held between the on-call acute care surgery team (attending surgeon, chief resident, and residents) and one of three expert abdominal radiologists. A comprehensive imaging review was performed of recent and comparison examinations for cases selected by the surgeons in which medical and/or surgical decision making was pending. All reviewed examinations had available finalized reports known to the surgical team. RADPEER interradiologist concordance scores were assigned to all reviewed examinations. The impression and plan of the attending surgeon were recorded before and after each in-person review. One hundred patients were reviewed with 11 attending surgeons. The in-person meetings led to changes in surgeons' diagnostic impressions in 43% (43 of 100) and changes in medical and/or surgical planning in 43% (43 of 100; 20 acute changes, 23 nonacute changes, 19 changes in operative management) of cases. There were major discrepancies (RADPEER score ≥3) between the impression of the reviewing radiologist and the written report in 11% of cases (11 of 100). Targeted in-person collaboration between radiologists and acute care surgeons is associated with substantial and frequent changes in patient management, even when the original written report contains all necessary data. The primary mechanism seems to be promotion of a shared mental model that facilitates the exchange of complex information. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Sense of coherence and ways of coping in the relationship with brother or sister in healthy siblings of mentally ill persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuchowska-Kościjańska, Anna; Charzyńska, Katarzyna; Chadzyńska, Małgorzata; Drozdzyńska, Anna; Kasperek-Zimowska, Beata; Bednarek, Agata; Sawicka, Maryla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate sense of coherence in healthy siblings of persons suffering from schizophrenia as well as their ways of coping in the relationship with ill brother or sister. 40 healthy brothers and sisters of persons with ICD- 10 diagnosis of F20 to F29 participated in the present study. Orientation to Life Scale (SOC- 29) was used to assess sense of coherence and Ways of Coping with Stress questionnaire (SRSS) was used to examine stress coping strategies. Mean global score of siblings of persons with schizophrenia was 111 points. Subjects used coping strategies focused on problem significantly more often than those focused on emotions. Therapeutic work with healthy siblings should focus on strengthening sense of personal competence, development of personal resources and different ways of coping with stress, investigation of emotions that healthy siblings experience in the relationship with ill brother or sister as well as supporting the process of accepting changes in the relationship with the ill sibling.

  7. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were...... higher in the serum and milk of the cows with mastitis than in the cows in the other two groups. Four of the cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions had serum amyloid A concentrations in serum above 100 mug/ml, but negligible concentrations in milk, indicating that a pathogen must be present...

  8. A double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study of the acute metabolic effects of olanzapine in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance L Albaugh

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics exhibit metabolic side effects including diabetes mellitus and obesity. The adverse events are preceded by acute worsening of oral glucose tolerance (oGTT along with reduced plasma free fatty acids (FFA and leptin in animal models. It is unclear whether the same acute effects occur in humans.A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial was conducted to examine the potential metabolic effects of olanzapine in healthy volunteers. Participants included male (8 and female (7 subjects [18-30 years old, BMI 18.5-25]. Subjects received placebo or olanzapine (10 mg/day for three days prior to oGTT testing. Primary endpoints included measurement of plasma leptin, oral glucose tolerance, and plasma free fatty acids (FFA. Secondary metabolic endpoints included: triglycerides, total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, heart rate, blood pressure, body weight and BMI. Olanzapine increased glucose Area Under the Curve (AUC by 42% (2808±474 vs. 3984±444 mg/dl·min; P = 0.0105 during an oGTT. Fasting plasma leptin and triglycerides were elevated 24% (Leptin: 6.8±1.3 vs. 8.4±1.7 ng/ml; P = 0.0203 and 22% (Triglycerides: 88.9±10.1 vs. 108.2±11.6 mg/dl; P = 0.0170, whereas FFA and HDL declined by 32% (FFA: 0.38±0.06 vs. 0.26±0.04 mM; P = 0.0166 and 11% (54.2±4.7 vs. 48.9±4.3 mg/dl; P = 0.0184, respectively after olanzapine. Other measures were unchanged.Olanzapine exerts some but not all of the early endocrine/metabolic changes observed in rodent models of the metabolic side effects, and this suggest that antipsychotic effects are not limited to perturbations in glucose metabolism alone. Future prospective clinical studies should focus on identifying which reliable metabolic alterations might be useful as potential screening tools in assessing patient susceptibility to weight gain and diabetes caused by atypical antipsychotics.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00741026.

  9. Reconciling conceptualizations of relationships and person-centred care for older people with cognitive impairment in acute care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Carole; Edvardsson, David

    2018-04-01

    Relationships are central to enacting person-centred care of the older person with cognitive impairment. A fuller understanding of relationships and the role they play facilitating wellness and preserving personhood is critical if we are to unleash the productive potential of nursing research and person-centred care. In this article, we target the acute care setting because much of the work about relationships and older people with cognitive impairment has tended to focus on relationships in long-term care. The acute care setting is characterized by archetypal constraints which differentiate it from long-term care, in terms of acuity and haste, task-orientated work patterns and influence from "the rule of medicine," all of which can privilege particular types of relating. In this article, we drew on existing conceptualizations of relationships from theory and practice by tapping in to the intellectual resources provided by nurse researchers, the philosophy of Martin Buber and ANT scholars. This involved recounting two examples of dyadic and networked relationships which were re-interpreted using two complementary theoretical approaches to provide deeper and more comprehensive conceptualizations of these relationships. By re-presenting key tenets from the work of key scholars on the topic relationships, we hope to hasten socialization of these ideas into nursing into the acute care setting. First, by enabling nurses to reflect on how they might work toward cultivating relationships that are more salutogenic and consistent with the preservation of personhood. Second, by stimulating two distinct but related lines of research enquiry which focus on dyadic and networked relationships with the older person with cognitive impairment in the acute care setting. We also hope to reconcile the schism that has emerged in the literature between preferred approaches to care of the older person with cognitive impairment, that is person-centred care versus relationship-centred care

  10. Acute effect of Clitoria ternatea flower beverage on glycemic response and antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusak, Charoonsri; Thilavech, Thavaree; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2018-01-08

    Clitoria ternatea L., a natural food-colorant containing anthocyanin, demonstrated antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Clitoria ternatea flower extract (CTE) on postprandial plasma glycemia response and antioxidant status in healthy men. In a randomized, crossover study, 15 healthy men (ages 22.53 ± 0.30 years; with body mass index of 21.57 ± 0.54 kg/m 2 ) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 1 g CTE in 400 mL of water; (3) 2 g CTE in 400 mL of water; (4) 50 g sucrose and 1 g CTE in 400 mL of water; and (5) 50 g sucrose and 2 g CTE in 400 mL of water. Incremental postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, uric acid, antioxidant capacities and lipid peroxidation were measured during 3 h of administration. After 30 min ingestion, the postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels were suppressed when consuming sucrose plus 1 g and 2 g CTE. In addition, consumption of CTE alone did not alter plasma glucose and insulin concentration in the fasting state. The significant increase in plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and protein thiol) and the decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) level were observed in the subjects who received 1 g and 2 g CTE. Furthermore, consumption of CTE protected sucrose-induced reduction in ORAC and TEAC and increase in plasma MDA. These findings suggest that an acute ingestion of CTE increases plasma antioxidant capacity without hypoglycemia in the fasting state. It also improves postprandial glucose, insulin and antioxidant status when consumed with sucrose. Thai Clinical Trials Registry: TCTR20170609003 . Registered 09 September 2017. 'retrospectively registered'.

  11. The relationship between the big five personality dimensions and acute psychopathology: mediating and moderating effects of coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnics, Zsuzsanna; Heincz, Orsolya; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Surányi, Zsuzsanna; Gonda, Xenia; Benko, Anita; Molnar, Eszter; Jakšić, Nenad; Lazary, Judit; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2013-12-01

    Prior research suggests that the Big Five personality dimensions might be associated with coping strategies as well as acute psychopathology. The aim of the present study was to investigate direct and indirect associations between the Big Five personality traits, coping styles, and psychopathological variables. Subjects were 1140 adults from various institutions and regions in Hungary. A comprehensive test battery was administered including the Big Five Inventory (BFI), Psychological Immune System Inventory (PISI), and some subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Several moderation-mediation analyses were conducted using the PROCESS tool in SPSS to test for influence paths. Coping and personality variables jointly accounted for 40% to 50% of variance in psychopathology outcome. Personality dimensions of Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability had strongest predictive values. Emotional Stability had a more direct and unmediated effect, whereas Extraversion and Conscientiousness effects were mediated by the Approach and Self-regulation coping systems. In comparison to personality, coping style was generally a stronger predictor. The findings of this study might add to better understanding of complex pathways leading from broad personality dimensions to coping strategies and psychological (mal)adjustment.

  12. Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungho; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on height and symmetry of the single leg vertical jump in healthy men. [Subjects] Thirty males with no history of lower limb dysfunction participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the unilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), bilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), and, no vibratory stimulation group (n=10). The subjects in the unilateral and bilateral stimulation groups participated in one session of whole body vibration training at 26 Hz for 3 min. The no vibratory stimulation group subjects underwent the same training for 3 min without whole body vibration. All participants performed the single leg vertical jump for each lower limb, to account for the strong and weak sides. The single leg vertical jump height and symmetry were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The single leg vertical jump height of the weak lower limb significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump height of the strong lower limb significantly improved in the bilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump symmetry significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, the present study found that the effects of whole body vibration training were different depending on the type of application. To improve the single leg vertical jump height in the weak lower limbs as well as limb symmetry, unilateral vibratory stimulation might be more desirable.

  13. Quantitative skeletal scintiscanning of the skull with 99mTc-Sn-pyrophosphate in patients with maxillary sinusitis as compared to healthy persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, J.

    1979-01-01

    In 19 healthy persons the normal storage pattern of the skull was quantitatively established with the aid of sup(99n)Tc-Sn-pyrophospate. Moreover 48 patients with chronic maxillary sinusitis were tested to find out whether and in which percentage pathological storage occurred. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Radioimmunological determination of 17-β oestradiol and prolactine in the serum of patients with breast diseases and healthy control persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prennschuetz-Schuetzenau, H.

    1975-01-01

    This paper's aim was to find out if mammal tumor in humans, especially mammal carcinoma, is accompanied by an altered or maybe even characteristic hormon status. Thus the sera of 51 female patients with MaTu were collected during pre- and postmenopause and tested with regard to their contents of prolactine- and 17-β-oestradiol. Part of the task was to set up the RIAs necessary for measurement. Both in the serum of pre-menopausal women with undifferentiated MaCa (25,5 ng/ml), mastropathy (22,3 ng/ml), and fibroadenoma (61,2 ng/ml) and in sera of postmenopausal test persons with undifferentiated MaCa (37.6 ng/ml), mastropathy (24,6 ng/ml) resp., 'significantly' increased values of prolactine serum, compared with premenopausal (12,34 ng/ml) and postmenopausal (14,02 ng/ml) test groups. The typical cycle-phase-conditioned changes of the 17-β-oestradiol values, however, were found in premenopausal women. In the case of women in post-menopause, no significantly differentiable values could be measured. The results obtained indicate that women with MaTu have a hormon status different from that of healthy women. (orig./AJ) [de

  15. Plasma homovanillic acid correlates inversely with history of learning problems in healthy volunteer and personality disordered subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccaro, Emil F; Hirsch, Sharon L; Stein, Mark A

    2007-01-15

    Central dopaminergic activity is critical to the functioning of both motor and cognitive systems. Based on the therapeutic action of dopaminergic agents in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ADHD symptoms may be related to a reduction in central dopaminergic activity. We tested the hypothesis that dopaminergic activity, as reflected by plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA), may be related to dimensional aspects of ADHD in adults. Subjects were 30 healthy volunteer and 39 personality disordered subjects, in whom morning basal pHVA concentration and a dimensional measure of childhood ADHD symptoms (Wender Utah Rating Scale: WURS) were obtained. A significant inverse correlation was found between WURS Total score and pHVA concentration in the total sample. Among WURS factor scores, a significant inverse relationship was noted between pHVA and history of "childhood learning problems". Consistent with the dopaminergic dysfunction hypothesis of ADHD and of cognitive function, pHVA concentrations were correlated with childhood history of ADHD symptoms in general and with history of "learning problems" in non-ADHD psychiatric patients and controls. Replication is needed in treated and untreated ADHD samples to confirm these initial results.

  16. Polymorphism of genes associated with increased cardiovascular risk and cognitive function in patients with chronic heart failure and in healthy persons: the pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Martynovich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the relationship between polymorphic variants of APOC3 (rs2854117, PON1 (rs854560, rs662, AGT (rs4762, rs699 and AGTR1 (rs5186 genes with the results of cognitive tests in patients with chronic heart failure (СHF of ischemic genesis and healthy persons. The general group included 50 patients with CHF of II-IV functional classes, the control group - 50 healthy volunteers. Cognitive functions were estimated by 5th and 7th subtests of Wexler and Burdon's test. There was revealed statistically significant correlation between the polymorphism of APOC3, PON1, AGT, AGTR1 genes and the results of cognitive tests in patients with CHF and healthy persons. These data suggest that the polymorphism of the studied genes may be important in the genetic susceptibility to the formation and progression of cognitive disorders.

  17. Responses to stress in patients with psychotic disorders compared to persons with varying levels of vulnerability to psychosis, persons with depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Köther, Ulf; Hartmann, Maike; Kempkensteffen, Jürgen; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    An experimental design was used to test whether self-reported, psychophysiological and symptomatic stress-responses increase as a function of the underlying vulnerability to psychosis as proposed by vulnerability-stress-models. Stress-responses of participants with psychotic disorders (PSY, n = 35) were compared to those of participants with attenuated positive symptoms (AS, n = 29), first-degree relatives of persons with psychotic disorders (REL, n = 26), healthy controls (HC, n = 28) and controls with depression (DEP, n = 30). Using a repeated measures design, participants were assigned to a noise stressor, a social stressor and a no stress condition in random order. Stress-responses were assessed via self-report, salivary cortisol levels, heart rate and skin conductance levels. State-paranoia and depression were assessed with clinical scales. PSY reported to be significantly more stressed than HC, AS and REL across all conditions which went along with increased heart rate and decreased overall cortisol release. In contrast, AS showed elevated levels of cortisol. PSY showed a stronger response of self-reported stress to the noise condition compared to the no stress condition than HC, but no stronger response than the other samples. Furthermore, the stressors did not trigger stronger psychophysiological responses or symptom-increases in PSY. The social stressor was brief and not individualized and did not have an effect on cortisol. The findings support the notion that subjective stress-responsiveness increases with vulnerability, but not the assumption that symptoms arise directly as a function of stress and vulnerability. Also, the generally high levels of arousal seem to be more relevant to psychosis than the responsiveness to specific stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thalassemia: Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thalassemia” More What can a person living with thalassemia do to stay healthy? A healthy lifestyle is ... disorder”, as well as making healthy choices. Managing Thalassemia Thalassemia is a treatable disorder that can be ...

  19. Acute exercise attenuates negative affect following repeated sad mood inductions in persons who have recovered from depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jutta; Hogan, Candice L; Joormann, Jutta; Waugh, Christian E; Gotlib, Ian H

    2013-02-01

    Identifying factors that may protect individuals from developing Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in the face of stress is critical. In the current study we experimentally tested whether such a potentially protective factor, engaging in acute exercise, reduces the adverse effects of repeated sad mood inductions in individuals who have recovered from depression. We hypothesized that recovered depressed participants who engage in acute exercise report a smaller increase in negative affect (NA) and a smaller decrease in positive affect (PA) when exposed to a repeated sad mood induction (i.e., habituation), whereas participants who do not exercise show sensitization (i.e., increased NA and decreased PA in response to a repeated adverse stimulus). Forty-one women recovered from MDD and 40 healthy control women were randomly assigned to either exercise for 15 minutes or quiet rest. Afterward, participants were exposed to two sad mood inductions and reported their levels of affect throughout the study. Recovered depressed participants who had not exercised exhibited higher NA after the second sad mood induction, a finding consistent with sensitization. In contrast, both recovered depressed participants who had engaged in acute exercise and healthy control participants showed no increase in NA in response to the repeated sad mood induction. Participants who exercised reported higher PA after the exercise bout; however, our hypothesis concerning reported PA trajectories following the sad mood inductions was not supported. Results suggest that exercise can serve as a protective factor in the face of exposure to repeated emotional stressors, particularly concerning NA in individuals who have recovered from depression. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.

  1. Effect of Chronic Escitalopram versus Placebo on Personality Traits in Healthy First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Depression: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Winkel, Per; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gether, Ulrik; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The serotonergic neurotransmitter system is closely linked to depression and personality traits. It is not known if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have an effect on neuroticism that is independent of their effect on depression. Healthy individuals with a genetic liability for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects personality. The present trial is the first to test the hypothesis that escitalopram may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MD). Methods The trial used a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled parallel-group design. We examined the effect of four weeks escitalopram 10 mg daily versus matching placebo on personality in 80 people who had a biological parent or sibling with a history of MD. The outcome measure on personality traits was change in self-reported neuroticism scores on the Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPQ) from entry until end of four weeks of intervention. Results When compared with placebo, escitalopram did not significantly affect self-reported NEO-PI-R and EPQ neuroticism and extroversion, EPQ psychoticism, NEO-PI-R openness, or NEO-PI-R conscientiousness (p all above 0.05). However, escitalopram increased NEO-PI-R agreeableness scores significantly compared with placebo (mean; SD) (2.38; 8.09) versus (−1.32; 7.94), p = 0.046), but not following correction for multiplicity. A trend was shown for increased conscientiousness (p = 0.07). There was no significant effect on subclinical depressive symptoms (p = 0.6). Conclusion In healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MD, there is no effect of escitalopram on neuroticism, but it is possible that escitalopram may increase the personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00386841

  2. Outbreaks of Acute Gastroenteritis Transmitted by Person-to-Person Contact, Environmental Contamination, and Unknown Modes of Transmission--United States, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikswo, Mary E; Kambhampati, Anita; Shioda, Kayoko; Walsh, Kelly A; Bowen, Anna; Hall, Aron J

    2015-12-11

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of illness in the United States, with an estimated 179 million episodes annually. AGE outbreaks propagated through direct person-to-person contact, contaminated environmental surfaces, and unknown modes of transmission were not systematically captured at the national level before 2009 and thus were not well characterized. 2009-2013. The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) is a voluntary national reporting system that supports reporting of all waterborne and foodborne disease outbreaks and all AGE outbreaks resulting from transmission by contact with contaminated environmental sources, infected persons or animals, or unknown modes. Local, state, and territorial public health agencies within the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia (DC), five U.S. territories, and three Freely Associated States report outbreaks to CDC via NORS using a standard online data entry system. A total of 10,756 AGE outbreaks occurred during 2009-2013, for which the primary mode of transmission occurred through person-to-person contact, environmental contamination, and unknown modes of transmission. NORS received reports from public health agencies in 50 U.S. states, DC, and Puerto Rico. These outbreaks resulted in 356,532 reported illnesses, 5,394 hospitalizations, and 459 deaths. The median outbreak reporting rate for all sites in a given year increased from 2.7 outbreaks per million population in 2009 to 11.8 outbreaks in 2013. The etiology was unknown in 31% (N = 3,326) of outbreaks. Of the 7,430 outbreaks with a suspected or confirmed etiology reported, norovirus was the most common, reported in 6,223 (84%) of these outbreaks. Other reported suspected or confirmed etiologies included Shigella (n = 332) and Salmonella (n = 320). Outbreaks were more frequent during the winter, with 5,716 (53%) outbreaks occurring during December-February, and 70% of the 7,001 outbreaks with a reported setting of exposure occurred in long

  3. Evaluation of the use of shock index in identifying acute blood loss in healthy blood donor dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Erin E; Marryott, Kimberly; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Reineke, Erica L

    2017-09-01

    than SBP at both T 0 (AUC 0.165, CI: 0.0384, 0.292, P AUC 0.288, CI: 0.124, 0.451, P AUC 0.574, CI: 0.392, 0.756, P blood loss. An SI > 1.0 is a sensitive and specific tool for detecting acute small volume blood loss in healthy dogs. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  4. Impact of buccal glucose spray, liquid sugars and dextrose tablets on the evolution of plasma glucose concentration in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlup, Rudolf; Zapletalova, Jana; Peterson, Karolina; Poljakova, Iveta; Lenhartova, Eva; Tancred, Adam; Perera, Russel; Smital, Jan

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of three commercially available glucose products, (1) buccal glucose spray, (2) liquid sugars, and (3) dextrose tablet, on the evolution of plasma glucose concentration (PG). Sixteen healthy volunteers aged 21.8 +/- 0.78 y (mean +/- SE), BMI 23.5 +/- 0.84 kg/m(2), tested their PG over the course of 3 sets of 4 sessions (S) each: S(0)-control fasting, S(1)-buccal administration of 10 glucose spray-doses (0.84 g of glucose) without swallowing; S(2-) consumption of 1 sachet (13 ml) of liquid sugar (ca. 5.2 g glucose, 5.2 g fructose, 5.2 g sucrose); S(3-) consumption of one dextrose tablet (6 g). PG was tested in finger-prick capillary blood using a personal glucometer Linus at the start, and at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. The means of 3 respective sessions for each of the 16 subjects were analyzed. The Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed no significant differences between changes in the mean PG at the start vs. 5-minute interval either in control, or any intervention sessions. Analysis of regression coefficients after 30 min compared to the control session, demonstrated an increase in PG with the sachet of liquid sugars (0.068 mmol/l/min, p = 0.001) which was greater than a single dextrose tablet (0.052 mmol/l/min, p = 0.002), but no significant PG increase was found after buccal glucose spray. Liquid sugars or dextrose tablets, but not the buccal glucose spray, are effective means to increase PG within 10 minutes after ingestion.

  5. EEG-vigilance differences between patients with borderline personality disorder, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerl, Ulrich; Stein, Michael; Mulert, Christoph; Mergl, Roland; Olbrich, Sebastian; Dichgans, Eva; Rujescu, Dan; Pogarell, Oliver

    2008-04-01

    The regulation of brain activation, as assessed with the EEG, is a state modulated trait. A decline to lowered EEG-vigilance states has been found to be associated with emotional instability in older studies, but has not been systematically studied in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Twenty unmedicated BPD patients were compared to 20 unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as 20 healthy controls concerning their EEG-vigilance regulation over a 5-min period assessed with an algorithm classifying every artefact-free 2-s EEG segment into the EEG-vigilance state (A1-A3, B (=non-A)). If the alpha power was posterior more than 55% of the whole alpha power (anterior + posterior) in the artefact-free EEG-segments, that segment was marked as A1, if it was anterior more than 55% of the whole alpha power, as A3. For A2 the following rule was defined: Posterior or anterior alpha between 50 and 55% of the whole alpha power.BPD patients showed significantly lower rates of EEG-vigilance state A compared to OCD patients, indicating a lowered EEG-vigilance. All three groups showed a decrease in the rate of EEG-vigilance state A over the 5 min recording period in line with a lowering of vigilance. The study provides evidence for a less stable regulation of EEG-vigilance in BPD compared to OCD patients and is in line with concepts postulating that the behavioural pattern with sensation seeking and impulsivity in BPD has a compensatory and autoregulatory function to stabilize activation of the CNS.

  6. Differences in serum zinc levels in acutely ill and remitted adolescents and young adults with bulimia nervosa in comparison with healthy controls - a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Florian D; Rao, Pradeep; Runions, Kevin; Stewart, Richard M; Moore, Julia K; Wong, Janice Wy; Linden, Maike; Sungurtekin, Idil; Glass, Franziska; Gut, Linda; Peetz, Dirk; Hintereder, Gudrun; Schaab, Michael; Poustka, Fritz; Wöckel, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Research has implicated that changes in zinc (Zn) metabolism may be associated with the biological underpinnings of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa. However, to date research on the role of Zn in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) is scarce. We aimed to explore serum Zn concentrations in young patients with BN, with a focus on the stage of the disorder, comparing acutely ill and recovered patients with BN with healthy controls. Serum Zn concentrations were obtained from healthy controls and from acutely ill and remitted young patients with BN. Mean duration of remission was 4.0±3.5 years. Remitted patients showed elevated serum Zn concentrations when compared to controls (Cohen's d=2.022), but concentrations were still in the normal range. Acutely ill patients also had higher serum Zn levels when compared to controls (all values still being within the reference range, Cohen's d=0.882). There was no difference between acutely ill and remitted patients with BN in serum Zn concentrations. Of note, remitted patients had a significantly higher body weight when compared to the other two groups. Overall, there were no significant differences in dietary preferences with regard to Zn containing foods between the groups. The present study provides preliminary evidence that the underlying factors for changes in Zn serum concentrations in young patients with BN do not vary with regard to the stage of illness (acute versus remitted BN). Further prospective research is needed in order to disentangle the possible interplay between serum Zn status and bulimic eating behaviors.

  7. Person-centred pain management for the patient with acute abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avallin, Therese; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Sorensen, Erik Elgaard

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To explore and describe the impact of the organizational culture on and the patient-practitioner patterns of actions that contribute to or detract from successful pain management for the patient with acute abdominal pain across the acute care pathway. BACKGROUND: Although pain management...... is a recognised human right, unmanaged pain continues to cause suffering and prolong hospital care. Unanswered questions about how to successfully manage pain relate to both organizational culture and individual practitioners' performance. DESIGN: Focused ethnography, applying the Developmental Research Sequence...... and the Fundamentals of Care framework. METHODS: Participant observation and informal interviews (92 hours) were performed at one emergency department and two surgical wards at a University Hospital during April - November 2015. Data includes 261 interactions between patients, aged ≥18 years seeking care for acute...

  8. Dynamic balance in persons with multiple sclerosis who have a falls history is altered compared to non-fallers and to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Alexander T; Bruetsch, Adam P; Lynch, Sharon G; Huisinga, Jessie M

    2017-10-03

    Around 60% of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience falls, however the dynamic balance differences between those who fall and those who don't are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to identify distinct biomechanical features of dynamic balance during gait that are different between fallers with MS, non-fallers with MS, and healthy controls. 27 recurrent fallers with MS, 28 persons with MS with no falls history, and 27 healthy controls walked on a treadmill at their preferred speed for 3min. The variability of trunk accelerations and the average and variability of minimum toe clearance, spatiotemporal parameters, and margin of stability were compared between groups. Fallers with MS exhibited a slower cautious gait compared to non-fallers and healthy controls, but had decreased anterior-posterior margin of stability and minimum toe clearance. Fallers walked with less locally stable and predictable trunk accelerations, and increased variability of step length, stride time, and both anterior-posterior and mediolateral margin of stability compared to non-fallers and healthy controls. The present work provides evidence that within a group of persons with MS, there are gait differences that are influenced by falls history. These differences indicate that in persons with MS who fall, the center of mass is poorly controlled through base of support placement and the foot is closer to the ground during swing phase relative to the non-fallers. These identified biomechanical differences could be used to evaluate dynamic balance in persons with MS and to help improve fall prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Person-centred care after acute coronary syndrome, from hospital to primary care - A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fors, Andreas; Ekman, Inger; Taft, Charles; Björkelund, Cecilia; Frid, Kerstin; Larsson, Maria Eh; Thorn, Jörgen; Ulin, Kerstin; Wolf, Axel; Swedberg, Karl

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate if person-centred care can improve self-efficacy and facilitate return to work or prior activity level in patients after an event of acute coronary syndrome. 199 patients with acute coronary syndrome < 75 years were randomly assigned to person-centred care intervention or treatment as usual and followed for 6 months. In the intervention group a person-centred care process was added to treatment as usual, emphasising the patient as a partner in care. Care was co-created in collaboration between patients, physicians, registered nurses and other health care professionals and documented in a health plan. A team-based partnership across three health care levels included transparent knowledge about the disease and medical state to achieve agreed goals during recovery. Main outcome measure was a composite score of changes in general self-efficacy ≥ 5 units, return to work or prior activity level and re-hospitalisation or death. The composite score showed that more patients (22.3%, n=21) improved in the intervention group at 6 months compared to the control group (9.5%, n=10) (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-6.2; P=0.015). The effect was driven by improved self-efficacy ≥ 5 units in the intervention group. Overall general self-efficacy improved significantly more in the intervention group compared with the control group (P=0.026). There was no difference between groups on re-hospitalisation or death, return to work or prior activity level. A person-centred care approach emphasising the partnership between patients and health care professionals throughout the care chain improves general self-efficacy without causing worsening clinical events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term disorders of memory in the persons survived acute radiation sickness due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipchuk, K.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The study involved two groups of the patients: main group - 52 men survived ARS aged 35-55, controls - 23 healthy men aged 36-55. Auditory and visual memory was studied. The obtained results suggest that the changes in the structure of the anterior portions of the brain which are responsible for obtaining, processing and reproduction of verbal information, namely the cortex of the left temporal and frontal regions with their cortical-subcortical associations, play the leading role in the memory disorders in persons survived ARS

  11. Coping and emotional distress during acute hospitalization in older persons with earlier trauma: the case of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimron, Lee; Cohen, Miri

    2012-06-01

    Older persons with earlier trauma are often more vulnerable to stresses of old age. To examine the levels of emotional distress in relation to cognitive appraisal of acute hospitalization and coping strategies in Holocaust survivors compared with an age- and education-matched group of elderly persons without Holocaust experience. This is a cross-sectional study of 63 Holocaust survivors, 65 years and older, hospitalized for an acute illness, and 57 age-, education- and hospital unit-matched people without Holocaust experience. Participants completed appraisal and coping strategies (COPE) questionnaires, and the brief symptoms inventory (BSI-18). Holocaust survivors reported higher levels of emotional distress, appraised the hospitalization higher as a threat and lower as a challenge, and used more emotion-focused and less problem-focused or support-seeking coping strategies than the comparison group. Study variables explained 65% of the variance of emotional distress; significant predictors of emotional distress in the final regression model were not having a partner and more use of emotion-focused coping. The latter mediated the relation of group variable and challenge appraisal to emotional distress. Health professionals must be aware of the potential impact of the hospital environment on the survivors of Holocaust as well as survivors of other trauma. Being sensitive to their specific needs may reduce the negative impact of hospitalization.

  12. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Ellekilde Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophosphate...... exposure among farmers. METHODS: In a crossover study, 45 male farmers from Chitwan, Nepal, were randomly allocated to work as usual applying organophosphate pesticides wearing Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment or Daily Practice Clothing. For seven days before each experiment, each farmer.......08;0.06]. Wearing the Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment versus Daily Practice Clothing gave the following results, respectively: comfort 75.6% versus 100%, sense of heat 64.4% versus 31.3%, other problems 44.4% versus 33.3%, likeability 95.6% versus 77.8%. CONCLUSION: We cannot support the expectation...

  13. Acute effects of short term use of e-cigarettes on airways physiology and respiratory symptoms in smokers with and without airways obstructive diseases and in healthy non smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Palamidas

    2017-03-01

    Short term use of e-cigarette has acute effects on airways physiology and respiratory symptoms in COPD smokers, asthmatic smokers, “healthy” smokers and healthy never smokers. E-cigarette use is associated with health effects in healthy never smokers irrespectively of nicotine concentration. More studies are needed to investigate both short and long term effects of e-cig.

  14. Comparison of cognitive flexibility and planning ability in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, patients with obsessive compulsive personality disorder, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    PAAST, Negin; KHOSRAVI, Zohreh; MEMARI, Amir Hossein; SHAYESTEHFAR, Monir; ARBABI, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive functioning in individuals with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and with Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) has not been adequately studied. Aim Examine the cognitive flexibility and planning ability of individuals with OCD and OCPD. Methods Twenty patients with OCD and 25 patients with OCPD who had not taken medication in the previous two weeks were identified in an outpatient psychology clinic in Tehran, and 25 healthy control subjects were identified ...

  15. A process-based approach to characterizing the effect of acute alprazolam challenge on visual paired associate learning and memory in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Scott, James Cobb; Harel, Brian T; Lim, Yen Ying; Snyder, Peter J; Maruff, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine that, when administered acutely, results in impairments in several aspects of cognition, including attention, learning, and memory. However, the profile (i.e., component processes) that underlie alprazolam-related decrements in visual paired associate learning has not been fully explored. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study of healthy older adults, we used a novel, "process-based" computerized measure of visual paired associate learning to examine the effect of a single, acute 1-mg dose of alprazolam on component processes of visual paired associate learning and memory. Acute alprazolam challenge was associated with a large magnitude reduction in visual paired associate learning and memory performance (d = 1.05). Process-based analyses revealed significant increases in distractor, exploratory, between-search, and within-search error types. Analyses of percentages of each error type suggested that, relative to placebo, alprazolam challenge resulted in a decrease in the percentage of exploratory errors and an increase in the percentage of distractor errors, both of which reflect memory processes. Results of this study suggest that acute alprazolam challenge decreases visual paired associate learning and memory performance by reducing the strength of the association between pattern and location, which may reflect a general breakdown in memory consolidation, with less evidence of reductions in executive processes (e.g., working memory) that facilitate visual paired associate learning and memory. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cognition following acute tryptophan depletion : Difference between first-degree relatives of bipolar disorder patients and matched healthy control volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobczak, S; Riedel, W J; Booij, I; Aan Het Rot, M; Deutz, N E P; Honig, A

    BACKGROUND: Serotonergic circuits have been proposed to mediate cognitive processes, particularly learning and memory. Cognitive impairment is often seen in bipolar disorders in relation to a possible lowered serotonergic turnover. METHODS: We investigated the effects of acute tryptophan depletion

  17. Dimensions of personality structure among patients with substance use disorders and co-occurring personality disorders: a comparison with psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Rossella; Preti, Emanuele; Vurro, Nicoletta; Madeddu, Fabio

    2014-08-01

    Although dual diagnosis has been a topic of great scientific interest for a long time, few studies have investigated the personality traits that characterize patients suffering from substance use disorders and co-occurring personality disorders through a dimensional approach. The present study aimed to evaluate structural personality profiles among dual-diagnosis inpatients to identify specific personality impairments associated with dual diagnosis. The present study involved 97 participants divided into three groups: 37 dual-diagnosis inpatients, 30 psychiatric outpatients and 30 nonclinical controls. Dimensions of personality functioning were assessed and differences between groups were tested using Kernberg's dimensional model of personality. Results showed that dual diagnosis was associated with the presence of difficulties in three main dimensions of personality functioning. Dual-diagnosis inpatients reported a poorly integrated identity with difficulties in the capacity to invest, poorly integrated moral values, and high levels of self-direct and other-direct aggression. The present study highlighted that a dimensional approach to the study of dual diagnosis may clarify the personality functioning of patients suffering from this pathological condition. The use of the dimensional approach could help to advance research on dual diagnosis, and it could have important implications on clinical treatment programs for dual-diagnosis inpatients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of health-related quality of life of children during maintenance therapy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia versus siblings and healthy children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Minakshi; Sharma, Kamlesh K; Vatsa, Manju; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2013-05-01

    Data on quality of life (QOL) specifically in maintenance therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are minimal. This study was done to assess various items listed in domains of QOL (physical, emotional, social and school health domains) of children with ALL during maintenance therapy, and compare the same with those of their siblings and other healthy children. Forty children on maintenance therapy of ALL, 40 siblings and 40 healthy children were assessed for QOL by child self-report using PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core in the local language. Means were computed and compared for each domain with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), wherein higher values reflected better QOL. Overall QOL of children with ALL in maintenance therapy (77.16 ± 10.98) was significantly poorer than that of siblings (93.56 ± 4.41) and healthy children (93.02 ± 3.76) (p fear, anger, sleeping problems) among children with ALL. In the social health domain, children with ALL reported difficulty in maintaining friendships and competing. QOL of siblings was as good as that of healthy children in physical, social and school health domains, but they had increased emotional problems such as anger and sadness. Healthy children reported significantly higher future worries and bullying than children with ALL and siblings. This study validated that the QOL of children with ALL during maintenance therapy was significantly poorer than that of siblings and healthy children. The study identified various items in each domain of QOL that were affected in these children, and thus would assist in guiding healthcare professionals to focus on these specific items so as to improve their overall QOL.

  19. Experimental approach to IGF-1 therapy in CCl4-induced acute liver damage in healthy controls and mice with partial IGF-1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Garza, Luis A; Puche, Juan E; Aguirre, Gabriel A; Muñoz, Úrsula; García-Magariño, Mariano; De la Garza, Rocío G; Castilla-Cortazar, Inma

    2017-05-04

    Cell necrosis, oxidative damage, and fibrogenesis are involved in cirrhosis development, a condition in which insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels are diminished. This study evaluates whether the exogenous administration of low doses of IGF-1 can induce hepatoprotection in acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver damage compared to healthy controls (Wt Igf +/+ ). Additionally, the impact of IGF-1 deficiency on a damaged liver was investigated in mice with a partial deficit of this hormone (Hz Igf1 +/- ). Three groups of 25 ± 5-week-old healthy male mice (Wt Igf +/+ ) were included in the protocol: untreated controls (Wt). Controls that received CCl 4 (Wt + CCl 4 ) and Wt + CCl 4 were treated subcutaneously with IGF-1 (2 µg/100 g body weight/day) for 10 days (Wt + CCl 4  + IGF1). In parallel, three IGF-1-deficient mice (Hz Igf1 +/- ) groups were studied: untreated Hz, Hz + CCl 4 , and Hz + CCl 4  + IGF-1. Microarray and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses, serum aminotransferases levels, liver histology, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed at the end of the treatment in all groups. All data represent mean ± SEM. An altered gene coding expression pattern for proteins of the extracellular matrix, fibrosis, and cellular protection were found, as compared to healthy controls, in which IGF-1 therapy normalized in the series including healthy mice. Liver histology showed that Wt + CCl 4  + IGF1 mice had less oxidative damage, fibrosis, lymphocytic infiltrate, and cellular changes when compared to the Wt + CCl 4 . Moreover, there was a correlation between MDA levels and the histological damage score (Pearson's r = 0.858). In the IGF-1-deficient mice series, similar findings were identified, denoting a much more vulnerable hepatic parenchyma. IGF1 treatment improved the biochemistry, histology, and genetic expression of pro-regenerative and cytoprotective factors in both series

  20. Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin concentrations in serum and peritoneal fluid of healthy horses and horses with acute abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peritoneal fluid (PF) analysis is a valuable diagnostic tool in equine medicine. Markers such as serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) could facilitate the diagnosis of inflammatory abdominal conditions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to (1) establish reference intervals (RI......) for SAA and Hp in serum and PF in healthy horses, (2) compare SAA and Hp concentrations between healthy horses and horses with colic, and (3) to assess the correlation between serum and PF concentrations. METHODS: Serum amyloid A and Hp concentrations were determined by automated assays in prospectively...... enrolled healthy reference horses and horses with colic. RIs were calculated, group concentrations were compared by Student's t-test, and Pearson's correlation for serum and PF concentrations were determined. RESULTS: In healthy horses (n = 62) the measurements for SAA were below the detection limit (0...

  1. Comparison of biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia in relation to healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane L.F.Z. Sanches

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: It was possible to characterize the biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with AML, as well as highlight some significant differences in these parameters when comparing with healthy children and adolescents.

  2. Absence of evidence of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related virus infection in persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and healthy controls in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Switzer William M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background XMRV, a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV-related virus, was recently identified by PCR testing in 67% of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and in 3.7% of healthy persons from the United States. To investigate the association of XMRV with CFS we tested blood specimens from 51 persons with CFS and 56 healthy persons from the US for evidence of XMRV infection by using serologic and molecular assays. Blinded PCR and serologic testing were performed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and at two additional laboratories. Results Archived blood specimens were tested from persons with CFS defined by the 1994 international research case definition and matched healthy controls from Wichita, Kansas and metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia populations. Serologic testing at CDC utilized a Western blot (WB assay that showed excellent sensitivity to MuLV and XMRV polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, and no reactivity on sera from 121 US blood donors or 26 HTLV-and HIV-infected sera. Plasma from 51 CFS cases and plasma from 53 controls were all WB negative. Additional blinded screening of the 51 cases and 53 controls at the Robert Koch Institute using an ELISA employing recombinant Gag and Env XMRV proteins identified weak seroreactivity in one CFS case and a healthy control, which was not confirmed by immunofluorescence. PCR testing at CDC employed a gag and a pol nested PCR assay with a detection threshold of 10 copies in 1 ug of human DNA. DNA specimens from 50 CFS patients and 56 controls and 41 US blood donors were all PCR-negative. Blinded testing by a second nested gag PCR assay at the Blood Systems Research Institute was also negative for DNA specimens from the 50 CFS cases and 56 controls. Conclusions We did not find any evidence of infection with XMRV in our U.S. study population of CFS patients or healthy controls by using multiple molecular and serologic assays. These data do not support an

  3. Neural and personality correlates of individual differences related to the effects of acute tryptophan depletion on future reward evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoto, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Aoyama, Shiori; Onoda, Keiichi; Munakata, Ayumi; Nomura, Michio; Tanaka, Saori C; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Doya, Kenji; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2012-01-01

    In general, humans tend to discount the value of delayed reward. An increase in the rate of discounting leads to an inability to select a delayed reward over a smaller immediate reward (reward-delay impulsivity). Although deficits in the serotonergic system are implicated in this reward-delay impulsivity, there is individual variation in response to serotonin depletion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the effects of serotonin depletion on the ability to evaluate future reward are affected by individual personality traits or brain activation. Personality traits were assessed using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Temperament and Character Inventory. The central serotonergic levels of 16 healthy volunteers were manipulated by dietary tryptophan depletion. Subjects performed a delayed reward choice task that required the continuous estimation of reward value during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Discounting rates were increased in 9 participants, but were unchanged or decreased in 7 participants in response to tryptophan depletion. Participants whose discounting rate was increased by tryptophan depletion had significantly higher neuroticism and lower self-directedness. Furthermore, tryptophan depletion differentially affected the groups in terms of hemodynamic responses to the value of predicted future reward in the right insula. These results suggest that individuals who have high neuroticism and low self-directedness as personality traits are particularly vulnerable to the effect of low serotonin on future reward evaluation accompanied by altered brain activation patterns. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Comparison of Muscle Fatigue Effects on Electromyographic Onset Latency of Trapezius Muscle in Posterior-Anterior Perturbation between Patients with Chronic Neck Pain and Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rojhani-Shirazi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fatigue process in patients with neck pain was happened more quickly than healthy persons and neck muscle fatigue increased body sway during standing, but there is less evidence about the behavior of these muscles in dynamic conditions such as external perturbation, so this study was done to investigate the effect of muscle fatigue on onset latency of upper trapezius muscle in posterior-anterior perturbation among patients with chronic neck pain and healthy individuals. Materials & Methods: In this quasi experimental and interventional study 16 patients with chronic neck pain (intervention group and 16 healthy individuals (control group were selected by simple and convenient sampling and based on inclusive and exclusive criteria. Data collection was done by using questionnaire and doing some tests and the main equipments were dynamometer, accelerometer and surface electromyography. The weight equal to 30% of maximum voluntary contraction used to produce fatigue process and 10% of body weight used to produce perturbation. Independent T test, Paired T test and Repeated ANOVA were used for data analysis. Results: There was significant difference in onset latency of upper Trapezius muscle in posterior – anterior perturbation between two groups, before (P=0.006 and after (P=0.026 fatigue. This means that the onset latency was increased in healthy individuals and decreased in patients after fatigue. Also, there was significant difference in onset latency of Trapezius muscle in posterior – anterior perturbation between before and after fatigue in patients group (P<0.001 and healthy persons group (P=0.04. Conclusion: Pain can change the onset latency of trapezius muscle and possibly it can decrease muscle activity in deep muscle and change the pattern of muscle activation. Fatigue as an exaggerated risk factor can decrease onset latency of superficial muscle in patients with chronic neck pain to stabilize the system, that it can increase

  5. The acute effects on duodenal gene expression in healthy men following consumption of a low-fat meal enriched with theobromine or fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; Boekschoten, Mark V; de Ridder, Rogier J J; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-01-26

    Increasing apoA-I synthesis may improve HDL functionality and lower CVD risk. As theobromine and fat increase fasting apoA-I concentrations, and the intestine is involved in apoA-I production, the acute effects of both were studied on duodenal gene transcription to better understand underlying mechanisms. In this crossover study, 8 healthy men received once a low fat (LF) meal, a LF meal plus theobromine (850 mg), or a high fat (HF) meal. Five hours after meal intake duodenal biopsies were taken for microarray analysis. Theobromine and HF consumption did not change duodenal apoA-I expression. Theobromine did not change gene expression related to lipid and cholesterol metabolism, whereas those related to glycogen/glucose breakdown were downregulated. HF consumption increased gene expression related to lipid and cholesterol uptake and transport, and to glucose storage, while it decreased those related to glucose uptake. Furthermore, genes related to inflammation were upregulated, but inflammation markers in plasma were not changed. In healthy men, acute theobromine and fat consumption did not change duodenal apoA-I mRNA, but inhibited expression of genes related to glucose metabolism. Furthermore, HF intake activated in the duodenum expression of genes related to lipid and cholesterol metabolism and to inflammation.

  6. Spontaneous resolution of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with acute parvovirus B19 infection and concomitant Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in an otherwise healthy adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroche, C; Scieux, C; Honderlick, P; Piette, A M; Morinet, F; Blétry, O

    2002-10-01

    Reported here is the case of a patient who spontaneously recovered from hemophagocytic syndrome associated with acute B19 infection and concomitant Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. The previously healthy 37-year-old-man was hospitalized after 10 days of high fever, arthralgia and arthritis and was determined to have hemophagocytic syndrome. Immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) capsid antigen, early antigen and parvovirus B19 (B19) were found. B19 DNA and low-level EBV DNA were detected in bone marrow, serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The patient recovered spontaneously without any treatment. Two months later anti-B19 IgG antibodies were detected, while at 9-month follow-up, anti-B19 IgM antibodies were no longer detectable and B19 DNA had disappeared from serum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous resolution of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with acute B19 infection and concomitant EBV reactivation in an otherwise healthy adult.

  7. Tele-Interpersonal Psychotherapy Acutely Reduces Depressive Symptoms in Depressed HIV-Infected Rural Persons: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Timothy G; Heckman, Bernadette D; Anderson, Timothy; Lovejoy, Travis I; Markowitz, John C; Shen, Ye; Sutton, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive rural individuals carry a 1.3-times greater risk of a depressive diagnosis than their urban counterparts. This randomized clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered interpersonal psychotherapy (tele-IPT) acutely relieved depressive symptoms in 132 HIV-infected rural persons from 28 states diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), partially remitted MDD, or dysthymic disorder. Patients were randomized to either 9 sessions of one-on-one tele-IPT (n = 70) or standard care (SC; n = 62). A series of intent-to-treat (ITT), therapy completer, and sensitivity analyses assessed changes in depressive symptoms, interpersonal problems, and social support from pre- to postintervention. Across all analyses, tele-IPT patients reported significantly lower depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems than SC controls; 22% of tele-IPT patients were categorized as a priori "responders" who reported 50% or higher reductions in depressive symptoms compared to only 4% of SC controls in ITT analyses. Brief tele-IPT acutely decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in depressed rural people living with HIV.

  8. Exenatide, a Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, Acutely Inhibits Intestinal Lipoprotein Production in Healthy Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Changting; Bandsma, Robert H. J.; Dash, Satya; Szeto, Linda; Lewis, Gary F.

    Objective-Incretin-based therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus improve plasma lipid profiles and postprandial lipemia, but their exact mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we examined the acute effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, on intestinal

  9. Acute psychomotor, memory and subjective effects of MDMA and THC co-administration over time in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G.J.H.; Van Hasselt, J.G.C.; De Kam, M.; Van Gerven, J.M.A.; Touw, D.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.

    In Western societies a considerable percentage of young people expose themselves to the combination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy') and cannabis. The aim of the present study was to assess the acute effects of co-administration of MDMA and THC (the main psychoactive compound

  10. Actual driving performance and psychomotor function in healthy subjects after acute and subchronic treatment with escitalopram, mirtazapine, and placebo: a crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingen, Marleen; Bothmer, John; Langer, Stefan; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2005-04-01

    The effects of escitalopram 10 to 20 mg/day and mirtazapine 30 to 45 mg/day on actual driving and psychomotor performance of 18 healthy subjects were determined in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, 3-way crossover trial. Each treatment period lasted for 15 days and was separated from the next period by a washout period of at least 13 days. Subjects received an evening dose of escitalopram 10 mg, mirtazapine 30 mg, or placebo from days 1 to 7 and an evening dose of escitalopram 20 mg, mirtazapine 45 mg, or placebo from days 8 to 15. On days 2, 9, and 16, reflecting acute period, dose increase, and steady state, respectively, the Road Tracking Test was performed. The main parameter was standard deviation of lateral position. Psychomotor performance was also assessed on days 2, 9, and 16 by laboratory computer tasks. Subjective sleep quality was measured with the Groninger Sleep Quality Scale, and mood was measured by visual analogue scales. Treatment differences were apparent during the acute treatment period, in which subjects treated with mirtazapine 30 mg performed less well on the driving test as compared to placebo. The Divided Attention Task results also revealed a significant increase in tracking error after a single dose of mirtazapine 30 mg as compared to placebo. Mirtazapine decreased feelings of alertness and contentedness. Mirtazapine did not affect performance on days 9 and 16 of treatment. Escitalopram did not affect driving, psychomotor performance, or subjective mood throughout treatment. Driving performance, as well as psychomotor functioning, was not affected by escitalopram treatment in healthy subjects. Driving performance was significantly impaired after ingestion of mirtazapine 30 mg during the acute treatment period.

  11. An acute bout of whole body passive hyperthermia increases plasma leptin, but does not alter glucose or insulin responses in obese type 2 diabetics and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Eric; Newmire, Dan E; Crandall, Craig G; Hooper, Philip L; Ben-Ezra, Vic

    2016-07-01

    Acute and chronic hyperthermic treatments in diabetic animal models repeatedly improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an acute 1h bout of hyperthermic treatment improves glucose, insulin, and leptin responses to an oral glucose challenge (OGTT) in obese type 2 diabetics and healthy humans. Nine obese (45±7.1% fat mass) type 2 diabetics (T2DM: 50.1±12y, 7.5±1.8% HbA1c) absent of insulin therapy and nine similar aged (41.1±13.7y) healthy non-obese controls (HC: 33.4±7.8% fat mass, Pwhole body passive hyperthermia treatment via head-out hot water immersion (1h resting in 39.4±0.4°C water) that increased internal temperature above baseline by ∆1.6±0.4°C or a control resting condition. Twenty-four hours post treatments, a 75g OGTT was administered to evaluate changes in plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and leptin concentrations. Hyperthermia itself did not alter area under the curve for plasma glucose, insulin, or C-peptide during the OGTT in either group. Fasting absolute and normalized (kg·fat mass) plasma leptin was significantly increased (P<0.01) only after the hyperthermic exposure by 17% in T2DM and 24% in HC groups (P<0.001) when compared to the control condition. These data indicate that an acute hyperthermic treatment does not improve glucose tolerance 24h post treatment in moderate metabolic controlled obese T2DM or HC individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A single session of hatha yoga improves stress reactivity and recovery after an acute psychological stress task-A counterbalanced, randomized-crossover trial in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenutti, Mateus J; Alves, Eduardo da Sliva; Michael, Scott; Ding, Ding; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Edwards, Kate M

    2017-12-01

    Yoga is promoted as an anti-stress activity, however, little is known about the mechanisms through which it acts. The present study investigated the acute effects of a hatha yoga session, displayed on a video, on the response to and recovery from an acute psychological stressor. Twenty-four healthy young adults took part in a counterbalanced, randomized-crossover trial, with a yoga and a control condition (watching TV). Participants attended the laboratory in the afternoon on two days and each session comprised a baseline, control or yoga task, stress task and recovery. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and salivary cortisol responses were measured. State cognitive- and somatic-anxiety along with self-confidence were assessed before and after the stressor. Although no difference in the BP or HR responses to stress were found between conditions, systolic BP (p=0.047) and diastolic BP (p=0.018) recovery from stress were significantly accelerated and salivary cortisol reactivity was significantly lower (p=0.01) in the yoga condition. A yoga session also increased self-confidence (p=0.006) in preparation for the task and after completion. Moreover, self-confidence reported after the stress task was considered debilitative towards performance in the control condition, but remained facilitative in the yoga condition. Our results show that a single video-instructed session of hatha yoga was able to improve stress reactivity and recovery from an acute stress task in healthy individuals. These positive preliminary findings encourage further investigation in at-risk populations in which the magnitude of effects may be greater, and support the use of yoga for stress reactivity and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinct Trajectories of Cortisol Response to Prolonged Acute Stress Are Linked to Affective Responses and Hippocampal Gray Matter Volume in Healthy Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admon, Roee; Treadway, Michael T; Valeri, Linda; Mehta, Malavika; Douglas, Samuel; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2017-08-16

    The development of robust laboratory procedures for acute stress induction over the last decades has greatly advanced our understanding of stress responses in humans and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Nevertheless, attempts to uncover linear relationships among endocrine, neural, and affective responses to stress have generally yielded inconsistent results. Here, 79 healthy females completed a well established laboratory procedure of acute stress induction that was modified to prolong its effect. Endocrinological and subjective affect assessments revealed stress-induced increases in cortisol release and negative affect that persisted 65 and 100 min after stress onset, respectively, confirming a relatively prolonged acute stress induction. Applying latent class linear mixed modeling on individuals' patterns of cortisol responses identified three distinct trajectories of cortisol response: the hyper-response ( n = 10), moderate-response ( n = 21), and mild-response ( n = 48) groups. Notably, whereas all three groups exhibited a significant stress-induced increase in cortisol release and negative affect, the hyper-response and mild-response groups both reported more negative affect relative to the moderate-response group. Structural MRI revealed no group differences in hippocampal and amygdala volumes, yet a continuous measure of cortisol response (area under the curve) showed that high and low levels of stress-induced cortisol release were associated with less hippocampal gray matter volume compared with moderate cortisol release. Together, these results suggest that distinct trajectories of cortisol response to prolonged acute stress among healthy females may not be captured by conventional linear analyses; instead, quadratic relations may better describe links between cortisol response to stress and affective responses, as well as hippocampal structural variability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite substantial research, it is unclear whether and how

  14. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadian A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Ahmadian,1,2 Jafar Mirzaee,1 Maryam Omidbeygi,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,41Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University, 2Sadr Psychiatric Hospital, Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD.Method: Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal military personnel who were matched in terms of age and wartime experience were selected and assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire-Long Form, Beck Depression Inventory second version (BDI-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Impact of Events Scale (IES.Results: Both acute and chronic PTSD patients, when compared with normal military personnel, had higher scores for all early maladaptive schemas. Additionally, veterans suffering from chronic PTSD, as compared with veterans suffering from acute PTSD and veterans without PTSD, reported more impaired schemas related, for instance, to Self-Control, Social Isolation, and Vulnerability to Harm and Illness.Discussion: The results of the present study have significant preventative, diagnostic, clinical, research, and educational implications with respect to PTSD. Keywords: veterans, PTSD, depression, anxiety 

  15. Oxygen Mapping within Healthy and Acutely Infarcted Brain Tissue in Humans Using the NMR Relaxation of Lipids: A Proof-Of-Concept Translational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliez, Florence; Safronova, Marta M; Magat, Julie; Joudiou, Nicolas; Peeters, André P; Jordan, Bénédicte F; Gallez, Bernard; Duprez, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    The clinical applicability of brain oxygenation mapping using the MOBILE (Mapping of Oxygen By Imaging Lipids relaxation Enhancement) magnetic resonance (MR) technique was assessed in the clinical setting of normal brain and of acute cerebral ischemia as a founding proof-of-concept translational study. Changes in the oxygenation level within healthy brain tissue can be detected by analyzing the spin-lattice proton relaxation ('Global T1' combining water and lipid protons) because of the paramagnetic properties of molecular oxygen. It was hypothesized that selective measurement of the relaxation of the lipid protons ('Lipids T1') would result in enhanced sensitivity of pO2 mapping because of higher solubility of oxygen in lipids than in water, and this was demonstrated in pre-clinical models using the MOBILE technique. In the present study, 12 healthy volunteers and eight patients with acute (48-72 hours) brain infarction were examined with the same clinical 3T MR system. Both Lipids R1 (R1 = 1/T1) and Global R1 were significantly different in the infarcted area and the contralateral unaffected brain tissue, with a higher statistical significance for Lipids R1 (median difference: 0.408 s-1; pbrain tissue of stroke patients were not significantly different from the R1 values calculated in the brain tissue of healthy volunteers. The main limitations of the present prototypic version of the MOBILE sequence are the long acquisition time (4 min), hampering robustness of data in uncooperative patients, and a 2 mm slice thickness precluding accurate measurements in small infarcts because of partial volume averaging effects.

  16. Seizure is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency. We report a previously healthy boy who presented initially with seizure and cyanosis and subsequently acute hemolysis, due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) an

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin FAYYAZI; Ali KHAJEH; Hosein ESFAHANI

    2012-01-01

    Seizure is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency. We report a previously healthy boy who presented initially with seizure and cyanosis and subsequently acute hemolysis, due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) and probably secondary methemoglobinemia, following the ingestion of fava beans.

  17. Accelerometry: A feasible method to monitor physical activity during sub-acute rehabilitation of persons with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Conran; Strömbäck, Björn; Hagströmer, Maria; Conradsson, David

    2018-05-08

    To investigate the feasibility of using accelerometers to monitor physical activity in persons with stroke admitted to inpatient rehabilitation. Longitudinal observational study. Persons with stroke admitted to a specialized rehabilitation centre for sub-acute rehabilitation were recruited between August and December 2016. Volume and intensity of physical activity were assessed with accelerometers throughout the rehabilitation period. Indicators of feasibility included processes (recruitment, protocol adherence and participants' experiences) and scientific feasibility, which assessed the accelerometers' ability to detect change in physical activity among stroke survivors who ambulate independently and those who are dependent on a mobility device. Twenty-seven out of 31 eligible individuals took part in this study, with 23 (85%) completing it. In total, 432 days of rehabilitation were monitored and valid physical activity data were obtained for 408 days (94%). There were no indications that the measurement interfered with participants' ability to participate in rehabilitation. Despite the subjects' ambulation status, the number of steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity increased significantly across the first 18 days of rehabilitation, whereas sedentary time was unchanged. This study supports the feasibility of using accelerometers to capture physical activity behaviour in survivors of stroke during inpatient rehabilitation.

  18. Depressive vulnerabilities predict depression status and trajectories of depression over 1 year in persons with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Frank; McGee, Hannah; Delaney, Mary; Motterlini, Nicola; Conroy, Ronán

    2011-01-01

    Depression is prevalent in patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We determined whether theoretical vulnerabilities for depression (interpersonal life events, reinforcing events, cognitive distortions, Type D personality) predicted depression, or depression trajectories, post-hospitalization. We followed 375 ACS patients who completed depression scales during hospital admission and at least once during three follow-up intervals over 1 year (949 observations). Questionnaires assessing vulnerabilities were completed at baseline. Logistic regression for panel/longitudinal data predicted depression status during follow-up. Latent class analysis determined depression trajectories. Multinomial logistic regression modeled the relationship between vulnerabilities and trajectories. Vulnerabilities predicted depression status over time in univariate and multivariate analysis, even when controlling for baseline depression. Proportions in each depression trajectory category were as follows: persistent (15%), subthreshold (37%), never depressed (48%). Vulnerabilities independently predicted each of these trajectories, with effect sizes significantly highest for the persistent depression group. Self-reported vulnerabilities - stressful life events, reduced reinforcing events, cognitive distortions, personality - measured during hospitalization can identify those at risk for depression post-ACS and especially those with persistent depressive episodes. Interventions should focus on these vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, Raghuram

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality) and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18–71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, me...

  20. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Health in normal healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure) and general health in normal adults. Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18–71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction and devotional ...

  1. Acute effects of exergames on cognitive function of institutionalized older persons: a single-blinded, randomized and controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; da Silva Figueiredo, Luiz Felipe; Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo de Tarso; Abud, Erick Lohan Rodrigues; Braga, Ana Elisa Mendes Montalvão; Barca, Maria Lage; Engedal, Knut; Nascimento, Osvaldo José M; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Laks, Jerson

    2017-06-01

    Improvements on balance, gait and cognition are some of the benefits of exergames. Few studies have investigated the cognitive effects of exergames in institutionalized older persons. To assess the acute effect of a single session of exergames on cognition of institutionalized older persons. Nineteen institutionalized older persons were randomly allocated to Wii (WG, n = 10, 86 ± 7 year, two males) or control groups (CG, n = 9, 86 ± 5 year, one male). The WG performed six exercises with virtual reality, whereas CG performed six exercises without virtual reality. Verbal fluency test (VFT), digit span forward and digit span backward were used to evaluate semantic memory/executive function, short-term memory and work memory, respectively, before and after exergames and Δ post- to pre-session (absolute) and Δ % (relative) were calculated. Parametric (t independent test) and nonparametric (Mann-Whitney test) statistics and effect size were applied to tests for efficacy. VFT was statistically significant within WG (-3.07, df = 9, p = 0.013). We found no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05). Effect size between groups of Δ % (median = 21 %) showed moderate effect for WG (0.63). Our data show moderate improvement of semantic memory/executive function due to exergames session. It is possible that cognitive brain areas are activated during exergames, increasing clinical response. A single session of exergames showed no significant improvement in short-term memory, working memory and semantic memory/executive function. The effect size for verbal fluency was promising, and future studies on this issue should be developed. RBR-6rytw2.

  2. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  3. Determination of muscle microcirculation of the limbs of healthy persons and patients with scleroderma by means of 133Xe clearance. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemers, U.; Poenitzsch, I.; Schneider, G.

    1984-01-01

    By means of 133 Xe muscle clearance the blood flow of the musculus tibialis anterior and the musculus opponens pollicis was determined during nonischemic work and also after 3 minutes ischemia in 53 patients with healthy vessels. Additionally 133 Xe muscle clearance of the musculus opponens pollicis after influence of heat, cold as well as arterial flow reduction. The flow values after ischemia were higher than during nonischemic work. In relation to the functional test the reactive hyperemia after 3 minutes ischemia proved to be more favorable in realization and standardization. In persons under the age of 30 little increased flow values of the musculus tibialis anterior compared to persons over 30 were determined. (author)

  4. Sparing Healthy Tissue and Increasing Tumor Dose Using Bayesian Modeling of Geometric Uncertainties for Planning Target Volume Personalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschtal, Alan; Te Marvelde, Luc; Mengersen, Kerrie; Foroudi, Farshad; Eade, Thomas; Pham, Daniel; Caine, Hannah; Kron, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop a mathematical tool that can update a patient's planning target volume (PTV) partway through a course of radiation therapy to more precisely target the tumor for the remainder of treatment and reduce dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Methods and Materials: Daily on-board imaging was used to collect large datasets of displacements for patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy for solid tumors. Bayesian statistical modeling of these geometric uncertainties was used to optimally trade off between displacement data collected from previously treated patients and the progressively accumulating data from a patient currently partway through treatment, to optimally predict future displacements for that patient. These predictions were used to update the PTV position and margin width for the remainder of treatment, such that the clinical target volume (CTV) was more precisely targeted. Results: Software simulation of dose to CTV and normal tissue for 2 real prostate displacement datasets consisting of 146 and 290 patients treated with a minimum of 30 fractions each showed that re-evaluating the PTV position and margin width after 8 treatment fractions reduced healthy tissue dose by 19% and 17%, respectively, while maintaining CTV dose. Conclusion: Incorporating patient-specific displacement patterns from early in a course of treatment allows PTV adaptation for the remainder of treatment. This substantially reduces the dose to healthy tissues and thus can reduce radiation therapy–induced toxicities, improving patient outcomes

  5. Sparing Healthy Tissue and Increasing Tumor Dose Using Bayesian Modeling of Geometric Uncertainties for Planning Target Volume Personalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschtal, Alan, E-mail: Alan.Herschtal@petermac.org [Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Te Marvelde, Luc [Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Mengersen, Kerrie [School of Mathematical Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Eade, Thomas [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology Department, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, Sydney (Australia); Northern Clinical School, University of Sydney (Australia); Pham, Daniel [Department of Radiation Therapy, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Caine, Hannah [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology Department, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, Sydney (Australia); Kron, Tomas [The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-06-01

    Objective: To develop a mathematical tool that can update a patient's planning target volume (PTV) partway through a course of radiation therapy to more precisely target the tumor for the remainder of treatment and reduce dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Methods and Materials: Daily on-board imaging was used to collect large datasets of displacements for patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy for solid tumors. Bayesian statistical modeling of these geometric uncertainties was used to optimally trade off between displacement data collected from previously treated patients and the progressively accumulating data from a patient currently partway through treatment, to optimally predict future displacements for that patient. These predictions were used to update the PTV position and margin width for the remainder of treatment, such that the clinical target volume (CTV) was more precisely targeted. Results: Software simulation of dose to CTV and normal tissue for 2 real prostate displacement datasets consisting of 146 and 290 patients treated with a minimum of 30 fractions each showed that re-evaluating the PTV position and margin width after 8 treatment fractions reduced healthy tissue dose by 19% and 17%, respectively, while maintaining CTV dose. Conclusion: Incorporating patient-specific displacement patterns from early in a course of treatment allows PTV adaptation for the remainder of treatment. This substantially reduces the dose to healthy tissues and thus can reduce radiation therapy–induced toxicities, improving patient outcomes.

  6. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors in Older Persons with Acute Myocardial Infarction: Evidence for an Age–Statin Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, JoAnne Micale; Rathore, Saif S.; Galusha, Deron; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Havranek, Edward P.; Radford, Martha J.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To characterize the relationship between hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and outcomes in older persons with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN Observational study. SETTING Acute care hospitals in the United States from April 1998 to June 2001. PARTICIPANTS Medicare patients aged 65 and older with a principal discharge diagnosis of AMI (N = 65,020) who did and did not receive a discharge prescription for statins. MEASUREMENTS The primary outcome of interest was all-cause mortality at 3 years after discharge. RESULTS Of 23,013 patients with AMI assessed, 5,513 (24.0%) were receiving a statin at discharge. Nearly 40% of eligible patients (n =8,452) were aged 80 and older, of whom 1,310 (15.5%) were receiving a statin at discharge. In a multivariable model taking into account demographic, clinical, physician and hospital characteristics, and propensity score, discharge statin therapy was associated with significantly lower 3-year mortality (hazard ratio (HR) =0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI) =0.83–0.96)). In an analysis stratified by age, discharge statins were associated with lower mortality in patients younger than 80 (HR =0.84, 95% CI =0.76–0.92) but not in those aged 80 and older (HR =0.97, 95% CI =0.87–1.09). CONCLUSION Statin therapy is associated with lower mortality in older patients with AMI younger than 80 but not in those aged 80 and older, as a group. This finding questions whether statin efficacy data in younger patients can be broadly applied to the very old and indicates the need for further study of this group. PMID:16551308

  7. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, Raghuram

    2009-01-01

    To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality) and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The comparison group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practices for one hour daily, six days a week, for eight weeks. Guna (personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered "The 'Gita" Inventory of Personality" (GIN) to assess Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. Self esteem in terms of competency (COM), global self esteem (GSE), moral and self esteem (MSE), social esteem (SET), family self esteem (FSE), body and physical appearance (BPA), and the lie scale (LIS) were assessed using the self esteem questionnaire (SEQ). The baseline scores for all domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05 independent samples t-test). There were significant pre-post improvements in all domains in both groups (P self esteem in the Y group is greater than for the PE group in three out of seven domains. This randomized controlled study has shown the influence of Yoga on Gunas and self esteem in comparison to physical exercise.

  8. Effects of Syntactic Complexity, Semantic Reversibility, and Explicitness on Discourse Comprehension in Persons with Aphasia and in Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Joshua; Hoover, Elizabeth; Waters, Gloria; Kiran, Swathi; Caplan, David; Berardino, Alex; Sandberg, Chaleece

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Prior studies of discourse comprehension have concluded that the deficits of persons with aphasia (PWA) in syntactically based comprehension of sentences in isolation are not predictive of deficits in comprehension of sentences in discourse (Brookshire & Nicholas, 1984; Caplan & Evans, 1990). However, these studies used semantically…

  9. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The comparison group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practices for one hour daily, six days a week, for eight weeks. Guna (personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered "The ′Gita" Inventory of Personality" (GIN to assess Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas . Self esteem in terms of competency (COM, global self esteem (GSE, moral and self esteem (MSE, social esteem (SET, family self esteem (FSE, body and physical appearance (BPA, and the lie scale (LIS were assessed using the self esteem questionnaire (SEQ. Results: The baseline scores for all domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05 independent samples t-test. There were significant pre-post improvements in all domains in both groups ( P < 0.001 paired t-test. The number of persons who showed improvement in Sattva and decrease in Tamas was significant in the Y but not in the PE group (McNemar test. The effect size for self esteem in the Y group is greater than for the PE group in three out of seven domains. Conclusions: This randomized controlled study has shown the influence of Yoga on Gunas and self esteem in comparison to physical exercise.

  10. Prebiotics in healthy infants and children for prevention of acute infectious diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Küllenberg, Daniela; Antes, Gerd; Decsi, Tamás; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2014-08-01

    Prebiotics, defined as nondigestible dietary ingredients resistant to gastric acidity and fermented by the intestinal flora, are used to positively influence the composition of intestinal flora, thereby promoting health benefits. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of prebiotics in the prevention of acute infectious diseases in children. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Ovid Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library's Central databases. Finally, five randomized controlled trials, all of them investigating infants and children 0-24 months of age, were included in the review. Pooled estimates from three studies revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of infectious episodes requiring antibiotic therapy in the prebiotic group as compared with the placebo group (rate ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.77). Studies available indicate that prebiotics may also be effective in decreasing the rate of overall infections in infants and children 0-24 months of age. Further studies in the age group 3-18 years are required to determine whether prebiotics can be considered for the prevention of acute infectious diseases in the older pediatric population. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. Postprandial Gastrointestinal Function Differs after Acute Administration of Sourdough Compared with Brewer's Yeast Bakery Products in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Barbara; Nicolai, Emanuele; Genovese, Daniela; Verlezza, Viviana; La Sala, Carmine N; Aiello, Marco; Inglese, Marianna; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Rosa, Tiziana; Schiatti, Alfio; Mondelli, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo; Cuomo, Rosario

    2018-02-01

    Europeans consume large quantities of bakery products, although these are known as one of the food categories that potentially leads to postprandial symptoms (such as fullness and bloating). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sourdough baked goods on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal fermentation and symptoms in healthy people. In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 2 sourdough croissants (SCs) or 2 brewer's yeast croissants (BCs) were served as single meals to 17 healthy adults [9 women; age range: 18-40 y; body mass index range (in kg/m2): 18-24]. Gastric volume (GV) was evaluated by magnetic resonance to calculate gastric-emptying rate in the 3-h interval after croissant ingestion. A hydrogen breath test was performed to measure hydrogen production after SC and BC ingestion. Palatability and postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms (discomfort, nausea, fullness, and bloating) over a 4-h period after the meal were evaluated. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the overall effects on all variables tested. The total GV AUC was reduced by 11% during the 3 h after the consumption of SCs compared with BCs (P = 0.02). Hydrogen production during the 4-h interval after ingestion of SCs was 30% lower than after BCs (P = 0.03). SCs were rated as being >2 times as palatable as BCs (P bakery products could promote better postprandial gastrointestinal function in healthy adults and be more acceptable than those prepared with brewer's yeast. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03207516.

  12. Acute Effects of Exercise Mode on Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflection in Healthy Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris R. Pierce

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis quantified the effect of acute exercise mode on arterial stiffness and wave reflection measures including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV, augmentation index (AIx, and heart rate corrected AIx (AIx75.Methods: Using standardized terms, database searches from inception until 2017 identified 45 studies. Eligible studies included acute aerobic and/or resistance exercise in healthy adults, pre- and post-intervention measurements or change values, and described their study design. Data from included studies were analyzed and reported in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and PRISMA guidelines. Meta-analytical data were reported via forest plots using absolute differences with 95% confidence intervals with the random effects model accounting for between-study heterogeneity. Reporting bias was assessed via funnel plots and, individual studies were evaluated for bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. A modified PEDro Scale was applied to appraise methodological concerns inherent to included studies.Results: Acute aerobic exercise failed to change cf-PWV (mean difference: 0.00 ms−1 [95% confidence interval: −0.11, 0.11], p = 0.96, significantly reduced AIx (−4.54% [−7.05, −2.04], p = 0.0004 and significantly increased AIx75 (3.58% [0.56, 6.61], p = 0.02. Contrastingly, acute resistance exercise significantly increased cf-PWV (0.42 ms−1 [0.17, 0.66], p = 0.0008, did not change AIx (1.63% [−3.83, 7.09], p = 0.56, and significantly increased AIx75 (15.02% [8.71, 21.33], p < 0.00001. Significant heterogeneity was evident within all comparisons except cf-PWV following resistance exercise, and several methodological concerns including low applicability of exercise protocols and lack of control intervention were identified.Conclusions: Distinct arterial stiffness and wave reflection responses were identified

  13. High-dose inhaled salbutamol has no acute effects on aerobic capacity or oxygen uptake kinetics in healthy trained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, J; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Jansen, T

    2012-01-01

    enrolled nine healthy well-trained men in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study. Subjects were randomized to inhalation of 40 puffs of 0.2 mg salbutamol or two placebo tablets and performed an incremental test to exhaustion and three submaximal tests at 75% of peak power to determine...... oxygen uptake kinetics. During the incremental test, there were no effects of inhaled salbutamol on VO(2max) in absolute or relative terms, and no effect on peak power and lactate threshold. During the submaximal test, we found no effects on the time constant, time delay, the mean response time or O(2...

  14. Microwaves from GSM mobile telephones affect 53BP1 and gamma-H2AX foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovà, Eva; Hillert, Lena; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Belyaev, Igor Y

    2005-09-01

    The data on biologic effects of nonthermal microwaves (MWs) from mobile telephones are diverse, and these effects are presently ignored by safety standards of the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the present study, we investigated effects of MWs of Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) at different carrier frequencies on human lymphocytes from healthy persons and from persons reporting hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). We measured the changes in chromatin conformation, which are indicative of stress response and genotoxic effects, by the method of anomalous viscosity time dependence, and we analyzed tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) and phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which have been shown to colocalize in distinct foci with DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), using immunofluorescence confocal laser microscopy. We found that MWs from GSM mobile telephones affect chromatin conformation and 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci similar to heat shock. For the first time, we report here that effects of MWs from mobile telephones on human lymphocytes are dependent on carrier frequency. On average, the same response was observed in lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy subjects.

  15. Calidad de vida y hábitos saludables en la alimentación de personas mayores (Quality of life and healthy food habits of elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vicente Amador Muñoz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo realiza un estudio en el que se recogen los procesos más relevantes para conseguir una buena calidad de vida en las personas mayores. Principalmente se centra la relación entre el desarrollo de actividad física y la buena alimentación lograr  un envejecimiento lo más satisfactorio y saludable. Se concluye plantándose la necesidad de una educación centrada en el aprendizaje de hábitos saludables en la alimentación de las personas mayores a con el fin de mantener un estado nutricional adecuado para aumentar la longevidad y para mejorar la calidad de vida.Abstract: The present article realizes a study in which the most relevant processes are gathered to obtain a good quality of life in the major persons. Principally it centres on the relation between the development of physical activity and the good supply an aging achieves the most satisfactory and healthy thing. He concludes reaching the need of an education centred on the learning of healthy habits the supply of the major persons to in order to keep a nutritional condition adapted to increase the longevity and to improve the quality of life.

  16. Snoring habits among healthy persons attending a tertiary care center in Chittagong, Bangladesh: A questionnaire-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Sanker Roy Biswas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Snoring is a common health condition which is unexplored in the context of Bangladesh. Hence, the objective of the present study is to find out the frequency of snoring among the healthy Bangladeshi people attending tertiary care center in Chittagong using a questionnaire. Methods: It was a single center, cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Internal Medicine of a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh among 119 apparently healthy adults who were the attendants of patients. A “Snore Survey” questionnaire adopted from an Indian study which was based on Berlin questionnaire was used. Results: With a 88.1% valid response rate, present study included 63 (52.94% male and 56 (47.06% female. Among all, 47.9% of (57 individuals were <30 years of age. Majority (82.4% were recruited from urban locality. Frequency of snoring was 28 (23.5% of total individuals. Nearly 33.3% of males and 12.5% of females were snorers. The frequency of snoring ranged from daily (25.0% to monthly (28.6% episodes. Some had very loud (25.0% sound during sleep, and others had variable loudness. Male snorers were significantly taller, weighed more and had broader neck circumference than female (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Snoring is not an uncommon medical condition among healthy young people in Bangladesh. Considering the population of Bangladesh, the sample size is very small and a large scale study would certainly help create awareness among the patients as well as healthcare professionals about this neglected but very significant health problem.

  17. Acute Consumption of Bordo Grape Juice and Wine Improves Serum Antioxidant Status in Healthy Individuals and Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neuron-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Cristiane; Franco, Fernanda Wouters; Machado, Eduarda da Rosa; Soquetta, Marcela Bromberger; Quatrin, Andréia; Ramos, Vitor de Miranda; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Sautter, Cláudia Kaehler; Penna, Neidi Garcia

    2018-01-01

    Few studies investigated the biological effects of American grape cultivars. We investigated the metabolic response after acute consumption of grape juice or wine from Bordo grapes ( Vitis labrusca ) in a placebo-controlled crossover study with fifteen healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected 1 hour after the intake of 100 mL of water, juice, or wine to measure TBARS, ABTS, FRAP, glucose, and uric acid levels. To evaluate differences in cellular response, intracellular reactive species production (DCFH-DA) and metabolic mitochondrial viability (MTT) were assessed after exposure of human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y) to juice or wine. Glycemia was reduced after juice or wine consumption, whereas blood levels of uric acid were reduced after juice consumption but increased after wine consumption. Juice and wine consumption reduced plasma lipid peroxidation and increased plasma antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays). Furthermore, juice inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular production of reactive species (RS) and increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, wine (dealcoholized) exhibited a per se effect by inducing the production of RS and reducing cell viability. These results indicate a positive impact of acute consumption of Bordo juice and wine on human oxidative status, whereas only juice had protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.

  18. The acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa flavanols on mood, cognitive and cardiovascular health in young healthy adults: A randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Amy Massee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa supplementation has been associated with benefits to cardiovascular health. However, cocoa’s effects on cognition are less clear. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial (n=40, age M= 24.13 years, SD = 4.47 years was conducted to investigate the effects of both acute (same-day and sub-chronic (daily for four-weeks 250mg cocoa supplementation on mood and mental fatigue, cognitive performance and cardiovascular functioning in young, healthy adults. Assessment involved repeated 10-minute cycles of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB encompassing two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Sevens, a Rapid Visual Information Processing task, and a mental fatigue scale over the course of half an hour. The Swinburne University Computerised Cognitive Assessment Battery (SUCCAB was also completed to evaluate cognition. Cardiovascular function included measuring both peripheral and central blood pressure and cerebral blood flow. At the acute time point, consumption of cocoa significantly improved self-reported mental fatigue and performance on the Serial Sevens task in cycle one of the CDB. No other significant effects were found. This trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: ACTRN12613000626763. Accessible via http://www.anzctr.org.au/TrialSearch.aspx?searchTxt=ACTRN126130006 26763&ddlSearch=Registered

  19. Acute Consumption of Bordo Grape Juice and Wine Improves Serum Antioxidant Status in Healthy Individuals and Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neuron-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Copetti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies investigated the biological effects of American grape cultivars. We investigated the metabolic response after acute consumption of grape juice or wine from Bordo grapes (Vitis labrusca in a placebo-controlled crossover study with fifteen healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected 1 hour after the intake of 100 mL of water, juice, or wine to measure TBARS, ABTS, FRAP, glucose, and uric acid levels. To evaluate differences in cellular response, intracellular reactive species production (DCFH-DA and metabolic mitochondrial viability (MTT were assessed after exposure of human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y to juice or wine. Glycemia was reduced after juice or wine consumption, whereas blood levels of uric acid were reduced after juice consumption but increased after wine consumption. Juice and wine consumption reduced plasma lipid peroxidation and increased plasma antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays. Furthermore, juice inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular production of reactive species (RS and increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, wine (dealcoholized exhibited a per se effect by inducing the production of RS and reducing cell viability. These results indicate a positive impact of acute consumption of Bordo juice and wine on human oxidative status, whereas only juice had protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.

  20. The acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa flavanols on mood, cognitive and cardiovascular health in young healthy adults: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massee, Laura A; Ried, Karin; Pase, Matthew; Travica, Nikolaj; Yoganathan, Jaesshanth; Scholey, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Kennedy, Greg; Sali, Avni; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa supplementation has been associated with benefits to cardiovascular health. However, cocoa's effects on cognition are less clear. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial (n = 40, age M = 24.13 years, SD = 4.47 years) was conducted to investigate the effects of both acute (same-day) and sub-chronic (daily for four-weeks) 250 mg cocoa supplementation on mood and mental fatigue, cognitive performance and cardiovascular functioning in young, healthy adults. Assessment involved repeated 10-min cycles of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB) encompassing two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing task, and a mental fatigue scale over the course of half an hour. The Swinburne University Computerized Cognitive Assessment Battery (SUCCAB) was also completed to evaluate cognition. Cardiovascular function included measuring both peripheral and central blood pressure and cerebral blood flow. At the acute time point, consumption of cocoa significantly improved self-reported mental fatigue and performance on the Serial Sevens task in cycle one of the CDB. No other significant effects were found. This trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: ACTRN12613000626763). Accessible via http://www.anzctr.org.au/TrialSearch.aspx?searchTxt=ACTRN12613000626763&ddlSearch=Registered.

  1. Acute, food-induced moderate elevation of plasma uric acid protects against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress and increase in arterial stiffness in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Jonatan; Modun, Darko; Budimir, Danijela; Sutlovic, Davorka; Salamunic, Ilza; Zaja, Ivan; Boban, Mladen

    2009-11-01

    We examined the effects of acute, food-induced moderate increase of plasma uric acid (UA) on arterial stiffness and markers of oxidative damage in plasma in healthy males exposed to 100% normobaric oxygen. Acute elevation of plasma UA was induced by consumption of red wine, combination of ethanol and glycerol, or fructose. By using these beverages we were able to separate the effects of UA, wine polyphenols and ethanol. Water was used as a control beverage. Ten males randomly consumed test beverages in a cross-over design over the period of 4 weeks, one beverage per week. They breathed 100% O(2) between 60(th) and 90(th)min of the 4-h study protocol. Pulse wave augmentation index (AIx) at brachial and radial arteries, plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) assessed by xylenol orange method, UA and blood ethanol concentrations were determined before and 60, 90, 120, 150 and 240 min after beverage consumption. Consumption of the beverages did not affect the AIx, TBARS or LOOH values during 60 min before exposure to hyperoxia, while AOC and plasma UA increased except in the water group. Significant increase of AIx, plasma TBARS and LOOH, which occurred during 30 min of hyperoxia in the water group, was largely prevented in the groups that consumed red wine, glycerol+ethanol or fructose. In contrast to chronic hyperuricemia, generally considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome, acute increase of UA acts protectively against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress and related increase of arterial stiffness in large peripheral arteries.

  2. Acute Consumption of Resistant Starch Reduces Food Intake but Has No Effect on Appetite Ratings in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Servin-Cruz, Magda Z; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Araiza-Saldaña, Claudia I; Nolasco-Coleman, Ana M; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies have shown the benefits of native banana starch (NBS) supplementation in improving glucose metabolism and reducing body weight (BW) in humans. However, the effect of this starch on appetite regulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of NBS rich resistant starch on subjective measurements of appetite, energy intake, and appetite hormones in healthy subjects. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were also assessed. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy young subjects consumed a beverage containing either 40 g of NBS or 40 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were estimated using visual analogue scales (VAS) and satiety hormone responses. At the end of the intervention, participants were provided with a pre-weighed ad libitum homogeneous test meal. After a washout period of 1 week, subjects received the alternative treatment. NBS supplementation induced a reduction in food intake, glucose area under the curve (AUC)-180 min, and insulin AUC-180 min. However, there was no associated effect on the subjective appetite ratings or gut hormones. NBS supplementation may help to reduce meal size and control BW.

  3. Reflexology has an acute (immediate) haemodynamic effect in healthy volunteers: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jenny; Thomson, Patricia; Lauder, William; Howie, Kate; Leslie, Stephen J

    2012-11-01

    Reflexologists claim that massage to specific points of the feet increases blood supply to internal organs. This study measured changes in cardiovascular parameters in subjects receiving reflexology to areas of their feet thought to correspond to the heart (intervention) compared with other areas which are not (control). 16 reflexology-naive healthy volunteers received an active and control reflexology treatment in an RCT, double-blind repeated measures study. 'Beat-to-beat' continuous measurement of selected cardiovascular parameters, State Anxiety Inventory. Cardiac index decreased significantly in the intervention group during left foot treatment (LFT) (baseline mean 2.6; standard deviation (SD) 0.75; 95% CI ± 0.38 vs. LFT mean 2.45; SD 0.68; CI 0.35), effect size (p = 0.035, omega squared effect (w2) = 0.002; w = 0.045). Reflexology massage applied to the upper part of the left foot may have a modest specific effect on the cardiac index of healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic, endocrine and appetite-related responses to acute and daily milk snack consumption in healthy, adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benjamin P; Stevenson, Emma J; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2017-01-01

    Comprising of two experiments, this study assessed the metabolic, endocrine and appetite-related responses to acute and chronic milk consumption in adolescent males (15-18 y). Eleven adolescents [mean ± SD age: 16.5 ± 0.9 y; BMI: 23.3 ± 3.3 kg/m 2 ] participated in the acute experiment and completed two laboratory visits (milk vs. fruit-juice) in a randomized crossover design, separated by 7-d. Seventeen adolescents [age: 16.1 ± 0.9 y; BMI: 21.8 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ] completed the chronic experiment. For the chronic experiment, a parallel design with two groups was used. Participants were randomly allocated and consumed milk (n = 9) or fruit-juice (n = 8) for 28-d, completing laboratory visits on the first (baseline, day-0) and last day (follow-up, day-28) of the intervention phase. On laboratory visits (for both experiments), measures of appetite, metabolism and endocrine responses were assessed at regular intervals. In addition, eating behavior was quantified by ad libitum assessment under laboratory conditions and in the free-living environment by weighed food record. Acute milk intake stimulated glucagon (P = 0.027 [16.8 pg mL; 95% CI: 2.4, 31.3]) and reduced ad libitum energy intake relative to fruit-juice (P = 0.048 [-651.3 kJ; 95% CI: -1294.1, -8.6]), but was comparable in the free-living environment. Chronic milk intake reduced free-living energy intake at the follow-up visit compared to baseline (P = 0.013 [-1910.9 kJ; 95% CI: -554.6, -3267.2]), whereas the opposite was apparent for fruit-juice. Relative to baseline, chronic milk intake increased the insulin response to both breakfast (P = 0.031) and mid-morning milk consumption (P = 0.050) whilst attenuating blood glucose (P = 0.025). Together, these findings suggest milk consumption impacts favorably on eating behavior in adolescent males, potentially through integrated endocrine responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute effects of a single warm-water bath on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in healthy men: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimodozono, Megumi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Ninomiya, Koji; Miyata, Ryuji; Ogata, Atsuko; Etoh, Seiji; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2012-09-01

    To preliminarily assess the acute effects of a single warm -water bath (WWB) on serum adipokine activity, we measured serum adiponectin, leptin and other metabolic profiles before, immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB in seven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 39.7 ± 6.0 years; mean body mass index, 21.6 ± 1.8 kg/m2). The subjects were immersed in tap water at 41°C for 10 minutes. Two weeks later, the same subjects underwent a single WWB with a bath additive that included inorganic salts and carbon dioxide (WWB with ISCO2) by the same protocol as for the first WWB. Leptin levels significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water and ISCO2 (both P hemoglobin and hematocrit significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water or ISCO2 (all P < 0.05), but they all returned to the baseline levels 30 minutes after bathing under both conditions. The sublingual temperature rose significantly after 10 minutes of WWB with tap water (0.96 ± 0.16°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01) and after the same duration of WWB with ISCO2 (1.24 ± 0.34°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a single WWB at 41°C for 10 minutes may modulate leptin and adiponectin profiles in healthy men.

  6. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Health in normal healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure) and general health in normal adults. Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts) for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI) which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled), Rajas (violent and uncontrolled) and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled). The general health status (total health), which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS), anxiety and insomnia (AI), social dysfunction (SF) and severe depression (SP), was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05, independent samples t test). Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test). SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test). There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than in Yoga and Tamas reduced in PE. The general health

  7. Comparison of personality characteristics in Parkinson disease patients with and without impulse control disorders and in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnikova, Katerina; Obereigneru, Radko; Kanovsky, Petr; Prasko, Jan

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to assess personality characteristics in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with and without impulse control disorders (ICD). We tested patients and controls with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales that have expected high sensitivity to apparent addictive behavior. We recorded mean disease duration and mean levodopa dose in the PD groups. Of the 46 PD patients, 13 had ICD: hypersexuality, binge eating, or dopamine dysregulation. The PD patients with ICD had a longer duration of disease (11 vs. 5 y) and were taking higher doses of levodopa (900 vs. 500 mg/d). They scored above the pathologic threshold in 4 domains of the MMPI-2 Clinical Scales and in 8 Clinical Subscales and Content Scales. The most significant abnormality was Alienation-Self and Others. ICDs in the general population have similarities to disorders of substance addiction. In PD patients, some personality profiles could play a role in development of ICDs or dopamine dysregulation syndrome. The MMPI-2 may be a useful test for PD patients in general, and for detecting ICD in particular.

  8. [Effect of G-CSF in vitro Stimulation on Distribution of Peripheral Lymphocyte Subsets in the Healthy Persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sha-Sha; Fang, Shu; Zhu, Cheng-Ying; Wang, Li-Li; Gao, Chun-Ji

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in vitro stimulation on the distribution of lymphocyte subset in healthy human. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were collected from 8 healthy volunteers by density gradient centrifugation on Ficoll-Paque TM . In vitro 200 ng/ml G-CSF or 200 ng/ml G-CSF plus 10 µg/ml ConA directly act on PBMNCs, then the colleted cells were cultivated for 3 days. Lymphocyte subsets were stained with the corresponding fluoresce labeled antibodies and detected by flow cytometry. The levels of T cells in G-CSF group and G-CSF+ConA group were both higher than that in the control group (PCSF on T cell subsets indicated that the levels of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in G-CSF group were both significantly higher than those in control group (PCSF and control group. Compared with the control group, the level of CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells and Treg cells in G-CSF+ConA group significantly increased (PCSF receptor (G-CSFR) expression showed that G-CSFR expression on T cells in G-CSF+ConA group dramatically increased, as compared with control group (PCSF stimulation. ConA can enhance the level of T cells and induce G-CSFR expression on T cells.

  9. Effects of acute exposure to increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Sarah; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Carroll, Chad C; Katsanos, Christos S

    2015-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity. To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans. Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to an experiment where insulin was infused at 40 mU/m2/min (40U) during the second half of a 6-hour intravenous infusion of a BCAA mixture (i.e., BCAA; N = 5) to stimulate plasma glucose turnover or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (Control; N = 5). In a separate experiment, seven healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive insulin infusion at 80 mU/m2/min (80U) in association with the above BCAA infusion (N = 4) or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (N = 3). Plasma glucose turnover was measured prior to and during insulin infusion. Insulin infusion completely suppressed the endogenous glucose production (EGP) across all groups. The percent suppression of EGP was not different between Control and BCAA in either the 40U or 80U experiments (P > 0.05). Insulin infusion stimulated whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR) across all groups. However, the increase (%) in GDR was not different [median (1st quartile - 3rd quartile)] between Control and BCAA in either the 40U ([199 (167-278) vs. 186 (94-308)] or 80 U ([491 (414-548) vs. 478 (409-857)] experiments (P > 0.05). Likewise, insulin stimulated the glucose metabolic clearance in all experiments (P BCAA in either of the experiments (P > 0.05). Short-term exposure of young healthy subjects to increased plasma BCAA concentrations does not alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

  10. No Acute Effects of Cannabidiol on the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Ila M P; Guimaraes, Francisco S; Eckeli, Alan; Crippa, Ana C S; Zuardi, Antonio W; Souza, Jose D S; Hallak, Jaime E; Crippa, José A S

    2018-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a component of Cannabis sativa that has a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects in neuropsychiatric and other disorders. However, few studies have investigated the possible interference of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a clinically anxiolytic dose of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of healthy subjects in a crossover, double-blind design. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were selected and allocated to receive either CBD (300 mg) or placebo in the first night in a double-blind randomized design (one volunteer withdrew from the study). In the second night, the same procedure was performed using the substance that had not been administered in the previous occasion. CBD or placebo were administered 30 min before the start of polysomnography recordings that lasted 8 h. Cognitive and subjective measures were performed immediately after polysomnography to assess possible residual effects of CBD. The drug did not induce any significant effect ( p > 0.05). Different from anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs such as benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, acute administration of an anxiolytic dose of CBD does not seem to interfere with the sleep cycle of healthy volunteers. The present findings support the proposal that CBD do not alter normal sleep architecture. Future studies should address the effects of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of patient populations as well as in clinical trials with larger samples and chronic use of different doses of CBD. Such studies are desirable and opportune.

  11. Lower-limb hot-water immersion acutely induces beneficial hemodynamic and cardiovascular responses in peripheral arterial disease and healthy, elderly controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kate N; van Rij, André M; Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D

    2017-03-01

    Passive heat induces beneficial perfusion profiles, provides substantive cardiovascular strain, and reduces blood pressure, thereby holding potential for healthy and cardiovascular disease populations. The aim of this study was to assess acute responses to passive heat via lower-limb, hot-water immersion in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy, elderly controls. Eleven patients with PAD (age 71 ± 6 yr, 7 male, 4 female) and 10 controls (age 72 ± 7 yr, 8 male, 2 female) underwent hot-water immersion (30-min waist-level immersion in 42.1 ± 0.6°C water). Before, during, and following immersion, brachial and popliteal artery diameter, blood flow, and shear stress were assessed using duplex ultrasound. Lower-limb perfusion was measured also using venous occlusion plethysmography and near-infrared spectroscopy. During immersion, shear rate increased ( P Lower-limb blood flow increased significantly in both groups, as measured from duplex ultrasound (>200%), plethysmography (>100%), and spectroscopy, while central and peripheral pulse-wave velocity decreased in both groups. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by 22 ± 9 mmHg (main effect P lower 3 h afterward. In PAD, popliteal shear profiles and claudication both compared favorably with those measured immediately following symptom-limited walking. A 30-min hot-water immersion is a practical means of delivering heat therapy to PAD patients and healthy, elderly individuals to induce appreciable systemic (chronotropic and blood pressure lowering) and hemodynamic (upper and lower-limb perfusion and shear rate increases) responses. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Cardiac MRI. Estimation of changes in normalized myocardial gadolinium accumulation over time after contrast injection in patients with acute myocarditis and healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuckmann, F.; Buhr, C.; Maderwald, S.; Bruder, O.; Schlosser, T.; Nassenstein, K.; Erbel, R.; Barkhausen, J.

    2011-01-01

    An increased normalized gadolinium accumulation (NGA) in the myocardium during early washout has been used for the diagnosis of acute myocarditis (AM). Due to the fact that the pharmacokinetics of contrast agents are complex, time-related changes in NGA after contrast injection are likely. Because knowledge about time-related changes of NGA may improve the diagnostic accuracy of MR, our study aimed to estimate the time course of NGA after contrast injection in patients as well as in healthy volunteers. An ECG-triggered inversion recovery SSFP sequence with incrementally increasing inversion times was repetitively acquired over the 15 minutes after injection of 0.2 Gd-DTPA per kg body weight in a 4-chamber view in 15 patients with AM and 20 volunteers. The T 1relaxation times and the longitudinal relaxation rates (R1) of the myocardium and skeletal musculature were calculated for each point in time after contrast injection. The time course of NGA was estimated based on the linear relationship between R 1 and tissue Gd concentration. NGA decreased over time in the form of a negative power function in patients with AM and in healthy controls. NGA in AM tended to be higher than in controls (p > 0.05). NGA rapidly changes after contrast injection, which must be considered when measuring NGA. Although we observed a trend towards higher NGA values in patients with AM with a maximum difference one minute after contrast injection, NGA did not allow us to differentiate patients with AM from healthy volunteers, because the observed differences did not reach a level of significance. (orig.)

  13. Effects of acute exposure to increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in healthy young subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Everman

    Full Text Available Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity.To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans.Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to an experiment where insulin was infused at 40 mU/m2/min (40U during the second half of a 6-hour intravenous infusion of a BCAA mixture (i.e., BCAA; N = 5 to stimulate plasma glucose turnover or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (Control; N = 5. In a separate experiment, seven healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive insulin infusion at 80 mU/m2/min (80U in association with the above BCAA infusion (N = 4 or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (N = 3. Plasma glucose turnover was measured prior to and during insulin infusion.Insulin infusion completely suppressed the endogenous glucose production (EGP across all groups. The percent suppression of EGP was not different between Control and BCAA in either the 40U or 80U experiments (P > 0.05. Insulin infusion stimulated whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR across all groups. However, the increase (% in GDR was not different [median (1st quartile - 3rd quartile] between Control and BCAA in either the 40U ([199 (167-278 vs. 186 (94-308] or 80 U ([491 (414-548 vs. 478 (409-857] experiments (P > 0.05. Likewise, insulin stimulated the glucose metabolic clearance in all experiments (P 0.05.Short-term exposure of young healthy subjects to increased plasma BCAA concentrations does not alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

  14. No Acute Effects of Cannabidiol on the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila M. P. Linares

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cannabidiol (CBD is a component of Cannabis sativa that has a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects in neuropsychiatric and other disorders. However, few studies have investigated the possible interference of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a clinically anxiolytic dose of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of healthy subjects in a crossover, double-blind design. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were selected and allocated to receive either CBD (300 mg or placebo in the first night in a double-blind randomized design (one volunteer withdrew from the study. In the second night, the same procedure was performed using the substance that had not been administered in the previous occasion. CBD or placebo were administered 30 min before the start of polysomnography recordings that lasted 8 h. Cognitive and subjective measures were performed immediately after polysomnography to assess possible residual effects of CBD. The drug did not induce any significant effect (p > 0.05. Different from anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs such as benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, acute administration of an anxiolytic dose of CBD does not seem to interfere with the sleep cycle of healthy volunteers. The present findings support the proposal that CBD do not alter normal sleep architecture. Future studies should address the effects of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of patient populations as well as in clinical trials with larger samples and chronic use of different doses of CBD. Such studies are desirable and opportune.

  15. Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N-Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Qin Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Benzophenone (BP and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs. There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia Magana, and Brachydanio rerio were tested and the ecotoxicological risks were evaluated. For BP, the 96-h half-maximal effective concentration (EC50 on C. vulgaris was 6.86 mg/L; the 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50 on D. magana was 7.63 mg/L; the 96-h LC50 on B. rerio was 14.73 mg/L. For DEET, those were 270.72 mg/L, 40.74 mg/L, and 109.67 mg/L, respectively. The mixture toxicity of BP and DEET, on C. vulgaris, D. magana, and B. rerio all showed an additive effect. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs for BP and DEET by assessment factor (AF method are 0.003 mg/L and 0.407 mg/L, respectively. Both are lower than the concentrations detected from environment at present, verifying that BP and DEET are low-risk chemicals to the environment.

  16. STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions): application to acutely ill elderly patients and comparison with Beers' criteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Paul

    2012-02-03

    Introduction: STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons\\' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions) is a new, systems-defined medicine review tool. We compared the performance of STOPP to that of established Beers\\' criteria in detecting potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) and related adverse drug events (ADEs) in older patients presenting for hospital admission. METHODS: we prospectively studied 715 consecutive acute admissions to a university teaching hospital. Diagnoses, reason for admission and concurrent medications were recorded. STOPP and Beers\\' criteria were applied. PIMs with clear causal connection or contribution to the principal reason for admission were determined. RESULTS: median patient age (interquartile range) was 77 (72-82) years. Median number of prescription medicines was 6 (range 0-21). STOPP identified 336 PIMs affecting 247 patients (35%), of whom one-third (n = 82) presented with an associated ADE. Beers\\' criteria identified 226 PIMs affecting 177 patients (25%), of whom 43 presented with an associated ADE. STOPP-related PIMs contributed to 11.5% of all admissions. Beers\\' criteria-related PIMs contributed to significantly fewer admissions (6%). CONCLUSION: STOPP criteria identified a significantly higher proportion of patients requiring hospitalisation as a result of PIM-related adverse events than Beers\\' criteria. This finding has significant implications for hospital geriatric practice.

  17. Acute moderate elevation of TNF-{alpha} does not affect systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Marie; Plomgaard, Peter; Fischer, Christian P

    2009-01-01

    -alpha infusion (rhTNF-alpha). We hypothesize that TNF-alpha increases human muscle protein breakdown and/or inhibit synthesis. Subjects and Methods: Using a randomized controlled, crossover design post-absorptive healthy young males (n=8) were studied 2 hours under basal conditions followed by 4 hours infusion...... with the phenylalanine 3-compartment model showed similar muscle synthesis, breakdown and net muscle degradation after 2 hours basal and after 4 hours Control or rhTNF-alpha infusion. Conclusion: This study is the first to show in humans that TNF-alpha does not affect systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover, when......Context: Skeletal muscle wasting has been associated with elevations in circulating inflammatory cytokines, in particular TNF-alpha. Objective: In this study, we investigated whether TNF-alpha affects human systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover, via a 4 hours recombinant human TNF...

  18. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower extremity ischaemia. Acute lower limb ischaemia is a surgical emergency. ... is ~1.5 cases per 10 000 persons per year. Acute ischaemia ... Table 2. Clinical features discriminating embolic from thrombotic ALEXI. Clinical features.

  19. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality and Health in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure and general health in normal adults. Methods : Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas , pranayama , meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled, Rajas (violent and uncontrolled and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled. The general health status (total health, which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS, anxiety and insomnia (AI, social dysfunction (SF and severe depression (SP, was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Results : Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05, independent samples t test. Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test. SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test. Conclusions : There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than

  20. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality and Health in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure and general health in normal adults. Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas , pranayama , meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled, Rajas (violent and uncontrolled and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled. The general health status (total health, which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS, anxiety and insomnia (AI, social dysfunction (SF and severe depression (SP, was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Results: Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05, independent samples t test. Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test. SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test. Conclusions: There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than in

  1. No Evidence of Racial Differences in Endothelial Function and Exercise Blood Flow in Young, Healthy Males Following Acute Antioxidant Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Rosenberg, Alexander J; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute antioxidant supplementation on endothelial function, exercise blood flow and oxidative stress biomarkers in 9 young African American compared to 10 Caucasian males (25.7±1.2 years). We hypothesized that African American males would have lower exercise blood flow and endothelial responsiveness compared to Caucasian males, and these responses would be improved following antioxidant supplementation. Ultrasonography was used to measure blood flow during handgrip exercise. Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation, and lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring levels of malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. African American males exhibited lower endothelial function than Caucasians at baseline (8.3±1.7 vs. 12.2±1.7%) and the difference was ameliorated with antioxidant supplementation (10.7±1.9% vs. 10.8±1.8%), but the interaction was not significant (p=0.10). There were no significant changes in malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances following antioxidant supplementation. There was a significant increase in brachial blood flow and forearm vascular conductance with exercise but no differences with antioxidant supplementation. There were no group differences in exercise responses and no differences with antioxidant supplementation, suggesting a lack of influence of oxidative stress during exercise in this cohort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Enhancing effects of acute psychosocial stress on priming of non-declarative memory in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Almela, Mercedes; Espín, Laura; Gómez-Amor, Jesús; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-05-01

    Social stress affects cognitive processes in general, and memory performance in particular. However, the direction of these effects has not been clearly established, as it depends on several factors. Our aim was to determine the impact of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress on short-term non-declarative memory and declarative memory performance. Fifty-two young participants (18 men, 34 women) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Implicit memory was assessed by a priming test, and explicit memory was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The TSST provoked greater salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses than the control task. Men had a higher cortisol response to stress than women, but no sex differences were found for sAA release. Stress was associated with an enhancement of priming but did not affect declarative memory. Additionally, the enhancement on the priming test was higher in those whose sAA levels increased more in response to stress (r(48) = 0.339, p = 0.018). Our results confirm an effect of acute stress on priming, and that this effect is related to SNS activity. In addition, they suggest a different relationship between stress biomarkers and the different memory systems.

  3. The acute effects of MDMA and ethanol administration on electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronk, D B; Dumont, G J H; Verkes, R J; De Bruijn, E R A

    2014-07-01

    Knowing how commonly used drugs affect performance monitoring is of great importance, because drug use is often associated with compromised behavioral control. Two of the most commonly used recreational drugs in the western world, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") and ethanol (alcohol), are also often used in combination. The error-related negativity (ERN), correct-related negativity (CRN), and N2 are electrophysiological indices of performance monitoring. The present study aimed to investigate how ethanol, MDMA, and their co-administration affect performance monitoring as indexed by the electrophysiological correlates. Behavioral and EEG data were obtained from 14 healthy volunteers during execution of a speeded choice-reaction-time task after administration of ethanol, MDMA, and combined ethanol and MDMA, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover design. Ethanol significantly reduced ERN amplitudes, while administration of MDMA did not affect the ERN. Co-administration of MDMA and ethanol did not further impair nor ameliorate the effect of ethanol alone. No drug effects on CRN nor N2 were observed. A decreased ERN following ethanol administration is in line with previous work and offers further support for the impairing effects of alcohol intoxication on performance monitoring. This impairment may underlie maladaptive behavior in people who are under influence. Moreover, these data demonstrate for the first time that MDMA does not affect performance monitoring nor does it interact with ethanol in this process. These findings corroborate the notion that MDMA leaves central executive functions relatively unaffected.

  4. Acute Experimental Hyperthyroidism Does Not Affect Basal and Volume-Induced Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Secretion in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Giamouzis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Excess circulating thyroid hormones are associated with increased cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP secretion but the exact mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated in vivo. Methods. To examine whether thyroid hormone regulation of ANP secretion is the result of a direct action on the myocardium and/or of an indirect action through alterations in the peripheral circulation, plasma ANP levels (baseline and volume expansion-induced were evaluated in 14 healthy men, before and after triiodothyronine (T3 administration. Results. T3 administration was followed by a significant increase in serum T3 levels and a significant decrease in serum TSH levels, without significantly affecting ANP levels. Systemic vascular resistance, plasma rennin activity (PRA, and aldosterone (ALDO levels, as well as indices of left atrial function, were not significantly altered, despite a significant increase in cardiac output. Plasma volume expansion, induced by a 1500 ml normal saline (NSal infusion, both before and after T3 administration, was followed by a significant decrease in PRA and ALDO and a significant increase in plasma ANP levels, without significantly affecting the mean blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR in each study period. The NSal-induced response, measured as the integrated area under the curve corrected for baseline values (-AUC, was not different after T3 administration for ANP, ALDO, PRA, HR, and mean BP. Conclusion. In vivo thyroid hormone-induced myocardial ANP secretion is the result of an indirect action mainly through hemodynamic changes that increase atrial stretch.

  5. DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: prevalence in patients with anxiety disorders and in healthy comparison subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Umberto; Maina, Giuseppe; Forner, Federica; Bogetto, Filippo

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to analyze DSM-IV OCPD prevalence rates in OCD and panic disorder (PD) patients to test for the specificity of the OCPD-OCD link, and to compare them to OCPD prevalence in a control group of subjects without any psychiatric disorder. A total of 109 patients with a principal diagnosis of DSM-IV (SCID-I) OCD and 82 with PD were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) in order to assess the prevalence of OCPD. All patients with a coexisting axis I diagnosis were excluded from the study to eliminate confounding factors when evaluating the association between prevalence rates of OCPD and anxiety disorder diagnoses. An exclusion criteria was also a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score >/=16. A sample of comparison subjects (age 18 to 65 years) without any psychiatric disorder was recruited from people registered with two general practitioners (GPs), whether or not they consulted the doctor, in order to evaluate OCPD prevalence rate in the community. A significant difference was found between the prevalence of OCPD in OCD (22.9%) and in PD (17.1%) on one hand, and that in the comparison sample (3.0%) on the other. No differences were found between the two psychiatric groups, even when splitting the samples according to gender. Our study failed to support the hypothesis of a specific relationship between OCPD and OCD; we confirmed the higher prevalence rate of this personality disorder in OCD subjects with regard to the general population, but we also confirmed the higher rate of OCPD in another anxiety disorder which is phenomenologically well characterized and different from OCD, such as PD.

  6. An Acute Bout of a Controlled Breathing Frequency Lowers Sympathetic Neural Outflow but not Blood Pressure in Healthy Normotensive Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCCLAIN, SHANNON L.; BROOKS, ALEXA M.; JARVIS, SARA S.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled or paced breathing is often used as a stress reduction technique but the impact on blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic outflow have not been consistently reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a controlled breathing (12 breaths/min, CB) rate would be similar to an individual’s spontaneous breathing (SB) rate. Secondly, would a CB rate of 12 breaths/min alter heart rate (HR), BP, and indices of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Twenty-one subjects (10 women, 11 men) performed two trials: SB, where the subject chose a comfortable breathing rate; and CB, where the subject breathed at a pace of 12 breaths/min. Each trial was 6 min during which respiratory waveforms, HR, BP (systolic, SBP; diastolic, DBP), and MSNA were recorded. During CB, the 6 min average breathing frequency (14±4 vs 12±1 breaths/min, P<0.05 for SB and CB, respectively), MSNA burst frequency (18±12 vs 14±10 bursts/min, P<0.01) and MSNA burst incidence (28±19 vs 21± 6 bursts/100 heart beats, P<0.01) were significantly lower than during SB. HR (66±9 vs 67±9 beats/min, P<0.05) was higher during CB. SBP (120±13 vs 121±15 mmHg, P=0.741), DBP (56±8 vs 57±9 mmHg, P=0.768), and MSNA total activity (166±94 vs 145±102 a.u./min, P=0.145) were not different between the breathing conditions. In conclusion, an acute reduction in breathing frequency such as that observed during CB elicited a decrease in indices of MSNA (burst frequency and incidence) with no change in BP. PMID:28344733

  7. Circulating VEGF as a biological marker in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Preanalytical and biological variability in healthy persons and in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Lottenburger, Tine

    2008-01-01

    /ml (range: non-detectable to 352); serum: 328 pg/ml (53-1791)) were independent of gender and age. Short- and long-term biologic variability included diurnal variation (sampling should take place after 7 AM) and impact of exercise (increased VEGF immediately after bicycling normalised within 1 hour......BACKGROUND: Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a promising biomarker in monitoring rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but studies of pre-analytical and biologic variability are few. METHODS: VEGF was measured by ELISA methods in serum and plasma from healthy persons and RA patients. Pre......). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-analytical factors and biologic variability including diurnal variation and impact of exercise should be accounted for in future studies that include circulating VEGF as a biological marker....

  8. Physical working ability in persons who survived acute radiation sickness due to Chernobyl accident (the data of 16-year follow-up)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, O.M.; Byilij, D.O.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable reduction in physical working ability (PWA) in persons who survived acute radiation sickness in the early period is chiefly caused by negative influence of ionizing radiation and is not determined by the degree of severity of bone-marrow syndrome. Further restoration of PWA does not occur which can be explained by development of neurosomatic pathology against a background of age-related changes in the organs and systems of the victims

  9. Estimation of the contribution of norketamine to ketamine-induced acute pain relief and neurocognitive impairment in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsen, Erik; Noppers, Ingeborg; Niesters, Marieke; Kharasch, Evan; Aarts, Leon; Sarton, Elise; Dahan, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background The N-methyl-D-receptor antagonist ketamine is metabolized in the liver into its active metabolite norketamine. No human data are available on the relative contribution of norketamine to ketamine-induced analgesia and side effects. One approach to assess the ketamine and norketamine contributions is by measuring ketamine-effect at varying ketamine and norketamine plasma concentrations using the CYP450 inducer rifampicin. Methods In 12 healthy male volunteers the effect of rifampicin versus placebo pretreatment on S-ketamine (a 2-h infusion of 20 mg/h)-induced analgesia and cognition was quantified. The relative ketamine and norketamine contribution to effect was estimated using a linear additive population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model. Results S-ketamine produced significant analgesia, psychotropic effects (drug high), and cognitive impairment (including memory impairment, reduced psychomotor speed, reduced reaction time, reduced cognitive flexibility). Modeling revealed a negative contribution of S-norketamine to S-ketamine-induced analgesia and absence of contribution to cognitive impairment. At ketamine and norketamine effect concentrations of 100 ng/ml and 50 ng/ml, respectievly, the ketamine contribution to analgesia is −3.8 cm (visual analogue pain score) versus a contribution of norketamine of +1.5 cm, causing an overall effect −2.3 cm. The blood-effect-site equilibration half-life ranged from 0 (cognitive flexibility) to 11.8 (pain intensity) min, and averaged across all end-points was 6.1 min. Conclusions This first observation that norketamine produces effects in the opposite direction of ketamine requires further proof. It can explain the observation of ketamine-related excitatory phenomena (such as hyperalgesia and allodynia) upon the termination of ketamine infusions. PMID:22692377

  10. The acute effect of coffee on endothelial function and glucose metabolism following a glucose load in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Evan A J; Croft, Kevin D; Shinde, Sujata; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Ward, Natalie C

    2017-09-20

    A diet rich in plant polyphenols has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, in part, via improvements in endothelial function. Coffee is a rich source of phenolic compounds including the phenolic acid, chlorogenic acid (CGA). The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of coffee as a whole beverage on endothelial function, blood pressure and blood glucose concentration. Twelve healthy men and women were recruited to a randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, with three treatments tested: (i) 18 g of ground caffeinated coffee containing 300 mg CGA in 200 mL of hot water, (ii) 18 g of decaffeinated coffee containing 287 mg CGA in 200 mL of hot water, and (iii) 200 mL of hot water (control). Treatment beverages were consumed twice, two hours apart, with the second beverage consumed simultaneously with a 75 g glucose load. Blood pressure was recorded and the finger prick glucose test was performed at time = 0 and then every 30 minutes up to 2 hours. Endothelial function, assessed using flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery, was measured at 1 hour and a blood sample taken at 2 hours to measure plasma nitrate/nitrite and 5-CGA concentrations. The FMD response was significantly higher in the caffeinated coffee group compared to both decaffeinated coffee and water groups (P coffee and water. Blood glucose concentrations and blood pressure were not different between the three treatment groups. In conclusion, the consumption of caffeinated coffee resulted in a significant improvement in endothelial function, but there was no evidence for benefit regarding glucose metabolism or blood pressure. Although the mechanism has yet to be elucidated the results suggest that coffee as a whole beverage may improve endothelial function, or that caffeine is the component of coffee responsible for improving FMD.

  11. The acute effect of beta-guanidinopropionic acid versus creatine or placebo in healthy men (ABC-Trial): A randomized controlled first-in-human trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamat, Fares A; Horjus, Deborah L; Haan, Yentl C; van der Woude, Lisa; Schaap, Marianne C; Oudman, Inge; van Montfrans, Gert A; Nieuwland, Rienk; Salomons, Gajja S; Clark, Joseph F; Brewster, Lizzy M

    2017-12-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the ATP-generating enzyme creatine kinase (CK) is involved in hypertension. CK rapidly regenerates ATP from creatine phosphate and ADP. Recently, it has been shown that beta-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA), a kidney-synthesized creatine analogue and competitive CK inhibitor, reduced blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. To further develop the substance as a potential blood pressure-lowering agent, we assessed the tolerability of a sub-therapeutic GPA dose in healthy men. In this active and placebo-controlled, triple-blind, single-centre trial, we recruited 24 healthy men (18-50 years old, BMI 18.5-29.9 kg m -2 ) in the Netherlands. Participants were randomized (1:1:1) to one week daily oral administration of GPA 100 mg, creatine 5 g, or matching placebo. The primary outcome was the tolerability of GPA, in an intent-to-treat analysis. Twenty-four randomized participants received the allocated intervention and 23 completed the study. One participant in the placebo arm dropped out for personal reasons. GPA was well tolerated, without serious or severe adverse events. No abnormalities were reported with GPA use in clinical safety parameters, including physical examination, laboratory studies, or 12-Lead ECG. At day 8, mean plasma GPA was 213.88 (SE 0.07) in the GPA arm vs. 32.75 (0.00) nmol l -1 in the placebo arm, a mean difference of 181.13 (95% CI 26.53-335.72). In this first-in-human trial, low-dose GPA was safe and well-tolerated when used during 1 week in healthy men. Subsequent studies should focus on human pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessments with different doses. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-09-01

    An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.

  13. Inhalation scintiscanning of persons with healthy lungs and lung diseases using sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid with special regard to the mucociliary clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    It is reported about inhalation scintiscanning with radioaerosols under the application of a gamma camera and a magnetic core- and tape memory, providing an interactive display. 89 patients suffering form various pulmonary diseases and 10 test persons with healthy lungs were investigated. The scintigraphic photos were not only evaluated visually, but also according to quantitative parameters, i.e. left/right distribution, degree of central deposition and mucociliary clearance. The latter resulted to be the most informative quantitative diagnostic method. In the 10 test persons with healthy lungs the scintigraphic images always showed a homogeneous distribution of radioactivity and a mucociliary half-time of 9.7 or 11.9 hours respectively was found. A central bronchial carcinoma provoked on the affected side of the lungs a reduced deposition of radioactivity, an increased central deposition and an accelerated mucociliary clearance. In patients suffering from peripheral bronchial carcinoma, pneumonia, pleural processes, pulmonary infarction, pulmonary circular focus or pneumothorax, only inconstant areas of reduced radioactivity deposition could be detected. However, these areas differed by shape, intensity and location from the central bronchial carcinoma. In 3 patients with pulmonary embolism, no pathologic changes could be detected only then, when no infarction occurred. In this case, also the quantitative parameters were normal. With chronical obstructive pulmonary diseases, diseases of the pulmonary framework and in cases of bronchial asthma a clearly pathologic image of the distribution of radioactivity resulted in all cases; in these a differentiation could only be achieved by additionally considering the quantitative parameters. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Acute Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses During Exoskeleton-Assisted Walking Overground Among Persons with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas; Hartigan, Clare; Kandilakis, Casey; Pharo, Elizabeth; Clesson, Ismari

    2015-01-01

    Lower extremity robotic exoskeleton technology is being developed with the promise of affording people with spinal cord injury (SCI) the opportunity to stand and walk. The mobility benefits of exoskeleton-assisted walking can be realized immediately, however the cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits of this technology have not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the acute cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses associated with exoskeleton-assisted walking overground and to determine the degree to which these responses change at differing walking speeds. Five subjects (4 male, 1 female) with chronic SCI (AIS A) volunteered for the study. Expired gases were collected during maximal graded exercise testing and two, 6-minute bouts of exoskeleton-assisted walking overground. Outcome measures included peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak), average oxygen consumption (V̇O2avg), peak heart rate (HRpeak), walking economy, metabolic equivalent of tasks for SCI (METssci), walk speed, and walk distance. Significant differences were observed between walk-1 and walk-2 for walk speed, total walk distance, V̇O2avg, and METssci. Exoskeleton-assisted walking resulted in %V̇O2peak range of 51.5% to 63.2%. The metabolic cost of exoskeleton-assisted walking ranged from 3.5 to 4.3 METssci. Persons with motor-complete SCI may be limited in their capacity to perform physical exercise to the extent needed to improve health and fitness. Based on preliminary data, cardiorespiratory and metabolic demands of exoskeleton-assisted walking are consistent with activities performed at a moderate intensity.

  15. Acute Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses During Exoskeleton-Assisted Walking Overground Among Persons with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Clare; Kandilakis, Casey; Pharo, Elizabeth; Clesson, Ismari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity robotic exoskeleton technology is being developed with the promise of affording people with spinal cord injury (SCI) the opportunity to stand and walk. The mobility benefits of exoskeleton-assisted walking can be realized immediately, however the cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits of this technology have not been thoroughly investigated. Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the acute cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses associated with exoskeleton-assisted walking overground and to determine the degree to which these responses change at differing walking speeds. Methods: Five subjects (4 male, 1 female) with chronic SCI (AIS A) volunteered for the study. Expired gases were collected during maximal graded exercise testing and two, 6-minute bouts of exoskeleton-assisted walking overground. Outcome measures included peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak), average oxygen consumption (V̇O2avg), peak heart rate (HRpeak), walking economy, metabolic equivalent of tasks for SCI (METssci), walk speed, and walk distance. Results: Significant differences were observed between walk-1 and walk-2 for walk speed, total walk distance, V̇O2avg, and METssci. Exoskeleton-assisted walking resulted in %V̇O2peak range of 51.5% to 63.2%. The metabolic cost of exoskeleton-assisted walking ranged from 3.5 to 4.3 METssci. Conclusion: Persons with motor-complete SCI may be limited in their capacity to perform physical exercise to the extent needed to improve health and fitness. Based on preliminary data, cardiorespiratory and metabolic demands of exoskeleton-assisted walking are consistent with activities performed at a moderate intensity. PMID:26364281

  16. The Healthy Lifestyle and Personal Control Questionnaire (HLPCQ): a novel tool for assessing self-empowerment through a constellation of daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darviri, Christina; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Artemiadis, Artemios K; Tigani, Xanthi; Kraniotou, Christina; Darvyri, Panagiota; Chrousos, George P

    2014-09-24

    The main goal of stress management and health promotion programs is to improve health by empowering people to take control over their lives. Daily health-related lifestyle choices are integral targets of these interventions and critical to evaluating their efficacy. To date, concepts such as self-efficacy, self-control and empowerment are assessed by tools that only partially address daily lifestyle choices. The aim of this study is to validate a novel measurement tool, the Healthy Lifestyle and Personal Control Questionnaire (HLPCQ), which aims to assess the concept of empowerment through a constellation of daily activities. Therefore, we performed principal component analysis (PCA) of 26 items that were derived from the qualitative data of several stress management programs conducted by our research team. The PCA resulted in the following five-factor solution: 1) Dietary Healthy Choices, 2) Dietary Harm Avoidance, 3) Daily Routine, 4) Organized Physical Exercise and 5) Social and Mental Balance. All subscales showed satisfactory internal consistency and variance, relative to theoretical score ranges. Subscale scores and the total score were significantly correlated with perceived stress and health locus of control, implying good criterion validity. Associations with sociodemographic data and other variables, such as sleep quality and health assessments, were also found. The HLPCQ is a good tool for assessing the efficacy of future health-promoting interventions to improve individuals' lifestyle and wellbeing.

  17. Psychophysical and cerebral responses to heat stimulation in patients with central pain, painless central sensory loss, and in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kenneth L; Geisser, Michael; Lorenz, Jürgen; Morrow, Thomas J; Paulson, Pamela; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2012-02-01

    Patients with central pain (CP) typically have chronic pain within an area of reduced pain and temperature sensation, suggesting an impairment of endogenous pain modulation mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that some brain structures normally activated by cutaneous heat stimulation would be hyperresponsive among patients with CP but not among patients with a central nervous system lesion causing a loss of heat or nociceptive sensation with no pain (NP). We used H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography to measure, in 15 healthy control participants, 10 NP patients, and 10 CP patients, increases in regional cerebral blood flow among volumes of interest (VOI) from the resting (no stimulus) condition during bilateral contact heat stimulation at heat detection, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance levels. Both patient groups had a reduced perception of heat intensity and unpleasantness on the clinically affected side and a bilateral impairment of heat detection. Compared with the HC group, both NP and CP patients had more hyperactive and hypoactive VOI in the resting state and more hyperresponsive and hyporesponsive VOI during heat stimulation. Compared with NP patients, CP patients had more hyperresponsive VOI in the intralaminar thalamus and sensory-motor cortex during heat stimulation. Our results show that focal CNS lesions produce bilateral sensory deficits and widespread changes in the nociceptive excitability of the brain. The increased nociceptive excitability within the intralaminar thalamus and sensory-motor cortex of our sample of CP patients suggests an underlying pathophysiology for the pain in some central pain syndromes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Impact of acute administration of escitalopram on the processing of emotional and neutral images: a randomized crossover fMRI study of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outhred, Tim; Das, Pritha; Felmingham, Kim L; Bryant, Richard A; Nathan, Pradeep J; Malhi, Gin S; Kemp, Andrew H

    2014-07-01

    Acute neural effects of antidepressant medication on emotion processing biases may provide the foundation on which clinical outcomes are based. Along with effects on positive and negative stimuli, acute effects on neutral stimuli may also relate to antidepressant efficacy, yet these effects are still to be investigated. The present study therefore examined the impact of a single dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram (20 mg) on positive, negative and neutral stimuli using pharmaco-fMRI. Within a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design, healthy women completed 2 sessions of treatment administration and fMRI scanning separated by a 1-week washout period. We enrolled 36 women in our study. When participants were administered escitalopram relative to placebo, left amygdala activity was increased and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity was decreased during presentation of positive pictures (potentiation of positive emotion processing). In contrast, escitalopram was associated with decreased left amygdala and increased right IFG activity during presentation of negative pictures (attenuation of negative emotion processing). In addition, escitalopram decreased right IFG activity during the processing of neutral stimuli, akin to the effects on positive stimuli (decrease in negative appraisal). Although we used a women-only sample to reduce heterogeneity, our results may not generalize to men. Potential unblinding, which was related to the subjective occurrence of side effects, occurred in the study; however, manipulation check analyses demonstrated that results were not impacted. These novel findings demonstrate that a single dose of the commonly prescribed escitalopram facilitates a positive information processing bias. These findings provide an important lead for better understanding effects of antidepressant medication.

  19. Influences of the Big Five personality traits on the treatment response and longitudinal course of depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Young; Stewart, Robert; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Kim, Jae-Min

    2016-10-01

    Influences of the Big Five personality traits on the treatment response and longitudinal course of depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome: A randomised controlled trial. This naturalistic observational study initially recruited 1152 ACS patients; 685 patients completed personality assessments at baseline, of whom 630 were followed-up one year later. Of the 294 patients with depression, 207 participated in a 24-week double blind trial of escitalopram or placebo. The remaining 87 patients who received medical treatment only and the 391 who had not depression were also followed in a one year naturalistic observational study. The Big five personality traits were assessed using the Big Five Inventory. The influences of personality on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score changes were analysed using a mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance. A Cluster analysis identified two personality types: resilient and vulnerable. The vulnerable personality type was characterized by lower extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness - but higher neuroticism - than the resilient type. This personality type was independently associated with a poorer outcome of depression in ACS patients during the 24-week treatment period and the one year longitudinal follow-up period compared to the resilient personality type, irrespective of treatment allocation. Recruitment from a single institution may limit generalisability. Personality traits were investigated 12-weeks after ACS; thus, the responses may have been influenced by the prior receipt of escitalopram. Personality types influences the treatment outcome and longitudinal course of depression in ACS patients independent of antidepressant treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating risk factors for Internet gaming disorder: a comparison of patients with addictive gaming, pathological gamblers and healthy controls regarding the big five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K W; Beutel, M E; Egloff, B; Wölfling, K

    2014-01-01

    Engaging in online games has become increasingly important as a part of leisure activity in adolescents and adults. While the majority of people use these games in a healthy way, epidemiological studies show that some develop excessive use and symptoms that are related to those of substance-related addictions. Despite increasing research concerning the epidemiology of internet gaming disorder (IGD), predisposing factors have been examined to a lesser extent. Knowing about specific risk factors would help clarify the nosological features of IGD and enhance prevention and intervention. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between personality traits and IGD. A total of 115 patients meeting the criteria for IGD were compared to 167 control subjects displaying either regular or intense use of online games. Additionally, 115 patients meeting diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling were included. IGD was associated with higher neuroticism, decreased conscientiousness and low extraversion. The comparisons to pathological gamblers indicate that low conscientiousness and low extraversion in particular are characteristic of IGD. An integration of personality variables into an etiopathological model describing presumable mechanisms fostering and maintaining addictive online gaming is proposed. This model could be helpful for the theoretical understanding of addictive gaming, public health campaigns and psychoeducation within therapeutic settings. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The impact of acute and chronic strenuous exercise on pelvic floor muscle strength and support in nulliparous healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlekauff, Monique L; Egger, Marlene J; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-09-01

    Strenuous physical activity, which is known to increase intraabdominal pressure and theoretically places stress on the pelvic floor, may affect pelvic support in nulliparous women. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the differences in maximal vaginal descent (MVD), vaginal resting pressure (VRP), and pelvic floor muscle strength (PFMS) between women who habitually perform strenuous exercise vs women who refrain from performing strenuous exercise; and (2) compare MVD, VRP, and PFMS before and immediately following physical activity in the strenuous and nonstrenuous groups separately. Participants were healthy nulliparous women ages 18-35 years who were habitual strenuous or nonstrenuous exercisers. Women in the strenuous group participated in CrossFit (CrossFit, Inc., Washington, DC) at least 3 days per week for at least 6 months. We assessed anthropometric and body composition values using standardized procedures. Participants completed the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination and pelvic muscle strength assessment before and again within 15 minutes of completing exercise (CrossFit for the strenuous group and self-paced walking for the nonstrenuous). A research nurse masked to study group assignment recorded MVD, defined as the greatest value of anterior, posterior, or apical support, and VRP and PFMS using a perineometer. Maximal PFMS was recorded as the highest pressure measured in 3 vaginal contraction trials. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests as appropriate. P < .05 was considered significant. Seventy nulliparous women participated in the study, 35 in each group. The mean age was 24.77 ± 4.3 years. Compared to the nonstrenuous group, strenuous participants were heavier (64.70 ± 7.78 kg vs 60.6 ± 8.99 kg, P = .027), had lower percent body fat (23.36 ± 5.88% vs 27.55 ± 7.07%, P = .003), and had higher handgrip strength (20.78 ± 5.97 kg vs 16.04 ± 11.04 kg, P = .001). Before exercise, there were no

  2. Person-centred interactions between nurses and patients during medication activities in an acute hospital setting: qualitative observation and interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, Danielle; Manias, Elizabeth

    2010-02-01

    There is increasing emphasis on person-centred care within the literature and the health care context. It is suggested that a person-centred approach to medication activities has the potential to improve patient experiences and outcomes. This study set out to examine how nurses and patients interact with each other during medication activities in an acute care environment with an underlying philosophy of person-centred care. A qualitative approach was used comprising naturalistic observation and semi-structured interviews. The study setting was an acute care ward with a collaboratively developed philosophy of person-centre care, in an Australian metropolitan hospital. Eleven nurses of varying levels of experience were recruited to participate in observations and interviews. Nurses were eligible to participate if they were employed on the study ward in a role that incorporated direct patient care, including medication activities. A stratified sampling technique ensured that nurses with a range of years of clinical experience were represented. Patients who were being cared for by participating nurses during the observation period were recruited to participate unless they met the following exclusion criteria: those less than 18 years of age, non-English speaking patients, and those who were unable to give informed consent. Twenty-five patients were observed and 16 of those agreed to be interviewed. The results of the study generated insights into the nature of interactions between nurses and patients where person-centred care is the underlying philosophy of care. Three major themes emerged from the findings: provision of individualised care, patient participation and contextual barriers to providing person-centred care. While the participating nurses valued a person-centred approach and perceived that they were conducting medication activities in a person-centred way, some nurse-patient interactions during medication activities were centred on routines rather than

  3. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype in healthy and personality disorder individuals: Preliminary results from an examination of cognitive tests hypothetically differentially sensitive to dopamine functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie W Leung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Winnie W Leung1, Margaret M McClure1, Larry J Siever1,2, Deanna M Barch3, Philip D Harvey1,21Department of Veterans Affairs, VISN 3 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 3Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: A functional polymorphism of the gene coding for Catechol-O-methyltrasferase (COMT, an enzyme responsible for the degradation of the catecholamine dopamine (DA, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, is associated with cognitive deficits. However, previous studies have not examined the effects of COMT on context processing, as measured by the AX-CPT, a task hypothesized to be maximally relevant to DA function. 32 individuals who were either healthy, with schizotypal personality disorder, or non-cluster A, personality disorder (OPD were genotyped at the COMT Val158Met locus. Met/Met (n = 6, Val/Met (n = 10, Val/Val (n = 16 individuals were administered a neuropsychological battery, including the AX-CPT and the N-back working memory test. For the AX-CPT, Met/Met demonstrated more AY errors (reflecting good maintenance of context than the other genotypes, who showed equivalent error rates. Val/Val demonstrated disproportionately greater deterioration with increased task difficulty from 0-back to 1-back working memory demands as compared to Met/Met, while Val/Met did not differ from either genotypes. No differences were found on processing speed or verbal working memory. Both context processing and working memory appear related to COMT genotype and the AX-CPT and N-back may be most sensitive to the effects of COMT variation.Keywords: COMT, dopamine, context processing, working memory, schizotypal personality disorder

  4. Typhi–Induced Septic Shock and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Previously Healthy Teenage Patient Treated With High-Dose Dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Brosset Ugas MD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is commonly characterized by fever and abdominal pain. Rare complications include intestinal hemorrhage, bowel perforation, delirium, obtundation, and septic shock. Herein we describe the case of a previously healthy 16-year-old male without history of travel, diagnosed with typhoid fever complicated by septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with high-dose dexamethasone. This case details severe complications of typhoid fever that are uncommonly seen in developed countries, and the successful response to high-dose dexamethasone as adjunct therapy. High-dose dexamethasone treatment has reportedly decreased Salmonella Typhi mortality, but controlled studies specifically performed in children are lacking, and most reports of its use are over 30 years old and all have originated in developing countries. Providers should include Salmonella Typhi in the differential diagnosis of the pediatric patient with fever, severe abdominal pain, and enteritis, and be aware of its potentially severe complications and the limited data on safety and efficacy of adjunctive therapies that can be considered in addition to antibiotics.

  5. Blood pressure and endothelial function in healthy, pregnant women after acute and daily consumption of flavanol-rich chocolate: a pilot, randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) indicate that flavanol-rich chocolate has beneficial effects on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and blood pressure (BP). However, no RCTs have evaluated these outcomes in pregnant women. The objective of this 2-group, parallel, double-blind RCT was to examine the effects of flavanol-rich chocolate on FMD and BP in pregnant women with normal BP. Methods Forty-four healthy, pregnant women were randomized to the high-flavanol (n = 23) or low-flavanol (n = 21) chocolate consumption for 12 weeks. At randomization (0, 60, 120 and 180 min after a single 40-g dose of chocolate), 6 and 12 weeks after daily 20-g chocolate intake, we evaluated plasma concentrations of flavanols and theobromine, as well as the FMD and BP. Results Plasma epicatechin was significantly increased (p chocolate compared to low-flavanol chocolate. Theobromine concentrations were significantly higher 180 min and 12 weeks after the intake of experimental chocolate or low-flavanol chocolate (p chocolate to an equivalent placebo during pregnancy and demonstrate higher plasma epicatechin and theobromine concentration in the intervention group after acute ingestion Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01659060 PMID:23565841

  6. Comparison of cognitive flexibility and planning ability in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, patients with obsessive compulsive personality disorder, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paast, Negin; Khosravi, Zohreh; Memari, Amir Hossein; Shayestehfar, Monir; Arbabi, Mohammad

    2016-02-25

    Cognitive functioning in individuals with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and with Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) has not been adequately studied. Examine the cognitive flexibility and planning ability of individuals with OCD and OCPD. Twenty patients with OCD and 25 patients with OCPD who had not taken medication in the previous two weeks were identified in an outpatient psychology clinic in Tehran, and 25 healthy control subjects were identified from the university staff and local community residents. All participants were administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Tower of London (TOL) test. Two measures of the WCTS (number of perseverative errors and number of categories completed) were used to assess cognitive flexibility and three measures of the TOL (total number of moves in 12 trials, total response time, and planning time) were used to assess planning ability. The level of current psychological distress in the two patient groups was significantly greater than that in the control group. After adjusting for demographic variables and the level of psychological distress, both OCD patients and OCPD patients made more perseverative errors on the WCST than control subjects, and the OCD patients (but not the OCPD patients) completed significantly fewer categories than the control subjects. Both the OCD patients and OCPD patients required significantly more moves than control subjects to complete the 12 TOL tasks and OCD patients took significantly longer than both OCPD patients and control subjects to complete the tasks. Individuals with OCD and OCPD have impaired cognitive flexibility and planning ability compared to healthy controls, and there are some differences in these measures of cognitive functioning between OCD and OCPD. Long term follow-up studies of OCD and OCPD that assess changes in cognitive measures as the severity of obsessive compulsive

  7. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Targeting Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Task-Induced Acute Pain in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Timothy Y; Van't Wout, Mascha; Garnaat, Sarah L; Rasmussen, Steven A; Greenberg, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    Current chronic pain treatments target nociception rather than affective "suffering" and its associated functional and psychiatric comorbidities. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been implicated in affective, cognitive, and attentional aspects of pain and is a primary target of neuromodulation for affective disorders. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can non-invasively modulate cortical activity. The present study tests whether anodal tDCS targeting the left DLPFC will increase tolerability of acute painful stimuli vs cathodal tDCS. Forty tDCS-naive healthy volunteers received anodal and cathodal stimulation targeting the left DLPFC in two randomized and counterbalanced sessions. During stimulation, each participant performed cold pressor (CP) and breath holding (BH) tasks. We measured pain intensity with the Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS) before and after each task. Mixed ANOVA revealed no main effect of stimulation polarity for mean CP threshold, tolerance, or endurance, or mean BH time (allP > 0.27). However, DVPRS rise associated with CP was significantly smaller with anodal vs cathodal tDCS (P = 0.024). We further observed a significant tDCS polarity × stimulation order interaction (P = 0.042) on CP threshold, suggesting task sensitization. Although our results do not suggest that polarity of tDCS targeting the left DLPFC differentially modulates the tolerability of CP- and BH-related pain distress in healthy volunteers, there was a significant effect on DVPRS pain ratings. This contrasts with our previous findings that tDCS targeting the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex showed a trend toward higher mean CP tolerance with cathodal vs anodal stimulation. The present results may suggest tDCS-related effects on nociception or DLPFC-mediated attention, or preferential modulation of the affective valence of pain as captured by the DVPRS. Sham-controlled clinical studies are needed. © 2015

  8. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steca, Patrizia; D’Addario, Marco; Magrin, Maria Elena; Miglioretti, Massimo; Monzani, Dario; Pancani, Luca; Sarini, Marcello; Scrignaro, Marta; Vecchio, Luca; Fattirolli, Francesco; Giannattasio, Cristina; Cesana, Francesca; Riccobono, Salvatore Pio

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men). Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:27589065

  9. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Steca

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men. Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed.

  10. Acute effects of short term use of e-cigarettes on airways physiology and respiratory symptoms in smokers with and without airways obstructive diseases and in healthy non smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasios Palamidas; Stamatoula Tsikrika; Paraskevi A. Katsaounou; Sofia Vakali; Sofia-Antiopi Gennimata; George kaltsakas; Christina Gratziou; Nikolaos Koulouris

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although the use of e-cigarettes is increasing worldwide, their short and long-term effects remain undefined. We aimed to study the acute effect of short-term use of e-cigarettes containing nicotine on lung function and respiratory symptoms in smokers with airways obstructive disease (COPD, asthma), “healthy” smokers, and healthy never smokers. Methods Respiratory symptoms, vital signs, exhaled NO, airways temperature, and airways resistance (Raw), specific airway condu...

  11. Investigating the Usability and Acute Effects of a Bedside Video Console to Prefrontal Cortical Activity Alterations: A Preclinical Study in Healthy Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knols, Ruud H; Swanenburg, Jaap; De Bon, Dino; Gennaro, Federico; Wolf, Martin; Krüger, Bernard; Bettex, Dominique; de Bruin, Eling D

    2017-01-01

    Elderly people at risk of developing cognitive decline; e.g., following surgery, may benefit from structured, challenging, and repetitive cognitive video training. This study assessed usability and acute effects of a newly developed bedside console (COPHYCON). Fifteen healthy elderly individuals performed a one-time 80-min intervention, including cognitive video games aimed at improving awareness and selective attention. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (Technology Acceptance Model) were assessed together with measures of the achieved game level, reaction times, (in-) correct responses during ALERT and SELECT game play. Further, prefrontal cortical involvement of the regional cerebral hemoglobin saturation (rS02%) assessed with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) ( n = 5) and EEG power ( n = 10) was analyzed. All participants completed the study without any adverse events. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (TAM scores range 1-7) of the system varied between 3.9 and 6.3. The game levels reached for awareness varied between 9 and 11 (initial score 8-10), for reaction speed between 439 and 469 ms, and for correct responses between 74.1 and 78.8%. The highest level for the selective attention games was 2 (initial score 1), where reaction speed varied between 439 and 469 ms, correct responses between 96.2 and 98.5%, respectively. The decrease of rS02% in the right prefrontal cortex during gameplay was significantly ( p games ( p games. EEG recordings of theta power significantly decreased in the averaged ~0.25-0.75 time interval for the left prefrontal cortex sensor across the cognitive game levels between the ALERT 1 and SELECT 1, as well as between SELECT 1 and 2 games. Participants rated the usability of the COPHYCON training positively. Further results indicate that video gaming may be an effective measure to affect prefrontal cortical functioning in elderly. The results warrant a clinical explorative study investigating the

  12. Acute Effects of Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice on Blood Pressure, Hemostasis and Vascular Inflammation Markers in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Raubenheimer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a vasoconstrictive, pro-coagulant, and pro-inflammatory profile of arteries and a decline in the bioavailability of the endothelium-derived molecule nitric oxide. Dietary nitrate elicits vasodilatory, anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects in younger individuals, but little is known about whether these benefits are evident in older adults. We investigated the effects of 140 mL of nitrate-rich (HI-NI; containing 12.9 mmol nitrate versus nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (LO-NI; containing ≤0.04 mmol nitrate on blood pressure, blood coagulation, vascular inflammation markers, plasma nitrate and nitrite before, and 3 h and 6 h after ingestion in healthy older adults (five males, seven females, mean age: 64 years, age range: 57–71 years in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Plasma nitrate and nitrite increased 3 and 6 h after HI-NI ingestion (p < 0.05. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure decreased 3 h relative to baseline after HI-NI ingestion only (p < 0.05. The number of blood monocyte-platelet aggregates decreased 3 h after HI-NI intake (p < 0.05, indicating reduced platelet activation. The number of blood CD11b-expressing granulocytes decreased 3 h following HI-NI beetroot juice intake (p < 0.05, suggesting a shift toward an anti-adhesive granulocyte phenotype. Numbers of blood CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocyte subtypes slightly increased 6 h after HI-NI beetroot juice ingestion (p < 0.05, but the clinical implications of this response are currently unclear. These findings provide new evidence for the acute effects of nitrate-rich beetroot juice on circulating immune cells and platelets. Further long-term research is warranted to determine if these effects reduce the risk of developing hypertension and vascular inflammation with aging.

  13. Positive modulation of mood and cognitive performance following administration of acute doses of Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil to healthy young volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tildesley, N T J; Kennedy, D O; Perry, E K; Ballard, C G; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2005-01-17

    Members of the Sage family, such as Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia, have a long history of use as memory-enhancing agents coupled with cholinergic properties that may potentially be relevant to the amelioration of the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. The current study utilised a placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, crossover design in order to comprehensively assess any mood and cognition modulation by S. lavandulaefolia. Twenty-four participants received single doses of placebo, 25 microl and 50 microl of a standardised essential oil of S. lavandulaefolia in an order dictated by a Latin square. Doses were separated by a 7-day washout period. Cognitive performance was assessed prior to the day's treatment and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery. Subjective mood ratings were measured using Bond-Lader visual analogue scales. The primary outcome measures were scores on the five cognitive factors that can be derived by factor analysis of the task outcomes from the CDR battery. The results showed that administration of S. lavandulaefolia resulted in a consistent improvement for both the 25- and 50-microl dose on the 'Speed of Memory' factor. There was also an improvement on the 'Secondary Memory' factor for the 25-microl dose. Mood was consistently enhanced, with increases in self-rated 'alertness', 'calmness' and 'contentedness' following the 50-microl dose and elevated 'calmness' following 25 microl. These results represent further evidence that Salvia is capable of acute modulation of mood and cognition in healthy young adults. The data also suggest that previous reports of memory enhancement by Salvia may be due to more efficient retrieval of target material.

  14. Differential effects of treatment with UV-light (365 nm) and 8-methoxypsoralen on chromosomes of healthy persons and psoriatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeber, G.; Kittler, L.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, 5 x 10 -5 M), near UV-light of 365 nm wavelength (UVA, 1.5 J/cm 2 ) and the combination of both (PUVA treatment) were studied on lymphocytes in vitro taken from healthy persons and patients with psoriasis vulgaris and psoriasis arthritis (psoriasis arthropathica). Chromosomes isolated from cell nuclei were visualized by means of Giemsa staining technique and analyzed for induction of chromosomal defects, i.e. premature centromere division (PCD), major coiling (MC), and formation of gaps and fragile sites. Exposure of nonpsoriatic lymphocytes to 8-MOP, UVA or PUVA increased the rate of PCD or MC generation. In experiments with psoriatic lymphocytes a much weaker effect was found, with a moderate increase of PCD and MC after UVA or PUVA treatment in the case of psoriasis vulgaris, and of MC after UVA treatment of psoriasis arthritis. On the average the number of chromosomes per metaphase plate displaying PCD did not exceed 10. No indication was obtained for the preference of certain chromosome groups or the appearance of 'fragile sites'. Under all experimental conditions the number of chromosome gaps ranged in the order of their spontaneous induction. The findings suggest PCD and MC investigations as possible sensitive tools for diagnosing latent psoriasis and for refined analysis of psoriatic cells or chromosomes. (author)

  15. Influence of Teachers' Personal Health Behaviors on Operationalizing Obesity Prevention Policy in Head Start Preschools: A Project of the Children's Healthy Living Program (CHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Monica Kazlausky; Nigg, Claudio R; Fialkowski, Marie K; Braun, Kathryn L; Li, Fenfang; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    To quantify the Head Start (HS) teacher mediating and moderating influence on the effect of a wellness policy intervention. Intervention trial within a larger randomized community trial. HS preschools in Hawaii. Twenty-three HS classrooms located within 2 previously randomized communities. Seven-month multi-component intervention with policy changes to food served and service style, initiatives for employee wellness, classroom activities for preschoolers promoting physical activity (PA) and healthy eating, and training and technical assistance. The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) classroom scores and teacher questionnaires assessing on knowledge, beliefs, priorities, and misconceptions around child nutrition and changes in personal health behaviors and status were the main outcome measures. Paired t tests and linear regression analysis tested the intervention effects on the classroom and mediating and moderating effects of the teacher variables on the classroom environment. General linear model test showed greater intervention effect on the EPAO score where teachers reported higher than average improvements in their own health status and behaviors (estimate [SE] = -2.47 (0.78), P teacher health status and behaviors included in a multi-component policy intervention aimed at child obesity prevention may produce a greater effect on classroom environments. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Results and evaluation of non-invasive brain perfusion characteristics with 99m Tc pertechnetate in clinically neurologically healthy persons as well as in patients with intracranial growths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegers, M.

    1981-01-01

    For an estimation of regional brain perfusion after intravenous injection of 99m Tc-pertechneate, the author followed the registration of the initial perfusion input in ventrosagittal or lateral setting of the scintillation camera in 74 patients. The time-activity characteristics were obtained across standardized regions, the mode of evaluation was applied as mentioned. A mean value of 49.1 for the perfusion of the right hemisphere was determined, for the left one it was 49.7 ml/100g/min. The regional mean values lay between 44.4 (parietal region) and 39.6 (temporal region) ml/100g for the lateral position. Thirtyone patients with intracronical growths were examined either directly before surgery or one year before it. In 22 of the patients examined before surgery a significantly lower regional perfusion could be computet for the ventral position; whereas the lateral perfusion values corresponded to values of healthy persons. The orienting calculation of regional brain perfusion at longer intervals after tumor extirpation did not show a significant difference to the clinically-neurologically inconspicuous patient collective in lateral exposure position normal patients. In 12 cases the calculation of the regional perfusion followed directly via the tumour. On an average, the values were about 8.2 ml/100g/min lower than in normal cases. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Development of a Personalized Model for Pressure Ulcer Prevention Acutely Following Spinal Cord Injury: Biomarkers of Muscle Composition and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Spinal cord injury, pressure ulcer prevention, biomarkers, personalized healthcare 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...pressure ulcer prevention, biomarkers, personalized healthcare 3. Accomplishments Major Project Goals Task 1: Subject Recruitment and Data...months (Co-Investigator) Clinically translatable nanotechnology : hemostasis and neuroprotection New studies 09/30/14 -09/30/15 Started 01/01/15

  18. Preferences of general practitioners regarding an application running on a personal digital assistant in acute stroke care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; van Til, Janine Astrid; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2005-01-01

    An application was developed to optimize information exchange in acute stroke care, with which general practitioners (GPs) could consult hospital emergency units. However, it was difficult to obtain clear preferences from GPs regarding the functional requirements of the information to be transferred

  19. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  20. The tension between person centred and task focused care in an acute surgical setting: A critical ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Sandra.; Mcallister, Margaret.; Broadbent, Mark.

    2017-01-01

    Problem: Person centred care is a key indicator of quality care and a policy direction in many hospitals yet some patients experience care that falls short of this standard.Background: Health services worldwide are prioritising the delivery of person centred in order to address historical concerns over patient safety and quality care and to improve workplace morale. Workplaceculture is known to affect nurses’ care giving.Question: This research aimed to uncover the cultural factors that hinde...

  1. Investigating the Usability and Acute Effects of a Bedside Video Console to Prefrontal Cortical Activity Alterations: A Preclinical Study in Healthy Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud H. Knols

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Elderly people at risk of developing cognitive decline; e.g., following surgery, may benefit from structured, challenging, and repetitive cognitive video training. This study assessed usability and acute effects of a newly developed bedside console (COPHYCON. Fifteen healthy elderly individuals performed a one-time 80-min intervention, including cognitive video games aimed at improving awareness and selective attention. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (Technology Acceptance Model were assessed together with measures of the achieved game level, reaction times, (in- correct responses during ALERT and SELECT game play. Further, prefrontal cortical involvement of the regional cerebral hemoglobin saturation (rS02% assessed with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS (n = 5 and EEG power (n = 10 was analyzed. All participants completed the study without any adverse events. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (TAM scores range 1–7 of the system varied between 3.9 and 6.3. The game levels reached for awareness varied between 9 and 11 (initial score 8–10, for reaction speed between 439 and 469 ms, and for correct responses between 74.1 and 78.8%. The highest level for the selective attention games was 2 (initial score 1, where reaction speed varied between 439 and 469 ms, correct responses between 96.2 and 98.5%, respectively. The decrease of rS02% in the right prefrontal cortex during gameplay was significantly (p < 0.001 lower, compared to the left prefrontal cortex. Four participants yielded significant lower rS02% measures after exergaming with the ALERT games (p < 0.000, but not with the SELECT games. EEG recordings of theta power significantly decreased in the averaged ~0.25–0.75 time interval for the left prefrontal cortex sensor across the cognitive game levels between the ALERT 1 and SELECT 1, as well as between SELECT 1 and 2 games. Participants rated the usability of the COPHYCON training positively

  2. Differences in serum zinc levels in acutely ill and remitted adolescents and young adults with bulimia nervosa in comparison with healthy controls – a cross-sectional pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Florian D; Rao, Pradeep; Runions, Kevin; Stewart, Richard M; Moore, Julia K; Wong, Janice WY; Linden, Maike; Sungurtekin, Idil; Glass, Franziska; Gut, Linda; Peetz, Dirk; Hintereder, Gudrun; Schaab, Michael; Poustka, Fritz; Wöckel, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background Research has implicated that changes in zinc (Zn) metabolism may be associated with the biological underpinnings of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa. However, to date research on the role of Zn in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) is scarce. Objective We aimed to explore serum Zn concentrations in young patients with BN, with a focus on the stage of the disorder, comparing acutely ill and recovered patients with BN with healthy controls. Methods Serum Zn concentrations were obtained from healthy controls and from acutely ill and remitted young patients with BN. Mean duration of remission was 4.0±3.5 years. Results Remitted patients showed elevated serum Zn concentrations when compared to controls (Cohen’s d=2.022), but concentrations were still in the normal range. Acutely ill patients also had higher serum Zn levels when compared to controls (all values still being within the reference range, Cohen’s d=0.882). There was no difference between acutely ill and remitted patients with BN in serum Zn concentrations. Of note, remitted patients had a significantly higher body weight when compared to the other two groups. Overall, there were no significant differences in dietary preferences with regard to Zn containing foods between the groups. Conclusion The present study provides preliminary evidence that the underlying factors for changes in Zn serum concentrations in young patients with BN do not vary with regard to the stage of illness (acute versus remitted BN). Further prospective research is needed in order to disentangle the possible interplay between serum Zn status and bulimic eating behaviors. PMID:29089768

  3. Personalized Prognostic Risk Score for Long-Term Survival for Children with Acute Leukemia after Allogeneic Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitan, Menachem; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Millard, Heather R; Pulsipher, Michael A; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Auletta, Jeffery J; Brown, Valerie; Chan, Ka Wah; Diaz, Miguel Angel; Dietz, Andrew; Vincent, Marta González; Guilcher, Gregory; Hale, Gregory A; Hayashi, Robert J; Keating, Amy; Mehta, Parinda; Myers, Kasiani; Page, Kristin; Prestidge, Tim; Shah, Nirali N; Smith, Angela R; Woolfrey, Ann; Thiel, Elizabeth; Davies, Stella M; Eapen, Mary

    2017-09-01

    We studied leukemia-free (LFS) and overall survival (OS) in children with acute myeloid (AML, n = 790) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n = 1096) who underwent transplantation between 2000 and 2010 and who survived for at least 1 year in remission after related or unrelated donor transplantation. Analysis of patient-, disease-, and transplantation characteristics and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was performed to identify factors with adverse effects on LFS and OS. These data were used to develop risk scores for survival. We did not identify any prognostic factors beyond 4 years after transplantation for AML and beyond 3 years for ALL. Risk score for survival for AML includes age, disease status at transplantation, cytogenetic risk group, and chronic GVHD. For ALL, the risk score includes age at transplantation and chronic GVHD. The 10-year probabilities of OS for AML with good (score 0, 1, or 2), intermediate (score 3), and poor risk (score 4, 5, 6, or 7) were 94%, 87%, and 68%, respectively. The 10-year probabilities of OS for ALL were 89% and 80% for good (score 0 or 1) and poor risk (score 2), respectively. Identifying children at risk for late mortality with early intervention may mitigate some excess late mortality. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute metabolic and endocrine responses induced by glucose and fructose in healthy young subjects: A double-blinded, randomized, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenwen; Li, Jie; Shi, Jiahui; Yang, Bo; Tang, Jun; Truby, Helen; Li, Duo

    2018-04-01

    A rise in fructose consumption has been implicated in the etiology of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Serum uric acid (UA) elevates after fructose ingestion, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the impact of fructose ingestion on nitric oxide (NO) has not yet been confirmed. The aim of this study was to investigate the postprandial metabolic and endocrine responses following an acute ingestion of fructose and glucose in healthy subjects. This was a double-blinded, randomized, crossover postprandial trial. Eighteen healthy young subjects (9 males and 9 females) with a mean age of 23.6 ± 2.3 years and mean BMI of 20.2 ± 1.5 kg/m 2 completed the experiment that was conducted in Hangzhou, China. Volunteers were randomized to two groups (A and B): after an 8-h overnight fast, volunteers either ingested 300 mL of 25% glucose (group A) or fructose (group B) solution at 0830 within 5 min. After a one-week washout period, volunteers were crossed over to receive the alternate test solution. Blood pressure was measured at 0 h, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h and venous blood was drawn at 0 h, 0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h after ingestion of the test solution. Eighteen subjects completed the study. Serum NO level tended to be lower at 1 h (59.40 ± 3.10 μmol/L and 68.1 ± 3.40 μmol/L, respectively, p ≤ 0.05) and 2 h (62.70 ± 3.10 μmol/L and 70.10 ± 3.50 μmol/L, respectively, p ≤ 0.05) after fructose ingestion than after glucose. The 3-h AUC (area under curve) of NO was significantly lower after fructose ingestion than after glucose (p ≤ 0.05). UA level was higher at 1 h (512.17 ± 17.74 μmol/L and 372.11 ± 17.41 μmol/L, respectively, p ≤ 0.01) and 2 h (440.22 ± 16.07 μmol/L and 357.39 ± 14.80 μmol/L, respectively, p ≤ 0.05) after fructose ingestion than after glucose. The 3-h AUC of UA was significantly higher after fructose ingestion than after glucose (p ≤ 0.01). Correlation

  5. Acute antidepressant drug administration and autobiographical memory recall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Williams, J Mark G

    2012-01-01

    Antidepressants affect memory and neural responses to emotionally valenced stimuli in healthy volunteers. However, it is unclear whether this extends to autobiographical memory for personally experienced events. The current study investigated the effects of acute administration of the antidepress...... of reboxetine on emotional memory extends to recall of personally experienced events. Such effects may be relevant to the cognitive improvements found with recovery from depression and with the mechanism of action of contemporary antidepressant drugs.......Antidepressants affect memory and neural responses to emotionally valenced stimuli in healthy volunteers. However, it is unclear whether this extends to autobiographical memory for personally experienced events. The current study investigated the effects of acute administration...... in the processing of positive versus negative memories was reduced following reboxetine compared with placebo in the left frontal lobe (extending into the insula) and the right superior temporal gyrus. This was paired with increased memory speed in volunteers given reboxetine versus placebo. The effect...

  6. Estimating the incidence of the acute coronary syndrome: data from a Danish cohort of 138 290 persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Foldspang, Anders; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2007-01-01

    consecutive ACS patients from 1 April 2000 to 31 March 2002. The population was identified from Danish Population Registers. RESULTS: A total of 189 victims of SCD and 457 ACS patients who survived until admission to hospital were present. Consequently, crude incidence rate of ACS was 234 per 100 000 person......-years. Unstable angina pectoris constituted for 16.9%, MI for 53.8% and SCD for 29.3% of ACS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Crude incidence rates of ACS were 137 and 331 per 100 000 person years for women and men, respectively. The incidence rate of ACS, as measured directly, was insignificantly 6% higher than expected...

  7. Personal experience on 71 consecutive patients with acute cholecystitis; Esperienza personale in settantuno pazienti consecutivi con colecistite acuta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, A.; Romano, L.; Scaglione, M.; Pinto, F. [Azienda Ospedaliera di Rilievo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, Neaples (Italy). Dipt. di Diagnostica per Immagini; Romano, S.; Grassi, R.; Cappabianca, S. [Neaples Seconda Univ., Neaples (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; Del Vecchio, W. [Neaples Univ. Federico 2, Neaples (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    2000-02-01

    Acute cholecystitis is one of the most frequent abdominal inflammatory processes. If untreated or misdiagnosed it can result in severe complications such as gallbladder rupture, abscesses, or peritonitis. It was retrospectively reviewed a series of 71 consecutive patients with surgical confirmation of acute cholecystitis and then compared the results of the diagnostic techniques that have been used preoperatively. Over 16 months, 71 consecutive patients (42 women and 29 men; age range: 34-84 years, mean: 58) with acute abdominal pain were operated on for acute cholecystitis at Cardarelli Hospital, Naples. On abdominal plain films, it was retrospectively searched the following signs: densities projected over the gallbladder, linear calcifications in gallbladder walls, gallbladder enlargement, focal gas collections within the gallbladder, and air-fluid levels in the gallbladder wall lumen. On US images it has been looked for: gallbladder wall thickening (>3 mm), intraluminal content in the gallbladder, pericholecystic fluid, US Murphy's sign, and gallbladder distension. On CT images, it has been investigated: gallbladder distensions, wall thickening, intraluminal content, pericholecystic fluid, and inflammatory changes in pericholecystic fat. On plain abdominal films it was found densities projected over the gallbladder (16.9%) and linear calcifications in the gallbladder wall (4.6%). US appears to be the most useful imaging technique in patients with suspected acute cholecystitis, for both screening and final diagnosis. CT plays a limited role in the early assessment of these patients, but can a useful tool in diagnosing acute cholecystitis in patients with questionable physical findings or in investigating related complications. [Italian] La colecistite acuta e' una delle flogosi addominali con riscontro piu' frequente. Presenta complicanze (perforazione, ascesso, peritonite) quando non curata o non diagnosticata. Gli autori conducono l

  8. Persistent and fluctuating anxiety levels in the 18 months following acute myocardial infarction: the role of personality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, H; Roest, Annelieke; Denollet, J.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the varying courses of anxiety symptoms in the first 18 months after a myocardial infarction (MI) and to examine the importance of personality in determining elevated anxiety. METHODS: Four hundred eighty-six MI patients completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory during

  9. Type D personality is associated with low cardiovascular reactivity to acute mental stress in heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, N.; Denollet, J.; Widdershoven, J.W.M.G.; Kop, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The distressed (Type D) personality is associated with adverse coronary heart disease outcomes, but the mechanisms accounting for this association remain to be elucidated. We examined whether myocardial and hemodynamic responses to mental stress are disrupted in Type D patients with

  10. Acute hepatitis C in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV: The "Real-life Setting" proves the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obermeier M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Outbreaks of sexually transmitted acute HCV infection have been described recently in several cities in the western world. The epidemic affects mainly MSM who are coinfected with HIV and is supposably linked to certain sexual risk practices. Here, we compared our findings with current knowledge and recommendations. Methods HIV-positive patients with the diagnosis of acute HCV infection were included in the retrospective analysis. The patients came from outpatient infectious disease centers in northern German cities. We looked at markers of HIV and HCV infection and compared patients who received treatment and those who did not. Treated patients were followed up to 72 weeks. Results Three hundred nineteen HIV-positive patients with the diagnosis of acute hepatitis C between 2001 and 2008 and were included in the analysis. All patients were male, 315 (99% patients were of caucasian origin, 296 (93% declared homosexual contacts as a risk factor for HCV infection, intravenous drug use was declared in 3 (1% cases. Median age at HCV diagnosis was 40 years (range 20-69 years. Median HCV viral load was 1.2 × 106 IU/mL, 222 patients (70% had HCV genotype 1, 59 (18% genotype 4. The median time of HIV infection was 5.5 years (range 0 to 22.4 years. Median HIV viral load was 110 copies/mL (range 25 to 10 × 106 copies/mL. The median CD 4 count was 461 cells/mm3 (range 55- 1331 cells/mm3. Two hundred and fourty-six patients (77% received anti-HCV treatment, and 175 (55% had completed therapy by the time of the analysis. Median treatment duration was 33 weeks (IQR 24.1-49.9. 93 of the 175 treated patients (53% reached a sustained virological response (SVR. In the multivariate analysis, ART at diagnosis, HCV RNA drop at week 12, hemoglobin levels and higher platelets were associated with SVR. Treatment duration was significantly higher in the SVR group (40.6 weeks vs 26.6 weeks, p Conclusions Our findings confirm that acute hepatitis C in

  11. Staff nurse perceptions of the impact of mentalization-based therapy skills training when working with borderline personality disorder in acute mental health: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrender, D

    2015-10-01

    People diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly prevalent in acute mental health wards, with staff nurses identifying a challenge in working with people who can be significantly distressed. This has contributed to a negative stereotype verging on stigmatization. Mentalization-based therapy (MBT) is a psychological therapy which has been shown to be of benefit to people with a diagnosis of BPD, yet it has been utilized and evaluated only in partial hospitalization and outpatient settings. Despite this, most people diagnosed with BPD will continue to be treated in generic inpatient settings such as acute mental health. Mentalization-based therapy skills training (MBT-S) is a new and cost-effective 2-day workshop aiming to provide generalist practitioners with MBT skills for use in generic settings. This study aimed to capture staff perceptions of the impact of MBT-S on their practice when working with people with a diagnosis of BPD in acute mental health. Through two focus groups, this study assessed the perceptions of nine staff nurses. An interpretive phenomenological approach was utilized in data analysis. Participants found the approach easy to grasp, improving of consistency between staff and flexible in its use in planned or 'off the cuff' discussions. MBT-S promoted empathy and humane responses to self-harm, impacted on participants ability to tolerate risk and went some way to turning the negative perception of BPD through changing the notion of patients as 'deliberately difficult'. Staff felt empowered and more confident in working with people with a diagnosis of BPD. The positive implication for practice was the ease in which the approach was adopted and participants perception of MBT-S as an empowering skill set which also contributed to attitudinal change. In acute mental health environments, which may not have the resources to provide long-term structured treatments to patients, MBT-S could be viewed as ideal as participants

  12. The association between personal sun exposure, serum vitamin D and global methylation in human lymphocytes in a population of healthy adults in South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair-Shalliker, Visalini, E-mail: visalinin@nswcc.org.au [Cancer Research Division, Cancer Council New South Wales (Australia); Dhillon, Varinderpal [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences (Australia); Clements, Mark [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Armstrong, Bruce K. [Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney (Australia); Fenech, Michael [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences (Australia)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Solar UV exposure is positively correlated with LINE 1 hypomethylation. • This was observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. • There was no evident effect modification by serum vitamin D (25OHD) levels. • This was observed in a population of healthy adults from South Australia. - Abstract: Background: There is a positive association between solar UV exposure and micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and this association may be stronger when serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are insufficient (<50 nmol/L). Micronucleus formation can result from global hypomethylation of DNA repeat sequences. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the relationship between solar UV exposure and methylation pattern in LINE-1 repetitive elements in PBL DNA and to see if serum 25(OH)D levels modify it. Method: Personal solar UV exposure was estimated from hours of outdoor exposure over 6 weeks recalled at the time of blood collection in 208 male and female participants living in South Australia. Methylation in LINE-1 repetitive elements was assessed in PBL using pyrosequencing. Results: Methylation in LINE-1 decreased with increasing solar UV exposure (% decrease = 0.5% per doubling of sUV; 95%CI: −0.7 to −0.2 p{sub value} = 0.00003). Although there was no correlation between LINE-1 methylation and micronucleus frequency, there was a 4.3% increase (95%CI: 0.6–8.1 p-value = 0.02) in nucleoplasmic bridges and a 4.3% increase in necrosis (CI: 1.9–6.8 p-value = 0.0005) for every 1% increase in LINE-1 methylation. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with DNA methylation; or did it modify the association of solar UV with DNA methylation. Conclusion: Exposure to solar UV radiation may reduce DNA methylation in circulating lymphocytes. This association does not appear to be influenced or mediated by vitamin D status.

  13. The effect of speaking rate on serial-order sound-level errors in normal healthy controls and persons with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossett, Tepanta R D; McNeil, Malcolm R; Pratt, Sheila R; Tompkins, Connie A; Shuster, Linda I

    Although many speech errors can be generated at either a linguistic or motoric level of production, phonetically well-formed sound-level serial-order errors are generally assumed to result from disruption of phonologic encoding (PE) processes. An influential model of PE (Dell, 1986; Dell, Burger & Svec, 1997) predicts that speaking rate should affect the relative proportion of these serial-order sound errors (anticipations, perseverations, exchanges). These predictions have been extended to, and have special relevance for persons with aphasia (PWA) because of the increased frequency with which speech errors occur and because their localization within the functional linguistic architecture may help in diagnosis and treatment. Supporting evidence regarding the effect of speaking rate on phonological encoding has been provided by studies using young normal language (NL) speakers and computer simulations. Limited data exist for older NL users and no group data exist for PWA. This study tested the phonologic encoding properties of Dell's model of speech production (Dell, 1986; Dell,et al., 1997), which predicts that increasing speaking rate affects the relative proportion of serial-order sound errors (i.e., anticipations, perseverations, and exchanges). The effects of speech rate on the error ratios of anticipation/exchange (AE), anticipation/perseveration (AP) and vocal reaction time (VRT) were examined in 16 normal healthy controls (NHC) and 16 PWA without concomitant motor speech disorders. The participants were recorded performing a phonologically challenging (tongue twister) speech production task at their typical and two faster speaking rates. A significant effect of increased rate was obtained for the AP but not the AE ratio. Significant effects of group and rate were obtained for VRT. Although the significant effect of rate for the AP ratio provided evidence that changes in speaking rate did affect PE, the results failed to support the model derived predictions

  14. Person-centred pain management for the patient with acute abdominal pain: an ethnography informed by the Fundamentals of Care framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avallin, Therese; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Sorensen, Erik Elgaard; Kitson, Alison; Björck, Martin; Jangland, Eva

    2018-06-12

    To explore and describe the impact of the organizational culture on and the patient-practitioner patterns of actions that contribute to or detract from successful pain management for the patient with acute abdominal pain across the acute care pathway. Although pain management is a recognised human right, unmanaged pain continues to cause suffering and prolong hospital care. Unanswered questions about how to successfully manage pain relate to both organizational culture and individual practitioners' performance. Focused ethnography, applying the Developmental Research Sequence and the Fundamentals of Care framework. Participant observation and informal interviews (92 hours) were performed at one emergency department and two surgical wards at a University Hospital during April - November 2015. Data includes 261 interactions between patients, aged ≥18 years seeking care for acute abdominal pain at the emergency department and admitted to a surgical ward (N = 31; aged 20-90 years; 14 men, 17 women; 9 with communicative disabilities) and healthcare practitioners (N =198). The observations revealed an organizational culture with considerable impact on how well pain was managed. Well managed pain presupposed the patient and practitioners to connect in a holistic pain management including a trustful relationship, communication to share knowledge and individualized analgesics. Person-centred pain management requires an organization where patients and practitioners share their knowledge of pain and pain management as true partners. Leaders and practitioners should make small behavioural changes to enable the crucial positive experience of pain management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimation of the dose distribution within, and total dose to, the body of an acutely overexposed person

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.P. de; Feather, J.I.; Oude, A. de; Language, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    In a case of accidental overexposure of a person, it is important to obtain a reliable value of the whole body dose as well as of the dose distribution within the body. Any follow-up treatment based only on the clinical effects as and when they appear, may result in insufficient or even erroneous therapy. In this respect knowledge of total dose and its distribution within the body may be a valuable aid in deciding on the follow-up treatment, taking into account the latent nature of the clinical effects. The calculated whole body dose and its distribution within the body of a person overexposed to a 192 Ir radiography source, are compared to experimentally determined values. In both cases the calculated values prove to be of sufficient accuracy to serve as an aid in decisions on the follow-up treatment. (author)

  16. Evaluating personality as a moderator of the association between life events stress and cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; O'Riordan, Adam; McMahon, Grace; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigated the possible interaction between life events stress and personality in predicting cardiovascular stress responses. Participants (N = 184) completed psychometric measures of life event stress and personality styles and had cardiovascular responses monitored during a standardised stress testing protocol. In adjusted models, the observed blunted association between life event stress and SBP and DBP was moderated by openness; this was more evident at -1SD below the mean openness value. Further, the association between life event stress and TPR vascular resistance was found to be moderated by conscientiousness. In particular, we found conscientiousness at both the mean and 1SD above the mean buffered against the negative impact of life stress on TPR reactivity. The findings are discussed in relation to theory and future directions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Eating Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is much we can do to promote healthy eating habits. Together we can prevent or delay onset of diabetes, obesity and other chronic conditions and diseases. Benefits Helps maintain a healthy weight A healthy weight reduces risk of chronic ...

  18. Acute effects of walking with Nordic poles in persons with mild to moderate low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revord, Landon P; Lomond, Karen V; Loubert, Peter V; Hammer, Roger L

    2016-01-01

    Regular walking with or without Nordic poles is effective over time at reducing discomfort in individuals with chronic low back pain (LBP). Nordic pole use increases balance and stability, distributes weight through the arms and torso, and decreases loading of the spine and lower limbs. The purpose of this study was to determine if Nordic poles would reduce perceived acute discomfort while self-paced walking in individuals with LBP. We also examined whether walking with or without poles increased heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) or speed of movement. Subjects included 20 adults (12 males, 8 females; mean age of 45.1±16.3) who were experiencing LBP of at least six months' duration (Oswestry Disability Index (ODI): mean 17 ± 8%, range 6-36% indicating minimal to moderate disability) with no current active flare-up. Participants walked a predetermined dirt-path course (805 m or 0.5 mi) with and without poles in randomized order. Data were analyzed using a 2 X 2 repeated measures ANOVA (Condition X Time), where Condition was poles vs no poles and Time was pre- and post-walk. HR and RPE increased significantly from walking the course, whereas pain did not change. There were also no differences between walking with or without poles for pain (ODI Sec #1: 0.2 points, p=0.324), HR (4 bpm, p=0.522) and RPE (0 points, p=0.759). The mean course time (sec) was slower with poles: 617±87 vs 566±65 (pNordic pole use is well tolerated in those with current back pain and can be encouraged, however it cannot be recommended as a superior method of addressing acute symptoms when walking.

  19. Arterial and venous oxygen partial pressure and utilization factor η, resp., and 133Xe muscle clearance after UV irradiation of skin or blood of healthy persons and patients with occlusive arterial disease and psoriasis, resp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherf, H.P.; Strangfeld, D.; Meffert, H.; Glatzel, E.; Siewert, H.; Soennichsen, N.; Correns, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    In three teams of test persons series of UV irradiations of the skin (λ max 365 nm) and of the blood (λ max 254 nm) were performed, and moreover pseudoirradiations of the blood as placebo and infrared irradiations of the skin were carried out. UV irradiations of the blood increased the factor η (O 2 utilization) in all test persons. In healthy persons and patients with psoriasis UV irradiations of the skin involved a homogeneous, but less distinct effect, this was, however, not the case in patients with vascular diseases. According to the results of the 133 Xe muscle clearance the improved utilization of oxygen does not result from increased peripheral blood supply. (author)

  20. Acute opioid withdrawal is associated with increased neural activity in reward-processing centers in healthy men: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Larry F; Lin, Joanne C; Clemenson, Anna; Encisco, Ellen; Sun, John; Hoang, Dan; Alva, Heather; Erlendson, Matthew; Clark, J David; Younger, Jarred W

    2015-08-01

    Opioid analgesics are frequently prescribed for chronic pain. One expected consequence of long-term opioid use is the development of physical dependence. Although previous resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated signal changes in reward-associated areas following morphine administration, the effects of acute withdrawal on the human brain have been less well-investigated. In an earlier study by our laboratory, ondansetron was shown to be effective in preventing symptoms associated with opioid withdrawal. The purpose of this current study was to characterize neural activity associated with acute opioid withdrawal and examine whether these changes are modified by ondansetron. Ten participants were enrolled in this placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover study and attended three acute opioid withdrawal sessions. Participants received either placebo or ondansetron (8Ymg IV) before morphine administration (10Ymg/70Ykg IV). Participants then underwent acute naloxone-precipitated withdrawal during a resting state fMRI scan. Objective and subjective opioid withdrawal symptoms were assessed. Imaging results showed that naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal was associated with increased neural activity in several reward processing regions, including the right pregenual cingulate, putamen, and bilateral caudate, and decreased neural activity in networks involved in sensorimotor integration. Ondansetron pretreatment did not have a significant effect on the imaging correlates of opioid withdrawal. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the regional changes in neural activity during acute opioid withdrawal. The fMRI acute opioid withdrawal model may serve as a tool for studying opioid dependence and withdrawal in human participants. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The distressed (Type D) and Five-Factor Models of personality in young, healthy adults and their association with emotional inhibition and distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svansdóttir, E.; van den Broek, K.C.; Karlsson, H.D.; Olason, D.T.; Thorgilsson, H.; Denollet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The distressed (Type D) personality (the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) has been associated with adverse health outcomes. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct against the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality, and its association with

  2. Effect of acute tryptophan depletion on emotions in individuals with personal and family history of depression following a mood induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Sarah E; Shankman, Stewart A; Spring, Bonnie

    2010-08-01

    Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) has shown depletion-specific increases in depressed mood and overall depressive symptoms, especially in those with a family history and in remitted patients. However, its effect on a broad range of emotions beyond depressed mood has been inconsistent, and studies have rarely employed a negative mood induction. The present double-blind study administered tryptophan-depleted and taste-matched placebo challenge drinks to individuals with a past diagnosis and family history of depression (i.e. depression-vulnerable subjects) and controls in order to investigate the effect of ATD on positive affect, anxiety, anger and depressed mood following a negative mood induction. Certain aspects of positive affect decreased due to ATD in the depression vulnerables but not in the controls. No differential effects were found on depressed mood and anxiety. A stress-induced blunted hedonic capacity may increase vulnerability to ATD and may be a core emotional abnormality in depression. Additionally, serotonin may have a stronger influence on positive affect than on other depression-related emotions during periods of stress. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Personalizing Chinese medicine by integrating molecular features of diseases and herb ingredient information: application to acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Li, Haichang; Xie, Duoli; Shi, Tieliu; Wen, Chengping

    2017-06-27

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely used as a complementary medicine in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) treatment. In this study, we proposed a new classification of Chinese Medicines (CMs) by integrating the latest discoveries in disease molecular mechanisms and traditional medicine theory. We screened out a set of chemical compounds on basis of AML differential expression genes and chemical-protein interactions and then mapped them to Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database. 415 CMs contain those compounds and they were categorized into 8 groups according to the Traditional Chinese Pharmacology. Pathway analysis and synthetic lethality gene pairs were applied to analyze the dissimilarity, generality and intergroup relations of different groups. We defined hub CM pairs and alternative CM groups based on the analysis result and finally proposed a formula to form an effective anti-AML prescription which combined the hub CM pairs with alternative CMs according to patients' molecular features. Our method of formulating CMs based on patients' stratification provides novel insights into the new usage of conventional CMs and will promote TCM modernization.

  4. The acute effects on duodenal gene expression in healthy men following consumption of a low-fat meal enriched with theobromine or fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Ridder, De Rogier J.J.; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-01-01

    Increasing apoA-I synthesis may improve HDL functionality and lower CVD risk. As theobromine and fat increase fasting apoA-I concentrations, and the intestine is involved in apoA-I production, the acute effects of both were studied on duodenal gene transcription to better understand underlying

  5. Personality Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality is the integration of characteristics acquired or brought by birth which separate the individual from others. Personality involves aspects of the individual's mental, emotional, social, and physical features in continuum. Several theories were suggested to explain developmental processes of personality. Each theory concentrates on one feature of human development as the focal point, then integrates with other areas of development in general. Most theories assume that childhood, especially up to 5-6 years, has essential influence on development of personality. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors reveals a unique personality along growth and developmental process. It could be said that individual who does not have any conflict between his/her basic needs and society's, has well-developed and psychologically healthy personality.

  6. Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product-based diets on newly received growing cattle: antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spore, Tyler J; Montgomery, Sean P; Titgemeyer, Evan C; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Vahl, Chris I; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cavalli, Kevin T; Hollenbeck, William R; Wahl, Ross A; Blasi, Dale A

    2018-04-14

    Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product-based diets on antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid newly received growing cattle were evaluated. Four dietary treatments were formulated to supply 0.99, 1.10, 1.21, and 1.32 Mcal NEg/ kg DM and were offered at 100%, 95%, 90%, and 85% of ad libitum based on 0.99/100 treatment intake, respectively. Thirty-two pens were utilized with approximately 12 animals/pen. Four animals from each pen (32/dietary treatment) were randomly selected and used to serve as a subset to monitor immune function and acute phase proteins following a split-plot design. In addition, two animals were randomly and independently selected from each pen (16/dietary treatment) and used to measure fecal cortisol metabolite. Additionally, animals removed from the pen one (M1), two (M2), or three (M3) times and classified as morbid were bled in conjunction with a healthy control (H) removed at the same time and the serum analyzed for the same parameters. A quadratic response to time (P bovine viral diarrhea type 1 (BVD-I) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR; P levels by day 27. Titer levels for BVD-I and IBR were lowest on arrival, higher on day 14, and significantly higher on day 27. Titers for bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVD-II) responded linearly (P levels on arrival and highest levels on day 27. Haptoglobin was elevated in morbid animals compared to healthy pen mates (P levels for BVD-I and IBR were also higher in healthy animals compared to animals pulled for morbidity (P energy receiving diets based on fermentable fiber from by-products can be fed to newly received growing cattle without negative effects on antibody production toward vaccines, inflammation, or overall stress. In addition, haptoglobin concentrations and titer levels for BVD-I and IBR viruses are higher in healthy animals compared to sick animals.

  7. Gender determines cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute physical and psychosocial stress in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ayako; Oshita, Harumi; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Aimi; Ikeda, Rie; Ando, Tomoko; Aizawa, Saeko; Masuda, Koji; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2015-07-30

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability, unstable relationships, and identity disturbance. We measured salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol levels in all participants during exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and an electric stimulation stress. Seventy-two BPD patients were compared with 377 age- and gender- matched controls. The State and Trait versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test (STAI-S and STAI-T, respectively), the Profile of Mood State (POMS) tests, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS) were administered to participants before electrical stimulation. Following TSST exposure, salivary cortisol levels significantly decreased in female patients and significantly increased in male patients compared with controls. POMS tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, fatigue, and confusion scores were significantly increased in BPD patients compared with controls. In contrast, vigor scores were significantly decreased in BPD patients relative to controls. Furthermore, STAI-T and STAI-S anxiety scores and BDI scores were significantly increased in BPD patient compared with controls. DACS scores were significantly increased in BPD patient compared with controls. Different stressors (e.g., psychological or physical) induced different responses in the HPA and SAM systems in female or male BPD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotional personality/proximity versus emotional authenticity in patient-physician communication in healthy study participants, and in patients with benign breast disease, and breast cancer: a prospective case-control study in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Matti; Korhonen, Riika; Selander, Tuomas; Ollonen, Paula

    2015-03-01

    The associations between emotional personality, proximity and authenticity in patient-physician communication during breast cancer (BC) consultations are rarely considered together in a prospective study. We, therefore, investigated emotional personality/proximity versus authenticity in patient-physician communication in healthy study subjects (HSS) and in patients with benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer (BC). In the Kuopio Breast Cancer Study, 115 women with breast symptoms were evaluated regarding emotional personality, proximity and authenticity in their a patient-physician communication before any diagnostic procedures were carried-out. The emotional personality and the emotional proximity in patient-physician communication was highly significantly positively correlated in the BBD group. The kappa-values for emotional personality versus emotional proximity in the HSS, BBD and BC groups were statistically significant. There was also a highly significant positive correlation between emotional personality and emotional authenticity in the HSS, BBD and BC groups and the kappa values in the HSS, BBD and BC groups were statistically significant. There was a highly significant positive correlation between emotional proximity and emotional authenticity in the BBD group, and the weighted kappa-values in the BBD group were statistically significant. The results of the present study support a powerful link between emotional personality/proximity and emotional authenticity, and provides new information in patient-physician communication in the HSS, BBD and BC groups. This finding is of clinical importance, since during breast disease consultation, barriers to patient-physician communication may be associated with difficulties in early BC diagnosis in the breast cancer diagnostic unit. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Screening for hazardous drinking using the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test-Geriatric Version (MAST-G) in elderly persons with acute cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Greene, Doug; McCaul, Mary E; Roger, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Effective and valid screening methods are needed to identify hazardous drinking in elderly persons with new onset acute medical illness. The goal of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test-Geriatric Version (MAST-G) in identifying hazardous drinking among elderly patients with acute cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) and to compare the effectiveness of 2 shorter versions of the MAST-G with the full instrument. The study sample included 100 men and women who averaged 12 days posthemorrhagic or ischemic CVA admitted to a rehabilitation unit and who were at least 50 years of age and free of substance use other than alcohol. This cross-sectional validation study compared the 24-item full MAST-G, the 10-item Short MAST-G (SMAST-G), and a 2-item regression analysis derived Mini MAST-G (MMAST-G) to the reference standard of hazardous drinking during the past 3 months. Alcohol use was collected using the Timeline Followback (TLFB). Recent and lifetime alcohol-related consequences were collected using the Short Inventory of Problems (SIP). Nearly one-third (28%) of the study sample met the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for hazardous drinking. Moderately strong associations were found for the MAST-G, SMAST-G, and MMAST-G with alcohol quantity and frequency and recent and lifetime alcohol consequences. All 3 MAST-G versions could differentiate hazardous from nonhazardous drinkers and had nearly identical area under the curve characteristics. Comparable sensitivity was found across the 3 MAST-G measures. The optimal screening threshold for hazardous drinking was 5 for the MAST-G, 2 for the SMAST-G, and 1 for the MMAST-G. The 10-item SMAST-G and 2-item MMAST-G are brief screening tests that show comparable effectiveness in detecting hazardous drinking in elderly patients with acute CVA compared with the full 24-item MAST-G. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  10. Comparable postprandial glucose reductions with viscous fiber blend enriched biscuits in healthy subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus: acute randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Alexandra L; Jenkins, David J A; Wolever, Thomas M S; Rogovik, Alexander L; Jovanovski, Elena; Bozikov, Velimir; Rahelić, Dario; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    To compare the blood glucose-lowering effect of a highly viscous fiber blend (VFB) added to a starchy snack on postprandial glycemia between healthy participants and participants with diabetes mellitus. Ten healthy participants (4 men and 6 women, aged 28+/-2.6 years, body mass index [BMI], 24.3+/-0.8 kg/m(2)) and 9 participants with diabetes mellitus type 2 (3 men and 6 women, aged 68+/-3.8 years, BMI 28.8+/-1.2 kg/m(2)) on four separate occasions took either 50 g available carbohydrates as control biscuits, biscuits with 10 g of highly viscous fiber blend, white bread with 12 g of margarine, or white bread alone. Postprandial blood glucose response, glycemic index (GI), and palatability were determined. Mean (95% confidence interval) GI values of the viscous fiber blend biscuits were 26 (16-36) and 37 (27-47) GI units for healthy participants and participants with diabetes mellitus, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those of white bread, white bread with 12 g of margarine, and control biscuits (Phealthy participants (GI 100, 108 [57-159], and 101 [44-158], respectively) and participants with diabetes mellitus (GI 100, 103 [79-127], and 94 [78-110], respectively). Viscous fiber blend significantly reduced the glycemic index by 74% (7.4 GI units/g of fiber) in healthy participants and by 63% (6.3 GI units/g of fiber) in participants with diabetes. The GI did not differ between control meals in both healthy participants and participants with diabetes. There were no significant differences in palatability among the types of meals, although participants with diabetes found the viscous fiber blend biscuits more palatable (P=0.002, t test). Viscous fiber blend is a very potent and palatable soluble fiber addition to a starchy snack, which is able to reduce the glycemic response to a similar extent in both healthy participants and individuals with diabetes mellitus. Biscuits with low GI, and possibly other viscous fiber blend fortified starchy

  11. Sex determines cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute physical and psychosocial stress in patients with avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Inoue, Ayako; Oshita, Harumi; Okamoto, Kana; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Aizawa, Saeko; Masuda, Koji; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2016-08-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) has excessive and pervasive anxiety and discomfort in social situations. The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between AVPD and physical and psychological stress and psychological tests. We evaluated 93 AVPD patients and 355 nonpatient controls by salivary amylase and cortisol responses during exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and electrical stimulation stress. Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood State (POMS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were administered. Following electrical stimulation, salivary cortisol levels in female AVPD decreased significantly less than that in female's controls, but salivary cortisol levels did not show a difference between male AVPD patients and controls. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. Following TSST exposure, sAA levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. Salivary cortisol levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. In the AVPD patients, POMS scores were significantly higher compared with the controls. STAI, BDI, DACS scores, and CTQ significantly increased in the AVPD patients compared with the controls. LF in heart rate variability in AVPD significantly increased more compared with controls. These results suggest that heightened sympathetic reactivity in female AVPD co-occurs with attenuated salivary cortisol responses to electric stimulation stress and there is a significant difference between AVPD and controls in mood, anxiety, social cognition, and automatic nerve systems.

  12. Morphing the feature-based multi-blocks of normative/healthy vertebral geometries to scoliosis vertebral geometries: development of personalized finite element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadagali, Prasannaah; Peters, James R; Balasubramanian, Sriram

    2018-03-12

    Personalized Finite Element (FE) models and hexahedral elements are preferred for biomechanical investigations. Feature-based multi-block methods are used to develop anatomically accurate personalized FE models with hexahedral mesh. It is tedious to manually construct multi-blocks for large number of geometries on an individual basis to develop personalized FE models. Mesh-morphing method mitigates the aforementioned tediousness in meshing personalized geometries every time, but leads to element warping and loss of geometrical data. Such issues increase in magnitude when normative spine FE model is morphed to scoliosis-affected spinal geometry. The only way to bypass the issue of hex-mesh distortion or loss of geometry as a result of morphing is to rely on manually constructing the multi-blocks for scoliosis-affected spine geometry of each individual, which is time intensive. A method to semi-automate the construction of multi-blocks on the geometry of scoliosis vertebrae from the existing multi-blocks of normative vertebrae is demonstrated in this paper. High-quality hexahedral elements were generated on the scoliosis vertebrae from the morphed multi-blocks of normative vertebrae. Time taken was 3 months to construct the multi-blocks for normative spine and less than a day for scoliosis. Efforts taken to construct multi-blocks on personalized scoliosis spinal geometries are significantly reduced by morphing existing multi-blocks.

  13. State of gas exchange in recumbent and orthostatic positions and under physical load in healthy persons of varying age, sex and body build

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, G. A.; Charyyev, M.; Zilbert, N. L.

    1980-01-01

    Age effect on gas exchange was studied in the recumbent and orthostatic positions and under physical load. In the case of the older age group and for normal as compared with hypersthenic persons, oxygen consumption during rest and during moderate physical overload diminishes. When the vertical position is assumed oxygen consumption in persons of various age groups is distinctly increased, particularly in the elderly group. There is a reduction in the amount of oxygen consumption, oxygen pulse, recovery coefficient, and work efficiency under moderate overload. In persons over 50, physical labor induces a large oxygen requirement and a sharp rise in the level of lactic acid and the blood's lactate/pyruvate ratio. No distinct difference was noted in the amount of oxygen consumed during rest and during physical overload in men and women of the same physical development and age.

  14. Cortical representation of illusory body perception in healthy persons and amputees: implications for the understanding and treatment of phantom limb pain

    OpenAIRE

    Milde, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    A disturbed body perception is characteristic for various neurological and mental disorders and becomes particularly evident in phantom phenomena after limb amputation. Body illusions, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF) illusions, have been shown to be efficient in treating chronic pain and to be further related to a reversal of cortical reorganization. The present thesis aimed at identifying the neural circuitry of illusory body perception in healthy subjects and unilateral upper-limb ampu...

  15. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...

  16. Potential antiproliferative activity of polyphenol metabolites against human breast cancer cells and their urine excretion pattern in healthy subjects following acute intake of a polyphenol-rich juice of grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, L L; Costa, G R; Dörr, F A; Ong, T P; Pinto, E; Lajolo, F M; Hassimotto, N M A

    2017-06-21

    The bioavailability and metabolism of anthocyanins and ellagitannins following acute intake of grumixama fruit, native Brazilian cherry, by humans, and its in vitro antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) were investigated. A single dose of grumixama juice was administered to healthy women (n = 10) and polyphenol metabolites were analyzed in urine and plasma samples collected over 24 h. The majority of the metabolites circulating and excreted in urine were phenolic acids and urolithin conjugates, the gut microbiota catabolites of both classes of polyphenols, respectively. According to pharmacokinetic parameters, the subjects were divided into two distinct groups, high and low urinary metabolite excretors. The pool of polyphenol metabolites found in urine samples showed a significant inhibition of cell proliferation and G2/M cell cycle arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings demonstrate the large interindividual variability concerning the polyphenol metabolism, which possibly could reflect in health promotion.

  17. The role of sex and autonomy-connectedness in internalizing and externalizing personality pathology, coping and axis-I pathology : Among psychiatric and healthy elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachrach, N.; Croon, M.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In the current study we investigated the relationship of sex and autonomy-connectedness with internalizing and externalizing personality disorder symptoms (PDS), coping and axis-I pathology in older age. Method: A path model was tested which was based on neo-analytical object relation,

  18. Randomized controlled trial of a self-management intervention in persons with spinal cord injury : design of the HABITS (Healthy Active Behavioural IntervenTion in SCI) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijmans, H.; Post, M. W. M.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; de Groot, S.; Stam, H. J.; Bussmann, J. B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a 16-week self-management intervention on physical activity level and self-management skills (self-efficacy, proactive coping and problem solving skills) in persons with chronic SCI. Method and design: Multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT). Eighty

  19. Effects of Dietary Acute Tryptophan Depletion (ATD) on NPY Serum Levels in Healthy Adult Humans Whilst Controlling for Methionine Supply—A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janice W. Y.; Morandini, Hugo A. E.; Dingerkus, Vita L. S.; Gaber, Tilman J.; Runions, Kevin C.; Mahfouda, Simone; Helmbold, Katrin; Bubenzer-Busch, Sarah; Koenemann, Rebecca; Stewart, Richard M.; Zepf, Florian D.

    2018-01-01

    Central nervous serotonin (5-HT) can influence behaviour and neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence from animal models suggest that lowered levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) may have similar effects, although it is currently unknown whether decreased central nervous 5-HT impact NPY concentrations. Given that the production of NPY is dependent on the essential amino acid methionine (MET), it is imperative to account for the presence of MET in such investigations. Hence, this study sought to examine the effects of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD; a dietary procedure that temporarily lowers central nervous 5-HT synthesis) on serum concentrations of NPY, whilst using the potential renal acid load indicator (PRAL) to control for levels of MET. In a double-blind repeated measures design, 24 adult humans randomly received an AA-load lacking in TRP (ATD) on one occasion, and a balanced control mixture with TRP (BAL) on a second occasion, both with a PRAL of nearly 47.3 mEq of MET. Blood samples were obtained at 90, 180, and 240 min after each of the AA challenges. ATD, and therefore, diminished substrate availability for brain 5-HT synthesis did not lead to significant changes in serum NPY concentrations over time, compared to BAL, under an acute acidotic stimulus. PMID:29751614

  20. Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose on the pharmacokinetics of fructose and acute metabolic and hemodynamic responses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Myphuong T; Frye, Reginald F; Rivard, Christopher J; Cheng, Jing; McFann, Kim K; Segal, Mark S; Johnson, Richard J; Johnson, Julie A

    2012-05-01

    It is unclear whether high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which contains a higher amount of fructose and provides an immediate source of free fructose, induces greater systemic concentrations of fructose as compared with sucrose. It is also unclear whether exposure to higher levels of fructose leads to increased fructose-induced adverse effects. The objective was to prospectively compare the effects of HFCS- vs sucrose-sweetened soft drinks on acute metabolic and hemodynamic effects. Forty men and women consumed 24 oz of HFCS- or sucrose-sweetened beverages in a randomized crossover design study. Blood and urine samples were collected over 6 hours. Blood pressure, heart rate, fructose, and a variety of other metabolic biomarkers were measured. Fructose area under the curve and maximum concentration, dose-normalized glucose area under the curve and maximum concentration, relative bioavailability of glucose, changes in postprandial concentrations of serum uric acid, and systolic blood pressure maximum levels were higher when HFCS-sweetened beverages were consumed as compared with sucrose-sweetened beverages. Compared with sucrose, HFCS leads to greater fructose systemic exposure and significantly different acute metabolic effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of high fructose corn syrup and sucrose on the pharmacokinetics of fructose and acute metabolic and hemodynamic responses in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, MyPhuong T.; Frye, Reginald F.; Rivard, Christopher J.; Cheng, Jing; McFann, Kim K.; Segal, Mark S.; Johnson, Richard J.; Johnson, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is unclear whether high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which contains a higher amount of fructose and provides an immediate source of free fructose, induces greater systemic concentrations of fructose as compared to sucrose. It is also unclear whether exposure to higher levels of fructose leads to increased fructose-induced adverse effects. The objective was to prospectively compare the effects of HFCS- versus sucrose-sweetened soft drinks on acute metabolic and hemodynamic effects. Materials/Methods Forty men and women consumed 24 oz of HFCS- or sucrose-sweetened beverages in a randomized crossover design study. Blood and urine samples were collected over 6 hr. Blood pressure, heart rate, fructose, and a variety of other metabolic biomarkers were measured. Results Fructose area under the curve and maximum concentration, dose normalized glucose area under the curve and maximum concentration, relative bioavailability of glucose, changes in postprandial concentrations of serum uric acid, and systolic blood pressure maximum levels were higher when HFCS-sweetened beverages were consumed as compared to sucrose-sweetened beverages. Conclusions Compared to sucrose, HFCS leads to greater fructose systemic exposure and significantly different acute metabolic effects. PMID:22152650

  2. Use of medications by people with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy persons: a population-based study of fatiguing illness in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneva, Roumiana S; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Maloney, Elizabeth M; Jones, James F; Reeves, William C

    2009-07-20

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating condition of unknown etiology and no definitive pharmacotherapy. Patients are usually prescribed symptomatic treatment or self-medicate. We evaluated prescription and non-prescription drug use among persons with CFS in Georgia and compared it to that in non-fatigued Well controls and also to chronically Unwell individuals not fully meeting criteria for CFS. A population-based, case-control study. To identify persons with possible CFS-like illness and controls, we conducted a random-digit dialing telephone screening of 19,807 Georgia residents, followed by a detailed telephone interview of 5,630 to identify subjects with CFS-like illness, other chronically Unwell, and Well subjects. All those with CFS-like illness (n = 469), a random sample of chronically Unwell subjects (n = 505), and Well individuals (n = 641) who were age-, sex-, race-, and geographically matched to those with CFS-like illness were invited for a clinical evaluation and 783 participated (48% overall response rate). Clinical evaluation identified 113 persons with CFS, 264 Unwell subjects with insufficient symptoms for CFS (named ISF), and 124 Well controls; the remaining 280 subjects had exclusionary medical or psychiatric conditions, and 2 subjects could not be classified. Subjects were asked to bring all medications taken in the past 2 weeks to the clinic where a research nurse viewed and recorded the name and the dose of each medication. More than 90% of persons with CFS used at least one drug or supplement within the preceding two weeks. Among users, people with CFS used an average of 5.8 drugs or supplements, compared to 4.1 by ISF and 3.7 by Well controls. Persons with CFS were significantly more likely to use antidepressants, sedatives, muscle relaxants, and anti-acids than either Well controls or the ISF group. In addition, persons with CFS were significantly more likely to use pain-relievers, anti-histamines and cold/sinus medications than

  3. Acute effect of sorghum flour-containing pasta on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in healthy subjects: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2015-06-01

    It has been previously reported that pasta containing wholegrain sorghum flour exhibits high content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity and hence might enhance antioxidant status and reduce markers of oxidative stress in vivo; however no clinical studies have yet been reported. Therefore, the present study assessed the effect of pasta containing red or white wholegrain sorghum flour on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in humans. The study was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN: 12612000324819). In a randomised crossover design, healthy subjects (n = 20) consumed three test meals of control pasta (CP), 30% red sorghum pasta (RSP) or 30% white sorghum pasta (WSP), 1-2 wk apart. The test meals were consumed as breakfast after an overnight fast. Blood samples were obtained at fasting and 2 h after consumption and analysed for total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, protein carbonyl and 8-isoprostanes. Compared to baseline, the 2 h post-prandial levels following the RSP meal of plasma polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and SOD activity were significantly (P pasta containing red wholegrain sorghum flour enhanced antioxidant status and improved markers of oxidative stress in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of sex and autonomy-connectedness in internalizing and externalizing personality pathology, coping and axis-I pathology: among psychiatric and healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Nathan; Croon, Marcel; Bekker, Marrie

    2017-06-01

    In the current study we investigated the relationship of sex and autonomy-connectedness with internalizing and externalizing personality disorder symptoms (PDS), coping and axis-I pathology in older age. A path model was tested which was based on neo-analytical object relation, attachment- and primary-personality theory, among 100 clinical and 106 non-clinical elderly. In line with our model, autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness and capacity of managing new situations) was strongly associated to internalizing PDS in both groups. In both groups, neither sex nor autonomy-connectedness predicted externalizing PDS. Sex, internalizing as well as externalizing PDS and reactive defensive coping were associated to axis-I psychopathology. We conclude that sex and autonomy-connectedness were, similarly as in adult populations, associated to internalizing PDS and axis-I pathology. Treatment of elderly with internalizing PDS and axis-I psychopathology should therefore focus on enhancing autonomy-connectedness.

  5. Distinct changing profiles of hepatitis A and E virus infection among patients with acute hepatitis, patients on maintenance hemodialysis and healthy individuals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Takehiro; Tsukamoto, Yukie; Hirose, Akinori; Suzuki, Shigeru; Yamazaki, Chikao; Masuko, Kazuo; Tsuda, Fumio; Endo, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2006-08-01

    To compare the epidemiologic profiles of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in Japan, the prevalence of clinical or subclinical HAV and HEV infections was investigated serologically and molecularly among 128 consecutive patients (age, mean +/- standard deviation, 37.5 +/- 14.7 years) who contracted acute hepatitis between 1989 and 2005 in a city hospital, and among 416 hemodialysis patients (60.1 +/- 12.6 years) and 266 medical staff members (34.6 +/- 11.4 years) at the same hospital, using stored periodic serum samples collected since the start of hemodialysis or employment, respectively. Between 1989 and 1995, among 93 patients with acute hepatitis, 51 (54.8%) were diagnosed with hepatitis A and only one patient with hepatitis E. Between 1996 and 2005, however, among 35 patients, only 3 (8.6%) were diagnosed with hepatitis A and 2 (5.7%) with hepatitis E. Although subclinical HEV infection was recognized in four hemodialysis patients (one each in 1979, 1980, 1988, and 2003) and two medical staff members (1978 and 2003) in previous studies, none of the 191 hemodialysis patients who had been negative for anti-HAV at the start of hemodialysis contracted HAV infection during the observation period of 7.6 +/- 6.4 years. Only one (0.4%) of the 246 medical staff members who had been negative for anti-HAV at the start of employment acquired hepatitis A during the observation period of 7.9 +/- 8.0 years: none had subclinical HAV infection. Clinical or subclinical HEV infection has occurred rarely during the last three decades, while HAV infection has markedly decreased at least since 1996. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Acute effects of high-frequency microfocal vibratory stimulation on the H reflex of the soleus muscle. A double-blind study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, Enrico; Paone, Paolo; Tassorelli, Cristina; De Icco, Roberto; Moglia, Arrigo; Alvisi, Elena; Marchetta, Lucky; Fresia, Mauro; Montini, Alessandra; Calabrese, Marzia; Versiglia, Vittorio; Sandrini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This study in healthy subjects examined the effects of a system delivering focal microvibrations at high frequency (Equistasi®) on tonic vibration stimulus (TVS)-induced inhibition of the soleus muscle H reflex. Highfrequency microvibrations significantly increased the inhibitory effect of TVS on the H reflex for up to three minutes. Moreover, Equistasi® also significantly reduced alpha-motoneuron excitability, as indicated by the changes in the ratio between the maximumamplitude H reflex (Hmax reflex) and the maximumamplitude muscle response (Mmax response); this effect was due to reduction of the amplitude of the H reflex because the amplitude of muscle response remained unchanged. The present findings indicate that Equistasi® has a modulatory effect on proprioceptive reflex circuits. Therefore, Equistasi® might interfere with some mechanisms involved in both physiological and pathophysiological control of movement and of posture.

  7. Acute effect of different concentrations of cayenne pepper cataplasm on sensory-motor functions and serum levels of inflammation-related biomarkers in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Šarabon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical medicine therapies are often used in treating widespread musculoskeletal disorders, such as neck and low back pain. Herbal cataplasms containing rubefacient substances, such as Cayenne pepper, or galenic preparations like Munari cataplasm are commonly used as natural medications to treat painful areas. In this paper we show the effects of a 20-min application of Cayenne pepper and kaolin powder cataplasm (CPC on healthy subjects. Treatment effects were evaluated by cold/hot feeling on visual analogue scale, blood pressure, body temperature, skin light touch sensations, two-point discrimination, and pain threshold to a mechanical stimulus, before and immediately after, 15 min after and 30 min after different concentration of Cayenne pepper in CPC preparation on healthy subjects. Maximal voluntary trunk extension force and trunk extension submaximal force matching error were also measured. In addition, the resulting optimal CPC mixture was tested for its safety by measuring changes in circulating levels of inflammatory-related biomarkers after 20-min application. The results indicate that the 5% concentration of Cayenne pepper in the preparation of CPC is the best choice, since no additional effects can be obtained with the 10% concentration, and the effects are higher than those observed at the 2.5% concentration. Importantly, 5% CPC application did not induce a significant increase of inflammatory-related biomarkers, suggesting that 20-min application has no negative side effects at systemic levels. Further studies are needed to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of repeated CPC applications as well as to understand the intersecting underlying mechanisms activated by Capsaicin and other identified factors, in order to be more extensively used in the field of physical medicine therapies.

  8. Acute ingestion of a novel whey-derived peptide improves vascular endothelial responses in healthy individuals: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupchak Brian R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whey protein is a potential source of bioactive peptides. Based on findings from in vitro experiments indicating a novel whey derived peptide (NOP-47 increased endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, we tested its effects on vascular function in humans. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study design was used. Healthy men (n = 10 and women (n = 10 (25 ± 5 y, BMI = 24.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2 participated in two vascular testing days each preceded by 2 wk of supplementation with a single dose of 5 g/day of a novel whey-derived peptide (NOP-47 or placebo. There was a 2 wk washout period between trials. After 2 wk of supplementation, vascular function in the forearm and circulating oxidative stress and inflammatory related biomarkers were measured serially for 2 h after ingestion of 5 g of NOP-47 or placebo. Macrovascular and microvascular function were assessed using brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD and venous occlusion strain gauge plethysmography. Results Baseline peak FMD was not different for Placebo (7.7% and NOP-47 (7.8%. Placebo had no effect on FMD at 30, 60, and 90 min post-ingestion (7.5%, 7.2%, and 7.6%, respectively whereas NOP-47 significantly improved FMD responses at these respective postprandial time points compared to baseline (8.9%, 9.9%, and 9.0%; P P = 0.008 for time × trial interaction. Plasma myeloperoxidase was increased transiently by both NOP-47 and placebo, but there were no changes in markers inflammation. Plasma total nitrites/nitrates significantly decreased over the 2 hr post-ingestion period and were lower at 120 min after placebo (-25% compared to NOP-47 (-18%. Conclusion These findings indicate that supplementation with a novel whey-derived peptide in healthy individuals improves vascular function.

  9. Emergence of trimethoprim-resistant Escherichia coli in healthy persons in the absence of prophylactic or therapeutic antibiotics during travel to Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D B; Jiang, Z D; Ericsson, C D; Adachi, J; Dupont, H L

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-nine healthy US students without diarrheal disease and who had not received prophylactic or therapeutic antibiotics were monitored for emergence of trimethoprim-resistant gram-negative fecal flora for a 3-week period after arrival in Guadalajara, Mexico. During this time period, most students showed no change in total fecal gram-negative bacteria (p > 0.05) but showed an increasing level of trimethoprim (TMP) resistance (p students. These 18 TMP-resistant E. coli were also resistant to ampicillin (44%), azithromycin (11%), chloramphenicol (39%), ciprofloxacin (11%), doxycycline (89%), erythromycin (100%), furazolidone (72%), levofloxacin (17%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (89%) and trovafloxacin (17%). In the absence of prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotics, increased acquisition of TMP-resistant gram-negative fecal flora in this developing country is probably due to poor sanitary conditions and the recurrent and heavy exposure to antimicrobial-resistant indigenous flora as a result of contaminated food and drink.

  10. Effects of a short-term personalized Intermittent Work Exercise Program (IWEP) on maximal cardio-respiratory function and endurance parameters among healthy young and older seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, T; Leprêtre, P-M; Brechat, P-H; Lonsdorfer, E; Benetos, A; Kaltenbach, G; Lonsdorfer, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a short-term Intermittent Work Exercise Program (IWEP) among healthy elderly subjects. This longitudinal prospective study took place at the Strasbourg University Hospital geriatric department. One hundred and fifty older volunteers, previously determined as being free from cardiac and pulmonary disease, were separated into two age groups: the "young senior" (60.2 ± 3.1 yr) and the "older senior" groups (70.8 ± 5.2 yr). These groups were then subdivided by gender into the "young female senior", "young male senior" "older female senior" and "older male senior" groups. Before and after the IWEP, all subjects were asked to perform an incremental cycle exercise to obtain their first ventilatory threshold (VT1), maximal tolerated power (MTP), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and maximal minute ventilation (MMV). The IWEP consisted of a 30-min cycling exercise which took place twice a week, and was divided into six 5-min stages consisting of 4 min at VT1 intensity and 1 min at 90% MTP. An assessment was made of the effects of the IWEP on maximal cardio-respiratory function (MTP, VO2peak, MMV) and endurance parameters (VT1, heart rate [HR] measured at pretraining VT1 and lactate concentrations at pre-training MTP). This short-term training program resulted in a significant increase of MTP (from 13.2% to 20.6%), VO2peak (from 8.9% to 16.6%) and MMV (from 11.1% to 21.8%) in all groups (pseniors" were not significantly different (p>0.05) from the "young seniors" pre-training values for the same parameters. The most striking finding in this study is that after only 9 weeks, our short-term "individually-tailored" IWEP significantly improved both maximal cardio-respiratory function and endurance parameters in healthy, previously untrained seniors.

  11. Differences in serum zinc levels in acutely ill and remitted adolescents and young adults with bulimia nervosa in comparison with healthy controls – a cross-sectional pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zepf FD

    2017-10-01

    concentrations in young patients with BN, with a focus on the stage of the disorder, comparing acutely ill and recovered patients with BN with healthy controls.Methods: Serum Zn concentrations were obtained from healthy controls and from acutely ill and remitted young patients with BN. Mean duration of remission was 4.0±3.5 years.Results: Remitted patients showed elevated serum Zn concentrations when compared to controls (Cohen’s d=2.022, but concentrations were still in the normal range. Acutely ill patients also had higher serum Zn levels when compared to controls (all values still being within the reference range, Cohen’s d=0.882. There was no difference between acutely ill and remitted patients with BN in serum Zn concentrations. Of note, remitted patients had a significantly higher body weight when compared to the other two groups. Overall, there were no significant differences in dietary preferences with regard to Zn containing foods between the groups.Conclusion: The present study provides preliminary evidence that the underlying factors for changes in Zn serum concentrations in young patients with BN do not vary with regard to the stage of illness (acute versus remitted BN. Further prospective research is needed in order to disentangle the possible interplay between serum Zn status and bulimic eating behaviors. Keywords: bulimia nervosa, zinc, serum concentrations, remission, eating disorders

  12. Consumption of a flavonoid-rich açai meal is associated with acute improvements in vascular function and a reduction in total oxidative status in healthy overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqurashi, Randah M; Galante, Laura A; Rowland, Ian R; Spencer, Jeremy Pe; Commane, Daniel M

    2016-11-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea) is a polyphenol-rich fruit marketed as beneficial for health. Experimental data showing improvements in health markers arising from açai consumption in humans is limited. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of açai consumption on acute changes in vascular function and on other disease risk markers, including postprandial plasma insulin, glucose, and oxidative stress. Twenty-three healthy male volunteers, aged 30-65 y and with a body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) of 25-30, completed a randomized, controlled, high-fat challenge, double-blind, crossover, acute dietary intervention trial. The volunteers consumed either an açai-based smoothie (AS) or a macronutrient-matched control smoothie (PS) together with a high-fat breakfast meal challenge. The primary endpoint was the assessment of endothelial function in the brachial artery by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). The acute consumption of an AS containing 694 mg total phenolics improved vascular function, with postprandial increases in FMD from baseline of 1.4% at 2 h compared with 0.4% after consumption of the PS (P = 0.001) and increases at 6 h of 0.8% for the AS compared with -0.3% for the PS (P < 0.001). There was also a significantly lower incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for total peroxide oxidative status after açai consumption relative to the control. No significant changes were observed in blood pressure, heart rate, or postprandial glucose response. However, the first postprandial insulin peak (after breakfast) and the iAUC for insulin were elevated for the AS relative to the PS. In this acute study in overweight men, açai consumption was associated with improvements in vascular function, which may lower the risk of a cardiovascular event. Future intervention studies, perhaps with a chronic design, in wider populations and with other biomarkers of disease risk are needed to fully elucidate the benefits of açai to health. This trial was registered at

  13. Gender differences in automatic thoughts and cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute psychosocial stress in patients with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehisa, Masayuki; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Okamoto, Kana; Oshita, Harumi; Masuda, Koji; Takita, Fuku; Izumi, Toshihiko; Inoue, Ayako; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2017-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. The aims of the present study were to explore the relationship between OCPD and psychological stress and psychological tests. We evaluated 63 OCPD patients and 107 healthy controls (HCs). We collected saliva samples from patients and controls before and after a social stress procedure, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), to measure the concentrations of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Profile of Mood State (POMS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS), and Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS) were administered to patients and HCs. Following TSST exposure, the salivary amylase and cortisol levels were significantly decreased in male patients compared with controls. Additionally, OCPD patients had higher CTQ, POMS, STAI, and BDI scores than HCs and exhibited significantly higher anxiety and depressive states. OCPD patients scored higher on future denial and threat prediction as per the DACS tool. According to a stepwise regression analysis, STAI, POMS, and salivary cortisol responses were independent predictors of OCPD. Our results suggested that attenuated sympathetic and parasympathetic reactivity in male OCPD patients occurs along with attenuated salivary amylase and cortisol responses to the TSST. In addition, there was a significant difference between OCPD patients and HCs in child trauma, mood, anxiety, and cognition. The finding support the modeling role of cortisol (20min) on the relationships between STAI trait and depression among OCPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...

  15. Study of skin and nail Candida species as a normal flora based on age groups in healthy persons in Tehran-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafat, Z; Hashemi, S J; Ahamdikia, K; Daie Ghazvini, R; Bazvandi, F

    2017-12-01

    The skin is the body's largest organ that hosts heterogeneous inhabitants. Until now, the diversity of the cutaneous microbiome was mainly investigated for bacteria and there is a little information about the skin fungal flora. Also, among skin fungal flora, Candida is found as a main member whose distribution is affected by sex, age, climate. In this study, differences in Candida community structure associated with 9 different skin sites of 238 healthy people during 10 months from July to March 2016, are described. These subjects were divided by age into 4 groups: infants, children, adults and geriatrics. The collected samples were examined by culture on Sabouraud Chloramphenicol Agar and CHROM-agar Candida. For precise identification of species ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 rDNA regions were sequenced where needed. The frequency of Candida species was significantly different between age groups. The most Candida isolations were related to the elderly age group and the fewest in the infants. C. parapsilosis virtually, was the predominant isolated species in all age groups. This study showed no statistically significant effect of the subject's sex on Candida population resident on human skin surface. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Towards an Ontology-driven Framework to Enable Development of Personalized mHealth Solutions for Cancer Survivors' Engagement in Healthy Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Amith, Muhammad; Geng, Yimin; Tao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) cancer survivors manage an array of health-related issues. Survivorship Care Plans (SCPs) have the potential to empower these young survivors by providing information regarding treatment summary, late-effects of cancer therapies, healthy lifestyle guidance, coping with work-life-health balance, and follow-up care. However, current mHealth infrastructure used to deliver SCPs has been limited in terms of flexibility, engagement, and reusability. The objective of this study is to develop an ontology-driven survivor engagement framework to facilitate rapid development of mobile apps that are targeted, extensible, and engaging. The major components include ontology models, patient engagement features, and behavioral intervention technologies. We apply the proposed framework to characterize individual building blocks ("survivor digilegos"), which form the basis for mHealth tools that address user needs across the cancer care continuum. Results indicate that the framework (a) allows identification of AYA survivorship components, (b) facilitates infusion of engagement elements, and (c) integrates behavior change constructs into the design architecture of survivorship applications. Implications for design of patient-engaging chronic disease management solutions are discussed.

  17. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  18. Differential acute postprandial effects of processed meat and isocaloric vegan meals on the gastrointestinal hormone response in subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes and healthy controls: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinova, Lenka; Kahleova, Hana; Malinska, Hana; Topolcan, Ondrej; Vrzalova, Jindra; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Kazdova, Ludmila; Hill, Martin; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2014-01-01

    The intake of meat, particularly processed meat, is a dietary risk factor for diabetes. Meat intake impairs insulin sensitivity and leads to increased oxidative stress. However, its effect on postprandial gastrointestinal hormone (GIH) secretion is unclear. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of two standardized isocaloric meals: a processed hamburger meat meal rich in protein and saturated fat (M-meal) and a vegan meal rich in carbohydrates (V-meal). We hypothesized that the meat meal would lead to abnormal postprandial increases in plasma lipids and oxidative stress markers and impaired GIH responses. In a randomized crossover study, 50 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 50 healthy subjects underwent two 3-h meal tolerance tests. For statistical analyses, repeated-measures ANOVA was performed. The M-meal resulted in a higher postprandial increase in lipids in both groups (p<0.001) and persistent postprandial hyperinsulinemia in patients with diabetes (p<0.001). The plasma glucose levels were significantly higher after the V-meal only at the peak level. The plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) were higher (p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively) and the ghrelin concentration was lower (p<0.001) after the M-meal in healthy subjects. In contrast, the concentrations of GIP, PYY and PP were significantly lower after the M-meal in T2D patients (p<0.001). Compared with the V-meal, the M-meal was associated with a larger increase in lipoperoxidation in T2D patients (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the diet composition and the energy content, rather than the carbohydrate count, should be important considerations for dietary management and demonstrate that processed meat consumption is accompanied by impaired GIH responses and increased oxidative stress marker levels in diabetic patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01572402.

  19. Flavanol-rich chocolate acutely improves arterial function and working memory performance counteracting the effects of sleep deprivation in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Socci, Valentina; Tempesta, Daniela; Ferri, Claudio; De Gennaro, Luigi; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferrara, Michele

    2016-07-01

    Sleep deprivation is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cocoa flavonoids exert cardiovascular benefits and neuroprotection. Whether chocolate consumption may mitigate detrimental effects of sleep loss on cognitive performance and cardiovascular parameters has never been studied. We investigated the effects of flavanol-rich chocolate consumption on cognitive skills and cardiovascular parameters after sleep deprivation. Thirty-two healthy participants underwent two baseline sessions after one night of undisturbed sleep and two experimental sessions after one night of total sleep deprivation. Two hours before each testing session, participants were randomly assigned to consume high or poor flavanol chocolate bars. During the tests were evaluated, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task and a working memory task, office SBP and DBP, flow-mediated dilation and pulse-wave velocity. Sleep deprivation increased SBP/DBP. SBP/DBP and pulse pressure were lower after flavanol-rich treatment respect to flavanol-poor treatment (SBP: 116.9 ± 1.6 vs. 120.8 ± 1.9 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.00005; DBP: 70.5 ± 1.2 vs. 72.3 ± 1.2 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.01; pulse pressure: 46.4 ± 1.3 vs. 48.4 ± 1.5 mmHg, P = 0.004). Sleep deprivation impaired flow-mediated dilation (5.5 ± 0.5 vs. 6.5 ± 0.6%, P = 0.02), flavanol-rich, but not flavanol-poor chocolate counteracted this alteration (flavanol-rich/flavanol-poor chocolate: 7.0 ± 0.6 vs. 5.0 ± 0.4%, P = 0.000001). Flavanol-rich chocolate mitigated the pulse-wave velocity increase (P = 0.001). Flavanol-rich chocolate preserved working memory accuracy in women after sleep deprivation. Flow-mediated dilation correlated with working memory performance accuracy in the sleep condition (P = 0.04). Flavanol-rich chocolate counteracted vascular impairment after sleep deprivation and restored working memory performance. Improvement in cognitive performance could be because

  20. Prediction of psilocybin response in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Gamma, Alex; Kometer, Michael; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-01-01

    Responses to hallucinogenic drugs, such as psilocybin, are believed to be critically dependent on the user's personality, current mood state, drug pre-experiences, expectancies, and social and environmental variables. However, little is known about the order of importance of these variables and their effect sizes in comparison to drug dose. Hence, this study investigated the effects of 24 predictor variables, including age, sex, education, personality traits, drug pre-experience, mental state before drug intake, experimental setting, and drug dose on the acute response to psilocybin. The analysis was based on the pooled data of 23 controlled experimental studies involving 409 psilocybin administrations to 261 healthy volunteers. Multiple linear mixed effects models were fitted for each of 15 response variables. Although drug dose was clearly the most important predictor for all measured response variables, several non-pharmacological variables significantly contributed to the effects of psilocybin. Specifically, having a high score in the personality trait of Absorption, being in an emotionally excitable and active state immediately before drug intake, and having experienced few psychological problems in past weeks were most strongly associated with pleasant and mystical-type experiences, whereas high Emotional Excitability, low age, and an experimental setting involving positron emission tomography most strongly predicted unpleasant and/or anxious reactions to psilocybin. The results confirm that non-pharmacological variables play an important role in the effects of psilocybin.

  1. Prediction of psilocybin response in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Studerus

    Full Text Available Responses to hallucinogenic drugs, such as psilocybin, are believed to be critically dependent on the user's personality, current mood state, drug pre-experiences, expectancies, and social and environmental variables. However, little is known about the order of importance of these variables and their effect sizes in comparison to drug dose. Hence, this study investigated the effects of 24 predictor variables, including age, sex, education, personality traits, drug pre-experience, mental state before drug intake, experimental setting, and drug dose on the acute response to psilocybin. The analysis was based on the pooled data of 23 controlled experimental studies involving 409 psilocybin administrations to 261 healthy volunteers. Multiple linear mixed effects models were fitted for each of 15 response variables. Although drug dose was clearly the most important predictor for all measured response variables, several non-pharmacological variables significantly contributed to the effects of psilocybin. Specifically, having a high score in the personality trait of Absorption, being in an emotionally excitable and active state immediately before drug intake, and having experienced few psychological problems in past weeks were most strongly associated with pleasant and mystical-type experiences, whereas high Emotional Excitability, low age, and an experimental setting involving positron emission tomography most strongly predicted unpleasant and/or anxious reactions to psilocybin. The results confirm that non-pharmacological variables play an important role in the effects of psilocybin.

  2. Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia : a personalized approach : Allogene hematopoïetische stamcel transplantatie voor patiënten met acute myeloïde leukemie : een gepersonaliseerde benadering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Versluis (Jurjen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe majority of patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) obtain complete hematological remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy, but the incidence of relapse is considerable despite chemotherapeutic consolidation therapy. Currently, post-remission treatment (PRT) for

  3. Depersonalization and derealization in self-report and clinical interview: The spectrum of borderline personality disorder, dissociative disorders, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyuz, Gamze

    2017-01-01

    Depersonalization (DEP) and derealization (DER) were examined among college students with and without borderline personality disorder (BPD) and/or dissociative disorders (DDs) by self-report and clinician assessment. The Steinberg Depersonalization Questionnaire (SDEPQ), the Steinberg Derealization Questionnaire (SDERQ), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the screening tool of the BPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-BPD) were administered to 1,301 students. Those with BPD (n = 80) according to the SCID-BPD and 111 non-BPD controls were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders by a psychiatrist blind to the diagnosis. Of the participants, 19.7% reported SDEPQ (17.8%) and/or SDERQ (11.0%) scores above cutoff levels and impairment from these experiences. Principal component analysis of 26 items of both scales yielded 4 factors: cognitive-emotional self-detachment, perceptual detachment, bodily self-detachment, and detachment from reality. Participants with concurrent DD and BPD had the highest scores for DEP and DER in the clinical interview and self-report. The total number of BPD criteria was associated with the severity of childhood trauma and dissociation. Both BPD and DD were associated with clinician-assessed and self-reported DER, self-reported DEP, and the cognitive-emotional self-detachment factor. Unlike BPD, DD was associated with clinician-assessed DEP, and BPD was related to the self-reported detachment from reality factor. Although the latter was correlated with the total childhood trauma score, possibly because of dissociative amnesia, clinician-assessed DER was not. Being the closest factor to BPD, the factor of detachment from reality warrants further study.

  4. Effect of exercise on circulating atrial natriuretic peptide and left ventricular ejection fraction in healthy persons and patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tetsuya; Ichikawa, Shuichi; Sakamaki, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Tadashi; Iizuka, Toshio; Yagi, Atsuko; Kurashina, Toshiaki; Kumakura, Hisao; Murata, Kazuhiko

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide angiographic measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction were performed at rest and during exercise in 10 normal persons and 11 patients with coronary artery disease. Exercise was continued on a supine bicycle exercise table up to a symptom-limited maximum. Plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were also determined at rest and during exercise. Ejection fraction in the normal volunteers was 59±3% (mean±SEM) at rest and increased significantly (p<0.01) to 69±3% during exercise. Ejection fraction in the patients was 47±5% at rest and did not change significantly during exercise (51±7%). Plasma ANP in the normals rose significantly (p<0.01) from 62±16 pg/ml at rest to 454±94 pg/ml during exercise. Plasma ANP in the patients also rose significantly (p<0.01) from 231±102 pg/ml to 794±170 pg/ml. The response of plasma ANP to exercise was enhanced significantly (p<0.05) in the patients as compared with the normals in relation to ejection fraction by analysis of covariance. In both the normals and the patients, plasma ANP was inversely and significantly correlated with ejection fraction during exercise (r=0.46, p<0.05, n=21), however, not at rest. Because it has been reported that plasma ANP is correlated positively with pulmonary artery wedge pressure, the estimation of plasma ANP during an exercise stress test might be used for the evaluation of cardiac reserve in coronary artery disease. (author)

  5. Superparamagnetic iron oxide polyacrylic acid coated γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles do not affect kidney function but cause acute effect on the cardiovascular function in healthy mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, Nina K., E-mail: nina.iversen@biology.au.dk [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University (Denmark); Frische, Sebastian [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University (Denmark); Thomsen, Karen [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University (Denmark); Laustsen, Christoffer; Pedersen, Michael [MR Research Center, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus University (Denmark); Hansen, Pernille B.L.; Bie, Peter [Cardiovascular and Renal Research, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark (Denmark); Fresnais, Jérome [Physicochimie des Electrolytes, Colloïdes et Sciences Analytiques (PECSA) UMR 7195 CNRS-UPMC-ESPCI, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Berret, Jean-Francois [Matière et Systèmes Complexes, UMR 7057 CNRS Université Denis Diderot Paris-VII, Bâtiment Condorcet, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris (France); Baatrup, Erik [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University (Denmark); Wang, Tobias [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    This study describes the distribution of intravenously injected polyacrylic acid (PAA) coated γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs (10 mg kg{sup −1}) at the organ, cellular and subcellular levels in healthy BALB/cJ mice and in parallel addresses the effects of NP injection on kidney function, blood pressure and vascular contractility. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed accumulation of NPs in the liver within 1 h after intravenous infusion, accommodated by intracellular uptake in endothelial and Kupffer cells with subsequent intracellular uptake in renal cells, particularly the cytoplasm of the proximal tubule, in podocytes and mesangial cells. The renofunctional effects of NPs were evaluated by arterial acid–base status and measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after instrumentation with chronically indwelling catheters. Arterial pH was 7.46 ± 0.02 and 7.41 ± 0.02 in mice 0.5 h after injections of saline or NP, and did not change over the next 12 h. In addition, the injections of NP did not affect arterial PCO{sub 2} or [HCO{sub 3}{sup −}] either. Twenty-four and 96 h after NP injections, the GFR averaged 0.35 ± 0.04 and 0.35 ± 0.01 ml min{sup −1} g{sup −1}, respectively, values which were statistically comparable with controls (0.29 ± 0.02 and 0.33 ± 0.1 ml{sup –1} min{sup –1} 25 g{sup –1}). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) decreased 12–24 h after NP injections (111.1 ± 11.5 vs 123.0 ± 6.1 min{sup −1}) associated with a decreased contractility of small mesenteric arteries revealed by myography to characterize endothelial function. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that accumulation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles does not affect kidney function in healthy mice but temporarily decreases blood pressure. -- Highlights: ► PAA coated γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were injected intravenously into healthy mice. ► We examine the distribution and physiological effects of

  6. Family Home Food Environment and Nutrition-Related Parent and Child Personal and Behavioral Outcomes of the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Friend, Sarah; Horning, Melissa; Flattum, Colleen; Draxten, Michelle; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Gurvich, Olga; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Kubik, Martha Y

    2018-02-01

    Research has demonstrated a significant positive association between frequent family meals and children's dietary intake; however, the promotion of healthful family meals has not been rigorously tested for key food environment and nutrition-related behavioral outcomes in a randomized trial. To describe family home food environment and nutrition-related parent and child personal and behavioral outcomes of the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment Plus program, the first rigorously tested family meals intervention targeting childhood obesity prevention. Randomized controlled trial. Baseline, postintervention (12 months, 93% retention), and follow-up (21 months, 89% retention) data (surveys and dietary recalls) were collected. Children aged 8 to 12 years (N=160) and their parents were randomized to intervention (n=81) or control (n=79) groups. The intervention included five parent goal-setting calls and 10 monthly sessions delivered to families in community settings that focused on experiential nutrition activities and education, meal planning, cooking skill development, and reducing screen time. Family home food environment outcomes and nutrition-related child and parent personal and behavioral outcomes. Analyses used generalized linear mixed models. Primary comparisons were contrasts between intervention and control groups at postintervention and follow-up, with adjustments for child age and parent education. Compared with control parents, intervention parents showed greater improvement over time in scores of self-efficacy for identifying appropriate portion sizes, with significant differences in adjusted means at both post-intervention (P=0.002) and follow-up (P=0.01). Intervention children were less likely to consume at least one sugar-sweetened beverage daily at post-intervention than control children (P=0.04). The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment Plus program involved the entire family and targeted personal, behavioral, and

  7. Inter-subject differences in circadian coordination captured in real time in healthy and cancerous individual persons during their daily routine using a mobile internet platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarzynski, Sandra; Huang, Qi; Innominato, Pasquale F; Maurice, Monique; Arbaud, Alexandre; Beau, Jacques; Bouchahda, Mohamed; Ulusakarya, Ayhan; Beaumatin, Nicolas; Breda, Gabriele; Finkenstädt, Bärbel; Levi, Francis

    2018-01-05

    Experimental and epidemiologic studies have shown that circadian clocks disruption can play an important role in the development of cancer and metabolic diseases. The cellular clocks outside the brain are effectively coordinated by the body temperature rhythm. We hypothesized that concurrent measurements of body temperature and rest-activity rhythms would assess circadian clocks coordination in individual patients, thus enabling the integration of biological rhythms into precision medicine. The study aimed at the real-time demonstration of large inter-subject differences in the circadian clocks of people during their daily routine, using a mobile e-Health platform. Such critical step further aimed at the integration of circadian rhythm disorders diagnosis and treatments into precision e-medicine. Non-invasive real-time measurements of rest-activity and chest temperature rhythms were recorded during the subject's daily life, using a dedicated new mobile e-health platform (PiCADo). It involved a chest sensor that jointly measured accelerations, 3D-orientation and skin surface temperature every 1-5 min, and relayed them out to a mobile gateway via Bluetooth-Low-Energy. The gateway tele-transmitted all stored data to a server via GPRS every 24 h. The technical capabilities of PiCADo were validated in 55 healthy subjects and 12 cancer patients, whose rhythms were e-monitored during their daily routine for 3-30 days. Spectral analyses enabled to compute rhythm parameters values, with their 90% confidence limits, and their dynamics in each subject. All the individuals displayed a dominant circadian rhythm in activity with maxima occurring from 12:09 to 20:25. This was not the case for the dominant temperature period, which clustered around 24 h for 51 subjects (76.1%), and around 12 h for 13 others (19.4%). Statistically significant sex- and age- related differences in circadian coordination were identified in the non-cancerous subjects, based upon the range of variations

  8. The Effects of Acutely Administered 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Spontaneous Brain Function in Healthy Volunteers Measured with Arterial Spin Labeling and Blood Oxygen Level–Dependent Resting State Functional Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Murphy, Kevin; Leech, Robert; Erritzoe, David; Wall, Matthew B.; Ferguson, Bart; Williams, Luke T.J.; Roseman, Leor; Brugger, Stefan; De Meer, Ineke; Tanner, Mark; Tyacke, Robin; Wolff, Kim; Sethi, Ajun; Bloomfield, Michael A.P.; Williams, Tim M.; Bolstridge, Mark; Stewart, Lorna; Morgan, Celia; Newbould, Rexford D.; Feilding, Amanda; Curran, H. Val; Nutt, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The compound 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a potent monoamine releaser that produces an acute euphoria in most individuals. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced-order study, MDMA was orally administered to 25 physically and mentally healthy individuals. Arterial spin labeling and seed-based resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) were used to produce spatial maps displaying changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and RSFC after MDMA administration. Participants underwent two arterial spin labeling and two blood oxygen level–dependent scans in a 90-minute scan session; MDMA and placebo study days were separated by 1 week. Results Marked increases in positive mood were produced by MDMA. Decreased CBF only was observed after MDMA, and this was localized to the right medial temporal lobe (MTL), thalamus, inferior visual cortex, and the somatosensory cortex. Decreased CBF in the right amygdala and hippocampus correlated with ratings of the intensity of global subjective effects of MDMA. The RSFC results complemented the CBF results, with decreases in RSFC between midline cortical regions, the medial prefrontal cortex, and MTL regions, and increases between the amygdala and hippocampus. There were trend-level correlations between these effects and ratings of intense and positive subjective effects. Conclusions The MTLs appear to be specifically implicated in the mechanism of action of MDMA, but further work is required to elucidate how the drug’s characteristic subjective effects arise from its modulation of spontaneous brain activity. PMID:24495461

  9. The Effects of Acutely Administered 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Spontaneous Brain Function in Healthy Volunteers Measured with Arterial Spin Labeling and Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Resting State Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Murphy, Kevin; Leech, Robert; Erritzoe, David; Wall, Matthew B; Ferguson, Bart; Williams, Luke T J; Roseman, Leor; Brugger, Stefan; De Meer, Ineke; Tanner, Mark; Tyacke, Robin; Wolff, Kim; Sethi, Ajun; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Williams, Tim M; Bolstridge, Mark; Stewart, Lorna; Morgan, Celia; Newbould, Rexford D; Feilding, Amanda; Curran, H Val; Nutt, David J

    2015-10-15

    The compound 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a potent monoamine releaser that produces an acute euphoria in most individuals. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced-order study, MDMA was orally administered to 25 physically and mentally healthy individuals. Arterial spin labeling and seed-based resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) were used to produce spatial maps displaying changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and RSFC after MDMA administration. Participants underwent two arterial spin labeling and two blood oxygen level-dependent scans in a 90-minute scan session; MDMA and placebo study days were separated by 1 week. Marked increases in positive mood were produced by MDMA. Decreased CBF only was observed after MDMA, and this was localized to the right medial temporal lobe (MTL), thalamus, inferior visual cortex, and the somatosensory cortex. Decreased CBF in the right amygdala and hippocampus correlated with ratings of the intensity of global subjective effects of MDMA. The RSFC results complemented the CBF results, with decreases in RSFC between midline cortical regions, the medial prefrontal cortex, and MTL regions, and increases between the amygdala and hippocampus. There were trend-level correlations between these effects and ratings of intense and positive subjective effects. The MTLs appear to be specifically implicated in the mechanism of action of MDMA, but further work is required to elucidate how the drug's characteristic subjective effects arise from its modulation of spontaneous brain activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Healthy human gut phageome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health.

  11. Healthy living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... living URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002393.htm Healthy living To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Good health habits can allow you to avoid illness and improve your quality of life. The following steps will help you ...

  12. Differential acute postprandial effects of processed meat and isocaloric vegan meals on the gastrointestinal hormone response in subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes and healthy controls: a randomized crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Belinova

    Full Text Available The intake of meat, particularly processed meat, is a dietary risk factor for diabetes. Meat intake impairs insulin sensitivity and leads to increased oxidative stress. However, its effect on postprandial gastrointestinal hormone (GIH secretion is unclear. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of two standardized isocaloric meals: a processed hamburger meat meal rich in protein and saturated fat (M-meal and a vegan meal rich in carbohydrates (V-meal. We hypothesized that the meat meal would lead to abnormal postprandial increases in plasma lipids and oxidative stress markers and impaired GIH responses.In a randomized crossover study, 50 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D and 50 healthy subjects underwent two 3-h meal tolerance tests. For statistical analyses, repeated-measures ANOVA was performed.The M-meal resulted in a higher postprandial increase in lipids in both groups (p<0.001 and persistent postprandial hyperinsulinemia in patients with diabetes (p<0.001. The plasma glucose levels were significantly higher after the V-meal only at the peak level. The plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY and pancreatic polypeptide (PP were higher (p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively and the ghrelin concentration was lower (p<0.001 after the M-meal in healthy subjects. In contrast, the concentrations of GIP, PYY and PP were significantly lower after the M-meal in T2D patients (p<0.001. Compared with the V-meal, the M-meal was associated with a larger increase in lipoperoxidation in T2D patients (p<0.05.Our results suggest that the diet composition and the energy content, rather than the carbohydrate count, should be important considerations for dietary management and demonstrate that processed meat consumption is accompanied by impaired GIH responses and increased oxidative stress marker levels in diabetic patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01572402.

  13. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250).

  14. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Cefiderocol, a Parenteral Siderophore Cephalosporin, in Healthy Subjects, Subjects with Various Degrees of Renal Function, and Patients with Complicated Urinary Tract Infection or Acute Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Nao; Katsube, Takayuki; Echols, Roger; Wajima, Toshihiro

    2018-02-01

    Cefiderocol, a novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin, exhibits potent efficacy against most Gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to perform a population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis based on plasma cefiderocol concentrations in healthy subjects, subjects with various degrees of renal function, and patients with complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) or acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (AUP) caused by Gram-negative pathogens and to calculate the fraction of the time during the dosing interval where the free drug concentration in plasma exceeds the MIC ( fT MIC ). Population PK models were developed with three renal function markers, body surface area-adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), absolute eGFR, and creatinine clearance, on the basis of 2,571 plasma concentrations from 91 subjects without infection and 238 patients with infection. The population PK models with each renal function marker adequately described the plasma cefiderocol concentrations. Clear relationships of total clearance (CL) to all renal function markers were observed. Body weight and disease status (with or without infection) were also significant covariates. The CL in patients with infection was 26% higher than that in subjects without infection. The fT MIC values were more than 75% in all patients (and were 100% in most patients), suggesting that a sufficient exposure to cefiderocol was provided by the tested dose regimens (2 g every 8 h as the standard dose regimen) for the treatment of cUTI or AUP caused by Gram-negative pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Kawaguchi et al.

  15. Effects of polydextrose with breakfast or with a midmorning preload on food intake and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females: An acute, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Alvin; Olli, Kaisa; Pasman, Wilrike; Hendriks, Henk; Alhoniemi, Esa; Raza, Ghulam Shere; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2017-03-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) reduces subsequent energy intake (EI) when administered at midmorning in single-blind trials of primarily normal-weight men. However, it is unclear if this effect also occurs when PDX is given at breakfast time. Furthermore, for ecological validity, it is desirable to study a female population, including those at risk for obesity. We studied the effects of PDX, served as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females. Per earlier studies, the primary outcome was defined as the difference in subsequent EI when PDX was consumed at midmorning versus placebo. Thirty-two volunteers were enrolled in this acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, and crossover trial to examine the effects of 12.5 g of PDX, administered as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI, subjective feelings of appetite, well-being, and mood. Gastric emptying rates and the blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine were measured in the group that received PDX as part of their breakfast. There were no differences in EI between volunteers who were fed PDX and placebo. PDX intake with breakfast tended to elevate blood glucose (P = 0.06) during the postabsorptive phase, significantly lowered insulin by 15.7% (P = 0.04), and increased GLP-1 by 39.9% (P = 0.02); no other effects on blood parameters or gastric emptying rates were observed. PDX intake at midmorning reduced hunger by 31.4% during the satiation period (P = 0.02); all other subjective feelings of appetite were unaffected. Volunteers had a uniform mood profile during the study. PDX was well tolerated, causing one mild adverse event throughout the trial. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Physic status and working ability of the persons affected at the Chernobyl accident during recovery and short-term effects of acute radiation disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torubarov, F.S.; Chinkina, O.V.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the results of clinicopsychological investigation of persons developing ARS (1-3 degree of severity) as a result of the Chernobyl accident has shown that 4-6 mos. after the exposure the psychic status and mental working ability of the affected persons showed close correlation with a degree of ARS. In 12-18 mos. profession and adequate employment played a decisive role in the formation of unfavorable psychic conditions and limited working ability. Later on in 2.5-3 years after exposure a decrease in psychic working ability, the development of unfavorable psychic conditions was noted more frequently in patients with ARS of more severe types and in examinees of older age. At all stages of rehabilitation personality traits of the affected persons play an important role in the revival of working abilities

  17. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment? A randomized crossover study among farmers in Chitwan, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2016-01-01

    Background: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. Objective: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophosphate...... exposure among farmers. Methods: In a crossover study, 45 male farmers from Chitwan, Nepal, were randomly allocated to work as usual applying organophosphate pesticides wearing Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment or Daily Practice Clothing. For seven days before each experiment, each farmer.......08; 0.06]. Wearing the Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment versus Daily Practice Clothing gave the following results, respectively: comfort 75.6% versus 100%, sense of heat 64.4% versus 31.3%, other problems 44.4% versus 33.3%, like-ability 95.6% versus 77.8%. Conclusion: We cannot support...

  18. Using personality neuroscience to study personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Samantha V; DeYoung, Colin G

    2017-01-01

    Personality neuroscience integrates techniques from personality psychology and neuroscience to elucidate the neural basis of individual differences in cognition, emotion, motivation, and behavior. This endeavor is pertinent not only to our understanding of healthy personality variation, but also to the aberrant trait manifestations present in personality disorders and severe psychopathology. In the current review, we focus on the advances and limitations of neuroimaging methods with respect to personality neuroscience. We discuss the value of personality theory as a means to link specific neural mechanisms with various traits (e.g., the neural basis of the "Big Five"). Given the overlap between dimensional models of normal personality and psychopathology, we also describe how researchers can reconceptualize psychopathological disorders along key dimensions, and, in turn, formulate specific neural hypotheses, extended from personality theory. Examples from the borderline personality disorder literature are used to illustrate this approach. We provide recommendations for utilizing neuroimaging methods to capture the neural mechanisms that underlie continuous traits across the spectrum from healthy to maladaptive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. WELL.ME - Wellbeing therapy based on real-time personalized mobile architecture, vs. cognitive therapy, to reduce psychological distress and promote healthy lifestyle in cardiovascular disease patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compare, Angelo; Kouloulias, Vassilis; Apostolos, Vontas; Peña, Wendy Moreno; Molinari, Enrico; Grossi, Enzo; Efstathios, Efstathopoulos; Carenini, Michele

    2012-09-03

    There is compelling evidence that psychological factors may have the same or even greater impact on the possibility of adverse events on cardiac diseases (CD) than other traditional clinical risk factors. Anxiety and depression are predictors of short- and long-term adverse outcomes, increased risk for higher rates of in-hospital complications, re-infarction, malignant arrhythmias, and mortality in CD patients. Despite researchers finding that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) reduced depressive and anxiety symptoms, the fact that such results are maintained only in the short term and the lack of maintenance of the long-term affects the absence of changes in lifestyles, preventing the possibility of a wide generalization of results. Recently wellbeing therapy (WBT) has been proposed as a useful approach to improve healthy lifestyle behaviors and reduce psychological distress. The present randomized controlled study will test WBT, in comparison with CBT, as far as the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological distress, and the improvement of lifestyle behaviors and quality of life in cardiac patients are concerned. Moreover, innovations in communication technologies allow patients to be constantly followed in real life. Therefore WBT based on personalized mobile technology will allow the testing of its effectiveness in comparison with usual WBT. The present study is a large outpatient study on the treatment of co-morbid depression, anxiety, and psychological distress in cardiac patients. The most important issues of this study are its randomized design, the focus on promotion of health-related behaviors, and the use of innovative technologies supporting patients' wellbeing in real life and in a continuous way. First results are expected in 2012. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01543815.

  20. Extended prediction rule to optimise early detection of heart failure in older persons with non-acute shortness of breath : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Riet, Evelien E S; Hoes, Arno W.; Limburg, Alexander; Landman, Marcel A J; Kemperman, Hans; Rutten, Frans H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There is a need for a practical tool to aid general practitioners in early detection of heart failure in the elderly with shortness of breath. In this study, such a screening rule was developed based on an existing rule for detecting heart failure in older persons with a diagnosis of

  1. Impact of acute geriatric care in elderly patients according to the Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment criteria in northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frély, Anne; Chazard, Emmanuel; Pansu, Aymeric; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Puisieux, François

    2016-02-01

    In France, over 20% of hospitalizations of elderly people are a result of adverse drug events, of which 50% are considered preventable. Tools have been developed to detect inappropriate prescriptions. The Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (STOPP/START) criteria are innovative and adapted to French prescriptions. This is one of the first French prospective studies to evaluate the impact of acute geriatric care on prescriptions at discharge in elderly patients using the STOPP/START criteria. The evaluation of prescriptions according to STOPP/START was carried out on admission and at discharge of patients in acute geriatric units at three hospitals in the Nord-Pas de Calais